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Unattributed.jpg
44 viewsUnattributed Roman Vota...Possibly ConstansDumanyu2
DenLIliusBursio.jpg
102 viewsDenarius - 85 BC. - Rome mint
L. IVLIVS BVRSIO - Gens Iulia
Obv.: Winged male head right with the attributes of Neptune, Apollo and Mercury, control-mark & trident behind
Rev.: Victory in quadriga right holding reins and wreath, L IVLI BVRSIO in ex.
Gs. 3,9 mm 19,79
Crawf. 352/1a, Sear RCV 268, Grueber 2485



Maxentius
coin412.jpg
41 viewsAnonymous Class C Follis, attributed to Michael IV.
Obverse: +EMMANOVHA. Christ Antiphonetes,
nimbate, standing facing / IC-XC-NI-KA divided by
jewelled cross. Coin #412

cars100
Byzantine_follis.JPG
224 views
An Anonymous Follis Class A 2 coin, type 21
Obverse: Christ facing, holding book of gospels IC to left XC to rightEmmanovha IC XC (God with us)
Reverse: +IhSYS XRISTYS bASILEY bASILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)
Sear attributes it to the joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII 1020-1028 AD
Grierson in DOC says Romanus III and into Michael IV's
1 commentsJon the Lecturer
30599.jpg
35 viewsanonymous (attributed to Alexius I). Ca. 1081-1118. AE follis (25.96 mm, 5.26 g, 12 h). anonymous class J. Constantinople mint. Facing bust of Christ, cross behind his head with 5 pellets in each limb; wearing pallium and colobium; raising hand and holding book of Gospels; / IC - C / XC / Crosss with globule and two pellets at each extremity; beneath, large crescent; around, four globules, each surrounded by pellets. SBCV 1900. Overstruck on a class I anonymous follis SBCV 1889 1 commentsQuant.Geek
Trajan.jpg
66 viewsTrajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 113-114. IMP TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate and draped bust right / COS VI P P SPQR, Trajan's column surmounted by statue of the emperor; at base, two eagles. RIC 307; BMCRE 522; RSC 115. 3.53g, 20mm, 6h.
Of all of the truly monumental buildings and commemorative structures which the emperor Trajan built, only one, the Columna Traiani, has survived in a reasonable state of completeness. Indeed, it appears almost identical in person as it does on coins, except that the statue of Trajan that originally surmounted it was replaced in 1588 with a statue of St. Paul. When completed, the column occupied a prominent place between two libraries, the Basilica Ulpia and the Temple of Trajan and Plotina. The column was massive: it was over 12 feet in diameter at its base, and rose to a height of nearly 130 feet. Its core was comprised of 34 blocks of Carrara white marble that were made hollow so as to accommodate a circular staircase of 185 steps. The most remarkable feature of the column, however, was its ornamentation, for the friezes on its exterior are some of the most inspiring works of art ever produced. Monumental in scope and execution, they record Trajan’s two Dacian campaigns, from 101-3 and 104-6. All told, there are more than 2,500 individually sculpted figures distributed among more than 150 scenes. The emperor himself is represented no less than fifty times – not a surprise considering his penchant for commemorative architecture and his pride in having added Dacia to the provinces of the empire. “ Source: NAC”

Ex Michael Kelly Collection of Roman Silver Coins
4 commentspaul1888
Caligula_Provincial_cassand.jpg
4 Caligula AE16 of Cassandrea15 viewsCassandrea, Macedonia
AE16, Time of Caligula

Standard/Vexilla with crescents above // CAS/SAN/DR within wreath

Thanks to FORVM member Quisquam for helping me attribute this little coin.
RI0017
Sosius
rjb_car3_06_09.jpg
98cf33 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax-Laetitia/Fortuna standing left holding branch and resting on short baton or rudder
London or irregular(?) mint
F/O//[ML]
RIC - (cf 98ff)

A curious depiction of Pax on the reverse with a mixture of attributes. A coin of otherwise good style.
mauseus
Diocletian12.jpg
1 Diocletian Pre-Reform Radiate42 viewsDiocletian
AE Antoninianus, 293-295, Antioch, Officina 9
IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MIL_ITVM, Emperor standing right, short scepter in left hand, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, scepter in left, ED in lower middle field, XXI in exergue
RIC V, Part II, 322
Ex Max Mehl Coins
Ex Andreas Reich

Thanks to FORVM members stinats and Genio Popvli Romani for helping to attribute this coin!
Sosius
Trajan_BMC_62.jpg
14 Trajan AR Drachm of Caesarea20 viewsTRAJAN
AR Drachm of Bostra, Arabia
AVTOK P KAIC NEP TRAIAN CEB ΓEPM ΔAK, Laureate bust right, drapery over left shoulder (die crack on chin) / ΔHMAPX EΞΥΠATOC, Arabia standing facing, looking left, holding branch and bundle of cinnamon sticks, to left a camel
SNG ANS 1155
Thanks you FORVM member Benito for helping attribute this coin.
RI0114
Sosius
Lucius_Verus_RIC_1290.jpg
19 Lucius Verus13 viewsLucius Verus
AE As, 161 AD
IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA AVGVSTOR TR P COS II S-C, Verus and Marcus Aurelius clasping hands
RIC 1290, Sear5 #5408; aFine
One of my first "big" roman coins. Not pretty, but it was exciting to get and to attribute. I didn't even know who Lucius Verus was before I got the coin!
RI0099
Sosius
Commodus_Provincial_AE.jpg
20 Commodus Provincial16 viewsNot attributed yet
RI0083
Sosius
Geta_or_Caracalla_AE_prov.jpg
26 Geta (or Caracalla)13 viewsUnattributed AE provincial
Sosius
Aurelian_unident_.jpg
3 Aurelian34 viewsAURELIAN
AE Antoninianus, Siscia Mint
SECOND SPECIMEN KNOWN?
IMP CAES L DOM AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right (with huge nose) / ANNONA AVG, Annona stg. l., holding corn-ears in r. hand and cornucopiae in l. hand; at feet to l., prow of ship., P in r. field.
RIC temp #1927

Attributed with help from FORVM member Mauseus, who pointed to the following website, which indicates that this may be the second specimen known of this coin: http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/coin/1927

UPDATE: According to S. Estiot & J. Mairat of ric.mom.fr: "It is indeed the second specimen known of RIC temp 1927, and your coin is from the same pair of dies as the coin in Zagreb (Komin hoards)."
1 commentsSosius
Decius_Babylon_103.jpg
3 Trajan Decius17 viewsTrajan Decius
AE20, Edessa, Mesopotamia

O: AVG DEKIC CEB. Radiate bust of Decius, R.

R: KOL EDICCA. Turreted bust of Cybele, l.

Babylon 103, BMC 168

Thanks to Helvetica for translating Babylon, without which I would not have been able to attribute this coin.
Sosius
rjb_car_449bis_04_06.jpg
449bis38 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "ERCVLI PACIFERO"
Hercules standing left holding club and lions scalp
Unattributed mint
S/P//
RIC - (449 bis)
mauseus
rjb_car_475cf_07_05.jpg
475-83cf28 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVGG" sic
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PAX AVG"
Pax standing left holding vertical sceptre
Unattributed Mint
S/C (reversed)//-
RIC - (cf 475-83)
mauseus
rjb_2010_05_04.jpg
515cf26 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "PROVIDE AVG"
Providentia standing left holding baton over globe and cornucopia
Unattributed mint
S/C//-
RIC - (cf515)
mauseus
rjb_car_522cf_03_05.jpg
522-3cf45 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "SPES PVBL"
Spes walking left holding flower
Unattributed mint
S/P//-
RIC - (cf 522-3)
mauseus
Sear-1889a.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class I Follis, Attributed to Nicephorus III (Sear-1889, DOC I.1-64)30 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: Latin cross with central X and globus and two pellets at the end of each extremity; crescents to upper left and right, floral scroll below
SpongeBob
ga1s.jpg
Gallienus RIC 585 Siscia11 viewsGallienus, AE antoninianus. Rome or Siscia. Sole reign.
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VBERITAS AVG, Uberitas standing left holding purse and cornucopiae.
RIC V-1 Siscia 585 var (attributes); 17.28 mm., 1.8 g.
NORMAN K
ptolemyxiiTD.jpg
Ptolemy XII Auletes AR Tetradrachm, 72 BC75 viewsOBV: Diademed head right in aegis
REV: Eagle standing left on Thunderbolt; PTOLEMAIOY BASILEWS, [Pi A] in right field; Dated L.Theta (Year 9)

This coin was minted in the ninth year of Ptolemy XII Auletes. Svoronos originally ascribed this coin type to year 9 of Cleopatra VII (43 BC) but was reattributed by Regling to her father. This re-attribution is generally accepted. The coin is of relatively low-grade silver (ca 30%) and flat-struck on the obverse.
Svoronos 1856, Ref. Svoronos on-line
wt 13.8 gm
1 commentsdaverino
DSC_6021.jpg
41 viewsROME. Musa.
PB Tessera (14mm, 1.99 g, 1 h)
Crossed cornucopia, caduceus, and trident
MVSA counterclockwise around small central pellet
Rostowzew -

Ex Emporium Hamburg 67 (10 May 2012), lot 743

The attributes of the two major commercial deities, the cornucopia of Fortuna and the caduceus of Mercury, combined here with the trident of Neptune, suggest that Musa may have been involved in shipping.
Ardatirion
tessera1.JPG
53 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 3.06 g, 12 h)
Isis standing left, holding sistrum and situla
IVE/NES
Rostovtsev -


The iuvenes were Roman educational organizations roughly analagous to modern American colleges. Mohler1 argues that, while their athletic program undoubtedly focused on parade and various other activities that relate to war, the group focused equally on education and athletics, rather than as a pseudo-military training program. Inscriptions survive in some theaters and arenas that note reserved seats for iuvenes, leading some to identify these pieces as entrance tickets. I feel they were more likely distributed at the various parades and processions for which the organizations were famous.

The iuvenes tokens are related to those of the sodales, composed of individuals not a part of the organization (younger or older men and women) who still actively supported it.

1. Mohler, S. L. (1937). The Iuvenes and Roman Education. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Society, 68, 442–479.
Ardatirion
00005x00~0.jpg
98 viewsROME. Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161.
PB Tessera (22mm, 5.09 g, 11 h)
The Lighthouse of Portus
ANT
Rostowzew 64, fig. 2; Kircheriano 66

Possibly ex Trau collection.

The Lighthouse of Portus was restored during the reign of Antoninus Pius. This tessera was likely distributed during the ceremony.
1 commentsArdatirion
00001x00~4.jpg
60 viewsUNITED STATES, Hard Times. Political issues.
CU Token (28.5mm, 10.36 g, 6 h). Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1837.
Laureate head of Liberty right; above, E. PLURIBUS UNUM on ribbon; thirteen stars around; 1837
MILLIONS FOR DEFENCE. Within wreath: NOT/ ONE/ CENT/ -/ FOR TRIBUTE
Rulau HT 48; Low 28
Ardatirion
DSC_0193.jpg
81 viewsINDONESIA, Sultanate of Palembang. Circa AD 1790's-1821
Tin Cash (20mm, 0.61 g)
Palembang mint
Shi Dan Li Bao in Hànzì
Blank
T.D. Yih, "Tiny Pitis Inscribed 'Shi-Dan' (Sultan) from Palembang," in ONS Newsletter 204 (Summer 2010), type I-1

Found in Palembang

Hang Li Po first appears in the Malay Annals as a Chinese princess sent to be the fifth bride of sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca. However, there is no reference to this event in official Ming documents. Li Po may merely be a beautiful concubine given to the Sultan. Alternatively, she may be the daughter of an otherwise unknown Chinese ruler in the area, to whom this coin may perhaps be attributed.
1 commentsArdatirion
quadrans.jpg
107 viewsROME. temp. Hadrian-Antoninus Pius. Circa AD 120-161
Æ Quadrans (16mm, 2.94 g, 7h)
Rome mint
Petasus
Winged caduceus; S C flanking
Weigel 18; RIC II 32; Cohen 36

Weigel reconsiders the anonymous quadrantes as a cohesive group. The seriesportrays a pantheon of eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules. Types are primarily a portrait of the god, with an attribute on the reverse and are usually influenced by (but not directly copied from) earlier designs, primarily from the Republic. He updates the series to the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus.
5 commentsArdatirion
NS_3A2.jpg
39 viewsCANADA, Nova Scotia. William IV King of Great Britain, 1830-1837
CU Halfpenny Token
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1832, but struck circa 1835
PROVINCE OF NOVA SCOTIA, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
HALFPENNY TOKEN, thistle with two leaves; 1832 below
Charlton NS-3A2; Corteau 278, tentative die state 6; Breton 871

“Old residents state that these counterfeits were brought, in large quantities to St. John, N.B., and from thence distributed through fishing vessels to Nova Scotian out ports. And informant tells of having seen a fisherman from Yarmouth paid for his catch in this coin.” R.W. McLachlan (Annals of the Nova Scotian Coinage, p. 37)
1 commentsArdatirion
00022x00.jpg
55 viewsROME. temp. Domitian-Antoninus Pius. Circa AD 81-160
Æ Quadrans (16mm, 3.99 g, 12 h)
Rome mint
Griffin seated left, paw on wheel
Tripod; S C flanking
Weigel 15; RIC II 28; Cohen 38

Weigel reconsiders the anonymous quadrantes as a cohesive group. The seriesportrays a pantheon of eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules. Types are primarily a portrait of the god, with an attribute on the reverse and are usually influenced by (but not directly copied from) earlier designs, primarily from the Republic. He updates the series to the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus.
Ardatirion
00037x00.jpg
46 viewsUNITED STATES TOKENS, Hard Times. Political issues
CU Cent Token (28mm, 8.11 g, 5 h)
Dies by William Eaves for the Scoville Co. of Waterbury, Connecticut.
Dually dated 1827 and 1835. Struck 1837.
MERCHANT EXCHANGE WALL ST N. YORK, facade of bank, BUILT 1827/ BURNT 1835
MILLIONS FOR DEFENCE, NOT/ ONE/ CENT/ FOR TRIBUTE within wreath
Rulau HT 293; Low -
1 commentsArdatirion
973330.jpg
32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
louis1-denier-temple.JPG
D.1179 Louis the Pious (denier, class 3)51 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 1.56 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

The XPISTIANA should be read "χρISTIANA", nice mix of greek and latin letters.

This is the most common carolingian coin (Class 3 of Louis' coinage).
The obverse is the same as Class 2. However, the reverse is a signature of the alliance between the Carolingians and the Roman Church, which began with Louis' father (Charles the Great) and the systematic introduction of a cross on coins. Louis carried on...

There is no indication of the mint name on this coinage. This fact is generally interpreted as a reinforcement of the imperial autority. Many people tried to localize the precise location of mints. Simon Coupland proposed an attribution, using stylistic similarities to other coins of well known mints. Some cases are easy to attribute but not this one (maybe Quentovic or Verdun ?)...

Droger
charles2-denier-rexfr-melle.JPG
D.606 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1d, Melle)49 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, class 1d, 840-864)

Silver, 1.35 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ +METVLLO; carolingian monogram

The KRLS monogram was first introduced by Charles' great father, Charles the Great (Charlemagne). Charlemagne's son (Louis the Pious) never used a monogram, contrary to most carolingian rulers as Charles the Bald in particular.

This is the second most common carolingian coin.

Charlemagne minted exactly similar coins (Class 3). The question of the attribution to Charles the Great or the Bald has of course been widely discussed on grounds of style, weight, composition (work of Guillaume Sarah), position of the legend... These studies didn't lead to any clear conclusion although these deniers may often be attributed to Charlemagne. New hoards have to be found to resolve this issue.
By then, these coins have to be attributed to Charles the Bald by reason of the relative number of minted coins.
Droger
charles2-denier-melle-2.JPG
D.626 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1d, Melle)25 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, class 1d, 840-864)

Silver, 1.73 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 5h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX; cross pattée
R/ +METVLLO; carolingian monogram

This coinage with the shorter legend CΛRLVS REX is much rarer than the common one with the legend CΛRLVS REX FR. The composition of a hoard in Poitou suggests that this type can be unambiguously attributed to Charles the Bald. This coinage may have been minted at the beginning of Charles the Bald's reign, just before Pippin II took the control of Melle in 845.
Among the 12 known specimens, 5 have a deformed monogram, with the L and the S exchanging places, and on their sides. This feature, the shorter legend, as well as the unusual position of the legend opening cross on top of the monogram may suggest that there was some confusion in Melle at this time, when Charles gave back (temporarily) Aquitaine to Pippin.
The reverse is slightly double struck.
Droger
charles2-denier-toulouse-imp.JPG
D.1007 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 3, Toulouse)13 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875-877)
Denier (Toulouse, class 2, 876-877)

Silver, 1.59 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 7h

O/ +CΛRLVS IMP R- ; cross pattée
R/ +TOLOSΛ+CIVI ; CA / RL in the center

The presence of the name of the sovereign on the reverse is quite rare for carolingian coins. This is also the case for Toulouse deniers of Charles the Bald's Louis II (or grandson Louis III) with LV / DO.

This coinage is also sometimes attributed to Charles the Fat.
1 commentsDroger
cnut-pointed-helmet.JPG
S.1158 Cnut (pointed helmet penny, London)17 viewsCnut, king of England (1016-1035)
Pointed helmet penny (moneyer: Edwerd, mint: London, 1024-1030)

A/ +CNVT: - RECX A: around central circle enclosing bust in pointed helmet left holding scepter
R/ +ELEDERD ON LV(ND): around central circle enclosing quarters of short voided cross with circles in centre

silver, 1.04 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 7h

Peck marks are very common on these pennies. A large part of them was minted in order to pay the danegeld (tax raised to pay tribute to Vikings to save a land from their raids). These peck marks are supposed to have been made by Danes when checking the penny was in good silver.

1 commentsDroger
raoul-denier-paris.JPG
D.774 Rudolph (denier, Paris)9 viewsRudolph (or Raoul, Radulf), king of the Franks (923-936)
Denier (Paris)

Silver, 1.13 g, 18 mm diameter, die axis 11h

O/ +CRATIA DI REX; monogram
R/ + / PΛRISI / CIVITΛ / +

Rudolph was elected king of Franks by noblemen in 923, after his father-in-law (Robert I)'s death.

Although Rudolph wasn't a carolingian, his coinage used a monogram.This monogram is clearly inspired by the habitual KRLS monogram. The letters seem to be R(?)DFS. Anyway, the F on the bottom can be cleary distinguished, and this coin can be attributed to Rudolph.

Droger
charles2-denier-immo-melle.JPG
Charles II the Bald (denier, Melle, immobilization)46 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, 10th century)

Silver, 1.15 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 3h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX R; cross pattée (S retrograd)
R/ MET / . / ALO

Not really a type that can be attributed to Charles the Bald... this type was immobilized and struck from the middle of the 10th century to the end of the 11th century ! Minting was then totally in the hands of of the counts of Poitou and out of control of the royal administration.
The obverse is similar to previous coinage, but with a retrograd S on most of the specimen. On the contrary, the mint name (in the field on the obverse) had never been used by Charles the Bald (METALO instead of METALLVUM).
Droger
tiberius_denarius_res_trib.jpg
"Tribute Penny"--TIBERIUS95 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
normal_tiberius_denarius_res_trib~0.jpg
(00040a) LIVIA (with Tiberius)34 views(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
b. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
laney
trajan_syria_res.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN23 views98 - 117 AD
struck 98 - 99 AD
AE 21 mm, 6.02 g
O: AYTOKR KAIC NEP TPAIA-NOC CEB ΓEPM; Laur. bust right
R: ΔHMAP / EΞ YΠAT B (barred) in two lines within wreath
BMC and Sydenaham 229 attribute to Caesarea; more recent attributions are "Struck in Rome for Circulation in Syria" (cf McAlee 499)
laney
tiberius_denarius_res_c.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS63 views14 - 37 AD
minted 18 - 35 AD
AR Denarius ("Tribute Penny")
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG AVGVSTVS; laureate head right
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, holding long scepter and olive branch; single line below
Lugdunum mint
RIC 30, RSC 16a
1 commentslaney
TIBERIUS_FOURREE_RES.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS27 views14 - 37 AD
AR DENARIUS FOUREE (TRIBUTE PENNY) 18 mm 2.82 g
O: LAUREATE HEAD RIGHT
R: LIVIA SEATED RIGHT HOLDING SCEPTER AND BRANCH
ROME
laney
Carausius.jpg
*SOLD*15 viewsCarausius Antoninianus

Attribution: RIC 482, Unattributed mint
Date: AD 290-293
Obverse: IMP C CARAVSIVS PF I AVG, draped, cuirassed, and radiate bust r.
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax stg. l. holding olive branch & vertical scepter, S-P across fields
Size: 23.8 mm
Weight: 3.58 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
Byzantine1.jpg
001 - Anonymus follis class A2 - Sear 181346 viewsObv: +EMMANOVHA, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with two pellets in each limb of cross, pallium and colobium, and holding book of Gospels, the cover ornamented with central pellet in border of dots. To left IC and to right XC.
Rev: IhSYS / XRISTYS / bASILEY / bASILE in foyr lines. Dot above and below.
This type is attributed to the joint regin of Basil II and Constantine VIII 976-1025 AD.
30.0 mm. diameter.
pierre_p77
Claudius_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP____EX-S-C-P-P-OB-CIVES-SERVATOS_RIC-I-112_C-38_Q-001_34-36mm_23,63g-s.jpg
012 Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!,372 views012 Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!,
Claudius became “Father of the Country” in 50 AD, and this title was added to the coinage, at the end of the legend, with it’s abbreviation: PP. The reverse legend translates to “For Saving the Lives of Citizens.
avers: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head of Claudius right
reverse: No legend - Wreath, EX S C/P P/OB CIVES/SERVATOS within,
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 34-36mm, weight: 23,63g, axis:11h,
mint:Thracian ?, date: 50-54 A.D., ref: RIC I 112, C 38,
Q-001
"RIC is in error to state that P P only appeared on Claudius' bronze coins in 50 AD. In fact Claudius became P P very early in 42 AD, and P P appeared immediately not only on his quadrantes, which are specifically dated to 42 by the title COS II, but also on his sestertii and middle bronzes.
Stylistically your coin should not be attributed to Rome, but to a Thracian mint perhaps active only towards the end of the reign. These coins, scarcer than the Rome-mint ones, are not recognized in RIC!" by Curtis Clay. Thank you "curtisclay".
5 commentsquadrans
Claudius_AE-Sest_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P_EX-S-C-P-P-OB-CIVES-SERVATOS_RIC-I-112_C-38_Q-001_11h_34-36mm_23,63ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!, Re-Shot !344 views012 Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!, Re-Shot !
Claudius became “Father of the Country” in 50 AD, and this title was added to the coinage, at the end of the legend, with it’s abbreviation: PP. The reverse legend translates to “For Saving the Lives of Citizens.
avers: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, laureate head of Claudius right
revers: No legend - Wreath, EX S C/P P/OB CIVES/SERVATOS within,
exergue:-/-//--, diameter: 34-36mm, weight: 23,63g, axis:11h,
mint:Thracian ?, date: 50-54 A.D., ref: RIC I 112, C 38,
Q-001
"RIC is in error to state that P P only appeared on Claudius' bronze coins in 50 AD. In fact Claudius became P P very early in 42 AD, and P P appeared immediately not only on his quadrantes, which are specifically dated to 42 by the title COS II, but also on his sestertii and middle bronzes.
Stylistically your coin should not be attributed to Rome, but to a Thracian mint perhaps active only towards the end of the reign. These coins, scarcer than the Rome-mint ones, are not recognized in RIC!" by Curtis Clay. Thank you "curtisclay".
1 commentsquadrans
Augustus_AE-Semis_VIC-AVG_COHOR-PRAE-PHIL_Phillipi-Macedon_SNG-Cop-305_Q-001_h_18mm_0_00g-s.jpg
012p Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), Macedonia, Phillipi, (Time of Claudius or Nero, circa 41-68, A.D.), RPC I 1651, AE-18, (AE Semis?), COHOR PRAE PHIL, Three military standards, #1111 views012p Claudius I. (41-54 A.D.), Macedonia, Phillipi, (Time of Claudius or Nero, circa 41-68, A.D.), RPC I 1651, AE-18, (AE Semis?), COHOR PRAE PHIL, Three military standards, #1
Augustus Macedon Phillipi Æ18 / Struck to Commemorate the Battle of Actium
avers: VIC AVG, Nike standing left holding wreath and palm branch.
reverse: COHOR PRAE PHIL, Three military standards.
exergue: VIC/AVG//--, diameter:18mm, weight: , axis: h,
mint: City: Philippi, Region: Macedonia, Province: Macedonia, Pseudo-autonomous issue, date: Time of Claudius or Nero, circa AD 41-68.,
ref: RPC I Online (1651), SNG ANS 677, SNG Copenhagen 305, AMNG 14-15, BMC 23, SGI 32, FITA 274,
Q-001
"This coin has traditionally been attributed to Augustus, but due to its copper composition, RPC attributes it as likely from Claudius to Nero; Philippi probably did not issue copper coins during the reign of Augustus."
1 commentsquadrans
Augustus_RIC_220.jpg
02 Augustus RIC I 022047 viewsAugustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint 13-14 A.D. (3.57g, 19.5, 0 h). Obv: [CAESAR AVGVSTVS] DVI F PATER PATRRIAE, laureate head r. REV: [PONTIF] MAXIM, Liva as Pax seated r. on low-backed chair, vertical scepter in r., branch in left. RIC I 220 (R2), RSC 223.

Worn and on an irregular flan, I still wanted this example because of the reverse. Minted in his last year as emperor, this was Augustus’ precursor to Tiberius’ “tribute penny.” While this was one of many types during Augustus’ reign, it was one very few types for Tiberius.
1 commentsLucas H
Tribute_pennyBlack.jpg
02 Tiberius RIC 2639 viewsTiberius 14-37 AD. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint. 14-37 AD. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head facing right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, female figure seated right, holding sceptre and branch.
RIC 26; BMC 34; RSC 16.

Ex: Ancient Delights
Paddy
Tiberius-RIC-3.jpg
021. Tiberius.23 viewsDenarius, ca 16 - 37 AD, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS / Laureate bust of Tiberius.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM / Livia seated, as Pax, holding branch and sceptre.
3.56 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #1763.

Because this is the denarius that was in circulation at the time of Jesus, this coin is often called the "Tribute Penny" -- a name which is derived from the Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible where the word denarius was translated as penny.
Callimachus
LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Æ Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
Tiberius_RIC_I_4.jpg
03 01 Tiberius RIC 454 viewsTiberius 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint, 15-16 A.D. (3.74g, 17.6mm, 6h). Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: [TR POT X]VII. IMP [VII] in exergue, Tiberius, laur. And cloaked, stg. In slow Quadriga r., holding laurel branch and eagle tipped scepter. RIC I 4 (R2), BMC 7, RSC 48.

For an emperor with relatively long reign, Tiberius’ silver coinage was remarkably unvaried with the ubiquitous “tribute penny” making up the bulk of his denarii. This is a decent example of, perhaps, the second most common silver coin. Although the reverse legends are largely off the flan, the obverse has a decent portrait and legend.
2 commentsLucas H
03_Tiberius,_RIC_I_30.jpg
03 02 Tiberius RIC 30152 viewsTiberius. 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) Mint. 3.78 g., 19 mm. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax, seated right, holding scepter and olive branch. Feet on footstool. Ornate chair legs. One line below throne. RIC I 30, RSC 16a.

The well known "tribute penny." When brought a coin as requested, Jesus asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
8 commentsLucas H
domitian as caesar rider on horse.jpg
04 Domitian as Caesar RIC 957160 viewsAR Denarius, 3.44g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS V; Horseman, helmeted, in military dress, cloak floating behind him, on horse prancing r., with r. hand thrown upwards and back
RIC 957 (C2). BMC 234. RSC 49. BNC 207.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, September 2007.

Issued at a time when Domitian was aspiring to an Eastern command against the Alani, Mattingly attributes this type to that cause: The rider is Mars calling Rome to the field of battle.

Other theories suggest the rider is either Domitian or a soldier. Curtis Clay has also proposed the idea that this type may well be of a commemorative nature, since much of Vespasian's coinage are copies of past popular types.

A lovely coin in hand, the portrait was the reason this one found a home in my collection.
1 commentsVespasian70
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-01- TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)34 viewsAR Denario 20 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_26_Denario_Tiberio_1.jpg
04-02 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)24 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_28_Denario_Forrado_Tiberio.jpg
04-05 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)26 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 18.5 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_28_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-06 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberius_RIC_30_2_Fourree.jpg
04-09 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)45 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 19x18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.
Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol. I #42 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8a Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_30_Denario_Forrado_Tiberio.jpg
04-09 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)21 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA,
Denario Forrado 19x18 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.
Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.
Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol. I #42 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8a Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario Tiberio RIC 26.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)108 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Acuñada 14 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #5 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1
1 commentsmdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_anterior.jpg
04-10 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)69 viewsAnv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_26_1.jpg
04-11 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAR Denario 19x18 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas sin ornamentos apoyadas en una plataforma (doble-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #26 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8 Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16 Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_29_2.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)86 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas en una plataforma (triple-linea), portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #28 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #45 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8b Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16b Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
RIC_30_Denario_Tiberio.jpg
04-12 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)22 viewsAR Denario 18x16 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda, Livia descansa sus pies sobre una pequeña plataforma.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #48 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8c Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16a Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
mdelvalle
Denario_Tiberio_RIC_30_1.jpg
04-14 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)91 viewsAR Denario 18x16 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAXIM" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Julia Livia (Madre del Emperador personificando a la Paz) sentada a derecha en una silla con patas ornamentadas apoyadas directamente en el piso, portando un largo cetro en mano derecha y rama de olivo en izquierda, Livia descansa sus pies sobre una pequeña plataforma.

Este denario es el comúnmente llamado “el Penique del Tributo” de la muy conocida historia relatada en el Evangelio de San Mateo (22,17-21) del Nuevo Testamento.

Acuñada 16 - 37 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #30 Pag.95 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1763 Pag.346 - BMCRE Vol.1 #48 - Cohen Vol.1 #16 Pag.191 - DVM #8c Pag.75 - CBN #16 - RSC Vol. II #16a Pag.1 - Hendin #916 Pag.418
1 commentsmdelvalle
RI_044aq_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Denarius - RIC 357 corr.35 viewsObv:- HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P, Laureate head right
Rev:- COS III, Crescent with five stars. .
Minted in Eastern mint
Reference:- RIC 357 corr. (wrongly attributed to Rome) Cohen 464. BMCRE p. 380 #28 (different dies)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
aurelianant.JPG
045. Aurelian, 270-275AD. BI Antoninianus.43 viewsBI Antoninianus. Unattributed mint.
Obv.Radiate and cuirassed bust right IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Rev. Female figure presenting the emperor with wreath RESTITVT ORBIS

RIC 399, Cohen 192.

A bit dirty, significant silvering left. A great portrait and reverse..
LordBest
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.16 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
GI_069b_img.jpg
069 - Macrinus - AE27, Nicopolis ad Istrum5 viewsAE27
Obv:- AYT K M OPELLI CEV MAKRINOC AYG, laureate head right
Rev:- VP KTA LONGINOV NIKOPOLITWN PROC IC, Aequitas/Dikaiosyne standing right, holding scales and cornucopiae; wheel before (note mixed attribute with Nemesis)
Minted in Nicopolis ad Istrum. Magistrate Statius Longinus

References:- AMNG I/1, 1772, not in Varbanov (engl.), Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.35.17
maridvnvm
Commodus-RIC-192.jpg
069. Commodus.16 viewsDenarius, 189 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT / Laureate bust of Commodus.
Reverse: OPTIME MAXIME C V P P / Jupiter standing, holding thunderbolt and spear.
3.37 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #192; Sear #5664.

Jupiter was called optimus for his beneficence, and maximus for his power. These were also qualities Commodus attributed to himself. This coin and a similar brass coin also of Commodus, represent the only time the inscription OPTIME MAXIME appear on Roman coinage.
Callimachus
90Hadrian__RIC725.jpg
0725 Hadrian AS Roma 132-34 AD Indulgentia25 viewsReference.
RIC 725; C. 849; BMC S. 462; Strack 817

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev. INDVLGENTIA – AVG COS III P P in ex
Indulgentia seated l., extending r. hand and holding sceptre.

10.78 gr
27 mm
6h

Note.
Indulgentia. Clemency, lenity, grace, favour. -This word is used on Roman coins to denote either some permission given, some privilege bestowed, or some tribute remitted. -In inscriptions of a very early date, princes are called indulgentissimi.
(FORVM)
okidoki
J-Domna-RIC-564.jpg
077. Julia Domna.11 viewsDenarius, ca 198 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IVLIA AVGVSTA / Bust of Domna.
Reverse: MATER DEVM / Cybele, sitting on throne between two lions, holding branch and sceptre, arm resting on drum.
3.29 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #564; Sear #6593

The appearance of Cybele on the above coin shows Domna's interest in eastern religions. The various attributes of personifications and gods on the reverse of Roman coins were often associated with the person pictured on the obverse of the coin. In this case, the words MATER DEVM (Mother of the gods) applied to Domna is interesting since her sons were Caracalla and Geta.
Callimachus
A-17_Rep_AR-Den_L_Julius-Bursio_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-M__Victory-in-quadriga-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO_-CXXXXVI_Craw_-352-1_Syd-728_Rome_85-BC_Q-001_axis-11h_19-20,5mm_4,08g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #181 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #1
avers: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury, and Neptune; behind, trident and control symbol ??? .
reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 19-20,5mm, weight: 4,08g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1, Sydenham 728,
Q-001
quadrans
A-18_Rep_AR-Den_L_Julius-Bursio_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-Mark_Victory-in-quadriga-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO__Crawford-352-1_Syd-728_Rome_85-BC_Q-002_axis-11h_17,5-19mm_4,02g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #292 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #2
avers: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury, and Neptune, behind, trident and control symbol bust of birds right.
reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath, in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 4,02g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1, Sydenham 728, Julia 5,
Q-002
quadrans
085_B_C__L_Julius-Bursio,_Rep_AR-Den,_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-Mark_Victory-in-quadr_-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO_,_Crawford-352-1a_Syd-728_Rome_Q-001_8h_19,5-20,0mm_3,24g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1a, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #3114 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1a, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #3
avers: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury and Neptune, behind, trident and control symbol poppy (?).
reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 8h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1a, Sydenham 728, Julia 5,
Q-003
quadrans
trajan_RIC243.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AR denarius - struck 112-114 AD132 viewsobv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI PP (laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Abundantia standing left, holding cornucopiae and grain ears; at her feet, a child holding a roll), in ex. ALIM ITAL [Alimenta Italiae]
ref: RIC II 243, C.9 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
2.91gms, 19mm

The Alimenta was a welfare program for poor children and orphans. Credit for designing the program is usually attributed to Nerva, but it was increased and formally organized under Trajan. The Alimenta was funded from several sources. Probably, money from the Dacian Wars was used to initially underwrite the program; however, the long-term existence of the program was insured through 5% interest paid by wealthy landowners on loans and estate taxes. Philanthropy was also encouraged and contributed to the total funding.
Under Alimenta, boys of freemen received 16 sesterces monthly, girls received 12, while children borne out of wedlock received a bit less. The Alimenta was supplemented with a special young girls foundation initiated by Antoninus Pius in honor of his deceased wife Faustina. Municipal magistrates administered the alimentary funds and in turn were supervised by imperial clerks who had the status of knights.
1 commentsberserker
Aureolus_AE-Ant_IMP-POSTVMV-AVG_CONCORDIA-EQVIT_S_RIC-_p-_AD-Q-001_11h_18,5-19,5mm_2,20ga-s.jpg
098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #1179 views098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #1
avers: (IMP C )POSTVMVS AVG, In the name of Postumus. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Attributed by Alföldi to Aureolus.
reverse: CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, foot on prow, holding patera and rudder.
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,20g, axes:11h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 267-268 A.D.,
ref: RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), RSC-20a (Postumus),
Q-001
quadrans
Aureolus_AE-Ant_IMP-POSTVMV-AVG_CONCORDIA-EQVIT_S_RIC-_p-_AD-Q-002_0h_18,5-21,5mm_2,42g-s.jpg
098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #2120 views098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//S, CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, #2
avers: IMP C POSTVMVS AVG, In the name of Postumus. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Attributed by Alföldi to Aureolus.
reverse: CONCORDIA EQVIT, Fortuna standing left, foot on prow, holding patera and rudder.
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 18,5-21,5mm, weight: 2,42g, axes:0h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 267-268 A.D.,
ref: RIC V-II 372 (Postumus), RSC-20a (Postumus),
Q-002
4 commentsquadrans
098a_Aureolus_(267-8AD),_AE-Ant,_IMP_POSTVMVS_AVG,_VIRTVS_EQVIT,_T,_RIC_V_388(Postumus)_Mediolanum,_p-_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_18-19mm,_2,57g-s.jpg
098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 388 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//T, VIRTVS EQVIT, Virtus advancing right, #178 views098a Aureolus (267-268 A.D.), Mediolanum, RIC V-II 388 (Postumus), AE-Antoninianus, -/-//T, VIRTVS EQVIT, Virtus advancing right, #1
avers: IMP POSTVMVS AVG, In the name of Postumus. Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right. Attributed by Alföldi to Aureolus.
reverse: VIRTVS EQVIT, Virtus advancing right, holding spear and shield.
exergue: -/-//T, diameter: 18,0-19,0 mm, weight: 2,57g, axes:11h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 267-268 A.D.,
ref: RIC V-II 388(Postumus), RSC 441 (Postumus),
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
coin215.JPG
101. Nerva40 viewsNerva

Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Denarius. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR POT II, laureate head right / COS III PATER PATRAE, ladle, sprinkler, jug & lituus. RSC 51.
ecoli
coin285.JPG
104a. Faustina 32 viewsFaustina I

Annia Galeria Faustina, "the Elder", was the wife of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, an aunt of Marcus Aurelius, and mother of Faustina the Younger. She was the daughter of the consul Marcus Annius Verus, and married Antoninus around 110 AD. They had two sons and two daughters. She became Augusta upon the accession of her husband. Although Augustan History impugned her character, criticizing her for "excessive frankness" and "levity", she and Antoninus seem to have been happily married until her death in 140 or 141

obv: DIVA FAVSTINA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: AVGVSTA (Pietas standing left with raised hand, altar at foot left)
ref: RIC III 374 (Ant.Pius), RSC 124 (2frcs)

Corrected attribute...
ecoli
coin194.JPG
106a. Crispina50 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
ecoli
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG-(F)_PROVIDENTIA-AVG_XXI-A_RIC-726_Siscia-Rome_1st-em_280-AD_Q-001_5h_20,5-22mm_2,94g-s~0.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), (Siscia), Rome!, Alföldi 0000.0000, Not in, -/-//XXIA, Bust B/F, RIC V-II 726, AE-Antoninianus, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #168 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), (Siscia), Rome!, Alföldi 0000.0000, Not in, -/-//XXIA, Bust B/F, RIC V-II 726, AE-Antoninianus, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B/F).
reverse: PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopiae, at the foot, globe.
exergue: -/-//XXIA, diameter: 20,5-22mm, weight: 2,94g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome! (Siscia), Pink attributes this coin to the first emission of Rome, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 726, p-, Alföldi 0000.0000, Not in,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG-(F)_PROVIDENTIA-AVG_XXI-A_RIC-726_Siscia-Rome_1st-em_280-AD_Q-002_7h_21,5-22mm_3,26ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), (Siscia), Rome!, Alföldi 0000.0000, Not in, -/-//XXIA, Bust B/F, RIC V-II 726, AE-Antoninianus, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #2196 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), (Siscia), Rome!, Alföldi 0000.0000, Not in, -/-//XXIA, Bust B/F, RIC V-II 726, AE-Antoninianus, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #2
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B/F).
reverse: PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopiae, at the foot, globe.
exergue: -/-//XXIA, diameter: 21,5-22,0mm, weight: 3,26g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome! (Siscia), Pink attributes this coin to the first emission of Rome, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 726, p-, Alföldi 0000.0000, Not in,
Q-002
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG_CLEMENTIA-TEMP_XXI-Z_Bust-F_RIC-642-p-86_Siscia-Rome-_282-AD_Scarce_Q-001_6h_21-23mm_4,67gx-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), (Siscia), Rome!, Alföldi 0000.0000, Not in, -/-//XXIZ, Bust B/F, RIC V-II 642, AE-Antoninianus, CLEMENTIA TEMP, Clementia standing left, Scarce!86 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), (Siscia), Rome!, Alföldi 0000.0000, Not in, -/-//XXIZ, Bust B/F, RIC V-II 642, AE-Antoninianus, CLEMENTIA TEMP, Clementia standing left, Scarce!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B/F).
reverse: CLEMENTIA TEMP, Clementia standing left, legs crossed, leaning on column, holding sceptre.
exergue: -/-//XXIZ, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 4,67g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome (Siscia), Pink attributes this coin to the first emission of Rome, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 642, p-86, Alföldi 0000.0000, Not in, Scarce!
Q-001
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112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Roma_(Siscia),_RIC_V-II_607,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_AVG,_P_M_TR_P_COS_P_P,_XXIE,_em-1,_277AD,_R,_Q-001,_11h,_21,5-23mm,_3,70g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 607, Rome (Siscia), P M TR P COS P P, Bust-A2/C, -/-//XXIЄ, Emperor standing left between two ensigns, Rare!197 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 607, Rome (Siscia), P M TR P COS P P, Bust-A2/C, -/-//XXIЄ, Emperor standing left between two ensigns, Rare!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back. (A2/C)
reverse: P M TR P COS P P, Emperor standing left between two ensigns, right hand raised, left holding sceptre.
exergue: -/-//XXIЄ, diameter: 21,5-23,0mm, weight: 3,70g, axes: 11h,
mint: Rome (Siscia), Pink attributes this coin to the first emission of Rome, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 607, p-,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG_CLEMENTIA-TEMP_XXI-Z_Bust-F_RIC-642-p-86_Siscia-Rome-_282-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_21-23mm_4,67g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 642, Rome (Siscia), CLEMENTIA TEMP, Bust-F, -/-//XXIZ, Clementia standing left, Scarce !135 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 642, Rome (Siscia), CLEMENTIA TEMP, Bust-F, -/-//XXIZ, Clementia standing left, Scarce !
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (2,F)
revers:- CLEMENTIA-TEMP, Clementia standing left, legs crossed, leaning on column, holding sceptre.
exerg: -/-//XXIZ, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 4,67g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome (Siscia), Pink attributes this coin to the first emission of Rome, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 642, p-86, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG-(F)_PROVIDENTIA-AVG_XXI-A_RIC-726_Siscia-Rome_1st-em_280-AD_Q-001_5h_20,5-22mm_2,94g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 726, Rome (Siscia), PROVIDENTIA-AVG, Bust-F, -/-//XXIA, Providentia standing left, #166 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 726, Rome (Siscia), PROVIDENTIA-AVG, Bust-F, -/-//XXIA, Providentia standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F)
revers:- PROVIDENTIA-AVG, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopiae; at foot, globe.
exerg: -/-//XXIA, diameter: 20,5-22mm, weight: 2,94g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome (Siscia), Pink attributes this coin to the first emission of Rome, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 726, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_726_A_---_No_---_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG-(F)_PROVIDENTIA-AVG_XXI-A_RIC-726_Siscia-Rome_1st-em_280-AD_Q-002_7h_21,5-22mm_3,26ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 726, Rome (Siscia), PROVIDENTIA-AVG, Bust-F, -/-//XXIA, Providentia standing left, #2141 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 726, Rome (Siscia), PROVIDENTIA-AVG, Bust-F, -/-//XXIA, Providentia standing left, #2
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F)
revers:- PROVIDENTIA-AVG, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopiae; at foot, globe.
exerg: -/-//XXIA, diameter: 20,5-22mm, weight: 2,94g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome (Siscia), Pink attributes this coin to the first emission of Rome, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 726, p-,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_810_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_AVG_(F),_VIRTVS_AVG,_XXIs,_Bust-F,_p-_(Sis)Rome-1th-em(Pink),_276-AD_Q-001_0h_20,5-23,0mm_3,68g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 810, Rome (Siscia), Bust-F, -/-//XXIs, VIRTVS AVG, Emperor standing right, #189 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 810, Rome (Siscia), Bust-F, -/-//XXIs, VIRTVS AVG, Emperor standing right, #1
avers:- IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F)
revers:- VIRTVS AVG, Emperor standing right, holding spear and globe.
exerg: -/-//XXIs, diameter: 20,5-23,0mm, weight: 3,68g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome (Siscia), Pink attributes this coin to the first emission of Rome, date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 810, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_---_A_036_No_001_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(3F)_FORTVNA-REDUX_XXI-T_RIC-V-II-695legendvar_Alf-36_No-01_Siscia_R_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_4,37g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!147 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (This avers legend not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FORTVNA REDUX, Fortuna seated left on shield, holding baton and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 4,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission, date: 276 A.D. ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, (695var, p91, ???), Alföldi 0036.0001,
Q-001
"This is an extremely rare issue of Probus, which Pink attributes to the 4th emission of Siscia mint. It seems that RIC 695 is incorrectly described: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, bust type G (radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust l, holding spear and shield), cited from Voetter.
However, Alföldi lists two examples with obverse legend IMP C PROBVS P F AVG: type 36/1 - Radiate, cuirassed bust right (specimen in Frankfurt) and type 36/2 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left (collection Missong, Vienna), in addition, another specimen of Alf 36/1 is kept in British Museum, coming from Gloucester hoard . All examples have -/-//XXIT mintmark. The same obverse is listed by Pink." by Incerum, thank you Incerum.
2 commentsquadrans
RI 115i img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 060 C14 viewsObv:- IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev:- FORTV-NA AVG, Fortuna, standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
Ref:- RIC 60 Bust Type C, attributed to Lugdunum
maridvnvm
RI 115h img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 064 C27 viewsObv:– IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– HERC DEVSONIENSI, Hercules, standing right, leaning on club, holding bow and lion’s skin
Ref:- RIC 64 Bust Type C, attributed to Lugdunum
maridvnvm
RI 115g img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 067 A17 viewsObv:– IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– HERC PACIFERO, Hercules, standing left, holding olive branch, club and lion’s skin
Ref:- RIC 67 Bust Type A, attributed to Lugdunum
maridvnvm
RI 115m img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 076 A35 viewsObv:- IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust R.
Rev:- NEPTVNO REDVCI, Neptune standing left with dolphin and trident.
Ref:- RIC 76 Bust Type A, attributed to Lugdunum

Nice strong portrait and reasonable reverse strike even though the legends are a bit weak.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 115l img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 089 C47 viewsObv:- IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev:- VICTORIA AVG, Victory, walking left, holding wreath and palm, at foot captive.
Ref:- RIC 89 Bust Type C, attributed to Lugdunum

Very strong portrait and somewhat weak reverse strike as it typical of the type.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 115j img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 093 C55 viewsObv:- IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev:- VIRT-VS AVG, Mars, standing right, holding spear and resting on shield.
Ref:- RIC 93 Bust Type C, attributed to Lugdunum
2 commentsmaridvnvm
12-Constantius-I-Lon-RIC-14a.jpg
12. Constantius I.35 viewsFollis, ca 298-300 AD, London mint (group II).
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB C / Laureate and curiassed bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae.
Mint mark: (none)
9.71gm., 27 mm.
RIC # 14a; Sear #14034 (this coin !).

Although RIC lists these last four coins (Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius I) with other coins minted in London, a careful reading of the introduction to the mint of London (vol. VI, p. 113-122) shows the editors of RIC had serious reservations about this attribution.

The unmarked folles -- ie without a mint mark in the exergue -- can be divided into three groups. After many years of careful study, group I has been attributed to Lugdunum (Lyon, France), and groups II and III to Britain.

Of group II, RIC says (p. 115), " It is possible that the unmarked II coins were produced in Britain either from a travelling mint, or even from the "C" (Camulodunum?) mint of Carausius and Allectus, with which there are perhaps some stylistic affinities: the period of issue would fall from c. 298 onwards, perhaps until c. 300 or later."

Of group III, RIC says (p. 115), " The unmarked III coins are in everyway more sophisticated in style, and it may well be that they were produced at London, though lack of signature would be difficult to account for: probably it is best to class them as a British series which, for reasons unknown to us, was struck elsewhere. Their date is between 300 and 305."
Callimachus
RI 125c img.jpg
125 - Aurelian Ant. - RIC 399 Bust Type F32 viewsObv:– IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– RESTITVT ORBIS, Orbis Terrarum presenting wreath to Aurelian
Minted at an Unattributed Mint
Reference:– RIC 399 Bust Type F
maridvnvm
128-1_Decia_2.jpg
128/1. Decia - denarius (206-200 BC)19 viewsAR Denarius (uncertain mint, 206-200 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind head.
R/ The Dioscuri galloping right; shield & carnyx below horses; ROMA in exergue.
4.01g; 20.5mm
Crawford 128/1 (less than 10 obverse dies/less than 12 reverse dies)
- Privately bought from Münzen & Medaillen Basel.
- Ex collection of Elvira Elisa Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001), former director of the National Numismatic Collection (part of the Smithsonian Institute).
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 29, lot 479.

* Anonymous (shield & carnyx), Decius?:

This very rare issue has traditionally been attributed to a descendant of a line of three heroes named Publius Decius Mus. The first of that name was Consul in 340 BC; he received the Grass Crown after having saved his army from destruction against the Samnites, then sacrificed himself at the Battle of Vesuvius during his consulship in an act of devotio (exchanging his life against the victory of his army). His son was four times Consul (312, 308, 297 and 295 BC) and similarly sacrificed himself at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC against a coalition of Etruscans, Samnites, and Gauls. The third of that name was Consul in 279 BC and fought against Pyrrhus, who successfully thwarted his attempt to sacrifice himself like his ancestors (cf. discussion in Broughton, vol. I, p. 193).

300 years later, Trajan restored several issues of the Republic, including this one, but with the addition of DECIVS MVS on the obverse (RIC 766). Babelon thus assumed that this denarius was minted by the son of the last Publius Decius Mus (Decia 1). In this hypothesis, the shield and Carnyx refers to the second Mus -- the one who fought the Gauls.

However, Crawford contested this view, writing: "The restoration of this issue by Trajan with the added legend DECIVS MVS provides no grounds whatever for supposing that it was originally struck by someone of that name - the family was certainly extinct by this period."

It is still very strange that Trajan picked this rare denarius, from an irregular mint, for restoration. He could have chosen many other anonymous issues of the early Roman coinage, and simply add the name of Decius Mus. It thus shows that the imperial mint had retained some specimens or archives of previous issues up to the 3rd century BC, because due to its rarity, this denarius had already disappeared from circulation by the time of Trajan. A list of the magistrates behind each issue could therefore have been kept as well; Trajan might have selected the moneyers whom he thought were significant for the history of Rome and restored their issue. A Publius Decius Subulo was living in these years (Livy, xliii. 17) and perhaps minted this coin; his name could have been preserved in the archives of the mint, which might have led Trajan to pick his denarius for restoration.
1 commentsJoss
RI 130ai img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 127 corr. var34 viewsObv:– IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right (seen from rear)
Rev:– CLEMENTIA TEMP, Emperor, standing right, receiving globe from soldier standing left, holding spear
Minted in Cyzicus (//Q) Emission 3 Officina 4. A.D.
Reference:– Cohen -. RIC 127 corr. var Bust type F (Unlisted with this bust type in RIC. RIC attributes to Ticinum but corrected to Cyzicus by Estiot). Not in LaVenera. Estiot Paris Catalog p. 427: two spec. in Vienna.
maridvnvm
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)98 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.62 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
RI_132nu_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 038 var - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (None)12 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARS VICTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy.
Minted in Lugdunum (No marks)
Reference:– Cohen 334. RIC 38 var Bust type F (Not listed in RIC without marks). cf Bastien 262 (1 example, Missong collection).

4.33 gms

Bastien only notes one example of this coin type without marks and attributes it to emission 6 and hence a RIC 84 var. This example seems to have an early bust type and to my eyes belongs more to the style of emission 4, and hence the RIC 38 var.
maridvnvm
RI 132j img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 673 Bust type F (Rome) (XXIB)36 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate head facing right
Rev:– CONSERVAT AVG, Sol advancing left, right hand raised and carrying whip in left
Minted in Rome (XXIB in exe) Emission 1 Officina 2. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 673 Bust Type F
RIC attributes to Siscia but Pink re-attributes to the first emission of Rome.
maridvnvm
RI 132sq img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 673 Bust type F (Rome) (_|B/XXI)17 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate head facing right
Rev:– CONSERVAT AVG, Sol advancing left, right hand raised and carrying whip in left
Minted in Rome (B in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 1 Officina 2. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 673 Bust Type F
RIC attributes to Siscia but Pink re-attributes to the first emission of Rome.
maridvnvm
RI 132bf img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 726 Bust type F (Rome) (XXIA)32 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopiae; at foot, globe.
Minted in Rome (XXIA in exe) Emission 1, Officina 1.Date Minted – 276 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 726 Bust type F
RIC attributes to Siscia but Pink re-attributes to the first emission of Rome.
maridvnvm
RI 132ur img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 726 Bust type F (Rome) (XXIA)13 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopiae; at foot, globe.
Minted in Rome (XXIA in exe) Emission 1, Officina 1.Date Minted – 276 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 726 Bust type F
RIC attributes to Siscia but Pink re-attributes to the first emission of Rome.
maridvnvm
RI 132to img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 801 - Bust Type C (Rome) (XXIS)16 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Probus standing right holding globe in left and transverse spear in right
Minted in Rome (XXIS in exe) Emission 1 Officina 6. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 801 Bust type C
Pink attributes this coin to Rome and not Siscia
maridvnvm
RI 132k img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 801 - Bust Type F (Rome) (XXIS)70 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Probus standing right holding globe in left and transverse spear in right
Minted in Rome (XXIS in exe) Emission 1 Officina 6. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 801 Bust type F
Pink attributes this coin to Rome and not Siscia
maridvnvm
Neron Semis.jpg
14-08 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)67 viewsAE Semis 20 mm 4.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERO CAESAR AVG" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAX TR POT IMP P - S C" - Roma con yelmo sentada a izquierda Sobre una coraza militar, portando una corona en mano derecha levantada y Parazonium (espada militar corta, ancha y sin punta, que llevaban los Jefes militares como señal de distinción) en izquierda.

Acuñada 66 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: NO LISTADA, EN TODOS LOS CASOS DIFIEREN EN LA LEYENDA DEL REVERSO (una sola P) - RIC Vol.1 #549 var Pag.182 - BMCRE #402 var - Cohen Vol.1 #237 var Pag.295 - DVM #35 var Pag.87

Mr. Curtis Clay says:
"IMP P in place of IMP P P appears with some frequency on Lugdunese bronzes of Nero, but not often enough to justify the belief that it was intentional. I attribute it to carelessness, not planning ahead and running out of space before the intended legend was complete.
Nonetheless the error seems to be unrecorded for this particular type, so it is also "unpublished"!"
mdelvalle
RIC_549v_Semis_Neron.jpg
14-08 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)17 viewsAE Semis 20 mm 4.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERO CAESAR AVG" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONTIF MAX TR POT IMP P - S C" - Roma con yelmo sentada a izquierda Sobre una coraza militar, portando una corona en mano derecha levantada y Parazonium (espada militar corta, ancha y sin punta, que llevaban los Jefes militares como señal de distinción) en izquierda.

Acuñada 66 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: NO LISTADA, EN TODOS LOS CASOS DIFIEREN EN LA LEYENDA DEL REVERSO (una sola P) - RIC Vol.1 #549 var Pag.182 - BMCRE #402 var - Cohen Vol.1 #237 var Pag.295 - DVM #35 var Pag.87

Mr. Curtis Clay says:
"IMP P in place of IMP P P appears with some frequency on Lugdunese bronzes of Nero, but not often enough to justify the belief that it was intentional. I attribute it to carelessness, not planning ahead and running out of space before the intended legend was complete.
Nonetheless the error seems to be unrecorded for this particular type, so it is also "unpublished"!"
mdelvalle
tiberius_RIC28.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AR denarius - struck 14-37 AD53 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM (Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; ornate legs to chair)
ref: RIC I 28, RSC 16b (2frcs)
mint: Lugdunum
3,57gms, 18mm

The story of the Tribute Penny may be the best-known Biblical reference to a coin. Tiberius reigned during the ministry of Jesus and it is logical that his silver denarius was the coin used by Christ ("Give unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and give unto the Lord that which is the Lord's"). Although the inscription refers to Tiberius' position as Pontifex Maximus and there are no overt references to Livia, many scholars feel that users of the coins would have associated the figure with Livia and that this association was probably intended by Tiberius. An obligatory issue for collectors.
1 commentsberserker
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1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great97 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )39 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_141br_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Follis - RIC VI Trier 677a (corr. Cyzicus)70 viewsObv:– D N DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, branch upward in right hand, vertical sceptre in left
Minted in Cyzicus (not Trier) ( S | F / KS //PTR)
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 677a (R) (see notes)
Notes:- This is perhaps one of the most unusual issues in the entire follis series. It is nearly always attributed to Trier (Treveri), but a comparison of portrait styles and an examination of follis hoards reveals that this issue was not struck in Trier but in Cyzicus. Two officinae struck this issue, and the KS in the field between the two figures is actually the mintmark, not the PTR. A look at the coins of Cyzicus (RIC 22-23) shows that the same two officinae struck this issue without the PTR also. The Senior Augustus issues of Diocletian and Maximianus were struck at every mint currently in operation. Apparently, the first coins of this type were prepared at Trier and examples were sent to the various mints for the individual mints to copy. At Cyzicus, the die engravers copied everything, including the Trier mintmark and put their own mintmark in the field. Eventually someone soon realized the mistake and new dies were prepared with the mintmark in its proper location.

Nicely silvered with little / no visible wear.
maridvnvm
jovian.jpg
1410a, Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.78 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 179, aVF, Constantinople, 3.126g, 21.6mm, 180o. Obverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: VOT V MVLT X within wreath, CONSPG in exergue; scarce.

Flavius Jovianuswas born in 331 at Singidunum, modern Belgrade. His distinguished father, Varronianus, had been a tribune of the legion Ioviani and a comes domesticorum, perhaps under Constantius II, who had retired to private life shortly before Jovian's elevation to the purple. Jovian married a daughter of Lucillianus, perhaps named Charito, and by her produced at least two children.

Jovian himself was a protector domesticus under Constantius II and Julian and, under Julian, primicerius domesticorum. Various Christian sources maintain that Jovian's Christianity led to his deposition by Julian, though most modern scholars dismiss this as ex post facto Christian apologetic. Jovian, recalled to the ranks if he had ever been dismissed, marched with Julian against Sapor in 363, and on 27 June, the day after that emperor's death, was acclaimed Augustus.

Ammianus and Zosimus, among others, detail the difficult straits of the Roman army during its withdrawal from Persian territory, Ammianus from the perspective of a proud soldier confident even in defeat of the superiority of Roman arms, Zosimus, in a much shorter and confused version, concentrating on the predicament of Jovian's troops and on the dire effects to the empire of the peace terms agreed to with Sapor. These terms entailed the cessation to Persia of Roman territory beyond the Tigris -- the cities of Singara and Nisibis, however, to be surrendered on the condition of the safe passage of their inhabitants -- and the guarantee of the neutrality of Rome's ally Arsaces, King of Armenia, in the event of future hostilities between Roman and Persia. Ammianus asserts that in agreeing to these terms Jovian misjudged his tactical strength and wasted an opportunity presented by negotiations with Sapor to move his forces closer to supplies at Corduena, and that Jovian acted on the advise of flatterers to preserve the fighting strength of his forces in the event of an attempt by Julian's relative Procopius to seize the throne. Others present the treaty terms as unavoidable given the Roman predicament.

Jovian appears to have treaded cautiously with regard to religious matters during the early months of his reign. Eunapius says that Jovian continued to honor Maximus and Priscus, the Neoplatonist advisors of Julian, and, upon reaching Tarsus, Jovian performed funeral rites for Julian. Nonetheless, various Christians, most notably Athanasius, took the initiative in an effort to gain Jovian's favor and support. An adherent of the Nicaean creed, Jovian did eventually recall various bishops of homoousian disposition and restore to their followers churches lost under earlier emperors. But in spite of such measures, unity among various Christian sects seems to have been the foremost concern of Jovian, whose ipsissima verba Socrates Scholasticus purports to give: "I abhor contentiousness, but love and honor those hurrying towards unanimity" (Hist. Eccl. 3.25).

Jovian died at the age of thirty-two on 17 February 364 at Dadastana on the boundary of Bithynia and Galatia. The cause of his death was most probably natural and is variously attributed to overeating, the consumption of poisonous mushrooms, or suffocation from fumes of charcoal or of the fresh paint on the room in which he was sleeping. Ammianus' comparison of the circumstances of Jovian's death to those of Scipio Aemilianus suggest the possibility of foul play, as does John of Antioch's reference to a poisoned rather than a poisonous mushroom, while John Chrysostom -- in a highly suspect literary context of consolatio-- asserts outright that the emperor was murdered. Eutropius records that he was enrolled among the gods, inter Divos relatus est. Zonaras says he was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles and that his wife, Charito, was eventually laid to rest beside him.

Ancient authors agree that Jovian was of modest intellect but imposing physique and disposed to excessive eating and drinking.

By Thomas Banchich, Canisius College
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited By J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross, small crosses between words in outer legend.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
tiberius tribute penny.jpg
16 - 37 A.D. Tiberius - Ric 30 "Tribute Penny"156 viewsSilver denarius, Lugdunum mint, 3.494g, 18.8mm, 225o, 16 - 37 A.D.;
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right;
PONTIF MAXIM, Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; nicely centered
RIC 30, RSC 16a, S 1763, VF

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
2 commentsjimwho523
Divus Verus RIC1507 - RR.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE sestertius - struck 169 AD101 viewsobv: DIVVS VERVS (bare head of Divus Verus right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (elephant quadriga advancing left, atop car shrine containing statue of Divus Verus seated left, raising hand), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC III 1507 (M.Aurelius), C.53 (30frcs), BMCRE (Marcus) 1369
23.51gms, 30mm, bronze
Very Rare
History: In the end of 168 AD as Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus were returning home from the fontier of south Pannonia, Lucius suddenly became ill with symptoms attributed to food poisoning, and was dead at the age of 38 near Altinum (Altino). The older Emperor accompanied the body to Rome, where he offered games to honour his memory. After the funeral, the senate declared Verus divine to be worshipped as Divus Verus.
2 commentsberserker
COMMONWEALTH_HALFGROAT.JPG
1649 - 1660, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND, AR Half-groat, Struck 1651 - 1653 at London, England18 viewsObverse: No legend. Shield bearing the Cross of Saint George between palm branch to left and laurel branch to right.
Reverse: • II • above two conjoined shields side by side, that on the left bearing the Cross of Saint George, that on the right bearing the Harp of Ireland.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.9gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3221

The Commonwealth coinage was once referred to as "breeches money", because the reverse design of two conjoined shields was reminiscent of the shape of a pair of the breeches which were worn at the time. This coinage was minted in England after a period of civil war which culminated in the execution of King Charles I in London in 1649. Commonwealth coins bear no portrait of a monarch because after Charles I was beheaded there wasn't one, instead the coins have a simple puritan design. The language of the legends on the coins also changed, traditionally it was in Latin, giving the name of the monarch and their titles, but now this was replaced with ‘THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND’ on the obverse and ‘GOD WITH US’ on the reverse. These simple statements not only did away with all references to royal power, they also replaced the Catholic-sounding Latin with Protestant English laying claim to God’s favour and support in true Puritan style.
There appear to be no surviving records of the exact amount of Commonwealth coinage which was produced. Although Samuel Pepys in his Diaries suggested that during the Commonwealth period from 1649 to 1660 some 750,000 pounds worth of coins were minted in total and that after the restoration in 1660 much of this, some 650,000 pounds, was recovered and melted down. This leaves an outstanding 100,000 pounds which it is believed was exported as bullion.
It seems, too, that during the Commonwealth Period 46.8% of the silver coinage from the mint was produced between December 1651 and November 1653, which would tally with the treasure trove which was captured from foreign ships and brought to London during that period. A second coining period occurred in 1656 when more foreign ships were captured by the navy, brought to London and their precious metal offloaded to the Tower.
This particular coin denomination is undated, but it has been suggested that the coin above can probably be attributed to the first coinage period on stylistic grounds.
1 comments*Alex
Louis XIV 1672 Prise de douze villes en Hollande.JPG
1672, Prise de douze villes en Hollande784 viewsObv. Draped and cuirassed bust right LVD MAG FRA ET NAV REX PP, CHERON on bust truncation.
Rev. The King in the guise of Sol, radiating light, seated right in a heavenly chariot pulled by three horses, surrounded by clouds. Around are aerlia views of twelve towns and forts captured in Holland SOLIS QVE LABORES on scroll above central design, the names of all twelve towns/forts around.

AE63. Engraved by Charles Jean Francois Cheron. ORIGINAL STRIKE, very rare.

Charles Jean Francois Cheron (1635-1698), one of the most distinguished artists of the school of Jean Warin, was born at Nancy and was trained by his father, Jean-Charles Cheron, engraver to Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine. Cheron went to Rome and became engraver of medals for Clement IX and Innocent X. Cheron's style in his Roman medals is of remarkable boldness, and his medals of Pope Clement IX and of Bernini are grandiloquent and among the finest Italian medals of the period. He returned to France in 1675 and was employed by Louis XIV at the Medal Mint at Paris for about twelve years, where he contributed several medals to the medallic series of the monarch, the Histoire Metallique. His medals are considered to be in an international baroque style.
11 commentsLordBest
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932050 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
commodus_RIC259a.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 or 192 AD35 viewsobv: L AEL AVREL COM-M AVG P FEL (laureate head right)
rev: PROVIDENTIAE AVG (Hercules standing right, his foot is placed on the prow of a vessel, resting club on treetrunk right and holding thunderbolt; clasping hands with Africa, who wears elephantskin on head, in her left hand holding sistrum, at her feet lion)
ref: RIC III 259a (R), RSC 643 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
2.86gms, 18mm
Rare

This coin legend and type is regarded to the African fleet of corn transports. The elephant's head, the sistrum, and the lion are attributes peculiar to Egypt and to Africa proper, which were the granaries of Rome. But Commodus having sent his ships for freights of corn is on this coin represented paying worship to Hercules, and he himself plants his foot on the prow of one of the vessels, as if showing care for his new colony.
1 commentsberserker
1789_MACCLESFIELD_HALFPENNY_CYPHER.JPG
1789 AE Halfpenny Token. Macclesfield, Cheshire.121 viewsObverse: MACCLESFIELD. Ornamental cypher of “R & Co” (Roe & Company), surmounted by a beehive and six bees.
Reverse: HALFPENNY. The Genius of industry, presented as a female figure, seated facing left, holding drill in her right hand and an eight spoked cogwheel in her left hand by her side; in right field behind her is a mine capstan; in exergue, 1789.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT MACCLESFIELD LIVERPOOL OR CONGLETON • X •”.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6.
Dalton & Hamer: 13
RARE

This token was issued by Charles Roe a leading Cheshire industrialist. The design for the token is attributed to John Gregory Hancock. Hancock was probably also responsible for the minting of these tokens, although the manufacture of them can be traced back to a separate contract placed with Matthew Boulton at his Soho Works in Birmingham.

Charles Roe was born in 1715 and died in 1781, he was the founder of Roe and Company, (also known as the Macclesfield Copper Company) which owned extensive works for smelting and making copper on land to the east of Macclesfield. Roe was a leading industrialist in the mid 18th Century, and much of his wealth and business empire was based on his various mining and metallurgical interests, he became a partner in several copper mines, and the famous Anglesey Mines in Wales were first worked under his direction.
Charles Roe was also a well known silk manufacturer and mill owner in his home county of Cheshire and there still exists today a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church, Macclesfield, which carries a lengthy inscription to his various lifetime achievements in the silk and metal trades.
*Alex
1791_MACCLESFIELD_HALFPENNY.JPG
1791 AE Halfpenny Token. Macclesfield, Cheshire.75 viewsObverse: CHARLES ROE ESTABLISHED THE COPPER WORKS 1758 • Bust of Charles Roe, facing right.
Reverse: MACCLESFIELD HALFPENNY. The Genius of industry, presented as a female figure, seated facing left, holding drill in her right hand and a six spoked cogwheel in her left hand by her side; in right field behind her is a mine capstan; in exergue, 1791.
Edge: Incuse legend “PAYABLE AT MACCLESFIELD LIVERPOOL OR CONGLETON • X •”.
Diameter 30mm | Die Axis 6.
Dalton & Hamer: 55

This token was issued by Charles Roe a leading Cheshire industrialist. The design for the token is attributed to John Gregory Hancock. Hancock was probably also responsible for the minting of these tokens, although the manufacture of them can be traced back to a separate contract placed with Matthew Boulton at his Soho Works in Birmingham.

Charles Roe was born in 1715 and died in 1781, he was the founder of Roe and Company, (also known as the Macclesfield Copper Company) which owned extensive works for smelting and making copper on land to the east of Macclesfield. Roe was a leading industrialist in the mid 18th Century, and much of his wealth and business empire was based on his various mining and metallurgical interests, he became a partner in several copper mines, and the famous Anglesey Mines in Wales were first worked under his direction.
Charles Roe was also a well known silk manufacturer and mill owner in his home county of Cheshire and there still exists today a memorial tablet to him in Christ Church, Macclesfield, which carries a lengthy inscription to his various lifetime achievements in the silk and metal trades.
*Alex
Charles_IIII_1795_Mexico_Spanish_Colonial_8_Reales.jpg
1795- MoFM Mexico Spanish Colonial 8 Reales of Charles IIII - [KM-109 -- Charles IIII]64 viewsChopmarked, 0.7797 ounce silver 8 Reales (also known as the pillar dollar), 26.65g, 39.62mm, 0 degree, Mexico City, Mexico Mint [Mo -- small 'o' set over a large 'M'], 179[5]

Obv. - • CAROLUS IIII • DEI • GR[ATIA] •, laureate bust of Charles IIII right

Rev. - • HISPAN • ET IND • REX • Mo • 8R • F • M •, coat of arms of Spain

This coin was sold as a 1794 chopmarked 8 Reale. Upon inspection in hand under high magnification and different lighting conditions, as well as inspection of large, quality pictures on the computer allowing for color/contrast/levels manipulation, and I have determined this coin to actually be from 1795. The '5', although extremely worn is visible under the correct conditions and comparisons of the worn number morphology to other 179x coins lends credence to this finding.

The reverse is just as interesting and challenging. Although the mintmark is almost completely worn off, the assayer of FM ensures that the coin is of Mexico City, Mexico mintmark.

The coat of arms of Spain, a crown crown flanked by columns and a middle shield includes the national motto PLVS VLTRA spread across the two columns. PLVS VLTRA (PLUS ULTRA) translates to "further beyond." It is adopted from the personal motto of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (and King of Spain as Charles I) and is a Latin translation from Plus Oultre, his original motto in Old French.

A great website for helping to attribute these coins and a breakdown of the legend components can be found here: http://coinquest.com/cgi-bin/cq/coins?main_coin=2334

Reading on different chopmarks can be found here: http://www.1messydesk.com/chopmarks/chopmarks.html

Although this coin is quite worn in certain areas, it has a lovely tone and great character. The numerous different chopmarks just add to the appeal. This coins was bought as a conversation piece as I have always found them interesting, albeit with knowing next to nothing concerning them. However, after doing some research, I have come to appreciate it much more and may follow suite with further additions. In any case, I plan on further reading into the subject area.
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Purchased from Regal Coin Exchange in Savannah, GA
1 commentsrenegade3220
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1841 Hard Times token. USS Constitution74 viewsMILLIONS FOR DEFENSE, NOT ONE CENT FOR TRIBUTE.1 commentsancientone
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1922C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1922 DOC 35 CLBC 2.4.3 21 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand. ( This is what it should be , coin is a brokerage of sorts.)

REV: Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 15/16mm

Weight 4.00gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

This coin was attributed by rev alone, it is the only possible match for Alexius and it is clearly by inscription, his rule.

DOC catalog lists 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.95gm to 3.72 and size from 16mm to 20mm
Simon
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1932 ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 2 views
OBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 15.81mm

Weight 2.0gm

DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins. This example has good relief on both sides but the Globus Cruciger is missing due to an imperfect strike. I believe this one by style alone to be minted in Thessalonica.
Interesting find, even though Michael Hendy attributed this to a unknown mint recent excavations of the Metro in Thessalonica have shown
these coins in the hundreds, bringing once again Thessalonica back in to the fold.
Simon
septsev den1.jpg
194 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius 21 viewsobv: IMP CAE.L.SEP.SEV.PERT.AVG.COS.II (laureate head right)
rev: FORT REDVC (Fortuna standing left, holding rudder & cornucopia)
ref: RIC IVi 376b
mint: Emesa
2.28gms
Scarce
Fortune that brings back the Emperor in safety. Fortune was said to distribute wealth by her cornucopiae, and to weild by her rudder the government of human affairs.
berserker
q8.jpg
1993 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1993 DOC 6 CLBC 6.3.1 1 viewsOBV Bust of virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r hand scepter cruciger, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 19.73 mm

Weight 1.9 gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 1 example with a weight of 2.48 and sized at 19mm.

Battered example, Very rare . This coin was originally attributed as a Manuel coin, the version this one was based off of. However a few details that are clear prove it to be Isaac, the main one is the hand scepter cruciger vs a labrum and the type of cross style on the globus cruciger.
Simon
APlautiusDenJudea.jpg
1ab Conquest of Judea11 viewsA. Plautius, moneyer
c. 54 BC

Denarius

Turreted head of Cybele, A PLAVTIVS before, AED CVR SC behind
Bacchius kneels right with camel at his side, extending olive branch, BACCHIVS in ex., IVDAEVS in right

Seaby, Plautia 13

The reverse appears to Pompey's conquest of Judaea in 63 BC.

Josephus recorded of Pompey's conquest of Jerusalem: And when he was come to the city, he looked about where he might make his attack; for he saw the walls were so firm, that it would be hard to overcome them; and that the valley before the walls was terrible; and that the temple, which was within that valley, was itself encompassed with a very strong wall, insomuch that if the city were taken, that temple would be a second place of refuge for the enemy to retire to. . . . Aristobulus's party was worsted, and retired into the temple, and cut off the communication between the temple and the city, by breaking down the bridge that joined them together, and prepared to make an opposition to the utmost; but as the others had received the Romans into the city, and had delivered up the palace to him, Pompey sent Piso, one of his great officers, into that palace with an army, who distributed a garrison about the city, because he could not persuade any one of those that had fled to the temple to come to terms of accommodation; he then disposed all things that were round about them so as might favor their attacks, as having Hyrcanus's party very ready to afford them both counsel and assistance. . . . But Pompey himself filled up the ditch that was oil the north side of the temple, and the entire valley also, the army itself being obliged to carry the materials for that purpose. And indeed it was a hard thing to fill up that valley, by reason of its immense depth, especially as the Jews used all the means possible to repel them from their superior situation; nor had the Romans succeeded in their endeavors, had not Pompey taken notice of the seventh days, on which the Jews abstain from all sorts of work on a religious account, and raised his bank, but restrained his soldiers from fighting on those days; for the Jews only acted defensively on sabbath days.
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FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia45 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
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SevAlexDenSevAlex.jpg
1ce Severus Alexander29 views222-235

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Sev. Alex in armor, P M TR P III COS P P

RIC 74

Herodian recorded: [The soldiers] were more favorably disposed toward Alexander, for they expected great things of a lad so properly and modestly reared. They kept continual watch upon the youth when they saw that Elagabalus was plotting against him. His mother Mamaea did not allow her son to touch any food or drink sent by the emperor, nor did Alexander use the cupbearers or cooks employed in the palace or those who happened to be in their mutual service; only those chosen by his mother, those who seemed most trustworthy, were allowed to handle Alexander's food.

Mamaea secretly distributed money to the praetorians to win their good will for her son; it was to gold that the praetorians were particularly devoted. . . . . Maesa, the grandmother of them both, foiled all his schemes; she was astute in every way and had spent much of her life in the imperial palace. As the sister of Severus' wife Julia, Maesa had always lived with the empress at the court. . . .

When Alexander received the empire, the appearance and the title of emperor were allowed him, but the management and control of imperial affairs were in the hands of his women, and they undertook a more moderate and more equitable administration. . . . At any rate, he entered the fourteenth year of his reign without bloodshed, and no one could say that the emperor had been responsible for anyone's murder. Even though men were convicted of serious crimes, he nevertheless granted them pardons to avoid putting them to death, and not readily did any emperor of our time, after the reign of Marcus, act in this way or display so much concern for human life.

In the fourteenth year, however, unexpected dispatches from the governors of Syria and Mesopotamia revealed that Artaxerxes, the Persian king, had conquered the Parthians and seized their Eastern empire, killing Artabanus [IV], who was formerly called the Great King and wore the double diadem. Artaxerxes then subdued all the barbarians on his borders and forced them to pay tribute. He did not remain quiet, however, nor stay on his side of the Tigris River, but, after scaling its banks and crossing the borders of the Roman empire, he overran Mesopotamia and threatened Syria.

Traveling rapidly, he came to Antioch, after visiting the provinces and the garrison camps in Illyricum; from that region he collected a huge force of troops. While in Antioch he continued his preparations for the war, giving the soldiers military training under field conditions. . . . The Romans suffered a staggering disaster; it is not easy to recall another like it, one in which a great army was destroyed, an army inferior in strength and determination to none of the armies of old.

Now unexpected messages and dispatches upset Alexander and caused him even greater anxiety: the governors in Illyria reported that the Germans [the Alamans] had crossed the Rhine and the Danube rivers, were plundering the Roman empire. . . . Although he loathed the idea, Alexander glumly announced his departure for Illyria. . . . Alexander undertook to buy a truce rather than risk the hazards of war. . . .

The soldiers, however, were not pleased by his action, for the time was passing without profit to them, and Alexander was doing nothing courageous or energetic about the war; on the contrary, when it was essential that he march out and punish the Germans for their insults, he spent the time in chariot racing and luxurious living. . . . They plotted now to kill Alexander and proclaim Maximinus emperor and Augustus. . . . Alexander's troops deserted him for Maximinus, who was then proclaimed emperor by all. . . . Maximinus sent a tribune and several centurions to kill Alexander and his mother, together with any of his followers who opposed them.
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TraianDecSestDacia.jpg
1cq Trajan Decius24 views249-251

Sestertius

Laureate, cuirassed bust, right, MP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG
Dacia standing left holding draco standard, or staff surmounted by a donkey's head, DACIA SC

RIC 101b

The Byzantine historian Zosimus recorded in his New History: [Philip], thinking that he had by these means established himself in the possession of the empire, he made an expedition against the Carpi, who had plundered all the country about the Ister. . . . As there were at that time many disturbances in the empire, the eastern provinces, which were uneasy, partly, owing to the exactions of exorbitant tributes, and partly to their dislike of Priscus, their governor, who was a man of an intolerably evil disposition, wished for innovation, and set up Papianus for emperor, while the inhabitants of Moesia and Pannonia were more inclined to Marinus.

Philip, being disturbed by these events, desired the senate cither to assist him against such imminent dangers, or, if they were displeased with his government, to suffer him to lay it down and dismiss him quietly. No person making a reply to this, Decius, a person of illustrious birth and rank, and moreover gifted, with every virtue, observed, that he was unwise in being so much concerned at those events, for they would vanish of themselves, and could not possibly long subsist. And though the event corresponded with the conjecture of Decius, which long experience in the world had enabled him to make, Papianus and Marinus being taken off, yet Philip was still in fear, knowing how obnoxious the officers in that country were to the army. He therefore desired Decius to assume the command of the legions in Moesia and Pannonia. As he refused this under the plea that it was inconvenient both for Philip and himself, Philip made use of the rhetoric of necessity, as the Thessalians term it, and compelled him to go to Pannonia to punish the accomplices of Marinus. The army in that country, finding that Decius punished all that had offended, thought it most politic to avoid the present danger and to set up a sovereign who would better consult the good of the state, and who, being more expert both in civil and military affairs, might without difficulty conquer Philip.

For this purpose they clothed Decius in purple, and notwithstanding all his apprehensions of future mischances, compelled him to assume the supreme authority. Philip therefore, on hearing that Decius was thus made emperor, collected all his forces to overpower him. The supporters of Decius, though they knew that the enemy had greatly the advantage in numbers, still retained their confidence, trusting to the general skill and prudence of Decius in affairs. And when the two armies engaged, although the one was superior in number, yet the other so excelled it in discipline and conduct, that a great number of Philip's partisans were slain and he himself amongst them, together with his son, on whom he had conferred the title of Caesar. Decius thus acquired the empire.

The Scythians, taking advantage of the disorder which every where prevailed through the negligence of Philip, crossed the Tanais, and pillaged the countries in the vicinity of Thrace. But Decius, marching against them, was not only victorious in every battle, but recovered the spoils they had taken, and endeavoured to cut off their retreat to their own country, intending to destroy them all, to prevent their ever again, making a similar incursion. For this purpose he posted Gallus on the bank of the Tanais with a competent force, and led in person the remainder of his army against the enemy. This expedition exceeded to his utmost wish; but Gallus, who was disposed to innovation, sent agents to the Barbarians, requesting their concurrence in a conspiracy against Decius. To this they gave a willing assent, and Gallus retained his post on the bank of the Tanais, but the Barbarians divided themselves into three battalions, the first of which posted itself behind a marsh. Decius having destroyed a considerable number of the first battalion, the second advanced, which he likewise defeated, and discovered part of the third, which lay near the marsh. Gallus sent intelligence to him, that he might march against them across the fen. Proceeding therefore incautiously in an unknown place, he and his army became entangled in the mire, and under that disadvantage were so assailed by the missiles of the Barbarians, that not one of them escaped with life. Thus ended the life of the excellent emperor Decius.

Eutropius wrote: DECIUS, a native of Lower Pannonia, born at Budalia, assumed the government. . . . When he and his son had reigned two years, they were both killed in the country of the Barbarians, and enrolled among the gods.
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JulianIIAE3VotX.jpg
1en Julian II "Apostate"26 views360-363

AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
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ValentinianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1ep Valentinian22 views364-375

AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
Blindado
EugeniusSiliquaRoma.jpg
1ex Eugenius26 views392-394

AR siliqua

Bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust rightt, DN EVGENIVS PF AVG
Roma seated left on cuirass, MDPS below, VIRTVS ROMANORVM

RIC 32c

Zosimus reports: Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound. To this audacious action the soldiers quietly submitted, not only because he was so brave and warlike a person, but because they were attached to him through his contempt of riches. As soon as he had performed this action, he declared Eugenius emperor, and infused into them the most favourable hopes that he would prove an excellent ruler, since he possessed such extraordinary qualifications. . . .

[Theodosius marched against Eugenius.] The emperor (having mourned for [his just deceased wife] a whole day, according to the rule of Homer), proceeded with his army to the war, leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. This prince being young, his father, in order to amend the defects of his nonage, left with him Rufinus, who was prefect of the court, and acted as he pleased, even as much as the power of sovereignty enabled the emperor himself to do. Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed : Eugenius being astonished at seeing him there whom he so little expected. But as he was arrived there, and consequently was under the necessity of engaging, he judged it most prudent to place the Barbarian troops in front, and to expose them first. He ordered Gaines with the troops under his command to make the first attack, and the other commanders of Barbarian soldiers to follow him, either cavalry, horse archers, or infantry. Eugenius then drew out his forces. When the two armies were engaged, so great an eclipse of the sun happened, that for more than half the time of the action it appeared rather to be night than day. As they fought therefore a kind of nocturnal battle, so great a slaughtor was made, that in the same day the greater part of the allies of Theodosius were slain, with their commander Bacurius, who fought very courageously at their head, while the other commanders escaped very narrowly with the remainder. When night came on and the armies had rallied, Eugenius was so elated with his victory, that he distributed money among those who had behaved with the greatest gallantry in the battle, and gave them time to refresh themselves, as if after such a defeat there was no probability of another engagement As they were thus solacing themselves, the emperor Theodosius about break of day fell suddenly on them with his whole forces, while they were still reclined |129 on the ground, and killed them before they knew of the approach of an enemy. He then proceeded to the tent of Eugenius, where he attacked those who were around him, killing many of them, and taking some of them in their flight, among whom was Eugenius. When they had got him in their power, they cut off his head, and carried it on a long spear around the camp, in order to shew those who still adhered to him, that it was now their interest to be reconciled to the emperor, inasmuch as the usurper was removed.
Blindado
trib_p5_TN.jpg
2. Tiberius Denarius "Tribute Penny"114 viewsDenarius, Lugdunum Mint
AD 16 to 37
Obv. TICAESARDIVI AVGFAVGVSTVS
Rev. PONTIF MAXIM; female figure, possibly Livia, holding scepter and branch
1 commentsZam
Philip-I-RIC-069.jpg
20. Philip I.14 viewsAntoninianus, 244-245 AD, Antioch mint (or "Unknown mint").
Obverse: IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS PF AVG PM / Radiate bust of Philip I.
Reverse: PAX FVNDATA CVM PERSIS / Pax holding branch and transverse sceptre.
3.25 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #69; Sear #8941.

On Roman coins, PM usually stands for Pontifex Maximus. However, the PM at the end of the obverse legend on this coin (and on the following 2 coins) is usually taken to mean Persicus Maximus -- a title Philip took for himself to commemorate his "victory" over the Persians. It exists only on the earliest coins of Philip I minted in Antioch, but was soon dropped as word got out that the "victory" was really a hastily concluded peace treaty which gave the Romans no advantages whatsoever. The PM is found at the end of the obverse legend or under the bust.
The reverse legend celebrates the lasting peace with Persia.

Recent research indicates that the first series of coins attributed to Antioch by RIC may have been produced at what is currently being called the "Unknown mint." This coin and the next 2 coins are from that mint.
Callimachus
RIC_0167a.jpg
201. SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS99 viewsSEPTIMIUS SEVERUS. 193-211 AD.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

RI6

AR Denarius (19mm, 3.41 gm). Struck 200-201 AD. SEVERVS AVG PART MAX, laureate head right / RESTITVTOR VRBIS, Septimius standing left, holding patera
in right hand over tripod altar, and spear in left. RIC IV 167; BMCRE 202; RSC 9. Good VF. Ex-CNG
ecoli73
2014-054-1_ProbusSalusAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.054.114 viewsRome, 4.00 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SALVS AVG; XXIS in exergue; Salus standing left, holding scepter in left and feeding snake rising from altar from patera in right.
Ref: RIC 744 (under Siscia); Re-attributed to Rome by Pink V1/1, 1st Emission.
gordian_guy
s-2015-a3~0.jpg
2015x ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE Half? TETARTERON S-2015/7v DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3v VARIATION UNLISTED48 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword AND shield behind left arm.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger with patriarchal cross.


Size 17.94mm

Weight 2.4gm

I purchased this as part of a collection from Europe. The coin was attributed by previous owner as S-2017 a much rarer coin to find. Upon reexamining the coin, it turned out it has a shield and hilt of sword that the left hand is holding. On the reverse the gl.cr. has a patriarchal cross, this is seen on his half Tetartera.

The weight is average for a half Tetarteron and a bit low for a full Tetarteron . the die size is around 15mm, small for a Tetarteron and large for a half.
AKA the Diane Variation
Simon
coin233.JPG
205. Severus Alexander27 viewsSeverus Alexander

A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Denarius. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory standing left with wreath. RSC 556.
ecoli
jdomna_RIC382(caracalla).jpg
212 AD - JULIA DOMNA denarius40 viewsobv: IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG (draped bust to the right, her braided hair nicely arranged in waves and in a long bun behind the head)
rev: MATRI DEVM (Cybele, towered, standing front, head left and legs crossed, leaning left elbow on column while holding scepter and drum {Tympanum}; at feet, left, a lion)
ref: RIC IVi 382(Caracalla) (S), RSC137 (4frcs)
mint: Rome
3.6gms, 19mm
Scarce

Cybele in the Roman pantheon was the mother of several figures, including Zeus. She is often depicted with her attributes, one of which is a lion. This association with Cybele, and the inscription "MATRI DEVM", or "mother of the gods", is a clear reference to Domna's imperial status as mother of the divine Augustii.
1 commentsberserker
22-Celtic-Alex-tet.jpg
22. Celtic Alexander Tetradrachm (?)48 viewsTetradrachm, ca 2'nd century BC, Danube region.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Tripod at left.
17.25 gm., 28 mm.

In researching this coin, I found five coins which are from the same pair of dies as this one. These are the only examples of this type (tripod on reverse) that I've been able to find.

1. Palladium sale #10 (Nov. 1995), attributed to the mint at Pella and catalogued as Muller #146.

2. Palladium sale #11 (April 1996), described as "unlisted in Price, and apparently unknown before a recent hoard find. Variant of Price 633."

3. CNG sale #54, lot 99, described as a Celtic imitation of Alexander's coinage from the Danube region, ca 2'nd century BC. c.f. Goble, OTA, 566. This is the coin pictured above.

4. CNG sale #72, lot 13, described as "Celtic, Lower Danube, uncertain tribe, early 3'rd century BC . . . . Unpublished in the standard references . . . . By virtue of its style, fabric, and weight, this Alexander imitation is certainly an early issue, probably struck during the first decades of the third century BC."

5. Harlan J Berk 156th Buy or Bid Sale (Oct. 2007), lot 75, described as "Possibly unpublished . . . Somewhat unusual style on the obverse."

Five coins from the same pair or dies, five different attributions. I will agree, though, with the last statement of coin #4 above, that this appears to be an early issue. This coin is on a thick flan resembling coins minted during Alexander's lifetime and immediately thereafter and is made from good silver. There is something a bit barbaric about the style of this coin, although there are genuine Alexander coins listed and pictured in Martin J. Price's book which are more barbaric than this one. An interesting coin.
1 commentsCallimachus
1509820_649071311796450_723220009_n.jpg
220 Trajan Decius37 viewsTrajan Decius, July 249 - First Half of June 251 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9364, RIC IV 10b, RSC IV 2, VF, 4.268g, 22.5mm, 180o, Rome mint, 250 - 251 A.D.; obverse IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ABVNDANTIA AVG, Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopia held in both hands; scarce;


Abundantia, her Greek name is Euthenia, stands for abundance or plenty. Her attributes are heads of grain and the cornucopia. She can be seated or standing and is sometimes shown emptying a cornucopia.
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
1168Hadrian_RIC28.jpg
28 Anonymous issues. Time of Hadrian to Antoninus Pius. Rome Quadrans 117-161 AD15 viewsReference.
RIC 28; C. 38

Obv.
Griffin seated left

Rev. S-C
Tripod.

2.43 gr
15 mm
6h

Note.
The series of Imperial-era anonymous quadrantes portrays eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules, as well as the Four Seasons. They invariably depict either a portrait on the obverse and an attribute of the deity on the reverse, or otherwise an attribute on either side. These designs appear to be influenced, but not directly copied from, earlier designs of the Republican period.
okidoki
divo_caro_RIC47.jpg
283-285 AD - CARUS AE antoninianus24 viewsobv: DIVO CARO (radiate head right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (eagle standing facing, head left), KAA in ex.
ref: RIC Vii 47, C 15 (1fr)
mint: Rome, struck under Numerian and Carinus
3.23gms, 22mm

Having defeated the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube, Carus proceeded through Thrace and Asia Minor, annexed Mesopotamia, pressed on to Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and carried his arms beyond the Tigris. His death was variously attributed to disease, the effects of lightning, or a wound received in a campaign against the Persians. The facts that he was leading a victorious campaign, and that his son Numerian succeeded him without opposition, suggest that his death may have been due to natural causes.
berserker
298-1_Caesia.jpg
298/1. Caesia - denarius (112-1 BC)15 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 112-111 BC)
O/ Bust of Apollo seen from behind, with head turned to left and thunderbolt in right hand; APO on right.
R/ Lares Praestites seated facing, with dog between, each holding staff in left hand; bust of Vulcan with tongs over shoulder above; LA on left; PRE on right; L CAESI in exergue.
3.79 g; 20mm
Crawford 298/1 (50 obverse dies/62 reverse dies)
- Collection of Walter Mirko Stoecklin, Winterthur, Switzerland, acquired prior to 1981. W. M. Stoecklin was the third member of a dynasty of coin collectors based in Switzerland.
- Obolos 9, lot 34.

* Lucius Caesius:

Our moneyer is the first known member of the minor gens Caesia, but the rest of his life is completely unknown. Mommsen (Monnaie Romaine, II, p.370) thought that he could have been the father of Lucius Caesius, praetor in 75 BC (Cicero, In Verrem, II, 1, 130), but there were other Caesii around this time, so they were not necessarily related.

The deity represented on the reverse could be Apollo, as shown by the monogram behind his head, or Vejovis, an obscure god with the attributes of both Apollo and Jupiter (especially the thunderbolt). The reverse depicts the Lares Praestites, the guardians of the city of Rome, whom Ovid described their statues with a dog between them (Ovid, Fasti, v. 129-145).

The bust of Vulcan and the tongs were possibly the emblems of the moneyers.
1 commentsJoss
1166_P_Hadrian_RPC--.jpg
3159 CAPPADOCIA, Caesarea. Hadrian 124 AD Helios on Mt Argaeus35 viewsReference.
Cohen -, cf. 457 (laureate and without aegis). Henseler -, cf. X29a var. (without aegis). RIC -. RPC III -, cf. 3158-9 (differing bust types). Sydenham -, cf. 290a (laureate and without aegis). An unpublished variety of a very rare type.

Issue Bronze with latin legends and Mount Argaeus as reverse design

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Radiate head of Hadrian to right, with aegis on his left shoulder.

Rev. COS III
Mount Argaeus surmounted by statue of Sol-Helios, radiate, holding globe in his right hand and long scepter with his left.

4.81 gr
19 mm
6h

Note.
From the Collection of Sir A. J. Evans, Ars Classica XVII, 3 October 1934, 1400.

While usually being attributed to Caesarea, the style of the very rare small bronzes of Hadrian with Latin legends showing the Mount Argaios is clearly that of Rome. It is generally believed that the Rome mint shipped its dies to the East in such cases to have the coins struck on the spot, but the fact that RPC records an obverse die match between an Argaios-semis and a regular Rome mint piece in Vienna with a modius on the reverse (RPC III 3159.3 resp. BMC p. 442*) strongly indicates that all semisses were struck in Rome. The emergence of a local motive on a Roman Imperial coin is, in any case, very unusual and the coins may have been struck to commemorate Hadrian's visit to Cappadocia in 124 or 130/1.
1 commentsokidoki
Ot-Severa-RIC-127.jpg
32. Otacilia Severa.17 viewsAntoninianus, ca 245 - 247 AD, "Branch mint" (?)
Obverse: M OTACIL SEVERA AVG / Diademed bust of Severa, on a crescent.
Reverse: IVNO CONSERVAT / Juno standing, veiled, holding patera and sceptre.
4.27 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #127; Sear #9152.

RIC tentatively assigns this coin to Antioch, Sear assigns it to Rome (See RIC, vol. IV, part III, pages 54 and 64). Stylistically, this coin does not fit in with Rome and that is why RIC attributed it to Antioch. Curtis Clay recently suggested this coin is part of a small issue minted at a branch mint to produce coinage for Philip's Carpic campaign of 245-247. So at present, the mint for this coin is still open to question.
Callimachus
4746LG.jpg
320. Carus122 viewsMarcus Aurelius Carus (c. 230 - late July/early August, 283), Roman emperor (282-283), was born probably at Narbona (more correctly, Narona -- now the ruins at Vid, Croatia) in Illyria, but was educated at Rome. He was a senator, and had filled various civil and military posts before he was appointed prefect of the Praetorian Guard by the emperor Probus. After the murder of Probus at Sirmium, Carus was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers.

Although Carus severely avenged the death of Probus, he was himself suspected of having been an accessory to the deed. He does not seem to have returned to Rome after his accession, but contented himself with an announcement of the fact to the Senate.

Bestowing the title of Caesar upon his sons Carinus and Numerian, he left Carinus in charge of the western portion of the empire, and took Numerian with him on the expedition against the Persians which had been contemplated by Probus. Having defeated the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube, Carus proceeded through Thrace and Asia Minor, conquered Mesopotamia, pressed on to Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and carried his arms beyond the Tigris.

His hopes of further conquest were cut short by his death. One day, after a violent storm, it was announced that he was dead. His death was variously attributed to disease, the effects of lightning, or a wound received in a campaign against the Huns. However it seems more probable that he was murdered by the soldiers, who were averse to further campaigns against Persia, at the instigation of Arrius Aper, prefect of the Praetorian Guard.

VF/VF Carus AE Antoninianus / Virtus
Attribution: VM 16
Date: 282-283 AD
Obverse: IMP C M AVR CARVS P F AVG, radiate bust r.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVGGG, Carus receiving globe from Jupiter
Size: 20.32 mm
Weight: 2.7 grams
Description: An attractive Carus ant
ecoli73
rjb_2011_04_04.jpg
35220 viewsL Iuli Burso; c.85 BC
AR denarius
Obv Head right with the attributes of Apolo, Mercury and Neptune, symbols behind
Rev "L IVLI BVRSIO"
Victory in quadriga right, TI above
Rome mint
Crawford 352
Five specimens with this obverse/reverse pairing of symbols noted by De Ruyter in NC 1996
2 commentsmauseus
agrippa cmk as.jpg
37-41 AD - AGRIPPA memorial AE dupondius - struck under Caligula (by RIC)76 viewsobv: M AGRIPPA LF COS III (head left wearing rostral crown)(with Vespasian countermark)
rev: - / S.C. (Neptune holding small dolphin in right hand & vertical trident in left)
ref: RIC58(Gaius), BMC(Tib)161
10.51gms, 28mm
Rare with this cmk

The capricorn originally a sign related to Augustus, it became a symbol of Vespasian' reign also. This countermark often attributed to Vespasian during the civil war, mostly found on eastern provincial coins. A similiar countermark exists on regular roman coinage from Claudius, likely applied in the balkan region. The emblem beneath could be variously interpreted as a plough or a globe with ships rudder, or maybe instrument. This Agrippa coin with Vespasian cmk was found in the balkan region, too. Top of the picture is the original counterstamp-mint.
berserker
4-tessera-provincial-holed-.gif
4 tessera provincial holed tyche27 viewsAE provincial tessera
0.86 g, 13.4 mm, 6 h.
Obv. Crescent moon with three starts within.
Rev. Nemesis standing left holding cornucopiea and rudder. Holed above Nemesis for use as a pendant.
Reportedly recently attributed to Nikolpolis although I don't know the details.
cckk
0001SOS.jpg
4) Antony: Sosius52 viewsGAIUS SOSIUS
General to Antony
Æ 26mm (14.5 g). ~ 38 BC.
Cilicia, Uncertain Mint.

Bare head right / Fiscus, sella, quaestoria and hasta; Q below.

Coin has been attributed to multiple rulers, including Julius Caesar, Augustus and Brutus. Now believed to be Sosius, General to Antony and Governor of Syria.

RPC I 5409; Laffaille 324; Grant, FITA, pg. 13. aFine, brown patina, scratches. Rare.
0001SOS


Sosius was wily and accomplished man. A talented general, he received a triumph. However, he consistently picked the wrong side in Rome's Civil Wars (Senate vs. Caesar, then Antony vs. Octavian) yet somehow managed to keep his head.

According to Wikipedia:

Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.

Gaius Sosius was elected quaestor in 66 BC and praetor in 49 BC. Upon the start of the civil war, he joined the party of the Senate and Pompey. Upon the flight of Pompey to Greece, Sosius returned to Rome and submitted to Julius Caesar.

After the assassination of Caesar, Sosius joined the party of Mark Antony, by whom in 38 BC he was appointed governor of Syria and Cilicia in the place of Publius Ventidius. As governor, Sosius was commanded by Antony to support Herod against Antigonus the Hasmonean, when the latter was in possession of Jerusalem. In 37 BC, he advanced against Jerusalem and after he became master of the city, Sosius placed Herod upon the throne. In return for this services, he was awarded a triumph in 34 BC, and he became consul along with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus as his colleague in 32 BC.

When civil war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Sosius espoused the cause of Antony and violently attacked Octavian in the senate, for which he was forced to flee to the east. In 31 BC, Sosius commanded a squadron in Mark Antony's fleet with which he managed to defeat the squadron of Taurius Rufus – according to Dio 50.14 – and put it to flight, but when the latter was reinforced by Marcus Agrippa, Sosius's ally Tarcondimotus – the king of Cilicia – was killed and Sosius himself was forced to flee. At Actium, Sosius commanded the left wing of Antony's fleet. After the battle, from which he managed to escape, his hiding place was detected and Sosius was captured and brought before Octavian but, at the intercession of Lucius Arruntius, Octavian pardoned him. He returned to Rome and completed his building project on the temple of Apollo Medicus (begun in 34 BC), dedicating it in Octavian's name.

Unknown sons, but two daughters : Sosia and Sosia Galla, possibly by an Asinia,[1] a Nonia or an Aelia. However the name reappears with Q. Sosius Senecio, (consul in 99 and 107).[2] and Saint Sosius (275-305 AD).

Sosius attended the Ludi Saeculares in 17 according to an inscription CIL 6.32323 = ILS 5050 as a quindecimvir.
RM0002
4 commentsSosius
Philip-II-tet-yr-5.jpg
49. Philp II, year 5.10 viewsTetradrachm, Year 5 (247 / 248 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A K M IOΥ ΦIΛIΦΦOC E / Bust of Philip II.
Reverse: L E / Homonoia (Concordia) standing, hand extended, holding double cornucopiae.
13.97 gm.,
22.5 mm.

During the last few years of the reign of Philip I, both father and son shared the same titles. Coin portraits of father and son can often be distinguished from each other since Philip I is usually portrayed with a beard and Philip II is not. This coin was purchased as a tetradrachm of Philip I, but is being attributed here as a coin of Philip II since there is no trace of a beard on the portrait.
Callimachus
50-Edward-II.jpg
50. Edward II16 viewsPenny, London mint.
Obverse: +EDWAR R ANGL DNS HYB / Crowned bust, facing.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON / Long cross with three pellets in each angle.
1.41 gm., 19 mm.
North #1065; Seaby #1468.

Classification from North, Vol. 2, p. 24-25; and Seaby 1994:
- E with angular back = types 11b - 15b.
- Bifoliate crown = types 10a - 15b.
- The distinguishing feature is the central fleur of the crown with straight sides and tall lis (fig. 13 on p. 25 of North, vol. 2.)
- Along with this goes the "large smiling face with leering eyes."
- This coins is therefore type 14 -- which is attributed to Edward II.

Perhaps unusual is the obverse legend with two Rs in it, not mentioned by North or Seaby.
Callimachus
Valerian-II-RIC-Ant-54.jpg
50. Valerian II.21 viewsAntoninianus, 256 - 258 AD, either the Antioch mint or a mint in Samaosata.
Obverse: P LIC COR VALERIANVS CAES / Radiate bust of Valerian II.
Reverse: VICTORIA PART / Victory presenting wreath to Valerian II, in military dress, holding globe and spear.
3.77 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #54; Sear #10742.

Attributed to Antioch, 255 AD by RIC.
Attributed to "Eastern field mint," 256-58 AD by Sear, vol. III.
This coin shows a cuirass at the bottom edge of the obverse. Since it is way to the right, this bust type is "seen from behind." Not mentioned in RIC or Sear.
Just what victory over the Parthians is referred to on this coin is open to question.
Callimachus
coin555.JPG
501. CONSTANTINE I Siscia SOLI INVICTO COMIT14 viewsSol Invictus ("the undefeated Sun") or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus ("the undefeated sun god") was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire, El Gabal, Mithras, and Sol.

Unlike the earlier, agrarian cult of Sol Indiges ("the native sun" or "the invoked sun" - the etymology and meaning of the word "indiges" is disputed), the title Deus Sol Invictus was formed by analogy with the imperial titulature pius felix invictus ("dutiful, fortunate, unconquered").

A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated when the duration of daylight first begins to increase after the winter solstice,—the "rebirth" of the sun.

Christianity adopted some of the attributes of the Sol Invictus religion, as apparent in the first examples of Christian iconography, depicting Christ with solar attributes such as the radiated crown or, in a few instances, a solar chariot.

Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Church of Rome as evidenced by Christ as Apollo-Helios in a mausoleum discovered under St. Peter's Basilica and dated to 250[1], and, from the beginning of the third century, "Sun of Justice" was used as a title of Christ[2].

The date for Christmas may also bear a relation to the sun worship. According to the Syriac bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi, writing in the twelth century:

"It was a custom of the Pagans to celebrate on the same 25 December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries the Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day." (cited in "Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries", Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997, p155])
Christianity designated Sunday as the "Lord's Day" and the day of rest, rather than Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.


CONSTANTINE I

RIC VII Siscia 32 R3

ecoli
coin517.JPG
501b. Crispus Ticinum VOTA10 viewsTicinum

Ticinum (the modern Pavia) was an ancient city of Gallia Transpadana, founded on the banks of the river of the same name (now the Ticino river) a little way above its confluence with the Padus (Po).

It is said by Pliny to have been founded by the Laevi and Marici, two Ligurian tribes, while Ptolemy attributes it to the Insubres.

Its importance in Roman times was due to the extension of the Via Aemilia from Ariminum (Rimini) to the Padus (187 BC), which it crossed at Placentia (Piacenza) and there forked, one branch going to Mediolanum (Milan) and the other to Ticinum, and thence to Laumellum where it divided once more, one branch going to Vercellae - and thence to Eporedia and Augusta Praetoria - and the other to Valentia - and thence to Augusta Taurinorum (Turin) or to Pollentia.

The branch to Eporedia must have been constructed before 100 BC. Ticinum is not infrequently mentioned by classical writers. It was a municipium, and from an inscription we know that a triumphal arch was erected in honor of Augustus and his family, but we learn little of it except that in the 4th century AD there was a manufacture of bows there.

It was pillaged by Attila in AD 452 and by Odoacer in 476, but rose to importance as a military centre in the Gothic period. At Dertona and here the grain stores of Liguria were placed, and Theodoric the Great constructed a palace, baths and amphitheatre and new town walls; while an inscription of Athalaric relating to repairs of seats in the amphitheatre is preserved (AD 528‑529). From this point, too, navigation on the Padus seems to have begun. Narses recovered it for the Eastern Empire, but after a long siege, the garrison had to surrender to the Lombards in 572.

001b. Crispus Ticinum

RIC VII Ticinum 153 R3

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coin399.JPG
515a. Aelia Flacilla33 viewsEmpress, wife of Theodosius the Great, died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like Theodosius himself, his first wife, Ælia Flaccilla, was of Spanish descent. She may have been the daughter of Claudius Antonius, Prefect of Gaul, who was consul in 382. Her marriage with Theodosius probably took place in the year 376, when his father, the comes Theodosius, fell into disfavour and he himself withdrew to Cauca in Gallæcia, for her eldest son, afterwards Emperor Arcadius, was born towards the end of the following year. In the succeeding years she presented two more children to her husband Honorius (384), who later became emperor, and Pulcheria, who died in early childhood, shortly before her mother. Gregory of Nyssa states expressly that she had three children; consequently the Gratian mentioned by St. Ambrose, together with Pulcheria, was probably not her son. Flaccilla was, like her husband, a zealous supporter of the Nicene Creed and prevented the conference between the emperor and the Arian Eunomius (Sozomen, Hist. eccl., VII, vi). On the throne she was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God" (Fidelis anima Deo. — "De obitu Theodosii", n. 40, in P. L., XVI, 1462). In his panegyric St. Gregory of Nyssa bestowed the highest praise on her virtuous life and pictured her as the helpmate of the emperor in all good works, an ornament of the empire, a leader of justice, an image of beneficence. He praises her as filled with zeal for the Faith, as a pillar of the Church, as a mother of the indigent. Theodoret in particular exalts her charity and benevolence (Hist. eccles., V, xix, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended cripples, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Her humility also attracts a special meed of praise from the church historian. Flaccilla was buried in Constantinople, St. Gregory of Nyssa delivering her funeral oration. She is venerated in the Greek Church as a saint, and her feast is kept on 14 September. The Bollandists (Acta SS., Sept., IV, 142) are of the opinion that she is not regarded as a saint but only as venerable, but her name stands in the Greek Menæa and Synaxaria followed by words of eulogy, as is the case with the other saints

Wife of Theodosius. The reverse of the coin is very interesting; a nice bit of Pagan-Christian syncretism with winged victory inscribing a chi-rho on a shield.
1 commentsecoli
s49.JPG
516. Honorius46 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
ecoli
nero sest-.jpg
54-68 AD - NERO AE sestertius - struck 66 AD58 viewsobv: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P (laureate head right, aegis on bust)
rev: ANNONA AVGVSTI CERES / S.C. (Ceres seated left with grain-ears & torch, facing Annona standing right with cornucopiae; between them, ship's stern and modius set on altar.)
ref: RIC I 137, BMCRE 127, C.16 (8frcs)
mint: Rome
27.51gms, 34mm orichalcum
Rare

Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture, holds her usual attributes, grain and the torch with which she searches for her daughter, Proserpina, held captive in the Underworld for the winter months. Annona, the personification of the grain harvest,
holds a cornucopia, symbol of agricultural abundance; this is her first appearance on a coin. On the altar is a modius, a grain measure, and in the background a ship's stern, references to the transport of the grain.
1 commentsberserker
1040Hadrian_RIC549.jpg
549 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 118 AD Annona standing62 viewsReference.
RIC 549; C 184; Strack 513; Banti 102; BMC 1125

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. PONT MAX - TR POT COS II in ex. ANNONA AVG in field, S - C
Annona standing r., holding cornucopiae in front of her, modius and corn-ears and high prow of ship.

20.56 gr
31.2 mm
6h

Note.
In ancient Rome, the Romans used the term Cura Annonae ("care for the grain supply"), in honour of their goddess Annona and the grain dole was distributed from the Temple of Ceres.
5 commentsokidoki
310_P_Hadrian_Emmett1196_.jpg
5701 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 126-27 AD Pan left holding pedum/lagobalon21 viewsReference.
Emmett 1196.11; Milne 1238; Köln 972; RPC III, 5701

Issue L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. no legend.
Laureate head right.

Rev. LI-A (Year 11)
Pan, advancing left holding pedum/lagobalon

2.03 gr
14 mm

Note.
There are two sub-varieties: Pan with pedum (e.g. BMC 700-701, 2879) and Pan of Mendes with club and pedum (BMC 702, 2878).

Half man and half goat, a spritely horned Pan holds one of his usual attributes in his upraised right hand – a throwing stick or lagobolon used for hunting rabbits, one of the god’s favorite animals. In his left hand he carries a small bag, perhaps to secure the quarry. Pan is known for his prowess in hunting smaller rather than larger game, the pursuit of which was presided over by Artemis as ultimate goddess of the hunt.
okidoki
754_P_Hadrian_Emmett1196.JPG
5701 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Dichalkon 126-27 AD Pan of Mendes with club and pedum 16 viewsReference.
Emmett 1196.11; RPC III, 5701; (BMC 702, 2878 Club ); Köln 973

Issue L ΙΑ = year 11

Obv. no legend.
Laureate head right.

Rev. LI-A (Year 11)
Pan of Mendes with club and pedum

2.1 gr
15 mm
12h

Note.
There are two sub-varieties: Pan with pedum (e.g. BMC 700-701, 2879) and Pan of Mendes with club and pedum (BMC 702, 2878).

Half man and half goat, a spritely horned Pan holds one of his usual attributes in his upraised right hand – a throwing stick or lagobolon used for hunting rabbits, one of the god’s favorite animals. In his left hand he carries a small bag, perhaps to secure the quarry. Pan is known for his prowess in hunting smaller rather than larger game, the pursuit of which was presided over by Artemis as ultimate goddess of the hunt.
okidoki
426Hadrian_RIC582.jpg
582 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 119-20 AD Hadrian seated61 viewsReference.
RIC 582c; C 930 rare.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III:
Laureate, draped bust right, seen from front.

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG III in Ex. S C
Hadrian, togate, seated left on platform, on right, extending right hand; behind, an officer standing left; in front, on his right, an attendant holding up coin counter; at foot of platform, citizen standing right, holding out fold of toga in both hands.

24.93 gr.
33 mm.
Note.
Comment on Tablet by Curtis Clay.
The object in question was a tablet with a set number of shallow coin-size depressions drilled into it, say 50 depressions. It was dipped into the chest of coins like a scoop, and shaken until one coin had settled into each depression. Any excess coins were then swept back into the chest with the official's other hand, and the full board containing exactly fifty coins was then emptied into the outstretched toga of the recipient. So the object in question was a coin scoop/coin counter, meant to rapidly and accurately distribute the required number of coins to each recipient.
2 commentsokidoki
978_P_Hadrian_RPC6020_1.jpg
6020 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 134-35 AD Poseidon in hippocamp biga28 viewsReference.
RPC III, 6020 (this coin illustrated). Dattari-Savio Pl. 89, 7759 (this coin); Emmett 1023 (triton biga)

Issue L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ = year 19

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ƐΝΝƐΑΚ·Δ
Poseidon in hippocamp biga, r.raising hand and holding trident

23.35 gr
32 mm
12h

Note.
Poseidon was the Olympian god of the ocean, earthquakes and horses. His father Kronos swallowed him whole when he was born, later Zeus with the help of Metis managed to set him free. During the Titanomachy, the Cyclopes forged a unique trident for Poseidon, and together with his brothers they defeated the Titans and threw them into the Tartaros. The god is well known for his famous attributes such as the Trident, sometimes he also used to carry around a rock with sea creatures on it, and he is pictured on pottery with a wreath of celery leaves. His sacred animals are the dolphin, the bull and the horses. However he is also associated with animals such as the hippocampus, in fact, his chariot was driven by seahorses.
okidoki
coin401.JPG
602a. Valentinian III31 viewsIn the early years of his reign, Valentinian was overshadowed by his mother. After his marriage in 437, moreover, much of the real authority lay in the hands of the Patrician and Master of Soldiers Aetius. Nor does Valentinian seem to have had much of an aptitude for rule. He is described as spoiled, pleasure-loving, and influenced by sorcerers and astrologers. He divided his time primarily between Rome and Ravenna. Like his mother, Valentinian was devoted to religion. He contributed to churches of St. Laurence in both Rome and Ravenna. He also oversaw the accumulation of ecclesiastical authority in the hands of the bishop of Rome as he granted ever greater authority and prestige to pope Leo the Great (440-461) in particular.

Valentinian's reign saw the continued dissolution of the western empire. By 439, nearly all of North Africa was effectively lost to the Vandals; Valentinian did attempt to neutralize that threat by betrothing his sister Placidia to the Vandal prince Huneric. In Spain, the Suevi controlled the northwest, and much of Gaul was to all intents and purposes controlled by groups of Visigoths, Burgundians, Franks, and Alans. In 454, Valentinian murdered his supreme general Aetius, presumably in an attempt to rule in his own right. But in the next year, he himself was murdered by two members of his bodyguard, ex-partisans of Aetius.

Although Valentinian was ineffectual as a ruler, his legitimate status and connection to the old ruling dynasty provided a last vestige of unity for the increasingly fragmented Roman empire. After his death, the decay of the west accelerated. The different regions of the west went their own way, and the last several western emperors, the so-called "Shadow" or "Puppet" Emperors, not only were usually overshadowed by one barbarian general or other, but also were limited primarily to Italy.
ecoli
coin408.JPG
603. Marcian26 viewsMarcian was born in Thrace or Illyria. He spent his early life as an obscure soldier. He subsequently served for nineteen years under Ardaburius and Aspar, and took part in the wars against the Persians and Vandals. In 431, Marcian was taken prisoner by the Vandals in the fighting near Hippo Regius; brought before the Vandal king Geiseric, he was released on his oath never to take up arms against the Vandals.

Through the influence of these generals he became a captain of the guards, and was later raised to the rank of tribune and senator. On the death of Theodosius II he was chosen as consort by the latter's sister and successor, Pulcheria, and called upon to govern an empire greatly humbled and impoverished by the ravages of the Huns.

Upon becoming Emperor, Marcian repudiated the embarrassing payments of tribute to Attila the Hun, which the latter had been accustomed to receiving from Theodosius in order to refrain from attacks on the eastern empire. Aware that he could never capture the eastern capital of Constantinople, Attila turned to the west and waged his famous campaigns in Gaul 451 and Italy (452) while leaving Marcian's dominions alone.

He reformed the finances, checked extravagance, and repopulated the devastated districts. He repelled attacks upon Syria and Egypt (452), and quelled disturbances on the Armenian frontier (456). The other notable event of his reign is the Council of Chalcedon (451), in which Marcian endeavoured to mediate between the rival schools of theology.

Marcian generally ignored the affairs of the western Roman Empire, leaving that tottering half of the empire to its fate. He did nothing to aid the west during Attila's campaigns, and, living up to his promise, ignored the depredations of Geiseric even when the Vandals sacked Rome in 455. It has recently been argued, however, that Marcian was more actively involved in aiding the western Empire than historians had previously believed and that Marcian's fingerprints can be discerned in the events leading up to, and including, Attila's death. (See Michael A. Babcock, "The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun," Berkley Books, 2005.)

Shortly before Attila's death in 453, conflict had begun again between him and Marcian. However, the powerful Hun king died before all-out war broke out. In a dream, Marcian claimed he saw Attila's bow broken before him, and a few days later, he got word that his great enemy was dead.

Marcian died in 457 of disease, possibly gangrene contracted during a long religious journey.

Despite his short reign and his writing off of the west Marcian is considered one of the best of the early "Byzantine" emperors. The Eastern Orthodox Church recognizes him and his wife Pulcheria as saints, with their feast day on February 17.

Marcian AE4.9mm (1.30 grams) D N MARCIANVS P F AV, diademed & draped bust right / Monogram of Marcian inside wreath, * above
ecoli
titus den-.jpg
69-79 AD - TITUS (Caesar) AR denarius - struck 72 AD40 viewsobv: T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT (laureate head right)
rev: NEP RED (Neptune standing right, foot on globe, holding acrostolium & scepter)
ref: RIC II 155 (Vespasian), C.121 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
3.00gms, 17mm

The reverse of this coin celebrates the return of Titus from Jerusalem with a depiction of Neptune, god of the sea, characterized in the coin's legend as the Returner. He holds his usual attributes, a trident (here scepter) and an acrostolium or bow ornament of a ship.
berserker
vespa denar01-.jpg
69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AR denarius - struck 73 AD37 viewsobv: IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN (laureate head right)
rev: SPQR in oak wreath
ref: RIC II 66, C.516 (6frcs)
mint: Rome
Scarce

'...as the usual appointed time when he must distribute subsistence money to the soldiers was now come, he [Titus] gave orders that the commanders should put the army into battle-array, in the face of the enemy, and then give every one of the soldiers their pay. So the soldiers, according to custom, opened the cases wherein their arms before lay covered, and marched with their breastplates on, as did the horsemen lead their horses in their fine trappings. Then did the places that were before the city shine very splendidly for a great way; nor was there any thing so grateful to Titus's own men, or so terrible to the enemy, as that sight.' Flavius Josephus: The wars of the Jews; book V
berserker
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2150 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.138 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
TitusCommColosseum.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 114 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.142 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
Aurelian-RIC-248.jpg
78. Aurelian.10 viewsAntoninianus, 270 - 275 AD, possibly minted in Siscia.
Obverse: AVRELIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Aurelian.
Reverse: ORIENS AVG / Sol standing, right hand raised, left hand holding globe; captive at his feet. S in exergue.
3.97 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #248.

Attribution: There are three coins listed in RIC that have the correct obverse legend (5), portrait (F), and reverse type: RIC 135 Milan, RIC 248 Siscia, and RIC 277 Serdicia. The characteristics of coins from Siscia found on this coin are busts with long necks, and square A and V. I have tentatively attributed this coin to Siscia based on these characteristics.
Callimachus
june_set-ccfopt.jpg
993..Visual reference for collectors (June 2018)32 viewsI will continue to upgrade this reference as my set grows...

I hope this is benificial and helps collectors attribute their own coins via a visual reference..
1 commentsPaul R3
kymeNero.jpg
aa Aeolis, Kyme. AE19. Magistrate Sekoynda50 viewsO: Hd Amazon Kyme r.
R: Horse stepping r., KY above, EPI PR SEKOYNDAS around.
SNG Cop 116. RPC 1.2432

FORVM post from Curtis Clay:
The CEKOYNDAC issue "was attributed by BMC to the reign of Nero, because of the similarity of the reverse type with 2435 [a coin of Nero at Cyme with rev. unbridled trotting horse]. There are, however, differences of style, detail (bridled versus unbridled horse), technique (the die axis), metal (brass rather than bronze) and ethnic (only the abbreviated KY), which suggest that the issue cannot be exactly contemporaneous. Similar types were used on Hellenistic bronzes, so it does not seem clear when this issue was made, perhaps in either first century BC or the early first century AD."
ancientone
RI 132ep img.jpg
Abundantia883 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS . P . F . AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– ABVNDANTIA AVG, Abundatia, standing right, empting cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (IIII in exe.) Emission 4 Officina 4
Date Minted – Middle to End 277 A.D.
References: Cohen 1. Bastien 195 (54 examples). RIC 17 Bust type F (Common)

Abundantia stands for abundance or plenty. Her attributes are ears of corn (grain) and cornucopiae. She is sometimes (as here) shown emptying the cornucopiae and sometimes shown seated. Her Greek name is Euthenia
1 commentsmaridvnvm
057~0.JPG
Aegae, Aeolis 47 viewsSecond and first centuries B.C.
Bronze AE19
6.12 gm, 19 mm
Obv.: Helmeted head of Athena right
Rev.: AIΓAEΩN right
Radiate Zeus standing naked, facing;
holding eagle in outstretched right and scepter in left,
three monograms in left field
B.M.C. Vol. 17, p. 96, No. 12; Sear 4167

This coin was purchased as a semi-cleaned unattributed Greek with bronze disease. Treated and cleaned revealed a coin similar to one already in my collection, but with a little nicer obverse.
Jaimelai
FAUSTSR-11.jpg
Aeternitas, Personification of eternity and stability392 viewsFaustina Senior, wife of Antoninus Pius, Augusta 138-141 C.E.
AR Denarius, Rome mint, 147-161 C.E.
Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, Draped bust, r.
Rev: AETERNITAS, Aeternitas standing l., holding phoenix and lifting fold of skirt.
RIC-347; Sear-4576; BMC-354; Cohen-11.

Aeternitas personifies eternity and stability. She is depicted with a variety of attributes which may include a torch, globe, phoenix, cornucopiae, scepter or the heads of Sol and Luna; she is often shown leaning against a column or seated on a globe.
EmpressCollector
axum_anon.jpg
Aksumite, Anonymous53 viewsObverse: Draped bust right, wearing headcloth ('King')
Reverse: Greek cross within circle, with greek legend ('May this please the country')
Date : Circa AD 340-425
Reference : Munro-Hay Type 52; BMC Aksum 140
Grade : VF
Weight : 1.12 g
Metal : AE
Comments : 13mm, The most common of all axumite coins, they are generally attributed to King Ezana, the first Christian King of the Axumites. Part of now Ethiopia, Axum (Askum) was in the path of the ancient commercial trade routes between Africa, Arabia, and India, as a result it became a very wealth and cosmopolitan centre in the ancient world. In the second century AD, Aksum expanded its empire acquired tribute states on the Arabian Peninsula across the Red Sea, conquered northern Ethiopia, and then finally conquered Kush.

In the fourth century, King Ezana, converted to Christianity under the influence of a Syrian bishop named Frumentius and declared Axum to be a Christian state. Axum remained a strong empire and trading power until the rise of Islam in the seventh century AD, when it became cut off from its major trading partners. However, because the Axumites had sheltered Muhammed's first followers, the Muslims never attempted to overthrow Axum as they spread across the face of Africa.

Of general interest they are the only coins minted in sub saharian africa during the ancient times and one of the first nations to offically convert to Christianity and to show Christian icons on their coins.
Bolayi
ATGlifetimeDrachmLydiaSardes.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C. Lifetime Issue113 viewsSilver drachm, Price 2553, VF, 4.297g, 16.4mm, 0o, Lydia, Sardes mint, c. 334 - 323 B.C. Lifetime Issue; Obverse: Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; Reverse: BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, eagle in right, scepter in left, EYE monogram left, rose under throne. Ex FORVM.

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the 13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
AlexTheGreatMemphisTet.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Possible Lifetime Issue119 viewsThis is the same coin in my collection, different picture, as the Alexander tetradrachm listed as [300mem].

Silver tetradrachm, Price 3971, VF, 16.081g, 26.1mm, 0o, Egypt, Memphis mint, c. 332 - 323 or 323 - 305 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, legs crossed, eagle in right, scepter in left, rose left, DI-O under throne. Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou. Ex FORVM, "The Memphis issues are among the finest style Alexander coins. Experts disagree on the date of this issue. Some identify it as a lifetime issue and others as a posthumous issue (Joseph Sermarini).

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsJames Fitzgerald
alexander_III_price_1560.jpg
Alexander III, drachm, Price 156038 viewsAlexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C. Silver drachm, Price 1560, SNG Cop 972, nice VF, Troas, Abydus? mint, 4.229g, 17.4mm, 0o, posthumous, c. 310 - 301 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse “ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ”, Zeus enthroned left, eagle in right, long vertical scepter in left, right leg drawn back, ME monogram left, ivy leaf under throne. Price attributes this coin to Abydus but notes that the attribution can be made "only with caution." ex FORVMPodiceps
hendin478.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4788 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 478, overstruck on an earlier prutot, aF, Jerusalem mint, 1.92g, 14.6mm, 180o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse, double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns. This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in 'The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types,' Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Alexander_The_Great_Gorytos~0.JPG
Alexander The Great Gorytos152 viewsAlexander The Great, bronze, gorytos type, four chalkoi (hemiobol), 336 - 323 BC, 17mm, 4.4g
Western Asia Minor, M.J. Price 322, Müller 1699, SNG Saraglos 843, SNG Milano 145,
SNG Stockholm 284, SNG Cop. 1059, McClean 3516.
This Alexander bronze type, like the first, also features Herakles on the obverse and a soldier's weapons on the reverse.
But in this case the weapons are a gorytos (case for bow and quiver) along with a club, and the bow lies within the gorytos
rather than underneath the quiver.
Often the gorytos is referred to as a bow case, but it also holds arrows as well so is probably best referred to as a gorytos.
Sometimes it's erroneously referred to as an arrow case or quiver, by dealers as well as attribution references,
with no distinction made between the gorytos and quiver bronze types.
SNG Manchester mistakenly referred to it as a bull's head based upon the worn specimen they had to attribute.
Gorytos bronzes are seen less frequently than the quiver bronzes. The mint mark on this particular variety, below the gorytos, is the letter E.
Romanorvm
Alex_horse,_A_under.jpg
Alexander the Great, free horse, A below, Æ1521 viewsAlexander (III) the Great, 336-323 B.C., Æ15, (3.4g) Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia. / ALEXANDROU Horse prancing right, A below. Sear GCV II 6744 (A instead of thunderbolt). Ex Lanz (who attributed this as Alexander II without further reference)Podiceps
Alex_horse.jpg
Alexander the Great, free horse, dolphin, Æ1517 viewsAlexander (III) the Great, 336-323 B.C. Æ15, (4.4g) Head of Apollo right, hair bound with tainia. / ALEXANDROU Horse prancing right, dolphin below. Sear GCV II 6744 var (dolphin instead of thunderbolt). Ex Lanz (who attributed this as Alexander II without further reference)Podiceps
y1.jpg
ALEXIUS AE Tetarteron S-1922 DOC 35155 viewsObv: ( Brokerage ) Christ Bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion, seated on a throne without back; holds gospel in l. hand.

Rev: Bust of emperor wearingstemma, divitision, and chalmys; holds in r. hand sceptre cruciger and in l. gl cr. 16mm

This coin was attributed by reverse alone, However this is the only listed coin with this rev that it could be.
Simon
S1933.jpg
ALEXIUS Tetarteron S-1933 DOC43200 viewsFull Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.
REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr. 21/17mm

DOC lists this coin as rare in collections, it's crude style also attributes it to a uncertain mint. I aquired another example of the coin in the same week I got this one. That example is not crude but much more defined. Sear and DOC differ on the rairity of this issue but I found it was a very difficult coin to find.additional note this coin was found in Cyprus.
Simon
00360Q00.jpg
ALFOLDI 009.006 EXTREMELY RARE VARIANT WITHOUT MINTMARKS85 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: ADVENTVS PROBI AVG
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//-
WEIGHT 3.63g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 20-22mm
RIC 632 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH NO MINTMARKS)
ALFOLDI 009.006 (1 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 980
NOTE: This is only the 4th specimen in the world known to me.
Extremely rare variant without any mintmarks. This coin is part of a true "adventvs" issue and was most likely distributed by the emperor himself upon entering the city of Siscia contrary to regular issues of coins with the adventvs reverse and mintmarks in the exergue, which often were struck long after the emperor had left the city. Attribution of coins without any mintmarks to a particular mint is done on the basis of careful analysis of the coin's style and lettering.
5 commentsBarnaba6
A-012.jpg
Allectus antoninianus, Providentia reverse, unattirbuted mint4 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
PROVIDENTIA ? / S P / ?
Providentia standing left, holding globe & cornucopiae
Unattributed mint
Ice
Q-025.jpg
Allectus quinarius, galley (possibly virtvs) reverse, unattibuted mint (possibly Londinium)15 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS AVG ? / - - / QL ?
Galley sailing right (possibly waves below)
Unattributed mint, but possibly struck at Londinium.

Burnett:

Besides the mintmarks (QC & QL) in the exergue, there are 3 other ways to identify which mint struck a quinarius. Quinarii with the reverse legend LAETITIA AVG were only struck at the C mint; those with the reverse legend VIRTVS AVG and waves below the galley were struck at Londinium; but if there are no waves below the galley and the reverse legend is VIRTVS AVG then it was struck at the C mint.

Unfortunately, on this example the reverese legend and mintmark are not visble. However, the style of the galley suggests a coin with the reverse legend VIRTVS AVG. It seems also that there are waves below the galley (but I cannot be certain) which would mean that it was struck at London. Additionally galleys sailing right (with VIRTVS AVG reverse legend) are most commonly encountered from the London mint.
Ice
tributepenny.jpg
ancient imitation of a tribute penny22 views17mm, 3.59g
obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (blundered); laureate head right
rev: PONTIF MAXIM; Livia on throne right, scepter in right, branch in left hand
areich
AncientRomanEmpire-AR-denarius-Tiberius-026000.jpg
Ancient Rome (Imperial): silver denarius of Tiberius, ca. 14-37 AD: the biblical "Tribute Penny"19 viewslordmarcovan
Andrew_Johnson_Peace_Medal.jpg
Andrew Johnson, 1865 Indian Peace Medal41 viewsObv: ANDREW JOHNSON, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, bust of Andrew Johnson (17th President) facing right, 1865 below.

Rev: Columbia, holding an American flag, clasping hands with an Indian Chief, before a tomb surmounted by a bust of George Washington. At the feet of the Indian are the attributes of native life, and behind him is a buffalo hunt; at the feet of Columbia and behind her are the emblems of maritime and industrial progress.

Engraver: Anthony Paquet

Mint: Philadelphia, Date: 1865 (20th Century restrike), Bronze, Diameter: 76 mm
Matt Inglima
U3141F1OAZMMBUO.JPG
Anonymous AE Follis12 viewsAttributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)

Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings."
Mint: Constantinople

SB 1813 Class A2. AE 32, 14.12g
Belisarius
class-a2-basil-constantine-viii.jpg
Anonymous AE Follis Class A216 viewsByzantine Empire, Anonymous AE Follis Class A2, Basil II and Constantine VIII (976-1028 AD)


Attributed to Basil II and Constantine VIII (976-1028 AD)

Obverse: IC-XC, Bust of Christ holding book of gospels. EMMA NOVHL

Reverse: IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE on four lines, ornament below.

Reference: SB 1813

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics +photo
Gil-galad
coin402.jpg
Anonymous Class C Follis, attributed to Michael IV.23 viewsAnonymous Class C Follis, attributed to Michael IV.
Obverse: +EMMANOVHA. Christ Antiphonetes,
nimbate, standing facing / IC-XC-NI-KA divided
by jewelled cross. Coin #402
cars100
combined~0.jpg
ANONYMOUS Follis of Christ, time of Basil II / Constantine VIII, Byzantine Empire46 viewsANONYMOUS. Issues attributed to the period of
Constantine VIII, circa 1020-1030 AD. Æ Follis

OBV -Facing bust of nimbate Christ,
pellets in the arms of nimbus, wearing pallium and
colobium, holding the Gospels in both hands.

REV - + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE
-A- below.

32mm, 9,85g.
Flamur H
anon_A_3.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A28 viewsAE FOLLIS 31.5 mm 10.65 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
(no longer in collection)
laney
anon_a_2b.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A22 viewsAE FOLLIS 35 mm max. 11.69 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
anon_A_1.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A30 viewsAE FOLLIS 24X27 mm 6.56 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
2_class_a_a_8L.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A21 viewsAE FOLLIS 28 mm max. 9.68 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
class_A_anon.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A15 viewsAE FOLLIS 30.5mm max. 11.2 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
anon_class_I.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS I36 viewsAE FOLLIS 21.5 mm 2.03 g
O: BUST OF CHRIST FACING
R: LATIN CROSS WITH X AT CENTER, GLOBULE AND 2 PELLETS AT EACH EXTREMITY, FLORAL ORNAMENTATION IN LOWER FIELDS, CRESCENTS IN UPPER FIELDS
Attributed to Nicephorus III, 24 March 1078 - 4 April 1081 A.D.
laney
anon_follis_class_k_res.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS K28 viewsattributed to ALEXIUS I, Comnenus ( 1081-1118 )
Anonymous AE Follis Class K (overstruck or doublestruck) 26 mm; 8.21 g
O: Bust of Christ facing
R: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing
(Alexius I, 1081 - 1118 A.D.)
laney
Capture~6.PNG
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS. Class A3. Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII (976-1025).29 viewsObv: + ЄMMANOVHΛ / IC XC. Facing bust of Christ Emmanuel.
Rev: + IҺSЧS / XRISTЧS / ЬASILЄЧ / ЬASILЄ. Legend in four lines; above and below, lozenge between dashes.
References: SBCV 1818. Grierson ornaments 24.
Weight: 11.38 g.
Diameter: 29 mm.
1 commentsCanaan
Sydenham_519_19mm,_4_40_grams_113_B_C__Cr_79_1.jpg
Anonymous Wheel Cr.79/164 viewsCrawford 79/1 Wheel (209-8BC) Sicily?
Denarius Serratus
Ob: helmeted head of Roma right, behind X
Rev: Dioscuri riding right with lances, below wheel, in exergue ROMA; line border

BMCRR II 308 (217-197BC)

Sydenham 519 (113BC) Narbo

Iridescent highlights, 4.4gr.

Grueber: The wheel maybe a symbol of the moneyer rather than of a mint, although it does occur on aes grave of Campania and central Italy, and the early coins of Luceria and Tartentum. This is the earliest occurrence of the serratus on republican denarii and the only anonymous. Only serratus attributed to a mint other than Rome by Count de Salis.

Sydenham classifies this serratus with Porcia 8 at the colony of Narbo. The serrated edge may have been suggested by the Gaulish custom of using serrated rings or wheels as currency. Tacitus stated that the Gaulish tribes showed a marked preference for coins that were serrati bigatique (Germania 5) Sydenham wrote an article entitled “Origin of the Roman Serrati” NC 1935 209 ff.

Crawford writes that Mattingly’s view that serrati were Marian coins was demolished by Sydenham’s article, but his view that they were struck at non-Italian mints for Trans-alpine circulation does not hold either. Grueber’s view that they are probably merely decorative best remaining theory. Crawford Vol 2 p. 581

Tacitus Germania 5 pecuniam probant veterem et diu notam, serratos bigatosque. They approve the old and long known money, those that are serrated and biga depicting.
3 commentsPetrus Elmsley
class-g-follis-romanus-iv.jpg
Anonymous, Romanus IV (1068-1071 AD) AE Follis Class G19 viewsByzantine Empire, Anonymous AE Follis Class G

Attributed to Romanus IV (1068-1071 AD)

Obverse: IC-XC, Bust of Christ holding book of gospels within a border of dots.

Reverse: MP-QV, Bust of Mary with hands raised within a border of dots.

Reference: SB 1867

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics +photo
Gil-galad
0042-q0.jpg
Anonymus Denarius 124 viewsRRC 152/1c
189 - 180 b.c.
Long peaked visor.
With a lock of hair over the left shoulder of Roma and short, straight tails of the horses.
Other variants of RRC 152 are with monogram SX.Q. and attributed to moneyer Sextus Quintilius

Bought from Busso Peus Auction #392 in 2007 as RRC 53

2 commentsNorbert
AG-Antigonos_I_Monophthalmos-3.jpg
Antigonos I Monophthalmos. As Strategos of Asia, 320-306/5 BC, or king, 306/5-301 BC., AR Drachm 15 views4.30 grams
Obv.: Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin
Rev.:Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; ME monogram in left field, ivy leaf below throne.
Price 1560; ADM II Series XIX
This coin was purchased form the Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. (CNG)
NGC Ch AU; Strike 4/5; Surface 55

Normally such coins are listed as a posthumous issue of Alexander III which I have no interest in since I rather a coin of Alexander III that is in fact a lifetime issue. However CNG attributed this coin to the actual issuer something that has more meaning to me that simply a posthumous issue of Alexander III.
Richard M10
soter.jpg
Antiochos I Soter, AE 15, Apollo on omphalos19 viewsAntiochos I Soter - Apollo on omphalos. Antioch Mint, 280-261 BCE. Size and weight: 15mm, 3.86g. 
Obverse: Head of Antiochos I right with elderly features. 
Reverse: Nude Apollo seated left on omphalos, holding arrows in left hand, resting right hand on bow. Monograms to left and right. 
BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY 
Reference: Sear GCV 6878. A coin of the Seleukid kingdom with a black patina. On the reverse, Apollo is seated on the Omphalos, a mystical stone said to be at the navel of the world, in his famous shrine at Delphi. Apollo was famed for his skill with his silver bow and, among other attributes, was a god of archery. Ex MoremothPodiceps
antiochoshierax.jpg
Antiochos III24 viewsSOLD AS: Antiochos Hierax, AE 15, 241-228 BC. Head of Apollo, left with tripod to right. SNGIs 487.

I'm certain this is Antiochus III and that the dealer mis-attributed the coin.

Ex. The Time Machine
Molinari
22864_Antiochos_III,_223_-_187_B_C_,_Sardes,_Lydia.jpg
Antiochos III; AE11; Head of Apollo/ Elephant left12 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochos III, 223 - 187 B.C., Sardes, Lydia. Bronze AE 11, Houghton and Lorber 979, cf. SNG Spaer 613 ff., Newell WSM 1114, 1.468g, 10.8mm, 0o, obverse Apollo head right; reverse “BASILEWS ANTIOCOU”, Elephant left, anchor flukes up in left field. Newell attributed this type to Antioch. Houghton and Lorber assign it to Sardes based on control links. This coin was purchased in a group that appeared to be part of a hoard that included coins mostly from Ionia and Lydia, supporting the re-attribution to Sardes. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
AntiochosVII_tetradrachm_AR29-32_16_29g.jpg
Antiochos VII (in the name of) tetradrachm, c. 130 - 80 BC85 views29-32mm, 16.29g
obv: diademed head right
rev: Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate ∆Ι / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border
From FORVM Ancient coins: Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

CLICK PICTURE FOR A HIGHER-QUALITY VERSION
1 commentsareich
tombe.jpg
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Legionary tomb materials214 viewsTomb found on 9 Sept. 1874 in Chassenard (130 km from Lyon) by a ploughing farmer. The items are from a Gallic nobleman having served in the Roman army, with his decorations (Torque), armour (chain mail), belt, accessories (strigils, ...), and a distinguished attribute of his former role : 4 iron dies (2 for Tiberius, 2 unrecognized).Roma_Orbis
PIUS_BI__TETRA.png
ANTONINUS PIUS / SERAPIS , Alexandria BILLION TETRADRACHM40 viewsMINTED IN ALEXANDRIA , EGYPT FROM 138 - 161 AD
OBVERSE : ANTwNINO C CEBEUC CEB Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
REVERSE : Draped bust of Serapis right,modius on head. L K
References : SNG Cop 426 ( No, L K ?)

22.2 MM AND 13.15 GRAMS.

Alexandria ( of Egypt ) issued billon tetradrachms in large numbers between the reign of Augustus and the closing of the Alexandrian mint during the reign of Diocletian. These coins were no doubt mainly intended to pay the salaries of government officials, of the permanent garrison, and of the temporary troops stationed in Alexandria for purposes of war. They were probably also the form in which taxes in money were received, and were used for trade among the people within the city of Alexandria and other Graeco-Roman cities in Egypt. They also served the purpose of providing a subsidiary coinage with Greek legends which formed the vehicle for Roman imperial propaganda throughout Egypt. On the reverse of these coins were placed the Egyptian Hellenized deities, as an indication of the goodwill of the Roman emperors towards Egypt.
The greater part of the agricultural population of Egypt had scarcely any need for coins except to pay their taxes. The real currency and measure of value in the agricultural settlements was grain, wine or oil. The chief export of Egypt was grain, and this did not bring much money to the cultivators, for most of the grain was collected as tribute, not in trade, and they got nothing in return. Consequently, there is reason to suppose that considerably fewer coins circulated in Egypt generally than the region of Alexandria.
From the reign of Nero onwards, Egypt enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. Much trouble was caused by religious conflicts between the Greeks and the Jews, particularly in Alexandria, which after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD become the world centre of Jewish religion and culture. Under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Egypt, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous. From his reign onwards buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Under Marcus Aurelius, however, oppressive taxation led to a revolt (139 AD) of the native Egyptians, which was suppressed only after several years of fighting.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
antoninus_pius_202b.JPG
Antoninus Pius RIC III, 202b244 viewsAntoninus Pius 138-161
AR - Denar, 3.27g, 18.0mm
Rome AD 148-149
obv. IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP
head laureate r.
rev. TR POT XIIII COS IIII
Tranquillitas, draped, standing frontal, head r., holding rudder and corn-ears
in exergue: TRANQ
RIC III, 202b; C.825 (without PIVS, a slip); BMC 736
scarce; EF

TRANQUILLITAS, tranquillity, an abstraction personified for the first time on coins of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. She is shown with the attributes which seem to hint at an association with the grain supply, a rudder and ears of grain, sometimes a modius or a prow, therefore related to ANNONA and SECURITAS, meaning the peaceful security of the Roman Empire.
1 commentsJochen
gordianIII_SNGlev774~0.jpg
Aphrodite524 viewsAphrodite is the greek goddess of beauty and love. She is much older and more primordial than Venus. Venus was a more local goddess and came to Rome not before the 4th century. Aphrodite is melted together of indoeuropean-hellenistic, aegaean-anatolean and semitic-oriental elements. The origin of her name is unknown, perhaps it is related to the sem.*asthart. Her relation to Cyprus is referring to that origin. Possibly the name of the month April comes from etruscan *aprodita. So there could be an etruscan intermediation. She seems to be a conglomerate of old fertility goddesses. Her attributes dolphin and shell points to marine, dove, sparrow and and swane to caelestic and apple, rose and pomegranat to herbal sexual spheres. With Homer Aphrodíte replaces the dark weird deities as a light goddess of charm and gracefulness. She was called 'philommeides', the smiling, and she was the mistress of the Graces.
On the rev. of this coin we see Aphrodite as a later depiction as goddess of grace and seduction. She holds a mirror as the symbol of vanity. Her companions are two Erotes with torches to ignite love.
2 commentsJochen
00179.jpg
Arcadius (Coin #179)11 viewsUnattributed, AE4, 395-401 AD.
Obv: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG Laureate, cuirassed & draped bust right.
Rev: VIRTVS EXERCITI Emperor standing left, head right, holding spear and resting left hand on shield. Victory, standing beside him crowns him with a wreath.
Size: 15.5mm 2.34gm
MaynardGee
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Artabanos II., 10 - 38 AD45 viewsAE10, 1,0gr., 9,7mm;
Sellw. 63.25, Shore 578;
mint: Ekbatana
obv.: bare-headed, left; mustache, medium-long beard represented by 5 vertical lines, medium-long straight hair, 3-layer necklace, earring;
rev.: possibly amphora;

This coin is difficult to attribute because of the rev. It could either be an amphora jug or a 3/4 goddess with a chunky torso. Open to reassignment.
Schatz
hekatomnos_01.jpg
Asia Minor, Caria, Hekatomnos, Hemiobol, Lion left and facing12 viewsAsia Minor, Caria
AR Hemiobol
Attributed to Hekatomnos
1st half of 4th Century BC.
Obv. Forepart of lion left.
Rev. Forepart of lion facing.
Ag, 0.44g, 7.7mm
Ref.: Klein KM - p.63 - 506, Troxell CM - p.250 - 1c, SNG Tüb. 3310.
Ex Gitbud&Naumann
shanxi
Aspendos_Pamphylia_Greek_Wrestlers.jpg
Aspendos Pamphylia Greek Wrestlers71 viewsPamphylia, Aspendos mint, silver stater, 370 - 333 BC, 10.383g, 22.5mm, die axis 0o, SNG Cop 233, SNG Paris 87, SNG Von Aulock -, SGCV II 5398 var
OBV: Two wrestlers, the left one holds the wrist of his opponent with his right and right forearm with his left hand, ∆Α between their legs
REV: ΕΣΤΦΕ∆ΙΙΥΣ on left, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, triskeles on right with feet clockwise, no trace of incuse square

In 333 B.C., after Alexander took Perga peacefully, Aspendos sent envoys to offer surrender if he would not take the taxes and horses formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king.
Agreeing, Alexander went on to Side, leaving a garrison behind. When he learned they had failed to ratify the agreement their own evnvoys had proposed, Alexander marched to the city.
The Aspendians retreated to their acropolis and again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to harsh terms -
they would host a Macedonian garrison and pay 100 gold talents and 4.000 horses annually.

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins
4 commentsRomanorvm
Aspendos,_Pamphylia,.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 333 - 250 B.C.80 viewsWith the influence of the Olympics games.

Silver stater, Tekin Series 5, SNGvA 4578, SNG BnF 122, SNG Cop -, Arslan-Lightfoot -, gF, weight 9.107g, maximum diameter 24.8mm, die axis 0o, Aspendos mint, 330 - 250 B.C.; obverse two wrestlers, on left holds the right wrist of his opponent with his right hand and right forearm with his left hand, E between their legs, rounded edge; reverse EΣTΦE∆IY, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, O between legs, triskeles above club on right, round border of dots; scarce;

EX FORVM ANCIENT COIN SHOP

After Alexander took Perga peacefully, Aspendos sent envoys to offer surrender if he would not take the taxes and horses formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king. Agreeing, Alexander went on to Side, leaving a garrison behind. When he learned they had failed to ratify the agreement their own evnvoys had proposed, Alexander marched to the city. The Aspendians retreated to their acropolis and again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to harsh terms - they would host a Macedonian garrison and pay 100 gold talents and 4.000 horses annually.

This type is a late example and likely among the last of the wrestler and slinger staters. Struck during economic crisis, perhaps resulting from the harsh terms set by Alexander after their treachery, the flans are underweight, crudely cast and appear to be of debased silver. The wrestlers and slinger are carelessly depicted. It is not as attractive as earlier examples but it is certainly much scarcer.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.


*With my sincere thank , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
2 commentsSam
Aspendos,_Pamphylia,_333_-_250_B_C_.jpg
Aspendos, Pamphylia, 333 - 250 B.C.86 viewsAspendos, Pamphylia, 333 - 250 B.C.
With the influence of the Olympics games.

Silver stater, Tekin Series 5, SNGvA 4578, SNG BnF 122, SNG Cop -, Arslan-Lightfoot -, VF, weight 8.97 gr., maximum diameter 24.8mm, die axis 0o.
Aspendos mint . Struck between 330 - 250 B.C.
Obverse ; two wrestlers, on left holds the right wrist of his opponent with his right hand and right forearm with his left hand, E between their legs, rounded edge.
Reverse ; EΣTΦE∆IY, slinger, wearing short chiton, discharging sling to right, O between legs, triskeles above club on right, round border of dots; very rare.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection. NO. AGAP 3324
After Alexander the great took Perga peacefully, Aspendos sent envoys to offer surrender if he would not take the taxes and horses formerly paid as tribute to the Persian king. Agreeing, Alexander went on to Side, leaving a garrison behind. When he learned they had failed to ratify the agreement their own evnvoys had proposed, Alexander marched to the city. The Aspendians retreated to their acropolis and again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to harsh terms - they would host a Macedonian garrison and pay 100 gold talents and 4.000 horses annually.

This type is a late example and likely among the last of the wrestler and slinger staters. Struck during economic crisis, perhaps resulting from the harsh terms set by Alexander after their treachery, the flans are underweight, crudely cast and appear to be of debased silver. The wrestlers and slinger are carelessly depicted. It is not as attractive as earlier examples but it is certainly much scarcer.




1 commentsSam
ASP.jpg
Asper60 viewsByzantine silver, Trebizond Empire, John II, 1280-1297 AD, AR Asper

Obverse: St. Eugenius stanidng holding long cross

Reverse: John standing holding labarum and akakia

Diameter approx 23.5 mm,


EMPIRE of TREBIZOND. John II. 1280-1297. AR Asper (2.75 g, 7h). Imitative issue. St. Eugenius, nimbate, standing facing, holding long cross with cross bar on shaft / John standing facing, holding lily-headed sceptre and globus cruciger. Cf. Retowski 16 (same obverse die); cf. SB 2609. Good VF, typical weak strike. ($200)

Retowski's aspers of his group B, section 1 have several anomalous features that set them apart from the normal series. On this one example, the cross held by St. Eugenius has a lower cross bar, not seen on any other example. Most of the Group B, 1 specimens have the saint's name ending in IOV, rather than the IOC or IO seen on standard varieties. On the reverse the emperor's cloak is shown as a single cross-hatched panel lacking the normal decorated chlamys end tied around his waist. In addition, on this unique example the emperor holds a lily-headed sceptre, rather than one with a labarum as on every other type. The lily sceptre does not appear elsewhere in the Trebizond series, but does occasionally show as an attribute in the Bulgarian royal series. See a bronze of Mitso Asen (1256-1263), Radishev p. 93. This coin, and others in group B, 1 are probably imitative issues copying Trebizond types, and may have been struck anywhere along the north shore of the Black Sea, where the Tartar Khanates ruled, occasionally holding the Bulgarian kings as their vassals.

http://www.coinarchives.com/a/lotviewer.php?LotID=107443&AucID=121&Lot=1136
1 comments Alexios
ASSOS,_TROAS.jpg
ASSOS, TROAS AR Hemiobol11 viewsOBV: Veiled female head left
REV: Griffin right, A to left, in dotted linear square within incuse square
Struck at Assos, 420-380 BC
.3g, 6.88mm
BMC Lycia, Pamphlia, and Pisidia p. 21, #100, plate 6 #4 (attributed to Lycia). Cf. CNG e-auction 287, September 2012, lot 128
ex Saint Paul Antiques
Legatus
Cuneiform.jpg
Assyria: Išme-Dagān (1776-1736 BCE) Cuneiform Foundation Cone, Isin29 views1) ᵈiš-me-ᵈda-gan
2) nita-kala-ga
3) lugal-i-si-in.Ki-na
4) lugal-an-ub-da-límmu-ba-ke₄
5) u₄ nibru.Ki
6) uru-ki-ág-
7) den-1í1-1á-
8) gú-bi
9) mu-un-du₈
10) éren-bi kaskal-ta
11) ba-ra-an-zi-ga-a
12) bàd-gal-
13) ì-si-in.Ki-na
14) mu-un-dù
15) bàd-ba
16) ᵈiš-me-ᵈda-gan
17) ᵈen-líl-da á-an-gal
18) mu-bi-im

1-4) Išme-Dagān, mighty man, king of Isin, king of the four quarters,
5-11) when he cancelled the tribute of Nippur, the city beloved of the god Enlil, (and) relieved its men of military service,
12-14) he built the great wall of Isin.
15-18) The name of that wall is 'Išme-Dagan is a great ... beside the god Enlil.'
1 commentsQuant.Geek
erf_rp3040.jpg
Athena Panthea - Goddess of one-stop shopping490 viewsAttributes: the wings of Nike, the rudder of Tyche, the sistrum of Isis, the grain ears of Demeter, the cornucopia of nearly everybody, and her own shield.1 commentsflinn
454-404_BC_-_Athenian_Tetradrachm.jpg
Athenian Classical Tetradrachm -- 454-404 BC19 views16.99 g, 22 mm, 270°
Athens Mint
Silver Tetradrachm
Near VF, toned, test cut on reverse, minor deposits and light scratches.
Kroll 8; SNG Copenhagen 31

Obverse: Classical Bust of Athena.
Reverse: AOE; Owl, Crescent, and Olive Sprig Within Incuse Square.

Owls were the first widely used international coin. They popularized the practice of putting a head on the obverse of a coin and an animal on the reverse. Athena was goddess of both wisdom and warfare and was the patron goddess of Athens. The owl is Athena's attribute or mascot. According to mythology, Athena at times took the very form of her owl. The owl species depicted on Athenian Owls is the Athena Noctua, also called the Little Owl or Minerva Owl.
Hydro
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Athens Emergency Issue Plated Tetradrachm Circa 406-404 BC950 viewsQuote from David Sear:

"Athens was the greatest power in the Greek world throughout most of the 5th century BC. Its famous 'owl' coinage, principally of silver tetradrachms, possibly commenced in 510 BC on the occasion of the downfall of the tyrant Hippias. On these celebrated coins the helmeted head of the goddess Athena was accompanied by her attendant owl and the first three letters of the ethnic 'AQE'. Later, a diadem of olive leaves was added to Athena's helmet and a cresent moon was placed in the reverse field, though the precise chronological significance of these changes remains uncertain. To the intense chagrin of the Spartans Athens became the leader of the Greek states, including those of Ionia, in the epic struggle against the expansionist policies of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. The victories at Salamis (480 BC) and the Eurymedon (circa 467) clearly established the Athenian supremacy in the Aegean world. Initially, the Delian League (founded in 477) was an alliance of independent states sharing a common cause under the leadership of Athens. It gradually developed into an Athenian maritime empire with the member cities obliged to pay an annual tribute into the League's treasury on Delos. In 454 this treasury, amounting to 5,000 talents of silver, was actually removed to Athens and the vast wealth was openly employed for the aggrandizement of the city, now under the leadership of the great statesman Pericles. Vast building projecdts, such as the monumental edifices on the Acropolis, were financed in this way. From 431, however, Athens became embroiled in the protracted Peloponnesian War and increasingly the wealth of the state was dissipated in this futile cause. This attractive tetradrachm belongs to the exceptionally large ouput of Athenian 'owls' made during the second half of the 5th century. In contrast to the artistic development taking place at mints in other parts of the Mediterranean world, the late archaic style of the earlier 5th century became 'frozen' on these issues which represent the first truly imperial coinage of the Greek world. As Athens restricted or forbade the issue of independent currency at many of the cities within her sphere of influence the 'owls' came to circulate over an increasingly wide area. But this all came to an end with the defeat of Athens by Sparta in 404 BC and during the period immediately preceding this catastrophe the Athenians were reduced to the desperate expedient of issuing bronze tetradrachms and drachms with a thin surface coating of silver. This specimen is an excellent example of this emergency coinage the production of which drew contemporary comment from Aristophanes who, in his play Frogs (717ff), compares the decline in the quality of the leading citizens with the recent debasement of the Athenian coinage."
3 commentsGunner
00221q00.jpg
Attica, Athens. (Circa 454-449 BC)30 viewsAR Tetradrachm

25 mm, 17.20 g

This is a transitional Owl tetradrachm that bridges the early classical owls (minted from 478-454) with the subsequent mass classical (standardized) coinage, which really got going in the early 440s BC to finance Pericles' building projects like the Parthenon and then later the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) vs. Sparta. The 454 date is critical in that it was the year that Athens moved the treasury of the Delian league (confederation of Greek states led by Athens to defend against the Persian threat) from Delos to Athens.

This coin shares many attributes of Starr V early classical coinage (465-454 BC). On the obverse, the olive leaves on Athena's helmet connect to her diadem with small stems (which disappear in the mass coinage). In addition, the palmette leaves on Athena's helmet are smaller, less decorative, and more realistic. Finally, Athena is smiling (she starts to frown as the war with Sparta goes badly) and is more beautifully depicted than in the more hastily produced mass coinage.

On the reverse, like with the Starr V coins, the incuse is quite noticeable and the AOE (short for AOENAION, or "Of the Athenians") is written in smaller letters (they are much bigger in the mass coinage). Also, the owl is stouter, has smaller eyes, and his head is at an angle rather than parallel to the ground like all later issues.

The only difference between the Starr V owls and this example is in the owl's tail - in Starr V it ends with three small feathers. On this coin and all subsequent coinage the owl's tail ends in a single prong. Given all the other similarities to Starr V it is likely this coin was minted soon after the Treasury's move from Delos to Athens - perhaps 454/453.
2 commentsNathan P
VICAVG.jpg
Augustus52 viewsVIC - AVG
Victory standing left on base holding wreath and palm

COHOR PRAE PHIL
three standards

Philippi, Macedonia mint

27 B.C. - 14 A.D. or later

2.81g 17mm

SGIC 32, RPC 1651

Typically attributed to Octavian to commemorate the defeat of Cassius and Brutus at the battle of Philippi. It is also suggested it may be from the time of Claudius or Nero


Jay GT4
Augustus_249_barbaric_imitation.jpg
Augustus, RIC 249, barbaric imitation57 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AE - quadrans(?), 2.47g, 17mm
struck in the name of Germanus Indutilli L
Eastern Gaul, 'barbaric mint', c. AD 10
obv. Head of Germanus, diademed, r.
rev. GERMANVS / INDVTILLI L
Bull, butting l.
cf. RIC I, 249; AMC 459ff.; RPC 506 (for official issue!)
F+, interesting barbaric style

Germanus Indutilli Libertus seems to be a Trever, who was allowed to issue coins in Northern Gaul. Lit.: H.W.Doppler, Über die Germanus Indutilli L.-Prägung, in 'GNS 17, 1967, pp.90-94'.
Addition April 2014 (Francis Jarman): According to J.M.Doyen in "Archeologie urbaine a Reims 7 (2008)" attributes this coin to the Remi, minted in Durocortorum Remorum (Reims.
Jochen
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Aurelian Antoninianus Coin123 viewsThis type refers to Aurelian's defeat of Zenobia's Palmyrene Empire in the east. The captives wear Parthian caps and are typically attributed as Persians. The real captives were more likely Palmyreans. Typical of Roman propaganda, Zenobia's Sasanian supporters are depicted to glorify Aurelian's victory and mask that this was an internal revolt and civil war.

RS52117. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V 151, gVF, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, weight 4.178g, maximum diameter 24.1mm, die axis 180o, 270 - 275 A.D.; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVG, Sol advancing left, raising right hand, globe in left, two bound captives at feet, TXXT in exergue; near full circles strike, extensive silvering remaining
Colby S
Aurelian- Concordia Militum.jpg
Aurelian- Concordia Militum142 viewsAurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate and cuirassed bust right

IMP AVRELIANVS AVG

IMP: Imperator, leader of the army
AVRELIANVS: Aurelian
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse
CONCORD • MILIT, Accordance with the army

CONCORD • : Accordance
MILIT: Army

The dot in legend appears on the specimen illustrated by Göbl. Göbl 276a3 (2). He says "Moneta Comitatentis (later in Byzantium), 2nd. Emission"
He dates that to middle of 272. Göbl's concordance is -> Göbl (MiR 47) 276 = RIC 391 = Rohde 119, 120


Aurelian standing right, holding sceptre and clasping hand of Concordia standing left.

Domination: Bronze, size 23 mm

Mint: Cyzicus Γ (3.rd Officina), scarce or RIC V/1, 391; unattributed mint. It is Cohen 25. It could be RIC V/1, 342. I can't tell the difference! The description in RIC is the same for both types. Moneta Comitatensis, but it may be obsolete in any case.


Comment: In Estiot, Monnaies de l'Empire romain, vol.II, it is #987, pl.31; atelier Balkanique. The portrait on the obverse looks very strange. It is strange in the sense that there are very odd pictorial trends in the portraiture of Aurelian, but within the context it's not that unusual.
John Schou
leBon.jpg
Auxonne in France, 1424-1427 AD., Duchy of Burgundy, Philippe le Bon, Blanc aux écus, Poey d'Avant # 5735.97 viewsFrance, Duchy of Burgundy, Auxonne mint (?), Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, 1419-1467), struck 1424-1427 AD.,
AR blanc aux écus (26-28 mm / 3,27 g),
Obv.: + DVX : ET : COMES : BVRGVDIE , Ecus accolés de Bourgogne nouveau et Bourgogne ancien sous PhILIPVS.
Rev.: + SIT : NOMEN : DNI : BENEDICTVM , Croix longue entre un lis et un lion, au-dessus de PhILIPVS.
B., 1230 ; Dumas, 15-7-1 ; Poey d'Avant # 5735.

"PotatorII": "This coin is atributed to Auxonne mint because of the presence of a "secret dot" under the first letter (S) on reverse."

Rare

Imitation du blanc aux écus d'Henri VI d'Angleterre, frappé en France à partir de novembre 1422.

Philip the Good (French: Philippe le Bon), also Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (July 31, 1396 – June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty (the then Royal family of France). During his reign Burgundy reached the height of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck, and the capture of Joan of Arc. During his reign he alternated between English and French alliances in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position.
Born in Dijon, he was the son of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria-Straubing. On the 28 January 1405, he was named Count of Charolais in appanage of his father and probably on the same day he was engaged to Michele of Valois (1395–1422), daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. They were married in June of 1409.
Philip subsequently married Bonne of Artois (1393–1425), daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu, and also the widow of his uncle, Philip II, Count of Nevers, in Moulins-les-Engelbert on November 30, 1424. The latter is sometimes confused with Philip's biological aunt, also named Bonne (sister of John the Fearless, lived 1379 - 1399), in part due to the Papal Dispensation required for the marriage which made no distinction between a marital aunt and a biological aunt.
His third marriage, in Bruges on January 7, 1430 with Isabella of Portugal (1397 - December 17, 1471), daughter of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, produced three sons:
* Antoine (September 30, 1430, Brussels – February 5, 1432, Brussels), Count of Charolais
* Joseph (April 24, 1432 – aft. May 6, 1432), Count of Charolais
* Charles (1433–1477), Count of Charolais and Philip's successor as Duke, called "Charles the Bold" or "Charles the Rash"
Philip also had some eighteen illegitimate children, including Antoine, bastard of Burgundy, by twenty four documented mistresses [1]. Another, Philip of Burgundy (1464-1524), bishop of Utrecht, was a fine amateur artist, and the subject of a biography in 1529.
Philip became duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders, Artois and Franche Comté when his father was assassinated in 1419. Philip accused Charles, the Dauphin of France and Philip's brother-in-law of planning the murder of his father which had taken place during a meeting between the two at Montereau, and so he continued to prosecute the civil war between the Burgundians and Armagnacs. In 1420 Philip allied himself with Henry V of England under the Treaty of Troyes. In 1423 the alliance was strengthened by the marriage of his sister Anne to John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England.
In 1430 Philip's troops captured Joan of Arc at Compiègne and later handed her over to the English who orchestrated a heresy trial against her, conducted by pro-Burgundian clerics. Despite this action against Joan of Arc, Philip's alliance with England was broken in 1435 when Philip signed the Treaty of Arras (which completely revoked the Treaty of Troyes) and thus recognised Charles VII as king of France. Philip signed for a variety of reasons, one of which may have been a desire to be recognised as the Premier Duke in France. Philip then attacked Calais, but this alliance with Charles was broken in 1439, with Philip supporting the revolt of the French nobles the following year (an event known as the Praguerie) and sheltering the Dauphin Louis.
Philip generally was preoccupied with matters in his own territories and seldom was directly involved in the Hundred Years' War, although he did play a role during a number of periods such as the campaign against Compiegne during which his troops captured Joan of Arc. He incorporated Namur into Burgundian territory in 1429 (March 1, by purchase from John III, Marquis of Namur), Hainault and Holland, Frisia and Zealand in 1432 (with the defeat of Countess Jacqueline in the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars); inherited the duchy of Brabant and Limburg and the margrave of Antwerp in 1430 (on the death of his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol); and purchased Luxembourg in 1443 from Elisabeth of Bohemia, Duchess of Luxembourg. Philip also managed to ensure his illegitimate son, David, was elected Bishop of Utrecht in 1456. It is not surprising that in 1435, Philip began to style himself "Grand Duke of the West". In 1463 Philip returned some of his territory to Louis XI. That year he also created an Estates-General based on the French model. The first meeting of the Estates-General was to obtain a loan for a war against France and to ensure support for the succession of his son, Charles I, to his dominions. Philip died in Bruges in 1467.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
140.jpg
AVKTR(?) and ΠPY171 viewsBITHYNIA. Prusias (?). Domitian (?). Æ 26. A.D. 81-96 (?). Obv: Laureate head right; countermark (1) before face. Rev: Countermark (2). Note: .All coins noted by Howgego with these countermarks are from Domitian and are attributed to Prusias or Bithynia in Genere (which, in turn, may have been from Prusias also). CM(1): Monogram of AVKTP (?), in rectangular punch, 6 x 4 mm. Howgego 608 (8 pcs). CM(2): Monogram of ΠPY, in square punch, 7 mm. Howgego 630 (3 pcs). All coins countermarked with (1) are also countermarked with (2). Collection Automan.Automan
Tiberius_37.jpg
B272 views Tiberius AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV I 1763, Lugdunum
Date: 19 August, AD 14 – 16 March, AD 37
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head r.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated r., holding olive branch & long scepter; ornate legs to chair
Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.6 grams
* NOTE: chipped piece & metal adhesions from prior mounting of coin as jewelry
(Image of Tiberius courtesy of Bill Storage: Ara Pacis Museum, Rome)

"He was large and strong of frame, and of a stature above the average... He strode along with his neck stiff and bent forward, usually with a stern countenance and for the most part in silence, never or very rarely conversing with his companions... All of these mannerisms of his, which were disagreeable and signs of arrogance, were remarked by Augustus, who often tried to excuse them to the senate and people by declaring that they were natural failings, and not intentional." - Suetonius Life of Tiberius LXVIII

When Augustus died on August 19, AD 14, Tiberius was considered to be the logical successor. The issue, however, was that there had never been a transfer of power by succession, only through seizure of leadership by force. Although Tiberius superficially sought to preserve the idea of the emperor being “First Citizen” to appease the senate, it was abundantly clear who was in control of the empire. Tiberius made a clever move to sequester the support of the legions through a pay increase. The reverse of this coin depicts Livia seated. Being Tiberius’ mother, she campaigned relentlessly to place her son as the natural heir to the position of emperor. Once in control, Tiberius allowed her to keep the title of Augusta, granted to her by Augustus in his will, but refused her the honor of being recognized as “Mother of her Country” or that of lictor. This was an astute political move to limit Livia’s influence. In the long run Tiberius was unable to maintain the demeanor or tact that Augustus possessed, and was seen as a stiff and arrogant tyrant by many. Tiberius spent much of the latter part of his reign at his private retreat on the island of Capri. He fell ill in AD 37 and died March 16 at the age of 77 in his seaside villa at Misenum.
The denarius of Tiberius with Livia as Pax on the reverse is commonly known as the 'Tribute Penny,' the coin to which Jesus referred to when he was discussing paying taxes to the Romans, and said "render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mark 12:17 & Matthew 22:20-21). Although there are two other reverse types on denarii of Tiberius, they were only issued during the first two years of his reign, while the Pax reverse was employed throughout the remainder, making it the more likely coin referred to. The term 'penny' is from the AD 1611 King James translation of the Bible, and was adopted since the penny was the standard denomination of the time.
6 commentsNoah
B_059_Anonim_Follis,_SB_1812var,_(Basil_II__and_Constantine_VIII__cc989_AD),_A2,_F41,_SB-1812var_,_Q-001,_6h,_25-26,5mm,11,31g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1812var., AE-Follis, Class A2/F41type, (Basil II. and Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1104 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1812var., AE-Follis, Class A2/F41type, (Basil II. and Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1
Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.
averse: +EMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, ust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings".
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 10,30g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences., date: cc989 A.D., ref:SB 1813, Class A2/F41type,
Q-001
quadrans
B_059_Anonim-Follis,_SB_1813,_AE-Follis,_Class_A2,_(Constantine_VIII__(976-1025_A_D_)),SB-1818-p-350_Q-001,_0h,_28mm,_10_30g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1129 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1
Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.
averse: +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings".
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 10,30g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences., date: 976-1025 CE, ref:SB 1813, Class A2/F39type,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantine-IX-1042-1055_Anonim-Follis_Class-D_IC-XC_IS-XS_BASILE_BASIL_SB-1836-p-378_Q-001_6h_29-30mm_12,81g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1836, AE-Follis, Class D, (Constantine IX. (1042-1055 A.D.)),95 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1836, AE-Follis, Class D, (Constantine IX. (1042-1055 A.D.)),
Class D, attributed to joint reign of Constantine IX.
averse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: -+-IS-XS / bASILE/bASIL- in 3 lines, - crescent -.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 29-30mm, weight: 12,81g, axis: 6h,
mint: , date:, ref: SB-1836, p-378,
Q-001
quadrans
B_059_Imitation-Barbar_Anonim-Follis_SB--p-_Q-001,_6h,_24,5-26,5mm,_9,04g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation), 114 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation),
(Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.)
averse: +ЄMMΔ VOHΛI instead of +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings", all S are "revers" !!!
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24,5-26,6mm, weight: 9,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ancient (Barbar) Imitation., date: ??? A.D., ref: SB ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Baduila_DN_REX_B.jpg
Baduila - Ticinum - 2 or 2 1/2 nummi115 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). Æ 2 or 2½ Nummi (8 mm, 0.82 g), Ticinum. Obverse: bust right, [DN ANASTAS]IVS. Reverse: D N REX/B in two lines. Metlich 95b.

This type is believed to have been introduced after the one with Baduila's monogram. It was also introduced before the reopening of the mint in Rome by the Ostrogoths in 549/550. The Fontana Liri hoard contains coins of this type, but not the type with a lion on the reverse that is attributed to Rome (Metlich).

Ex. Gitbud & Naumann 2010
1 commentsJan (jbc)
Bactria,_Diodotos_I_posthumous_issue_Tetradrachm_.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Diodotos II, ca. 240-230 BC, AR Tetradrachm 13 viewsPosthumous diademed idealised head of Diodotos I right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔIOΔITOY (of King Diodotos). Zeus striding left, hurling thunderbolt in right hand, aegis over extended left arm; eagle standing at his feet.

Holt B2 (Holt B2 example 3 = this coin); Kritt B2; Bopearachchi 6A; SNG ANS 9, 87; Qunduz 8; HGC 12, 21. Struck ca. 230 BC at Mint "B" - Baktra.

(25 mm, 16.42 g, 6h).
CNG 778209; ex -CNG e-Auction 124, October 2005, 139 (incorrectly attributed as Holt B1); ex- Munz und Medaillen Fixed Price List 332 (1972).

The coin was struck shortly before Euthydemos overthrew Diodotos II. The idealised posthumous image of Diodotos I on the obverse was a statement of the legitimacy of the right of Diodotos II to the throne of Baktria, as the lineal successor to Diodotos I. This B2 issue is distinguished from the preceding B1 type by the absence of a wreath beneath the extended arm of Zeus on the reverse. Holt suggested that the removal of the wreath from coinage followed Diodotos II’s treaty with the Parthians. The wreath is believed to have been instituted as a celebration of Diodotos I victory over Arsaces in the previous decade and thus potentially perceived as an insult to the Parthians on consummation of the treaty.
n.igma
282.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides II, ca. 145-140 BC, AR Tetradrachm 28 viewsDiademed bust of Eukratides II r.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ EYKPATIΔOY Apollo standing l., arrow in his r. hand, in l. hand a bow resting on ground, monogram inner l. field.

Bopearachchi Series 3B; Mitchiner 173a (attributed to Eukratides I); SNG ANS 9, 625 (same dies); HGC 12, 162.

(31 mm, 16.62 g, 12h).

Harlan J. Berk Buy or Bid Sale 164 (Apr. 2009), Lot 251.
1 commentsn.igma
Zuz_Domitian.jpg
Bar Kokhba Revolt Zuz29 viewsJudaea, Bar Kokhba Revolt. Silver Zuz (3.22 g), 132-135 CE. Undated, attributed to year 3 (134/5 CE).
O: 'Simon' (Paleo-Hebrew) within wreath of thin branches wrapped around eight almonds, with a medallion at top and tendrils at bottom.
R: 'For the freedom of Jerusalem' (Paleo-Hebrew), fluted jug with handle on left; in right field, willow branch. Partial portrait of Domitian to left.
- Hendin 1418; Mildenberg 79 (O14/R51); TJC 283., ex S. Moussaieff Collection.
1 commentsNemonater
BCC_LR67_Zeno_Monogram.jpg
BCC LR678 viewsLate Roman
Zeno 474-491CE
Obv:Uncertain inscription [ ] C I [ ]
Diademed bust right, uncertain attributes.
RIC notes three obverse legends for the
968-975 series, including DN ZENOC
PF AVG, and others no doubt exist.
Letter forms vary, considerably.
Rev:Monogram of Zeno. (No. 7 var.)
Possible ref: RIC X 970v. Antioch?
AE 9.75mm 1.31gm. Axis:180
Surface find, Caesarea Maritima, 1976.
v-drome
ant_tessera.jpg
BCC Lt139 viewsLead Tessera
1st to 4th century CE
Obv: Ant
Rev: blank
8.0x8.5mm 0.87gm.
The ant, an attribute of Demeter,
is represented on at least five
gemstones found at Caesarea.
Hendler Collection #50, 56, and 132.
A.Hamburger #159, and 160.
v-drome
BCC_LT75_Standing_figure___Dolphin__tessera.jpg
BCC LT7515 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
1st to 4th Century CE?
Obv: Standing figure,
uncertain attributes, raised
arms?, winged?
Rev: Uncertain object,
perhaps dolphin?, mostly
off-flan. 11.5 x 10.5(measured
diagonally) x 1.25mm. thickness.
Weight: 0.96gm. Axis:0?
v-drome
augustus_.jpg
BCC rgp4329 viewsRoman Greek Provincial
Augustus? 27 BCE-14 CE
or Tiberius 14- 37 CE
Alexandria, Egypt
Obv: Σ?-E across field. (ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟC)
Head of Emperor right.
Rev: Uncertain inscription in
oak-wreath. (possibly LΔΙ =year 14)
15mm 2.67gm. Axis:0
This rare coin was attributed to Caesarea
Maritima by De Saulcy. Hill, BMC, rejected
this, declaring Alexandria more likely.
Ref: Kadman Caesarea, “Coins Excluded
from the Corpus” #VI.
v-drome
Bhaunagar.jpg
Bhaunagar: Anonymous (ca. 19th century) AR Rupee, Surat Mint (See KM#76 under French India)24 viewsUnder Krause, this is listed as a French Rupee that was struck at Surat. However, Surat was never under the French authority and hence that section is incorrect. Tentatively attributed to Bhaunagar.SpongeBob
GeorgeIIIJubileeB.JPG
BHM 0651. King George III enters the Fiftieth Year of his Reign, 1809.98 viewsObv. Draped of George III, wearing Order, left. KING GEORGE III . ASCENDED THE BRITISH THRONE . OCT . 25 1765. NATIONAL JUBILEE . OCT . 25 . 1809.
Rev. Angel seated upon clouds beneath rays amid attributes of Time, On ribbon above: 1760 GEORGE THE III REIGNS 1809, On ribbon below: LONG LIVE THE KING

White Metal 52mm. BHM 651

LordBest
GeorgeIIIJubileeD.JPG
BHM 0685. King George III, Golden Jubilee of his Reign, 1810.88 viewsObv. Cuirassed, draped bust of George III, bare head, right. GOD SAVE THE KING
Rev. GEO III COMPLETED THE FIFTIETH YEAR OF HIS REIGN OCTBOER 25 1810 Attributes of Time etc. entwined with a ribbon on which reads WE PRAISE THEE O GOD.

White Metal 42mm. BHM 685
LordBest
SoaneBankofEnglandTaylor106a.JPG
BHM 1662. 1834. Sir John Soane, Architect. Bank of England. Taylor 106a.102 viewsObv. Portrait head right JOHN SOANE Signed W WYON A B A MINT
Rev. Elevation of the "Tivoli Corner" of the Bank building A TRIBUTE OF RESPECT FROM THE BRITISH ARCHITECTS MDCCCXXXIV.

AE58.

A gold example of this medal was presented to Sir John Soane, one of Britains premiere architects, in 1834.
LordBest
robert_Taranto_2011-02-131.jpg
Billion Soldino 25 viewsObverse: + FRA DAN DVLO DVX Doge kneeling l., holding banner
Reverse: + S MARCVS VENTI Lion of St MArk l., holding banner
Mint: tentatively to mint of Glarentza
Date 1333-1364 CE
Malloy p. 370. 61, Cox, caparelli Hoard, I, 8-12
12mm


The Frankish states in Greece likely began minting sometime after 1255. Rather similar to french tournois and Venetian grossi as in the example above, and rather unlike the Byzantine types of Constantinople and Thessalonica, possibly they represent likely a coinage for the Franks who were living in the new Western capital of Morea after the fall of Constantinople in 1204. Though in the past these coins as above have been attributed to Robert of Taranto due to site finds, Malloy admits that Metcalf proposes that these imitation grossi are possibly Serbian or another Balkan power. Perhaps more evidence will be uncovered,
wileyc
sb2144.jpg
Billion trachy John III Type V, SB 214434 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ Emmanuel, beardless, and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: Full length figure of emperor on l, and St. Tryphon, beardless and nimbate, holding between them long shaft at the head of which lys, and the base of which small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitison, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds labarum on long shaft in r. hand. Saint wears short military tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds scepter with triple heard in l. hand.
Mint:Magnesia
Date: 1221-1254 CE
Sear 2144 attributed originally to Theodore II (type D (12.1-6) now John III Type V; pls XXXVI and LIV).
25mm, 3.26
wileyc
sear_2055~0.jpg
Billion trachy lg module Hendy Type A (of Thessalonica) SB 205533 viewsObverse: Christ bearded and nimbate, seated on backless hrone, holds Gospels in l. Asterisk above cushion on each side.
Reverse: Emperor, half length wearing stemma, divitision, collor and loros, holds scepter cruciger in r. and globus cruciger in l.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 1204-1224 Attributed to Boniface de Montferrat )1204-07) or Demetrius de Montferrat bu Malloy et al
Sear 2055 Hendy type A 28.1-4
23mm .95gm
wileyc
sear_2057.jpg
Billion trachy lg module clipped Hendy Type C (of Thessalonica) SB 205754 viewsObverse: Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and colobion, std on backless throne.
Reverse: SS Helena and Constantine stg, facing turned slightly Patriarchal cross inbetween, both wear stemma, divitison, collar andloros
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 1204-1224 Attributed to Boniface de Montferrat )1204-07) or Demetrius de Montferrat bu Malloy et al
Sear 2057 Hendy type C 28.9-10
17mm .78gm
wileyc
sear_2038.jpg
Billion trachy lg module clipped Hendy Type R SB 203848 viewsObverse: IC XC barred, Christ bearded and nimbate.
Reverse: MP OV barred, Full length figure of Virgan nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion
Mint Constantinople
Date: 1228-61 CE
Sear 2038 Hendy type R, 27.6-7, attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
16mm 1.08gm
wileyc
sear_2056.jpg
Billion trachy lg module Hendy Type B (of Thessalonica) SB 205665 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ Emmanuel , bearded nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion holds scroll in l.
Reverse: Emperor stg. wearing divitision and chlamys holds labarum in r. gl. cr. in l.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 1204-1224 Attributed to Boniface de Montferrat )1204-07) or Demetrius de Montferrat bu Malloy et al
Sear 2056 Hendy type B 28.5-8
26mm 2.06gm
wileyc
sear_2030.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, Hendy type J SB 203065 viewsObverse: Full lengthe figure of Archangel (Michael?) nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breast plate. in r. hand jewelled scepter and in l. gl cr.
Reverse: Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in right hand sword resting on shoulder and in l. gl cr.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1228-60 CE
Sear 2030 H. 26.7-9. Type J attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
21mm 1.47gm
wileyc
sear_2035.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type 0 SB 203573 viewsObverse: Christ stg on dias fr. hand raised in benediction
Reverse: Emperor wearing stemma, short military tunic, breastplate, sagion holding labarum in r. and gl cr. in l.
Mint: Constantinople
Date:1230- 1260 CE
Sear 2035 Hendy type O attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
18mm .51gm
wileyc
sear_2034.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type N SB 203446 viewsObverse: Virgin 3/4 orans, wearing tunic and maphorion
Reverse: Emperor and ST George, who holds patriarchal cross bewtween them on three steps, Emperor wears stemma, St wears tunic, breast plate and sagion, holdfs a sword point down.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230- 1260 CE
Sear 2034 Hendy type N attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
15mm 1.21gm
wileyc
2010-12-10_SB_2034.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type N SB 203441 viewsReverse: Emperor and ST George, who holds patriarchal cross bewtween them on three steps, Emperor wears stemma, St wears tunic, breast plate and sagion, holdfs a sword point down.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230- 1260 CE
Sear 2034 Hendy type N attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
16mm .62 gm
wileyc
sear_2036.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203635 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
15mm .84gm
wileyc
sbc2036_20mm_1_50g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203610 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
20mm 1.50gm
dhc
wileyc
sbc2036,21mm1_85g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 20368 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
21mm 1.85gm
dhc
wileyc
sbc2036_15mm__92g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203611 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
15mm .92gm
dhc
wileyc
sb203619mm114g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203624 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
19mm 1.14gm
wileyc
sb203622mm93g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203623 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
22mm .93gm
wileyc
sb203621mm201g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203621 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
21mm 2.01gm
wileyc
sb203620mm122g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203623 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
20mm 1.22gm
wileyc
sb203620mm216g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203620 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
20mm 2.16gm
wileyc
sb2036_16mm114g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203632 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
16mm 1.14gm
wileyc
sb2036_18mm114g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203613 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
18mm 1.14gm
wileyc
sb2036_21mm134g.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type P SB 203622 viewsObverse: IC XC barred in field, Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, hold scroll in l. hand.
Reverse: XX
AM
Full length figure of Archangel Michael nimbate, wearing short miltary tunic, breastplate, and sagion, holds in r. hand jewelled scepter and in L. Globus cruciger
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2036 H. 27.3-4 Type P attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
21mm 1.34gm
wileyc
sear_2038~0.jpg
Billion trachy lg module, clipped type R SB 203854 viewsObverse: Christ enthroned in Bendiction
Reverse: Virgin, full length, orans wearing tunic and maphorion
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1230-60 CE
Sear 2038 Hentype R attributed mostly to Baldwin de Courtenai by Malloy et al
20mm 2.42gm
wileyc
SB_2067.jpg
Billion Trachy Theodore I Commenus- Lascaria SB 2067 (clipped) 22 viewsObverse: IC XC barred, in field, Full length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and holding kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand
Reverse: Full-length figure of emperor on l., and St. Theodore bearded and nimbate, holding between them labarum on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divistsion, collar-peice and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand anexikakia, sword hangs point downward to l. of waist. Saint Theodore wears a short military tunic and breastplate; holds spear in l. hnad, resting over shoulder, sword hangs point downward to r. of waist.
Mint: Magnesia
Date: 1208-1222 CE
Sear 2067, DOC 7, type C
17/24mm, 1.34 gm
Notes: though currently (2010) attributed to Theodore I at this time Hendy in DOC comments that this coin might well be of John III
wileyc
nikaia_sept_severus_RecGen240cf.jpg
Bithynia, Nikaia, Septimius Severus, Rec.Gen. 240 cf.28 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 15, 1.50g, 14.60mm, 180°
obv. CEPTIMI - OC AVGO
Bust, cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. NIKAI - EWN
Snake erecting in 2 coils left
ref. Gen.Reg. I/3, 240(?)
about VF, dark green patina

There are several small coins with this rev. It is difficult to attribute them correctly.
Jochen
nikaia_sev_alex_Nymphe_unbekannt.jpg
Bithynia, Nikaia, Severus Alexander, Rec.Gen. 600 (rev. only), unpublished34 viewsSeverus Alexander, AD 222-235
AE 22, 6.87g
struck AD 222 (as Caesar)
obv. M AVR ALEZANDROC KAIC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. NIKAIE - WN
Nymph Nikaia, in long dress ans wearing mural crown, stg. l., holding patera(?) in l. hand and resting with r. hand on a thyrsos with a gnarled staff
ref.: Rec.Gen. 600, pl.82, 27 (rev. only), apparently unpublished
Very rare, F+
Thanks to archivum and Curtis Clay for their help to attribute this coin.

There is another type of Nikaia for Marcus Aurelius showing the nymph Nikaia empting a kantharos and with a tree behind entwined by a snake, Rec.Gen. 178, pl. 71.10.
Jochen
Bramsen 0310.JPG
Bramsen 0310. Légion d'Honneur, 1804.486 viewsObv. Laureate head of Napoleon ANDRIEU F below.
Rev.the cross of the order, in the centre of which the eagle of France stands on the fulmen of Jove, encircled with a flat ring, on which the motto, HONNEUR . ET . PATRIE. is impressed. A wreath of the branches of oak and laurel, with their fruit, surrounds the cross behind AUSPICE NEAPOLEONE GALLIA RENOVATA. Exergue, DENON DIRT. JALEY FT.

The engraving is of the highest quality. Some scratches on the obverse, not particularly visible in hand. The scratches on the portrait itself do not penetrate the patination to bare metal.

Laskey's Narrative:
Napoleon having been elected First Consul for life, immediately marked his great event by instituting the order of the Legion of Honour, which, by joining personal decoration with pecuniary stipend, answered two purposes, that of reconciling the people of France to the restoration of artificial rank in society, and also or securing to Napoleon himself the personal attachment of all those connected with the institution; in short it was a cheap, but efficacious mode of giving bribes to all ranks both in military and civil life, and therefore likely to be attended with the best consequences to his own popularity.


On this occasion, Joseph Bonaparte, the Consul's brother, was made the grand officer of the order.

It was also decreed that the legion should be composed of fifteen cohorts, and a council of administration; that each cohort should consist of seven grand officers, twenty commandants, thirty officers, and 350 legionaries; and that the First Consul should always be the chief of the legion, and of the council of administration. The members were to be military men, who had distinguished themselves in the war, or citizens, who, by their knowledge, talents, and virtues, had contributed to establish or defend the republic.



LordBest
HN_Italy_2497.jpg
Bruttium, Rhegion, 415-387 B.C., Drachm 28 views14mm, 3.89 grams
Reference: Sear 502; B.M.C.1.38
Lion's scalp facing.
PHΓINON, Laureate head of Apollo right, olive-sprig behind.

"Dionysios I, after concluding a peace with the Carthaginians, went about securing his power in the island of Sicily. His troops, however, rebelled against him and sought help from, among others, the city of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 14.8.2). In the ensuing campaigns, Dionyios I proceeded to enslave the citizens of Naxos and Katane, with whom the Rhegians shared a common history and identity (Diod. Sic. 14.40.1). This association was a source of anger and fear for the inhabitants of Rhegion. The Syracusan exiles living there also encouraged the Rhegians to go to war with Syracuse (Diod. Sic. 14.40.3). The overarching strategy of Dionysios I included extending his power into Italy by using Rhegion as a stepping stone to the rest of the peninsula. In 387 BC, after a siege that lasted eleven months, the Rhegians, on the brink of starvation, surrendered to Dionysus. Indeed, we are told that by the end of the siege, a medimnos of wheat cost about five minai (Diod. Sic. 14.111.2). Strabo remarks that, following Dionysios' capture of the city, the Syracusan “destroyed the illustrious city” (Strabo 6.1.6).

The next decade or so of the history of Rhegion is unclear, but sometime during his reign, Dionysios II, who succeeded his father in 367 BC, rebuilt the city, giving it the new name of Phoibia (Strabo 6.1.6). Herzfelder argues that this issue was struck by Dionysios II of Syracuse after he rebuilt the city, and dates it to the period that Dionysios II is thought to have lived in the city. Due to civil strife at Syracuse, Dionysios II was forced to garrison Region, but was ejected from the city by two of his rivals circa 351 BC (Diod. Sic. 16.45.9).

The coin types of Rhegion, founded as a colony of Chalcis, are related to its founding mythology. Some of the earliest tetradrachms of the city, from the mid-5th century BC, depict a lion’s head on the obverse, and a seated figure on the reverse. J.P. Six (in NC 1898, pp. 281-5) identified the figure as Iokastos, the oikistes (founder) of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 5.8.1; Callimachus fr. 202). Head (in HN), suggested Aristaios, son of Apollo. Iokastos was one of six sons of Aiolos, ruler of the Aeolian Islands. All of the sons of Aiolos secured their own realms in Italy and Sicily, with Iokastos taking the region around Rhegion. Aristaios, born in Libya, discovered the silphium plant, and was the patron of beekeepers (mentioned by Virgil), shepherds, vintners, and olive growers. He also protected Dionysos as a child, and was the lover of Eurydike. The replacement of the seated figure type with the head of Apollo circa 420 BC also suggests the figure could be Aristaios. An anecdote from the first-century BC geographer Strabo (6.1.6 and 6.1.9), which connects Rhegion’s founding to the orders of the Delphic Oracle and Apollo, as the reason for the advent of the new type could be simply serendipitous.

Different theories exist for the lion’s head on the coins of Rhegion. The lion’s head (or mask as it is sometimes described) first appeared on the coinage of Rhegion at the start of the reign of Anaxilas, in about 494 BC. E.S.G. Robinson, in his article “Rhegion, Zankle-Messana and the Samians” (JHS vol. 66, 1946) argues that the lion was a symbol of Apollo. He makes a comparison to the coinage of the nearby city of Kaulonia, “At Kaulonia Apollo’s animal was the deer; if at Rhegion it was the lion, the early appearance and persistence of that type is explained. The lion is a certain, though infrequent, associate of Apollo at all periods.” The link, he suggests, is that the lion was associated with the sun, as was Apollo himself.

The lion’s head could also relate to the exploits of Herakles, who had some significance for the city. The extant sources tell us that Herakles stopped at southern Italy near Rhegion on his return with the cattle of Geryon (Diod. Sic. 4.22.5). It was here that supposedly a bull broke away from the rest of the herd and swam to Sicily (Apollod. 2.5.10). Though but a passing reference in Apollodorus, it is very possible that the Rhegians venerated Herakles. Indeed, Herakles was a very important figure throughout the entire area. Dionysios of Halicarnassus says that “in many other places also in Italy [besides Rome] precincts are dedicated to this god [Herakles] and altars erected to him, both in cities and along highways; and one could scarcely find any place in Italy in which the god is not honoured” (I.40.6). As the skin of the Nemean Lion was one of the main attributes of Herakles, the lion’s head may refer to him through metonymic association."
1 commentsLeo
AlexiosJohnAsen.jpg
Bulgaria: Alexios and John Asen (ca. 1356-1366) Æ Trachy (CNG E-288, lot 599; Numismatik Naumann Auction 75, Lot 872)11 viewsObv: Two crowned figures standing facing, holding scepters; clouds above, three stars between
Rev: Brockage
Dim: 18mm, 2.01 g

Alexios and John Asen were scions of the Bulgarian royal house, who held a section of the Thracian coast as an independent fief during the turbulent reign of the Byzantine emperor John V. Site finds indicate these coins were struck in that area, and are not imperial Byzantine issues. Tentatively Attributed based on the following references:

Georganteli, E., A Palaiologan Trachion from the Dioikitiriou Square Excavation, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 20
Bendall, S., The Dioikitirion Square Trachion Reconsidered, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 21
Bendall, S., A Further Note on the ‘Dioikitirion Square’ Trachy, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 23

Note that Dumbarton Oaks considers this "token" uncertain: https://www.doaks.org/resources/coins/catalogue/BZC.1960.88.4989
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AlexiosJohnAsen(1).jpg
Bulgaria: Alexios and John Asen (ca. 1356-1366) Æ Trachy (CNG E-288, lot 599; Numismatik Naumann Auction 75, Lot 872)10 viewsObv: St. Demetrios, orans, standing between two short columns topped by stars
Rev: Two crowned figures standing facing, holding scepters; clouds above, three stars between
Dim: 19mm, 1.40 g

Alexios and John Asen were scions of the Bulgarian royal house, who held a section of the Thracian coast as an independent fief during the turbulent reign of the Byzantine emperor John V. Site finds indicate these coins were struck in that area, and are not imperial Byzantine issues. Tentatively Attributed based on the following references:

Georganteli, E., A Palaiologan Trachion from the Dioikitiriou Square Excavation, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 20
Bendall, S., The Dioikitirion Square Trachion Reconsidered, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 21
Bendall, S., A Further Note on the ‘Dioikitirion Square’ Trachy, Νομισματικα Ξρονικα 23

Note that Dumbarton Oaks considers this "token" uncertain: https://www.doaks.org/resources/coins/catalogue/BZC.1960.88.4989
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Unkown_Christ.jpg
Bulgaria: Roman (977-997) Æ Follis (Youroukova & Penchev, Plate XVI-155a,6; Raduchev & Zhekov, Page 38)28 viewsThis coin is tentatively attributed to Tsar Roman (977-997) of Bulgaria.

Obv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: Illegible Legend
SpongeBob
michael_iv_class_c_follis.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Anonymous Class C91 viewsAnonymous Follis Class C Michael IV Jesus Christ Class C Follis Attributed to Michael IV Obv: EMMANOVHA - Facing bust of Jesus Christ, holding nimbus cross and gospel Rev: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Short cross divides inscription into four equal parts Byzantine Empire AD 1034-1041 = D. Sear Byzantine Coinage and Their Values, p. 377, 1825 7.95 g. The coin was struck during the time the Byzantine emperor Michael IV (1034-1041 AD) and it is the basic denomination. Part of the coinage during this period was struck without the attribution of the emperor but as apotheos of the Christ. The obverse legend EMANUIL (in Greek) is from Hebrew (imanuil) meaning: The God is with us. The reverse is abbreviation IC = Isus = Jesus; XC = Hristo= Christ; NIKA = Nikator = Victor, Victorious. dpaul7
constantine viii.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - BASIL II & CONSTANTINE VIII184 viewsAnonymous follis class A2 Christ & 4 lines legend Attributed to the reign of Basil II & Constantine VIII. Obv.: Bust of Christ, facing, Wearing nimbus and holding book with Gospels. Rev.: Legend in four lines. Ref.: D. Sear. Byzantine coins and their values. p. 376 1813. 29 mm, 12.78 g. dpaul7
romanus.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - ROMANUS III132 viewsAnonymous follis class B Christ, attributed to Romanus III Obv.: Bust of Christ, facing, Wearing nimbus and holding book with Gospels. Rev.: Legend in four sections around cross standing on three steps. Ref.: D. Sear. Byzantine coins and their value. P. 377, 1823. 28 mm, 10.40 g.
1 commentsdpaul7
Constans_II_Gold_solidus.jpg
Byzantine Empire, Constans II, September 641 - 15 July 668 A.D.45 viewsGold solidus, DOC II-2 Heraclonas 1c (not in the coll., refs. T.), Hahn MIB 3a, Tolstoi 13, Sommer 12.1, SBCV 936, Wroth BMC -, Morrison BnF -; Ratto -, VF, well centered, double strike, some legend weak, light scratches and bumps, 8th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, weight 4.479g, maximum diameter 20.6mm, die axis 180o, Sep 641 - 642/644 A.D.; obverse d N CONSTANTINYS P P AVG, crowned and cuirassed beardless bust facing, small head, wearing chlamys, crown ornamented with cross on circlet, globus cruciger in right hand; reverse VICTORIA AVGY H, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in exergue.

FORVM / The Sam Mansourati Collection.

In 641, when Heraclius died, he was succeeded by his sons Constantine III and Heracleonas. When Constantine III died after only a few months, the Byzantine people suspected that Heracleonas had poisoned him. Heracleonas was deposed, mutilated and banished. Constans II, the son of Constantine III, became emperor. This type is attributed to Heraclonas in DOC II-2 and Morrison BnF but today it is accepted as the first issue of Constantine II.
5 commentsSam
Sear-1617.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Michael I Rhangabe (811-813) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1617; DOC III.7, attributed to Michael II)23 viewsObv: mIXAHL bASILЄ; Crowned facing bust, wearing loros, holding globus cruciger and scepter
Rev: Large M between X/X/X and N/N/N; cross above; A below
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Sear-1793.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class A1 Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1793) - Attributed to John I Tzimisces (969-976)44 viewsObv: +ЄMMA-NOVHΛ; IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels, with nimbus
Rev: +IҺSЧS / XRISTЧS / ЬASILЄЧ / ЬASILЄ in four lines
SpongeBob
Sear-1793(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class A1 Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1793) - Attributed to John I Tzimisces (969-976)23 viewsObv: +ЄMMA-NOVHΛ; IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels, with nimbus
Rev: +IҺSЧS / XRISTЧS / ЬASILЄЧ / ЬASILЄ in four lines
Quant.Geek
Sear-1793(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class A1 Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1793) - Attributed to John I Tzimisces (969-976)32 viewsObv: +ЄMMA-NOVHΛ; IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels, with nimbus
Rev: +IҺSЧS / XRISTЧS / ЬASILЄЧ / ЬASILЄ in four lines

Overstruck on a Constantinople mint follis of Constantine VII and Romanus I (SB 1760), itself overstruck on a Constantinople mint follis of Constantine VII and Zoe.
Quant.Geek
Sear-1793(3).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class A1 Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1793) - Attributed to John I Tzimisces (969-976)40 viewsObv: +ЄMMA-NOVHΛ; IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels, with nimbus
Rev: +IҺSЧS / XRISTЧS / ЬASILЄЧ / ЬASILЄ in four lines
Dim: 25 mm, 7.22 g, 5 h
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Sear-1793(4).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class A1 Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1793) - Attributed to John I Tzimisces (969-976)11 viewsObv: +ЄMMA-NOVHΛ; IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels, with nimbus
Rev: +IҺSЧS / XRISTЧS / ЬASILЄЧ / ЬASILЄ in four lines

Overstruck on a Constantinople mint follis of Constantine VII (SB 1761)
Quant.Geek
Sear-1813(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class A2-31 Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1813) - Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)17 viewsObv: +ЄMMA-NOVHΛ; IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels, with nimbus
Rev: +IҺSЧS / XRISTЧS / ЬASILЄЧ / ЬASILЄ in four lines
Quant.Geek
Sear-1813(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class A2-32 Follis, Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025), Constantinople (Sear 1813; Sommer-40.2.7)17 viewsObv: +ЄMMA-NOVHΛ; IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, 🞢 in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a 🞢 on the center of book
Rev: + IҺSЧS / XRISTЧS / ЬASILЄЧ / ЬASILЄ in four lines; above and below, 🞢 between two pellets
Quant.Geek
Sear-1813a.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class A2-40b Follis, Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025), Constantinople Mint (Sear-1813, Sommer-40.2.7)81 viewsObv: + EMMA NOVHΛ IC - XC.
Bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels, with nimbus. Cross on book of gospels; cross in each arm of gospel.

Rev: + IhSYS/ XRISTYS/ bASILEY/ bASILE.
Legend in four lines.
2 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-1813(5).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class A2-41 Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1813) - Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)16 viewsObv: +ЄMMA-NOVHΛ; IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels, with nimbus
Rev: +IҺSЧS / XRISTЧS / ЬASILЄЧ / ЬASILЄ in four lines
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Sear-1818.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class A3 Follis, Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII (ca. 1020-1028) Constantinople Mint (Sear-1818; DOC A2.16)32 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: + IҺSЧS / XRISTЧS / ЬASILЄЧ / ЬASILЄ in four lines; above and below, Λ between two pellets
SpongeBob
Sear-1823(6).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class B Follis, Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034 ), Constantinople (Sear-1823)20 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, ◻ in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book
Rev: IS-XS BAS-ILE BAS-ILE to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
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Sear-1823(5).JPG
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class B Follis, Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034 ), Constantinople (Sear-1823)28 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, ◻ in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book
Rev: IS-XS BAS-ILE BAS-ILE to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
Quant.Geek
Sear-1823(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class B Follis, Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034 ), Constantinople Mint (Sear-1823)28 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, square in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book
Rev: IS-XS BAS-ILE BAS-ILE to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
SpongeBob
Sear-1823.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class B Follis, Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034 ), Constantinople Mint (Sear-1823)37 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, square in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book
Rev: IS-XS BAS-ILE BAS-ILE to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
Size: 34.5mm
Wgt: 15.60g
SpongeBob
Sear-1823(3).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class B Follis, Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034 ), Constantinople Mint (Sear-1823)26 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, square in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book
Rev: IS-XS BAS-ILE BAS-ILE to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
SpongeBob
Sear-1823(4).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class B Follis, Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034 ), Constantinople Mint (Sear-1823)25 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, square in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book
Rev: IS-XS BAS-ILE BAS-ILE to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
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Sear-1823(7).JPG
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class B Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1823; DOC B.1-64) - Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034)30 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, square in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book
Rev: IS-XS ЬAS-ILЄ ЬAS-ILЄ to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
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Sear-1823(Countermarked).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class B Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1823; DOC B.1-64) - Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034)14 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, square in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book; Mardin Hoard Countermark #13 (عز)
Rev: IS-XS ЬAS-ILЄ ЬAS-ILЄ to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps; Unkown Countermark

Countermarked by Izz al-din Abu Bakr al-Dubaysi between 1146 and 1156 AD at the mint of al-Jazirah (obverse) and an unknown countermark that is not listed in The Mardin Hoard on the reverse.
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Zervos-B_2.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class B Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1823; DOC B.1-64; Zervos Type B-2) - Attributed to Romanus III (1028-1034)18 viewsObv: IC-XC to right and left of bust of Christ facing with nimbate cross behind head, dot in each limb of nimbus cross, holding book of gospels, a dot in center of dotted square on book
Rev: IS-XS ЬAS-ILЄ ЬAS-ILЄ to left and right above and below cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
Dim: 27 mm, 8.65 g

An extremely rare variation of the Anonymous Class B Follis. The arms of the nimbus cross has only dots and the book of Gospels has five dots. Using Orestes H. Zervos' classifications of the Class B folles, these types were found during the excavation of Corinth. See the following paper:

Zervos, Orestes H., The Substantive Varieties of Anonymous Folles of Class B, Nomismatika Khronika No. 22/2003
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Sear-1825.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class C Follis, Attributed to Michael IV (Sear-1825)36 viewsObv: EMMA NOVHL around, IC-XC to right and left of Christ, with nimbate cross behind head, three-quarter length figure standing, raising right hand, holding book of gospels in left
Rev: IC-XC/NI-KA in the angles of a jeweled cross with dot at each end
SpongeBob
Sear-1825(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class C Follis, Attributed to Michael IV (Sear-1825)23 viewsObv: EMMA NOVHL around, IC-XC to right and left of Christ, with nimbate cross behind head, three-quarter length figure standing, raising right hand, holding book of gospels in left
Rev: IC-XC/NI-KA in the angles of a jeweled cross with dot at each end
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Sear-1825(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class C Follis, Attributed to Michael IV (Sear-1825)26 viewsObv: EMMA NOVHL around, IC-XC to right and left of Christ, with nimbate cross behind head, three-quarter length figure standing, raising right hand, holding book of gospels in left
Rev: IC-XC/NI-KA in the angles of a jeweled cross with dot at each end
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Sear-1836.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class D Follis, Attributed to Constantine IX (1042-1055), (Sear-1836)96 viewsObv: IC - XC.
Christ seated facing on throne with back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and holding book of Gospels with both hands.
Rev: IS XS / bASILE / bASIL.
Legend in 3 lines.
2 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-1855.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class E Follis, Attributed to Constantine X (1059-1067) (Sear-1855)40 viewsObv: IC - XC.
Facing bust of Christ with beard and nimbus cruciger, wearing pallium and colobium, raising hand in benediction and holding Book of Gospels.
Rev: IS XS / bASILE / bASIL'.
Legend in 3 lines.
SpongeBob
Sear-1856.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class F Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1856; DOC III.2-F.2) - Attributed to Constantine X (1059-1067)22 viewsObv: IC-XC in field; Christ seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, raising right in benediction; gospels in left hand
Rev: IS XS / ЬASILЄ / ЬASIL in three lines; cross above and beneath
Dim: 25mm, 5.38g

Overstruck on an Anonymous Class C Follis
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Sear-1856(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class F Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1856; DOC III.2-F.3) - Attributed to Constantine X (1059-1067)14 viewsObv: IC-XC in field; Christ seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, raising right in benediction; gospels in left hand
Rev: IS XS / ЬASILЄ / ЬASIL in three lines; cross above and beneath

Overstruck on an Anonymous Class E Follis
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Sear-1856(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class F Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1856; DOC III.2-F.3) - Attributed to Constantine X (1059-1067)24 viewsObv: IC-XC in field; Christ seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, raising right in benediction; gospels in left hand
Rev: IS XS / ЬASILЄ / ЬASIL in three lines; cross above and beneath
Dim: 27mm, 9.22 g, 6h
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Sear-1867.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class G Follis, Attributed to Romanus IV36 viewsObv: IC-XC to left and right of bust of Christ, nimbate, facing, right hand raised, scroll in left, all within border of large dots
Rev: MP-QV to left and right of Mary, nimbate, hands raised, all inside border of large dots
SpongeBob
Sear-1880.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class H Follis, Attributed to Michael VII (1071-1078), Constantinople Mint (Sear-1880; DOC H.5)78 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: Patriarchal cross with globule and pellets at extremities, set on floral ornament
2 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-1889.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class I Follis, Attributed to Nicephorus III (Sear-1889, DOC I.1-64) 44 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: Latin cross with central X and globus and two pellets at the end of each extremity; crescents to upper left and right, floral scroll below
SpongeBob
Sear-1889_01.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class I Follis, Attributed to Nicephorus III (Sear-1889, DOC I.1-64) 42 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: Latin cross with central X and globus and two pellets at the end of each extremity; crescents to upper left and right, floral scroll below
SpongeBob
Sear-1889(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class I Follis, Attributed to Nicephorus III (Sear-1889, DOC I.1-64)22 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: Latin cross with central X and globus and two pellets at the end of each extremity; crescents to upper left and right, floral scroll below
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Sear-1889(3).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class I Follis, Attributed to Nicephorus III (Sear-1889, DOC I.1-64)15 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: Latin cross with central X and globus and two pellets at the end of each extremity; crescents to upper left and right, floral scroll below
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Sear-1889(4).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class I Follis, Attributed to Nicephorus III (Sear-1889, DOC I.1-64)14 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator
Rev: Latin cross with central X and globus and two pellets at the end of each extremity; crescents to upper left and right, floral scroll below
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Sear-1900.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class J Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear-1900; DOC J.1)30 viewsObv: Bust of Christ Pantocrator facing, bearded, with cross behind head, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left clasps book to breast. In upper angles of cross, two crescents. In field, IC - XC.
Rev: Latin cross with large pellets at each extremity. Beneath the cross, large crescent. To left and right, above and below, large pellets surrounded by small pellets.
SpongeBob
Sear-1900(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class J Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear-1900; DOC J.1)28 viewsObv: Bust of Christ Pantocrator facing, bearded, with cross behind head having on each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left clasps book to breast. In upper angles of cross, two crescents. In field, IC - XC.
Rev: Latin cross with large pellets at each extremity. Beneath the cross, large crescent. To left and right, above and below, large pellets surrounded by small pellets.
SpongeBob
Sear-1901(2).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear 1901; DOC K.1)9 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing, nimbate, wearing pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ
Dim: 27 mm, 5.42 g
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Sear-1901.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear 1901; DOC K.1)8 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing, nimbate, wearing pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ
Dim: 23 mm, 5.24 g
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Sear-1901(Countermarked).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear 1901; DOC K.1)12 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets; Mardin Hoard Countermark #10 (عدل‎) and #17 (لله)
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing, nimbate, wearing pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ
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Sear-1901A.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear-1901; DOC K.1)60 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets.
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing. She is nimbate and wears pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-1901(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Æ Anonymous Class K Follis, Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus (Sear-1901; DOC K.1)20 viewsObv: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, IC; to right, XC. Border of large pellets.
Rev: Three-quarter length figure of the Virgin orans facing. She is nimbate and wears pallium and maphorium; to left of nimbus, M; to right, Θ.
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Byzantine_Seal.jpg
Byzantine Lead Seal120 viewsAttributed to Anasias or Iulianos. Pending more informationSpongeBob
s-2015-a3.jpg
BYZANTINE, ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE Half? TETARTERON S-2015/7v DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3v DIANE VARIATION UNLISTED 136 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword AND shield behind left arm.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger with patriarchal cross.

Size 17.94mm

Weight 2.4gm

I purchased this as part of a collection from Europe. The coin was attributed by previous owner as S-2017 a much rarer coin to find. Upon reexamining the coin, it turned out it has a shield and hilt of sword that the left hand is holding. On the reverse the gl.cr. has a patriarchal cross, this is seen on his half Tetartera.

The weight is average for for a half Tetarteron and a bit low for a full Tetarteron . the die size is around 15mm, small for a Tetarteron and large for a half.

I associated it with SBCV-2015 but in truth it could be a variation SBCV-2017

AKA Alexius III Diane variation.


Simon
169.JPG
BYZANTINE, Andronicus II and Andronicus III 1282-1341 Thessalonica34 viewsObv: Bust of St. Demetrius Holding Spear and Shield
Rev: Emperors Holding Long Cross Between Them, Christ Above Them with Arms Outstretched
Sear 2465, PCPC 259
Some attribute this type to Andronicus II and Michael IX based on hoard and overstrike evidence.
Laetvs
Anonim-Follis_AE-28_SB-1818_Q-001_10_30g.jpg
Byzantine, Anonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), 406 viewsAnonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1
Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.
averse: +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings".
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 10,30g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences., date: 976-1025 CE, ref:SB 1813, Class A2/F39type,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
Imitation-Barbar_Anonim-Follis_SB--p-_Q-001_6h_24,5-26,5mm_9,04g-s.jpg
Byzantine, Anonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation), 189 viewsAnonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation),
(Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.)
averse: +ЄMMΔ VOHΛI instead of +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings", all S are "revers" !!!
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24,5-26,6mm, weight: 9,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ancient (Barbar) Imitation., date: ??? A.D., ref: SB ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Sear-1813.jpg
BYZANTINE, Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025). Æ Anonymous Class A2 Follis, (Sear-1813, Sommer-40.2.7)311 viewsObv: + EMMA NOVHΛ IC - XC.
Bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels, with nimbus. Cross on book of gospels; cross in each arm of gospel.

Rev: + IhSYS/ XRISTYS/ bASILEY/ bASILE.
Legend in four lines.

Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025).

Classified as Class A2-32 using Ornamentation Classification Table.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Nicephorus III.jpg
BYZANTINE, Nicephorus III, A.D.1078 - 1081114 viewsAnonymous AE Follis attributed to Nicephorus III, A.D.1078 - 1081.
Sear: 1889
Jericho
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CALABRIA, Tarentum186 viewsTaranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorian immigrants as the only Spartan colony, and its origin is peculiar: the founders were Partheniae, sons of unmarried Spartan women and perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta); these unions were decreed by the Spartans to increase the number of soldiers (only the citizens of Sparta could become soldiers) during the bloody Messenian Wars, but later they were nullified, and the sons were forced to leave. According to the legend Phalanthus, the Parthenian leader, went to Delphi to consult the oracle and received the puzzling answer that he should found a city where rain fell from a clear sky. After all attempts to capture a suitable place to found a colony failed, he became despondent, convinced that the oracle had told him something that was impossible, and was consoled by his wife. She laid his head in her lap and herself became disconsolate. When Phalanthus felt her tears splash onto his forehead he at last grasped the meaning of the oracle, for his wife's name meant clear sky. The harbour of Taranto in Apulia was nearby and he decided this must be the new home for the exiles. The Partheniae arrived and founded the city, naming it Taras after the son of the Greek sea god, Poseidon, and the local nymph Satyrion. A variation says Taras was founded in 707 BC by some Spartans, who, the sons of free women and enslaved fathers, were born during the Messenian War. According to other sources, Heracles founded the city. Another tradition indicates Taras himself as the founder of the city; the symbol of the Greek city (as well as of the modern city) is Taras riding a dolphin. Taranto increased its power, becoming a commercial power and a sovereign city of Magna Graecia, ruling over the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

In its beginning, Taranto was a monarchy, probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta; according to Herodotus (iii 136), around 492 BC king Aristophilides ruled over the city. The expansion of Taranto was limited to the coast because of the resistance of the populations of inner Apulia. In 472 BC, Taranto signed an alliance with Rhegion, to counter the Messapii, Peuceti, and Lucanians (see Iapygian-Tarentine Wars), but the joint armies of the Tarentines and Rhegines were defeated near Kailìa (modern Ceglie), in what Herodotus claims to be the greatest slaughter of Greeks in his knowledge, with 3,000 Reggians and uncountable Tarentines killed. In 466 BC, Taranto was again defeated by the Iapyges; according to Aristotle, who praises its government, there were so many aristocrats killed that the democratic party was able to get the power, to remove the monarchy, inaugurate a democracy, and expel the Pythagoreans. Like Sparta, Tarentum was an aristocratic republic, but became democratic when the ancient nobility dwindled.

However, the rise of the democratic party did not weaken the bonds of Taranto and her mother-city Sparta. In fact, Taranto supported the Peloponnesian side against Athens in the Peloponnesian War, refused anchorage and water to Athens in 415 BC, and even sent ships to help the Peloponnesians, after the Athenian disaster in Sicily. On the other side, Athens supported the Messapians, in order to counter Taranto's power.

In 432 BC, after several years of war, Taranto signed a peace treaty with the Greek colony of Thurii; both cities contributed to the foundation of the colony of Heraclea, which rapidly fell under Taranto's control. In 367 BC Carthage and the Etruscans signed a pact to counter Taranto's power in southern Italy.

Under the rule of its greatest statesman, strategist and army commander-in-chief, the philosopher and mathematician Archytas, Taranto reached its peak power and wealth; it was the most important city of the Magna Graecia, the main commercial port of southern Italy, it produced and exported goods to and from motherland Greece and it had the biggest army and the largest fleet in southern Italy. However, with the death of Archytas in 347 BC, the city started a slow, but ineluctable decline; the first sign of the city's decreased power was its inability to field an army, since the Tarentines preferred to use their large wealth to hire mercenaries, rather than leave their lucrative trades.

In 343 BC Taranto appealed for aid against the barbarians to its mother city Sparta, in the face of aggression by the Brutian League. In 342 BC, Archidamus III, king of Sparta, arrived in Italy with an army and a fleet to fight the Lucanians and their allies. In 338 BC, during the Battle of Manduria, the Spartan and Tarentine armies were defeated in front of the walls of Manduria (nowadays in province of Taranto), and Archidamus was killed.

In 333 BC, still troubled by their Italic neighbours, the Tarentines called the Epirotic king Alexander Molossus to fight the Bruttii, Samnites, and Lucanians, but he was later (331 BC) defeated and killed in the battle of Pandosia (near Cosenza). In 320 BC, a peace treaty was signed between Taranto and the Samnites. In 304 BC, Taranto was attacked by the Lucanians and asked for the help of Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse, king of Sicily. Agathocles arrived in southern Italy and took control of Bruttium (present-day Calabria), but was later called back to Syracuse. In 303 BC-302 BC Cleonymus of Sparta established an alliance with Taranto against the Lucanians, and fought against them.

Arnold J. Toynbee, a classical scholar who taught at Oxford and other prestigious English universities and who did original and definitive work on Sparta (e.g. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xxxiii 1913 p. 246-275) seemed to have some doubts about Tarentum (Taranto) being of Spartan origin.

In his book The Study of History vol. iii p. 52 he wrote: "...Tarentum, which claimed a Spartan origin; but, even if this claim was in accordance with historical fact..." The tentative phrasing seems to imply that the evidence is neither conclusive or even establishes a high degree of probability of the truth that Tarentum (Taranto) was a Spartan colony.

CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 302-281 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 2.91 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone / Owl standing right head facing, on olive branch; Vlasto 1058; SNG ANS 1312; HN Italy 1015. VF.

Ex-Cng eAuction 103 Lot 2 190/150
2 commentsecoli
Caligula_RIC_16.jpg
Caligula RIC 001680 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
Standing_Caliph_Amman.jpg
Caliphate of Abd al-Malik75 viewsAbd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685 – 705 CE) ‘Standing Caliph’ type, mint of Amman. Fals, weight 3.0g, diameter 17mm.

Obverse: Standing bearded figure wearing headdress and long robe, with right hand on hilt of sword. Inscription: abd allah abd al-malik amir al-mu’minin (“The servant of God, Abd al-Malik, commander of the faithful”). The last word of the legend is divided, with the letters minin appearing in the right field above the caliph’s shoulder.

Reverse: Object resembling Greek Φ, with globule on top and resting on four steps; large star in left field; mint designation, amman, in right field. Inscription: the shahada (“There is no God but God alone and Muhammad is God’s prophet.”)

This type is part of the last series of Umayyad coins to feature images, and is generally attributed to the years 692 – 696. From 697 the coinage becomes aniconic and purely epigraphic.

Reference: Foss p.78 and D.O. 107
Abu Galyon
14.jpg
Campania, Neapolis. (Circa 300 BC)20 viewsAR Didrachm

20 mm, 6.98 g

Obverse: Head of nymph r., wearing taenia, triple-pendant earring and necklace; four dolphins around (only the bottom two around the neck visible).

Reverse: Man-headed bull walking r., being crowned by Nike; ΘE below bull. [NE]OΠOΛI[TΩN] in exergue

Sambon 457; HNItaly 576; SNG ANS 336.

Neapolis was founded ca. 650 B.C. from Cumae (a nearby city and the first Greek colony on mainland Italy). Ancient tradition records that it had originally been named after the siren Parthenope, who had been washed ashore on the site after failing to capture Odysseus (Sil. Pun. 12.33-36). The early city, which was called Palae(o)polis, developed in the SW along the modern harbor area and included Pizzofalcone and Megaris (the Castel dell'Ovo), a small island in the harbor. Megaris itself may have been the site of a still older Rhodian trading colony (Strab. 14.2.10). Owing to the influx of Campanian immigrants, the town began to develop to the NE along a Hippodamian grid plan. This new extension was called Neapolis, while Palae(o)polis became a suburb. Incited to a war with Rome by the Greek elements, the city was captured in 326 B.C. by the proconsul Quintus Publilius Philo (Liv. 8.22.9), and the suburb ceased to exist. Neapolis then became a favored ally of the Romans; it repulsed Pyrrhos, contributed naval support during the First Punic War, and withstood the attacks of Hannibal.
Nathan P
0046.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.99 viewsType:
Ruler / Years: Constantine II 337 - 340 A.D.
Denomination: AE 3
Metal Type: Bronze
Size / Weight: 2.024g, 19.2mm

Orientation: 180 deg.

Condition:

Obverse Description: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left

Obverse Legend: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C

Reverse Description: campgate with four turrets and open gates, S - F at sides

Reverse Legend: VIRTVS CAESS

Exergue: TCONST

Attributes: RIC 322

Notes: Constantine II was the son of Constantine I, the eldest with his second wife, Fausta. He was born in Arles (which was renamed Constantia in his honor in 328, explaining the CON mintmarks for Arles) and was made Caesar before he was a year old in 316 A.D. Upon his father`s death, Constantine II inherited the Western part of the empire. After quarrelling with his brother Constans, he invaded his territory, only to be killed in an ambush near Aquileia. His coins often include "IVN" in the legend, an abbreviation for junior.

Scott M
campgate_costantino.jpg
Campgate: Costantino I, AE3, zecca Cyzicus, II officina38 viewsCostantino I, zecca di Cyzicus, II officina
AE, 3.222g, maximum diameter 18.3mm, 0°
D/ CONSTAN TINVS AVG, testa laureata a dx
R/ PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, campgate con due torrette, stella sopra, SMKB• in ex
RIC VII 34b, LRBC 1171
Nota: acquisita come "unattributed" e identificata sulla sezione italiana del Forum FAC
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (5 dicembre 2012, numero catalogo 168), ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2012)

paolo
1Teodosio_I.jpg
Campgate: Teodosio I, zecca di Tessalonica23 viewsTeodosio I (383-388 d.C.), zecca di Tessalonica
AE 4, 1.207g, 10.7mm, 180°, R2
D/ [DN Theodo-SIV PF] AVG, busto perlato, diademato e drappeggiato a dx
R/ [GLORIA REI]-PVBLIC[E], campgate con finestre, [TES] in ex.
RIC 62 var a
Nota: acquisita come "unattributed" e identificata sul Forum italiano del FAC
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (28 novembre 2012, numero catalogo 167); ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2012)
paolo
001~0.jpg
Cantharos201 viewsTHRACE. Maroneia. Julia Domna. Æ 23 (3 Assaria). A.D. 198-217. Obv: IOYΛIA-ΔOMNACEB. Draped bust right; countermark on bust, below chin. Rev: MAPΩN-EITΩN. Naked figure of Dionysus standing, facing left, holding bunch of grapes in right hand, arrows and drapery in left. Ref: BMC -; Moushmov 3966. 30°, 8.15 g. Very rare. Cm: Vase or cantharos (?) in circular punch, 5 mm, Howgego 485 (2 pcs). Maroneia was commonly associated with Dionysus, and one of Dionysus’ attributes was the cantharos, so the identification of the countermark as such is logical.Automan
comp.jpg
Cappadocia, Ariarathes VII ca 110-99 BC, AR Tetradrachm in the name of Antiochos VII (138-129 BC)205 viewsDiademed head of Antiochos VII right, fillet border / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ Athena standing half-left in crested helmet on short ground line, confronting Nike held in right hand and with left arm balancing a spear while holding a grounded shield decorated with a Gorgoneion head, primary controls ΔI (in ligature) over A in outer left field, secondary controls O-Λ in inner fields, laurel crown around.
Lorber and Houghton, NC 2006, ser. 1, iss. 3 (A1/P1 - coin 12 - this coin); HGC 9 1069; SC 2148; SMA 298; SNG Spaer 1873 (same obverse die).
Uncertain Cappadocian mint, probably Ariaratheia or Eusebeia-Tyana.
From the same obverse die as the first issue to bear a reverse legend in the name of Ariarthes VII with the same O-Λ mint controls (second coin in image).
(28 mm, 16.63 gm, 12h)
ex- Commerce (‘Antiochus VII Posthumous’ Hoard) 2005

This coin is from an extensive imitative series struck by the Cappadocian Kings during the internecine wars for power that plagued the region in the early first century BC. The exact reason as to why coinage imitating that of the deceased Seleukid Syrian ruler Antiochos VII was struck is unknown. However, the utilization of the coinage to pay Syrian mercenaries in familiar coin appears most likely. This coin is most significant in that the obverse die from which it was struck was used to strike a unique coin of similar iconography and with identical mint controls, bearing the name Ariarathes VII in the legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ APIAPAΘOY ΦIΛOMHTOPOΣ (image below). This die linkage (only recognized in 2002) confirmed that many of the Antiochos VII issues previously attributed to Syria were posthumous issues made by the Cappadocian Kings commencing with Ariathes VI and continuing through the reigns of Ariarathes VII – IX and Ariobazanes I.

Ariarathes VII who was responsible for the striking of this coin was a hapless pawn in the power struggle for control of Cappadocia between Mithradates VI of Pontus and Nikomedes III of Bithynia. Ariarathes VII was the product of the marriage of Mithradates older sister Laodike to Ariarathes VI. When the latter began to exhibit a degree of independence, Mithradates had him murdered, then appointed Laodike as regent for her young son Ariarathes VII. When Laodike married Nikomedes III of Bithynia, Mithradates expelled her and the Bithynian army from Cappadocia and placed his young nephew Ariarathes VII directly on the throne of Cappadocia. Later, when Ariarathes VII rejected Mithradates offer of his confidant Gordius as an advisor, Mithradates moved with his army to depose Ariarathes VII. The armies of Mithradates and Ariarathes met prepared for battle. At this point Mithradates called for an unarmed discussion meeting with his nephew Ariarathes in the middle ground of the battlefield. In front of the two assembled armies, Mithradates drew a concealed blade and slit his nephew’s throat, thus avoiding battle and clearing the way for a new puppet, his stepson, to be appointed as King Ariarathes VIII.
2 commentsLloyd T
caesarea_trajan_BMC110.jpg
Cappadocia, Caesarea, Trajan BMC 11039 viewsTrajan AD 98-117
AE 13, 0.97g
obv. AVT KAIC NER TRAI - ANOC CEB
Bust, laureate, r.
rev. DHMARX - EX VPAT B
laurel branch, bow and quiver
BMC 110
rare, VF+, green patina

The rev. resembles all attributes of Apollo
Jochen
Antiochus.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII70 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Houghton II 655 (same dies), SNG Spaer -, Newell SMA -, gVF, weight 16.157g, maximum diameter 28.8mm, die axis 0o, posthumous, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; obverse diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; reverse BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate DI / A left, A inner left, G inner right, Nike crowns epithet, laurel wreath border; scarce;

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

Ex Houghton collection
Ex Forum
1 commentsPhiloromaos
ant_pan.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochus VII77 viewsSilver tetradrachm, (Houghton II 642 ff., SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282), Weight 16.560g, Max. diameter 27.9mm, Obv. diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; Rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXDOY EYEPΠETOY, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate ΔI / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border. Toned, some light scratches.

EX. Forvm Ancient Coins

Background info, courtesy Forvm Ancient Coins;

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

4 commentsSteve E
Cappadocian Kingdom 1a img.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, Tetradrachm, In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII59 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:– Diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border.
Rev:– BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate DI / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border
c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C.
Ref:– Houghton II 642 (same dies), SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian king Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

Grey tone.

Ex-Forvm
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Cappadocian_Kingdom_1a_img.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, Tetradrachm, In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII18 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:– Diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border.
Rev:– BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate DI / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border
c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C.
Ref:– Houghton II 642 (same dies), SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian king Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

Grey tone.

Ex-Forvm

Updated image using new photography setup.
maridvnvm
antiochos_VII_tetra.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom/ In the name of Antiochos VII; tetradrachm; Nike20 viewsCappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton II 651 ff. (different dies), SNG Spaer -, Newell SMA -, VF, grainy, 15.919g, 29.4mm, 0o, posthumous, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; obverse diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; reverse “BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU”, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate “DI” / A left, ligate “OD” inner left, K inner right, Nike crowns epithet, laurel wreath border. Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII. Ex FORVMPodiceps
23712_cappadocia__antiochos_VII_tetratetradrachm,_Houghton_II_644.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom/ In the name of Antiochos VII; tetradrachm; Nike15 viewsCappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton II 644 (same dies), SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282, VF, toned, 16.302g, 29.6mm, 0o, obverse diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; reverse “BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU”, Athena standing left holding Nike, spear and shield, “DI” monogram above A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border. Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
045n.jpg
Capricorn193 viewsMACEDON. Philippi. Tiberius. Æ 18 (Semis). A.D. 14-37. Obv: TI.AVG. Bare head right; countermark on neck. Rev: Two colonists ploughing right with two oxen. Ref: BMC 89-91 (MYSIA. Parium). Axis: 360°. Weight: 4.27 g. CM: Capricorn, right (?), in circular punch, 4 mm. Howgego 301v (?). Note: The application of the capricorn, a standard type of Parium (Mysia) to which the host coin was traditionally attributed, may have indicated a devaluation of the coin. Collection Automan.Automan
068n.jpg
Capricorn200 viewsMACEDON. Philippi. Tiberius. Æ 17 (Semis). A.D. 14-37. Obv: TI.AVG. Bare head right; countermark on neck. Rev: Two colonists ploughing right with two oxen. Ref: BMC 89-91 (MYSIA. Parium). Axis: 360°. Weight: 4.91 g. CM: Capricorn right, in rectangular punch, 5 x 3-3.5 mm. Howgego 302 (2 pcs). Note: The application of the capricorn, a standard type of Parium (Mysia) to which the host coin was traditionally attributed, may have indicated a devaluation of the coin. Collection Automan.Automan
Caracalla.jpg
Caracalla as co-emperor (r. 198-217; elevated Caesar in 196; joint emperor with his father Septimius Severus from 198; with his brother Geta from 209) - AE 16 - Nicaea (Bithynia)40 viewsObv: ANTWNINON AYGOUSTON - Laureate head right
Rev: CEOVHPEIA NIKAIEΩN - Prize

Mint of Nicaea in Bithynia, struck between 198-211 AD
References: apparently unlisted for this unusual obverse legend (further discussion at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=56736.msg352630#msg352630)
Weight: 2.2 g
(Seller's picture)

(I would like to thank archivum, Pscipio and Jochen for helping me to attribute correctly this coin)
krazy
Caracalla,_Pautalia.jpg
Caracalla as co-emperor (r. 198-217; elevated Caesar in 196; joint emperor with his father Septimius Severus from 198; with his brother Geta from 209) - AE 20 - Pautalia (Thrace)40 viewsObv: AVTOK ANTWNIN - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla right, seen from behind
Rev: OYΛΠIAC ΠAYTAΛIAC - Dionysos with thyrsos pouring wine from kantharos

Mint of Pautalia in Thrace, struck between 198-202 AD
References: apparently unlisted with this obverse legend; the reverse is listed cf. Ruzicka 720 and cf. Varbanov (engl.) 5058 with different obv. legend: AVTOKRAT - ANTWNINOC
Weight: 4.49 g
(Seller's picture)

(I would like to thank Jochen for helping me to attribute correctly this coin)
krazy
caracalla_39.jpg
Caracalla RIC IV, 39(a) corr.129 viewsCaracalla, AD 198 - 217
AR - Denar, 3.67g, 19mm
Rome AD 199 - 201
obv. ANTONINVS - AVGVSTVS
bust draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate head r., youthful portrait
rev. RECTOR - ORBIS
Caracalla as Alexander the Great, naked, standing frontal, laureate head l.,
Chlamys over l. shoulder, wears sword in scabbard suspended from
belt over shoulder, holding globe r. and reversed spear l.
RIC IV, 39(a) corr.; C.542; BMC 165 corr.
EF, mint luster

The rev. is usually called Caracalla as Sol. But there are some oddities: The figure is not radiate but laureate, and a sword in a scubbard is hanging over the r. shoulder. That doesn't match the attributes of Sol. Curtis Clay: It is Caracalla as Alexander the Great! Probably it resembles the statue of Lysipp 'Alexander with spear'.

CHLAMYS, cloak, if the context suggest civilian rather than military use
PALUDAMENTUM, used to describe the cloak worn with a cuirass by emperors on late Roman coins. So the garment on the obv. is a paludament, that on the rev. a chlamys!
3 commentsJochen
Caracalla_Unattributed.jpg
Caracalla Unattributed Denarius22 viewsEX: Forvm Ancient Coins

17.8mm
2.099g
Romanorvm
CaraStobe14.JPG
Caracalla, AE 23 Diassaria55 viewsM AVRE ANTONI/NV
Bust laureate, right
NVMICIP ST/OBENVM (VM ligate)
Apollo standing, nude, head left, holding raven aloft and laurel branch behind.
Formerly attributed as Zeus standing, head left, holding eagle aloft and lightning behind but with a new specimen, recognized as Apollo
Gaebler AMNG 11, Pl. XXI/29
Josifovski 533-534, citing two specimens, dies V11, R12, in Vienna KHM 9914-9915.
This specimen shares the reverse die but has obverse V32, unlisted, 5.5 g.
Note the blundered reverse legend NVM instead of MVN and the N is reversed.
whitetd49
CaraStobe35.JPG
Caracalla, AE 23 Diassaria36 viewsM AVRE ANTONI/NV
Bust laureate, right
MVNICIP S/TOBENS
Nike advancing right with wreath and palm, stepping on globe
Obverse die (V32) attributed by Moushmov to Elagabalus
Reverse die unlisted
Kuzmanovic Collection -
whitetd49
CaraStobe59.JPG
Caracalla, AE 23 Diassaria36 viewsIMP C M . AVR . ANTONIN
Bust laureate, right
NVMICIP ST/OBENVM (VM ligate)
Apollo standing, nude, head left, holding raven aloft and laurel branch behind.
Formerly attributed as Zeus standing, head left, holding eagle aloft and lightning behind but with this new specimen, recognized as Apollo
Gaebler AMNG 11, Pl. XXI/29
Josifovski 533-534, citing two specimens, dies V11, R12, in Vienna KHM 9914-9915.
This specimen shares the reverse die but has obverse V9, unlisted die pair, 6.4 g.
Note the blundered reverse legend NVM instead of MVN and the N is reversed
whitetd49
AC-GAUL__Armorica-3~0.jpg
CELTIC, Issue in Northwest Gaul in the area of Armorica49 viewsc. 1st century BC.
D&T 2341
BI stater
5.94 gm
Obv.: Celticized male head right, with hair in spiral curls.
Rev.: Deconstructed biga right; ornaments around; boar right below.

Many Celtic tribes lived within this area including the Coriosolites to which this coin is attributed.
Richard M10
e_han_wu_zhu_bar_rev.jpg
CHINA - Eastern Han Dynasty82 viewsCHINA - Eastern Han Dynasty, Wu Zhu, attributed to Emperor Ling Di (168-189). Onv.: WU ZHU. Reverse: 4 rays emanating from hole corners. Reference: Hartill #10.3.dpaul7
CHINA_Southern_Dyn__Chen_WuZhu_cast_from_562AD.jpg
CHINA - Southern Dynasties Period, Chen Dynasty, Emperor Wen26 viewsCHINA - Southern Dynasties Period, Chen Dynasty, Emperor Wen (559-566 AD) AE Wu Zhu. Stout outer rim, no inner rim. Crossing lines of wu almost straight. 24.43 mm., 2.7 g. Attributed to Emperor Wen of the Southern Dynasties Chen Dynasty. Cast from 562. Reference: Hartill #10.22dpaul7
230 Cilicia Elaiussa Sebaste #2.jpg
Cilicia, Elaiussa Sebaste #2.35 viewsAE21, 1st century BC
Obverse: Laureate head of Zeus right
Reverse: ELA-IOUSSIWN, Nike left with wreath.
21mm, 5.7gm
Purchased as a Un-attributed U-pick from Forvm!
Jerome Holderman
ARM_Levon_IV_pogh_Nercessian_463.JPG
Cilician Armenia. Levon IV (1320-1342)38 viewsNercessian 463[?], Bedoukian 1997[?]

AE 18 mm pogh. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint.

Obv: + Լ[ԵՒՈՆ Թ]ԱԳԱՒՈՐ Հ [Levon Takavor Hayots = Levon King of the Armenians], king holding staff in right hand which extends over shoulder, cross in left hand, throne decorated with lions.

Rev: .+ [ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի] ՔԱՂԱ_ [Shineal I Kaghakn I Sis = Struck in the City of Sis], plain cross potent.

Due to the state of preservation, much of the legends are illegible and the obverse device lost, but from the size of the coin and the portions of the legends that are legible, it can be tentatively attributed.
Stkp
nikopolis_18_caracalla_HrHJ(2013)8_18_46_08+.jpg
CITY-GATE, Caracalla, Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. HrHJ (2013) 8.18.46.08 (plate coin)136 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
AE 28, 12.47g, 27.69mm, 210°
struck under governor Flavius Ulpianus
obv. AV.K.M.AVR. - ANTWNINOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed with scale armour, seen from rear, laureate, r.
rev. V FL OVLPIAN - NIKOPOLIT / PROC IC
Portal with 2 projecting side wings; thereupon a similar structured building whose central
part has 3 gate openings and a pediment with shield and spear; the side wings seem to
be open halls with 4 pillars each and pitched roof; through the open gate of the lower
building the front of a tetrastyle temple is visible.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1585, pl. III, 20 (for Severus)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3145
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2013) No. 8.18.46.8 (plate coin)
extremely rare, F/about VF, green somewhat patchy patina
Pedigree:
ex Gorny&Mosch (attributed to Severus in error!)

Pick: Nature and purpose of this building found on coins of Severus and Caracalla I don't know. It is hardly identical with the building on coins of Macrinus (pl. III, 21)
1 commentsJochen
Civil_Wars_RIC_121.jpg
Civil Wars of 68-69 Clasped Hands75 viewsCivil Wars of 68-69 AD AR denarius. 3.49 g. Minted by pro-Vitellian forces in Southern Gaul.
O: FIDES EXERCITVVM, two clasped hands.
R: FIDES PRAETORIANORVM, two clasped hands.
-BMC 65; Martin 7; RIC² 121 (Group IV) , Ex Jonathan P. Rosen, Ex Auktion Myers/Adams 7, New York 1974, Nr. 269.

The message of a unified fidelity, or loyalty, of the 'armies' (FIDES EXERCITVVM) and the praetorians (FIDES PRAETORIANORVM) would only be an effective propaganda tool if it was distributed among the praetorians.

David R Sear, writing in RCV, agrees with Kraay (Num. Chron 1949, pp 78.) that this interesting, anonymous civil war issue was produced on behalf of Vitellius, to be used as 'bribe money' to suborn the soldiers, as well as the Praetorian Guard, loyal to Otho in the capital. "In March 69 AD, Vitellian commander Fabius Valens entered Italy from Southern Gaul at the head of a small band of secret agents. Their mission was to infiltrate the capital, especially the ranks of the Praetorians, with the object of disseminating pro-Vitellian propaganda and dissociating the guards from their allegiance to Otho. These coins, struck in advance in Southern Gaul, would thus have played a vital role as 'bribe money'. Despite these covert activities, the Praetorians remained loyal to their Emperor, though all was to be for naught, as the following month, the invading army of Vitellius was victorious at the battle of Bedriacum, and Otho took his own life" - David R Sear

Here is the ad from the New york times December 1, 1974 page 208, advertising the Myers/Adams auction 7:
Several thousand foreign coin collectors are expected here next weekend for the biggest event on their winter calendar, the third annual New York International Numismatic Convention. The three‐day show will be held in the Albert Hall of the Americana Hotel, Seventh Avenue between 52d and 53rd Streets. It will open at 11 A.M. on Friday, with the exhibit area and the dealer bourse to remain open till 8 P.M. On Saturday the hours are 10 A.M. to 8 P.M., and on Sunday from 11 A.M. to 6 P.M. There will be an admission charge of 50 cents, for which a badge will be issued that will be good for all three days.
As its title indicates, the show emphasizes foreign numismatics to the point of almost excluding U.S. material. This holds true in exhibits as well as in the bourse and throughout the convention program. All of the exhibits are, again, invitational—noncompetitive—and were selected to assure representation of a wide range of international numismatic interests.

One symbol of the convention's success is that the, number of exhibitors and dealers has grown each year. This year there will be 67 bourse tables, roughly a quarter of them occupied by dealers from Europe and Canada; the remainder will be taken by leading U.S. dealers who have established reputations as specialists in ancient and foreign coins.
The convention will have two auctions, both described in some detail in this column a couple of weeks ago. The first, a “prologue” to the convention, will he the Myers/ Adams auction of ancient Greek and Roman coins at 7 P.M. on Thursday. The second, a two‐session sale of foreign coins and paper money, will be conducted by Henry Christensen, Inc., at 7 P.M. on Friday and 1:30 P.M. on Saturday.
3 commentsNemonater
A1-001.JPG
Class = A1 [001]196 views7.46 grams
27.2 mm
Attributed to JOHN I, TZIMISCES (969-976) SEAR 1793
Overstruck on a follis of Constantine VII, Sear 1761
1 commentscmcdon0923
A1-002.JPG
Class = A1 [002]46 views6.69 grams
26.0 mm
Attributed to JOHN I, TZIMISCES (969-976) SEAR 1793
Overstruck on a follis of Nicepheros II, S-1782 (?)
cmcdon0923
A1-003.JPG
Class = A1 [003]40 views6.8 grams
23.0 mm
Attributed to JOHN I, TZIMISCES (969-976) SEAR 1793
Overstruck on a follis of Nicepheros II, either S-1782 or 1783
cmcdon0923
A1-004.jpg
Class = A1 [004]34 views6.26 grams
24.9 mm
Attributed to JOHN I, TZIMISCES (969-976) SEAR 1793
Overstruck on a follis of Nicepheros II, either S-1782 or 1783
cmcdon0923
A1-005.JPG
Class = A1 [005]16 views4.72 grams
21.0 mm
Attributed to JOHN I, TZIMISCES (969-976) SEAR 1793
no visible traces of overstriking
cmcdon0923
A2-001.jpg
Class = A2 [001]67 views16.01 grams
35.65 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: 6
1 commentscmcdon0923
A2-003.JPG
Class = A2 [003]29 views19.26 grams
33.0 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: 14
flip over double strike; traces of reverse legend obscure Christ's face
cmcdon0923
A3_002.JPG
Class = A3 [001]50 views8.88 grams
26.48 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: 24a
"Manus Dei" die break above head
cmcdon0923
A3_003.JPG
Class = A3 [002]30 views8.88 grams
24.9 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: 24
cmcdon0923
A3_004.JPG
Class = A3 [003]38 views8.46 grams
27.48 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: 24
cmcdon0923
A3_001.JPG
Class = A3 [004]26 views16.0 grams
26.87 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: 41
cmcdon0923
A3_005.JPG
Class = A3 [005]25 views11.53 grams
29.0 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: 41 (?)
cmcdon0923
A3_006.JPG
Class = A3 [006]22 views9.16 grams
28 x 25 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: 32
cmcdon0923
A3_008.JPG
Class = A3 [008]22 views14.42 grams
30.73 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: 40
cmcdon0923
A3_009.JPG
Class = A3 [009]26 views10.34 grams
29.5 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: 45
cmcdon0923
A3_010.jpg
Class = A3 [010]19 views6.57 grams
24.9 mm
Attributed to Basil II & Constantine VII (976-1025)
DOC: poss. 22 or 29 (ornamentation on Bible indistinct)
cmcdon0923
B_001.JPG
Class = B [001]31 views5.34 grams
28.44 mm
Attributed to ROMANUS III ARGYRUS (1028-1034)
SEAR 1823
cmcdon0923
B_002-over-A.JPG
Class = B [002]44 views12.62 grams
29.68 mm
Attributed to ROMANUS III ARGYRUS (1028-1034)
SEAR 1823
overstruck on a Class A follis
1 commentscmcdon0923
B_003.JPG
Class = B [003]24 views12.01 grams
31.55 mm
Attributed to ROMANUS III ARGYRUS (1028-1034)
SEAR 1823
traces of undertype at bottom of revese
cmcdon0923
B_005.JPG
Class = B [004]28 views10.95 grams
30.93 mm
Attributed to ROMANUS III ARGYRUS (1028-1034)
SEAR 1823
overstruck, undertype visible on both sides
cmcdon0923
B_004.JPG
Class = B [005]38 views11.66 grams
28.5 mm
Attributed to ROMANUS III ARGYRUS (1028-1034)
SEAR 1823
cmcdon0923
B_006 w-ctsp.JPG
Class = B [006]18 views6.09 grams
22.4 mm
Attributed to ROMANUS III ARGYRUS (1028-1034)
SEAR 1823
"Mardin" type 16var counterstamp
cmcdon0923
B_007.JPG
Class = B [007]13 views10.85 grams
31.0 mm
Attributed to ROMANUS III ARGYRUS (1028-1034)
SEAR 1823
Overstruck on a class A follis, undertype visible on both sides
cmcdon0923
B_008.JPG
Class = B [008]28 views6.23 grams
26.4 mm
Attributed to ROMANUS III ARGYRUS (1028-1034)
SEAR 1823
Double struck obverse, and overstruck on a class A follis, undertype legend visible on reverse
cmcdon0923
C_001-over-B.JPG
Class = C [001]20 views7.04 grams
29.4 mm
Attributed to MICHAEL IV (1034-1041)
SEAR 1825
overstruck on a Class B follis
cmcdon0923
C_002.jpg
Class = C [002]34 views8.58 grams
28.67 mm
Attributed to MICHAEL IV (1034-1041)
SEAR 1825
overstruck on a Class B follis
cmcdon0923
C [030].jpg
Class = C [003]29 views10.93 grams
31.3 mm
Attributed to MICHAEL IV (1034-1041)
SEAR 1825
cmcdon0923
C [040].JPG
Class = C [004]27 views9.28 grams
30.6 mm
Attributed to MICHAEL IV (1034-1041)
SEAR 1825
cmcdon0923
C [050].JPG
Class = C [005]31 views13.53 grams
32.8 mm
Attributed to MICHAEL IV (1034-1041)
SEAR 1825
cmcdon0923
C [060].JPG
Class = C [006]22 views7.88 grams
29.1 mm
Attributed to MICHAEL IV (1034-1041)
SEAR 1825
cmcdon0923
C_007.JPG
Class = C [007]21 views11.91 grams
32.47 mm
Attributed to MICHAEL IV (1034-1041)
SEAR 1825
overstruck / doublestruck
cmcdon0923
C_008.JPG
Class = C [008]25 views7.20 grams
27.3 mm
Attributed to MICHAEL IV (1034-1041)
SEAR 1825
overstruck on a Class B follis
1 commentscmcdon0923
D_002.JPG
Class = D [001]22 views6.18 grams
28.24 mm
Attributed to CONSTANTINE IX (1041-1042)
SEAR 1836
traces of Class C undertype on reverse
cmcdon0923
D_001.JPG
Class = D [002]19 views8.14 grams
27.45 mm
Attributed to CONSTANTINE IX (1041-1042)
SEAR 1836
cmcdon0923
E_001.JPG
Class = E [001]27 views6.12 grams
26.0 mm
Attributed to CONSTANTINE X (1059-1067)
SEAR 1855
cmcdon0923
E_002.JPG
Class = E [002]20 views10.81 grams
27.3 mm
Attributed to CONSTANTINE X (1059-1067)
SEAR 1855
cmcdon0923
E_003.JPG
Class = E [003]20 views5.64 grams
26.0 mm
Attributed to CONSTANTINE X (1059-1067)
SEAR 1855
cmcdon0923
E_004.JPG
Class = E [004]22 views5.99 grams
25.22 mm
Attributed to CONSTANTINE X (1059-1067)
SEAR 1855
cmcdon0923
E_005.JPG
Class = E [005]41 views4.02 grams
25.49 mm
Attributed to CONSTANTINE X (1059-1067)
SEAR 1855
2 commentscmcdon0923