Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "Titus,"
TITOas01D+R.jpg
20 viewsTitus - AE as.Rugser
TITOas02D+R.jpg
29 viewsTitus - AE as.Rugser
TITOas03D+R.jpg
25 viewsTitus - AE as.Rugser
TITOas04D+R.jpg
31 viewsTitus - AE as.1 commentsRugser
TITOas05D+R.jpg
15 viewsTitus - AE as.Rugser
TITOas06D+R.jpg
17 viewsTitus - AE as.Rugser
Titodp01C00DaR.jpg
24 viewsTitus - DupondiusRugser
TITOq1D+R.jpg
27 viewsTitus - quadransRugser
Titoqd02C252DaR.jpg
28 viewsTitus - quadrans
D/ IMP T VESP AVG COS VIII - Modius -
R/ SC
Cohen 252 , AD 80
Rugser
titus1~0.jpg
30 viewssalem
DenLTiturioSabRatto.jpg
28 viewsDenarius - 89 BC - Mint of Rome
L. TITVRIVS SABINVS - Gens Tituria
Obv.: Head of Titus Tatius right; SABIN behind, palm before
Rev.: Two Roman soldiers, each carrying a woman; L. TITVRI in exergue.
Gs. 4 mm. 17x18,9
Cr344/1b, Sear RCV 249, Grueber 2325.



Maxentius
Titus~0.jpg
46 views1 commentsspikbjorn
Titus.jpg
105 viewsIMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM Laur head of Titvs r.Rev.TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII PP Dolphin entwined around anchor. RIC 26(a)(Rome ad 80) weight 3,20 gr3 commentsspikbjorn
britannicus01.jpg
45 viewsAE sestertius. Struck under Claudius, circa 50-54 AD, uncertain eastern provincial mint located in the modern-day Balkans.
Obv : TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS, draped bust left.
Rev : - No legend, Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield, SC in fields. 35mm, 19.4g. Extremely Rare.

Ref : BMCRE 226
Cohen 2
RCV 1908, valued at $32,000 in Fine, which is a few multiples greater than any other sestertius issued during the several centuries the denomination was in use.
A large number of the surviving examples of this series (one may even suggest a majority of them), due to their rarity, have been subjected to modern alteration techniques such as smoothing, tooling, and repatination. As such, it's actually pleasant to see a bit of field roughness and a 'plain brown' patina of old copper on this example, evidence that it is just as ugly as it was the day it was last used in circulation back in Ancient Rome.
Britannicus, originally known as Germanicus after Claudius' older brother, was the emperor's original intended heir and natural son. Machinations by Agrippina II eventually saw Britannicus supplanted by her own son Nero, (by Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus) who took the throne upon Claudius' suspicious death. Britannicus himself died a few years later, reportedly poisoned by his step-brother. The future emperor Titus and Britannicus were close friends, and Titus became quite ill and nearly died after eating from the same poisoned dish that killed Britannicus.
R. Smits, Numismatist for Numismall
Titus_Antioch_-_Gemini_X_Lot_758.jpg
69 viewsAR denarius (3.02 gm).

T CAES [IMP VESP] PON TR POT, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / NEP RED (N retrograde), Neptune standing left, right foot on globe, with acrostolium and sceptre. Antioch mint, struck AD 72-73.

RIC II.1, 1561 (see note 81); BMCRE II, 516; RSC II, 122; RPC II, 1933.

From the Harry Sneh collection.

6 commentssocalcoins
Titus_Ar_denarius_carpricorn.JPG
31 views1 commentsAntonivs Protti
titus_ric_II_122b.jpg
20 viewsTITUS
AE As. 80-81 A.D.
28mm, 10.8 grams

OBV: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, laureate head left
REV: AETERNIT AVG, Aeternitas standing right, foot on globe, holding scepter &cornucopiae.
S-C across fields. Rome Mint
RIC- II -122b
ziggy9
titus_elephqnt_denarius.jpg
53 viewsTitus denarius

Ex: Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH; Auction 73, lot 598, 5/17/2004
5 commentspaul1888
63430q00.jpg
10 Vespasian and Titus29 viewsVespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Antioch, Syria

Silver tetradrachm, Prieur 113, McAlee 336, RPC II 1947, Wruck 86, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.89g, maximum diameter 24.3mm, die axis 0o, 70 - 71 A.D.; obverse ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤ ΚΑΙΣΑ ΟΥΕΣΠΑΣΙΑΝΟΥ, laureate bust right; reverse ETOYC Γ IEPOY (Holy Year 3), eagle standing left on club, wings spread, palm frond left; ex CNG auction 149, lot 286; ex Garth R. Drewry Collection, ex Harmer Rooke (26-28 March 1973), lot 488 (part of).

Struck to pay Titus' legions during and after the First Jewish Revolt. RPC notes c. 320 different dies indicate 6,500,000 Syrian tetradrachms might have been minted. This was the quantity Titus would have needed to pay his four legions. Hoard evidence finds many of these types in Judaea confirming they were used to pay the legions.

Purchased from FORVM!
RI0002
Sosius
Vespasian_RPC_832.jpg
10 Vespasian AR Ephesus27 viewsVespasian
AR Denarius.
Ephesus Mint,
71 AD.

O: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right

R: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus & Domitian standing, heads left, each holding a patera, EPHE monogram in ex.

RIC 1430c, RSC 250, RPC 832, sear5 #2401
RI0064
1 commentsSosius
TITUS_TAG.jpg
11 11 viewsSosius
Titus_RIC_1252.jpg
11 Titus Æ Dupondius68 viewsTITUS
Æ Dupondius
(28mm, 13.13 g, 6h)
Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, under Vespasian, 77-78 AD

O: Laureate head right, globe at tip of neck

R: Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia.
RIC II 1252 (Vespasian); Lyon 107 (Vespasian). Good VF, natural green patina, minor cleaning marks.

Ex CNG
RI0054
6 commentsSosius
Titus_RIC_229.jpg
11 Titus19 viewsTITUS
AE As. 80 AD

O: IMP T CAES VESP AVG PM TRP COS VIII, laureate head r.

R: PAX AVGVST S-C, Pax standing facing, head l., holding branch & long winged caduceus.

RIC 229; Choice F
RI0055
Sosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_10_51_36_AM.png
11 Titus30 viewsTitus. A.D. 79-81. AE as. Rome mint, A.D. 80-81. From the RJM Collection.
Titus. A.D. 79-81. AE as (10.14 g, 5 h). Rome mint, A.D. 80-81. IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, laureate head right / AEQVITAS AVGVST, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and rod. RIC 214. VF, green and red-brown patina, some roughness.

From the RJM Collection.

Ex Agora Auctions, 5/9/2017
2 commentsSosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_10_49_26_AM.png
11.5 Julia Titi39 viewsJulia Titi, Daughter of Titus (A.D. 79-80). Augusta, A.D. 79-90/1. AE dupondius. Rome mint, struck A.D. 79/80 by Titus. From the RJM Collection.
Julia Titi, Daughter of Titus (A.D. 79-80). Augusta, A.D. 79-90/1. AE dupondius (27.82 mm, 10.08 g, 5 h). Rome mint, struck A.D. 79/80 by Titus. IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA, draped bust of Julia right, hair drawn-up in bun / Vesta seated left holding palladium and scepter; S - C // VESTA. RIC 398 (Titus); BN (Titus) 270, 271; BMC (Titus) 256, 257. Fine, green patina, cleaning marks.

From the RJM Collection.

Ex Agora Auctions, 5/9/2017
3 commentsSosius
rjb_2017_09_12.jpg
7914 viewsTitus 79-81 AD
AE as
Obv "IMP T CAES VESP AVG PM TRP COS VIII"
Laureate bust right
Rev "AEQVITAS AVGVST"
Aequitas standing left holding scales and vertical sceptre
Rome mint
RIC 214
mauseus
Titus01.jpg
RIC 0022 Titus denarius 94 viewsIMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM
Laureate head right

TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P
Ceres seated left with corn ears, poppy and torch

Rome, after July 1, 79 AD

3.19g

RIC 22 (C)

Ex-RM collection, Ex-Calgary Coin
6 commentsJay GT4
Retarrifed_Vespasian_as.jpg
105 viewsROME. Titus. As Caesar, AD 69-79.
Æ As (20mm, 9.84 g, 6 h)
Rome mint. Struck AD 77-78.
Retarrifed under by the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy as 42 nummi, 6th century AD.
Laureate head left; XLII (= mark of value, 42 nummi) carved before bust
Spes standing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt
For host coin:cf. RIC II 1101. For revaluation: cf. Morrisson, Re-use 19; cf. MEC 1, 76 (Vespasian)

Ex Giamba Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 82, 16 September 2009), lot 1139
3 commentsArdatirion
titus_domitian_aegae_b.jpg
(10) VESPASIAN (Titus and Domitian as Caesars)24 views69 - 79 AD
Reign of Vespasian
AE 19.5 mm; 3.05 g
O: laureate bust of Titus on left, confronted with bare-headed, draped bust of Domitian;
R: Apollo standing right wearing long chiton, taenia in right, laurel branch in left
Aegae, Aeolis. RPC II 968; BMC Aeolis p. 98, 22; SNG Cop 25. scarce;
d.s.
laney
titus_securitas.jpg
(11) TITUS20 views79 - 81 AD
Struck 80-81 AD
AE orichalcum dupondius 27mm, 11.2g.
O: IMP T VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, radiate head left.
R: SECVRITAS P R, Securitas seated left, holding sceptre; lighted and garlanded altar before; SC below
Rome. RIC II 119 var.
2 commentslaney
titus.jpg
(11) TITUS36 views79 - 81 AD
(struck 80 AD)
AE As 26 mm 9.09 g
O: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII
LAUR HEAD R
R: ANEPIGRAPHIC
SPES ADVANCING LEFT HOLDING FLOWER AND RAISING HEM OF SKIRT, S-C
ROME
laney
TITUS~0.jpg
(11) TITUS44 views79 - 81 AD
Struck 80 AD
AE As 10.72 g
O: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, laureate head left
R: PAX AVGVST S-C, Pax standing left, holding branch & caduceus
RIC I 129b scarce
laney
TITUS_JUDAEA_RESB.jpg
(11) TITUS26 views79 - 81 AD
AE 23 mm 10.27 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Trophy flanked by Judaea seated left, mourning and shield to right
"Judea Capta"
JUDAEA, CAESAREA MINT

laney
titus_spes_blk_res.jpg
(11) TITUS29 views79-81 AD
AE Sestertius 34 mm, 21.85 g
O: laureate head right
R: S-C, Greek archaic statue of Spes (Elpis) walking left
Cohen 221.
laney
titus_denarius_blk.jpg
(11) TITUS76 views79 - 81 AD
AR Denarius 19.18 mm, 3 g
O: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right
R: TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VI, Slow quadriga left, containing ears of corn
RIC 12
(ex Ancient Imports)
2 commentslaney
titus_aeq_res.jpg
(11) TITUS25 viewsTITUS
79 - 81 AD
Struck 80 AD
AE As
27 mm 10.40 g
O: IMP T CAES VESP AVG MTP R COS VIII.
LAUREATE HEAD R
R: AEQVITAS AVGVSTI S C
AEQUITAS STANDING, HOLDING SCALES
laney
titus_bery_cm_res.jpg
(11) TITUS29 views69 - 79 AD (as Caesar)
AE 26 mm, 9.2 g
O: Bare head left; c/m (Howgego 243): Astarte standing facing, holding scepter, being crowned by Nike on low column
R: Veiled founder plowing right with two yoked oxen.
Phoenicia, Berytus; RPC 2045
laney
titus_juidaea_cap_c.jpg
(11) TITUS26 views79 - 81 AD
AE 23 mm 10.27 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Trophy flanked by Judaea seated left, mourning and shield to right
"Judea Capta"
JUDAEA, CAESAREA MINT
79 - 81 AD
AE 23 mm 10.27 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Trophy flanked by Judaea seated left, mourning and shield to right
"Judea Capta"
JUDAEA, CAESAREA MINT
laney
titus_quadrans.jpg
(11) TITUS19 views79-81 AD
AD Quadrans 16 mm max. 2.70 g
O: IMP T VESP AVG COS VIII. Modius
R: SC in wreath
RIC II 136
laney
titus_denar_b.jpg
(11) TITUS18 views79 - 81 AD
Struck 79/80 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm; 2.63 g
O: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M Laureate head right
R: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P Wreath on curule chair
Rome; RIC II 25a; RSC 318
laney
domitian_denar_blk_copy.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN44 views81 - 96 AD
Struck as Caesar under Titus 80 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm 2.31 g
O: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII Laureate head right
R: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Minerva advancing right with javelin and shield
Rome RCV 2674
laney
domitian_denar_minerva_caesar.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN as Caesar14 views81 - 96 AD
Struck as Caesar under Titus 80 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm 2.31 g
O: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII Laureate head right
R: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Minerva advancing right with javelin and shield
Rome RCV 2674
laney
Titus.jpg
*SOLD*39 viewsTitus AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC 128, RSC 321, BMCRE 78
Date: AD 80
Obverse: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN P M, laureate head r.
Reverse: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, tripod surmounted by dolphin
Size: 18.2 mm
Weight: 3.074 grams
ex-Forvm
2 commentsNoah
V539.jpg
00 Domitian as Caesar RIC 53987 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMITIAN COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: No legend; Domitian on horse l.; cloak flying out behind, r. hand raised, sceptre in l.
RIC 539 (R). BMC 122. RSC 665. BNC -.
Acquired from NumisCorner, June 2018.

This is the first denarius struck at Rome for Domitian as Caesar. Fittingly, it commemorates Domitian's appearance at Vespasian and Titus' joint Jewish War Triumph - 'while taking part in the Judaean triumph, he rode on a white horse' (Suetonius, Domitian, ii), which was the normal conduct for a young prince on such occasions. The type was struck in three variants: firstly, with a clockwise obverse legend and DOMITIAN fully spelled out, as we see here. Secondly, it was shortened to DOMIT, with the legend still running clockwise. Lastly, the legend direction was changed to counter clockwise with DOMIT. The first two variants are quite rare, the last relatively common. On this coin we see a cloak flying out from behind Domitian. This interesting detail only appears on a few coins from the first variant and does not show up on subsequent issues of the type. Most likely this variant with the cloak was the earliest version of the type which was then quickly simplified by dropping the cloak all together.

Well centred in good early style.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
Domitian.jpg
003 - Domitian (as Caesar under Titus 79-81 AD), Dupondius - RIC 165a52 viewsObv: CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII, laureated head right.
Rev: CERES AVGVST S - C, Ceres standing left, holding corn-ears and long torch.
Minted in Rome 80-81 AD.
pierre_p77
3363LG.jpg
003a. Drusus136 viewsDrusus

Tiberius' son, Drusus Caesar, d. 23, called Drusus Junior, served in the provinces Pannonia ( 15) and in Illyricum ( 17? 20). In 22 he was made tribune. Meanwhile, Sejanus, Tiberius' minister, had become jealous of Drusus' power and tried to turn Tiberius against him. Drusus may have been poisoned by Sejanus or by his wife under Sejanus' influence.

As. Sear 2594, restitution issue by Titus. 10.0 g, 26x27 mm. Glossy dark green patina with slight roughness. OBV.: Drusus left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N. REV.: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST around SC.
1 commentsecoli73
1_My_Titus.jpg
004.Titus 79-81 AD43 viewsAR Denarius
Mint: Rome, Date: 80 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM,Laureate head of Titus right.
Rev: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, Two captives seated left and right, back to back, between them, trophy composed of cuirass, helmet, and oblong shields,the captive on left is a woman, draped, hooded, and rests head on right hand; the captive on right is a man, naked,and has his hands bound behind his back.
Ref: RIC II-102
Possible Judea Capta type,Hendin-778;Meshorer TJC,Supplement 5,Type I
2 commentsBrian L
V541.jpg
00a Domitian as Caesar RIC 541335 viewsAR Denarius, 3.46g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: No legend; Domitian on horse l.; r. hand raised, sceptre in l.
RIC 541 (R2). BMC 129 var. RSC 664. BNC 105 var.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 701. = Helios, ebay, 29 November 2010 (A. Lynn Collection).

This is an extremely rare denarius of Domitian as Caesar, the second earliest minted at Rome. Here the legend is clockwise, the much more common Domitian on horseback type has the legend anticlockwise. The reverse may allude to Domitian's participation in Vespasian and Titus' joint triumph where he rode a 'magnificent' steed. The obverse is a die match with the RIC plate coin from Oxford.

The early portrait on this one is quite outstanding.
18 commentsDavid Atherton
016.jpg
010 TITUS36 viewsEMPEROR: Titus
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head right
REVERSE: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, throne with back in form of a diadem
DATE: 80 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.31 g
RIC: II.24a (C)
1 commentsBarnaba6
titus.jpg
010. Titus, 79-81AD. AR Denarius.150 viewsAR Denarius. Rome mint 80AD.
Obv. Laureate head right IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM

Rev. Tripod surmounted by dolphin TRP IX IMP XV COS VII PP

RIC II 27. Cohen 321. SEAR 2518.(VF $192 - XF $512). EF

5 commentsLordBest
T1342LG.jpg
010. VESPASIAN80 viewsAR denarius (18mm, 3.51g). Rome mint. Struck under Titus, AD 80-81.
DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS. Laureate head right / Two capricorns support shield inscribed S C, globe below. RIC II-1 357 (Titus). RSC 497.


3 commentsecoli
coin214.JPG
010. Vespasian 69 AD - 79 AD36 viewsVespasian

The character of this emperor showed very little, if anything, of the pagan tyrant. Though himself a man of no literary culture, he became the protector of his prisoner of war, the Jewish historian Josephus, a worshipper of the One God, and even permitted him the use of his own family name (Flavius). While this generosity may have been in some degree prompted by Josephus's shrewd prophecy of Vespasian's elevation to the purple, there are other instances of his disposition to reward merit in those with whom he was by no means personally sympathetic. Vespasian has the distinction of being the first Roman Emperor to transmit the purple to his own son; he is also noteworthy in Roman imperial history as having very nearly completed his seventieth year and died a natural death: being in feeble health, he had withdrawn to benefit by the purer air of his native Reate, in the "dewy fields" (rosei campi) of the Sabine country. By his wife, Flavia Domitilla, he left two sons, Titus and Domitian, and a daughter, Domitilla, through whom the name of Vespasian's empress was passed on to a granddaughter who is revered as a confessor of the Faith.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century. In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!"

Denarius. IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right / VES-TA to either side of Vesta standing left, holding simpulum & scepter. RSC 574
ecoli
coin287.JPG
011. Titus 79-81 AD28 viewsTitus. 79-81 AD.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. [[17]] It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well.

AR Denarius (3.44 gm). Laureate head right/Radiate figure on rostral column. RIC II 16a; BMCRE 29; RSC 289. Fine. Scarce and interesting reverse type. Ex-CNG
ecoli
145197.jpg
011a. Julia Titi56 viewsJulia Flavia (17 September 64 - 91) was the only child to the Emperor Titus from his second marriage to the well-connected Marcia Furnilla. Titus divorced Furnilla after Julia's birth. Julia was born in Rome.

When growing up, Titus offered her in marriage to his brother Domitian, but he refused because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina. Later she married her second cousin Titus Flavius Sabinus, brother to consul Titus Flavius Clemens, who married her first cousin Flavia Domitilla. By then Domitian had seduced her.

When her father and husband died, she became Emperor Domitian’s mistress. He openly showed his love. Falling pregnant, Julia died of a forced abortion. Julia was deified and her ashes her mixed with Domitian by an old nurse secretly in the Temple of the Flavians.

AEOLIS, Temnus. Julia Titi. Augusta, AD 79-91. Æ 16mm (2.18 gm). Draped bust right / EPI AGNOU THMNIT, Athena standing left, holding palladium and scepter, shield resting on ground. RPC II 981. Near VF, dark green patina, small flan crack. Ex-CNG

From the Garth R. Drewry Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 51 (15 September 1999), lot 875; Marcel Burstein Collection.
ecoli
coin212.JPG
012. Domitian 81-96 AD59 viewsDomitian

As emperor, Domitian was to become one of Rome's foremost micro managers, especially concerning the economy. Domitian's reach extended well beyond the economy. Late in A.D. 85 he made himself censor perpetuus, censor for life, with a general supervision of conduct and morals. The move was without precedent and, although largely symbolic, it nevertheless revealed Domitian's obsessive interest in all aspects of Roman life. While the military abilities of Vespasian and Titus were genuine, those of Domitian were not. Partly as an attempt to remedy this deficiency, Domitian frequently became involved in his own military exploits outside of Rome. He claimed a triumph in A.D. 83 for subduing the Chatti in Gaul, but the conquest was illusory.

as Caesar, AR Denarius. 76 AD. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right / COS IIII, Pegasus walking right. RSC 47
ecoli
0165.jpg
0165 - Denarius Titus 79 AC78 viewsObv/ T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, laureate head of T. r.
Rev/ TR POT VIII COS VII, Venus standing r., leaning on column, naked to waist, holding helmet and spear.

Ag, 18.7 mm, 3.42 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC II.1/1078 [C]
ex-Soler y Llach, auction feb 2012, lot 71 (Turrinus colln.)
1 commentsdafnis
domitian as caesar horseback1.jpg
01a Domitian as Caesar RIC 680263 viewsAR Denarius, 3.15g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: No legend; Domitian on horse l.; r. hand raised, sceptre in l.
RIC 680 (C). BMC 129. RSC 664. BNC 105.
Ex Berk 146, 29 November 2005, lot 363.

A reverse type issued only for Domitian, most likely a reference to his part in the Judaean triumph of Vespasian and Titus.

"while taking part in the Judaean triumph, he rode on a white horse, the conventional mount for young princes on such occasions." (Suetonius, Domitian, ii)

A scarce coin of Domitian's part in a very important event in Flavian history. Nice portait with some of the beard still intact and a lively horse on the reverse!
1 commentsVespasian70
Personajes_Imperiales_2.jpg
02 - Personalities of the Empire58 viewsCalígula, Claudius, Britannicus , Agrippina jr., Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Domitila, Titus, Domitia and Julia Titi1 commentsmdelvalle
dom as caesar spes.jpg
02 Domitian as Caesar RIC 788154 viewsAR Denarius, 3.36g
Rome mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVT; Spes, draped, advancing l., holding up flower in r. hand and with l. holding up her skirt.
RIC 788 (C). BMC 156. RSC 375. BNC 135.
Ex Harlan J Berk 155, 31 July 2007, lot 247.

During Vespasian's reign, Domitian was given the honorary title PRINCEPS IVVENTVT or 'Prince of Youth', celebrated here on this denarius from 74 AD. The title is one that was often given to young princes who were marked out as chosen heirs.

Spes, the personification of hope, is seen here on the reverse advacing left, holding a budding flower. The flower is a symbol of future well being.

Domitian's coinage during Vespasian's rule was unique. While Titus followed closely the types of his father, Domitian struck out on his own. One wonders how much of an input the young prince had on his own series.

A very likeable coin with a good portrait and excellent centring.


2 commentsVespasian70
0209_RICII_1_115.jpg
0209 - Denarius Titus 80 AC38 viewsObv/ IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate bust of T. r.
Rev/ TR P XI IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant with cuirass l.

Ag, 18.2 mm, 2.90 g
Mint: Roma
RIC II.I/115 [C2] – BMCRE II/43
ex-Solidus Numismatik, auction e7, lot 227
3 commentsdafnis
Vespasian,_RIC_357,_RIC(1962)_63__(Titus),_AR-Denar,_DIVVS_AVGVSTVS_VESPASIANVS,_two-Capricorn,_Large_shield,_RSC_497,_BMC_129,_Rome_80-81_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_17,5-18,5mm,_3,33g-s.jpg
020b Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC² Titus 0357, RIC II(1962) (Titus) 0063, AR-Denarius, Rome, Two Capricornus, Large shield version!, SC, #1183 views020b Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC² Titus 0357, RIC II(1962) (Titus) 0063, AR-Denarius, Rome, Two Capricornus, Large shield version!, SC, #1
avers: DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, Laureate head right.
reverse: No legend, Shield reading SC held by two capricornii, globe below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,33g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 80-81 A.D., ref: RIC² (Titus) 0357, RIC II(1962) (Titus) 0063 p-123, RSC 497, BMC 129, BM-129, Paris 101,
Q-001
6 commentsquadrans
Vespasian_AR-Denar_DIVVS-AVGVSTVS-VESPASIANVS_two-Capricorn_RIC-II-063_RIC-new-357_C-497_Rome_80-81-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5mm_2,98g-s.jpg
020b Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC² Titus 0357, RIC II(1962) (Titus) 0063, AR-Denarius, Rome, Two Capricornus, Small shield version!, SC, #1250 views020b Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC² Titus 0357, RIC II(1962) (Titus) 0063, AR-Denarius, Rome, Two Capricornus, Small shield version!, SC, #1
avers: DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, Laureate head right.
reverse: No legend, Shield reading SC held by two capricornii, globe below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5 mm, weight: 2,98g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 80-81 A.D., ref: RIC² (Titus) 0357, RIC II(1962) (Titus) 0063 p-123, RSC 497, BMC 129, BM-129, Paris 101,
Q-001
quadrans
Vespasian,_RIC_359a,_RIC(1962)_62__(Titus),_AR-Denar,_DIVVS_AVGVSTVS_VESPASIANVS,__E-X,_SC,_RSC_149,_Rome_80-81_AD,_Q-001,_5h,_17,0-18,0mm,_3,24g-s.jpg
020b Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC² Titus 0359a, RIC II(1962) (Titus) 0062, AR-Denarius, Rome, E-X, SC on round shield set on the column, #161 views020b Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), RIC² Titus 0359a, RIC II(1962) (Titus) 0062, AR-Denarius, Rome, E-X, SC on round shield set on the column, #1
avers: DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, Laureate head right.
reverse: E-X, SC on round shield set on the column, upon which an urn sits, laurel branch to each side.
exergue: E/X//SC, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 3,24g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80-81 A.D., ref: RIC² (Titus) 0359a, RIC II(1962) (Titus) 0062 p-123, RSC 149, BMC 125,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Troas,_Ilion,_020_Vespasian,_AE-,_Vespasian,_Titus,_Domitian_,_Athena,_RPC_II_893,_Bellinger_T197,_69-79_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_19,5-21mm,_8,25g-s.jpg
020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), Troas, Ilion, RPC II 0893, AE-21, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left #187 views020p Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), Troas, Ilion, RPC II 0893, AE-21, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left #1
avers: (AYTOK K CEBAC) OYECPACIANOC, Laureate head of Vespasian right
reverse: TITω KAICAP I ΔOMITIANΩ KA IΛI, Confronted, laureate and draped busts of Titus right and Domitian left. Between them, cult image of Athena, standing on a low base, turned half left, brandishing spear and resting a hand on the shield.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-21,0mm, weight: 8,25g, axis: 0h,
mint: Troas, Ilion, date: 69-79 A.D.,
ref: RPC II 0893, Bellinger T197,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
CAPPADOCIA__Caesarea__Vespasian_with_Titus_(69-79)__Didrachm__RPC_II_1650,_Sydenham_102__Q-001,_0h,_19mm,_6,73g-s.jpg
020p Vespasian with Titus (69-79 A.D.), RPC II 1650, Cappadocia, Caesarea, AR-Didrachm, Laureate head of Titus right,104 views020p Vespasian with Titus (69-79 A.D.), RPC II 1650, Cappadocia, Caesarea, AR-Didrachm, Laureate head of Titus right,
avers: AYTOKPA KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOC, Laureate head of Vespasian right.
reverse: AYTO KAI OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOY YIOC, Laureate head of Titus right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 6,73g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cappadocia, Caesarea, date: 69-79 A.D., ref: RPC II 1650, Sydenham 102.,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
22.jpg
022 Titus. AR Denarius 3.5gm24 viewsobv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIAN laur. head r.
rev: PONTIF TR P COS IIII Pax seated l. holding olive branch
1 commentshill132
Titus_AE-Dup_T-CAES-VESPAS-dot-IMP-dot-P-dot-TRP-COS-II_S-C_ROMA_RIC-xx_C-xx_Rome_80-AD__Q-001_axes-h_27mm_3,28g-2-s.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AE-Dupondius, RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), Roma, S-C, ROMA, Roma seated left, Not listed in RIC !!!, Rare !, 496 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), AE-Dupondius, RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), Roma, S-C, ROMA, Roma seated left, Not listed in RIC !!!, Rare !,
avers:- T CAES VESPAS•IMP•P•TRP COS II, Radiate head right.
revers:- Roma seated left, holding wreath and parazonium, S-C across the field, ROMA in exergo.
exerg: S/C//ROMA, diameter: 27mm, weight: x,xxg, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 72 A.D., ref: RIC Not in !!!, RIC II(1962) Not in !!! (Vespasian), C-Not in !!!,
Q-001

"Titus' coins with obverse legend T CAES VESPAS IMP P TR P COS II were struck in year 72, first issue.No ROMA reverse is listed in RIC for Titus in this issue, so you may have found a new type! "by FlaviusDomitianus. Thank you FlaviusDomitianus.
""Titus' issue of bronze coins with COS II and the abbreviations CAES VESPAS is altogether rare. RIC 411-417 only lists two sestertius types, R2 and R3; one dupondius type, FELICITAS PVBLICA, R2, unfortunately not illustrated, it would be nice to compare the obverse die with your coin; and four As types, all R2.

The same ROMA reverse die of your coin was apparently also used for dupondii with other obverse legends:

RIC 396, pl. 31, Vespasian COS IIII.

RIC 438, pl. 34, Titus CAES VESPASIAN P TR P COS II; also pl. 34, RIC 436 (rev. only), which should have ROMA around edge and SC in exergue, but in fact has ROMA in exergue and S - C in field, so seems to be another example of RIC 438.

Titus CAES VESPASIAN PON TR POT (instead of P TR P) COS II: my collection ex G. Hirsch 229, 2003, lot 2219; not in RIC."" by Curtis Clay, Thank you Curtis.
5 commentsquadrans
Titus_AE-AS_T-CAES_VESPASIAN-IMP-P-TR-P-COS-II_FIDES-PVBLICA_S-C_RIC-619old-444new_C-89_72-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_25-26mm_11,08g-s.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0444, RIC II(1962) 0619 (Vespasian), AE-As, Roma, FIDES PVBLICA, -/-//SC, Clasped hands, Rare!, #1158 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0444, RIC II(1962) 0619 (Vespasian), AE-As, Roma, FIDES PVBLICA, -/-//SC, Clasped hands, Rare!, #1
avers:- T-CAES-VESPASIAN-IMP•P•TR•P-COS-II, laurate head right,
revers:- FIDES-PVBLICA, S-C, in exergo, Clasped hands holding caduceus and two corn-ears,
exe: -/-//SC, diameter: 25-26mm, weight: 11,08g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 72 A.D., ref: RIC 0444, RIC II(1962) 0619 (Vespasian) p-87, C-89, R!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RICa_0783,RIC_II(1962)0185(Vesp_),_022_Titus_(69-79_A_D_Cae_79-81ADAug),_AR-Den_T-CAESAR-IMP-VESPASIANVS,_PONTIF_TR_P_COS-IIII,_Rome_75-AD_Q-001_6h_18,5-19,5mm_3,24g-s.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0783, RIC II(1962) 0185 (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Roma, PONTIF TR P COS IIII, Pax seated left, #1181 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0783, RIC II(1962) 0185 (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Roma, PONTIF TR P COS IIII, Pax seated left, #1
avers:- T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, Laureate head right.
revers:- PONTIF TR P COS IIII, Pax seated left, holding olive branch.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,24g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 75 A.D., ref: RIC 0782, RIC II(1962) 0185 (Vespasian) p-36, RSC 162, BMC 172,
Q-001
6 commentsquadrans
RICa_0874,_RIC_II(1962)_0176(Vesp_),_022_Titus_(69-79_A_D__Caes__79-81_A_D__Aug_),_AR-Den_T-CAESAR-IMP-VESPASIANVS,_IOVIS_CVSTOS,_Rome_76-AD_Q-001_6h_18,5-19,0mm_3,04g-s.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0874, RIC II(1962) 0176 (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Roma, IOVIS CVSTOS, Jupiter standing facing, #1155 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0874, RIC II(1962) 0176 (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Roma, IOVIS CVSTOS, Jupiter standing facing, #1
avers:- T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, Laureate head right.
revers:- IOVIS CVSTOS. Jupiter standing facing, sacrificing from patera over lit altar to left and holding scepter.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,04g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 76 A.D., ref: RIC 0874, RIC II(1962) 0176 (Vespasian) p-36, RSC 106, BMC 305,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Den_T-CAESAR-IMP-VESPASIANVS_COS-VI_RIC-II-198_p-38_RIC-new-_C-68_Rome_77-78-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_17-19mm_2,90g-s.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0950, RIC II(1962) 0198 (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Roma, COS VI, Prow right, Scarce!, #1133 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0950, RIC II(1962) 0198 (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Roma, COS VI, Prow right, Scarce!, #1
avers:- T-CAESAR-IMP-VESPASIANVS, Laureate head right.
revers:- COS-VI, Prow right above star.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,90g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 77-78 A.D., ref: RIC 0950, RIC II(1962) 0198 (Vespasian) p-38, RSC 68,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_T-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS_IMP-XIII_RIC-xx_C-xxx_Rome_80-AD__Q-001_19mm_3,31g-s.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0986, RIC II(1962) 0220 (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Roma, IMP-XIII, Pig, Scarce!, #1,187 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0986, RIC II(1962) 0220 (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Roma, IMP-XIII, Pig, Scarce!,
avers:- T-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS, Laureate head right.
revers:- No legend Exe: IMP-XIII - Pig and three piglets standing left.
exe: -/-//IMP XIII, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,31g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 78-79 A.D., ref: RIC 0986, RIC II(1962) 0220 (Vespasian) p-39, RSC-104,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_T-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS_IMP-XIII_RIC-new_V986_RIC-II-220_C-104_Rome_78-79-AD__Q-002_18-19mm_3,26g-m.jpg
022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0986, RIC II(1962) 0220 (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Roma, IMP-XIII, Pig, Scarce!, #2,116 views022a Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0986, RIC II(1962) 0220 (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Roma, IMP-XIII, Pig, Scarce!, #2,
avers:- T-CAESAR-VESPASIANVS, Laureate head right.
revers:- No legend Exe: IMP-XIII - Pig and three piglets standing left.
exe: -/-// IMP XIII, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,26g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 78-79 A.D., ref: RIC 0986, RIC II(1962) 0220 (Vespasian) p-39, RSC-104,
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TRP-VIIII-IMP-XIIII-COS-VII-P-P_RIC-new-5_RIC-II-7D_C-280_Rome_79-AD__Q-001_axis-5h_17,5mm_3,38g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0019, RIC II(1962) 0013D, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P, Capricornus, #1200 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0019, RIC II(1962) 0013D, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P, Capricornus, #1
avers:- IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P, Capricornus over globe to left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,38g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 79 A.D., ref: RIC 0019, RIC II(1962) 0013D p-117, C-280,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TRP-VIIII-IMP-XIIII-COS-VII-P-P_RIC-new-25_RIC-II-_C-280_Rome_79-AD__Q-001_5h_18-18,5mm_2,90g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0025, RIC II(1962) 0012, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P, Quadriga left, #1637 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0025, RIC II(1962) 0012, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P, Quadriga left, #1
avers: IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers: TR-P-VIIII-IMP-XIIII-COS-VII-P-P, Quadriga left with corn ears in car.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 2,90g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 79 A.D., ref: RIC 0025, RIC II(1962) 0012 p-117, RSC-278, BMC 18, BN 15, C 277,
Q-001
7 commentsquadrans
RICa_030,_RIC_II(1962)_011,_022_Titus,_AR-Den_IMP_TITVS_CAES_VESPASIAN_AVG_P_M,_TR_P_VIIII_IMP_XIIII_COS_VII_P_P,_Rome_79_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_17,5-19,5mm,_3,46g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0030, RIC II(1962) 0011, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P, Male captive kneeling right, #1135 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0030, RIC II(1962) 0011, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P, Male captive kneeling right, #1
avers: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right.
reverse: TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P, Male captive kneeling right at the base of the trophy.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,46g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 79 A.D., ref: RIC 0030, RIC II(1962) 0011, BMC 15, RSC 274,
Q-001
6 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-PM_TR-P-VIIII-IMP-XV-COS-VII-P-P_RIC-new-46__RIC-II-16a_C-289_Rome_79-AD_Q-001_7h_17mm_2,74g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0046, RIC II(1962) 0016a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P VIIII IMP XV COS VII P P, Figure on column, #181 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0046, RIC II(1962) 0016a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P VIIII IMP XV COS VII P P, Figure on column, #1
avers:- IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Radiate figure on rostral column, holding spear.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 2,74g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0046, RIC II(1962) 0016a p-118, RSC-289,
Q-001
quadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-25a_C-318_Rome_80-AD__Q-001_18mm_3,28g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0108, RIC II(1962) 0025aD, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Two curule chairs, #1195 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0108, RIC II(1962) 0025aD, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Two curule chairs, #1
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Two curule chairs; wreath atop.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0108, RIC II(1962) 0025aD p-119, RSC-318, BMC 66,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-25a_C-318_Rome_80-AD__Q-002_axis-5h_16,5-18mm_2,96g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0108, RIC II(1962) 0025aD, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Two curule chairs, #2113 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0108, RIC II(1962) 0025aD, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Two curule chairs, #2
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Two curule chairs; wreath atop.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-18mm, weight: 2,96g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0108, RIC II(1962) 0025aD p-119, RSC-318, BMC 66,
Q-002
quadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RICnew-112_RIC-II-26a_C-309_Rome_80-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_18mm_3,33g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0112, RIC II(1962) 0026a, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Dolphin coiled around anchor, #1264 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0112, RIC II(1962) 0026a, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Dolphin coiled around anchor, #1
avers:- IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Dolphin coiled around anchor.
exe: -/-//-- , diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,33g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0112, RIC II(1962) 0026a p-119, RSC 309, BMC 72,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-xx_C-xxx_Rome_80-AD__Q-001_20mm_3,20g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0115, RIC II(1962) 0022a, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Elephant, #1300 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0115, RIC II(1962) 0022a, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Elephant, #1
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Elephant walking left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,20g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0115, RIC II(1962) 0022a p-119, RSC 303, BMC 43,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RICnew-115_RIC-II-22a_C-303_Rome_80-AD__Q-002_19mm_3,25g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0115, RIC II(1962) 0022a, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Elephant, #1143 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0115, RIC II(1962) 0022a, AR-Denarius, Roma, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Elephant, #1
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Elephant walking left.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0115, RIC II(1962) 0022a p-119, RSC 303, BMC 43,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-new-119_RIC-II-23a_C-316_Rome_80-AD__Q-001_18mm_3,28g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0119var., RIC II(1962) 0023a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Thunderbolt on draped table, #1176 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0119var., RIC II(1962) 0023a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Thunderbolt on draped table, #1
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Thunderbolt (wingless) on draped table or chair with one, two or no crossbars.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0119var., RIC II(1962) 0023a p-119, RSC 316, BMC 51,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Den_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-II-242_p-119_RIC-new-122_C-313_Rome_80-AD_Q-001_axis-xh_xxmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0122, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #1163 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0122, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #1
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Throne with curved back decorated with three floral ornaments; below, fringed seatcover and strut.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0122, RIC II(1962) 0024a p-119, RSC-313, BMC 58,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Den_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-II-24a_p-119_RIC-new-124a_C-313_Rome_80-AD_Q-003_axis-xh_xxmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0124a, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #3183 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0124a, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #3
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Draped throne with triangular back; grain ears atop.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0124a, RIC II(1962) 0024a p-119, RSC-313, BMC 58,
Q-003
2 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Den_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-II-24a_p-119_RIC-new-124c_C-313_Rome_80-AD_Q-002_axis-xh_xxmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0124c, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #2150 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0124c, RIC II(1962) 0024a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Throne #2
avers:- IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M, Laureate head right.
revers:- TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P, Draped throne with triangular back; grain ears atop.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0124c, RIC II(1962) 0024a p-119, RSC-313, BMC 58,
Q-002
quadrans
Vespasian_AE-Sest_IMP-T-CAES-VESP-AVG-P-M-TR-P-P-P-COS-VIII_PROVIDENT-AVGVST_S-C_RIC-II-_C--AD_Q-001_6h_32-33mm_23,95g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0162, RIC II(1962) 0098, AE-Sestertius, Roma, PROVIDENT AVGVST, -/-//SC, Vespasian and Titus, Scarce!, #1245 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0162, RIC II(1962) 0098, AE-Sestertius, Roma, PROVIDENT AVGVST, -/-//SC, Vespasian and Titus, Scarce!, #1
avers:- IMP-T-CAES-VESP-AVG-P-M-TR-P-P-P-COS-VIII, Laurate head left.
revers:- PROVIDENT-AVGVST, Vespasian standing right, presenting a globe to Titus, who stands left, SC in exergue.
exe: -/-//SC, diameter: 32-33 mm, weight: 23,95 g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC 0162, RIC II(1962) 0098 p-128, C 179, BMC 180,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Titus_79-81-AD_AE-AS_IMP-T-CAES-VESP-AVG-P-M-TR-P-COS-VIII_AEQVITAS-AVGVST_S-C_RIC-II-121b_RIC-new-215_C-5_Rome-80-81_Scarce_Q-001_6h_27-27,5mm_10,73g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0215, RIC II(1962) 0121b, AE-As, Roma, AEQVITAS-AVGVST, Aequitas standing left, Scarce!, #1174 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0215, RIC II(1962) 0121b, AE-As, Roma, AEQVITAS-AVGVST, Aequitas standing left, Scarce!, #1
avers: IMP-T-CAES-VESP-AVG-P-M-TR-P-COS-VIII, Laureat head left.
revers: AEQVITAS-AVGVST, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and sceptre. S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 27-27,5mm, weight: 10,73g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 80-81 AD, ref: RIC 0215, RIC II(1962) 0121b p-130, C-5, BMCRE 204,
Q-001
quadrans
Titus_79-81-AD_Q-001_27-29mm_12,76ga-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0226, RIC II(1962) 0126, AE-As, Roma, GENI P R, S/C//--, Genius standing left, Scarce!, #1299 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0226, RIC II(1962) 0126, AE-As, Roma, GENI P R, S/C//--, Genius standing left, Scarce!, #1
avers:- IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, Laureate head left.
revers:- GENI P R, Genius, naked to waist, standing facing, looking left by a garlanded altar, holding patera and cornucopiae. S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 27-29mm, weight: 12,76g, axis:- h,
mint: , date: , ref: RIC 0226, RIC II(1962) 0126 p-130, C-96, BMC 210,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Titus_79-81-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
022d Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-III 0081a (Traj.Dec.), Mediolanum, AR-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing, its wings spread, 118 views022d Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC IV-III 0081a (Traj.Dec.), Mediolanum, AR-Antoninianus, CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing, its wings spread,
avers:- DIVO-TITO, Radiate head of Divus Titus right.
revers:- CONSECRATIO, Eagle standing, its wings spread.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:h,
mint: Rome, date: struck under Trajan Decius, 250-251, A.D., ref: RIC 81a; C (Titus) 404; RCV 9462;
Q-001
quadrans
23.jpg
023 Julia Titi. AR Denarius 3.2gm49 viewsobv: JVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVST IF drp. bust r.
rev: VENVS AVGVST Venus std. r. leaning on cippus,
holding helment and spear
"doughter of Titus, mistress of Domitian"
3 commentshill132
0232_Vesp_RIC_II_2_16.jpg
0232 - Denarius Vespasian 70 AC10 viewsObv/ Laureate bust of V. r., around IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG.
Rev/ Confronted heads of Titus to r., and Domitian to l.; around, CAESAR AVG F COS CAESAR AVG F PR.

Ag, 18.9 mm, 3.34 g
Mint: Roma
RIC II.2/16 [R] – BMCRE II/3
ex-CNG, auction e438, lot 491
1 commentsdafnis
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR_AVG-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC--new-96-_Q-001_axis-5h_17,5mm_3,09g-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0096, RIC II(1962) 0045(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Clasped hands, #1209 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0096, RIC II(1962) 0045(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Clasped hands, #1
avers:- CAESAR_AVG-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Clasped hands holding a legionary eagle on prow.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,09g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0096, RIC II(1962) 045(Titus) p-121, RSC 395, BMC 85,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-II-50(Titus)_RIC-new-266_80-AD_Q-001_7h_17-18mm_2,93gx-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0266, RIC II(1962) 0050(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, lighted and garlanded altar, #1126 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0266, RIC II(1962) 0050(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, lighted and garlanded altar, #1
avers:- CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Lighted and garlanded altar.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 2,93g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0266, RIC II(1962) 0050(Titus) p-122, RSC 397a, BMC 92,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-dot-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS_IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-267-new-49_(Titus)_C-390_80-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-_h__-_mm__g-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0267, RIC II(1962) 0049(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left, Scarce!, #1131 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0267, RIC II(1962) 0049(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left, Scarce!, #1
avers:- CAESAR•DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left within laurel wreath.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0267, RIC II(1962) 0049(Titus) p-122, RSC 390, BMC 88,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-II-51_RIC-new-271_80-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_17,5-18mm_3,31g-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #1188 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #1
avers:- CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 3,31g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus) p-122, RSC 399a, BMC 98,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-II-51_RIC-new-271_80-AD_Q-002_5h_17,7-18,6mm_2,89ga-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #2100 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #2
avers:- CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,7-18,6mm, weight: 2,89g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus) p-122, RSC 399a, BMC 98,
Q-002
quadrans
Domitian_AE-Sest_CAES-DIVI-AVG-VESP-F-DOMITIAN-COS-VII_PAX-AVGVST_S-C_RIC-II-155b_RIC-New-Titus-288_C-343_Rome-80-AD_Q-001_6h_32,5-34mm_22,33ga-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0290, RIC II(1962) 0155a(Titus), AE-Sestertius, Rome, PAX-AVGVST, S-C, Pax left, #1164 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0290, RIC II(1962) 0155a(Titus), AE-Sestertius, Rome, PAX-AVGVST, S-C, Pax left, #1
avers:- CAES-DIVI-AVG-VESP-F-DOMITIAN-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PAX-AVGVST, Pax standing left, holding branch and cornucopia, S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 32,5-34mm, weight: 22,33g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome , date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0290, RIC II(1962) 0155a(Titus) p-135,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AE-AS_CAES-DIVI-VESP-F-DOMITIAN-COS-VII_S-C_RIC-II-169b_RIC-New-348_C-_Rome-80-81-AD_Rare_Q-001_6h_25,5-26,5mm_10,63g-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0348, RIC II(1962) 0169b(Titus), AE-As, Rome, No legend, S-C, Minerva left, #1121 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0348, RIC II(1962) 0169b(Titus), AE-As, Rome, No legend, S-C, Minerva left, #1
avers: CAES-DIVI-VESP-F-DOMITIAN-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian left.
revers: No legend, Minerva standing left, holding thunderbolt and spear, shield at her side. S-C across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 25,5-26,5mm, weight: 10,63g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome , date: 80-81 A.D., ref: RIC 0348, RIC II(1962) 0169b(Titus) p-138, C-443,
Q-001
quadrans
GI_030b_img.jpg
030 - Vespasian Didrachm, Cappadocia, Caesarea - Sydenham, Caesarea 10234 viewsObv:– AVTOKPA KAICAP OVECPACIANOC CEBACTOC, Laureate head right
Rev:– AVTO KAI OVECPACIANOC CEBACTOV VIOC, Laureate head of Titus right
Minted in Cappadocia, Caesarea. A.D. 76 - 77
Reference:– Sydenham, Caesarea 102; Metcalf, Caesarea 4. RPC 1650.

Weight 7.05g. 19.38mm.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Titus_1.JPG
033 - Titus (79-81 AD), denarius - RIC 10878 viewsObv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head right.
Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, curule chair, wreath above.
Minted in Rome 80 AD.
3 commentspierre_p77
RI 033b img.jpg
033 - Titus Copper As - 78620 viewsObv:– T CAES IMP AVG F TR P COS VI CENSOR, Laureate head right with globe at tip of neck.
Rev:– S-C, Spes advancing left holding flower & hem of skirt
Minted in Rome A.D. 77-78
Reference:– Cohen 217. RIC 786
maridvnvm
RI 033a img.jpg
033 - Titus denarius - RIC 21889 viewsObv:– T CAESAR VESPASIANVS, Laureate Head Right
Rev:– ANNONA AVG, Annona seated left, leaning elbow on seat and raising drapery
Reference RIC 218

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI_033d_img.jpg
033 - Titus Denarius - RIC II new 728 viewsObv:– IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P VIIII IMP XIIII - COS VII, Capricorn left on globe
Minted in Rome. After 1 July, 79, Group II
Reference:– RIC II new 7

Notes from an example sold by H. J. Berk: "Rare without P P in reverse legend. Titus must have accepted the title Pater Patriae quite soon after the beginning of his ninth tribunician year on 1 July 79 AD. Cohen 280 cites this coin 'with or without P P' as being in the Paris collection, but in fact Paris lacks the denarius of this type without P P, though it possesses the corresponding aureus (Paris-3). Cohen must have seen the denarius without P P in another collection. We had another specimen in our Catalogue 125, 2002, 374; none in Reka Devnia hoard."
maridvnvm
RI_033c_img.jpg
033 - Titus Denarius - RIC II new p. 206, 12421 viewsObv:– IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Draped throne with triangular back on which are corn ears
Minted in Rome A.D. 80
Reference:– RIC II new p. 206, 124

Weight 3.33g. 17.59mm.
maridvnvm
RI 035d img.jpg
035 - Domitian As - RIC II Titus 169b81 viewsAE As
Obv:– CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII, Laureate head left
Rev:– S-C, Minerva standing left, holding spear & thunderbolt, shield at feet
Minted in Rome. A.D. 80-81
Reference:– Cohen 443. RIC II Titus 169b
3 commentsmaridvnvm
Vespasian-RIC-15.jpg
035. Vespasian.39 viewsDenarius, 69-71 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG / Laureate bust of Vespasian.
Reverse: IVDAEA / Jewish woman captive seated on ground, mourning; trophy behind her.
3.44 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #15; Sear #2296.

When the Jewish Revolt began in 66 AD, Nero appointed Vespasian supreme commander in the East to put down the uprising. In 69 AD Vespasian made his own bid for the throne and left his son Titus to finish up the Jewish War -- which he did in 70 AD by capturing Jerusalem and destroying the Temple. This victory of Vespasian and Titus was the major military event of the reign, and numerous coins were issued to commemorate it.
2 commentsCallimachus
Titus-RIC-211.jpg
039. Titus.21 viewsDenarius, 75-79 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS / Laureate bust of Titus.
Reverse: IOVIS CVSTOS / Jupiter standing, sacrificing out of patera over altar, holding sceptre.
3.35 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #211; Sear #2444.
1 commentsCallimachus
dom as caesar pegasus.jpg
03a Domitian as Caesar RIC 921163 viewsAR Denarius, 3.12g
Rome mint, 76-77 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Pegasus, standing r.
RIC 921 (C2). BMC 193. RSC 47. BNC 169.
Acquired from Nilus Coins, March 2007.

The reverse copies an Augustan one and might possibly allude to Domitian's foray into poetry. (BMCRE xl)

Unlike most of the crude Domitian portraits of the time from the Rome mint, this one has a great beauty and nobility to it that few of his contemporary denarii strive to achieve. Was it a minor slight that most of the better die engravers were used for Vespasian and Titus' coins? Thankfully one slipped through to create a wonderful portrait of the young caesar.

Despite some minor flaws, this is a wonderful coin that I'm happy to add to my collection.
2 commentsVespasian70
AS TIBERIO RIC 211.jpg
04-20 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)60 viewsAE AS 27 mm 8.9 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por Tito

Anv: "[TI CAES]AR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "IMP T CAES DIVI VESP AVG REST" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 80 - 81 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 (Tito) #211 Pag.143 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Tito) #2591 Pag.331 - BMCRE #284 - Cohen Vol.1 (Tiberio) #73 Pag.196 - DVM #20 Pag.77 - CBN #293
mdelvalle
RIC_211_AS_Tiberio.jpg
04-30 - TIBERIO (14 - 37 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 27 mm 8.9 gr.
Emisión póstuma restituida por Tito

Anv: "[TI CAES]AR DIVI AVG F AVGVST IMP VIII" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "IMP T CAES DIVI VESP AVG REST" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 80 - 81 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II (Tito) #211 Pag.143 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Tito) #2591 Pag.331 - BMCRE #284 - Cohen Vol.1 (Tiberio) #73 Pag.196 - DVM #20 Pag.77 - CBN #293
mdelvalle
IMG_9074.JPG
041. Titus (79-81 A.D.)27 viewsAv.: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII
Rv.: SPES / S - C

Ae As Ø26-28 / 10.1g
RIC II 237 Rome, CBN 220
Juancho
domitian as caesar wolf and twins.JPG
05 Domitian as Caesar RIC 961149 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS V; She-wolf and twins l. : in ex., boat
RIC 961 (C2). BMC 240. RSC 51. BNC 208.
Ex eBay, February 2007.

The first instance of the she-wolf and twins reverse as a type on Roman Imperial coins. Domitian Caesar, unlike Titus Caesar, used different reverse types than his father Vespasian. The she-wolf and twins is unique to Domitan's coinage. One wonders how much leverage Domitian had for choosing his own reverse designs.

A wonderful coin with good metal and a pleasing portrait. The picture does not reflect this very well however.

2 commentsVespasian70
V976.jpg
05a Domitian as Caesar RIC 97684 viewsAR Denarius, 3.35g
Rome mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CERES AVGVST; Ceres stg. l., with corn ears and poppy and sceptre
RIC 976 (C). BMC 323. RSC 30. BNC 285.
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, December 2014.

Vespasian and Titus normally shared reverse types, but rarely with Domitian. Unusually this Ceres type was struck for all three. It possibly was part of an agrarian themed series Vespasian issued towards the end of his reign. These later issues of Vespasian have neat small portrait heads.

The coin features a pleasant looking Domitian with his trademark protruding upper lip, struck on a large flan.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
Domitian_as_caesar_legionary_standard.jpg
06 Domitian as Caesar RIC-1081113 viewsAR Denarius, 3.45g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Clasped hands holding legionary eagle set on prow
RIC 1081 (C2). BMC 269. RSC 393. BNC 240.
Acquired from Beast Coins, April 2007.


The reverse represents 'Concordia Militum', harmony of the troops. Domitian quite possibly was plotting against Titus after Vespasian's death by appealing to the troops with a double donative. This coin might provide numismatic evidence of such. Suetonius states: " On the death of his father he hesitated for some time whether to offer a double largess to the soldiers, and he never had any compunction about saying that he had been left a partner in the imperial power, but that the will had been tampered with."

A nice coin with average wear and an interesting history behind it.


Vespasian70
V1089sm.jpg
08b Domitian as Caesar RIC-1089181 viewsAR Quinarius, 1.46g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGVST; Victory std. l., with wreath and palm
RIC 1089 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC 243.

An extremely rare quinarius struck for Domitian Caesar in 79. RIC records only one example in Paris (BNC 243) and lists the rarity as 'unique', this specimen then is the second known example. Domitian's COS VI coins most likely date towards the end of Vespasian's reign and the beginning of Titus' rule, indicating the issue was struck uninterrupted after Vespasian's death in June.

Struck in good metal in neat and fine style.
9 commentsDavid Atherton
dom_1445.jpg
09 Domitian as Caesar RIC-1445121 viewsAR Denarius, 3.01g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F; Bust of Domitian, cuirassed, seen from front, Medusa head on breast of cuirass, fold of cloak on left shoulder, head bare, r.
Rev: AVG and EPHE in oak wreath
RIC 1445 (R). BMC 469. RSC 22. RPC 846 (4 spec.). BNC 362.
Ex CNG E88, 14 September 2011, lot 1302.

Minted in 71 AD, this denarius is part of the first series ever issued for Domitian. The draped and cuirassed bust type chosen here is unusual for the Flavian era...one wonders why it was used only for Domitian and not Vespasian or Titus. The reverse is a standard type shared with Vespasian and Titus at Ephesus.

I'm not sure why it has taken me so long to obtain a Domitian as Caesar denarius from Ephesus, these are wonderful coins.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
V1446dark.jpg
09a Domitian as Caesar RIC 1446113 viewsAR Denarius, 3.04g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F; Bust of Domitian, cuirassed, seen from front, Medusa head on breast of cuirass, fold of cloak on left shoulder, head bare, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, EPHE
RIC 1446 (C). BMC 470. RSC 38. RPC 847 (10 spec.). BNC 363.
Acquired from Lucernae, eBay, January 2015.

In Domitian's first imperial coinage issue he was given special treatment regarding the bust type chosen. The engravers at Ephesus depicted him cuirassed with a cloak draped over his left shoulder. Vespasian and Titus were not engraved so elaborately (although at Antioch Titus' bust is draped). Why this is so is a mystery. Unusually Domitian shares the same reverse types as Vespasian and Titus in this series, unlike at Rome where he largely had his own unique types. This Ceres reverse is probably the most common of his Ephesus denarii.

A worn coin to be sure, but the handsome bust shines through the wear.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
V1492.jpg
09b Domitian as Caesar RIC-1492112 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: COS IIII across field; Eagle stg. facing on garlanded base, wings open, head r.
RIC 1492 (R). BMC 487. RSC 45c. RPC 1466 (3 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, group lot 806.

A delightful Domitian as Caesar denarius from the rare 'o' mint. RIC speculates the mysterious mint is Ephesus based on the use of the 'o' mint mark which was also used at that mint in its last known series in 74.

This reverse type of Eagle on garlanded base is known from Rome for Vespasian and Titus. A wonderful portrait accompanies this large flan specimen.


5 commentsDavid Atherton
V1495.JPG
09d Domitian as Caesar- RIC 1495125 viewsAR Denarius, 3.26g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: FIDES PVBL; Hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn ears
RIC 1495 (R). BMC 491. RSC -. RPC 1467 (4 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Solidus, eBay, 29 November 2013.

In 76 AD a mysterious series of denarii appeared in Asia Minor for Vespasian and his sons two years after Ephesus stopped minting denarii. The reverse types were copied from those contemporaneously produced at Rome and featured many mules and blundered legends. Often an 'o' mint mark is visible below the busts, giving rise to the theory that these may be the product of Ephesus. The style is also similar to the last series known from that mint.

Here is a rare reverse type for Domitian as Caesar. At Rome this type is only known for Vespasian and Titus. BMC 491 is listed as no mint mark below bust. A fine style portrait struck on a large flan. Same obverse die as my V1492.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
Titus~0.jpg
10 Titus32 viewsDenarius. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head right / TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, throne with back in form of a diadem with corn ears upon it. RIC 24a, RSC 313, BMC 58. Weight 3.25 g. Die Axis 6 hr. Max Dia 17.1 mm.

mix_val
10_Titus_RIC_II_25Black.jpg
10 Titus RIC II 2552 viewsTitus 79-81 A.D. Rome Mint. 79 A.D. (19mm, 3.21 g, 5h). Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right. Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII, Slow quadriga left, bearing grain ears.
RIC II 25; RSC 276.

Ex: CNG Auction
1 commentsPaddy
029.JPG
100 Titus82 viewsF/Fair, 3.002g, 18.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, as Caesar, 71 - 72 A.D.; obverse T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT, laureate head right; reverse NEP RED, Neptune standing left, foot on globe, acrostolium in right and scepter in left.

RIC II Vesp 155, Cohen 121, RIC 366 ex Forvm

"Titus was the very popular victor of the Judean rebellion. He ruled during the eruption of Vesuvius. Titus once complained he had lost a day because twenty-four hours passed without his bestowing a gift. He was, however, generous to a fault. Had he ruled longer, he might have brought bankruptcy and lost hist popularity."

This coin gives thanks to Neptune for the safe return of Titus after the Jewish War.
6 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_3033.JPG
100 Titus 20 viewsTitus
Denarius. 79 AD. IMP T CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / CERES AVGVST, Ceres standing left, holding grain ears with poppy and sceptre.

RSC 31a RIC 3
Sear 2504
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
titus-denarius.jpg
11 - Titus17 viewsTitus as Caesar, AR Denarius. T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, Laureate bust right / COS IV, Mars standing left holding spear and trophy. RIC (Vespasian) 948, RSC 65Holding_History
tituscomb.jpg
11. TITUS28 views79 - 81 AD
Struck 80 AD
AE As
27 mm 10.40 g
O: IMP T CAES VESP AVG MTP R COS VIII.
LAUREATE HEAD R
R: AEQVITAS AVGVSTI S C
AEQUITAS STANDING, HOLDING SCALES
laney
12_caes_portraits_coll_res_lt.jpg
12 CAESARS PORTRAITS164 viewsObverse images from my collection.
R 1: Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula
R 2: Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho
R 3: Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian
2 commentslaney
antpius_RIC143d.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 158-159 AD64 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST COS IIII (octastyle temple [8 columns] in which the statues of Augustus and Livia reside)
ref: RIC III 143D (R), Cohen 809 (8frcs)
3.01 gms, 18mm,
Rare

History: The Temple of Divus Augustus was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design (see my Caligula sestertius). During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus.
It was restored again in the late 150s by Antoninus Pius, who was perhaps motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple was an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's origin-myth. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
1 commentsberserker
Denario_Vespasiano_RIC_15_Judea_Capta.jpg
18-07 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)49 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 2.6 gr.

Anv: " IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG" - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: Judea en actitud de duelo y congoja, sentada en el suelo hacia la derecha, detrás suyo un trofeo de armas. "JVDAEA" en el exergo.

Este tipo de reverso celebra el éxito de Vespasian y Titus sofocando la primera Revuelta Judía.

Acuñada: 69 - 70 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia ó Tarraco España
Rareza: Común ó Rara (Según la ubicación de la ceca)

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #15D Pag.16 (Roma) ó #266 Pag.46 (Tarraco) - RIC2 #4 (Roma) ó #1316 (Tarraco) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2296 Pag.436 - BMCRE Vol.2 #35, 359 y 370 - Cohen Vol.1 #226 Pag.384 - DVM #32 Pag.101 - CBN #23 - RSC Vol. II #226 Pag.43 – Hendin #759 Pag.319
mdelvalle
RIC_15_Denario_Vespasiano.jpg
18-07 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)17 viewsAR Denario 19 x 17 mm 2.6 gr.

Anv: " IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG" - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: Judea en actitud de duelo y congoja, sentada en el suelo hacia la derecha, detrás suyo un trofeo de armas. "JVDAEA" en el exergo.

Este tipo de reverso celebra el éxito de Vespasian y Titus sofocando la primera Revuelta Judía.

Acuñada: 69 - 70 D.C.
Ceca: Roma Italia ó Tarraco España
Rareza: Común ó Rara (Según la ubicación de la ceca)

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #15D Pag.16 (Roma) ó #266 Pag.46 (Tarraco) - RIC2 #4 (Roma) ó #1316 (Tarraco) - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2296 Pag.436 - BMCRE Vol.2 #35, 359 y 370 - Cohen Vol.1 #226 Pag.384 - DVM #32 Pag.101 - CBN #23 - RSC Vol. II #226 Pag.43 – Hendin #759 Pag.319
mdelvalle
RIC_13_Denario_TITO.jpg
19-01 - TITO (79 - 81 D.C.)29 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: " TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P" - Capricornio a der sobre un globo. Reverso basado en acuñaciones de Augusto.

Acuñada posterior a Julio/79 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias:Referencias: RIC Vol.II #13D Pag.117 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2510 Pag.465 - BMCRE #35 - Cohen Vol.1 #280 Pag.452 - DVM #30/6 var Pag.106 - CBN #32 - RSC Vol. II #280 Pag.57
1 commentsmdelvalle
Denario_de_Tito.jpg
19-01 - TITO (79 - 81 D.C.)35 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M" (Leyenda de der. a izq.) - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: " TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P" - Capricornio a der sobre un globo. Reverso basado en acuñaciones de Augusto.

Acuñada posterior a Julio/79 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #13D Pag.117 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2510 Pag.465 - BMCRE #35 - Cohen Vol.1 #280 Pag.452 - DVM #30/6 var Pag.106 - CBN #32 - RSC Vol. II #280 Pag.57
mdelvalle
AS_Tito_AEQVITAS_AVG_RIC_618.jpg
19-04 - TITO Como Cesar y Co-Emperador de su Padre (69 - 79 D.C.)20 viewsComo Cesar de su Padre Vespasiano.
AE AS 26 mm 10.8 gr.

Anv: " T CAES VESPASIAN IMP P TR P COS II" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AEQVITAS AVGUSTI - S C" - Aequitas (La Equidad) de pié a izquierda portando balanza (escala) en mano derecha y bastón largo vertical en izquierdo.

Acuñada 72 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.II (Vespasian) #618 Pag.87 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2473 Pag.461 - Cohen Vol.I #6 Pag.430 - DVM #50 Pag.107 - CBN #631
mdelvalle
RIC_618_AS_TITO.jpg
19-04 - TITO Como Cesar y Co-Emperador de su Padre (69 - 79 D.C.)15 viewsComo Cesar de su Padre Vespasiano.
AE AS 26 mm 10.8 gr.

Anv: " T CAES VESPASIAN IMP P TR P COS II" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AEQVITAS AVGUSTI - S C" - Aequitas (La Equidad) de pié a izquierda portando balanza (escala) en mano derecha y bastón largo vertical en izquierdo.

Acuñada 72 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.II (Vespasian) #618 Pag.87 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2473 Pag.461 - Cohen Vol.I #6 Pag.430 - DVM #50 Pag.107 - CBN #631
mdelvalle
AS TITO RIC 129.jpg
19-05 - TITO (79 - 81 D.C.)46 viewsAE AS 26 x 24 mm 7.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP T CAES VESP A[VG P M TR P P P] COS VIII" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PAX [AVGVST] - S C" - Pax (La Paz) de pié a izquierda portando rama de olivo en mano derecha y caduceo sobre brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 80 - 81 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #129a Pag.131 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2549 var Pag.470 - BMCRE #151 - Cohen Vol.1 #139 Pag.441 - DVM #53 Pag.107
mdelvalle
RIC_129a_AS_TITO.jpg
19-15 - TITO (79 - 81 D.C.)15 viewsAE AS 26 x 24 mm 7.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP T CAES VESP A[VG P M TR P P P] COS VIII" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PAX [AVGVST] - S C" - Pax (La Paz) de pié a izquierda portando rama de olivo en mano derecha y caduceo sobre brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 80 - 81 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #129a Pag.131 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2549 var Pag.470 - BMCRE #151 - Cohen Vol.1 #139 Pag.441 - DVM #53 Pag.107
mdelvalle
RIC_130_AS_TITO.jpg
19-16 - TITO (79 - 81 D.C.)14 viewsAE AS 26 mm 10.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S C" - Spes avanzando a izquierda portando un ramo de flores en mano derecha.

Acuñada 80 - 81 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #130a Pag.131 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2550 Pag.470 - BMCRE #216 - Cohen Vol.1 #219 Pag.447 - DVM #55 Pag.107
mdelvalle
VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
VespDenSalus.jpg
1aw Vespasian44 views69-79

Denarius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN
Salus seated left with patera, SALVS AVG

RIC 513 (C2)

Suetonius wrote: The Flavians seized power, and the Empire, long troubled and adrift, afflicted by the usurpations and deaths of three emperors, at last achieved stability. True they were an obscure family, with no great names to boast of, yet one our country has no need to be ashamed of. . . . Vespasian was born in the Sabine country, in the little village of Falacrinae just beyond Reate (Rieti), on the 17th of November 9 AD in the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus, five years before the death of Augustus. He was raised by his paternal grandmother Tertulla on her estate at Cosa. . . .

Under Claudius, he was sent to Germany (in 41 AD) to command a legion, thanks to the influence of Narcissus. From there he was posted to Britain (in 43 AD), where partly under the leadership of Aulus Plautius and partly that of Claudius himself, he fought thirty times, subjugating two powerful tribes, more than twenty strongholds, and the offshore island of Vectis (the Isle of Wight). This earned him triumphal regalia, and a little later two priesthoods and the consulship (in 51 AD) which he held for the last two months of the year. . . . He won, by lot, the governorship of Africa (in 63 AD), ruling it soundly and with considerable dignity. . . .

An ancient and well-established belief became widespread in the East that the ruler of the world at this time would arise from Judaea. This prophecy as events proved referred to the future Emperor of Rome, but was taken by the Jews to apply to them. They rebelled, killed their governor, and routed the consular ruler of Syria also, when he arrived to restore order, capturing an Eagle. To crush the rebels needed a considerable force under an enterprising leader, who would nevertheless not abuse power. Vespasian was chosen, as a man of proven vigour, from whom little need be feared, since his name and origins were quite obscure. Two legions with eight divisions of cavalry and ten cohorts of auxiliaries were added to the army in Judaea, and Vespasian took his elder son, Titus, along as one of his lieutenants. . . .

Yet Vespasian made no move, though his follower were ready and eager, until he was roused to action by the fortuitous support of a group of soldiers unknown to him, and based elsewhere. Two thousand men, of the three legions in Moesia reinforcing Otho’s forces, despite hearing on the march that he had been defeated and had committed suicide, had continued on to Aquileia, and there taken advantage of the temporary chaos to plunder at will. Fearing that if they returned they would be held to account and punished, they decided to choose and appoint an emperor of their own, on the basis that they were every bit as worthy of doing so as the Spanish legions who had appointed Galba, or the Praetorian Guard which had elected Otho, or the German army which had chosen Vitellius. They went through the list of serving consular governors, rejecting them for one reason or another, until in the end they unanimously adopted Vespasian, who was recommended strongly by some members of the Third Legion, which had been transferred to Moesia from Syria immediately prior to Nero’s death. . . .

Vespasian, an unheralded and newly-forged emperor, as yet lacked even a modicum of prestige and divine majesty, but this too he acquired. . . . Returning to Rome (in 70 AD) attended by such auspices, having won great renown, and after a triumph awarded for the Jewish War, he added eight consulships (AD 70-72, 74-77, 79) to his former one, and assumed the censorship. He first considered it essential to strengthen the State, which was unstable and well nigh fatally weakened, and then to enhance its role further during his reign. . . .
2 commentsBlindado
TitusProv.jpg
1ax Titus96 views79-81

AE, Ankyra, Galatia
Laureate head, right AY KAICAP TITOC CEBASTO. . .
Man standing, left, SEBASTHNWN TEKTOSAGWN

RPC 1620

By Suetonius' account: Titus, surnamed Vespasianus like his father, possessed such an aptitude, by nature, nurture, or good fortune, for winning affection that he was loved and adored by all the world as Emperor. . . . He was born on the 30th of December AD41, the very year of Caligula’s assassination, in a little dingy room of a humble dwelling, near the Septizonium. . . .

He was handsome, graceful, and dignified, and of exceptional strength, though of no great height and rather full-bellied. He had an extraordinary memory, and an aptitude for virtually all the arts of war and peace, being a fine horseman, skilled in the use of weapons, yet penning impromptu verses in Greek and Latin with equal readiness and facility. He had a grasp of music too, singing well and playing the harp pleasantly and with ability. . . .

As military tribune in Germany (c57-59AD) and Britain (c60-62), he won an excellent reputation for energy and integrity, as is shown by the large number of inscribed statues and busts of him found in both countries. . . . When his quaestorship ended, he commanded one of his father’s legions in Judaea, capturing the strongholds of Tarichaeae and Gamala (67AD). His horse was killed under him in battle, but he mounted that of a comrade who fell fighting at his side. . . . [Upon] Vespasian’s accession, his father left him to complete the conquest of Judaea, and in the final assault on Jerusalem (70AD) Titus killed twelve of the defenders with as many arrows. . . .

From then on, he acted as his father’s colleague and even protector. He shared in his Judaean triumph (of AD 71), the censorship (AD 73), the exercise of tribunicial power, and in seven of his consulships (AD 70, 72, 74-77, 79). . . .

He died at the same villa as his father, Vespasian, on the 13th of September AD81, at the age of forty-one, after a reign of two years, two months, and twenty days. The people mourned his loss as if he were a member of their own family.
2 commentsBlindado
JuliaTitiDupVesta.jpg
1ax2 Julia Titi15 viewsDupondius

Draped bust right, hair in bun at back of head, IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA
S-C either side of Vesta enthroned left holding Victory, VESTA in ex

RIC 398

The daughter of Titus and Marcia Furnilla, she lived with her uncle Domitian for a time as his wife. Suetonius records, "He had been offered marriage with his niece, Julia, Titus’s daughter, while she was still a young girl, but refused her repeatedly because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina, yet he seduced Julia shortly afterwards, while Titus was still alive, and when she was newly married to Flavius Sabinus. After the deaths of her father and husband, he loved her ardently and openly, and indeed caused her death by forcing her to abort a child by him." When Domitian died at the age of 44, his nurse cremated his body and "secretly carried [the ashes] to the Flavian Temple and there mingled them with those of his niece Julia, Titus’s daughter whom she had also nurtured."
Blindado
DomitianAsMoneta.jpg
1az Domitian20 views81-96

As

Laureate head right, IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P
Moneta std, MONETA AVGVSTI S C

RIC 708

Suetonius wrote: Domitian was born on the 24th of October AD51, a month before his father Vespasian took up office as consul. . . . When Vespasian died, Domitian considered granting his soldiers twice the bounty offered by his brother Titus, and had no qualms in claiming that his father’s will had been tampered with, since he had been due a half-share of the Empire. From then on, he plotted continually against his brother, openly and in secret. When Titus was gripped by his fatal illness, Domitian ordered him to be left for dead, before he had actually breathed his last. . . .

He governed inconsistently, displaying a mixture of virtue and vice, but after some time his virtues too gave way to vice, since he seems to have been made avaricious through lack of funds, and cruel through fear, contrary to his natural disposition. . . . Domitian was diligent and conscientiousness in his administration of justice, often holding special sittings on the tribunal in the Forum. . . . [I]n his private life, and even for some time after becoming Emperor, he was considered free of greed and avarice; and indeed often showed proof not only of moderation, but of real generosity. . . . His moderation and clemency however were not destined to last, his predilection to cruelty appearing somewhat sooner than his avarice. . . . In this way he became an object of terror to all, and so hated that he was finally brought down by a conspiracy of his companions and favourite freedmen, which also involved his wife, Domitia Longina.

Domitian was tall, and of a ruddy complexion, with large rather weak eyes, and a modest expression. He was handsome and attractive when young, his whole body well-made except for his feet with their short toes. Later, he lost his hair, and developed a protruding belly, while his legs became thin and spindly after a long illness. . . . He found exercise intolerable, seldom walked when in Rome and while travelling and on campaign rarely rode but used a litter. Weaponry in general held no interest for him, though he was exceptionally keen on archery. There are plenty of witnesses to his killing a hundred wild creatures or more at a time on his Alban estate, bringing them down with successive arrows planted so deftly as to give the effect of horns. . . .

At the beginning of his reign, he had the libraries, which had been damaged by fire, restored at great expense, instituting a search for copies of lost works, and sending scribes to Alexandria to transcribe and edit them. Yet he himself neglected liberal studies, and never bothered to interest himself in history or poetry, or even to acquire a decent writing style.
Blindado
HadrianSestFortuna.jpg
1be Hadrian44 views117-138

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, HADRIANVUS AVG COS III PP
Fortuna standing left with rudder on globe and cornucopia, FORTVNA AVG

RIC 759

According to the Historia Augusta, "Bereft of his father at the age of ten, he became the ward of Ulpius Trajanus, his cousin, then of praetorian rank, but afterwards emperor, and of Caelius Attianus, a knight. He then grew rather deeply devoted to Greek studies, to which his natural tastes inclined so much that some called him 'Greekling. . . .' In the 105-106 second Dacian war, Trajan appointed him to the command of the First Legion, the Minervia, and took him with him to the war; and in this campaign his many remarkable deeds won great renown. . . . On taking possession of the imperial power
Hadrian at once resumed the policy of the early emperors and devoted his attention to maintaining peace throughout the world. . . . [I]n this letter to the Senate he apologized because he had not left it the right to decide regarding his accession, explaining that the unseemly haste of the troops in acclaiming him emperor was due to the belief that the state could not be without an emperor. . . . He was, in the same person, austere and genial, dignified and playful, dilatory and quick to act, niggardly and generous, deceitful and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable. . . . Hadrian's memory was vast and his ability was unlimited ; for instance, he personally dictated his speeches and gave opinions on all questions. He was also very witty. . . ."

After this Hadrian departed for Baiae, leaving Antoninus at Rome to carry on the government. But he received no benefit there, and he thereupon
sent for Antoninus, and in his presence he died there at Baiae on the sixth day before the Ides of July.

According to Eutropius: After the death of Trajan, AELIUS HADRIAN was made emperor, not from any wish to that effect having been expressed by Trajan himself, but through the influence of Plotina, Trajan's wife; for Trajan in his life-time had refused to adopt him, though he was the son of his cousin. He also was born at Italica in Spain. Envying Trajan's glory, he immediately gave up three of the provinces which Trajan had added to the empire, withdrawing the armies from Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, and deciding that the Euphrates should be the boundary of the empire. When he was proceeding, to act similarly with regard to Dacia, his friends dissuaded him, lest many Roman citizens should be left in the hands of the barbarians, because Trajan, after he had subdued Dacia, had transplanted thither an infinite number of men from the whole Roman world, to people the country and the cities; as the land had been exhausted of inhabitants in the long war maintained by Decebalus.

He enjoyed peace, however, through the whole course of his reign; the only war that he had, he committed to the conduct of a governor of a province. He went about through the Roman empire, and founded many edifices. He spoke with great eloquence in the Latin language, and was very learned in the Greek. He had no great reputation for clemency, but was very attentive to the state of the treasury and the discipline of the soldiers. He died in Campania, more than sixty years old, in the twenty-first year, tenth month, and twenty-ninth day of his reign. The senate was unwilling to allow him divine honours; but his successor Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antonius, earnestly insisting on it, carried his point, though all the senators were openly opposed to him.
1 commentsBlindado
AntonPiusAsWreath.jpg
1bh Antoninus Pius48 views138-161

As

Laureate head, right, ANTONINUS AVG PIVS PP TR P XI
Wreath, PRIMI DECENALIS COS IIII SC

RIC 171

According to the Historia Augusta: Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Antoninus Pius. . . was born at an estate at Lanuvium on the thirteenth day before the Kalends of October in the twelfth consulship of Domitiaiiand first of Cornelius Dolabella. . . . In personal appearance he was strikingly hand-
some, in natural talent brilliant, in temperament kindly; he was aristocratic in countenance and calm in nature, a singularly gifted speaker and an elegant scholar, conspicuously thrifty, a conscientious land-holder, gentle, generous, and mindful of others' rights. He possessed all these qualities, moreover, in the proper mean and without ostentation, and, in fine, was praiseworthy in every way and, in the minds of all good men. . . . He was given the name of Pius by the senate, either because, when his father-in-law was old and weak, he lent him a supporting hand in his attendance at the senate. . . or because he spared those men whom Hadrian in his ill-health had condemned to death, or because after Hadrian's death he
had unbounded and extraordinary honours decreed for him in spite of opposition from all, or because, when Hadrian wished to make away with himself, by great care and watchfulness he prevented him from so doing, or because he was in fact very kindly by nature and did no harsh deed in his own time. . . .

The manner of his adoption, they say, was some what thus : After the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had adopted and named Caesar, a day was set for the meeting of the senate, and to this Arrius Antoninus came, supporting the steps of his father-in-law. For this act, it is said, Hadrian adopted him. But this could not have been the only reason for the adoption, nor ought it to have been, especially since Antoninus had always done well in his administration of public office. . . .

After his accession to the throne he removed none of the men whom Hadrian had appointed to office, and, indeed, was so steadfast and loyal that he retained good men in the government of provinces for terms of seven and even nine years. He waged a number of wars, but all of them through his legates. . . . With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own. As a result, the provinces all prospered in his reign, informers were abolished, and the confiscation of goods was less frequent than ever before. . . .

He died in the seventieth year of his age, but his loss was felt as though he had been but a youth. . . . On the second day, as he saw that his condition was becoming worse, in the presence of his prefects he committed the state and his daughter to Marcus Antoninus. . . .
Blindado
Titi_denario_VENVS_AVGVST.jpg
20-01 - JULIA TITI (79 - 81 D.C.)28 viewsHija de Tito
AR Denario 20 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F" - Busto vestido y con diadema viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VENVS AVGVST" - Venus semi-desnuda, viendo a derecha, apoyada en Cippus (columna corta), portando Yelmo en mano der. y jabalina en izq.

Acuñada 79 - 80 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.II (Titus) #56 Pag.122 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2612 Pag.480 - BMCRE Titus #141 - Cohen Vol.1 #276 Pag.388 - DVM #3 Pag.108 - CBN Titus #106 - RSC Vol. II #14 Pag.60
mdelvalle
RIC_56_Denario_Julia_Titi.jpg
20-01 - JULIA TITI (79 - 81 D.C.)13 viewsHija de Tito
AR Denario 20 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F" - Busto vestido y con diadema viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VENVS AVGVST" - Venus semi-desnuda, viendo a derecha, apoyada en Cippus (columna corta), portando Yelmo en mano der. y jabalina en izq.

Acuñada 79 - 80 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.II (Titus) #56 Pag.122 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2612 Pag.480 - BMCRE Titus #141 - Cohen Vol.1 #276 Pag.388 - DVM #3 Pag.108 - CBN Titus #106 - RSC Vol. II #14 Pag.60
mdelvalle
carnuntum_11.JPG
2009-Austria - Carnuntum33 viewsTombstone for centurion Titus Calidius displaying his horse and armor, found in Carnuntum.
The text: T(itus) Calidius / P(ublii filius) Cam(ilia tribu) Sever(us)/ eq(ues) item optio/ decur(io) coh(ortis) I Alpin(orum) / item (centurio) leg(ionis) XV Apoll(inaris) / annor(um) LVIII stip(endorium) XXXIIII / h(ic) s(itus) e(est) / Q(uintus) Calidius fratri / posuit
berserker
BOTLAUREL_2011.JPG
201157 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
2012.JPG
2012 Highlights87 views A few favorites from 2012

1: Lucania, Metapontum didrachm, c. 350 - 330 BC

2: Julius Caesar denarius, 44 BC

3: Publius Fonteius P.f. Capito denarius, c. 55 - 54 BC

4: Tiberius, denarius, 15 - 16 AD

5: Titus, Antioch denarius, 72 - 73 AD

6: Asia Minor, Carian Islands drachm, c. 88 - 84 BC

7: Tiberius, Olba, Cilicia Æ 24, c. 14 - 16 AD

8: Caius Fonteius denarius, 114 - 113 BC

9: Severus Alexander denarius, 231 AD

10: Maximinus I, Alexandria tetradrachm, 235 - 236 AD
4 commentsSPQR Coins
BOTLAUREL_2014.JPG
201449 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
Denario_Domit-Vesp-Tito_Fourree.jpg
21-01 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.) 50 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA
Híbrido realizado con cuños pertenecientes el anverso a Domiciano y el del reverso a su padre Vespasiano ó a su hermano Tito.
Denario Forrado 18x16 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII" Leyenda en sentido anti-horario - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
El cuño del anverso se puede datar por los títulos del Emperador (COS VII – Cónsul por Séptima vez) ya avanzado el 80 D.C.
Rev: "PON MAX – TR P COS VI" – Pax (La Paz) sentada en un trono a izquierda, portando una rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido.
El cuño del reverso puede pertenecer a monedas emitidas por Vespasiano en el 75 D.C. o por Tito en 77-78 D.C. años en los cuales los mencionados ostentaban el título de Cónsul por sexta vez respectivamente.

Acuñada Con posterioridad al 80 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Anverso copiado de los utilizados en las emisiones correspondientes al año 80 D.C., y el reverso imitando al RIC Vol.II #90 (Vespasianus) Pag.24, Cohen #366 ó al RIC Vol.II #200 (Titus) Pag.38, Cohen #154
mdelvalle
RIC_90-200_Denario_Forrado_Domiciano.jpg
21-01 - DOMICIANO (81 - 96 D.C.) 17 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA
Híbrido realizado con cuños pertenecientes el anverso a Domiciano y el del reverso a su padre Vespasiano ó a su hermano Tito.
Denario Forrado 18x16 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII" Leyenda en sentido anti-horario - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
El cuño del anverso se puede datar por los títulos del Emperador (COS VII – Cónsul por Séptima vez) ya avanzado el 80 D.C.
Rev: "PON MAX – TR P COS VI" – Pax (La Paz) sentada en un trono a izquierda, portando una rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido.
El cuño del reverso puede pertenecer a monedas emitidas por Vespasiano en el 75 D.C. o por Tito en 77-78 D.C. años en los cuales los mencionados ostentaban el título de Cónsul por sexta vez respectivamente.

Acuñada Con posterioridad al 80 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: Anverso copiado de los utilizados en las emisiones correspondientes al año 80 D.C., y el reverso imitando al RIC Vol.II #90 (Vespasianus) Pag.24, Cohen #366 ó al RIC Vol.II #200 (Titus) Pag.38, Cohen #154
mdelvalle
249-3_Maenia.jpg
249/3. Maenia - quadrans (133 BC)13 viewsAE Quadrans (Rome, 132 BC)
O/ Head of Hercules right, wearing lion's skin; 3 pellets behind.
R/ P MAE ANT M F above prow right; 3 pellets before; ROMA below.
4.65g, 19mm
Crawford 249/3 (28 specimens in Paris)
- Ex-Thersites Collection (bought on 18 April 1986)
- Roma Numismatics, e-sale 33, lot 336.

* Publius Maenius M.f. Antiaticus:

Antiaticus belonged to the plebeian gens Maenia, but his relatives are not known. Other Maenii are recorded in the 2nd century, such as Titus, Gaius, and Quintus Maenius, Praetors respectively in 186, 180, and 170, or Publius Maenius, moneyer in 194-190. However, Antiaticus mentioned on his coins that he was the son of Marcus, who is not known, and none of the aforementioned Maenii shared his cognomen.

Antiaticus must have therefore belonged to another branch of the gens, which descended from Gaius Maenius, Consul in 338, Dictator in 320 and 314, who defeated the Volsci by taking their city of Antium in 338, thus putting an end to the Second Latin War and also the conquest of Latium. The cognomen Antiaticus comes from this victory, for which Gaius Maenius was also rewarded by a statue on the Forum, possibly at the top of a column (Cicero, Pro Sestio, 58; Livy, VIII, 13).

The life of Antiaticus is still very obscure, and it seems he did not hold other office. He is only known through his coins.

Eckel read ME at the end of this legend and conjectured that it might have been the first letters of an agnomen Megellus or Medulinus (V, p. 240-1), but it seems very unlikely that a moneyer could have received an agnomen so early in his career. Perhaps Eckhel could not see good examples of this type; in any case, the legend on this coin clearly reads as MF, for "Marcus filius".
Joss
Anto3Rhea_Mars.jpg
3. Mars descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia48 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. As. Rome mint. Struck 140-144 AD. Obv.: [ANTO]NINVS - AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right. Rev.: TR POT COS [III around] S C [in field], Mars holding spear and shield descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia.

This coin was struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in 147 AD. According to Titus Livius (59BC to AD17) account of the legend, Rhea Silva was the daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa and descendant of Aeneas. Numitor's younger brother Amulius seized the throne and killed Numitor's son. Amulius forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, a priestess to the goddess Vesta, so that the line of Numitor would have no heirs; Vestal Virgins were sworn to celibacy for a period of thirty years. Rhea Silvia claimed that the god Mars, however, came upon her and seduced her in the forest, thereby conceiving the twins Romulus and Remus. When Amulius learned of this, he imprisoned Rhea Silvia. (In another version of the story, he ordered her to be thrown into the Tiber, where she fell into the arms of the river god who married her.) Legend continued on "Wolf suckling twins"...
Charles S
aa_1_b~0.JPG
3.3 Vespasian IUDAEA denarius123 views69 - 70 AD
Rome Mint
rev. IVDAEA, captive Jew seated below a trophy
commemorates the reconquest of Judaea by Vespasian and Titus, after the four year revolt against Rome.
3 commentsZam
3d_1_b.JPG
3.4 Vespasian IVDAEA denarius84 views69 - 70 AD
Rome Mint
rev. IVDAEA captive Jew seated at the base of a Roman trophy
commemorates Vespasian and Titus' conquest of the rebellious Jewish state following an four year uprising.
This was the springboard for Vespasian in his ambition for the throne. It made him very popular, and this Judaea Capta series was meant to cement that popularity.

i had been looking for one for quite a while!
Zam
coin249.JPG
310. Quietus22 viewsTitus Fulvius Iunius Quietus (d. 261) was a Roman usurper.

Quietus was the son of Fulvius Macrianus and a noblewoman, probably named Iulia. He gained the imperial office with his brother Macrianus Minor after the death of emperor Valerian in 260. The support of his father and the influence of Ballista, praefect of the late emperor Valerian, proved instrumental in his promotion.

Quietus and Ballista stayed in the east, while his brother and father marched their army to Europe to seize control of the Roman empire. After the defeat of his brother and father in Thrace in 261, he fled to the city of Emesa, where he was killed by Odaenathus of Palmyra.

Quietus, 260-261 A.D. AR Antoninianus. Antioch. IMP C FVL QVIETVS P F AVG. Radiate & draped bust r. / AEQVITAS AVGG. Aequitas std. l. holding scales & cornucopiae. RIC 2.
ecoli
coin263.JPG
317. Tacitus 90 viewsMarcus Claudius Tacitus, (c.200 - 276) Roman Emperor from September 25, 275, to April 276, was a native of Interamna (Terni) in Umbria.

In the course of his long life he discharged the duties of various civil offices, including that of consul in 273, with universal respect.

Six months after the assassination of Aurelian, he was chosen by the senate to succeed him, and the choice was cordially ratified by the army. During his brief reign he set on foot some domestic reforms, and sought to revive the authority of the senate, but, after a victory over the Alans near the Palus Maeotis, he was assassinated at Tyana in Cappadocia.

Tacitus, besides being a man of immense wealth (which he bequeathed to the state) had considerable literary culture, and was proud to claim descent from the historian Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, whose works he caused to be transcribed at the public expense and placed in the public libraries.

However, modern research has cast considerable suspicion on this traditional image of Tacitus as a venerable old senator. Quite the contrary, evidence (from coins, for example) indicates that Tacitus was just another military emperor, whose only distiction from other short-lived emperors of the time was his attempt to cultivate the image of a learned man.

Tactitus Silvered AE Antoninianus. Gaul mint. IMP C M CL TACITVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS SAECILI (sic), Felicity standing left, sacrificing over altar, holding a long cauduceus Ric 21

Check
ecoli
127_P_Hadrian__Rouvier_532.jpg
3855 PHOENICIA Berytus Hadrian 128-138 AD two legionary Aquilae 26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3855; Rouvier 532; SNG Cop 101; BMC Phoenicia 99 (p. 66)

Obv. IMP CAES TRAI HADRIANVS AVG P P
Laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. COL / BER
Two legionary aquilae (eagles) flanking inscription in two lines, all within laurel wreath, pellet between eagles.

4.99 gr
20 mm
die axis 0o

Note.
Named for the daughter of Augustus, Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus was founded in 14 B.C. with veterans of the 5th and 8th legions. Herod the Great, Herod Agrippa I, and Herod Agrippa II built sumptuous monuments and sponsored gladiatorial combats at Berytos. After the siege of Jerusalem, Titus gave gladiatorial games at Berytos, in which the combatants were Jews.

ex.
FORVM
okidoki
Longus.jpg
42 BC L. Mussidius Longus129 viewsCONCORDIA
Veiled and diad. head of Concordia right star below chin

L. MVSSIDIVS LONGVS
Shrine of Venus Cloacina consisting of circular platform, inscribed CLOACIN, surmounted by two statues of the goddess

Rome
42 BC

3.42g
Sear 494, RRC 494/42

ex-Canadian Coin

In Roman mythology, Cloacina (Latin, cloaca: "sewer" or "drain") was the goddess who presided over the Cloaca Maxima the main sewer drain in Rome. The Cloaca Maxima is traditionally said to have beeen started by one of Rome's Etruscan kings, Tarquinius Priscus. Despite her Etruscan origins, she later became identified with Venus.

Titus Tatius, who reigned with Romulus, erected a statue to Cloacina as the spirit of the "Great Drain". As well as controlling sewers, she was also a protector of sexual intercourse in marriage. The Romans believed that a good sewage system was important for the success of Rome, as a good sewer system was necessary for the physical health of Roman citizens. Additionally, Romans worshipped Cloacina as the goddess of purity. Cloacina was worshipped as an aspect of Venus at the small Shrine of Venus Cloacina, located in front of the Basilica Aemilia in the Roman Forum and directly above the Cloaca Maxima. The depiction on the reverse of this coin is that shrine.

The image of Concordia could be interpreted to convey the thought of Unity between the triumvirs to defeat Brutus and Cassius. Venus Cloacina on the reverse conveys the thought of purification for the treacherous murder of the dictator Julius Caesar by men who claimed to be his friends.
4 commentsJay GT4
465-2b_Considia.jpg
465/2b. Considia - denarius (46 BC)9 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 46 BC)
O/ Laureate head of Apollo right; A behind; no border.
R/ Curule chair, garlanded, on which lies wreath; C CONSIDI above; PAETI in exergue.
3.6g
Crawford 465/2b (93 obverse dies/103 reverse dies, two varieties)
- Rollin & Feuardent, 1903, Collection Charvet de Beauvais, lot 265 (together with 3 other Considia). Sold for Fr.19 with lots 264 and 266.

* Gaius Considius Paetus:

Like the other two moneyers for 46 BC (Titus Carisius and Manius Cordius Rufus), Paetus belonged to a small gens. The Considii are indeed unattested before the 1st century, apart from a Tribune of the Plebs in 476. The gens came to prominence in the 50s, when two of its members became Praetors: Gaius Considius Longus between 58-52, and Marcus Considius Nonianus between 54-50.

Like his colleagues, Paetus was doubtlessly a supporter of Caesar. The curule chair on the reverse alludes to Caesar's right to sit on a curule chair between the Consuls in the Senate (Cassius Dio, xliii. 14). There is therefore a chance that he was the same person as the Gaius Considius mentioned in the Pseudo-Caesar's 'De Bello Africo' (§89) as the son of the Praetor of 54-50 -- a supporter of Pompey who died after Thapsus -- nonetheless absolved by Caesar after the war. This theory fits well with Caesar's policy of generously granting pardon to his former enemies, and was accepted by Mommsen, following Borghesi (cf. Mommsen, 1860, p. 657). However, Crawford did not mention this possibility.
Joss
coin233~0.JPG
504. CONSTANTIUS II GLORIA EXERCITVS Antioch18 viewsAntioch

Under the empire we chiefly hear of the earthquakes which shook Antioch. One, in AD 37, caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city. Another followed in the next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered, and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several days. He and his successor restored the city; but in 526, after minor shocks, the calamity returned in a terrible form; the octagonal cathedral which had been erected by the emperor Constantius II suffered and thousands of lives were lost, largely those of Christians gathered to a great church assembly. We hear also of especially terrific earthquakes on November 29, 528 and October 31, 588.

At Antioch Germanicus died in AD 19, and his body was burnt in the forum. Titus set up the Cherubim, captured from the Jewish temple, over one of the gates. Commodus had Olympic games celebrated at Antioch, and in 266 the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many in the theatre. In 387 there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius, and the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status. Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years later. Justinian I made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.

The chief interest of Antioch under the empire lies in its relation to Christianity. Evangelized perhaps by Peter, according to the tradition upon which the Antiochene patriarchate still rests its claim for primacy (cf. Acts xi.), and certainly by Barnabas and Paul, who here preached his first Christian sermon in a synagogue, its converts were the first to be called Christians

004. CONSTANTIUS II Antioch

RIC VII Antioch 88 C3

From Uncleaned Lot

ecoli
titus dup.jpg
69-79 AD - TITUS (Caesar) AE dupondius - struck 74 AD36 viewsobv: T CAESAR IMP COS III CENS (radiate head right)
rev: FELICITAS PVBLICA / S.C. (Felicitas standing left with caduceus & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC II 665[Vespasian], C.81 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
12.08gms, 26mm
berserker
titus RIC208.jpg
69-79 AD - TITUS (Caesar) AR denarius - struck 1Jan-23June 79 AD91 viewsobv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS (laureate head right)
rev: TR POT VIII COS VII (captive kneeling right in front of trophy of arms)
ref: RIC II 208(Vespasian) (S), C.334(6 francs)
3.32gms, 18mm
Rare

This reverse probably commemorating another Agricola's victory in Britannia or reminder of the successful Jewish War. I think it's belong to the Judea Capta series, because the captive wearing a typical jewish cap, and in ancient times both jewish men and women are wearing dresses covering most of their body (arms and legs). Celtic warriors had a long hair to scary the enemy (and they wearing pants).
4 commentsberserker
titus den-.jpg
69-79 AD - TITUS (Caesar) AR denarius - struck 72 AD40 viewsobv: T CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT (laureate head right)
rev: NEP RED (Neptune standing right, foot on globe, holding acrostolium & scepter)
ref: RIC II 155 (Vespasian), C.121 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
3.00gms, 17mm

The reverse of this coin celebrates the return of Titus from Jerusalem with a depiction of Neptune, god of the sea, characterized in the coin's legend as the Returner. He holds his usual attributes, a trident (here scepter) and an acrostolium or bow ornament of a ship.
berserker
vespa as-.jpg
69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AE as - struck 71 AD47 viewsobv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III (laureate head right)
rev: VICTORIA NAVALIS / S.C. (Victory with wreath on prow right)
ref: RIC II-503, C.632
mint: Rome
8.36gms, 24mm

The legend "Victoria Navalis" probably commemorate Vespasian' pursuit of the Jews at Tarichæa on rafts, and the same circumstance doubtless explains why Titus brought a large number of ships with him when he entered Rome in triumph.
berserker
vespa as.jpg
69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AE as - struck 76 AD63 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN COS VIII (laureate head left)
rev: VICTORIA AVGVST / S.C. (Victory standing right on prow, holding wreath & palm)
ref: RIC II 584v, C.605(2fr.)
mint: Rome
10.89gms, 27mm

Vespasian and Titus naval victory was considered of such importance that it was commemorated at a later period. (In RIC only right head)
berserker
vespa denar02-.jpg
69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AR denarius - struck 69-71 AD89 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG (laureate bust of Vespasian right)
rev: CAESAR.AVG.F.COS.CAESAR.AVG.F.PR (heads of Titus & Domitian facing each other)
ref: RIC 2.1 [2008] 16, (RIC II [1962] 2), RSC-, BMC 2
mint: Rome
2.61gms, 17mm
Rare

This important dynastic issue shows early on Vespasian's intent that "either his sons would succeed him, or no one would." (Suet. Vesp. 25)
berserker
vespa denar01-.jpg
69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AR denarius - struck 73 AD37 viewsobv: IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN (laureate head right)
rev: SPQR in oak wreath
ref: RIC II 66, C.516 (6frcs)
mint: Rome
Scarce

'...as the usual appointed time when he must distribute subsistence money to the soldiers was now come, he [Titus] gave orders that the commanders should put the army into battle-array, in the face of the enemy, and then give every one of the soldiers their pay. So the soldiers, according to custom, opened the cases wherein their arms before lay covered, and marched with their breastplates on, as did the horsemen lead their horses in their fine trappings. Then did the places that were before the city shine very splendidly for a great way; nor was there any thing so grateful to Titus's own men, or so terrible to the enemy, as that sight.' Flavius Josephus: The wars of the Jews; book V
berserker
vespasian denar-.jpg
69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AR denarius - struck 73 AD44 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.VESP.AVG.P.M.COS.IIII.CEN (Laureate head right)
rev: FIDES PVBL (Clasped hands holding corn-ears, poppy and caduceus)
ref: RIC II 55, RSC 164 (5frcs), BMC 86
mint: Rome
3.32gms, 19mm

The two united hands were meant to symbolize the good faith and fidelity of soldiers and people to the reigning prince - and not to represent Fides in her quality of goddess. Vespasian was censor from 1st July 73 AD- (with Titus).
1 commentsberserker
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
TitusCommColosseum.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 109 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.136 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
DomitianARDenariusHorseman.jpg
712a, Domitian, 13 September 81 - 18 September 96 A.D.157 viewsDomitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 77-78 AD; RIC 242, VF, 18mm, 3.18grams. Obverse: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIA[NVS], laureate head right ; Reverse: COS V below man with hand raised out behind him on horse prancing right. RSC 49a. Scarce. Ex Zuzim Judaea.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Domitianus(A.D. 81-96)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Domitian was born in Rome on 24 October A.D. 51, the youngest son of Vespasian, Roman emperor (A.D. 69-79) and Domitilla I, a treasury clerk's daughter. Little is known about Domitian in the turbulent 18 months of the four (five?) emperors, but in the aftermath of the downfall of Vitellius in A.D. 69 he presented himself to the invading Flavian forces, was hailed as Caesar, and moved into the imperial residence.

As emperor, Domitian was to become one of Rome's foremost micromanagers, especially concerning the economy. Shortly after taking office, he raised the silver content of the denarius by about 12% (to the earlier level of Augustus), only to devaluate it in A.D. 85, when the imperial income must have proved insufficient to meet military and public expenses.

Domitian's reach extended well beyond the economy. Late in A.D. 85 he made himself censor perpetuus, censor for life, with a general supervision of conduct and morals. The move was without precedent and, although largely symbolic, it nevertheless revealed Domitian's obsessive interest in all aspects of Roman life. An ardent supporter of traditional Roman religion, he also closely identified himself with Minerva and Jupiter, publicly linking the latter divinity to his regime through the Ludi Capitolini, the Capitoline Games, begun in A.D.86. Held every four years in the early summer, the Games consisted of chariot races, athletics and gymnastics, and music, oratory and poetry.

Beyond Rome, Domitian taxed provincials rigorously and was not afraid to impose his will on officials of every rank. Consistent with his concern for the details of administration, he also made essential changes in the organization of several provinces and established the office of curator to investigate financial mismanagement in the cities. Other evidence points to a concern with civic improvements of all kinds, from road building in Asia Minor, Sardinia and near the Danube to building and defensive improvements in North Africa.

While the military abilities of Vespasian and Titus were genuine, those of Domitian were not. Partly as an attempt to remedy this deficiency, Domitian frequently became involved in his own military exploits outside of Rome. He claimed a triumph in A.D. 83 for subduing the Chatti in Gaul, but the conquest was illusory. Final victory did not really come until A.D. 89. In Britain, similar propaganda masked the withdrawal of Roman forces from the northern borders to positions farther south, a clear sign of Domitian's rejection of expansionist warfare in the province.

Domitian's autocratic tendencies meant that the real seat of power during his reign resided with his court. The features typically associated with later courts - a small band of favored courtiers, a keen interest in the bizarre and the unusual (e.g., wrestlers, jesters, and dwarves), and a highly mannered, if somewhat artificial atmosphere, characterized Domitian's palace too, whether at Rome or at his Alban villa, some 20 kilometers outside of the capital.

On 18 September, A.D. 96, Domitian was assassinated and was succeeded on the very same day by M. Cocceius Nerva, a senator and one of his amici. The sources are unanimous in stressing that this was a palace plot, yet it is difficult to determine the level of culpability among the various potential conspirators.
In many ways, Domitian is still a mystery - a lazy and licentious ruler by some accounts, an ambitious administrator and keeper of traditional Roman religion by others. As many of his economic, provincial, and military policies reveal, he was efficient and practical in much that he undertook, yet he also did nothing to hide the harsher despotic realities of his rule. This fact, combined with his solitary personality and frequent absences from Rome, guaranteed a harsh portrayal of his rule. The ultimate truths of his reign remain difficult to know.

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Perhaps the reverse of this Domitian/Horseman specimen depicts Domitian as he rode a white horse behind his father, Vespasian, and his brother, Titus, during their joint triumph celebrating their victory over Judaea (see: Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin, 2003. 304).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
titus sest-Cohen114-Paduan.jpg
79-81 AD - TITUS AE sestertius - Paduan 164 viewsobv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII (laureate head left)
rev: IVDAEA CAPTA (Jewess seated right under palm tree, mourning; on left side Jew standing right, heap of arms), S-C in ex.
ref: C.114 (12frcs) Paduan, RIC II 93 (S)
18.35gms, 32mm, bronze
Rare

A well-known Paduan medal after Giovanni Cavino, but this is not the 20th century cast with dark patinated aluminium alloy, and it is in Cohen and RIC catalog as Paduan coin. OK, you say this is a fake, but I say it has room in my collection.
2 commentsberserker
titus sest.jpg
79-81 AD - TITUS AE sestertius - struck 80-81 AD36 viewsobv: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII (laureate head right)
rev: PAX AVGVST / S.C. (Pax standing left holding branch & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC 181 (S), Cohen 141(4fr.), RPC 501
mint: Lugdunum
24.86g, 33mm
Rare
berserker
titus denar RIC21a.jpg
79-81 AD - TITUS AR denarius - struck Jan.-July 80 AD60 viewsobv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM (laureate head right)
rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P (trophy with a captive on either side)
ref: RIC 21a (C), RSC 306 (3frcs), BMC 37
3.30gms, 18mm
mint: Rome
Scarce

History: Gnaeus Julius Agricola, the eleventh governor of Roman Britain in AD78 defeated the Ordovices tribe in north Wales and conquered the Druid stronghold of Mona (Anglesey). In AD79 consolidated the north-west of England by forts and garissons. As a result of these events Titus received the title of imperator for the fifteenth time from the beginning of AD 80.
Note: Legio II Adiutrix (later served in Aquincum, Pannonia) fought against the tribe of the Ordovices and occupied the Isle of Mona.
1 commentsberserker
titus rest as.jpg
79-81 AD - TITUS restitutions as - struck 80-81 AD38 viewsobv: [TI CLAVDIVS CAE]SAR AVG PM TR [P IMP PP] (Claudius bust right)
rev: IMP T VESP [AVG] REST (Minerva advancing right, brandishing javelin and holding shield)
ref: RIC II 241 (R), C.105(10fr.)
mint: Rome
8.01gms, 26mm
Rare

Restitutions, or restored coins, is a name given to pieces of money copied from other pieces struck in the past. This coin's mint same as coin of Claudius under his reign.
berserker
titus-r12.jpg
79-81 AD Titus RIC-12239 viewsIMP TITVS CAES VESPASIANVS AVG PM - Laureate head right
TRP VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P - Quadriga with modius of grain

First issue after july AD 79. This is the same year that Vesuvius erupted!
jimwho523
20190130_111551.jpg
90 BC Q. TITUS3 viewsOvb: Baccus Rev: Pegasus Moneyer: Q. TITUS 90 B.C. social wars period NGC VFRob P
20190916_123844.jpg
90 BC Q. TITUS0 viewsFinally was able to get my Rev uploaded! VF by NGC pegasus leaping right. Front Baccus Monyer Q Titus Rob P
R656_Julia_Titi_portrait.jpg
AD 064-091 - IVLIA TITI FLAVIA12 viewsJulia Flavia

Julia Flaviawas the daughter and only child to Roman Emperor Titus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Antoninus_Pius_R617_portrait.jpg
AD 138-161 - ANTONINVS PIVS9 viewsAntoninus Pius

Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, 19 September 86 – 7 March 161, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the "Five Good Emperors".

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
0035-510np_noir.jpg
Agrippa, As - *323 viewsPosthumous issue of Caligula, in honour of his grandfather (died 12 BC)
Rome mint, ca AD 37/41
M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head of Agrippa left with rostral crown
Neptun standing left, holding trident and dolphin. Large S C in fields
10.9 gr
Ref : RCV #1812, Cohen #3
Ex Alwin collection

The following commentary is a (quick) translation from CGB about a similar coin :

"Although Augustus associated his close friend Agrippa in his coinage, he didn't for him alone. Gaius honoured the memory of his grandfather, recalling he had been COS III in 27 BC while Augustus was COS VII at the same time.
Gaius, however, as the new emperor would like us to remember his double filiation : Through his father, Germanicus, he's descended from Nero Drusus and Antonia, thus from Tiberius ; through his mother Agrippina the elder, he tells us Agrippa and Julia are his grand parents and he's a grand grand son of Augustus. Agrippa remained prestigious all along the first century CE, although he had died 12 BC. Titus then Domitian will also strike this type, seemingly very succesfull towards population (see RCV 2589 and 2894)"
6 commentsPotator II
23175q00~0.jpg
Anchor118 viewsTitus and Domitian, 79-81 A.D.
Germe, Lydia
Bronze AE 16
F, 3.038g, 17.3mm, 0*, RPC 930, SNG Cop 135, BMC Lydia -

obv. AYTO KAI CEBAC, Laureate head if Titus right
rev. AYTO KAI CEBAC, Laureate head of Domitian right

Each side countermarked with uncertain object within round punch. One probably an anchor.
randy h2
Anonymous_176.JPG
Anonymous87 viewsObv: Head of Roma facing right, wearing a winged and crested Corinthian helmet, X behind, ROMA below.

Rev: Roma seated right on a pile of shields, holding a spear, two birds flying in field on the left and right, she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus at Roma's feet.

Note: Anonymously issued denarii were an unusual occurrence at this time. Many years later, the reverse design was reused on an aureus of Titus during the Flavian era.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 115 - 114 BC

3.9 grams, 20.5 mm, 270°

RSC Anonymous 176, S164
SPQR Coins
ANTIOCH.jpg
ANTIOCH - Syria51 viewsANTIOCH - Syria, Bronze AE 27, RPC I 4223; BMC Galatia pg. 154, 25, 41 - 40 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse ANTIOCEWN MHTROPO THS IERAS KAI ASULOU, Zeus seated left holding Nike and scepter; pileus surmounted by star before, date BOG below (= Seleukid year 272).

Data from FORVM catalogue: About the time this coin was minted, the Parthians led by Quintus Labienus and Pacorus I attacked Syria, which was under Marc Antony's authority. Quintus Labienus was the son of Caesar's general Titus Labienus. He served under Brutus and Cassius, and after the battle at Phillipi fled to Parthia, which he had visited before as an ambassador. After several battles against Antony's governor, Saxa, they occupied the entire province and later Asia Minor and Palestine. In Judea, Pacorus deposed king John Hyrcanus II and appointed his nephew Antigonus king in his place. Labienus was killed during a Roman counter attack in 39 B.C. The territory they captured was recovered for Rome. Pacorus retreated to Parthia but died one year later in an attack on a Roman camp.
1 commentsdpaul7
Antoninus Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius32 viewsTitus Aurelius Fulvius Boionius Arrius Antoninus was born around 86 A.D. to a distinguished family. After a typical senatorial career he made a name for himself as proconsul of Asia. He was adopted as Emperor Hadrian`s heir in February 138 A.D. and succeeded soon after. His reign was long and peaceful, a Golden Age of tranquility and prosperity. He died in 161 A.D., leaving Marcus Aurelius as his successor.

Silver denarius, RIC 175, RSC 284, BMC 657, F, Rome mint, 2.669g, 17.7mm, 0o, 148 - 149 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head right; reverse COS IIII, Annona standing left holding corn-ears over modius left and anchor; fire damaged, slightly wavy flan;
Dumanyu2
Augustus_temple_(800x387).jpg
Antoninus Pius 6 viewsAntoninus Pius Sestertius temple of Augustus and Livia
Catalog: Temple of Divus Augustus
weight 28,6gr. | bronze Ø 32mm.
obv. Laureate head right ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XXII
rev. Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus, containing cult-statues of Augustus
and Livia TEMPLVM DIVI AVG REST COS IIII S C

The Temple of Divus Augustus was a major temple originally built to commemorate the deified first Roman emperor, Augustus. It was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had inhabited before he entered public life in the mid-1st century BC. The temple′s construction took place during the 1st century AD, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after the death of the emperor in AD 14. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design. However, its size, physical proportions and exact site are unknown. During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus. It was restored again in the mid 150s by Antonius Pius, and that was the reason for this coinage. The last known reference to the temple was on 27 May 218 | at some point thereafter it was completely destroyed and its stones were presumably quarried for later buildings. Its remains are not visible and the area in which it lay has never been excavated.

Cohen 805 | RIC 1004 | BMC 2063 | Sear 4235 R
vf
1 commentsAncient Aussie
12_Caesar_portraits.jpg
Antony & The 12 Caesars256 viewsA variation on my other virtual coin trays. This one includes a lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar. It's difficult choosing which coin to include in this set, in some cases I only had one (Galba, Otho) but others I had many more to choose from. I do have better portraits of some but I thought these had more interesting reverse types or portrait styles:

Marcus Antonius denarius
Julius Caesar denarius
Augustus denarius
Tiberius denarius
Caligula AE As
Claudius AE As
Nero Dupondius
Galba AE As
Otho Tetradrachm
Vitellius denarius
Vespasian denarius
Titus denarius
Domitian denarius

Image is clickable for larger size.
To see the coins individually see them in my gallery.
9 commentsJay GT4
LEGIIIIB.jpg
Antony LEG IIII44 viewsMARK ANTONY. 32-31 BC. AR Legionary Denarius. Patrae(?) mint.
O: Galley right
R: LEG IIII, legionary aquila between two standards.
- Crawford 544/16; CRI 353; Sydenham 1220; RSC 29.

A young man named Titus Flavius Vespasianus was in the Fourth Legion and the legion sided with him years later during the Civil Wars.
2 commentsNemonater
arch of Titus.jpg
arch of Titus58 viewsPart of the Arch of Titus showing the spoils from the destruction of the Temple in JerusalemTitus Pullo
pjimage_(9)_(1).jpg
Augustus9 viewsRestoration issue by Titus, AE27 As, Rome Mint, Struck 80-81 AD.
Obverse: DIVVS AVGVS-TVS PATER, Radiate head of Augustus left; above, a star.
Reverse: IMP T CAES AVG RESTITVIT, Eagle perched facing on globe, head right, wings spread, S-C in field.
References: RCV I 2584, RIC II 198/462, Cohen 551, Komnick 34.0
Size: 27mm, 9.98g
Justin L
AugustusAsEagle.jpg
Augustus As93 viewsRestitution piece under Titus. Radiate head of Augustus left, DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER / Eagle on globe, head to right, S-C above, IMP T CAES AVG RESTITVIT around edge. Rome, c. AD 80-81. RIC II 198 (pg. 142).
socalcoins
Augustus_As_02.jpg
Augustus As "Provident"23 viewsRestoration Issue under Titus.
OBV: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER
radiate head left.
REV: IMP T VEST AVG REST
S-C to either side of altar
PROVIDENT in exergue
RIC 191 (Titus)
28mm
Very Rare
goldenancients
Augustus RIC 189 Titus.JPG
Augustus RIC 189 Titus21 viewsAE Dupondius, 27 BC-14 AD
Obv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, Radiate bust left.
Rev: IMP T VESP AVG REST / SC, Victory advancing left carrying shield inscribed SP/QR.
28mm, 12.8 grams
RIC 189 ( Titus)
Jerome Holderman
0521175.jpg
Augustus silver denarius RIC 4325 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 43; RSC II 43; BMCRE II 50;
BnF III 36; Hunter I 21, weight 3.3 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm,
Rome mint, Jul - Dec 71 CE.
Obverse: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M, laureate head right.
Reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus, AVGVR above, TRI POT below
Roman emperor Vespasian was most famous for building the Flavian
Amphitheater, also known as the Colosseum. Like many Roman emperors,
Vespasian rose in prominence because of his military skills and work ethics.
Following his ten year rule, he left behind a record of restored order,
stability and good government. He was succeeded by his son Titus in 79 CE,
who had been sent to quell the Jewish revolt of 66-70 CE.
2 commentsNORMAN K
titus_dora.jpg
BCC 3741 viewsRoman Greek Provincial
Titus 79-81CE (69-79 as Caesar)
Dora Phoenicia
Obv:[Τ Φ]ΛΑVΙ ΟΥΕΣΠ ΚΑΙ ΣΕ[ΒΑΣΤΟΥ]
Laur. head of Titus right.
Rev:[ΔωΡΙΤωΝ LBΛΡ] (year 132 0f the Pompeian era = 69 CE
City goddess standing facing, head right,
holding standard and cornucopia.
G.I.C. 782 (Sear 1982)
AE 21x22mm. 10.82gm. Axis:0
Found on a trail below the western approach to Masada, 1972
v-drome
Titus_capta_BCC_j20.jpg
BCC J2038 viewsRoman Provincial BCC j20
Judaea Capta Series
Caesarea Maritima
Titus 79-81 CE
Obv:AVTOKP TITOΣ KAIΣAP
Laureate head right.
Rev:ΙΟΥΔΑΙΑΣ ΕΑΛWΚΥΙΑΣ
Victory inscribing shield supported
on knee, palm tree to right.
21.5mm. 8.06gm. Axis:0
Hendin III 744
v-drome
titus_capta.jpg
BCC j435 viewsJudaean - Caesarea Maritima
Titus 79-81 CE
Obv:[ΑΥTΟΚΡ TΙT]ΟΣ [ΚΑΙϹΑΡ]
Laur. head of Titus right.
Rev:IΟΥΔΑΙ[Α ΕΑΛWΚ]ΥΙΑΣ
Nike std. right, writing on shield hanging
from palm tree.
AE 18.5mm 6.67 gm. Axis:0
Hendin 743
v-drome
titus_c_m.png
BCC j7 (BCC 17)68 viewsJudaean - Roman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Titus 79-81 CE
Obv:[AVTOKP TITOC KAICAP]
Laur. head right. Countermark of bust, right,
in incuse rectangle. (punch 8x6mm.)
Rev:[ΙΟΥΔΑΙΑΣ ΕΑΛWΚΥΙΑΣ]
Judaea in mourning below, left of trophy,
hands tied, shield to right of trophy.
Hendin 745 21x22mm. 9.43gm. Axis:30
1 commentsv-drome
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-8hDqgyvl4MzVjv-Agrippina.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (Agrippina I)9 viewsAGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI - Bust of Agrippina the Elder, right, her hair falling in queue down her neck
SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE - Carpentum, with ornamented cover and sides, drawn right by two mules
Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.00g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 55
Trillmich Group II; BMCRE 81-5 (Caligula)
BN 128 (Caligula)
BMCRE 86-7 (Caligula)
Cohen 1
Acquisition/Sale: sesterc1975 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Caligula's mother.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

Agrippina Sr.,one of the most tragically unfortunate women of Roman history. Agrippina was destined to achieve the highest possible status that did not happen. In 29AD she was deprived of her freedom, and in 33AD of life itself. This sestertii dedicated to Agrippina was produced by her son Caligula, The inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory of Agrippina.

Of this coin, minted at Rome, in gold and silver, Agrippina occupies the most distinguished place, namely the obverse side. She styles herself (by implication) the wife of Claudius, and, in direct terms, the mother of Nero; as though the government of the empire had been in her hands, and her son only Caesar. It is on this account that Tacitus (Ann. 23), asks -- What help is there in him, who is governed by a woman? It is not to be wondered at therefore, adds Vaillant, if the oaken garland was decreed to this woman and to her son, as it had already been to Caligula and to Claudius, ob cives servatos, by the Senate, whom she assembled in the palace, where she sat discreetly veiled. Praest. Num. Impp. ii. 60.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar.” On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

Three issues of sestertii were struck in honour of Agrippina Senior, one of the most tragically unfortunate women of
Roman history. She began life as a favoured member of the Julio-Claudian family during the reign of her grandfather
Augustus, and upon her marriage to Livia’s grandson Germanicus, she seemed destined to achieve the highest possible
status.
However, upon the death of Augustus and the accession of Tiberius, her life took a turn for the worse: supreme power had
shifted from the bloodlines of the Julii to the Claudii. Though her marriage represented and ideal union of Julian and
Claudian, it was not destined to survive Tiberius’ reign. Germanicus died late in 19 under suspicious circumstances, after
which Agrippina devoted the next decade of her life to openly opposing Tiberius until in 29 he deprived her of freedom,
and in 33 of life itself.
The sestertii dedicated to Agrippina are easily segregated. The first, produced by her son Caligula, shows on its reverse a
carpentum; the second, issued by her brother Claudius, shows SC surrounded by a Claudian inscription, and the third is
simply a restoration of the Claudian type by Titus, on which the reverse inscription is instead dedicated to that emperor.
Though both Caligula and Claudius portrayed Agrippina, each did so from their own perspective, based upon the nature of
their relationship with her. The inscription on Caligula’s coin, AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI, describes
her as the daughter of Marcus (Agrippa) and the mother of Gaius (Caligula). While Claudius also identifies her as
Agrippa’s daughter, his inscription ends GERMANICI CAESARIS, thus stressing her role as the wife of his brother
Germanicus. It is also worth noting that on the issue of Caligula Agrippina has a slender profile like that of her son,
whereas on Claudius’ sestertii her face is more robust, in accordance with his appearance.
The carpentum reverse is not only a superbly executed type, but has a foundation in the recorded events of the day.
Suetonius (Gaius 15) describes the measures taken by Caligula to honour his family at the outset of his reign, which
included gathering the ashes of his mother and brothers, all victims of persecution during the reign of Tiberius. Upon
returning to Rome, Caligula, with his own hands, transferred to an urn his mother’s ashes “with the utmost reverence”; he
then instituted Circus games in her honour, at which “…her image would be paraded in a covered carriage.”
There can be little doubt that the carpentum on this sestertius relates to the special practice initiated by Caligula. The
inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory
of Agrippina.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-ehW7BvU2jIvxxn-Caligula_countermark.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze As4 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT (COUNTERMARK - Bare head left
VESTA SC - Vesta Seated Left, Holding Patera & Sceptre
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 9.60g / 29mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 38
BMCRE 46
BN 54
Cohen 27
Sear5 #1803
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The countermark-TICA- is either from Claudius (Tiberius Claudius Augustus), or, less likely from Titus (Titus Caesar Augustus)

Since this coin was found in Spain, it escaped the Roman recall of Caligula coinage which was to be melted down in Rome. Also I suspect that token coinage was needed in the Western Provinces which thereby also helped keep this coin intact with the countermark of Claudius provided to inform the populace of a new emperor.
Gary W2
CAPPADOCIA__Caesarea__Vespasian_with_Titus_(69-79)__Didrachm__RPC_II_1650,_Sydenham_102__Q-001,_0h,_19mm,_6,73g-s~0.jpg
Cappadocia, Caesarea, 020 Vespasian with Titus (69-79 A.D.), RPC II 1650, AR-Didrachm, Laureate head of Titus right75 viewsCappadocia, Caesarea, 020 Vespasian with Titus (69-79 A.D.), RPC II 1650, AR-Didrachm, Laureate head of Titus right,
avers: AYTOKPA KAICAP OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOC, Laureate head of Vespasian right.
reverse: AYTO KAI OYЄCΠACIANOC CЄBACTOY YIOC, Laureate head of Titus right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 6,73g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cappadocia, Caesarea, date: 69-79 A.D., ref: RPC II 1650, Sydenham 102.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
capric.JPG
Capricorns42 viewsVespasian (by Titus) Van Meter 102Ghengis_Jon
capric2007.jpg
Capricorns220 viewsVespasian by TitusGhengis_Jon
carisia2_denar.jpg
CARISIA 2 denarius - moneyer Titus Carisius - 46 BC34 viewsobv: Diademed and winged bust of Victory right, wearing earring and necklace; jewelled hair pulled into knot, [S. C. behind], banker's mark on face
rev: Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins and wreath., T CARISI in ex., banker's mark on the top of horses
ref: Cr464/1, Syd986, Sear1324, Albert1437(125eur)
2.86gms, 17mm

A very pleasant type struck during the time Cleopatra was in Rome with Caesar.
berserker
Civic_Phrygia_LaodiceiaAdLycum, Demos_AE25_9.7g.jpg
Civic, Phrygia, Laodiceia ad Lycum, Demos, AE2536 viewstime of Titus & Domitian
obv: Laureate bust of youthful Demos right, Δ before
rev: ΛΑΟΔΙΚεΩΝ, Male figure standing facing, head left, holding phiale and palm branch, vase at feet with small vexillum
AE25, 9.7g
Attribution: BMC 87
areich
vespa_eagle.jpg
Commemorative As, eagle, RIC II 49738 viewsVespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D. Commemorative Issued by Titus, Copper as, RIC II 497, Rome mint, 9.804g, 27.5mm, 180o, obverse IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, laureate head right; reverse S C, eagle standing facing on globe, head right, wings spread, S C at sides; ex. FORVM

2 commentsPodiceps
Faustina_II_46.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.271, 711 - Faustina II, Children 21 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome, AD 161-165
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right
Rev.: SAECVLI FELICIT, draped throne on which are two children: Commodus and Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, no stars above, no ball between
Ag, 3.16g, 18.3mm
Ref.: RIC 71, CRE 221 [C]

Variation with diadem > click
Variation with diadem and visible silk chemise > click
shanxi
Faustina_II_R639_fac.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.271, 712 - Faustina II, Children21 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome, AD 161-165
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, diademed draped bust right, indusium (silk chemise) visible.
Rev.: SAECVLI FELICIT, draped throne on which are two children: Commodus and Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, no stars above
Ag, 3.21g, 17mm
Ref.: RIC 712, C 191, CRE 222 [C]
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 65, lot 638

Variation without diadem > click
Variation with diadem, but without visible silk chemise > click
2 commentsshanxi
Faustina_II_3_0.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.271, 712 - Faustina II, Children12 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome, AD 161-165
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, diademed draped bust right
Rev.: SAECVLI FELICIT, draped throne on which are two children: Commodus and Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus, no stars above, ball between
Ag, 3.35g, 17mm
Ref.: RIC 712, C 191, CRE 222 [C]
Ex Dionysos Numismatik

Variation without diadem > click
Variation with diadem and visible silk chemise > click
shanxi
Divus_Vespasianvs_RIC_II_357_(Titvs).jpg
Denarius for Vespasianus (under Titus)147 viewsDenarius for DIVUS VESPASIANVS (struck under Titus). Circa 80-81 AD. Rome mint
20mm and 3.41 g.
Observe : DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right.
Reverse : S C inscribed on shield supported by two capricorns; globe below.
RIC II 357 (Titus).
Rarity : C2
6 commentslabienus
Vespasian.jpg
Denarius of Vespasian (Probable Fouree)47 viewsA (probable fouree) silver denarius of Vespasian, minted in Rome between 80-81 AD. This was minted after his death by his son, Titus. 19.36 g, 2.88 g

Obverse: DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right

Reverse: S C inscribed on shield (remnants visible in hand) supported by two capricorns, orb below.

Attribution: RIC 357 (C2)
1 commentschuy1530
vespa_den~0.jpg
Denarius, Commemorative Issued by Titus, Two capricorns, RIC 63 Titus11 viewsVespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Commemorative Issued by Titus. Silver denarius, RIC II Titus 63, RSC II 497, BMCRE II 129, F, bent, Rome mint, 2.763g, 17.9mm, 180o, posthumous, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right; reverse S C, on shield supported by two Capricorns, globe below; deep divot on obverse gives the coin a cup shape. Ex FORVMPodiceps
titus_ric115_elephant.jpg
Denarius; Elephant walking left17 viewsTitus denarius. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate head right / TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. RSC 303, BMC 43, RIC 115, Sear RCV I 2512. Ex Ferenc G. Seems to be a representative of the (now extinct) North African Elephant (Loxodonta africana pharaoensis)1 commentsPodiceps
piglets.jpg
Denarius; Sow & piglets7 viewsTitus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 778 AD. T CAESAR VESPASIANVS, laureate head right / sow walking left with her piglets, IMP XIII in ex. RIC 220 (Vespasian), Sear RCV I 2443.Podiceps
titus.jpg
Denarius; Wreath on curule chair9 viewsTitus; 79-81 A.D.; AR denarius. Obv: His laureate head right. Rev: Wreath on curule chair. Sear RCV I: 2516.Podiceps
DIVVS_AVGVSTVS_Titus.jpg
DIVUS AUGUSTUS AE As, restitution issue struck by Titus; Eagle standing on globe, head left19 viewsDIVUS AUGUSTUS AE As, restitution issue struck by Titus. 28mm, 8.7g. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left. Reverse - IMP T VESP AVG REST, Eagle standing on globe, head left. Sear RCV I 2583. Ex IncitatusPodiceps
divusvesp.jpg
Divus Vespasian46 viewsVESPASIAN, posthumous memorial AR silver denarius, Struck by TITUS, 79AD. DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head of Divus Vespasian right. Reverse - S C inscribed on shield supported by two capricorns, orb below. RCV 2569, scarce. Well centered on a full sized flan. 19mm, 3.2g.1 commentsfordicus
Vespasian~1.jpg
Divus Vespasian57 viewsDIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS
laureate head right

E-X across field,
S C inscribed on shield set on a column, column surmounted by an urn, laurel branch on either side.

Rome,80-81 AD

2.87g

RIC II 62 (Titus); BMCRE 125 (Titus); BN 98; RSC 149; SEAR 6568

Ex-Calgary Coin

Sold Forum Auction March 2017
2 commentsJay GT4
DiviVespQuadriga.jpg
Divus Vespasian / Quadriga52 viewsDivus Vespasian. Died AD 79. Denarius struck under Titus, 80-81.
O: DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS. Laureate head of Divus Vespasian to right.
R: EX S C Empty quadriga advancing left, ornamented with a miniature quadriga flanked by Victories at the top and two standing figures on the side.
- BMC 119. BN 94. RIC 361 (all under Titus).
3 commentsNemonater
Vespasian_ric_60~0.jpg
Divus Vespasian(us)115 viewsRIC II 361 (Titus), RSC 146.
Divus Vespasian, struck under Titus, denarius.
Rome mint, 80-81 AD.
Obv. DIVVS AVGVSTVS VESPASIANVS, laureate head right.
Rev. EX S C in exergue, slow quadriga left, car ornamented with swag across front, two figures brandishing spears, Victories flanking quadriga above.

This coin, minted by Titus in honor of his deceased father, is a 10th anniversary commemorative of the triumph held in Rome after the reconquest of Judaea.

The quadriga on the reverse is a tensa, a chariot shaped like a temple in which the attributes of the divine Vespasian were borne to the Circus in the procession before games, an honor to the deceased Vespasian voted to him by the Senate, EX S C (source: information from Curtis L. Clay).

Good silver and nice details. Nothing better than a quadriga reverse!
3 commentsmars1112
domicianocasco.jpg
DOMITIAN25 viewsAR denarius. 80-81 AD. 3.39 grs. 6h. Laureate head right. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII / Corinthian helmet on draped seat. PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS.
RIC 271 (Titus). RSC 399a
benito
domicianocasco~0.jpg
DOMITIAN12 viewsAR denarius. 80-81 AD. 3.39 grs. 6h. Laureate head right. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII / Corinthian helmet on draped seat. PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS.
RIC 271 (Titus). RSC 399a
benito
Domitian.jpg
Domitian31 viewsRoman Empire
Imperator Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus
(Reign as 11th Emperor: Sept. 14th, 81-Sept. 18th, 96)
(Born: Oct. 24th, 51, Died: Sept. 18th, 96 [age: 44])

Obverse: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP XI, Head of Domitian wearing laurel wreath and facing right

Reverse: IMP XXI COS XVI CENS P PP, Minerva standing on a galley's prow (or a rostral column), holding spear and shield, owl at feet

Silver Denarius (18.2mm, 3.63g)
Minted in Rome circa 92


Understanding the inscriptions:

IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM=Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus
Sphinx357
domi_goat_rev.JPG
Domitian RIC II Rome 4969 viewsAR 18 mm 3.1 grams 80 AD
OBV ::CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right
REV ::PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left in laurel wreath.
ex :: none
REF :: RIC II Rome 49, RSC 390, BMC 88
Purchased 12/09


Minted while Domitian was Caesar under Titus
3 commentsJohnny
Domitian_RSC_590A_(fourree).JPG
Domitian (as Caesar), 69 - 81 AD67 viewsObv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head of Domitian facing right.

Rev: TRP VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII PP, radiate statue atop a rostral column.

Plated Denarius, Type of Rome mint, c. 80 - 81 AD

3 grams, 19.5 mm, 180°

By looking at this coin accuracy wasn't important to ancient counterfeiters. The obverse is a Domitian as Caesar whereas the reverse is taken from a coin of his brother Titus as Augustus.

A similar hybrid is listed in Roman Silver Coins as Domitian 590b with slightly different inscriptions.
SPQR Coins
Domitian_RIC_T51.JPG
Domitian (as Caesar), 69 - 81 AD38 viewsObv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head of Domitian facing right.

Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, a crested Corinthian helmet resting on a draped seat or throne.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 80 AD

3 grams, 19 mm, 180°

RIC II Titus 51, RSC 399a, S2677, VM 55/7

Ex: FORVM
1 commentsSPQR Coins
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AZHPr90kZBFMK-Julia_Titi_sestertius.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius4 viewsDIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F SPQR - Carpentum drawn right by two mules.
IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (92-94 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.24g / 33mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC II 760 (Domitian)
BMCRE 471-3 (Domitian)
Sear 2891
Cohen 10
Provenances:
Münzhandlung André Cichos
Acquisition/Sale: Münzhandlung André Cichos MA-Shops $0.00 08/18

Julia Titi was the daughter of the Emperor Titus, and although married, she had an affair with her uncle Domitian. In 83 A.D., Domitian divorced his wife and lived openly with her. It has been said that she died because Domitian forced her to have an abortion but modern research indicates this allegation is false.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AZHPr90kZBFMK-Julia_Titi_sestertius~0.jpg
Domitian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius16 viewsDIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F SPQR - Carpentum drawn right by two mules.
IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (92-94 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 21.24g / 33mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC II 760 (Domitian)
BMCRE 471-3 (Domitian)
Sear 2891
Cohen 10
Provenances:
Münzhandlung André Cichos
Acquisition/Sale: Münzhandlung André Cichos MA-Shops $0.00 08/18

Julia Titi was the daughter of the Emperor Titus, and although married, she had an affair with her uncle Domitian. In 83 A.D., Domitian divorced his wife and lived openly with her. It has been said that she died because Domitian forced her to have an abortion but modern research indicates this allegation is false.

Per RIC-Rare
Gary W2
RIC_Domitian_RIC_II_(Titus)_170c.JPG
Domitian (Titus Flavius Domitianus) (Caesar, 69-81 A.D.; Augustus, 81-96 A.D.)35 viewsRIC II (Titus) 170c

AE As (25 mm), Rome mint, struck 80-81 A.D., under Titus.

Obv: CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII, laureate head right.

Rev: Minerva advancing right, brandishing javelin and holding shield, S-C surrounding.

RIC rarity C

From an uncleaned coin lot.
Stkp
Domitian_denar_Princeps_Iuventutis.jpg
Domitian - AR denarius5 views(struck by Titus)
Rome
79 AD
laureate head right
CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI
clapsing hands, standard on prow behind
PRINCEPS__IVVENTVTIS
RIC II, part 1, Titus 96; RSC II 395; BMCRE II 85; SRCV I 2673
2,72g
Johny SYSEL
Domitian.jpg
Domitian - RIC 96 (Titus)68 viewsDomitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 80 AD. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right / PRINCEPTS IVVENTVTIS, clasped hands holding a legionary eagle on prow. RSC 395, RIC 96, BMC 85, RCV 26732 commentsBud Stewart
Domitian_RIC_266_(Titus).jpg
Domitian - [RIC II part 1 Titus 266, RSC II 397a; BMCRE II Titus 92; BnF III 76; SRCV I 2676]88 viewsSilver denarius, choice VF, 3.456g, 17.9mm, 180 degree, Rome mint, as caesar 80 - 81 A.D.

Obv. - CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right

Rev. - PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, flaming and garlanded altar

Excellent Titus-like portrait, slight golden tone around legend on obverse, and perfect centering.
___________

Purchased from Forum Ancient Coins

Ex. FORVM Dealer Photo
2 commentsrenegade3220
Domitian.jpg
Domitian 81-96 A.D.14 viewsSYRIA, Antioch. Domitian, 81-96 AD. Æ19.5~20.4mm. 6.71g. Obv: DOMITIANVS CAESAR, laureate head left. Rev: Large SC in laurel wreath. RPC 2017. McAlee 403e. BMC 252.
Domitian: Caesar under Vespasian 69-79 AD; Caesar under Titus 79-81 AD; Augustus 81-96 AD.
ddwau
Domitian_Titus_Olba.jpg
Domitian and Titus - Olba10 views69-81 AD
head of Domitian left
ΔOMITIANOY·KAIΣAPOΣ
head of Titus right
AYTOKPATOPOΣ·TITOY·OYEΣΠAΣIAN_OY·
RPC 1720
14,2g
ex Naumann
Johny SYSEL
Domit_As_3.jpg
Domitian As50 viewsDomitian, as Caesar, AE As. 80-81 AD. CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII, laureate head right / S-C, Minerva standing left, holding spear & thunderbolt.

RIC 169b[titus]
1 commentsTanit
s-l400-30~0.jpg
Domitian as Caesar AR Denarius Rome Mint Under Titus 80-81 AD27 viewsDomitian as Caesar AR Denarius Rome Mint Under Titus
80-81 AD
Obverse: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII Laureate head of Domitian right

Reverse: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS Altar garlanded and lighted, horns left and right RIC 266

Size: 18mm, 3.29g

Ex Romae Aeternae Numismatics 09.09.2018
1 commentsBritanikus
domit2323.jpg
Domitian as Caesar Denarius RIC 9615 viewsAR Denarius , 17.93mm, 3.42g. Rome mint, Struck 80 AD under Titus the reverse shows clasped hands over an aquila set on a prow, representing "Concordia Militum" - "Harmony of the troops" RIC 96 (C). BMC 85. RSC 395.

Britanikus
CA-JB518LG.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC 9689 viewsAR Denarius, 3.39g
Rome mint, 80 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Hands clasped over aquila on prow
RIC 96 (C). BMC 85. RSC 395. BNC 71.
Acquired from Imperial Coins, August 2011.

Struck in 80 AD under Titus, the reverse shows clasped hands over an aquila set on a prow, apparently representing "Concordia Militum" - "Harmony of the troops" (BMC II, xlii-xliii). An odd choice to be sure for anyone other than the emperor to issue. According to Suetonius - "After the death of his father, he (Domitian) hesitated for a long time whether he should offer the soldiery a double bounty and he never had any hesitation in stating that he had been left as a partner in the imperial position but that fraud had been applied to the will." (Suet., Dom., 2)

There is a COS VI of this reverse type assigned under Vespasian in both RIC and BMCRE but certainly post dates Vespasian's death.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
T97.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC 9779 viewsAR Denarius, 2.74g
Rome mint, 80 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Salus, stg. r., resting on column, feeding snake out of patera
RIC 97 (C). BMC 84. RSC 386. BNC -.
Ex Lanz, eBay, 28 March 2016.

The Salus feeding snake type was struck for Domitian Caesar under both Vespasian as COS VI and Titus as COS VII. AVG F in the obverse legend indicates this denarius was coined before Vespasian's deification, after which DIVI F was used. This Salus type was unique to Domitan Caesar and was discontinued in the following DIVI F issue when a whole new slate of reverse designs were employed.

Not as commonly found as the COS VI version.


6 commentsDavid Atherton
IMG_0344.JPG
Domitian as Caesar RIC 99101 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Rome mint, 80 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Vesta, std. l., with palladium and sceptre
RIC 99 (R). BMC 83. RSC 380a. BNC 70.
Acquired from Artifact Man, February 2016.

The Vesta type was struck for Domitian Caesar with him as COS VI in 79 under Vespasian and COS VII in 80 under Titus. This denarius bears the COS VII dating and is much rarer than the common COS VI. Perhaps the window of time these rare COS VII Vesta denarii were struck was quite small because a whole new set of reverse designs were soon employed for him later in the year after Vespasian's deification (the DIVI F issue).

A fine denarius with dark toning.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
RIC_680.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC II V068044 viewsDomitian under Vespasian. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 73 A.D. (2.96 grams, 19.27 mm. 0 degree). Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II, laureate head right. Rev: Domitian riding horse left, right hand raised, sceptre in left with human head on it. RIC II V680. BMC 129.

This type probably refers to triumphal parade held for the victory Vespasian and Titus earned in Judaea. Suetonius and Josephus reveal that while Vespasian and Titus rode in separate chariots, Domitian, "magnificently adorned," rode alongside Titus' chariot on a splendid white horse.
3 commentsLucas H
Domitian_as_Caesar_RIC_V1087.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC II V108734 viewsDomitian as Caesar 69-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 79, to 24 June A.D. (3.39g, 17.7mm, 6h). Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, laureate head right. Rev: Vesta std. l., with Palladium and scepter. RIC II V1087, BMC 262, RSC 378.

Vesta was the virgin goddess of home, hearth, and family. This was a part of the last issue of precious metal coins before Vespasian’s death, and this reverse is not shared with Vespasian or Titus.

This is another upgrade. When I first narrowed by primary collecting area to Flavian denarii, I tended to pick up common coins without regard for condition. In the back of my mind, I wondered if another would come along at all, much less in a price range I could afford. After watching the market for a longer period of time and understanding it better, I see my mistake, and now have the patience to wait for better examples of common coins. However, this leaves me correcting some of my early mistakes with upgrades.

This example is well centered and the obverse lettering is very sharp.
2 commentsLucas H
2610032LG.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC-266115 viewsAR Denarius, 3.49g
Rome Mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII•; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Altar, garlanded and lighted
RIC 266 (C2). BMC 92. RSC 397a. BNC 76.
Acquired from Impacto Coleccionables S.L., June 2010.

This coin is part of the "pulvinar" series minted in 80-81 AD. The pulvinar represented here may be that of Vesta and possibly Vulcan.

Decent coin in choice metal.
David Atherton
domitian as caesar goat wreath.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC-267124 viewsAR Denarius, 3.09g
Rome Mint, 80 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII•; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Goat standing l., in laurel-wreath.
RIC 267(C). BMC 88. RSC 390. BNC 73.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, August 2007.

Issued during Titus' reign, this coin's reverse depicts Amalthea, the Cretan goat which nursed the infant Jupiter. An obvious allusion to Domitian being the next in line to the throne.

A nicely centered coin in decent shape of this unusual reverse type. A welcome addition to my growing Domitian as Caesar denarii.
1 commentsVespasian70
V11549.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC-26893 viewsAR Denarius, 3.43g
Rome Mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Minerva adv r., with spear and shield
RIC 268 (C). BMC 86. RSC 381a. BNC 72.
Acquired from Amphora Coins, May 2008.

Domitian, as attested in Suetonius (Dom. 4), was crazy for Minerva and made her his patron Goddess, even going so far as to keep a shrine of her in his bed chambers (Dom. 17).

The denarii of Domitian as Augustus after 82 AD become almost monolithic in the devotion to Minerva. It is quite obvious he had a hand in what kind of reverse types his coins featured.
Vespasian70
dom as caesar helmet.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC-271172 viewsAR Denarius, 2.74g
Rome Mint, 80 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Square seat, draped with cloth hanging in folds, with tassels: on it, crested Corinthian helmet
RIC 271 (C2). BMC 98. RSC 399a. BNC 79.
Acquired from Et Tu Antiquities, November 2007.

Domitian as Caesar issued this denarius under Titus in 80 AD. The reverse is part of the pulvinaria series which commemorates the opening of the Colosseum in 80 AD.

Pulvinaria were sacred couches of the gods which had symbolic attributes set upon them. In this case, the Corinthian helmet and table are attributes of Minerva, the patron goddess of Domitian.

A wonderful denarius with a good portrait in a fine style.

6 commentsVespasian70
T294.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC-29472 viewsÆ Sestertius, 24.01g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIANVS COS VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in field; Minerva adv. r., with spear and shield
RIC 294 (C). BMC 231. BNC 238.
Acquired from Olding, MA Shops, May 2019 = Olding, List 96, March 2019, Sammlung Fritz Reusing, no. 177. From the collection of Fritz Reusing (1874-1956), inherited and continued by Reusing's nephew Paul Schürer (1890-1976).

An exquisite sestertius struck for Domitian as Caesar under Titus featuring his patron deity Minerva. DIVI AVG VESP F tells us the coin was struck after Vespasian's deification. The date of Vespasian's consecratio is dated by the epigraphic evidence sometime between September 8, 79 - May 29, 80, so this sestertius could not have been struck much earlier than June 80. The Minerva reverse was one of the more common types struck during this second bronze issue for Domitian Caesar under Titus.

Although fine portraits can occasionally be seen in silver, it is on the larger canvas of the bronze where the full flower of Roman imperial portraiture can be seen. This sestertius has one of the finest portraits of Domitian I've come across. A superb example of the imperial engraver's art.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
T517.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC-517115 viewsAR Cistophorus, 10.77g
Rome mint (for Asia), 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAES DIVI F•DOMITIANVS COS VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: DIVO VESP across field; Altar shrine
RIC 517 (R). BMC 150. RSC 95. RPC 862 (6 spec.). BNC 112.
Acquired from NumisCorner, July 2017.

A fairly scarce Domitian Caesar cistophorus struck under Titus. The reverse honours the divine Vespasian and shows what catalogues have traditionally called a 'large altar' - in fact what the reverse depicts is a shrine in the shape of an altar. The doors, columns, and steps are strong evidence that what we are seeing is a building and not an altar. How the shrine related to the Temple of the Divine Vespasian is unknown.

Struck in good metal and fine Roman style.
9 commentsDavid Atherton
Domitian_as_Caesar_RIC_II_T266.jpg
Domitian as Caesar under Titus RIC II T026641 viewsDomitian as Caesar. 69-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 80-81 A.D. (3.23g, 18.5mm, 6h). Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITANVS COS VII, laureate head right. Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Altar, garlanded and lighted. RIC II T266, BMC T92, RSC 397a.

A unique pulvinaria reverse type for Domitian at the time used both as Caesar and emperor. The addition of “DIVI F” on Domitian’s coins in 80 A.D. help scholars determine that Vespasian’s deification had taken place by 80 A.D., although it arguably took place before in 79 A.D..

While worn, the legends on this example are complete.
1 commentsLucas H
TRIC267_Dom_as_C.jpg
Domitian as Caesar under Titus RIC II T026740 viewsDomitian as Caesar under Titus. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 80-81 A.D. (18 mm, 3.39 g.) Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right. Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, goat standing left within laurel wreath. RIC II T267; BMC T88; RSC 390. 2 commentsLucas H
Domitian_as_Caesar_under_TItus__RIC_II_T0267V.jpg
Domitian as Caesar under Titus RIC II T0267V39 viewsDomitian as Caesar under Titus. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 80-81 A.D. (3.28g, 18.0mm, 6h) Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head left. Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, goat standing left within laurel wreath. RIC II T267 Variant (head left) (R2).

An interesting variant on the right facing common coin minted under Titus after the deification of Vespasian. I thought this might be a unique example, but Curtis Clay was aware of a previous example sold by Lucernae, on eBay, 25 Nov. 2013. With a weight of 2.46g.

This example is well centered and has full legends. Given the wear, it was well circulated, and others are bound to surface.
1 commentsLucas H
Domitian_as_Caesear,_RIC_II_T268.jpg
Domitian as Caesar under Titus RIC II T026836 viewsDomitian as Caesar. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 80-81. (3.17g, 19.5mm, 6h). Obv: r to l out- CɅESɅR DIVI F DOMITIɅNVS COS VII, laureate head right. Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Minerva advancing right with spear and shield. RIC II T268, RIC 268.

As Caesar, Domitian had many fewer coin types minted during Titus’ reign than he did during Vespasian’s longer reign. Even as Caesar, Domitian used Minerva on his coins which was to become much more common under Domitian as Augustus.
Lucas H
Domitian_as_Caesar_RIC_II_T0271.jpg
Domitian as Caesar under Titus RIC II T027121 viewsDomitian as Caesar. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 80-81 A.D. (3.35g, 17.2m, 6h). Obv: CɅESɅR DIVI F DOMITIɅNVS COS VII, laureate head right. Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, draped seat with Corinthian helmet above. RIC II T271, Sear 2677, RSC 300a. Ex Warren Esty private collection.

This type, issued after the deification of Vespasian, is another of the pulvinaria types mirroring Titus’ issues of 80 A.D. The use of DIVI F corresponded with new precious metal types following the older types with AVG F and helps scholars date the deification of Vespasian.
Lucas H
Domitian_as_Caesar_RIC_II_T272.jpg
Domitian as Caesar under Titus RIC II T027248 viewsDomitian as Caesar. 79-81 A.D. AR Quinarius. Rome Mint 80-81 A.D. (1.59g, 15.7m, 6h). Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head r. Rev: VICTORIA AVGVST (clockwise in), Victory adv. r. with wreath and palm. RIC II T272 (R).

A rare quinarius issued for Domitian as Caesar under Titus. It is through Domitian’s coinage with Divi F. that scholars determine Vespasian’s deification likely took place in 80 A.D. It appears the precious metal coinage of Titus was largely restricted to the first half of 80 A.D., perhaps because of the great fire in Rome.
3 commentsLucas H
Domitian_as_Caesar_RIC_II_T518.jpg
Domitian as Caesar under Titus RIC II T0518 cistophoric tetradrachm 60 viewsDomitian as Caesar under Titus. AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm. Rome Mint for Asia. 80-81 A.D. (10.64 g, 23,3m, 6h). Obv: CAES DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right. Rev: PRINC IVVENTVT, Domitian riding left, right hand raised, holding scepter. RIC II (Titus 518).

Subject to some dispute, cistophorii of the Flavians are thought to be minted in Rome for use in the East based on style. This coin mimics a denarius of Domitian as Caesar under Vespasian (RIC II V539), and likely refers to Domitian’s ride in the Judean triumph celebrated by Vespasian and Titius. Ex Incitatus, HBJ, and ACCG.
2 commentsLucas H
DomIVDCAP_I.jpg
Domitian Caesar / Titus Judaea Capta Sestertius Mule84 viewsDomitian Caesar / Titus Judaea Capta Æ Sestertius Mule, 25.38 g. Rome mint, struck 80/81

O: [CAES DIVI] AVG VESP F DOMITIAN[VS COS VII] - RIC II 288-306 (Titus)
R: IVD CAP across fields; SC in field below; mourning Jewess to left of palm on pile of arms; Jew on right with hands bound, arms on ground. - Titus RIC 153 (Perhaps a die match); Hendin 1593b; Upcoming addenda Titus 287A.

The only known sestertius mule under Titus.

From the patina it was likely found in eastern Europe, perhaps Bulgaria, a rich find spot for a lot of the judaea sestertii.

What evidence points to RIC II 288 / 306?

As noted by Curtis Clay, "Obverse legends beginning CAESAR are rare, and so far only known with portrait laur. left, according to RIC 275-7. Legends beginning CAES are very much more common.

With the N of DOMITIAN placed before Domitian's mouth, too much space seems to remain for just COS VII. We almost need that added VS to fill out the space.

Flavian mules in gold or silver occur with some regularity, though they are all rare individually.

It's not surprising, however, that very few sestertius mules occurred.

1. Vespasian struck c. 90% of the sestertii of his reign in the single year 71. Mules were impossible, because he hadn't yet begun striking sestertii for Titus and Domitian!

2. Later, when sestertii were being struck for Titus and Domitian too, the rev. types were not usually personalized, for example by carrying on the imperial titulature of each emperor, but were general and could be shared among the emperors, for example S C Spes advancing, or PAX AVGVSTI S C. Virtually all of the rev. types were appropriate for all three emperors, so there could be no mules!

Under Titus the possibilities for mules increased, since more types were introduced that were apparently meant for just one of the two imperial brothers, for example:

Titus: the Judaea Capta types, ANNONA AVG without S C, FELICIT PVBLIC, PIETAS AVGVST (Titus and Dom. shaking hands), PROVIDENT AVGVST (Vesp. hands globe to Titus), S C (Roma hands Palladium to Titus on horseback)

Domitian: S C (Minerva fighting right)."
3 commentsNemonater
AAEXb_small.png
Domitian Denarius8 viewsDomitian. Caesar under Vespasian 69-79 AD; Caesar under Titus 79-81 AD; Augustus 81-96 AD.

18 mm., 2,66 g.

Struck 81AD, Rome

IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M: Head of Domitian, laureate, right

TR P COS VII DES VIII P P: Wreath above curule chair

References: RIC 48; Sear 2747

AAEX
RL
Domitian_RIC_267.jpg
Domitian Denarius A.D. 80 RIC 267 [Titus], RSC 390, BMC 8848 viewsCAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left in laurel wreath.
Maximum Diameter: 18.0 mm
Weight: 3.39 g
5 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
AAFDb_small.png
Domitian Dupondius10 viewsDomitian. Caesar under Vespasian 69-79 AD; Caesar under Titus 79-81 AD; Augustus 81-96 AD.

28 mm., 10.77g.

Rome. 85-96AD

IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM [COS ... CENS POT P P]: Bust of Domitian, radiate, right, possibly with aegis

VIRTVTI AVGVSTI S C: Virtus standing right, resting foot on helmet, holding spear and parazonium

References: similar to RIC 374

AAFD
RL
DomDup.jpg
Domitian dupondius, 92-94 AD, Rome mint22 viewsDomitian. An emperor very much shaped by the circumstances of his upbringing, in a tumultuous and chaotic time, and neglected by (one of my more loved emperors) Vespasian in favor of Titus. I will give him serious commendation on the seriousness of his paranoia... "your lord and god Domitian" might have been paranoid, but he wasn't crazy in the vein of Commodus, Caracalla, or Caligula. For that, I can respect him.

Die axis 180 degrees.
EvaJupiterSkies
29026q00.jpg
Domitian RIC 01103 viewsAR Denarius, 3.36g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII; Curule chair; above, wreath
RIC 1 (C). BMC p. 298 note. RSC 553. BNC 5.
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, January 2010.

This pulvinaria type is a carryover reverse from Titus that Domitian continued upon his accession. The only titles present here are IMP, AVG, TR P, and COS; titles he would have assumed immediately upon Titus' death, placing this coin very early in the reign.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
D2.jpg
Domitian RIC 0286 viewsAR Denarius, 3.08g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII; Dolphin coiled around anchor
RIC 2 (R). BMC 3. RSC 551. BNC 3.
Ex Den of Antiquity, eBay, March 2014.

Domitian's first issue of denarii seamlessly picks up where Titus' last issue left off. The pulvinaria types minted for Titus are reused and the portraits of Domitian are identical to those issued for him as Caesar under Titus. The only titles present here are IMP, AVG, TR P, and COS; titles he would have assumed immediately upon Titus' death. The dolphin and anchor reverse is a bit rarer than others from this issue. The obverse is a die match with my RIC 1.

A decent coin struck on a small flan (typical of the early issues) in good early style.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D3.jpg
Domitian RIC 0382 viewsAR Denarius, 3.13g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII; Seat, draped; above, triangular frame decorated with corn ears
RIC 3 (R). BMC 2. RSC 554a. BNC 2.
Acquired from Museum Surplus, July 2013.

Here we have a rather worn denarius of Domitian which may at first glance appear unremarkable, however, to me it is anything but that. Minted within the first few days of Domitian's reign, the reverse type is a carry-over from Titus' 'pulvinar' series. The mint had yet to develop unique or new reverse types for Domitian. Here we see a triangular frame above a chair, which is its only appearance in Domitian's 'pulvinar' series making this a rather rare coin. The early dating of the type can be confirmed by the spartan-like reverse titles that show Domitian simply as Tribunica Potestat for the first time and Consul for the seventh. Domitian was notorious for his adherence to the correct form of his titles, as clearly evident here. He would not advertise any titles that had yet to be bestowed. The absence of PM or P P is glaringly apparent.

A nice little coin that provides a neat glimpse into the workings of a mint and the mind of a new emperor.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D4.JPG
Domitian RIC 04101 viewsAR Denarius, 3.18g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII; Seat, draped; above, thunderbolt
RIC 4 (C). BMC 1. RSC 554. BNC 1.

The early issues of Domitian show a progression of the titles he assumed soon after his accession. This denarius is part of the first issue, evident by Domitian's sparse titles of IMP, AVG and TRP only, he is not yet Pontifex Maximus (PONT or PM) or Pater Patriae (P P). The reverse is a pulvinaria type carried over from Titus. The style is identical to the Domitian as Caesar denarii struck under Titus as well. NB: Thunderbolt is not winged.

A good example of the early portrait style.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D5b.jpg
Domitian RIC 0583 viewsAR Denarius, 3.30g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII; Tripod with fillets; above, ravens, l. and r., and dolphin over wreath
RIC 5 (C). BMC 4. RSC 552. BNC 4.
Ex Lanz, eBay, 17 November 2013.

Domitian's 81 AD Group 1 denarii are fairly rare, issued perhaps within the first days of him obtaining the purple. The early dating of the type can be confirmed by the spartan-like reverse titles that show Domitian simply as Tribunica Potestat for the first time and Consul for the seventh. Domitian was notorious for his adherence to the correct form of his titles, as clearly evident here. He would not advertise any titles that had yet to be bestowed. The absence of PM or P P is glaringly apparent.

The reverse is a carry-over 'pulvinaria' type from Titus' reign and is the only appearance of the tripod with ravens in Domitian's 'pulvinaria' series. The group 1 denarii show an uncanny connection with reverse types previously minted for Titus, perhaps indicating little interruption in mint production between the reigns. The series may be connected to the opening games of the Flavian Amphitheatre.

A decent coin in fine metal with an early style reminiscent of Domitian as Caesar under Titus.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
Domitian_RIC_96_or_1081.jpg
Domitian RIC 108130 viewsRIC 1081[vesp]
sear5 #2643 Domitian Denarius. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI Laureate head right / PRINCEPS

IVVENTVTIS, clasped hands before legionary eagle. RSC 393.

or

RIC 96[titus]
sear5 #2673 Domitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 80 AD. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate

head right / PRINCEPTS IVVENTVTIS, clasped hands holding a legionary eagle on prow. RSC 395.
renegade3220
D15.jpg
Domitian RIC 1585 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: P P COS VII DES VIII; Seat, draped; above, semicircular frame decorated with corn ears
RIC 15 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Savoca Blue 10, 30 September 2018, lot 1212.

The rapidity in which Domitian's first denarius issues of 81 came one after another hint that he was in a great hurry to strike coins as Augustus after Titus' death in mid September 81 AD, presumably for a legionary donative. Dio records that Domitian hastened to the praetorian camp to 'receive the title and authority of the emperor' and promised the soldiers the same bounty Titus had provided. The Roman mint immediately began striking coins for the new emperor. This denarius was struck before Domitian had been awarded the power of the tribunate (TR P). Perhaps it may have taken a few days for the Senate to award the power of the tribunate to Domitian because they had assembled at the small town of Reate where Titus had died and needed to be in Rome in order to vote him the right. Although this Group 2 denarius is not part of Domitian's first RIC issue, it is very likely to have been struck within the first few weeks of him assuming the purple. RIC notes the chronology is not precise with these issues from 81 and they are grouped only for 'convenience'. Judging by the rarity of the Group 2 denarii they could not have been struck for any great length of time.

The type of draped seat with semi circular frame is a carry-over 'pulvinaria' type from Titus, possibly originally struck in connection with the Colosseum's opening games' religious ceremonies. Domitian's 'pulvinaria' coins are a stop-gap issue struck until proper reverse types were designed for the new reign in early 82 when the mint and coinage were overhauled.

Good early style portrait, unsurprisingly reminiscent of those struck for him as Caesar under Titus.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D16.jpg
Domitian RIC 1698 viewsAR Denarius, 3.43g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: P P COS VII DES VIII; Seat, draped; above, semicircular frame decorated with three crescents
RIC 16 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC 8.
Acquired from Germania Inferior, June 2018.

Domitian seems to have been somewhat in a hurry to strike coins as Augustus after Titus' death in mid September 81 AD, presumably for a legionary donative. This denarius was struck before Domitian had been awarded the power of the tribunate (TR P) and pontifex maximus (PM). Here his only titles are Augustus (AVG), Imperator (IMP), Consul for the 7th time (COS VII), and pater patriae, father of the country (P P). Perhaps it may have taken a few days for the Senate to award the power of the tribunate to Domitian because they had assembled at the small town of Reate where Titus had died and needed to be in Rome in order to vote him the right. The religious ceremonies required for Domitian to assume the title pontifex maximus had not yet finished by this time either, here he is simply PONT, or in other words a member of the College of Pontiffs. Some have argued that PONT is the same as PM, I disagree. Titus as Caesar early on had also used the title PONT on his denarii and he was never pontifex maximus under Vespasian - only the emperor can be Pontifex Maximus or greatest priest. Although this Group 2 denarius is not part of Domitian's first RIC issue, it is very likely to have been struck within the first few days of him assuming the purple. RIC notes the chronology is not precise with these issues from 81 and they are grouped only for 'convenience'. Judging by the rarity of the Group 2 denarii they could not have been struck for any great length of time.

Dark cabinet toning with a stylish early portrait.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
D20.jpg
Domitian RIC 20155 viewsAR Denarius, 3.02g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Altar, garlanded and lighted
RIC 20 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 707. Acquired from Freeman & Sear in 2009, from the A. Lynn Collection. Ex. Hauck & Aufhauser 17, 18 March 2003, lot 258. Ex G. Hirsch 3, April 1954, lot 323.

This type is quite rare with the legend omitting TR P. Only two specimens are cited by RIC, this coin from the Hauck & Aufhauser 17 auction and another in a private collection.
The reverse type of an Altar with Flame is part of the "pulvinaria" series issued by Titus and Domitian as part of the commemorative issue for the opening games of the Colosseum. It is a carry-over reverse from Domitian as Caesar.

Toned and in excellent condition. An exquisite example of early Domitianic coinage.
11 commentsDavid Atherton
D26.jpg
Domitian RIC 2691 viewsAR Denarius, 3.53g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Dolphin coiled around anchor
RIC 26 (R). BMC spec. acquired 1987. RSC 63. BNC -.
Acquired from CGB, November 2017. Ex CGB Live Auction, 1 August 2017, lot brm_440753 (unsold).

An interesting denarius from Domitian's Group 3 denarii, a carry-over type from Titus' pulvinaria series. Curiously, the reverse legend lacks a TRP date (a title Domitian was awarded upon accession), yet it is matched with an obverse legend employed later in the year. This reverse legend is more appropriate chronologically paired with the early 'PONT' obverse dies with which it also shares a link. RIC notes the chronology is not precise with these issues from 81 and they are grouped only for 'convenience'. A possible explanation for such an odd legend pairing would be the mint workers continuing to use old reverse dies with newly engraved obverses. With that in mind, it is not surprising die links between Groups 2, 3, and 4 are known. Generally, denarii with the reverse legend lacking TRP are quite scarce - all of the types in the group have a frequency rating of rare or very rare. The dolphin and anchor reverse is probably the most common one in the issue.

A pleasing 'pinched' portrait in fine metal.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
D28.jpg
Domitian RIC 28133 viewsAR Denarius, 3.23g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Minerva adv r., with spear and shield (M1)
RIC 28 (R2). BMC p. 433. RSC 56a. BNC -.

The Minerva on this denarius is distinctively quite flamboyant and was struck in the Autumn of 81 soon after Domitian became emperor. This is one of the earliest appearances of Minerva for Domitian as Augustus and it copies the same type coined for him as Caesar under Titus the previous year. The reverse is a die match with the RIC plate coin.

A rare coin in lovely style and well centred.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
D32sm.jpg
Domitian RIC 32154 viewsAR Denarius, 2.96g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, semicircular frame decorated with three crescents
RIC 32 (R). BMC 10. RSC 60. BNC 11.

A common pulvinaria reverse type, rare with this reverse legend. These pulvinaria types were carried over from Titus, perhaps indicating uninterrupted production at the mint during the transition from Titus' to Domitian's reign.

A respectable coin in average condition and style.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
D36.jpg
Domitian RIC 36121 viewsAR Denarius, 3.23g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt
RIC 36 (R). BMC 9. RSC 62. BNC 10.
Acquired from Hall's Hammered Coins, May 2014.

If one would like evidence of continued uninterrupted mint production during the transition from Titus' to Domitian's reign, one need look no further than the pulvinaria series of denarii struck by both brothers. Titus began issuing these religious types in 80 as IMP XV, which is the last imperial acclamation recorded on his coinage. Oddly enough when Domitian was proclaimed emperor upon Titus' death a year later in September 81 these are the first types struck for him, despite a previous mint hiatus. Apparently the mint did not have many new types in readiness for Domitian. It is also quite possible religious appropriations were still required by the state when Domitian ascended to the purple.

This reverse type from the 3rd group of 81 featuring a draped chair and thunderbolt is likely the pulvinar of Jupiter. Strangely enough TRP is absent from the legends, why this is so I cannot say. It's a puzzling mystery considering the first group of denarii indeed record it.

The youthful portrait style is identical to those struck for Domitian as Caesar under Titus. Nicely toned and well centered.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D40.jpg
Domitian RIC 40112 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Altar, garlanded and lighted
RIC 40 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Acquired from London Ancient Coins, June 2017.

An early rare 'PONT' denarius struck towards the end of 81. The abbreviation 'PONT' for Ponitfex Maximus must have come early in the sequence of titles Domitian employed on his denarii and likely was short lived if its rarity is any indication. The records of the Arval brothers do not show Domitian as Pontifex Maximus by 30 October, so presumably he acquired the title in either November or December. Interestingly, the obverse legend displays the Greek influenced 'Y' instead of 'V', perhaps evidence of a Greek engraver's handiwork. The altar on the reverse is a carry-over pulvinaria type struck for Domitian as Caesar under Titus, perhaps representing the pulvinar of Vesta and Vulcan.

A sharp VF denarius struck when the dies were fresh. Good early style.

7 commentsDavid Atherton
D43.jpg
Domitian RIC 4362 viewsAR Denarius, 3.30g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Altar, garlanded and lighted
RIC 43 (C2). BMC 23. RSC 577. BNC 22.
Acquired from Ancient Imports, July 2014.

This lighted altar reverse is a pulvinar type struck by Domitian as Caesar under Titus and continued to be struck for him as Augustus. It may represent the pulvinar of Vesta and Vulcan. The fact this type was struck under both Titus and Domitian indicates little interruption in mint activity between the two reigns.

A respectable coin in fine early style reminiscent of those struck under Titus.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D48a.jpg
Domitian RIC 4852 viewsAR Denarius, 2.96g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Curule chair, wreath above
RIC 48 (C). BMC 18. RSC 570. BNC 17.
Acquired from Lucernae, eBay, December 2014.

This fairly common denarius was struck towards the end of 81 and is part of the group 4 denarii, the largest issue of the year. The curule chair reverse is a carry-over from the pulvinaria types struck by Titus. Presumably the mint had no new reverse types in readiness for Domitian and had to recycled those from the previous reign.

A good, early style portrait struck on a tight flan.
David Atherton
D54sm.jpg
Domitian RIC 54146 viewsAR Denarius, 3.02g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Dolphin coiled around anchor
RIC 54 (C2). BMC 20. RSC 568. BNC 26.
Acquired from Lucernae, eBay, February 2014.

This carry-over pulvinaria type from Titus' reign represents the pulvinar of Neptune. A common coin with an outstanding early style portrait. The portrait is so well executed that I can forgive the minor scrape on the reverse.

Well toned and much nicer in hand.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
D59.jpg
Domitian RIC 59107 viewsAR Denarius, 3.16g
Rome Mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Minerva adv r., with spear and shield (M1)
RIC 59 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Ancient Treasures, eBay, December 2013.

The Minerva reverse type seen here was also issued for Domitian as Caesar under Titus. It is coupled with the rare obverse DIVI VESP F legend variant. Not listed in Cohen, BMCRE, or Ian Carradice's Coinage and Finances in the Reign of Domitian (1983).

A very Titus-like portrait, typical of the early issues.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
cc17425a.jpg
Domitian RIC 6466 viewsAR Denarius, 3.18g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, semicircular frame decorated with corn ears
RIC 64 (R). BMC p. 301 note. RSC 573. BNC 14.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, group lot 806.

The pulvinar seat type with a semicircular frame is strangely not a common one among the group four denarii of 81 AD. Also, the presence here of corn ears instead of three crescents is rare as well. The BMCRE notes and the RSC entry cites only the crescents for this type (see my RIC 100 for an example of the crescent type). A rare coin indeed!

A pleasing portrait on an unusually well centered and struck early type. Part of the Pulvinaria series issued by Titus and Domitian.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D70.jpg
Domitian RIC 7061 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt
RIC 70 (C). BMC 15. RSC 575. BNC 13.
Ex Den of Antiquity, eBay, February 2014.

A fairly common coin from the large fourth issue of 81. The early coinage of Domitian continues in the same style of those struck under Titus using many of his pulvinaria reverse types. The thunderbolt over table is thought to be attributed to the pulvinar of Jupiter.

A decent coin both in style and eye appeal.
David Atherton
D72c.jpg
Domitian RIC 72101 viewsAR Denarius, 3.15g
Rome Mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt
RIC 72 (R2). BMC -. RSC 575a. BNC -.
Ex Münzhandlung Dirk Löbbers (eBay), April 2017.

The reverse is a carry-over pulvinaria type from Titus' coinage with an added touch of filial piety on the obverse. The 'DIVI VESP F' in the obverse legend is a scarce variant not often seen on Domitian's denarii. To date, this is only the second denarius with this legend variant I've been able to obtain.

Sharp details and in good early style.


6 commentsDavid Atherton
D74b.jpg
Domitian RIC 7475 viewsAR Denarius, 3.30g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Tripod with fillets; above, dolphin
RIC 74 (C2). BMC 22. RSC 568c corr. BNC 19.
Acquired from Praefectus Coins, April 2014.

There was a tremendous amount of coin struck for Domitian in the last few months of 81 after he became emperor in mid September. This coin from group 4 (the largest issue of 81) repeats the common tripod and dolphin pulvinar type previously struck under Titus. RSC incorrectly places ravens on tripod. For Domitian the ravens are found only on RIC 5.

A deeply toned denarius (cabinet toned?) in typical early style.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
D75sm.jpg
Domitian RIC 75101 viewsAR Denarius, 3.32g
Rome Mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Tripod with fillets; above, dolphin
RIC 75 (R2). BMC 22 note. RSC 568d corr. BNC 20.
Acquired privately from Berk, 6 June 2013. Ex Berk 177, 15 November 2011, lot 275 (unsold). Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection

This 'pulvinar' denarius is an early issue minted within the first few months of Domitian's reign. Rare with this obverse legend, even rarer with left facing portrait - a portrait variant you don't see often on Domitian's denarii. RSC erroneously lists this type with ravens above tripod.

Ian Carradice speculates that this die, because it is so close in style to the left facing portraits of Titus, indeed may have originally been a Titus obverse recut for Domitian. All the left facing portraits from the issue are from this same die. Interestingly, the coin is from the Fourth issue of 81 and presumably was not struck straight away within the first days of the new reign but more likely later in the year.


The oblong flan would surely have not met up to Domitian's standards! Regardless, a decent coin in hand.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
D78.jpg
Domitian RIC 7840 viewsÆ Sestertius, 25.82g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; S C in field; Minerva stg. l., with spear
RIC 78 (C2). BMC 261. BNC 276.
Acquired from Vilmar, December 2018.

While Domitian's initial denarius output is dominated by the carry-over pulvinar types from Titus, his first issue of sestertii have a more personal touch with the reverses featuring his patron deity Minerva. These first bronze coins were not struck in massive quantities and likely date between mid October and 31 December 81. The reverse legend indicates he is consul for the seventh time and has already been voted as consul for the eighth time beginning 1 January 82.

Superb portrait with an aged brassy appearance.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
023773.jpg
Domitian RIC 9487 viewsAR Denarius, 3.12g
Rome mint, 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT COS VIII P P; Altar, garlanded and lighted
RIC 94 (R). BMC 32. RSC 598. BNC -.
Acquired from Timeline Originals, March 2012.

A unique to Domitian pulvinar reverse type as Augustus. The altar reverse is much more commonly found as a type for Domitian as Caesar under Titus, this specimen is one of the few examples as Augustus I've seen in trade.

The coin is also part of the last issue minted in early 82 before the fineness of the precious metal coinage was increased.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
D96.jpg
Domitian RIC 96116 viewsAR Denarius, 3.26g
Rome mint, 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT COS VIII P P; Dolphin coiled round anchor
RIC 96 (C). BMC 29. RSC 593. BNC 32.
Acquired from Lucernae, September 2012.

A fairly common early pulvinar of Neptune reverse of Domitian which is a carry over from an issue of Titus' before his death the previous year. Most likely the reverse is part of a religious series commemorating the opening of the Colosseum. This reverse and the series it comes from would be discontinued later the same year when Domitian radically changed the coinage by introducing new types and increasing the fineness of the denarius.

A wonderful coin in hand with a few minor scrapes which don't detract from the overall eye appeal. This type is rarely seen in such fine condition.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
D98sm.jpg
Domitian RIC 9897 viewsAR Denarius, 2.84g
Rome mint, 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT COS VIII P P; Minerva adv r., with spear and shield (M1)
RIC 98 (C). BMC 24. RSC 592. BNC 34.

This denarius was struck in the early 82, prior to Domitian's overhaul of the mint later that same year when the fineness of the denarius was increased and the reverse types changed over to new designs. The type of Minverva advancing right was issued for Domitian as Caesar under Titus and continued to be struck for him as Augustus. This reverse design survived the mint reorganisation and became one of the four standard Minerva types used on his denarii from 83 until the end of the reign.

Struck on a tight flan in good early style.

3 commentsDavid Atherton
Domitian_RIC_II_0054.jpg
Domitian RIC II 005434 viewsDomitian 81-96 A.D. Rome Mint. 13 Sept.-31 Dec. 81 A.D. (2.87g, 18m, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TRP COS VII DES VIII P P, dolphin coiled around anchor. RIC II 54, RSC 568.

Wonderful toning on this denarius from Domitian’s first months as Emperor. This is a carryover of a pulvinaria type issued under Titus.
1 commentsLucas H
Domitian_RIC_II_58.jpg
Domitian RIC II 005846 viewsDomitian 81-96 A.D. Rome Mint. 13 Sept.-31 Dec. 81 A.D. (3.37g, 18m, 6h) Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M, laureate head right. Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, Minerva adv. Right with spear and shield. RIC II 58. Ex David Atherton.

A common coin in uncommon condition from Domitian’s first months as emperor. The majority of Domitian’s denarii from these months use the plvinaria reverses carried over from Titus. This Minerva type was carried over from Domitian’s type as Caesar under Titus
3 commentsLucas H
Domitian_RIC_II_0070.jpg
Domitian RIC II 007021 viewsDomitian 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, Sept. 13-Dec. 31, 81 A.D. (2.87g, 18.3m, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt. RIC II 70.

Produced in the first months of Domitian’s reign, this denarius carries over a pulvinaria reverse type previously produced under Titus. Although worn, this coin has a full flan and full a legend. The legend also maintains the anti-clockwise, outward from lower right orientation on the obverse at this point during Domitian’s reign.
Lucas H
Domitian_RIC_II_73.jpg
Domitian RIC II 007385 viewsDomitian, 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 81, 13 Sept.-31 Dec. (2.96g, 18mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG PONT, laureate head right. Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, tripod with fillets; above dolphin. RIC II 73 (R3), RSC 568b.

This is another early, and very scarce Domitian with only one other specimen known to the authors of the updated RIC II. It was produced within the first 3 months of Domitian’s reign, and is another carry over type issued under Titus. Despite some slight metal flaws, this example maintains good detail, and the beard is stellar.
8 commentsLucas H
Domitian_RIC_II_75.jpg
Domitian RIC II 007558 viewsDomitian, 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 81, 13 Sept.-31 Dec. (2.96g, 18mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DIVI VES[P F DOMITIA]N AVG PM, laureate head left. Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, tripod with fillets; above dolphin. RIC II 75 (R2), RSC 568d, BMC 22 note. Ex Forum.

Another early, and scarce Domitian. It was produced within the first 3 months of Domitian’s reign, and is another carryover of al type issued under Titus the obverse legend and left facing portrait combination make this a scarce type.

In Flavian coinage, rarity is measured not only by number of examples, but also number of known die combinations. Demonstrating the scarcity of this coin, my example is both an obverse and reverse die match to David Atherton's http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-97819.
4 commentsLucas H
Domitian_RIC_II_101.jpg
Domitian RIC II 010139 viewsDomitian 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 82 A.D. (3.29g, 18.7mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CɅES DOMITIɅNVS ɅVG P M, laureate head right. Rev: TR POT COS VIII P P, Seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt. RIC II 101.

This reverse device was used on several series by Domitian, and is another in the pulvinaria (sacred couches of the gods) series introduced by Titus in 80 A.D.. This coin has a nice full legend on both the obverse and reverse on this well centered specimen. This type is rated R in RIC II.
3 commentsLucas H
Dom2.jpg
Domitian RIC II 170a as Caesar under Titus11 viewsRyan C
Dom1.jpg
Domitian RIC II 170a as Caesar under Titus12 viewsUnfortunately damaged, but still a solid coin with a nice dark patina.Ryan C
domthrone.JPG
Domitian RIC-10077 viewsAR Denarius, 3.18g
Rome mint, 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT COS VIII P P; Seat. draped; above, semicircular frame decorated with three crescents
RIC 100 (C). BMC 27. RSC 596. BNC 31.
Ex Lanz, eBay, 23 March 2012.

A denarius which is part of the first precious metal issue of 82 minted at Rome and the last before the increased fineness of the denarii later that same year. The reverse is a carry over pulvinar type from Titus' reign. This is the last time this type was minted by Domitian before the overhaul of the mint.

A decent coin in good metal.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
D101.jpg
Domitian RIC-10197 viewsAR Denarius, 3.43g
Rome Mint, 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG P M; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR POT COS VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt
RIC 101 (R). BMC 26. RSC 597. BNC 30.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 712. Ex CNG E212, 17 June 2009, lot 294.

This denarius is part of the last issue before Domitian reformed the coinage in 82 AD. Prior to the reform Domitian's coinage maintained the same reverse types (evidenced by this carry over 'pulvinar' reverse of Titus), fabric, fineness, and style as those minted under Titus. After the reform all of that changed, along with the dismissal and banishment of the financial secretary Julius Aug. lib. who presumably did not approve of the new changes.

A sharp looking denarius in hand. Nicely toned too.
10 commentsDavid Atherton
D183.jpg
Domitian RIC-183329 viewsAR Denarius, 2.90g
Rome mint, 84 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG GERMANIC; Bust of Domitian, laureate, draped, bearded, l.
Rev: P M TR POT III IMP V COS X P P; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
RIC 183 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, April 2014.

84 AD probably saw the peak of artistic quality with Domitian's precious metal coinage. Two years previous, the fineness of the denarius was increased and the style radically changed from the earlier issues. Upon Domitian's accession the veristic style of Vespasian and Titus still dominated, after the reform it became more idealised and much finer. By 84 the style had evolved to such a high degree that the mint was able to produce these finely engraved draped busts, albeit in small quantities. This extremely rare coin struck in 84 is an exquisite example of the new idealised style. This is the second known specimen of the type. Much experimentation was going on at the mint at this time with reverse types, busts, and style. I assume the amount of time an engraver spent on rendering these highly polished pieces was considerable, which could perhaps explain why they were not struck more commonly. RIC theorises the drapery represents a military cloak commemorating Domitian's recent German victory. Afterwards, the style remained idealised and fine but the finer portraits would sometimes appear with an aegis, the draped busts consigned to an experimental cul-de-sac. The idealised style would continue to evolve throughout the reign reaching baroque proportions by 88. It's a shame that this fine portrait bust was struck sparingly.

Ian Carradice speculated in his 1983 monograph Coinage and Finances in the Reign of Domitian that the same engraver who did this piece may have worked on an earlier left facing portrait from 81 (see my Domitian RIC 75). Although left facing portraits are extremely rare in Domitian's reign and it is not out of the realm of possibility that the same engraver was working at the mint three years later and produced another left facing bust, to my eyes the styles seem too different to warrant that conclusion.

The bust of Domitian here is superbly rendered, one of the finest portraits of Domitian I've ever seen on a denarius. Same obverse die as the unique specimen cited in RIC.

13 commentsDavid Atherton
D331sm.jpg
Domitian RIC-331167 viewsAR Denarius, 3.20g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P IIII; Bust of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POTES P P; Germania seated r. on shield; below, broken spear
RIC 331 (R2). BMC 82. RSC 181. BNC 84.
Ex Roma Auction V, 23 March 2013, lot 728.

In either 82 or 83 AD Domitian conducted a census of Gaul as a smoke screen in order to make preparations to invade the Germanic Chatti lands across the Rhine. Not much is known of what the actual war consisted of - perhaps some road building, punitive raids against Chatti strongholds, and some minor skirmishes. No large battles, a la Mons Graupius, have come down to us, prompting Tacitus' assertion, 'that in recent times, the Germans were more triumphed over than conquered'. Even the date of the conflict is in dispute - although Domitian did rack up four salutations between June 83 and September 84, several of which must be attributed to the Chattan Campaign.

Domitian celebrated a triumph over the Chatti in 83, after which he claimed the title 'Germanicus'. This rare denarius from 85 is a record of the war and triumph over the defeated German tribe. The coin is part of the last series of denarii minted with the recently increased silver fineness before the lesser Neronian standard was restored. During this period particular attention was paid by the die engravers to Domitian's portrait, evidenced here by the aegis and fine style. The Germania Capta reverse has become an iconic Flavian type, along with Vespasian and Titus' Judaea Capta types, despite the 'hollow' triumph it records.

A most wonderful coin in hand!
10 commentsDavid Atherton
D332.jpg
Domitian RIC-332173 viewsAR Denarius, 3.36g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P IIII; Bust of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT P P; Minerva adv r., with spear and shield (M1)
RIC 332 (R2). BMC 78. RSC 179a. BNC -.
Ex Jyrki Muona Collection.

This denarius was minted in 85 AD right after Domitian slightly lowered the fineness of his denarii to Neronian standards. He had previously in 82 raised the standard of the denarius to the levels set by Augustus but apparently financially could not maintain those standards. The coins were still minted at a higher standard than those under Vespasian or Titus and would remain so until the end of his reign.

This coin also illustrates the high artistic standards Domitian demanded of his die engravers. The addition of the aegis along with the fine style idealistic portrait shows the care the mint took in the minting of these coins.

The surface is slightly porous and the reverse faintly double struck but the overall eye appeal I believe overcomes all that.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
D334sm.jpg
Domitian RIC-33479 viewsAR Denarius, 3.11g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P IIII; Bust of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT P P; Minerva stg. r. on capital of rostral column, with spear and shield; to r., owl (M2)
RIC 334 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Private Collection.

A rare denarius from the first issue struck after Domitian's second coinage reform. In 82 Domitian increased the silver fineness of the denarius to nearly 100% purity. Three years later in mid 85 the fineness was again adjusted, this time downward to nearly 90%, still higher than the average 80% inherited from Titus. Domitian assumed the powers of censor in April of 85 which was recorded on the coinage. The title was successively contracted in three issues - CENSORIA POTESTAT, CENS POTES, and CENS POT. According to metal analyses by Walker and more recently confirmed by Butcher and Ponting, Domitian's second coinage reform took place between the last two issues - the CENS POT issue being the first under the new standard. This was the last issue to regularly show Domitian denarii with aegis. From 85 onwards the aegis would only appear sparingly on special issues.

Fine style with large flan.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D833.jpg
Domitian RIC-83354 viewsÆ Dupondius, 12.14g
Eastern Mint (Thrace?), 81 AD
Obv: IMP D CAES DIVI VESP F AVG P M TR P P P COS VII; Head of Domitian, radiate, bearded, r.
Rev: ROMA; S C in exergue; Roma std. l. on cuirass, with wreath and parazonium
RIC 833 (R). BMC 513. RPC 528. BNC 549.
Ex eBay, July 2019.

An unidentified Eastern mint struck aes coinage for Titus between 80-81 and then for Domitian in 81-82. The style (heavily seriffed letters, large portraits, and massive reverse figures), unique obverse legends, and uncommon fabric (flat, almost convex flans) all suggest a mint other than Rome. Attributing exactly where these coins were struck has historically been a moving target - Mattingly in BMCRE thought Lugdunum, H.A. Cahn believed somewhere in Bithynia. More recent scholarship has looked towards Thrace as a possible location for production based on the Balkan distribution pattern of found specimens. Although the region of mintage has been narrowed down, the city itself remains elusive. RPC has suggested possibly Perinthus. Presumably a shortage of bronze coins in the region prompted a localised imperial issue. The striking of imperial bronze outside of Rome was an exceptional step at the time considering the last imperial branch mint at Lugdunum had shuttered late in Vespasian's reign. The issues consisted of sestertii, dupondii, asses, and semisses which copied types struck at Rome.

Production at this Eastern mint continued uninterrupted between Titus' and Domitian's reigns, hinted at by Domitian's seamless adoption of Titus' types and legend formula after his accession - exemplified by the minor substitution of a 'D' for a 'T' in the obverse legend of this dupondius. Roma is the only reverse type struck on the dupondius for both issues. The coinage struck under Domitian at this mint is quite rare, owing to the short time frame in which it was produced. After its closure in early 82, the striking of imperial coinage would be consolidated at Rome for the remainder of Domitian's reign.

Handsome dark patina and honest wear.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D841.JPG
Domitian RIC-841152 viewsAR Cistophorus, 9.81g
Rome mint (for Asia), 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CAPIT across field, RESTIT in exergue; Temple of Capitoline Jupiter with 4 columns enclosing figures of Juno, seated Jupiter and Minverva
RIC 841 (C). BMC 251. RSC 23. RPC 864 (8 spec.). BNC 221.
Acquired from Tom Cederlind, February 2013.

In 80 AD while Titus was away in Campania surveying the damage Vesuvius had caused in the region the previous Fall, a devastating fire broke out in Rome, damaging much of the city center. One of the most important buildings affected by the fire was the Temple of Capitoline Jupiter, rebuilt recently by Vespasian. It being the most sacred and important building in Rome, Titus began rebuilding it immediately. Construction was still ongoing when Titus died of natural causes in September of 81. Domitian completed the structure the following year and it was said no expense was spared. The building Domitian dedicated was a lavish structure, magnificent in appearance featuring Pentelic marble, gold plated doors, and a roof of gilded bronze.

This cistophorus minted in Rome for export to Asia Minor commemorates the new Temple of Jupiter Domitian bestowed on Rome. Curiously, although the building featured six columns, only four are seen here. Statues of the deities Juno, Jupiter (seated) and Minverva can be seen between the columns.

A most wonderful coin in hand.
8 commentsDavid Atherton
D843.jpg
Domitian RIC-843122 viewsAR Cistophorus, 10.65g
Rome mint (for Asia), 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: Aquila between two standards, one surmounted by a banner, the other by a hand
RIC 843 (C). BMC 252. RSC 667. RPC 865 (9 spec.). BNC 222.
Acquired from Coldwater Coins, February 2014.

Domitian minted a small series of cistophori at Rome early in his reign for distribution in Asia Minor. This military type was newly introduced previously by Titus on his cistophori and continued to be identically struck under Domitian. It is not clear why a military type was struck for such a prosperous and peaceful region. Previously these cistophori were attributed to Ephesus, but it is fairly clear style wise they belong to Rome.

Honest wear with clear legends and devices. A real beauty in hand.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D844eee.jpg
Domitian RIC-84486 viewsAR Cistophorus, 10.66g
Rome mint (for Asia), 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: Aquila between two standards, one surmounted by a banner, the other by a hand
RIC 844 (R). BMC p. 352. RSC 668. RPC 868 (3 spec.). BNC 224.
Ex. Harlan J. Berk 144, 13 July 2005, lot 572.

Rare with undated obverse legend. Struck contemporaneously or subsequently with COS VIII dated cistophori. Style and 6h die axis point to a Rome mint issue.

Good Titus-like portrait in fine early style.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
DomitianLXF.jpg
Domitian Sebaste, Samaria Countermark LXF84 viewsDomitian Ae 25mm, 14.02 g. Sebaste, Samaria. O: Laureate head of Domitian IMP DOMITIANVS CAESAR; Countermark: LXF, of the Tenth Legion Fretensis in rectangular punch. R: Tyche standing to left resting foot on rock(?) holding spear and globe, [CEBAC]THNWN (of the people of Sebaste); in l. field, date: LΘΡ (year 109 = 81/2 AD). Host coin - RPC II 2226, with LXF - Hendin 1613a.

The Tenth Legion probably acquired its name, Fretensis, from the Fretum Siculum, the straits where the legion fought successfully against Sextus Pompey.

It is undoubtedly most famous for its part in the destruction of Jerusalem under General Titus. Starting in 66 CE, Roman armies began fighting their way from the northern parts of Israel, down to Jerusalem.

Titus advanced on Jerusalem near Passover 70 C.E., trapping the residents and pilgrims inside the city. His forces stripped the Judean countryside of trees to build a 4.5-mile-long wall of pointed stakes around the capital.

In that year X Fretensis, in conjunction with V Macedonica, XII Fulminata, and XV Apollinaris, began the five month siege of Jerusalem that would result in what Jewish Bible scholar Alfred Edersheim described as a, “tribulation to Israel unparalleled in the terrible past of its history, and unequalled even in its bloody future.”

What was the Tenth Legion doing in Sebaste, Samaria? According to some scholars it was perhaps to defend against the appearance of a pseudo-Nero, who had garnered the support of the Parthians.
1 commentsNemonater
Domitianus_RIC_50.jpg
Domitian(us)86 viewsDomitianus as Caesar, denarius.
RIC 266, RSC 397a.
Struck under Titus at Rome, AD 80.
3,13 g, 20 mm.
Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, garlanded and lighted altar.
5 commentsMarsman
Domitian_RIC_II_271.jpg
Domitian(us) as caesar133 viewsDomitian, denarius.
RIC II 271 (Titus), RSC 399a.
17 - 18 mm, 3.4 g.
Rome Mint, 80 AD.
Obv. CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate, bearded, head right.
Rev. PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Corinthian helmet on draped chair.

A significant set of coins was issued in 80 AD in conjunction with the divine propriation of the gods for the plague and fire in Rome and the eruption of the Vesuvius. The coins refer to a special religious feast to please the gods. The religious rites required that the sacred couches of the gods (pulvinaria), be set out with emblems of the deity placed on the couch. There are several such representations on the coins of Titus and Domitian, like this denarius with a helmet on a draped couch (Minerva).

This denarius has a beautiful nice centered bust.
3 commentsMarsman
12.jpg
Domitian, AD 81-9648 viewsAE dupondius.

CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII, laureate head right / CERES AVGVST, S-C in field; Ceres standing left, with corn ears and torch. Eastern Mint (Thrace?), struck AD 80-81, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 512 (Titus); BMCRE II, unlisted; RPC II, 508.
socalcoins
25.jpg
Domitian, AD 81-9648 viewsAR denarius, 19mm (3.49 gm).

CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Altar, garlanded and lighted. Rome mint, struck AD 80-81, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 266 (Titus); BMCRE II, 092 (Titus); RSC II, 397a.
socalcoins
78.jpg
Domitian, AD 81-9621 viewsAR denarius, 17.81 mm (3.32 gm).

CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head right / PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Minerva advancing right, with spear and shield. Rome mint, struck 80-81 AD, as Caesar.

RIC II.1, 0268 (Titus); BMCRE II, 0086 (Titus); RSC II, 0381a.

socalcoins
Domitian_as_Caesar,_Fouree.jpg
Domitian, as Caesar Fouree34 viewsDomitian as Caesar under Titus, 79-81 A.D. Unofficial Mint. (2.77g, 19.2m, 5h). Obv: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VI, laureate head right. Rev: PRINCEPTS [IVVE]NTVTIS, alter, garlanded and lighted.

This Fouree is in good condition and didn’t see extensive circulation. This example shows slight bubbling in the silvering and only a slight peek of the copper core beneath at the top of the alter’s flame. The portrait is also slightly off for this period of Domitian as Caesar under Titus.
1 commentsLucas H
domise06-2.jpg
Domitian, RIC (Titus) 288, Sestertius of AD 80-81 (Pax)13 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.2g, Ø34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 80-81 (under Titus).
Obv.: CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIANVS COS VII, laureate head of Domitian right.
Rev.: PAX AVGVST around, S C across field, Pax standing left, holding olive branch out sideways in right hand and cornucopiae in left.
RIC II-1 (Titus) 288 (rare); BMCRE II (Titus) 315 var. (obv. legend DOMITIAN); Cohen 343 (4 fr.); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values I) 2767var. (obv. legend COS VIII)
Ex D.Ruskin (from old collection, Oxford, 1995)
Charles S
domise05-2.jpg
Domitian, RIC (Titus) 295, Sestertius of AD 81 (Minerva)13 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.8g, Ø34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 81 (under Titus).
Obv.: CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII, laureate head right.
Rev.: Large S C across field, Minerva, helmeted, draped, advancing right brandishing javelin and holding round shield.
RIC (Titus) 295; BMCRE II (Titus) 232; Cohen 439 var. (obv. legend DOMITIANVS); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values I) 2778 var. (rev. legend)
Ex D.Ruskin (Oxford, 1994).
Charles S
JLTISE02-2.jpg
Domitian, RIC 717, for Julia Titi, Sestertius of AD 92-94 (Carpentum)29 viewsÆ Sestertius (23,63g, Ø 32mm, 6h). Rome, AD 92-94.
Obv.: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XVI CENS PER P P around large S·C, .
Rev.: DIVAE IVLIAE AVG DIVI TITI F around, SPQR in ex, Carpentum right drawn by two mules right; the tilt rests on standing figures at each corner, three corners showing; draperies or guirlands on the side of the body of the carpentum; six spokes in wheel.
RIC Domitian 717; BMC 458; Cohen (Julia) 9 (15fr); Roman Historical Coins 93/40
Ex Boule (Paris), Mail Bid Auction 107, Oct. 2015.

Issued in honour of the consecration of Julia Titi, daughter of Titus, in AD 91.
Charles S
DOMTSE01-2.jpg
Domitilla, RIC (Titus) 262, Sestertius of AD 80-8134 viewsÆ Sestertius (23.92g, Ø 34mm, 6h). Rome, AD 80-81
Obv.: MEMORIAE DOMI-TILLAE in three lines high in field S.P.Q.R in ex., Carpentum drawn right by two mules.
Rev.: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII around large S C.
RIC Titus 262 (C); BMC 270:228; Cohen 1
Ex Jean Elsen, Auction 98, Dec. 2008
1 commentsCharles S
drusus_2.jpg
DRUSUS13 viewsd. 23 AD
POSTUMOUR
RESTORATION UNDER TITUS, STRUCK 81 - 82 AD
AE 26.5 mm 8.65 g
O: [CAE}SAR TI AVG F DIVI []
BARE HEAD L
R: [CA]ESAR AVG REST[]
LEGEND AROUND LARGE SC
laney
Tiberius___Germanicus_Gemellus__AD_19_(37-8)_and_19_(23-4),_respectively__Æ_Sestertius_(34mm,_24_74_g,_6h)__Rome_mint__100.jpg
Drusus (Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius 10 views(no legend) - Crossed cornucopias, each surmounted by the bareheaded bust of a boy facing one another; winged caduceus between
DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N PONT TR POT II around large SC. - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (22-23 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.74g / 34mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 42 (Tiberius)
BMC Tiberius 95
CBN Tiberius 73
Provenances:
Richard Baker Collection
CNG
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 435 #315

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

This issue, commemorating the birth of twin sons to Drusus Caesar and his wife Livia Drusilla (Livilla), was part of the series issued under the Tiberius in AD 22-23 to promote the imperial virtue and dynastic solidity of the emperor's family. Although Germanicus Gemellus died very young, his brother Tiberius lived into his adulthood, with the expectation that he would be heir to his grandfather following the premature death of his father, Drusus. In the later years of the emperor’s life, though, Gaius (Caligula) was often seen in close company with the emperor, while Tiberius Gemellus’s status was shrouded in obscurity. Thus, after the death of the emperor, Caligula, assisted by the Praetorian Prefect, Macro, quickly moved to take the purple. Upon the reading of the deceased emperor’s will, however, it was discovered that Tiberius intended for both Tiberius Gemellus and his cousin Gaius to be jointly elevated, and, moreover, that Gemellus was to be the senior partner. Under unknown authority, Caligula quickly had the will vacated, and, shortly thereafter, his cousin murdered.

This sestertius was struck in 22/23, nearly three years after the death of Germanicus, Tiberius’ nephew and first heir. In the
interim Tiberius had named no heir, but with the nine coins in his dated aes of 22/23 he announces a ‘Tiberian dynasty’
that includes his son Drusus, his daughter-in-law (and niece) Livilla, and his twin grandsons Tiberius Gemellus and
Germanicus Gemellus, whose heads decorate the crossed cornucopias on this sestertius.
Since it is the only coin in the aes of 22/23 without an obverse inscription, we must presume its design was believed
sufficient to communicate the fact that the twin boys were portrayed. Though this type usually is thought to celebrate the
birth of the twins, that event had occurred two and a half years before this coin was struck. Rather, it is best seen in light of
early Julio-Claudian dynastic rhetoric in which male heirs were celebrated as twins (even if they were not literally twins, or
even biological brothers) and were routinely likened to the Dioscuri, the heavenly twins Castor and Pollux.
The crossed-cornucopias design is familiar on ancient coinage, and here the cornucopias, grape clusters, grape leaves and
pine cones seemingly allude to Bacchus or Liber in a reference to fecundity. In terms of dynastic appeal, the design boasts
of the prosperity and fruitfulness of the Tiberian line, with the caduceus symbolizing Mercury as the messenger of the gods
and the bringer of good fortune.
Despite the hopefulness represented by this series of coins, tragedy struck on two fronts. The ‘Tiberian dynasty’ collapsed
within months of its being announced when both Drusus and his son Germanicus Gemellus (the boy whose head is shown
on the right cornucopia) died in 23.
Poor fates awaited the remaining two members: Drusus’ wife Livilla became increasingly associated with Tiberius’ prefect
Sejanus, and she died shamefully in the aftermath of his downfall in 31, and the second grandson, Tiberius Gemellus,
survived long enough to be named co-heir of Tiberius with Caligula, but after Tiberius’ death he was pushed into a
subsidiary role and soon was executed by Caligula, who would not tolerate a second heir to the throne.

The Caduceus between two cornucopia indicates Concord, and is found on medals of Augustus, M. Antony, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Clodius Albinus in addition to this sestertius of Drusus.

Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero Gemellus, known Gemellus and his twin brother Tiberius Claudius Caesar Germanicus II Gemellus, were born on the 10th of October 19AD. They were the win sons of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of the Emperor Tiberius, and the cousin of the Emperor Caligula. Gemellus is a nickname meaning “the twin”. Germanicus II Gemellus, died in early childhood in 23 AD whereas Nero Gemellus died 37 or 38AD perhaps on the orders of his cousin Caligula.

Gemellus’ father Drusus (also known as Castor) died mysteriously when Gemellus was only four. It is believed that Drusus died at the hands of the Praetorian Prefect, Lucius Aelius Sejanus. His mother Livilla was either put to death or committed suicide because she had been plotting with Sejanus to overthrow Tiberius, and also because she may have worked with Sejanus to poison her husband. Livilla had been Sejanus’ lover for a number of years before their deaths, and many including Tiberius believed that both Gemelli were really Sejanus’ sons.

We know very little about Gemellus’ life, since he was largely ignored by most of the Imperial family. When Gemellus was 12 years old, he was summoned to the island of Capri where Tiberius lived at that time, along with his cousin Caligula. Tiberius made both Caligula and Gemellus joint-heirs, but Caligula was the favorite.

After Tiberius died on March 16th, 37AD, Caligula became Emperor and adopted Gemellus as his son. Caligula soon thereafter ordered him killed in late 37 AD or early 38 AD . The allegation was plotting against Caligula while he was ill. Suetonius writes that Caligula ordered Gemellus killed.
Gary W2
drusus_titus_rest_k.jpg
Drusus Caesar, Restoration Issue Under Titus20 viewsÆ as, 28mm, 7.2g, 6h; Rome mint, 80-81.
Obv.: DRVSVS CAESAR T AVG F DIVI AVG N; bare head left.
Rev.: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST; large SC in center.
Reference: RIC II Titus 216, p. 144, Rare.
Notes: Aleg
1 commentsJohn Anthony
DrususRest.jpg
Drusus Restitution by Titus108 viewsDrusus AE As, struck under Titus.

DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
Bare head of Drusus left

IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII RESTITVIT
in two lines around large SC.

Rome 80 AD
11.03g

Cohen 7, RIC(2) 415

Very rare

Ex-Londinium Coins

Sold to Calgary Coin February 2017
Jay GT4
Drusus_RIC126_(Titus).JPG
Drusus RIC126 (Titus)15 viewsDRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIV [I AVG N]
Bare head left
[IMP T CAES] DIVI VESP F [AVG REST] around large SC
AE as, 28mm
novacystis
Drusus_(Titus_Rest)_RIC_437.JPG
Drusus, son of Tiberius, Restoration Coinage of Emperor Titus18 viewsObv: (DRVS)VS CAESAR TI AVG F DIV AVG N, bare head of Drusus facing left.

Rev: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG RES around edge, large SC in center.

Copper As, Rome mint, 80 - 81 AD

7.9 grams, 25.8 mm, 180°

RIC IIi Titus 437 (new edition), RIC II Titus 216, S2594, VM 3
SPQR Matt
EB0399_scaled.JPG
EB0399 Titus / Genius6 viewsTitus, AE As, 79-81 AD.
Obv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, laureate head left.
Rev: GENI P R S-C, Genius of the Roman People standing left with cornucopiae, sacrificing from patera over lighted altar.
References: RIC 226; Cohen 96.
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 9.903 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0400_scaled.JPG
EB0400 Titus / Pax5 viewsTitus, AE Sestertius,
Obv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG PM TR P PP COS VIII, Laureate head left.
Rev: PAX AVGVST - S C, Pax standing left holding branch and cornucopiae.
References: RIC 155; Cohen 140; BMC 171-173.
Diameter: -, Weight: -
Note: on layaway.
EB
EB0401_scaled.JPG
EB0401 Titus, AE As24 viewsEB0401 Titus, as Caesar, AE As. circa 73 AD.
Obverse: T CAESAR IMP PON TR P COS II CENS, laureate head right
Reverse: S-C, Spes walking left holding flower and hem of dress
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 9.562 grams
Note: Sold.
1 commentsEB
EB0407_scaled.JPG
EB0407 Domitian / Ceres6 viewsDomitian, AE As, 80-81 AD.
Obv: CAES DIVI AVG VESP F DOMITIAN COS VII, laureate head left.
Rev: CERES AVGVST, S-C across fields, Ceres standing left, holding corn-ears and torch.
References: cf. RIC II, Part 1 Titus 512 (head right).
Diameter: 30mm, Weight: 18.218 grams.
EB
Titus_04.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 080/081, Titus, Nilus14 viewsTitus
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: AVTOK TITOV KAIΣ OYEΣΠAΣIANOY ΣEBA, laureate head right
Rev.: [NIΛOΣ], bust of Nilus with lotus flower, LΓ=year 3 (80/81).
Billon, 13.36g, 21x23.7mm
Ref.: Geißen 324 var., Dattari 425
shanxi
TitusSeatWeb.jpg
FAKE Titus pulvinar series FAKE99 viewsTitus. AD 79-81. Denarius 19mm 3.58g. Rome mint. Struck January-June AD 80.
O: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, laureate, bearded. Head right
R: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, pulvinar (throne) of Jupiter and Juno: square seat, draped, surmounted by horizontal winged thunderbolt. RIC II 119; RSC 316; BMC 51
1 commentsNemonater
sensdelatour7417OR.jpg
Gaul, Senones Tribe, De La Tour 741721 viewsCeltic, Senones Tribe, Gaul (Area of Sens, France), c. 100 - 50 B.C.
Cast potin, 16mm 2.95g, De La Tour 7417
O: head of 'wild man warrior' right, six locks of hair
R: Celtic horse galloping left, pellet below and in left field

The coin was struck during the time period that Caesar was conquering Gaul. The Senones were involved in the famous Battle of Gergovia against Caesar in 52 B.C.

*pop cultural note - The battle is recalled by Mascius in HBO's Rome (TV series),
when Titus Pullo and Lucius Vorenus are interrogating him. He claims to have taken an arrow saving the lives of his comrades.
casata137ec
092006_07.jpg
Germanicus AE As41 viewsGermanicus AE As
Restoration issue by Titus, ca AD 80
Ob: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N, bare head left
Rv: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST around large S-C
RIC 228, Sear5 #2598
Scotvs Capitis
cnmag.jpg
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus 107 viewsCN MAG

Lead sling shot reportedly from the battle of Munda.

Found in Estepa, Spain
74.19g

49x28mm


The Battle of Munda took place on March 17, 45 BC in the plains of Munda, which is in modern southern Spain. This was the last great battle of Julius Caesar's civil war against the republican armies. After this victory, and the deaths of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey's oldest son), Caesar was free to return to Rome and govern as dictator. Tens of thousands of Romans died at Munda. About one month after defeat, Gnaeus was captured and executed. His brother Sextus survived to initiate another rebellion, on Sicily, where he was finally defeated by Marcus Agrippa and executed in Asia in 35 BC by Mark Antony, ten years after Munda.

Eitan Hirsch, a ballistics expert with the Israeli Defense Forces calculated that an expert slinger could hit a target from 35 meters away. According to his calculations a projectile could be hurled at a velocity of 34 meters per second. Equivalent to a modern day handgun.
4 commentsJay GT4
230.jpg
H in circular punch139 viewsUncertain mint, possibly SAMARIA, Caesarea Maritima (Judaea Capta coinage). Titus (?). Æ 18. Early 70s A.D. (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Outline of imperial bust right; countermark before. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 4.81 g. Note: The identification of the coin as belong to the Judaea Capta series depicting Titus is based on the countermark. CM: H in circular punch, 5 mm (punch may be broken). Howgego 832.1 (1 pc). Collection Automan.Automan
221.jpg
Head and galley161 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea). Titus (?). Æ 19. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust; countermark (1). Rev: worn smooth, countermark (2). Ref: RPC 2311-2312 ? Weight: 6.63 g. CM(1): Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 ? (28 pcs). Note: The countermark is likely of Palestinian origin. CM(2): Galley, in rectangular punch, 6 x 4 mm. Howgego 409 (22 pcs) or possibly 410 (15 pcs). Note: The galley was an emblem of Legio X Fretensis. The size of the countermark places it somewhere between 409 and 410. Collection Automan.Automan
220.jpg
Head and galley131 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea). Titus (?). Æ 19. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: Inscription illegible. Outline of bust right; countermark (1) before. Rev: Worn smooth; countermark (2). Ref: RPC 2311-2312 ? Weight: 6.98 g. CM(1): Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 (28 pcs). Note: The countermark is likely of Palestinian origin. CM(2): Galley, in rectangular punch, 5 x 4 mm. Howgego 409 (22 pcs). Note: The galley was an emblem of Legio X Fretensis. Collection Automan.Automan
219.jpg
Head and galley123 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea) Titus (?). Æ 21. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust right; countermark (1) on head. Rev: Inscription illegible. Nike standing right, inscribing on shield; countermark (2). Ref: RPC 2311-2312(?). Axis: 360°. Weight: 6.21 g. CM(1): Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 4 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 (28 pcs). Note: The countermark is likely of Palestinian origin. CM(2): Galley, in rectangular punch, 5 x 3.5 mm. Howgego 409 (22 pcs). Note: The galley was an emblem of Legio X Fretensis. Collection Automan.Automan
214.jpg
Head right (laureate)142 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea). Titus. Æ 24. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: (AYTOKPTITOΣKAIΣAP). Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: (IOYΔAIA-C-E-AΛWKYIAΣ). Captive, with arms tied behind back, crouching right to left of foot of trophy, shield to right of trophy. Ref: RPC 2313; Sear GIC 784. Axis: 330°. Weight: 10.84 g. CM: Laureate head right, in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 6.5 mm. Howgego 133 (17 pcs). Note: The countermark may have been applied in Palestine. Collection Automan.Automan
213.jpg
Head right (laureate)163 viewsSAMARIA. Caesarea Maritima (for province of Judaea). Titus. Æ 24. A.D. 71 to circa 73. Obv: (AYTOKPTITOΣKAIΣAP). Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: (IOYΔAIA-C-E-AΛWKYIAΣ). Captive, with arms tied behind back, crouching right to left of foot of trophy, shield to right of trophy. Ref: RPC 2313; Sear GIC 784. Axis: 330°. Weight: 12.57 g. CM: Laureate head (bust?) right, in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 6.5 mm. Howgego 133 (17 pcs). Note: The countermark may have been applied in Palestine. Collection Automan.Automan
179.jpg
Head right (laureate, possibly Titus?)143 viewsSYRIA: DECAPOLIS. Antiochia ad Hippum. Nero. Æ 18. A.D. 67/68 (year 131). Obv: (NEPΩ)N-KA(IΣAP). Laureate head right, crescent before (not visible); countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (IΠΠH)NΩ(N), (AΛP) below. Horse standing left. Ref: Spijkerman 2a; RPC 4808 (5 pcs). Axis: 15°. Weight: 6.86 g. CM: Laureate (?) head right, in largely oval punch, 6 x 7.5 mm. Howgego 121 (8 pcs). Note: Howgego suggests that the countermarking was contemporary with the next issue of coins under Titus. None of the coins of Titus (or subsequent emperors) are countermarked. Collection Automan.Automan
181.jpg
Herakles (bearded head right)112 viewsSYRIA: DECAPOLIS. Philadelphia. Titus. Æ 23. A.D. 80/81 (year 143). Obv: (AYTOKPATΩP-TITOCKAICAP). Laureate head right; countermark below chin. Rev: (ΦIΛAΔEΛΦEΩN-LГMP). Laureate head of Herakles (Domitian) right. Ref: RPC 2106; BMC 4; Spijkerman 9; Rosenberger 7. Axis: 330°. Weight: 9.31 g. CM: Bearded head of Herakles right, in circular punch, 7 mm. Howgego 17 (20 pcs). Note: Likely countermarked in connection with next issue of city under Hadrian. Collection Automan.Automan
TitusPhiladelph.jpg
Herakles, bearded head right168 viewsTitus, 24 Jun 79 - 13 Sep 81 A.D., Philadelphia, Decapolis, Syria
6540. Bronze AE 23, RPC 2106, BMC 4, Spijkerman 9 , Rosenberger 7, aVF, small flan, 11.31g, 21.7mm, 180o, Philadelphia mint, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse AYTOKPATWP TITOC KAICAP, laureate head of Titus right, countermark bearded head of Herakles right; reverse FILADELFEWN L GMR (Philadelphia year 143), laureate head of Herakles right; $65.00
whitetd49
TitusPhiladelph2.jpg
Herakles, bearded head right162 viewsTitus, 24 Jun 79 - 13 Sep 81 A.D., Philadelphia, Decapolis, Syria
9664. Bronze AE 23, RPC 2106, BMC 4, Spijkerman 9 , Rosenberger 7, F, Philadelphia mint, 11.25g, 23.1mm, 0o, 80 - 81 A.D.; obverse AYTOKPATWP TITOC KAICAP, laureate head of Titus right, countermark bearded head of Herakles right; reverse FILADELFEWN L GMR (Philadelphia year 143), laureate head of Herakles right; nice red patina; $115.00
whitetd49
DSC00501.JPG
Italy, Rome, Arch of Titus665 viewsArch of Titus in Rome depicting the spoils of Jerusalem's temple.
Photo taken September 2005
Titus Pullo
IMG_1858wp.jpg
Italy, Rome, Arch of Titus327 viewsbuilt by Domitianus
commemorate victory of Titus in Jerusalem in the first Jewish–Roman War
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
05_IMG_1856q.JPG
Italy, Rome, Arch of Titus344 viewsThe Arch of Titus, on the Via Sacra, Rome, just to the south-east of the Roman Forum, was completed by Domitian in 96 A.D. to commemorate Titus' victories, including the Siege of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. The Arch of Titus has provided the general model for many of the triumphal arches erected since the 16th century—perhaps most famously it is the inspiration for the 1806 Arc de Triomphe in Paris, France, completed in 1836.1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Domus_Flavia_and_Circo_Massimo.jpg
Italy, Rome, Flavian Palace - Domus Flavia (and Circo Massimo)139 viewsThe Flavian Palace, also known as Domus Flavia, is a part of the vast residential complex of the Roman Emperors on the Palatine Hill in Rome. It was completed in 92 AD in the reign of Titus Flavius Domitianus, more commonly known as the Emperor Domitian, and attributed to his master architect, Rabirius. Well known for its grandeur, the Flavian Palace was more commonly used for purposes of state, while the Domus Augustana, an enormous, lavishly ornamented palace south of the Flavian Palace, was the Emperor’s primary residence.

Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flavian_Palace

by Doug Coldwell
Joe Sermarini
Panoramic 1.jpg
Italy, Rome, View from the Colosseum500 viewsOn the left the Palatine Hill, the Via Sacra and Titus' Arch.
On the right Maxentius' Basilica
Posted by Strength And Honour.
Photo taken by my friend Hebe.
Strength And Honour
Italy- Rome- Circus Maximo seen from outside 1.jpg
Italy- Rome- Circus Maximo seen from outside 134 viewsCircus Maximus
The Circus Maximus is an ancient arena and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.

Situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine hills the location was first utilised for public games and entertainment by the Etruscan kings of Rome. Certainly, the first games of the Ludi Romani (Roman Games) were staged on the location by Tarquinius Priscus, the first Etruscan ruler of Rome. Somewhat later, the Circus was the site of public games and festivals influenced by the Greeks in the 2nd century BC. Meeting the demands of the Roman citizenry for mass public entertainment on a lavish scale, Julius Caesar expanded the Circus around 50 BC, after which the track measured approximately 600 metres in length, 225 metres in breadth and could accommodate an estimated 150,000 seated spectators (many more, perhaps an equal number again, could view the games by standing, crowding and lining the adjoining hills). Later, Titus Flavius built the Arch of Titus above the closed end, on the Forum Romanum, while the emperor Domitian connected his new palace on the Palatine to the Circus in order that he could more easily view the races. The emperor Trajan later added another 5000 seats and expanded the emperor's seating in order to increase his public visibility during the games.

The most important event at the Circus was chariot racing. The track could hold 12 chariots, and the two sides of the track were separated by a raised median termed the spina. Statues of various gods were set up on the spina, and Augustus erected an Egyptian obelisk on it as well. At either end of the spina was a turning post, the meta, around which chariots made dangerous turns at speed. One end of the track extended further back than the other, to allow the chariots to line up to begin the race. Here there were starting gates, or carceres, which staggered the chariots so that each travelled the same distance to the first turn.

Very little now remains of the Circus, except for the now grass-covered racing track and the spina. Some of the starting gates remain, but most of the seating has disappeared, the materials no doubt employed for building other structures in medieval Rome. This obelisk was removed in the 16th century by Pope Sixtus V and placed in the Piazza del Popolo. Excavation of the site began in the 19th century, followed by a partial restoration, but there are yet to be any truly comprehensive excavations conducted within its grounds.

The Circus Maximus retained the honour of being the first and largest circus in Rome, but it was not the only example: other Roman circuses included the Circus Flaminius (in which the Ludi Plebeii were held) and the Circus of Maxentius.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum constructed by Flavius and seen from outside~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum constructed by Flavius and seen from outside53 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside48 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside 1~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside 145 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino34 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and temple of Saturn.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and temple of Saturn45 viewsThe Temple of Saturn (Templum Saturni or Aedes Saturnus) is the oldest temple in the Forum Romanum, consecrated for the first time in c. 498 BCE. It is located in the W. end of the Forum, behind the Rostra and the Basilica Julia, across the Clivus Capitolinus from the Temple of Vespasian and Titus.

There have been three temples dedicated to Saturn on the location. The first was built in the last years of the Roman Kingdom, but was first consecrated in the first decade of the Roman Republic. Very little is known about this archaic temple, but it was probably Etruscan in style, just as the contemporary Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the Capitolium.

The first temple was torn down in 42 BCE and a new temple built in stone, by the aedile L. Munatius Plancus. The tall, massive, travertine clad podium, measuring 40×22.5m with a height of 9m, is from this building. This temple was in turn destroyed by the fire of 283 CE, which destroyed major parts of the Forum Romanum.

The temple was reconstructed under Diocletian after the fire, but the ground plan and podium from 42 BCE was retained. The temple was of the Ionic order with six columns on the facade. The eight surviving columns of red and grey granite are from this third temple, which largely used recycled material—not all columns, bases and capitals match stylistically.

The inscription on the architrave is also from this period. It reads: "Senatus populusque romanus incendio consumptum restituit"; meaning "The Roman senate and people restored what fire had consumed".

In front of the podium, under the now collapsed stairway, were two rooms, one of which served as the Aerarium, the State Treasury. On the side of the podium holes remain from where a plate was attached for the posting of public documents and acts pertinent to the Aerarium.

An altar dedicated to Saturn, the Ara Saturni, stood in front of the temple, on the other side of the road that passes just in front of the temple. The remains of this altar are now under a roof just in front of the Umbilicus Urbis Romae, near the Arch of Septimius Severus. See this map for an illustration of the probable location of the altar.

Inside the temple stood a statue of of Saturn, which would be carried in procession when triumphs were celebrated. The feast of the Saturnalia on December 17th was a part of the cult of Saturn and was started with a sacrifice at the Temple of Saturn.
1 commentsJohn Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and temple of Saturn 1.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and temple of Saturn 131 viewsThe Temple of Saturn (Templum Saturni or Aedes Saturnus) is the oldest temple in the Forum Romanum, consecrated for the first time in c. 498 BCE. It is located in the W. end of the Forum, behind the Rostra and the Basilica Julia, across the Clivus Capitolinus from the Temple of Vespasian and Titus.

There have been three temples dedicated to Saturn on the location. The first was built in the last years of the Roman Kingdom, but was first consecrated in the first decade of the Roman Republic. Very little is known about this archaic temple, but it was probably Etruscan in style, just as the contemporary Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the Capitolium.

The first temple was torn down in 42 BCE and a new temple built in stone, by the aedile L. Munatius Plancus. The tall, massive, travertine clad podium, measuring 40×22.5m with a height of 9m, is from this building. This temple was in turn destroyed by the fire of 283 CE, which destroyed major parts of the Forum Romanum.

The temple was reconstructed under Diocletian after the fire, but the ground plan and podium from 42 BCE was retained. The temple was of the Ionic order with six columns on the facade. The eight surviving columns of red and grey granite are from this third temple, which largely used recycled material—not all columns, bases and capitals match stylistically.

The inscription on the architrave is also from this period. It reads: "Senatus populusque romanus incendio consumptum restituit"; meaning "The Roman senate and people restored what fire had consumed".

In front of the podium, under the now collapsed stairway, were two rooms, one of which served as the Aerarium, the State Treasury. On the side of the podium holes remain from where a plate was attached for the posting of public documents and acts pertinent to the Aerarium.

An altar dedicated to Saturn, the Ara Saturni, stood in front of the temple, on the other side of the road that passes just in front of the temple. The remains of this altar are now under a roof just in front of the Umbilicus Urbis Romae, near the Arch of Septimius Severus. See this map for an illustration of the probable location of the altar.

Inside the temple stood a statue of of Saturn, which would be carried in procession when triumphs were celebrated. The feast of the Saturnalia on December 17th was a part of the cult of Saturn and was started with a sacrifice at the Temple of Saturn.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great71 viewsArch of Constantine
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312 AD. Dedicated in 315 AD, it is the latest of the extant triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

General Description
The arch is 21 m high, 25.7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. The lower part of the monument is built of marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork revetted with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum. It has been suggested that the lower part of the arch is re-used from an older monument, probably from the times of the emperor Hadrian (Conforto et al., 2001; for a defence of the view that the whole arch was constructed in the 4th century, see Pensabene & Panella). The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill; immediately after the Arch of Constantine, the procession would turn left and march along the Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and on to the Capitoline Hill, passing both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus. During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.

Decoration
The decoration of the arch heavily uses parts of older monuments, which are given a new meaning in the context of the Constantinian building. As it celebrates the victory of Constantine, the new "historic" friezes illustrating his campaign in Italy convey the central meaning: the praise of the emperor, both in battle and in his civilian duties. The other imagery supports this purpose: decoration taken from the "golden times" of the Empire under Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius places Constantine next to these "good emperors", and the content of the pieces evokes images of the victorious and pious ruler. Another explanation given for the re-use is the short time between the start of construction (late 312 at the earliest) and the dedication (summer 315), so the architects used existing artwork to make up for the lack of time to create new one. As yet another possible reason, it has often been suggested that the Romans of the 4th century lacked the artistic skill to produce acceptable artwork and therefore plundered the ancient buildings to adorn their contemporary monuments. This interpretation has become less prominent in more recent times, as the art of Late Antiquity has been appreciated in its own right. It is, of course, possible that a combination of two or all three of those explanations are correct, as they are not mutually exclusive.

Attic
Above the middle archway, the main inscription (see below) takes the most prominent place of the attic. It is identical on both sides of the arch. Flanking the inscription on both sides, there are pairs of relief panels above the minor archways, 8 in total. They were taken from an unknown monument erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius, and show (north side, left to right) the emperor's return to Rome after the campaign (adventus), the emperor leaving the city and saluted by a personification of the Via Flaminia, the emperor distributing money among the people (largitio), the emperor interrogating a German prisoner, (south side, left to right) a captured enemy chieftain led before the emperor, a similar scene with other prisoners, the emperor speaking to the troops (adlocutio), and the emperor sacrificing pig, sheep and bull. Together with three panels now in the Capitoline Museum, the reliefs were probably taken from a triumphal monument commemorating Marcus Aurelius' war against the Sarmatians from 169 - 175, which ended with his triumphant return in 176. On the largitio panel, the figure of Marcus Aurelius' son Commodus has been eradicated after the latter's damnatio memoriae. On top of each of the columns stand marble statues of Dacian prisoners from the times of Trajan, probably taken from the Forum of Trajan. From the same time date the two large (3 m high) panels decorating the attic on the small sides of the arch, showing scenes from the emperor's Dacian Wars. Together with the two reliefs on the inside of the central archway, they came from a large frieze celebrating the Dacian victory. The original place of this frieze was either the Forum of Trajan, as well, or the barracks of the emperor's horse guard on the Caelius.

Main Section
The general layout of the main facade is identical on both sides of the arch. It is divided by four columns of Corinthian order made of Numidian yellow marble (giallo antico), one of which has been transferred into the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano and was replaced by a white marble column. The columns stand on bases showing victory figures on front, and captured barbarians and Roman soldiers on the sides. The spandrels of the main archway are decorated with reliefs depicting victory figures with trophies, those of the smaller archways show river gods. Column bases and spandrel reliefs are from the times of Constantine. Above each lateral archway are pairs of round reliefs dated to the times of emperor Hadrian. They display scenes of hunting and sacrificing: (north side, left to right) hunt of a boar, sacrifice to Apollo, hunt of a lion, sacrifice to Hercules, (south side, left to right) departure for the hunt, sacrifice to Silvanus, hunt of a bear, sacrifice to Diana. The head of the emperor (originally Hadrian) has been reworked in all medaillons: on the north side, into Constantine in the hunting scenes and into Licinius or Constantius I in the sacrifice scenes; on the south side, vice versa. The reliefs, c. 2 m in diameter, were framed in porphyry; this framing is only extant on the right side of the northern facade. Similar medaillons, this time of Constantinian origin, are placed on the small sides of the arch; on the eastern side, showing the Sun rising, and on the western side, the Moon, both on chariots. The main piece from the time of Constantine is the "historical" relief frieze running around the monument under the round panels, one strip above each lateral archway and at the small sides of the arch. These reliefs depict scenes from the Italian campaign of Constantine against Maxentius which was the reason for the construction of the monument. The frieze starts at the western side with the "Departure from Milan". It continues on the southern, "outward" looking face, with the siege of a city, probably Verona, which was of great importance to the war in Northern Italy; also on that face, the Battle of Milvian Bridge with Constantine's army victorious and the enemy drowning in the river Tiber. On the eastern side, Constantine and his army enter Rome; the artist here has avoided to use the imagery of the triumph, as Constantine probably did not want to be shown triumphant over the Eternal City. On the northern face, looking "towards" the city, two strips with the emperor's actions after taking possession of Rome: Constantine speaking to the citizens on the Forum Romanum, and distributing money to the people.

Inner Sides of the Archways
In the central archway, there is one of the large panels of Trajan's Dacian War on either wall. Inside the lateral archways, eight portraits busts (two on each wall), destroyed to such an extent that it is not possible to identify them any more.

Inscriptions
The main inscription reads:

IMP · CAES · FL · CONSTANTINO · MAXIMO · P · F · AVGUSTO · S · P · Q · R · QVOD · INSTINCTV · DIVINITATIS · MENTIS · MAGNITVDINE · CVM · EXERCITV · SVO · TAM · DE · TYRANNO · QVAM · DE · OMNI · EIVS · FACTIONE · VNO · TEMPORE · IVSTIS · REM-PUBLICAM · VLTVS · EST · ARMIS · ARCVM · TRIVMPHIS · INSIGNEM · DICAVIT

Which means in English:

To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he, inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs.

The words instinctu divinitatis ("inspired by the divine") have been much commented. They are usually read as sign of Constantine's shifting religious affiliation: The Christian tradition, most notably Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, relate the story of a vision of the Christian god to Constantine during the campaign, and that he was victorious in the sign of the cross at the Milvian Bridge. The official documents (esp. coins) still prominently display the Sun God until 324 AD, while Constantine started to support the Christian church from 312 on. In this situation, the vague wording of the inscription can be seen as the attempt to please all possible readers, being deliberately ambiguous, and acceptable to both pagans and Christians. As was customary, the vanquished enemy is not mentioned by name, but only referred to as "the tyrant", drawing on the notion of the rightful killing of a tyrannical ruler; together with the image of the "just war", it serves as justification of Constantine's civil war against his co-emperor Maxentius.

Two short inscriptions on the inside of the central archway transport a similar message: Constantine came not as conqueror, but freed Rome from occupation:

LIBERATORI VRBIS (liberator of the city) - FUNDATORI QVIETIS (founder of peace)

Over each of the small archways, inscriptions read:

VOTIS X - VOTIS XX SIC X - SIC XX

They give a hint on the date of the arch: "Solemn vows for the 10th anniversary - for the 20th anniversary" and "as for the 10th, so for the 20th anniversary". Both refer to Constantine's decennalia, i.e. the 10th anniversary of his reign (counted from 306), which he celebrated in Rome in the summer of 315 AD. It can be assumed that the arch honouring his victory was inaugurated during his stay in the city.




John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Vespasian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Tito50 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The arch of Tito and inside the arches.jpg
Italy- Rome- The arch of Tito and inside the arches47 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The entrance to Forum and the arch of Tito.jpg
Italy- Rome- The entrance to Forum and the arch of Tito40 viewsThe Arch of Titus (Arcus Titi) is a triumphal arch that commemorates the victory of the emperors Vespasian and Titus in Judea in 70 CE, which lead to the conquest of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Jewish temple there, and the triumphal procession the two held in Rome in 71 CE. It is situated at the E. entrance to the Forum Romanum, on the Via Sacra, south of the Temple of Amor and Roma, close to the Colosseum.

The arch was definitely erected sometimes after after the death of Titus in 81 CE, since Titus is referred to as Divus in the inscription. The deification of an emperor only happened posthumously after decision by the senate. It was most probably erected by emperor Domitian who succeeded his brother Titus in 81 CE, but it has also been suggested that it was built later, by Trajan, because of stylistic similarities with the Arch of Trajan at Benevento.

The Arch of Titus is a single arch, measuring 15.4m in height, 13.5m in width and 4.75m in depth, originally constructed entirely in Pantelic marble, with four semi-columns on each side. The external decorations include figures of Victoria with trophies on the spandrels and images of Roma and the Genius of Rome on the two keystones.

The inscription on the E. side is the original dedication of the arch by the senate. It reads:

Senatus
Populusque Romanus
divo Tito divo Vespasiani f(ilio)
Vespasiano Augusto

The senate
and people of Rome
to the divine Titus, son of the divine Vespasian,
Vespasianus Augustus

The inside the archway the monument is decorated with reliefs in marble. The S. side shows the beginning of the triumphal entry into Rome of the victorious emperor and his troops. The soldiers, walking left to right, are carrying the spoils of war, which include the seven armed candelabrum and the silver trumpets from the temple of Jerusalem. The signs carried by some soldiers displayed the names of the conquered cities and people. To the right the procession is entering the city through the Porta Triumphalis.

The N. side of the arch is decorated with a relief of the emperor in the triumphal procession. The emperor is riding a quadriga, which is lead by the goddess Roma, and he is crowned by Victoria flying above him. The lictors are walking in front of the chariot with their long ceremonial axes. After the emperor follow as a young man, who represents the Roman people, and an older man in toga, representing the senate. In the middle, under the vault a small relief shows the apotheosis of Titus, flying to the heavens on the back of an eagle.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino27 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores26 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn50 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum24 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
year_4web.jpg
Jewish War, 66-70 AD, bronze 1/8 shekel 83 viewsBronze eighth denomination, 19 mm, 5.08 g, 69 - 70 A.D.
O: "To the redemption of Zion" in Hebrew, Omer cup with a pearled rim;
R: "Year four" in Hebrew, Lulav (myrtle, palm and willow branches tied together) flanked by an etrog (citron - small lemon like fruit) on both sides - Hendin 1369

During the fourth year of the Jewish War, the Romans had besieged the Jews in Jerusalem. There was a shortage of materials, and so, for the first time fractions of the shekel were minted in bronze. These are among the earliest examples of "siege money." Intended to pass as the equivalent in silver, they would have been redeemed for their face value at the end of a successful rebellion.

These siege pieces recall a time of despair and desperation in Jerusalem. Surrounded by Roman Legions under General Titus, intense starvation ravaged the city. Inhabitants were reduced to eating pieces of leather, belts and shoes. Josephus says that mothers even roasted and ate their own children. Simply having the appearance of good health implied a person was hiding food and would be reason enough to be murdered.
3 commentsNemonater
FC1.jpg
Joe Geranio Collection- Domitian. As Caesar, AD 69-81. AR Denarius13 viewsJoe Geranio Collection- Domitian. As Caesar, AD 69-81. AR Denarius (20mm, 3.03 g, 6h). Rome mint. Struck under Titus, AD 80-81. Laureate head right / Corinthian helmet on draped seat. RIC II 271 (Titus); RSC 399a.1 commentsJoe Geranio
capta titus.jpg
JUDAEA CAPTA158 viewsTitus, 79-81 A.D., Judaea Capta, Struck at Caesarea Maritima, Hendin-745
TitusJudea Capta, Caesarea Maritima.
O: Laureate bust Titus to right. AYTOKP. TIT. OΣΚΑΙΣΑΡ
R: Jewish captive, hands bound behind him, kneels left beneath trophy
IOYΔΑΙΑCΕΑΛ WΚΥΙΑC
Hendin-745.
amibosam
TITUS_JUDAEA_CAPTA_trophy_RESB.jpg
Judaea Capta--TITUS18 views79 - 81 AD
AE 23 mm 10.27 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Trophy flanked by Judaea seated left, mourning and shield to right
"Judea Capta" issue
JUDAEA, CAESAREA MINT
laney
coins45.JPG
JUDAEA, Caesarea Maritima; Titus21 viewsTitus Æ 20mm of Judaea, Capta. Minted at Caesarea Maritima. AVTOKP TITOS KAISAP, laureate head right / IOVDIAS EALWKVIAS, Victory standing right, inscribing shield attached to palm tree. RPC 2311.

Ex- CNG sale 143, Lot: 340
ecoli
coins60.JPG
Judaea, Caesarea Maritima; Titus25 viewsJudaea Capta. Titus. 79-81 C.E. AE 20 mm. Obv. Laureate bust of
Titus r.; around, AVTOKP TITOC KAICAP. Rv. Nike standing r., with
l. foot on helmet; she writes with r. hand on shield hanging from
palm tree; around IOYAAIAE. AJC II, Supp. VII, 2. Hendin 743.

Ex- CNG sale 143, Lot: 340

ecoli
coin995.JPG
JUDAEA, Caesarea Maritima; Titus 19 viewsTitus AE 25 mm of Judaea, Capta. AVTOKP TITOS KAISAP, laureate head right / IOYLIAS EALWKYIAS, trophy of arms, Judaea sitting mourning on ground to left with her hands tied behind her back, shield to right. RPC 2313.

A rather poor example from Uncleaned pile
ecoli
Year2Shekel.jpg
Judaea, First Revolt Shekel, Year 2127 viewsJudaea, First Jewish War AR Shekel. Dated year 2 (AD 67/8)
O: Hebrew script read from right to left SKL ISRAL “Shekel of Israel”, the date Shin Bet, "Year Two" of the revolution, above Omer cup with beaded rim
R: Hebrew script YRUSLIM H KDOSA “Jerusalem the Holy” around sprig of three pomegranates.

This coin was minted during times of great upheaval in Judaea as well as the rest of the Roman empire.

As Jewish factions were fighting for control in Jerusalem, General Vespasian's armies invaded Galilee in 67 CE with 60,000 men as they began the effort to quell the rebellion started a year earlier. Vespasian captured the commander of Galilee, Josephus ben Matthias, in the little mountain town of Jotapata, which fell after a fierce siege of 47 days. It was the second bloodiest battle of the revolt, surpassed only by the sacking of Jerusalem, and the longest except for Jerusalem and Masada.

Driven from Galilee, Zealot rebels and thousands of refugees arrived in Judea, causing even greater political turmoil in Jerusalem.

Meanwhile, back in Rome in 68 CE, Nero commits suicide, plunging the Empire into a civil war. Galba, Otho and Vitellius would assume the purple till Vespasian, leaving the battle in Judaea to Titus, brought the matter to a conclusion in 69.
6 commentsNemonater
coins21.JPG
Judaea; Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), Hardian50 viewsAelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) in Judaea.

In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem, in Judaea, left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 66–73. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus, the chief Roman deity. A new temple dedicated to the worship of Jupiter was built on the ruins of the old Jewish Second Temple, which had been destroyed in 70. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision, which was considered by Romans and Greeks as a form of bodily mutilation and hence "barbaric". These anti-Jewish policies of Hadrian triggered in Judaea a massive Jewish uprising, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. Indeed, Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian's report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation "I and the legions are well". However, Hadrian's army eventually put down the rebellion in 135, after three years of fighting. According to Cassius Dio, during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. The final battle took place in Beitar, a fortified city 10 km. southwest of Jerusalem. The city only fell after a lengthy siege, and Hadrian did not allow the Jews to bury their dead. According to the Babylonian Talmud, after the war Hadrian continued the persecution of Jews. He attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars (see Ten Martyrs). The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. In an attempt to erase the memory of Judaea, he renamed the province Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines), and Jews were forbidden from entering its rededicated capital. When Jewish sources mention Hadrian it is always with the epitaph "may his bones be crushed" (שחיק עצמות), an expression never used even with respect to Vespasian or Titus who destroyed the Second Temple.

JUDAEA, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Hadrian. 117-138 CE. Æ 22mm (11.03 gm, 11h). Struck 136 CE. IMP CAES TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG P P, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust / COL AEL KAPIT, COND in exergue, Hadrian, as priest-founder, plowing with team of oxen right; vexillum behind. Meshorer, Aelia 2; Hendin 810; SNG ANS -.
ecoli
00iuliatiti.jpg
JULIA TITI24 viewsAE dupondius. 80-81 AD (Titus) 12.36 gr. 6h. Draped bust right . IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA. / Vesta seated left, holding small palladium in extended right hand and sceptre. VESTA . S C across field. RIC II 180 (Titus); Cohen 18.
CNG 157720.
benito
00iuliatiti~0.jpg
JULIA TITI62 viewsAE dupondius. 80-81 AD (Titus) 12.36 gr. 6h. Draped bust right . IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA. / Vesta seated left, holding small palladium in extended right hand and sceptre. VESTA . S C across field. RIC II 180 (Titus); Cohen 18.
2 commentsbenito
juliatiti88~0.jpg
JULIA TITI38 viewsAR denarius. 80-81 AD. 3,71 grs. Diademed and draped bust right. IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F / Venus standing right, leaning against cippus, holding helmet in right hand, sceptre in left. VENVS AVGVST.
RIC II 56 (Titus). BMCRE 141 (Titus). RSC 14
benito
juliatiti88.jpg
JULIA TITI20 viewsAR denarius. 80-81 AD. 3,71 grs. Diademed and draped bust right. IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F / Venus standing right, leaning against cippus, holding helmet in right hand, sceptre in left. VENVS AVGVST.
RIC II 56 (Titus). BMCRE 141 (Titus). RSC 14

1 commentsbenito
titi.jpg
Julia Titi Denarius25 viewsJulia Titi Denarius. Rome mint, under Titus, 79-81 AD
IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F, diademed & draped bust right, hair in long plait down back
VENVS AVGVST, Venus, drapery hanging loosely below waist, standing right, seen from behind, leaning back on column, cradling long scepter in left arm & holding crested helmet in outstretched right hand

BN 106. RIC 56. BMC 141. C. 14. RCV # 2612
1 commentsTanit
T387a.jpg
Julia Titi RIC 387132 viewsAR Denarius, 3.22g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA T AVG F•; Bust of Julia Titi, draped and diademed, r., hair in long plait
Rev: VENVS AVG; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 387 (R). BMC 140. RSC 12. BNC 103.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, February 2017.

A rare variant of the common Venus type for Julia Titi with shortened obverse and reverse legends. NB: Julia's denarii were not struck in plentiful numbers.

Lovely portrait in good metal.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
T388aa.jpg
Julia Titi RIC 38890 viewsAR Denarius, 3.09g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F•; Bust of Julia Titi, draped and diademed, r., hair in long plait
Rev: VENVS AVGVST; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 388 (C2). BMC 142. RSC 14. BNC 106.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, August 2017.

The most 'common' variant of Julia Titi's Venus denarii. However, I think RIC's frequency rating of 'C2' overstates the case. The same reverse type is also shared with Titus. Stylistic note - many of Julia's portraits have the facial features of either Titus or Domitian Caesar, this example is no exception.

Struck on a large flan in decent style.

8 commentsDavid Atherton
T389.jpg
Julia Titi RIC 38995 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA•; Bust of Julia, draped, r., hair piled high in front and knotted low at back
Rev: VESTA in exergue; Vesta std. l., with palladium and sceptre
RIC 389 (R). BMC p. 144 note. RSC 16. BNC 108.

Titus struck a small issue of denarii for his daughter Julia Titi, most of which are fairly scarce. This Vesta reverse type is much rarer than the more commonly encountered Venus one. Julia is seen here sporting the classic Flavian lady hairdo.

Worn, but not unattractively so.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
julia_titi_55.jpg
Julia Titi RIC II, 55a156 viewsJulia Titi, died 88(?), daughter of Titus
AR - Denar, 3.63g, 18mm
Rome AD 91(?), struck under Domitian
obv. IVLIA AVGVSTA T AVG F
bust draped, head diademed r.
rev. VENVS - AVG
Venus standing r., leaning on cippus, holding helmet and spear
RIC II, Titus 55a; C.12; BMCR. 141
Rare; about VF(?)

CIPPUS, a squared stone pillar or block, set up as a boundary marker or as a funerary monument (as here!). Sometimes bearing an inscription (Greek stele)
2 commentsJochen
TITI-1.jpg
Julia Titi, daughter of Titus, lived for a time with her uncle Domitian as his wife. Augusta, c. 79-90/91 CE.187 viewsAR denarius, (20 mm, 3.2g). c. 79 CE.
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F, Draped bust right, hair in plaits behind.
Rev: VENVS AVGVST, Venus standing right, against column, holding helmet and scepter.
Sear 2612; RIC 56 (Titus); RSC 14; BMC 141; Vagi 1052.

This is the more common type which portrays Venus topless. There are reverse variants which depict her with a bra: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?board=1;action=display;threadid=6719;start=msg49161#msg49161
EmpressCollector
00jultit.jpg
JULIA TITI. Daughter of Titus. Lover of Domitian.280 viewsAE dupondius. 80-81 AD (Titus) 12.36 gr. 6h. Draped bust right . IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA. / Vesta seated left, holding small palladium in extended right hand and sceptre. VESTA . S C across field. RIC II 180 (Titus); Cohen 18.

3 commentsbenito
Julia_Titi__AE-20__5_76g__Troas,_Assos__RPC_II_899.jpg
Julia Titi. AE-20. Troas, Assos. Griffin62 viewsTroas, Assos. Julia Titi, the daughter of Titus. Augusta, AD 79 - 91. Æ 20. 5.79 g. Draped bust rt. / Griffin reclining lt. RPC II 899; SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Very rare, only one specimen cited in RPC.1 commentsFausta
494,43_L__Mussidius_Longus.jpg
L. Mussidius Longus - AR denarius9 viewsRome
42 BC
radiate draped bust of Sol facing slightly right
two statues of Venus Cloacina standing on platform
L·MVSSIDIVS·LONGVS
CLOACIN
Crawford 494/43, RSC I Mussidia 7, Sydenham 1094, SRCV I 495
3,4g
ex Lanz

"The rev. shows the shrine of Venus Cloacina whose fundaments could be seen today on the Forum Romanum in Rome at the South side of the basilica Aemilia. This sanctuary is one of the oldest on the Forum. It is so old that even the Romans didn't understand its real meaning and invented myths to explain it. Cloacina probably is derived from the ancient Latin word 'cluere', meaning 'to purify'.

After the rape of the Sabin women a war broke out between the Romans and the Sabins. The raped women bravely went between their fathers and their new husbands ans so stopped the slaughter. A reconciliation should have been occured at this very place with an expiation and purification (cluere!) ritual. There Myrtles had played an important role. It is said that they were found here and they were used for purification because they should have great purification power. Furthermore they were sacred to Venus, the ancestor of the Romans.

Then at this place Vergina or Virginia, the beautiful daughter of Lucius Virgineus, a plebeian centurio, was killed by him to avoid the shame to become the slave of the tyrannic decemvir Appius Claudius Crassus. Appius Claudius was fallen in love to her and claimed that she was the daughter of a slave who had escaped from him. Due to the rigorous Laws of the Twelve Tables then she too was his property. This murder led to the abolishment of the decemviri (449 BC) and Lucius Virgineus became the first elected tribune. This story probably based on the myth of Lucretia who was raped by the son of king Tarquinius Superbus and because of that commited suicided. This event was the end of the Etruscian kings in Rome and the begin of the Roman Republic.

The sanctuary of Venus Cloacina marks the place where the Cloaca Maxima reaches the Forum and takes the river Velabro. This river was the frontier between the region of the Romans and the Sabins where now the adversary parties have made peace. ... The sanctuary was not roofed but made by a round embracing wall and two cult statues. Originally it was probably the shrine of Cloacina. The origin of her cult and the erection of her sanctuary probably belongs to the the first period of the history of the Cloaca Maxima, either of the time of its construction or of the time of an important renovation even though the tradition ascribed it to Titus Tatius. In the course of time Cloacina was identified with Venus and called Venus Cloacina. In doing so the fact could have played a role that the myrtles were sacred to Venus. So this myth, the reconciliation of the Romans and the Sabins, could be the attempt to explain these unknown connection. ..." from Jochen's Coins of mythological interest
Johny SYSEL
titurius_Cr244_2b.jpg
L. Titurius L. f. Sabinus, Crawford 244/2b18 viewsL. Titurius L. f. Sabinus, gens Tituria
AR - denarius, 3.86g, 19mm
Rome, 89 BC
obv. SABIN
Head of king Titus Tatius, bearded, r.; below chin palmbranch
rev. Tarpeia, with loose hair, stg. frontal, buried to waist in shields, warding off two soldiers who cast shield
at her.
in ex. L.TITVRI
ref. Crawford 244/2b; Sydenham 699; Tuturia 4
VF/about VF, nice cabinet toning

For more information please look at the article in 'Mythological interesting coins', coming soon
Jochen
Sabin.jpg
L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus147 viewsSABIN
Bare head of King Tatius right, bearded. Palm branch before

L TITVRI
Tarpeia facing, buried to her waist in shields, trying to ward off two soldiers who are about to cast their shields on her, star within crescent moon above

Rome, 89 BC

3.84g

Sear 251, RRC 344/2a

Ex-ANE from an old collection

Jet black toning.

One of the great legends of Rome commemorated on a coin. It tells the story of Rome being besieged by the Sabine king Titus Tatius after the "Rape" of the Sabine women. Tarpeia, daughter of the Roman commander Spurius Tarpeius, went out to the Sabine camp and offered them entry to the city in exchange for "what they bore on their left arms". She had meant their gold bracelets worn on their arms. Once inside the citadel the Sabines threw their shields—carried on the left arm—upon her, crushing her to death. Her body was then thrown from a steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill. The cliff was named the Tarpeian Rock after Tarpeia and would become the place of execution for Rome's most notorious traitors. King Tatius and Romulus soon were reconciled through the efforts of the abducted Sabine women who had come to love their Roman abductors. They jointly ruled over Rome for the next 5 years until Tatius death.
9 commentsJay GT4
Titurius_Sabinus~0.jpg
L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus - AR denarius9 viewsRome
¹²89 BC
head of king Titus Tatius right, palm branch right
A·PV / SABIN
two Roman soldiers running left, each bearing a Sabine woman in his arms
L·TITVRI
¹Crawford 344/1c; Sydenham 698b; Tituria 3; RR1 2324, p.297
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,2g
ex Solidus

The reverse shows the famous rape of the Sabine women.

"The Sabines were ancient people of central Italy ... From the earliest days there was a Sabine element in Rome. After foundation of the double kingdom of Romulus and Titus Tatius the Romans were called Quirites too (populus Romanus Quiritium), referring to Cures, the capital of the Sabinians, where Numa Pompilius was originated too. The story of the rape of the Sabine women to supply wives for the womanless followers of Romulus is a legend explaining this fact. Many Roman religious practices are said to have Sabine origins. Rome was involved in numerous wars with the inland Sabines; Horatius is supposed to have defeated them in the 5th cent. BC, and Marcus Curius Dentatus conquered them in 290 BC. The Sabines became Roman citizens 268 BC. The Samnites were possibly a branch of the Sabines. Anyway often the Samnites were confused by the Romans with the Sabinians." - Jochen's Coins of mythological interest
Johny SYSEL
Titurius_Sabinus_Victory.jpg
L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus - AR denarius6 viewsRome
¹²89 BC
head of king Tatius right
SABIN
Victory in biga right holding wreath and reins
L·TITVRI
controlmark in exergue (trophy?)
¹Crawford 344/3, Sydenham 700, RSC I Tituria 6, SRCV I 253; rev. die match - BM 1950,1006.381
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,91g

Titus Tatius was legendary king of Sabine tribe. Sabinus family was Sabine origin and probably also claimed they are descendants of Titus Tatius.
Johny SYSEL
tarpeia_k.jpg
L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus, 89 BC5 viewsAR Denarius, 19x16mm; 3.6g; 3h.
Obv.: Head of Titus Tatius right, behind SABIN; in right field, palm branch (off flan).
Rev.: Killing of Tarpeia: Tarpeia facing, raising her hands to ward off two soldiers who are about to cast their sields on her; above star in crescent; in exergue L TITVRI (off flan).
Reference: Crawford 344/2b, Syndenham 699.
John Anthony
Laodiceia- Anonymous-Time of Titus or Domitian.JPG
Laodiceia- Anonymous-Time of Titus or Domitian22 viewsAE16, 69-96 AD
Obverse: LAODIKWN, Helmeted head of Roma or Athena? Wearing Aegis
Reverse: DIAKOP DIOCKOYPIDOY, Nike standing left with wreath and palm.
RPC II 1293
16mm, 3.6gm
Jerome Holderman
226.jpg
Laureate (?) head right122 viewsSAMARIA. Uncertain mint (Caesarea Maritima?). Titus (?). Æ 20. 70s A.D. (?). Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 7.59 g. CM: Laureate (?) head right, in rectangular punch, 3.5 x 4.5 mm. Howgego 135 (28 pcs). Note: Probably applied in Palestine. Collection Automan.Automan
227.jpg
Laureate bust right105 viewsSYRIA or SAMARIA (?). Uncertain mint. Titus or Domitian (?). Æ 23. 70s-80s A.D. Obv: Inscription illegible. Faint outline of imperial bust right; countermark on head. Rev: Worn smooth. Weight: 10.78 g. CM: Laureate bust right, in rectangular punch, 4.5 x 6 mm. Howgego 133 ? (17 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
livia.jpg
Livia AE dupondius23 viewsLivia AE dupondius. Restoration issue under Titus, 80-81 A.D. Veiled and diademed bust of Livia as Pietas right, PIETAS below / IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG RESTIT around SC. RIC 222, RCV 2588

Ex. Artemid Aste, Jean Baptiste Collection
Holding_History
IVSTITIA_Stamped_a-removebg.png
LIVIA AE Dupondius20 viewsOBVERSE: IVSTITIA, draped bust of Livia as Justitia right, wearing stephane
REVERSE: IMP T CAES DIVI VESP F AVG REST, around large SC
Restoration issue under Titus.
Rome, AD 80-81
9.9g, 27mm
Cohen 9, RIC II 424 (Titus), BMC 289 (Titus), Komnick 15
Modern stamp, 7 over 36 on obverse
1 commentsLegatus
thyateiraTitus.JPG
Lydia, Thyateira. Titus AE1941 viewsObv: ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΤΙΤΟC ΚΑΙCΑΡ. Laureate bust r.
Rev: ΘΥΑΤЄΙ ΡΗ ΝΩΝ. Nike standing left, holding wreath and palm.
RPC II 940; SNG Cop. 598; SNG Righetti 1099.
ancientone
MarAurFaustinaCombo3.jpg
MAFJ5 Emperor and Empress18 viewsMarcus Aurelius
Sestertius
Dec 162-Autumn 163

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM
Salus stg, SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII COS III SC

RIC 843

Faustina II
Denarius

Draped bust right, hair in a bun behind, FAVSTINA AVGVSTA
Fecundity (Faustina) standing left between two children, holding two more in arms, FECVND AVGVSTAE

RIC 676

The sestertius portrays Marcus within two years of his elevation to emperor in 161. Faustina's denarius, although undated in RIC, probably is from the same timeframe and presumably depicts the young girls Annia Aurelia Galeria Faustina and Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla, and the twin babies Titus Aurelius Fulvus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (Commodus). Her portrait has taken on a more matronly air.
Blindado
LEG_XI.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG XI90 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

Rev LEG XI legionary eagle between two standards


Patrae mint 32-31BC

ex-Arcade Coins

An Antonian legion which was disbanded or lost its separate identity after the battle of Actium.

The two centurions Titus Pullo and Lucius Vorenus were from Legio XI (not XIII as the series Rome would have us believe). Pullo and Vorenus were fierce rivals for promotion to primus pilus, the most senior centurion in a legion. Both distinguished themselves in 54 BC when the Nervii attacked the legion under Quintus Cicero in their winter quarters in Nervian territory. In an effort to outdo Vorenus, Pullo charged out of the fortified camp and attacked the enemy, but was soon wounded and surrounded. Vorenus followed and engaged his attackers in hand-to-hand combat, killing one and driving the rest back, but lost his footing and was himself soon surrounded. Pullo in turn rescued Vorenus, and after killing several of the enemy, the pair returned to camp amid applause from their comrades.

In the Civil War of 49 BC, Pullo was assigned to the XXIV Victrix Rapax, a new Italian legion commanded by the legate Gaius Antonius. In 48 BC, Antonius was blockaded on an island and forced to surrender. Pullo was apparently responsible for most of his soldiers switching sides to fight for Pompey. Later that year, he is recorded bravely defending Pompey's camp in Greece from Caesar's attack shortly before the Battle of Pharsalus.

Titus Pullo
[901a]_NervaAntiochAE26.jpg
Nerva, 18 September 96 - 25 January 98 A.D., Antioch, Syria195 viewsBronze AE 26, BMC Syria, p. 182, 261, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.524g, maximum diameter 25.0mm, die axis 0o, Jan - Sep 97 A.D.; Obverse: IMP CAESAR NERVA AVG III COS, laureate head right; Reverse: large S C in wreath, D below; unbelievable portrait. Ex FORVM. Photo courtesy FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families
Nerva (96-98 A.D.)

David Wend

Introduction
Although short, the reign of Marcus Cocceius Nerva (A.D. 96-98) is pivotal. The first of Edward Gibbon's so-called "Five Good Emperors," Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Claimed as an ancestor by all the emperors down to Severus Alexander, he has traditionally been regarded with much good will at the expense of his predecessor, Domitian.

Ancestry
Nerva could claim eminent ancestry on both sides of his family. On the paternal side, his great-grandfather, M. Cocceius Nerva, was consul in 36 B.C.; his grandfather, a distinguished jurist of the same name, accompanied Tiberius on his retirement to Capri in 26 A.D. On his mother's side an aunt, Rubellia Bassa, was the great-granddaughter of Tiberius. In addition, a great-uncle, L. Cocceius Nerva, played a part in the negotiations that secured a treaty between Octavian and Antony in 40 B.C

Early Career and Life under Domitian
Nerva was born on 8 November, 30 A.D. Little is known of his upbringing beyond the fact that he belonged to a senatorial family and pursued neither a military nor a public speaking career. On the other hand, he did hold various priesthoods and was a praetor-designate. More importantly, as praetor designate in 65, Nerva was instrumental in revealing the conspiracy of Piso against the emperor Nero.

As a result, he received triumphal ornaments and his statue was placed in the palace. Following Nero's fall in 68, Nerva must have realized that support of Vespasian and the Flavian cause was in his best interests. In 71 his loyalty was rewarded with a joint consulship with the emperor, the only time that Vespasian ever held the office without his son Titus. It was under the reign of Vespasian's other son, Domitian, that Nerva's political fortunes were ultimately determined, however. He shared the ordinary consulship with Domitian in 90, an honor that was perhaps the result of his alerting the emperor about the revolt of Antonius Saturninus, the governor of Upper Germany, in 89. Even so, like so many others of the senatorial class, Nerva came under scrutiny in the final years of Domitian's reign, when the emperor was unwilling to tolerate any criticism.

Whether or not Nerva was forced to withdraw from public life during Domitian's final years remains an open question. What is not in dispute is that he was named emperor on the same day that Domitian was assassinated in September, 96. Indeed, in some respects the accession was improbable, since it placed the Empire under the control of a feeble sexagenarian and long-time Flavian supporter with close ties to the unpopular Domitian. On the other hand, Nerva had proven to be a capable senator, one with political connections and an ability to negotiate. Moreover, he had no children, thereby ensuring that the state would not become his hereditary possession.

Imperial Initiatives
Upon taking office, Nerva made immediate changes. He ordered the palace of Domitian to be renamed the House of the People, while he himself resided at the Horti Sallustiani, the favorite residence of Vespasian. More significantly, he took an oath before the senate that he would refrain from executing its members. He also released those who had been imprisoned by Domitian and recalled exiles not found guilty of serious crimes. Nevertheless, Nerva still allowed the prosecution of informers by the senate, a measure that led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

In the area of economic administration Nerva, like Domitian, was keen on maintaining a balanced budget. In early 97, after appointing a commission of five consular senators to give advice on reducing expenditures, he proceeded to abolish many sacrifices, races, and games. Similarly, he allowed no gold or silver statues to be made of himself. Even so, there was some room for municipal expenditure. For the urban poor of Italy he granted allotments of land worth 60 million sesterces, and he exempted parents and their children from a 5% inheritance tax. He also made loans to Italian landowners on the condition that they pay interest of 5% to their municipality to support the children of needy families. These alimentary schemes were later extended by Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few. By early 98 he dedicated the forum that Domitian had built to connect the Forum of Augustus with the Forum of Peace. It became known as the Forum of Nerva, or the Forum Transitorium. Nerva also built granaries, made repairs to the Colosseum when the Tiber flooded, and continued the program of road building and repairs inaugurated under the Flavians. In addition, pantomime performances, supressed by Domitian, were restored.

In the military realm, Nerva established veterans' colonies in Africa, a practice that was continued by the emperor Trajan. Normal military privileges were continued and some auxiliary units assumed the epithet Nervia or Nerviana. We are not well informed beyond these details, and any military action that may have occurred while Nerva was emperor is known sketchy at best.

Nature of Nerva's Government
Nerva's major appointments favored men whom he knew and trusted, and who had long served and been rewarded by the Flavians. Typical was Sextus Julius Frontinus. A consul under Vespasian and governor of Britain twenty years earlier, Frontinus came out of retirement to become curator of the water supply, an office that had long been subject to abuse and mismanagement. He helped to put an end to the abuses and published a significant work on Rome's water supply, De aquis urbis Romae. As a reward for his service, Frontinus was named consul for the second time in 98. Similarly, the emperor's own amici were often senators with Flavian ties, men who, by virtue of their links to the previous regime, were valuable to Nerva for what they knew. Thus do we find the likes of A. Didius Gallus Fabricius Veiiento, one of Domitian's ill-reputed counselors, seated next to Nerva at an imperial dinner. Nerva was less willing to consult the Senate as a whole. In many cases he preferred the opinions of his own consilium, and was less submissive than many senators would have liked. This attitude may have been responsible for hostile discontent among several senators.

Mutiny of the Praetorians and the Adoption of Trajan
It was not long before the assassination of Domitian came to work against the new emperor. Dissatisfied that Domitian had not been deified after his death, the praetorian guards mutinied under Casperius Aelianus in October 97. Taking the emperor as hostage, they demanded that Nerva hand over Domitian's murderers. The emperor not only relented, but was forced to give a public speech of thanks to the mutineers for their actions. His authority compomised, Nerva used the occasion of a victory in Pannonia over the Germans in late October, 97 to announce the adoption of Marcus Ulpius Traianus, governor of Upper Germany, as his successor. The new Caesar was immediately acclaimed imperator and granted the tribunicia potestas. Nerva's public announcement of the adoption settled succession as fact; he allowed no time to oppose his decision. From the German victory, Nerva assumed the epithet Germanicus and conferred the title on Trajan as well. He also made Trajan his consular colleague in 98.

Death and Deification
On January 1, 98, the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Three weeks later he died at his villa in the Gardens of Sallust. From his headquarters at Cologne, Trajan insisted that Nerva's ashes be placed in the mausoleum of Augustus and asked the senate to vote on his deification. We are further told that he dedicated a temple to Nerva, yet no trace of it has ever been found. Nor was a commemorative series of coins issued for the Deified Nerva in the wake of his death, but only ten years later.

Conclusion
Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Copyright (C) 1998, David Wend.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
titus~0.jpg
Orichalcum dupondius, PAX AVG, RIC II pt. I 1261 (Vespasian)11 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. Orichalcum dupondius, RIC II pt. I 1261 (Vespasian), F, heavy obverse corrosion, Lyon mint, 10.782g, 28.0mm, 180o, as Caesar, 77 - 78 A.D.; obverse T CAES IMP AVG F TR P COS V[I CENSOR], laureate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse PAX AVG, Pax standing left, patera in right, caduceus and branch in left, altar at feet left, S C in fields. Ex FORVMPodiceps
perge_titus_RPC1514.jpg
Pamphylia, Perge, Titus, RPC 151421 viewsTitus, AD 79-81
AE 20, 5.71g
obv. KAIC - AR TITOC
Head, laureate, r.
rev. ARTEMIDOC PERGAIAC
Artemis Pergaia, in long garment and with crescent on her head, advancing r.,
holding bow in raised l. hand and short torch in l. hand
RPC 1514
rare, about VF, granular surfaces
Jochen
MISC_Poland_Jan_Kazimir.JPG
Poland. Jan Kazimir (Casimir IV) (1648-1668)119 viewsAE solidus/szelag (crowned type), dated 1664, struck by Titus Livius Boratini (and for this reason the emission is called a boratynka), at the Ujazdów Castle mint, in Warsaw. 16 mm.

Kopicki 1552, Gumowski 1643, KM 110

Obv: • CAS • REX – IOAN, Bust right, T.L.B. beneath.

Rev: SOLID • REG • – POLO • 1664 •, Crowned eagle with outstretched arms, 1 in shield in center.
Stkp
Mosaics1.JPG
Pompeii Dove Floor Mosaic52 viewsFloor mosaics in a home in PompeiiTitus Pullo
titus_ric_12.jpg
RIC 000182 viewsTitus AR Denarius 79 AD Rome,
Judaea Capta issue.
(3.12 gram, 18 mm).
Obv: IMP T CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, Laureate head right)
Rev: TR POT VIII COS VII Captive kneeling right before trophy.
RIC 1, RSC 334a, Sear RCV (2000) 2505



Here is another interesting coin of Titus. First it is catalogued as RIC 1. This coin was probably minted in the first few weeks of Titus' rule as Augustus.
Take a look at the reverse. You will see a Jewish captive kneeling at the foot of a trophy. Titus' father Vespasian famously put a Jewish captive on the reverse of his own coinage. Since Titus was very involved with the suppression of the Jewish people in Jerusalem and the subsequent looting of the city, I suppose it makes sense that this subject would be continued on his coins.

I like this coin mostly for the reverse. However, I also think the portrait has some charm to it as well. One can clearly see his resemblance to his father.
4 commentsorfew
Vespasian~0.jpg
RIC 0002 Vespasian denarius404 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Laur. head of Vespasian right

IVDAEA
Judaea as mourning captive seated right on ground at foot of trophy.

Celebrating the success of Vespasian and Titus in quelling the first Jewish Revolt. Portrait looks like a cross between Otho and Vitellius

Rome 69-70 AD

RIC 2 (C2); Sear 2296

3.285g

Ex-Maridvnvm; Ex-Forum!

8 commentsJay GT4
new_domit_combined~0.jpg
RIC 000340 viewsDomitian. AR denarius Rome mint, struck 81 CE.
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev: TR P COS VII, draped throne, back decorated with grain ears.
RIC 3 (R); BMCRE 2; RSC 554a.
Ex: William Rosenblum Coins Ex:Agora Auctions March 22, 2016 lot 52-174
Purchased from Agora Auctions March 22, 2016.




Domitian was the son of Vespasian. He became emperor after the death of Vespasian's other son Titus. Domitian was the last of the Flavian dynasty. Take a look at the obverse portrait on this coin. Domitian's Roman nose is quite prominent. On later issues the nose has been made less prominent. This is a good example of how emperors controlled their image by controlling their representation on the coinage.

Thiis coin is also interesting because some of Domitian titles are missing. The reason is that these had not been added by this point in his position as emperor. The use of COS VII dates this coin to the first month or so of his reign.
1 commentsorfew
DomitianRIC2-2.jpg
RIC 0003 Var68 viewsDomitian. AR denarius (3.02 g,). Rome mint, struck A.D. 81.
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev: TR P COS VII, draped throne, back decorated with grain ears Lituus beneath
the frame.
RIC 3 Var; RSC 554a.
Ex: Akropolis Ancient Coins




At first glance, this denarius looks exactly like Domitian (RIC 3). See my example in this gallery. There is one significant difference. Take a look at the reverse on this coin below, and the reverse on RIC 3 that I referred to above. On the in the photo below you will see the same triangular frame as RIC 3, but below the frame you will see a strange shape. It is a Lituus, a device like a crooked wand, used in augury.

As is true with RIC 3, this coin was issued very early in Domitian's reign as Augustus. As such, the portrait on this coin has the same interesting nose as RIC 3. As for cataloguing, this variation does not appear in the major references. I think it makes sense to therefore call it RIC 3 Var (Variant).

Note also that this type of reverse was also issued for Domitian's brother Titus. On the Titus denarii the variants with and without Lituus also exist.
4 commentsorfew
Flavians.jpg
RIC 0006 Vespasian Denarius134 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Laureate head right

TITVS ET DOMITIAN CAES PRIN IV
Titus and Domitian seated left on curule chair, each holding a branch.

Rome 69-70 AD

2.83g

RIC 6 (R); BMCRE pg. 8 note; RSC 541.

Rare

Ex-Barry Murphy
4 commentsJay GT4
TitusVenus.jpg
RIC 0016 Titus denarius137 viewsIMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M
Laureate head of Titus right

TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII PP
Venus standing right her back turned towards spectator, holding helmet and transverse spear and resting on column

Rome 79AD

2.89g

Sear 2507
RIC 16 (R2)

This reverse type is copied from the coinage of Octavian
2 commentsJay GT4
Capricorn~0.jpg
RIC 0019 Titus Denarius316 viewsIMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM
Laureate head of Titus right

TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P
Capricorn left, globe below

Reverse based on the coinage of Augustus

Rome 79 AD
RSC 280
RIC 19 (C)

3.3g

Ex- Civitas, Ex-Calgary Coins
3 commentsJay GT4
RIC_22_Titus.jpg
RIC 0022 Titus26 viewsObv : IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head of Titus, right
Rev : TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII, Ceres seated left, with corn ears and poppy and torch
AR/Denarius 18.43 mm 3.34 g 6 h - Struck in Rome 79 AD (2nd issue)
RIC 22 (C), BMCRE 7-9, RSC 270, Paris 7
ex Ibercoin Auction 14 Lot 2167
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_26_Titus.jpg
RIC 0026 Titus50 viewsObv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head of Titus, left
Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII P P, Quadriga left, with corn ears
AR/Denarius (19.27 mm 3.100 g 6h) Struck in Rome 79 A.D. (2nd issue)
RIC 26 (R2), RSC 278a
ex Nomisma Auction 54 lot 159
4 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_31_Titus.jpg
RIC 0031 Titus29 viewsObv : IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head left
Rev : TR P VIIII IMP XIIII COS VII, Trophy; below, captive kneeling right
AR/Denarius (17.81 mm 2.81 g 6 h) Struck in Rome 79 A.D. (2nd issue)
RIC 31 (R2), BMCRE unlisted, RSC unlisted
FlaviusDomitianus
Titu_ric_35_2.jpg
RIC 003522 viewsTitus AR Denarius 79 after July 1
18 mm 3.16 g
Obv: Head laureate l; IMP TITUS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM
Rev: Venus stg r leaning on column, with helmet and spear; TR P VIII IMP XIIII COS VII PP
RIC 35 (R) BMC--
Purchase from Silbury Coins April 23, 2019
Submitted to wildwinds
1 commentsorfew
RIC_38_Titus.jpg
RIC 0038 Titus33 viewsObverse: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM - Laureate head left.
Reverse: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII PP - Capricorn left; below globe.
mm. 19,06 - g. 3,45 - die axis 6 - Denarius
RIC 2 38 R2 - Struck in Rome 79 a.D. (3rd issue)
ex Gorny & Mosch
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_57A_Titus.jpg
RIC 0057A Titus45 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS VII (counterclockwise), Laureate head right
Rev: PAX AVGVST / S C (in field), Pax standing left holding branch and cornucopia
AE/Sestertius (33.90 mm 25.98 g 6h) Struck in Rome 79 A.D. (Group 1)
RIC unpublished (provisionally assigned n. 57A)
ex Numismatik Naumann Auction 80 Lot 527
6 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Screen_Shot_2019-03-01_at_1_49_16_AM.png
RIC 006752 viewsDomitian AR Denarius 81 CE (Group 4)
Obv: Laureate head right, IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM
Rev: Seat draped, above semi-circular frame decorate with three crescents TR P COS VII DES VIII PP
RIC 67 (R); BMC 17
Purchased from Romanrum.com
March 1, 2019

This coin is rare with this reverse legend. I really like the denarii from groups 1-4 of 81 CE because this was Domitian's first coinage as Augustus. There is some discussion about the production order of these 4 groups of coins. Domitian's denarii would become dominated by the Minerva reverse so these early issues are interesting for the variety of reverses they display. Many of the reverse were carried over from the denarii of his brother Titus.

Though worn, I still think this coin has lots of charm, especially the portrait. this combined with this reverse made this coin must have.

3 commentsorfew
RIC_67_Titus.jpg
RIC 0067 Titus48 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VII, Radiate head of Titus, right
Rev: CERES AVGVST / S - C, Ceres standing left, with corn ears and torch
AE/Dupondius (28.78 mm 13.56 g 6h) Struck in Rome 79 A D
RIC 67 (R2), BMCRE, BNF unlisted
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_70_Titus.jpg
RIC 0070 Titus40 viewsObv : IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VII, Laureate head of Titus, right
Rev : PAX AVGVST / S - C in field; Pax standing left, leaning on column, with caduceus and branch
AE/As (28.26 mm 10.70 g 6h) Struck in Rome 79 A.D. (2nd group)
RIC 70 (R2), BMCRE unlisted, Paris unlisted
ex Nummus et Ars Auction 83 lot 222
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_T_88_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0088_Domitianus40 viewsObv : CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, Laureate head right.
Rev : VICTORIA AVGVST S C, Victory standing right on prow, with wreath and palm.
AE/As (27.78 mm 10.44 g 6h) Struck in Rome 79 A D
RIC 88 (R2, Titus), BMCRE, BNF unlisted
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Titus_ric_89.jpg
RIC 008934 viewsTitus (79-81). AR Denarius, 79-80.
2.93 g 19.00mm
Obv: Head right, laureate. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM
Rev: Bonus Eventus standing left, holding patera, corn-ears and poppy; BONVS EVENTVS AVGVSTI
RIC (2nd ed.) 89. AR.
Toned. About VF.
Atrtemide Aste E-Live auction 8 Lot 268
1 commentsorfew
TitusEventvs.jpg
RIC 0089 Titus Denarius118 viewsIMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M
laureate head right

BONVS EVENTVS AVGVSTI
Bonus Eventus standing left, nude, patera in right, grain and poppy downward in left

Rome mint, 79 - 80 A.D.

3.034g

die axis 180o

RIC II 89 (C), RSC II 25, BMCRE II 106

Although rated as common, it's rarely found in trade.

Ex-Forum!
4 commentsJay GT4
RIC_T_97_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0097 Domitianus31 viewsObv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VII, Laureate head right
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Salus standing right, resting on column, feeding snake out of patera
AR/Denarius (18.32 mm 3.332 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80 A.D.
RIC 97 (C, Titus), RSC 386, BMCRE 84 (Titus), BNF unlisted
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_T_99_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0099 Domitianus45 viewsObv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VII, Laureate head right
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Vesta veiled seated left, with Palladium and sceptre
AR/Denarius (18.63 mm 3.436 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80 A.D.
RIC 99 (R Titus), RSC 380a, BMCRE 83 (Titus), BNF 70 (Titus)
ex Solidus Numismatik Online Auction 8 Lot 207
4 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_T_99A_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0099A Domitianus77 viewsObv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS VII, Laureate head right
Rev: S C (in exergue), Domitian on horseback galloping to left, raising right hand and holding eagle-tipped sceptre with left hand
AE/Sestertius (25.99 g 35.14 mm 6h) Struck in Rome 80 A.D.
Unpublished; Provisionally referenced as 99A (Titus)
ex NAC Auction 114 Lot 1490, ex Roma Numismatics Auction 7 Lot 1039
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Titus_ric_103_Gorny_und_Mosch.JPG
RIC 010357 viewsTitus, 79 - 81 n. Chr. Denar (2.96g). 80 n. Chr. Mzst. Rom.
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Kopf mit Lorbeerkranz n. l.
Rev.: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, zwei Gefangene sitzen Rücken an Rücken an einem Tropaeum.
RIC 103 (R2)
Ex Sammlung Shlomo Moussaieff, London, 1948 - 2000.
Condition: Dunkle Tönung, partiell Auflagen, ss
Ex: Gorny und Mosch e-auction 263 - 07.03.2019: Lot 3615
3 commentsorfew
Titus001.jpg
RIC 0108 Titus denarius157 viewsIMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M
Laureate head right

TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P
Wreath on curule chair.

3.27g

Rome 79 AD

RIC 108 (C2), RSC 318


In the Roman Republic, and later the Empire, the curule seat (sella curulis, supposedly from currus, "chariot") was the chair upon which senior magistrates or promagistrates owning imperium were entitled to sit, including dictators, masters of the horse, consuls, praetors, censors, and the curule aediles. According to Livy the curule seat, like the Roman toga, originated in Etruria and it has been used on surviving Etruscan monuments to identify magistrates. The curule chair is used on Roman medals as well as funerary monuments to express a curule magistracy; when traversed by a hasta (spear), it is the symbol of Juno.

The curule chair was traditionally made of or veneered with ivory, with curved legs forming a wide X; it had no back, and low arms. Although often of luxurious construction, the Roman curule was meant to be uncomfortable to sit on for long periods of time, the double symbolism being that the official was expected to carry out his public function in an efficient and timely manner, and that his office, being an office of the republic, was temporary, not perennial.
6 commentsJay GT4
Titusanchor.jpg
RIC 0112 Titus denarius127 viewsIMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M
Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, right

TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P
Dolphin coiled around anchor

Rome mint, 80 AD
3.09g

RIC 112 (C2), BMCRE 72, RSC 309

Ex-Londinium Coins

Titus' pulvinar series commemorating the opening of the Colosseum.
2 commentsJay GT4
Titusele.jpg
RIC 0115 Titus Denarius87 viewsTitus Denarius
IMP TITVS CAES VESPSIAN AVG P M
Laureate head right

TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P
Elephant, wearing armor, walking left

3.00g

Rome 80 AD.
RIC 115 (C2); Cohen 303; BMC 44


Ex-Pella Coins and Antiquities

Thick black toning on this denarius makes it tough to photograph. Much nicer in hand.

Commemorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games in 80 AD, after ten years of construction.
2 commentsJay GT4
RIC_119_Titus.jpg
RIC 0119 Titus36 viewsObv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right
Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt
AR/Denarius (19.66 mm 3.098 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80 A.D.
RIC 119 (C2), RSC 316, BMCRE 51-54, BNF 43-44
ex Inasta Auction 46 lot 445
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Titus~0.jpg
RIC 0119 Titus Denarius80 viewsIMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM
laureate head right

TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P
thunderbolt on draped table or chair

Rome 80 AD

2.24g

RIC II 119 (C2) , Sear 2513

Ex-Arcade coins (Junk box)

My first Flavian coin bought about 16 years ago! New photo!
1 commentsJay GT4
RIC_119A_Titus.jpg
RIC 0119A Titus39 viewsObv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right
Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Seat, draped; above, thunderbolt (wingless)
AR/Denarius (18.32 mm 3.213 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80 A.D.
RIC 119 (var. will be 119A)
ex Rauch 9th Live E-Auction lot 246
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_D_126_Titus.jpg
RIC 0126 Titus60 viewsObv: T DIVO AVG DIVI VESP F VESPASIANO, Deified Titus seated, leftt, on curule chair, with branch and sceptre
Rev: Legend clockwise, inwardly, from high right: MP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMIT AVG P M TR P P P / S C (center field)
AE/Sestertius 32.98 mm 23.42 g 6 h - Struck in Rome 81-82 A.D.
RIC 126 (R2 Domitian) - BMCRE 284 (Domitian) - Paris 293 (Domitian)
Purchased from Numismeo
5 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_128_Titus.jpg
RIC 0128 Titus29 viewsObv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right
Rev: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Tripod with fillets; above, dolphin
AR/Denarius (18.39 mm 3.31 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80 A D
RIC 128 (C2), RSC 321, BMCRE 78-79, BNF 67-68
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Titustripod.jpg
RIC 0128 Titus Denarius102 viewsIMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM
Laureate head of Titus right

TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P
Tripod surmounted by dolphin right

Rome
80 AD

2.87g
RIC 128 (C2); Sear 2518, RSC 321
3 commentsJay GT4
RIC_135A_Titus.jpg
RIC 0135A Titus76 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII (clockwise), laureate head right
Rev: S C, Mars, helmeted, advancing right, trophy across shoulder in left hand, spear in right
AE/Sestertius (33.45 mm 25.62 g 6h) Struck in Rome early 80 A.D.
Unpublished, same as RIC 135 (R3) yet clockwise obverse legend vs, anticlockwise
Purchased from Lanz on eBay
3 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_136_Titus.jpg
RIC 0136 Titus30 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII, laureate head right
Rev: ANNONA AVG, Annona standing left, with statuette of Aequitas and cornucopia; to left modius with corn ears; to right stern of ship
AE/Sestertius (34.43 mm 26.66 gr 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D. (4th group)
RIC 136 (C), BMCRE 152, BNF 151
Purchased from lucernae on eBay
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_143_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 0143 Vespasianus102 viewsObv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right
Rev: CAES AVG F DES IMP AVG F COS DES IT / S C (in field), Titus standing right with spear and parazonium, confronting Domitian standing left with spear
AE/Sestertius (34.44 mm 25,40 gr 6h) Struck in Rome 71 AD (2nd issue)
RIC 143 R, BMCRE 528, BNF 473
Purchased on eBay in 2004
5 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_144_Titus.jpg
RIC 0144 Titus30 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII, Laureate head leftt
Rev: FELICIT PVBLIC / S C (in field), Felicitas standing left holding sceptre and cornucopia
AE/Sestertius (32.31 mm 22.58 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D. (Group 2)
RIC 144 (C2), BMCRE 158-9, BNF 154
Purchased on eBay from Münzhandlung Ritter
4 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_154_Titus.jpg
RIC 0154 Titus30 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII, Laureate head right
Rev: PAX AVGVST / S C (in field), Pax standing left holding branch and cornucopia
AE/Sestertius (36.11 mm 24.04 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D. (Group 2)
RIC 154 (C), BMCRE 154, BNF 161
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_155_Titus.jpg
RIC 0155 Titus70 viewsObv : IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII, Laureate head left
Rev : PAX AVGVST / S - C in field; Pax standing left, holding cornucopia and olive branch
AE/Sestertius (34.21 mm 26.56 G 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A D
RIC 155 (C), BMCRE 171-173
Ex Artemide Aste Auction XXXV Lot 136
5 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_159_Titus.jpg
RIC 0159 Titus46 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII, Laureate head right
Rev: PIETAS AVGVST / S-C in exergue; Titus and Domitian, both togate, with sceptres, standing left and right, clasping hand; between them, Concordia
AE/Sestertius (33.45 mm 24.30 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A D (4th Group)
RIC 159 (R2), BMCRE unlisted, BNF 166
ex H.D. Rauch eAuktion 15 Lot 169
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_174_Titus.jpg
RIC 0174 Titus36 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P P P COS VIII, Laureate head left
Rev: S-C, in field; Victory advancing left, with wreath and palm
AE/Sestertius (34.61 mm 26.36 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D. (2nd group)
R.I.C.2 174 R. BMCRE 187-188, BNF 178-179
ex Cayòn Speed Auction 32 Lot 14, ex Cayòn Auction 06/2004 lot 387
4 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_189_Titus.jpg
RIC 0189 Titus44 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, Radiate head right
Rev: CERES AVGVST / S C (in field), Ceres standing left, holding corn ears and torch
AE/Dupondius (26.92 mm 13.91 g 6 h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D.
RIC 189 (C), BMCRE 191-a-2
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_197_Titus.jpg
RIC 0197 Titus37 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, Radiate head right
Rev : CONCORDIA AVGVST / S-C in exergue; Concordia seated left, with patera and cornucopiae
AE/Dupondius (27.59 mm 13.35 g 4h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D. (2nd group)
RIC 197 (C), BMCRE unlisted, BNF 122
Naville Numismatics Live Auction 15 Lot 419
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_203_Titus.jpg
RIC 0203 Titus30 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, Radiate head of Titus, right
Rev: SALVS AVG / S C (in exergue); Salus seated left, with patera
AE/Dupondius (28.30 mm 14.33 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D.
RIC 203 (C), BMCRE 196, BNF 197
ex ACR Auctions E-Auction 32 lot 755
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_213_Titus.jpg
RIC 0213 Titus40 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, Radiate head left
Rev: VESTA / S C, Vesta seated left, with Palladium and sceptre
AE/Dupondius (28.93 mm 11.963 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D.
RIC 213 (C), BMCRE 201-2, BNF 204-5
ex Nomisma Online Auction 18 Lot 63
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_214_Titus.jpg
RIC 0214 Titus28 viewsObv : IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, Laureate head right
Rev : AEQVITAS AVGVST / S-C in field; Aequitas standing left holding scales in right hand, sceptre in left hand
AE/As (26.49 mm 11.35 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D.
RIC 214 (C), BMCRE 203, Paris 206
ex Nummus et Ars Auction 83 lot 223
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Titus_226_Geni.jpg
RIC 0226 Titus As64 viewsIMP T CAES VESP AVG PM TR P COS VIII
Laureate head left

GENI P R; SC IN FIELD
Genius standing left with patera over altar and cornucopiae

Rome, 80-81 AD
11.45g

RIC 226 (R)

Ex-Ebay
3 commentsJay GT4
RIC_231_Titus.jpg
RIC 0231 Titus52 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, Laureate head of Titus, right
Rev: PAX AVGVSTI / S - C (in field); Pax standing left with caduceus and branch
AE/As (27.28 mm 13.378 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D. (2nd group)
RIC 231 (R3), BMCRE-BNF unlisted
ex Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger Auktion 317 lot 2026
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_248_Titus.jpg
RIC 0248 Titus32 viewsObv: IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII, Laureate head right
Rev: VICTORIA AVGVST / S - C (in field), Victory standing right, on prow,with wreath and palm
AE/As (28.46 mm 12.356 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D.
RIC 248 (C), BMCRE 217, BNF 222
ex Eugubium list 26 lot 112
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_249_Titus.jpg
RIC 0249 Titus65 viewsObv: Laureate head left, IMP T CAES VESP AVG P M TR P COS VIII
Rev: VICTORIA AVGVST / S - C (in field), Victory standing right, on prow,with wreath and palm
AE/As (28.68 mm 12.886 g 6h) Struck in Rome 80-81 A.D.
RIC 249 (C), BMCRE unlisted, BNF 223
ex Tintinna Electronic Auction 56 lot 2022
1 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
RIC_248A_Titus.jpg
RIC 0251A Titus28 views