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Search results - "Thrax,"
Max_Thrax_Sestertius.jpg
31 Maximinus I Thrax, 20 March 235 - Late May 238 A.D.39 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 43, Cohen 10, VF, 23.158g, 32.3mm, 30o, Rome mint, 235 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse FIDES MILITVM S C, Fides standing half-left, military standard in each hand; well centered, nice patina, flan crack, typical squared flan

Purchased from FORVM
1 commentsSosius
sia_059~0.JPG
Maximinus I Thrax AE Sestertius, Pax, 235-238 A.D.89 viewsRef Maximinus I Thrax AE Sestertius, 235-238 A.D.
Maximinus I Thrax Æ Sestertius. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped bust right / PAX AVGVSTI S-C, Pax standing left with branch and scepter. Cohen 38, RIC 81, BMC 148. Rome mint.
29.8mm, 19.34gr. Green Patina.
Antonio Protti
max_thrax.jpg
(0235) MAXIMINUS I (THRAX)49 views235 - 238 AD
AE Sestertius 30X32mm 20.55 g
o:MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Laureate draped bust r
R: FIDES MILITVM S-C
Fides standing head left, holding military standard in each hand
laney
MAXIMINUS_NIKE_THESSALONIKA_RES.jpg
(0235) MAXIMINUS I THRAX40 views235 - 238 AD
AE 25 mm 7.97 g
O: AVGIOVOV- -MAXIMEINOC Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: Nike standing left, holding palm branch and statue of Kabeiros.
Macedonia, Thessalonika; Varbanov 4502

laney
max_thrax_denarius_x.jpg
(0235) MAXIMINUS I THRAX14 views235 - 238 AD
Struck 236 AD--2nd emission
Silver denarius, 20.0 mm; 2.909 g
O: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right (no cuirass?), from behind;
R: PAX AVGVSTI (to the peace of the emperor), Pax standing facing, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left
Rome mint; RSC III 31b (no cuirass), RIC IV 12 var. (cuirassed), BMCRE VI 70 var. (same), Hunter III 8 var. (same), SRCV III 8310 var. (same)
(ex FORUM)
laney
max_thrax_denarius.jpg
(0235) MAXIMINUS THRAX15 views235 AD - 238 AD
AR Denarius 19.5 mm; 2.13 g
Obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: P M TR P P P, Maximinus standing left, holding spear and raising right hand, two standards at sides.
Rome, RIC 1
laney
62a.jpg
062a Maximinus I Thrax. AR denarius10 viewsobv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r.
rev: PM TR P PP emperor in military dress std. l., two standards
leaning l. on spear and raising
hill132
62b.jpg
062b Maximinus I Thrax. AE sestertius11 viewsobv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r.
rev: FIDES MILITVS fides std. facing head l. standard in each hand
fld: SC
hill132
Maximinus-I_axis-6h_18-19mm_3,07g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 003, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor standing front, #1100 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 003, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor standing front, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor standing front, head left, between two standards, raising right hand and holding long scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,07g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 03, p-, C 55,
Q-001
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Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_P-M-TR-P-II-COS-P-P_RIC-IV-3_C-55_Rome-235-AD_002_Q-002_7h_18,5-19mm_2,83g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 003, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor standing front, #266 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 003, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor standing front, #2
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor standing front, head left, between two standards, raising right hand and holding long scepter.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 2,83g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 03, p-, C 55,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_FIDES-MILITVM_RIC_7A,_RSC_7a,_001_Q-001_0h_18,5-19,5mm_2,86g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #183 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, a standard in each hand.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,86g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 7A, p-, RSC 7a,
Q-001
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Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_FIDES-MILITVM_RIC_7A,_RSC_7a,_Q-002_7h_19,5-20,5mm_2,55g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #265 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #2
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, a standard in each hand.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 2,55g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 7A, p-, RSC 7a,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_FIDES-MILITVM_RIC_7A,_RSC_7a,_001_Q-003_6h_18-20mm_2,00ga-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #371 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #3
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, a standard in each hand.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-20,0mm, weight: 2,00g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 7A, p-, RSC 7a,
Q-003
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_FIDES-MILITVM_RIC_7A,_RSC_7a(anc-barb-imitation-fouree)_Q-003_6h_18,5-19mm_2,66ga-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007Ai, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, ancient barbar imitation, fouree !!! #476 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007Ai, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, ancient Barbar imitation, fouree !!! #4
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
revers: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, a standard in each hand.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 2,55g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 7Ai, p-, RSC 7ai, ancient Barbar imitation, fouree !!!
Q-004
1 commentsquadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_LIBERALITAS-AVG_RIC_10,_RSC_19,_BMC_45_Q-001_5h_18,5-19,5mm_2,09g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 010, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERALITAS AVG, Liberalitas standing left, #169 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 010, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERALITAS AVG, Liberalitas standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: LIBERALITAS AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,09g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 10, p-, RSC 19, BMC 45,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PAX-A-VGVSTI_RIC_12,_RSC_31a,_BMC_68_001_Q-001_7h_19,5-20,5mm_3,63g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #182 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: PAX A VGVSTI, Pax standing left, with branch and scepter
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,63g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 12, p-, RSC 31a, BMC 68,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PAX-AVGVSTI_RIC_12,_RSC_31a,_BMC_68_Q-002_6h_19,5-20mm_3,10ga-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #265 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #2
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: PAX A VGVSTI, Pax standing left, with branch and scepter
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20,0mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 12, p-, RSC 31a, BMC 68,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PAX-AVGVSTI_RIC_12,_RSC_31a,_BMC_68_Q-003_7h_18,5-20,5mm_3,33g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #370 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #3
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: PAX A VGVSTI, Pax standing left, with branch and scepter
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,33g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 12, p-, RSC 31a, BMC 68,
Q-003
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PAX-AVGVSTI_RIC_12,_RSC_31a,_BMC_68_Q-004_1h_18,5-21mm_2,98g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #468 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #4
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: PAX A VGVSTI, Pax standing left, with branch and scepter
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-21,0mm, weight: 2,98g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 12, p-, RSC 31a, BMC 68,
Q-004
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PAX-AVGVSTI_RIC_12,_RSC_31a,_BMC_68_Q-005_1h_19mm_3,60ga-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #567 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #5
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: PAX A VGVSTI, Pax standing left, with branch and scepter
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 12, p-, RSC 31a, BMC 68,
Q-005
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PROVIDENTIA-AVG_RIC_13,_RSC_77,_BMC_15_Q-001_0h_19,5-20mm_2,99g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 013, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #165 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 013, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, early portrait resembling Severus Alexander.
reverse: PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, with cornucopia and wand pointed at the globe at the foot.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20,0mm, weight: 2,99g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 235-236 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 13, p-141,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PROVIDENTIA-AVG_RIC-IV-II-13d_p-141_Q-001_axis-6h_20mm_2,65g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 013d, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #1263 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 013d, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, early portrait resembling Severus Alexander.
reverse: PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding the wand over globe and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20mm, weight: 2,65g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235-236 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 13d, p-141,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_SALVS-AVGVSTI_RIC_14,_RSC_85a,_BMC_99_Q-001_6h_19,5-21mm_2,12ga-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 014, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #165 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 014, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding on patera a serpent rising from altar.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-21,0mm, weight: 2,12g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 14, p-, RSC 85a, BMC 99,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_SALVS-AVGVSTI_RIC_14,_RSC_85a,_BMC_99_Q-002_5h_19,5mm_3,15g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 014, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #268 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 014, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #2
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding on patera a serpent rising from altar.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,15g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 14, p-, RSC 85a, BMC 99,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_SALVS-AVGVSTI_RIC_14,_RSC_85a,_BMC_99_Q-003_6h_19,5-20,5mm_2,98g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 014, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #374 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 014, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #3
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding on patera a serpent rising from altar.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 2,98g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 14, p-, RSC 85a, BMC 99,
Q-003
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_SALVS-AVGVSTI_RIC_14,_RSC_85a,_BMC_99_Q-004_6h_19,5mm_3,05g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 014, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #469 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 014, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #4
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding on patera a serpent rising from altar.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 14, p-, RSC 85a, BMC 99,
Q-004
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_VICTORIA-AVG_RIC-IV-16_C-99_Rome-235-6-AD_001_Q-001_axis-6h_20mm_3,19g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 016, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, #1459 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 016, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,19g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235-236 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 16, p-, C 99,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_VICTORIA-AVG_RIC-IV-16_C-99_Rome-235-6-AD_Q-002_6h_18,5-20mm_2,53g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 016, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, #2123 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 016, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, #2
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-20,0mm, weight: 2,53g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235-236 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 16, p-, C 99,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_P-M-TR-P-IIII-COS-P-P_S-C_RIC-IV-40_C-71_Rome-236-8-AD_Q-001_0h_29-30mm_19,40g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 040, Rome, AE-Sestertius, P M TR P IIII COS P P, Maximinus standing left, #184 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 040, Rome, AE-Sestertius, P M TR P IIII COS P P, Maximinus standing left, #1
avers: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: P M TR P IIII COS P P, Maximinus standing left, right hand raised, holding the spear in left; two standards behind to the left, one right.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29-30mm, weight: 19,40g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 40, p-, C 71, BMC 221,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_FIDES-MILITVM_S-C_RIC_43,_Cohen_13,__Rome-236-8-AD_001_Q-001_0h_29,5mm_19,2ga-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 043, Rome, AE-Sestertius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #166 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 043, Rome, AE-Sestertius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, standard in each hand.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29,5mm, weight: 19,2g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 44, p-, C 13, BMC 263,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PAX-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC_58,_Cohen_34,__Rome-235-6-AD_001_Q-001_11h_28,5-31mm_15,68ga-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 058, Rome, AE-Sestertius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #170 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 058, Rome, AE-Sestertius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, with an olive branch.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 28,5-31mm, weight: 15,68g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 58, p-, C 34, BMCRE 7,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_SALVS-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC_64,_Cohen_88,__Rome-236-8-AD_001_Q-001_0h_28-32mm_19,03ga-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 064, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #162 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 064, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding on patera a serpent rising from altar.
exergue: -/-//SC, diameter: 28,0-32,0mm, weight: 19,03g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 64, p-, C 88, BMCRE 100,
Q-001
quadrans
065_Maximinus_I,_RIC_II_081,_AE-Sest,_MAXIMINVS_PIVS_AVG_GERM,_PAX_AVGVSTI,_S-C,_Cohen_38,_BMC_148,_Rome,_236-8,_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_29,5-30mm,_23,83g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 081, Rome, AE-Sestertius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #1110 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 081, Rome, AE-Sestertius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #1
avers: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left with branch and scepter, S-C on each side.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29,5-30,0mm, weight: 23,83g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 81, p-, C 38, BMC 148,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_SALVS-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-IV-85_C-92_Rome-236-8-AD_001_Q-001_axis-1h_29-31mm_17,97g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 085, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #1136 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 085, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #1
avers: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped bust right.
reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar.
exergue: -/-//SC, diameter: 29,0-31,0mm, weight: 17,97g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 85, p-, C 92,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_SALVS-AVGVSTI_S-C_RIC-IV-85_C-92_Rome-236-8-AD_Q-002_0h_29-30,5mm_24,15g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 085, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #269 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 085, Rome, AE-Sestertius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #2
avers: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped bust right.
reverse: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar.
exergue: -/-//SC, diameter: 29,0-30,5mm, weight: 24,15g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 85, p-, C 92,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximinus-I_AE-Sest_MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_VICTORIA-GERMANICA_S-C_RIC_90,_Cohen_109,_BMC_191_Rome-236-8-AD_001_Q-001_0h_29-30mm_18,08g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 090, Rome, AE-Sestertius, VICTORIA GERMANICA, Victory standing left, #169 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 090, Rome, AE-Sestertius, VICTORIA GERMANICA, Victory standing left, #1
avers: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: VICTORIA GERMANICA, Victory standing left with wreath and palm, captive seated before.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29,0-30,0mm, weight: 18,08g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 236-238 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 90, p-, C 109, BMC 191,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_FIDES-MILITVM_RIC_7A,_RSC_7a(anc-barb-imitation-fouree)_Q-003_6h_18,5-19mm_2,66ga-s~0.jpg
065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES-MILITVM, Fides standing left, ancient barbar imitation, fouree !!! #369 views065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES-MILITVM, Fides standing left, ancient barbar imitation, fouree !!! #3
avers:- IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- FIDES-MILITVM, Fides standing left, a standard in each hand.
exerg: , diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 2,55g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: (RIC-IV-II-7A, p-, RSC-7a,) ancient barbar imitation, fouree !!!
Q-003
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_FIDES-MILITVM_RIC_7A,_RSC_7a(anc-barb-imitation-fouree)_Q-003_6h_18,5-19mm_2,66ga-s~1.jpg
065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES-MILITVM, Fides standing left, ancient barbar imitation, fouree !!! #366 views065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES-MILITVM, Fides standing left, ancient barbar imitation, fouree !!! #3
avers:- IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- FIDES-MILITVM, Fides standing left, a standard in each hand.
exerg: , diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 2,55g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: (RIC-IV-II-7A, p-, RSC-7a,) ancient barbar imitation, fouree !!!
Q-003
quadrans
RI_080g_img.jpg
080 - Maximiminus Thrax, Denarius - RIC 00520 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor standing left, holding standard and sceptre; standard behind
Minted in Rome. A.D. 237
Reference:– Cohen 10. RIC 5. RSC 64.
maridvnvm
RI_080h_img.jpg
080 - Maximiminus Thrax, Denarius - RIC 02117 viewsObv:– MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 21. RSC 91
maridvnvm
RI_080e_img.jpg
080 - Maximiminus Thrax, Denarius - RIC 02329 viewsObv:– MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIA GERM, Victory standing left holding wreath and palm; captive at feet
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– BMC 186. RIC 23. RSC 107.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_080f_img.jpg
080 - Maximiminus Thrax, Sestertius - RIC 04315 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FIDES MILITVM S-C, Fides standing left, standard in each hand
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 43

Weight 23.22g. 32.33mm.
maridvnvm
RI_080d_img.jpg
080 - Maximinus Thrax - RIC 8654 viewsDupondius
Obv:– IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 86
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_080i_img.jpg
080 - Maximinus Thrax denarius - RIC 02033 viewsObv:– MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left with baton over a globe & cornucopiae
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 20.
maridvnvm
IMG_3719~0.jpg
090. Maximinus I Thrax (235-238 A.D.)24 viewsAv.: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Rv.: SALVS AVGVSTI / S-C

AE Sestertius Ø28-30 / 19.8g
RIC IV 64 Rome
Juancho
14-Gordian-III-RIC-116.jpg
13. Gordian III / RIC 116.25 viewsDenarius, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI / Hercules standing, resting right hand on hip and left hand club set on rock; lion-skin beside club.
3.58 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #116; Sear #8684.

The chronology of the denarii coinage of Gordian III has been poorly understood because Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) has it mixed up in its listings. For example, it will tell you that 5 denarii (Diana, Pietas, Salus, Securitas, and Venus) were issued in the summer of 241 to commemorate the marriage of Gordian and Tranquillina. Recent thinking tells another entirely different story. The following summary is based on a posting by Curtis Clay, November 25, 2011, on the Forum Ancient Coins Classical Numismatics Discussion Board.
Although antoniniani were issued for a while under Caracalla and Elagabalus, the denarius was the standard silver denomination throughout the reigns of Severus Alexander, Maximinus Thrax, and into the first part of the joint reign of Balbinus & Pupienus. (This, by the way, is when the PIETAS AVGG denarius of Gordian as Caesar was issued.) Sometime during the short reign of Balbinus & Pupienus, the antoninianus supplanted the denarius as the standard silver denomination. When Gordian III became emperor (July 238), his administration continued to follow the then current practice of issuing only antoniniani.

Early in 240, Gordian apparently decided to revert back to the traditional coinage of the Empire and began to issue only denarii. The denarii issued at this time were the following:

P M TR P III COS P P / Horseman
DIANA LVCIFERA
PIETAS AVGVSTI
SALVS AVGVSTI
SECVRITAS PVBLICA
VENVS VICTRIX

No antoniniani exist with these reverse types.

The next issue of denarii was issued in the summer of 240 after Gordian became COS II, and consists of these types:

P M TR P III COS II P P / Emperor standing
P M TR P III COS II P P / Apollo seated
AETERNITATI AVG
IOVIS STATOR
LAETITIA AVG N
VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Within a short time, however, it was decided to go back to having the antoninianus as the standard silver denomination. Antoniniani were issued again, at first with the same reverse types as the second issue of denarii. That is why these reverse types exist on denarii and antoniniani even though they were not issued at the same time.

So the period the mint issued denarii rather than antoniniani as the standard silver denomination lasted from about March through August, 240. This was the last time denarii were issued for general circulation. The antoninianus lasted until Diocletian’s coinage reform of 295, after which Roman coinage was so vastly different that there was no question of returning to the denarius.

The 13 denarii of Gordian III are presented in this album in this order:
Gordian III as Caesar denarius - 1 coin.
First issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Second issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Callimachus
coin234.JPG
301. Maximinus38 viewsMaximinus Thrax

The first of the "soldier-emperors," Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus spent all three years of his reign on campaign. Although Rome's senatorial elite was eventually able to bring about the downfall of this non-aristocratic emperor, the victory was only a temporary check on the rising importance of the military in the third century. The historical tradition has been universally unkind to Maximinus. His arrival on the throne was similar to that of Macrinus, the only previous emperor who had not been a member of the senatorial class at the time of his accession. Yet unlike Macrinus, Maximinus was a career soldier from a backwards province who had little or no formal education. Maximinus came to be described as a ruthless, semi-barbarian tyrant, and by late antiquity he was regularly referred to with the ethnic epithet Thrax, "the Thracian."

Denarius. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory running right. RIC 16, RSC 99
ecoli
coin508.JPG
314. Claudius II37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270), more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status.

His origin is uncertain. Claudius was either from Syrmia (Sirmium; in Pannonia Inferior) or from Dardania (in Moesia Superior). Claudius was the commander of the Roman army that defeated decisively the Goths at the battle of Naissus, in September 268; in the same month, he attained the throne, amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. He was less magnanimous toward Rome's enemies, however, and it was to this that he owed his popularity.

Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of barbarian birth. After an interlude of failed aristocratic Roman emperors since Maximinus's death, Claudius was the first in a series of tough soldier-emperors who would eventually restore the Empire from the Crisis of the third century.

At the time of his accession, the Roman Empire was in serious danger from several incursions, both within and outside its borders. The most pressing of these was an invasion of Illyricum and Pannonia by the Goths. Not long after being named emperor (or just prior to Gallienus' death, depending on the source), he won his greatest victory, and one of the greatest in the history of Roman arms.

At the Battle of Naissus, Claudius and his legions routed a huge Gothic army. Together with his cavalry commander, the future Emperor Aurelian, the Romans took thousands of prisoners, destroyed the Gothic cavalry as a force and stormed their chariot laager (a circular alignment of battle-wagons long favored by the Goths). The victory earned Claudius his surname of "Gothicus" (conqueror of the Goths), and that is how he is known to this day. More importantly, the Goths were soon driven back across the Danube River, and a century passed before they again posed a serious threat to the empire.

While this was going on, the Germanic tribe known as the Alamanni had crossed the Alps and attacked the empire. Claudius responded quickly and swiftly, routing the Alamanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus in the late fall of 268, a few months after the battle of Naissus. He then turned on the "Gallic Empire", ruled by a pretender for the past 15 years and encompassing Britain, Gaul and Spain. He won several victories and soon regained control of Spain and the Rhone river valley of Gaul. This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.

However, Claudius did not live long enough to fulfill his goal of reuniting all the lost territories of the empire. Late in 269 he was preparing to go to war against the Vandals, who were raiding in Pannonia. However, he fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died early in January of 270. Before his death, he is thought to have named Aurelian as his successor, although Claudius' brother Quintillus briefly seized power.

The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece. Said niece Claudia reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication by Constantine the Great.

Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FORTUNA REDUX, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 234, Cohen 88.
ecoli
Maximinus-I-RIC-1.jpg
55. Maximinus I year I.13 viewsDenarius, 235 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Maximinus.
Reverse: P M TR P P P / The emperor standing between two standards, holding spear, and raising right hand.
2.33 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #1; Sear #8331.
Callimachus
Maximinus-I-RIC-3.jpg
57. Maximinus I year II.14 viewsDenarius, 236 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Maximinus.
Reverse: P M TR P II COS P P / The emperor standing between two standards, holding spear, and raising right hand.
3.50 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #8312.

Maximinus had a great victory over the Germans sometime in the late Fall of 235 at which time he took the title Germanicus. This coin from 236 does not have GERM in the obverse legend, indicating it was minted before the news of this victory reached Rome. Once this news reached Rome, a different obverse legend was used, which then remained unchanged for the rest of the reign.
Callimachus
Maximinus-I-RIC-5.jpg
59. Maximinus I year III.10 viewsDenarius, 237 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM / Laureate bust of Maximinus.
Reverse: P M TR P III COS P P / The emperor standing between two standards, holding spear and raising right hand.
2.35 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #5; Sear #8313.
Callimachus
Maximinus-I-RIC-6.jpg
60. Maximinus I year IIII.15 viewsDenarius, 238 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM / Laureate bust of Maximinus.
Reverse: P M TR P IIII COS P P / The emperor standing between two standards, holding spear and raising right hand.
2.62 gm., 19.5 mm.
RIC #6; Sear 8314.

This coin dates from January 1 to March 19, 238, at which time Gordian I was proclaimed emperor and the mint at Rome stopped coining for Maximinus. It was not until June 24, however, that he was murdered by his soldiers. The coins of Maximinus' last few months are considerably scarcer than those from earlier years.
Callimachus
Maximinus-I-RIC-78.jpg
85. Maximinus I sestertius.17 viewsSestertius, 236-37 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM / Laureate bust of Maximinus.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM / Fides standing, holding standard in each hand. S C in field.
16.92 gm., 30 mm.
RIC #78.
Callimachus
maxsest.jpg
AE Sestertius of Maximinus I (Thrax) 138-135 AD21 viewsOBV: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; IMP MAXIMINUS PIVS AVG
REV: Victory advancing right bearing wreath and palm, VICTORIA AVG S-C

RIC 67, Cohen 100. A Classic Roman profile
wt 18.9 gms
daverino
Screen_Shot_2014-06-22_at_10_07_00_PM.png
Alexander Severus Silver Denarius 39 views59850. Silver denarius, SRCV II 7923, RIC IV 252, RSC III 508a, BMCRE VI 813, VF, scratches, 3.143g, 19.8mm, 0o, Rome mint, 231 - 235 A.D.;

obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder;

reverse PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia (or Annona) standing left, stalks of grain in right over modius, anchor in left

Annona with a modius and anchor suggests the arrival of grain by sea from the provinces, especially from Africa, and its distribution to the people. When Severus Alexander was away on his Persian and German campaigns (231-235) he continuously struck Annona types. With the legend PROVIDENTIA AVG, "The Foresight of the Emperor," he assured that, though he was away, he would be carefully monitoring Rome's grain supply!
1 commentsColby S
Deulteum AE 19 of Maximinus Thrax,.JPG
Deultum AE 20 of Maximinus I, 235-238 AD40 viewsMaximinus I
AE 20 – 20mm
Deultum, 235-238 AD
IMP MAXIMINVS AVG
laureate draped bust r.
C F P D
beehive
Moushmov 3641
Ardatirion
EB0510_scaled.JPG
EB0510 Maximinus I / Salus13 viewsMaximinus Thrax, AR Denarius, 236-238 AD.
Obv: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate draped bust right.
Rev: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar.
References: RIC IV 21; RSC 91.
Diameter: 22mm, Weight: 3.388 grams.
EB
Maximinus_Thrax_001.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 235, Maximinus I Thrax, Roma12 viewsMaximinus I Thrax 235-238
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: AYTO MAΞIMINOC EVC CEB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: L – A, year 1, AD 235, Roma standing left, raising hand and holding spear.
Billon, 12.47g, 23.8mm
Ref.: Kampmann/Ganschow 65.2, G 2548, D4591, Emmett 3294.
Ex Pecunem 10, Lot 327

shanxi
Maximinus_S8378.JPG
Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus I "Thrax," 235 - 238 AD39 viewsObv: AVTO MAΞIMINOC EVC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximinus facing right.

Rev: Nike advancing right, wreath in left hand, palm over right shoulder; LB (reginal year 2) in right field.

Billon Tetradrachm, Alexandria mint, 235 - 236 AD

11.95 grams, 22.2 mm, 0°

S8378

Ex: FORVM
1 commentsSPQR Coins
GordianIAfr.jpg
Gordian I Africanus / Athena63 viewsGordian I Africanus, Egypt, Alexandria. A.D. 238. BI tetradrachm (22 mm, 12.47 g, 12 h). RY 1.
O: A K M AN ΓOPΔIANOC CЄM AΦ ЄVCЄB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian I right
R: Athena seated left, holding Nike and spear; in left field, date (L A).
- Köln 2600; cf. Dattari (Savio) 4656 (legend); Kampmann & Ganschow 68.6., Ex Coin Galleries (16 July 2003), 264.

Perhaps the most reluctant of Emperors, Gordian I (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus) was Roman Emperor for one month with his son Gordian II in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. Caught up in a rebellion against the Emperor Maximinus Thrax, he was defeated by forces loyal to Maximinus before committing suicide.

According to Edward Gibbon:

"An iniquitous sentence had been pronounced against some opulent youths of [Africa], the execution of which would have stripped them of far the greater part of their patrimony. (…) A respite of three days, obtained with difficulty from the rapacious treasurer, was employed in collecting from their estates a great number of slaves and peasants blindly devoted to the commands of their lords, and armed with the rustic weapons of clubs and axes. The leaders of the conspiracy, as they were admitted to the audience of the procurator, stabbed him with the daggers concealed under their garments, and, by the assistance of their tumultuary train, seized on the little town of Thysdrus, and erected the standard of rebellion against the sovereign of the Roman empire. (...) Gordianus, their proconsul, and the object of their choice [as emperor], refused, with unfeigned reluctance, the dangerous honour, and begged with tears that they should suffer him to terminate in peace a long and innocent life, without staining his feeble age with civil blood. Their menaces compelled him to accept the Imperial purple, his only refuge indeed against the jealous cruelty of Maximin (...)."

Because of the absence of accurate dating in the literary sources, the precise chronology of these events has been the subject of much study. The present consensus among historians assigns the following dates (all in the year 238 A.D.) to these events: March 22nd Gordian I, II were proclaimed Emperors in Africa; April 1st or 2nd they were recognized at Rome; April 12th they were killed (after reigning twenty days); April 22nd Pupienus and Balbinus were proclaimed Emperors; June 24th Maximinus and his son were assassinated outside of Aquileia; July 29th Pupienus and Balbinus were assassinated and Gordian III proclaimed as sole Augustus.
3 commentsNemonater
GordII.jpg
Gordian II Africanus / Victory64 viewsGordian II Africanus. Silver Denarius, AD 238. Rome.
O: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian II right.
R: VICTO-RIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
- RIC 2; BMC 28; RSC 12.

Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus), was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. The double "GG" in "AVGG" (Augustus) on the reverse was to show that power was shared between the two men although Gordian II did not receive the additional title of high priest or Pontifex Maximus. He died in battle outside of Carthage.

Confronted by a local elite that had just killed Maximinus's procurator, Gordian's father (Gordian I) was forced to participate in a full-scale revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22.

Due to his advanced age, Gordian I insisted that his son, Marcus Antonius Gordianus (Gordian II), be associated with him. A few days later, Gordian entered the city of Carthage with the overwhelming support of the population and local political leaders. Meanwhile in Rome, Maximinus' praetorian prefect was assassinated and the rebellion seemed to be successful. Gordian in the meantime had sent an embassy to Rome, under the leadership of Publius Licinius Valerianus, to obtain the Senate’s support for his rebellion. The senate confirmed the new emperor on 2 April and many of the provinces gladly sided with Gordian.

Opposition would come from the neighboring province of Numidia. Capelianus, governor of Numidia, loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, and who held a grudge against Gordian, renewed his alliance to the former emperor and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationed in the region, III Augusta, and other veteran units. Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed, and Gordian I took his own life by hanging himself with his belt. The Gordians had reigned only twenty-two days.
3 commentsNemonater
lg2_quart_sm.jpg
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / P M S COL VIM / Ӕ30 (239-240 AD)18 viewsIMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / P M S CO - L VIM, personification of Moesia standing facing, head left, arms outstretched over a lion (right) and a bull (left). AN • I • in exergue.

Ӕ, 29-30+mm, 16.75g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: looks like red copper.

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG = Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus, P M S COL VIM = Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium = Colony of Viminacium, in the province of Upper Moesia, AN•I• = the first year. 238 AD was the infamous "year of the 6 emperors", so 239-240 was the first sole ruling year of Gordian III. The bull is the symbol of Legio VII Claudia, based in the capital of Moesia Superior, Viminacium itself, and the lion is the symbol of Legio IV Flavia Felix based in another city of Moesia Superior, Singidunum (modern Belgrade). Due to size this is most probably a sestertius, but large dupondius is another possibility, since it is clearly made of red copper and sestertii were typically made of expensive "gold-like" orichalcum, a kind of brass (but in this time of civil strife they could have used a cheaper replacement). Literature fails to clearly identify the denomination of this type.

A straightforward ID due to size and clear legends, this is AMNG 71; Martin 1.01.1 minted in Viminacium, Moesia Superior (Kostolac, Serbia).

Gordian III was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known of his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD.

In 235, following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 (to become infamous as "the year of six emperors") a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors. This revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace-loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression.

Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordians' fate, so the Senate decided to take the teenage Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus like his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica, who assassinated Maximinus. However, their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor.

Due to Gordian's age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was quickly brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire.

In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid Empire across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor's security, were at risk.

Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects and the campaign proceeded. Around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah) in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events. One view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sassanids.
Philip transferred the body of the deceased emperor to Rome and arranged for his deification. Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of the enemy, earned him the lasting esteem of the Romans.
Yurii P
194.jpg
Julia Mamaea Denarius - Felicitas (RIC 335)37 viewsAR Denarius
Rome, 222-235 AD
3.43g

Obv: Diademed and draped bust of Julia Mamaea (R)
IVLIA MAMAEA AVG

Rev: Felicitas standing front, head to left, legs crossed, holding caduceus in her right hand and leaning on column with her left elbow.
FELICITAS PVBLICA

RIC 335, BMC 483, Cohen 17

Leu Numismatik Web Auction 6, Lot 1062
ex. Maggiore Collection, formed in the late 1970s to early 2000s.

Julia Avita Mamaea (180–235) was the second daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Syrian noble Gaius Julius Avitus Alexianus. She was a niece of empress Julia Domna and sister of Julia Soaemias Bassiana (mother of Elegabalus). She was born and raised in Emesa (modern Homs, Syria). She was the mother of Roman Emperor Alexander Severus and served as regent of Rome and de facto ruler during her son's reign.

In 232, mother and son were sent north to deal with a German attack. Alexander so alienated the Rhine legions by his lack of military prowess and his inflexibility towards pay that the troops proclaimed Maximinus Thrax as emperor in 235. Troops sent to kill Alexander found him clinging to his mother in a tent. Mother and son were butchered together, ending the Severan dynasty.
3 commentsOptimo Principi
Julia_Mamaea_Juno.jpg
Julia Mamaea, Juno with peacock, Silver Denarius * 222-235 A.D.66 views
AR Denarius

Obv: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG. Draped bust, right.
Rev: IVNO CONSERVATRIX. Juno* standing left, holding patera in left hand and scepter in right hand, peacock at her feet to left and both left-facing.

Mint: Rome
Struck: 222 AD.

Size: 1.9 cm.
Weight: 3.1 grams.
Die axis: 0 degs.

Beautiful clear luster, with ‘minor’ shock damage to lower edge.

RIC IV/2, 343; C.35
Sear 2310
BMCR.43

* Olympian

Mamaea's imperial title was Iulia Augusta, mater Augusti nostri et castrorum et senatus et patriae, recalling the titulature of Julia Domna. Her position in the government was confirmed by the title consors imperii. Recognized as religiosissima, she had conversation with Origen while in the East as She accompanied Alexander on campaign there against the Persians in 230-231. In 235, she was with him in Germany, at Mainz, when they were assassinated by the troops, with Maximinus Thrax chosen as successor. She suffered damnatio memoriae.
Tiathena
016.JPG
MACEDON - THESSALONICA - MAXIMINUS THRAX - NIKE WALKING WITH STATUE OF KABIR.27 viewsObv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: Nike standing left, holding palmbranch and statue of kabir.

Antonio Protti
234-Max Thrax Germ Sestertius~0.JPG
Max Thrax Germ Sestertius30 viewsMaximinus I Æ Sestertius.
Obverse: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laur, dr and cuir bust right from behind Reverse: VICTORIA GERMANICA, Victory standing left with wreath & palm; captive seated before.
RIC 90, Cohen 109.
30mm , 17.9gm
Jerome Holderman
217- Max Thrax Sest portrait 1~0.JPG
Max Thrax Sest portrait 132 viewsAe Sestertius, 235-236 AD.
Obv:IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate and draped bust right.
Rev:VICTORIA AVG / SC, Victory advancing right with wreath and palm.
30mm, 19.8gm
RIC 67
Jerome Holderman
maximinus-thrax-fouree.jpg
Maximinus Fouree Denarius24 viewsRoman Imperial, Maximinus Fouree Denarius

Obverse: IMP MAXIMINUS PIV AVG, Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, holding branch and sceptre, altar at feet.

Reference: Pending

Ex: Holding History Coins +photo
Gil-galad
Maximinus_Thrax_Salus_3b.jpg
Maximinus I 'Thrax' * Salus - AR Denarius * 235-238 AD.112 views
Maximinus I 'Thrax' * Salus - Silver Denarius

Obv: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Rev: Salus seated left, feeding serpent arising from altar to front from patera extended in right arm, left elbow resting on seat: SALVS AVGVSTI

Exergue: Clear

Mint: Rome
Struck: 235-238 AD.

Size: 20.07 mm.
Weight: 3.16 gms.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: Beautiful: clear, sharp, distinct images and legends in superb relief, with some notable wear to the serpent.
Lovely silver luster overall.

Refs:*
RIC 14. RSC. 85a.
BMCRE 99, pl. 36.

Status: TCJH * Private Collection
Gift from a very dear friend.
4 commentsTiathena
maximinus_-_ric_14.jpg
Maximinus I - RIC 149 viewsMaximinus Thrax
Denarius.
IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right /
SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding from patera a serpent arising from altar.
xokleng
maximinus_-_ric_78_1.jpg
Maximinus I - RIC 7815 viewsMaximinus I Thrax
AE Sestertius.
MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right,
seen from the side or back /
FIDES MILITVM S-C, Fides standing left holding two standards.
xokleng
AAFAb_small.png
Maximinus I Denarius15 viewsMaximinus I, Thrax, 235-238 AD.

Rome, 235 AD.

22mm., 2.76g.

IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG. Bust of Maximinus I, laureate, draped, cuirassed, right.

P M TR P P P. Maximinus Thrax, in military attire, standing left between two standard, raising right hand and leaning to left on spear held in left hand.

References: RIC IV Maximinus Thrax 1 (denarius)

AAFA
RL
maxthrax.jpg
Maximinus I Denarius 235-236 AD29 viewsObverse: IMP MAXIMINUS PIUS AVG; Laureate draped bust right
Reverse: FIDES MILITUM; Fides standing left holding two standards.

A very nice, rather idealized portrait coin without the usual pointed jaw and bulging forehead.
RIC 7A, weight 3.30 grams
daverino
maximinus_23.jpg
Maximinus I RIC IV, 23112 viewsMaximinus I Thrax 235 - 238
AR - Denar, 2.83g, 19mm
Rome AD 235/236
obv. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM
draped bust, laureate head r.
rev. VICTORIA GERM
Victory standing l., holding laurel-branch in r. hand
and palmbranch in l. arm; to her feet sitting captured German
RIC IV, 23; C.105
EF mint-state

VICTORIA GERM, due to his ruthless revenge campaigns against the Germans on the northern frontiers of the empire AD 235.
3 commentsJochen
Maximinus_20_39g,_S_8338.jpeg
Maximinus I Thrax29 viewsMaximinus I Thrax (the Thracian), AE Sestertius, 20.39g. 236-238 AD. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, cuirassed, draped bust right / SALVS AVGVSTI S-C, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar. RIC 85; Cohen 92; BMCRE 175-176; Banti 24; Sear 8338.1 commentsMolinari
Maximinus_I_Thrax.JPG
Maximinus I Thrax - RIC 77a76 viewsDenarius, Rome, 235-6 AD, 2.99g. Obv: without GERM, second portrait. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate draped bust right / PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providence standing left holding cornucopia & wand pointed at globe at foot. BMC-86, RSC-77a, RIC-13, RCV-83153 commentsBud Stewart
Maximinus_RIC85.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax - Sestertius - RIC 8517 viewsObv: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate draped bust right
Rev: SALVS AVGVSTI S-C, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar
Size: 32mm
Weight: 19g
Mint: Rome
Date: AD 236-237
Ref: RIC IV 85, Cohen 92
vs1969
MaxTRPIIII.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax / P M TR P IIII51 viewsMaximinus I. AD 235-238. AR Denarius 2.55 g. Rome mint, 6th officina. 6th emission, December AD 237-April AD 238.
O: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: P M TR P IIII COS P P Maximinus standing left, raising hand and holding spear; two signa flanking.
- RIC IV 6; BMCRE 219; RSC 70.

Maximinus took his fourth tribunitian on December 10, 237. Although assassinated in April of the following year, he lost control of the Rome mint that January. This rare last issue of his reign was struck between December 237 and January 238.
2 commentsNemonater
roman61.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax AE Sestertius42 views235-6 AD. Rome mint.
Obv.: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximinus I right.
Rev.: FIDES MILITVM - Fides Militum standing facing, head left, holding two standards.
RIC 43. Alram 9-5/A. BMC 63. Cohen 10.
3 commentsMinos
maximinusI sest-victory.jpg
MAXIMINUS I Thrax AE sestertius - 235-236 AD26 viewsobv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG (laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: VICTORIA AVG (Victory advancing right bearing wreath & palm), S-C across fields
ref: RIC 67, Cohen 100, BMC 108
24.82gms, 31mm
History: The first "soldier-emperor," Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus spent the winter of AD 235-36 at Sirmium and then led successful campaigns against Dacian and Sarmatian tribes. The Senate granted the titles Sarmaticus Maximus and Dacicus Maximus for him, but these titles aren't on his coins.
berserker
maximinus_RIC61.jpg
MAXIMINUS I Thrax AE sestertius - 235-236 AD23 viewsobv:: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG (laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: PROVIDENTIA AVG (Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe & cornucopiae), S-C in field
ref: RIC 61, Cohen 80
18.03gms, 28mm
Providence is most often depicted under the form of a female, clothed in a matron's gown, holding in her left hand a cornucopiae, or the hasta pura, and in her right a short wand, with which she either touches or points to a globe. This coin reverse type is intended to mark the power and wisdom of the emperor, who ruled the Roman world.
berserker
maximinusI sest2.jpg
MAXIMINUS I Thrax AE sestertius - 236 AD14 viewsobv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG (laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: PM TRP II COS PP (Maximinus I standing left, raising hand and holding scepter, two standards to left and one to right), S-C across fields
ref: RIC33, C.58
19.79gms, 28mm
berserker
maximinusI sest.jpg
MAXIMINUS I Thrax AE sestertius - 236 AD19 viewsobv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG (laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: PM TRP II COS PP / S.C. (Maximinus I standing left, raising hand and holding scepter, two standards to left and one to right), S-C across fields
ref: RIC30, C.59
18.13gms, 29mm
berserker
maximinus sest-.jpg
MAXIMINUS I Thrax AE sestertius - 236-238 AD23 viewsobv: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM (laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: FIDES MILITVM (Fides standing left, holding two standards), S C across field
ref: RIC IV 78; Cohen 13
17.33gms, 30mm
berserker
roman8.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax Ar Denarius22 views235-236 AD. Rome mint.
Obv.: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: PAX AVGVSTI - Pax standing left, holding branch upwards in right hand and transverse scepter with left.
RIC 12.
Minos
maximinus-fouree-denarius.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax Fouree Denarius27 viewsRoman Imperial, Maximinus Fouree Denarius

Obverse: IMP MAXIMINUS PIV AVG, Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, holding branch and sceptre, altar at feet.

Reference: Pending

Ex: Holding History Coins
Gil-galad
thrax.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax, AD 235-2389 viewsAR Denarius, 1.8g, 20mm, 12h; Rome mint, AD 236-238.
Obv.: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG; laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: VICTORIA AVG; Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm.
Reference: RIC IV(b) Maximinus I 16, p. 141.
Notes: sold to JB, 10/15/15
John Anthony
max_k.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax, AD 235-2384 viewsAR denarius, 20mm, 3.0g, 12h; Rome mint, AD 235-6
Obv.: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG; Laureate, draped bust right.
Rev.: VICTORIA AVG; Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm branch.
Reference: RIC IVb 16, p. 141 16-185-125
Notes: early bust akin to Severus Alexander.
John Anthony
Thrax_Pax_k.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax, AD 235-2389 viewsAR denarius, 22mm, 3.3g, 12h; Rome mint, AD 236-8
Obv.: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind.
Rev.: PAX AVGVSTI; Pax standing half left, branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left.
Reference: RIC IVb 19, p. 141 / 16-389-65
John Anthony
thrax_vict_k.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax, AD 235-2388 viewsAR denarius, 20mm, 2.8g, 12h; Rome mint, AD 235-6
Obv.: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG; Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
Rev.: VICTORIA AVG; Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm branch.
Reference: RIC IVb 16, p. 141 / 16-402-65
John Anthony
combined.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax, AR Denarius. AD 235-236. 25 viewsOBV - IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right.
REV - FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, holding a standard in
each hand.

Minted in Rome 235-236 AD
2,55g, 21,90mm

RIC 7A; RSC 7a; Sear (1988) 2337; BMCRE 58.
Flamur H
1Trace_completa.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax, denario (Gaviller & Boyd collection)21 viewsMaximinus I (235-238 d.C.), denario, zecca di Roma, circa marzo 236 d.C.
AR, gr 3,39, mm 18, 360°, BB
D/ IMP MAXIMNVS PIVS AVG, busto a dx laureato, drappeggiato e corazzato.
R/ P M TR P II COS PP, l'imperatore stante tra due stendardi
RSC-55, RIC-3
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (15 settembre 2010, numero catalogo 118); ex Joseph Mastrario collection (Imperator Coins, Byron GA Usa, 2010), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, New York-Londra, 2007); ex Baldwin's auction 42 (London, 2005); ex W. C. Boyd collection (London, 1886); ex George Gaviller collection (London, prima del 1886).
paolo
11Massimino_Trace_bis.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax, denarius (Boynton & Boyd collection)32 viewsMassimino I Trace, denario, zecca di Roma (235-236 d.C.)
AR, 3.24 gr., 20,0 mm.; BB/MB+ (VF)
D/ IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, busto di Massimino laureato e drappeggiato a dx.
R/ SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seduta a sx alimenta un serpente proveniente da altare
RIC 14
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (3 aprile 2008, numero catalogo 28), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2005), ex Baldwin's auction 42 (London, 2005), ex W.C. Boyd collection (London, 2 febbraio 1900), ex Sotheby's (London, 2 febbraio 1900, nel lotto 309), ex Boynton collection (London, fino al 1899).
paolo
1112_1113.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax, Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG3 viewsAR Denarius
Maximinus I Thrax
Augustus: 325 - 328AD
Issued: 236 - 238AD
21.0mm 1.83gr
O: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: PROVIDENTIA AVG; Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe and cornucopia.
Rome Mint
Aorta: 54: B1, O2, R18, T20.
RSC 75; RIC 20 (wand points to between P and R of PROVIDENTIA); BMC 170-1.
romae_aeternae_numismatics 192230095295
8/22/16 1/21/17
Nicholas Z
4590_4591.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax, Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG10 viewsAE Denarius
Maximinus I Thrax
Augustus: 235 - 238AD
Issued: April - December, 235
19.0mm
O: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: PROVIDENTIA AVG; Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe in right hand and cornucopia in left.
Rome Mint
RIC 20
Aorta: 44: B1, O1, R18, T20.
ajscoinshop 231078033693
10/27/13 4/4/17
Nicholas Z
MaximinusThrax_Ninica-Claudiopolis_ColonistWithOxen_AE28_10.7g.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax, Ninica-Claudiopolis, colonist with oxen, AE2844 viewsBronze AE 28, BMC 8 var, VF, 10.706g, 27.6mm, 180o, Ninica-Claudiopolis mint, obverse [...] MAXIMINVS [...], laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse COL NINI CLAUD, colonist ploughing behind two oxen, in background vexillum, star before colonist

Obverse countermarked with:
1. D containing dot, all within circle, circular punch, 6 mm, Howgego 669 (49 pcs).
2. Six-pointed star, incuse, 6 mm from point to point, Howgego 451 (45 pcs).
3 & 4. Nike right in oval punch, c. 5 x 8 mm, Howgego 262 (34 pcs).

The sequence of application appears to have been 669-451-262.

ex Automan, ex FORVM
areich
Maximinus_Thrax_RIC_3.jpg
Maximinus I, Thrax53 viewsDenarius (3,04g - 19mm)
obv. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
rev. P M TR P II COS P P
Bare-headed emperor standing
left, holding spear, standard at either side.
Rome mint AD 236
RIC 3
1 commentsHolger G
Maximinus_Thrax_Bust_and_Denarius.JPG
Maximinus I, Thrax, 235-238 AD.34 views2 commentsAntonivs Protti
Maximinus_Thrax_AR_denier,Superbe.jpg
Maximinus I, Thrax, 235-238 AD. Denarius (late portrait), Superb.36 views2,47 g.,20 mm,
Maximinus Thrax Denarius. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding from patera a serpent arising from altar. RSC 85a, RIC 14, BMC 99.
Antonivs Protti
Maximinus_I_Thrax.jpg
Maximinus I. Thrax 235-238 A.D.4 viewsMaximinus I. Thrax (235-238 A.D.). Ar Denarius (17.8~19.7 mm. 2.67 g), Rome. Obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing front, head turned left, holding two standards.
RIC IV, 2, 7a.
ddwau
MAXIMINUS_I__THRAX_DENAR_ROM_PROVIDENTIA_STAB_FÜLLHORN_GLOBUS.jpg
Maximinus I. Thrax, 235-238 n. Chr.26 viewsAR-Denar, 235/236 n.Chr
Rom
Vs.:Drapierte Panzerbüste r. mit Lorbeerkranz.
Rs.:Providentia steht l. mit Stab und Füllhorn, davor Globus.
RIC 13; C. 77.
f.vz
3,06 gr - 20 mm _5550
Antonivs Protti
Maximinus_Sest~0.jpg
Maximinus Sestertius27 viewsMaximinus Thrax Æ Sestertius. 235-236 AD.
IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / PROVIDENTIA AVG S-C, Providence standing left with cornucopiae and wand over globe at feet.

RIC 61 ; Cohen 80.

Tanit
Max_Sest_4.jpg
Maximinus Sestertius14 viewsMaximinus I Thrax Æ Sestertius. 236-238 AD. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate draped bust right / SALVS AVGVSTI S-C, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar.

Ref Maximinus I Thrax AE Sestertius, RIC 85, Cohen 92, BMC 175
Tanit
Maximinus_standing.jpg
Maximinus Standing Denarius30 viewsMaximinus I Thrax
Reigned AD 235-238
Struck AD 236
AR Denarius
RIC 3, Seer (1988) 2342, RSC 55

O: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

R: P M TR P II COS P P, Maximinus standing between two legionary standards.
1 commentsGao
IMG_1289.JPG
Maximinus Thrax117 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
thrax.jpg
Maximinus Thrax55 viewsRoman Empire
Maximinus Thrax
(Reign as 27th Emperor of the Roman Empire 235-238 AD)
(b. ca. 173 AD, d. 238 AD)


Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximinus facing right

Reverse: PM TR P II COS PP, Maximinus standing facing left, raising hand and holding spear, legionary standards on both sides




Silver Denarius
Minted in Rome 236AD



Translations:

IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG= Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Maximinus Pious Emperor
PM TR P II COS PP=Greatest Priest, Tribune of the Plebs for the Second Time, Consul, Father of the Country





Reference:
RIC IVii 3
1 commentsSphinx357
IMG_3332.JPG
Maximinus Thrax12 viewsMaximinus Thrax, IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right / SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left feeding serpent which rises from altar. RIC 14; Sear V 8316; RSC 85a.Molinari
CD-01.jpg
Maximinus Thrax (A.D. 235-238)21 viewsAR Denarius, A.D. 235-236, Rome, 20.1mm, 3.28g, 180°, RIC IV 13.
Obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG. laureate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PROVIDENTIA AVG. Providentia standing left, wand over globe in right, cornucopia in left.
Joseph D5
Maximinus_4.jpg
Maximinus Thrax - AR denarius35 viewsRome
236 AD
2nd emission
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Maximinus standing left, raising hand and holding scepter; standard on either side
P M TR P II__COS P P
RIC IV 4, RSC III 56
3,01 g 20-19 mm
Johny SYSEL
Max le Thrax dupondius.jpg
Maximinus Thrax - dupondius29 viewsIMP. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG. , radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SALVS AVGVSTI / S C , Salus seated left on throne feeding serpent rising from altar
Ginolerhino
Maximinus_Anchialos.jpg
Maximinus Thrax Anchialos AE1735 viewsMaximinus I Thrax
AD 235-238
AE 17 of Anchialos

O: laureate bust right

R: AGXIALEWN, lion walking right
Gao
Maximinus_Thrax_b.jpg
Maximinus Thrax denarius58 viewsPAX AVGVSTITibsi
maxthrax.jpg
Maximinus Thrax Denarius35 viewsIMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate & draped bust right

FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, a standard in each hand

RIC 7A

ex-Roma Numismatics
3 commentsWill Hooton
1-image00053.jpg
Maximinus Thrax Denarius. AD 235-23812 viewsMaximinus I Denarius. AD 235-238...3.18gr
Obverse..IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right.
Reverse..FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, a standard in each hand.
RIC 7A Minted AD 235-236
Paul R3
234-Max Thrax Germ Sestertius.JPG
Maximinus Thrax Germ Sestertius33 viewsMaximinus I Æ Sestertius.
Obverse: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laur, dr and cuir bust right from behind Reverse: VICTORIA GERMANICA, Victory standing left with wreath & palm; captive seated before.
RIC 90, Cohen 109.
30mm , 17.9gm

Jerome Holderman
Forum_Maximinus_Prv_Deultum.Jpg
Maximinus Thrax Provincial AE Deultum24 viewsWilliamBoyd
Maximinus_Salus.jpg
Maximinus Thrax Salus Denarius20 viewsMaximinus I Thrax
AD 235-238
AR Denarius
RIC 21, RSC 91

O:MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate draped bust right

R: SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar
Gao
217- Max Thrax Sest portrait 1.JPG
Maximinus Thrax Sest portrait 136 viewsAe Sestertius, 235-236 AD.
Obv:IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate and draped bust right.
Rev:VICTORIA AVG / SC, Victory advancing right with wreath and palm.
30mm, 19.8gm
RIC 67
Jerome Holderman
34-Maximinus Sest.JPG
Maximinus Thrax Sestertius.49 viewsAe Sestertius, 235-236 AD.
Obv:IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate and draped bust right.
Rev:VICTORIA AVG / SC, Victory advancing right with wreath and palm.
29mm, 17.4gm
RIC 67
1 commentsjdholds
Maximinus Collection-sm.JPG
Maximinus Thrax Victory Denarius Collection119 viewsI have now completed my Collection of Max Thrax Victory Denarius. In honor of today receiving the Rare Mule to complete the series I have re-photographed the entire collection.2 commentsjdholds
thrax_sestertius_k.jpg
Maximinus Thrax, AD 235-23812 viewsÆ Sestertius, 31mm, 26.4g, 12h; Rome mint.
Obv. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIA GERMANICA / S - C, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm branch; captive at her side.
Reference: RIC IVb 90, p. 147.
John Anthony
IMG_0441.JPG
Maximinus Thrax, Anchialos5 viewsTHRACE. Anchialos. Maximinus Thrax (235-238). Ae.
Obv: AVT MAXIMEINOC EYCEBHC AVG.
Laureate bust right.
Rev: AΓXIAΛEΩN.
Dolphin right; two tinny-fishes to left and right flanking.
Varbanov 495.
ecoli
mtdellionORweb.jpg
Maximinus Thrax, Jurakova 201-II12 viewsDeultum, Thrace mint, Maximinus Thrax A.D. 235-238 AE, 17mm 3.10g, Jurakova 201-II.
O: IMP MAXIMINVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust r.
R: C F P D, lion walking r.
casata137ec
mttundolanchORweb.jpg
Maximinus Thrax, Moushmov 289371 viewsAnchialus, Thrace mint, Maximinus Thrax, 235-238 A.D. AE, 26.5mm 8.43g, Moushmov 2893
O: AVT MAXIMEINOC EV CEB ACN, laureate head right
R: AGCIALEWN, dolphin between two tunny fish.
*note I had to look it up because it was bugging me, but a tunny fish is another name for a tuna fish!
3 commentscasata137ec
MaxThrax_Thessalonika_Nike_lr.jpg
Maximinus Thrax, Thessalonika, Nike, AE2531 views25mm, 11.7 g
Obv: laureate bust right
Rev: Nike advancing right holding palm
areich
224-Maximinus Thrax- Germainicus As.JPG
Maximinus Thrax- Germainicus As23 views Æ As.235-238 AD
Obverse: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right Reverse: VICTORIA GERMANIA, emperor standing right, captive kneeling at his feet, Victory standing behind him, crowning him, SC in ex.
RIC94
24mm, 11.9gm

Jerome Holderman
MaxThrax_Selge_Temple_AE12_1_6g.jpg
Maximinus, Selge (Pisidia), Artemis Pergeia, AE1223 viewsAE12, 1.6g
obv: A K IOV MAXIMINOC; laureate head right
rev: simulacrum of Pergaean Artemis in distyle temple
Aulock 5312

Maximinus not Maximus
areich
maximinus_thrax.jpg
Maximinus_I_Denar_VICTORIA AVG15 viewsNumis-Student
maximusprincRIC3.jpg
Maximus / Princeps90 viewsMaximus (Caesar, 235/6-238). AR Denarius Rome mint, 236-7.
O: MAXIMVS CAES GERM; Bareheaded and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS; Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear; two signa to right
- RIC IV 3; RSC 10

Gaius Julius Verus Maximus (Maximvs Caesar) was the son of Maximinus I Thrax. Maximus was most likely given the rank of Caesar at the same time or shortly after his father assumed the rank of Augustus. He was reportedly a very handsome youth. Maximvs Caesar was loyal to his father and remained by his side during his campaign on the Danube. He was also present at the disastrous siege of Aquileia in 238 AD.

After the revolt of Gordian I and Gordian II and ascension of Balbinus and Pupienus, Maximinus and Maximus marched on Rome. They first reached the city of Aquileia, expecting an easy victory as the city's walls had long been in disrepair. However, under the leadership of senators Rutilius Pudens Crispinus and Tullus Menophilus, the walls had been repaired and the city rallied to defend itself in a siege. The Aquileians had plenty of food and good morale.

According to Herodian of Antioch, "The army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair when the soldiers found that those whom they had not expected to hold out against a single assault were not only offering stout resistance but were even beating them back. The Aquileians, on the other hand, were greatly encouraged and highly enthusiastic, and, as the battle continued, their skill and daring increased. Contemptuous of the soldiers now, they hurled taunts at them. As Maximinus rode about, they shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. Unable to vent his wrath upon the enemy, he was enraged at most of his troop commanders because they were pressing the siege in cowardly and halfhearted fashion. Consequently, the hatred of his supporters increased, and his enemies grew more contemptuous of him each day."

Condemned by the Senate, Maximus and his father were murdered by their own troops just outside Aquileia on June 24th, 238 AD.
2 commentsNemonater
PAULINA-1.jpg
Paulina, late wife of Maximinus I.412 viewsAR denarius (21 mm, 3.3 gm), Rome mint, 235-238 CE.
Obv: DIVA PAVLINA, veiled and draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECRATIO, Paulina seated to left on peacock flying right.
RIC 2; RSC 2; Cohen 2; BMC 127; Sear 2369.
6 commentsEmpressCollector
PupienusMVTAVG.jpg
Pupienus Antoninianus96 viewsPupienus silver antoninianus, Rome mint, weight 2.927g, maximum diameter 22.0mm, die axis 180o,
O: IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: AMOR MVTVVS AVGG (Mutual Love of the Emperors), clasped hands.
- SRCV III 8518; RIC IV, part 2, 9b; RSC III 2; BMCRE VI 82, ex-Forvm.

A.D. 238 was the year of six emperors. Maximinus Thrax was killed (along with his son Maximus Caesar) when his soldiers mutinied. Gordian II was killed in battle. Gordian I hanged himself. Pupienus and Balbinus were beaten and dragged naked through the streets of Rome before being killed by the Praetorians. Gordian III lived to become sole emperor.

The ironic reverse of this coin refers to the mutual affection and friendship of the emperors Balbinus and Pupienus. Because they were quarreling they were unable to put up a joint defense against the praetorians. They were both murdered after a reign of only 99 days. - FAC
3 commentsNemonater
Maximinus_Thrax_02.jpg
RIC 4b, p.145, 64 - Maximinus Thrax, Salus 14 viewsMaximinus Thrax
Æ-Sestertius, Rome Mint
Obv.: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: SALVS A[VGV]ST[I] / SC, Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar.
Æ, 16.07g, 28.8mm
Ref.: RIC 64
shanxi
15152q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - MAXIMINUS I THRAX32 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 16, RSC 99, BMC 25, EF, reverse center flat strike, 2.652g, 21.5mm, 180o, Rome mint, 235 - 236 A.D.; obverse IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right holding branch and wreathdpaul7
106850LG.jpg
Roman Empire, Maximinus I AR denarius RIC 1632 viewsMaximinus I 'Thrax'. A.D. 235-238. AR denarius (20 mm, 2.97 g, 11 h). Rome, A.D. 236. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Thrax right / VICTO-RI-A AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. RIC 16; BMC 105-7; RSC 99a. Underlying luster.Curtis H2
106850LG~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Maximinus I AR denarius RIC 16111 viewsMaximinus I 'Thrax'. A.D. 235-238. AR denarius (20 mm, 2.97 g, 11 h). Rome, A.D. 236. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Thrax right / VICTO-RI-A AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm. RIC 16; BMC 105-7; RSC 99a. Underlying luster.
1 commentsCurtis H2
a24.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I denarius12 viewsMaximinus I "Thrax" Mar AD 235- Apr AD 238 Silver Denarius
Obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate bust right, draped.
Rev: PROVIDENTIA AVG - Providentia standing left, holding wand over globe with right hand and holds cornucopia in other.
Rome mint: Mar AD 235 to Jan AD 236 = RIC IVii, 13, page 141 - Cohen 77
Nico
bpS1M3MaximinusThrax2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I Thrax (235-238)106 viewsObv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: SALVS AVGVSTI
Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar.
Denarius, 3 gm, 19mm, Rome RIC 14
History: Proclaimed Emperor by the Legions of the Rhine after they murdered Severus Alexander. He remained popular with the Army, but eventually lost the support of the Patricians and the Senate because of his oppressive domestic policies and declared a public enemy. In response to this and the Senate's recognition of opposition Augustii, he decided to crush Italy, but became bogged down in the unsuccessful siege of Aquilea in Northern Italy. Maximinus and his son, Maximus, were murdered by his troops who were discontent over the invasion of the homeland and likely encouraged by Rome to revolt.
Massanutten
bot5.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I Thrax AR Denarius205 views235-236 AD. Rome mint.
Obv.: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: PAX AVGVSTI - Pax standing left, holding branch upwards in right hand and transverse scepter with left.
RIC 12.
5 commentsMinos
Screenshot_2018-03-20_09_31_32.png
Roman Empire, Maximinus I Thrax as Augustus, AR Denarius. Early portrait resembling Severus Alexander.22 viewsRome 235-238 A.D. 2.96 - 21mm.

Obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Rev: PAX AVGVSTI - Pax standing left holding branch & sceptre.

RIC IV-II 12, RSC 31, BMC 5.
Christian Scarlioli
Maximinus_Thrax_Sesterz.jpg
Roman Empire, Maximinus I Thrax Sestertius249 viewsObv. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. SALVS AVGVSTI S C, Salus seated left on throne, feeding, with her right hand, snake rising right from altar to left.
Mint: Rome, 235-238 AD.

20mm 20.18g

RIC 85, BMC 175, Cohen 92


Ex Nomos 1, 6 May 2009, 159.
Ex Bank Leu 18, 5 May 1977, 368. From the collection of Ph. S.

Salus was considered since the time of the Flavians as one of the most important ideals of the Roman Empire and embodied health and safety. Salus is here not only to express the personal health of the ruler, but also connected to the well-being of the people and a general sense of security.
Although Maximinus led successful campaigns against the Jazygen tribe and against the Dacians (title GERMANICVS), he was not particularly popular in the Senate, because he denied the Senate in Rome probably the usual voice and his rule largely based on the Rhine and Danube regions. Other reasons for the resistance in the Senate played the (historians controversial) origin of the Maximinus from Thrace and also from very simple conditions, which the nobiles did not think befitting.
In addition, his campaigns were so costly that he allegedly even had to take money from the poor and grain supply of Rome. Although he pushed forward not only military expenditure but also the development of the road network, the ruler's budgetary planning attempt to remedy the foreign policy problems of Rome through elaborate campaigns met with general misunderstanding, which was especially prevalent in the south and east of the empire, where only the increased tax pressured but the people did not notice the successes. Maximinus evidently did not understand how to efficiently promote his policy. For these reasons, it came after only three years in office to surveys against the Emperor, which ultimately led to his murder by his own troops.
7 commentskc
15__Sesterce_Maximin_1er_le_Thrace_235.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I Thrax, AE Sestertius, RIC 67105 viewsSesterce, Maximin 1er, 235-236 (Bronze) C.100 - RIC.67 - BMC/RE.27
Avers : Buste lauré, drapé et cuirassé de Maximin Ier à droite vu de trois quarts en arrière (A*2) ; portrait B. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG.
Revers : Victoria (la Victoire), drapée et ailée, allant à droite, brandissant une couronne de la main droite et tenant une palme de la main gauche. VICTO-RI-A AVG SC.
2 commentsbgaut
Maximinus_Ric_22.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I Thrax, Denarius, RIC 2224 views2.90 grams.
RIC 22 | RSC 103a
Richard T3
dupondius02.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I, Rom mint, struck 236-237 AD, AE Dupondius54 viewsMAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM radiate-headed draped bust right
VICTORIA GERMANICA, S-C Victory standing left, German captive at feet left
RIC 91; Cohen 111
dupondius
sestertius17.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I. "Thrax", Rome mint, struck 235-236 AD, AE Sestertius58 viewsIMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM laureate-headed and draped bust right
FIDES MILITVM, S-C Fides standing left
RIC 43, Cohen 10

2 commentsdupondius
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_P-M-TR-P-II-COS-P-P_RIC-IV-3_C-55_Rome-235-AD_001_Q-001_axis-6h_18-19mm_3,07g-s.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 003, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor standing front, #1172 views065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 003, Rome, AR-Denarius, P M TR P II COS P P, Emperor standing front, #1
avers:- IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- P-M-TR-P-II-COS-P-P, Emperor standing front, head left, between two standards, raising right hand and holding long sceptre.
exerg: , diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,07g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-03, p-, C-55
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_FIDES-MILITVM_RIC_7A,_RSC_7a,_001_Q-001_0h_18,5-19,5mm_2,86g-s~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #1186 views065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 007A, Rome, AR-Denarius, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- FIDES-MI-LITVM, Fides standing left, a standard in each hand.
exerg: , diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,86g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-7A, p-, RSC-7a,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PAX-AVGVSTI_RIC_12,_RSC_31a,_BMC_68_Q-002_6h_19,5-20mm_3,10ga-s~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #266 views065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 012, Rome, AR-Denarius, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, #2
avers:- IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- PAX-AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, with branch and scepter
exerg: , diameter: 19,5-20mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-12, p-, RSC-31a, BMC-68,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_SALVS-AVGVSTI_RIC_14,_RSC_85a,_BMC_99_Q-004_6h_19,5mm_3,05g-s~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 014, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #488 views065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 014, Rome, AR-Denarius, SALVS AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, #4
avers:- IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- SALVS-AVGVSTI, Salus seated left, feeding from patera a serpent arising from altar.
exerg: , diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-14, p-, RSC-85a, BMC-99,
Q-004
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_VICTORIA-AVG_RIC-IV-16_C-99_Rome-235-6-AD_001_Q-001_6h_20mm_3,19ga-s.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 016, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, #1173 views065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 016, Rome, AR-Denarius, VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing right, #1
avers:- IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORI-A-AVG, Victory advancing right, holding wreath and palm.
exerg: , diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,19g, axis:- 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235-236 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-16, p-, C-99
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
maximinus6.jpg
Roman Maximinus I Sestertius8 viewsMaximinus I Thrax Æ Sestertius. 236-238 AD.
MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate draped bust right / SALVS AVGVSTI S-C, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising from altar.

Ref Maximinus I Thrax AE Sestertius, RIC 85, Cohen 92, BMC 175
Tanit
roman-provincial-1.jpg
Roman Provincial, Maximinus I Thrax AE, Nicomedia, Bithynia15 viewsRoman Provincial, Maximinus I Thrax AE, Nicomedia, Bithynia

IOY OVH MAΞIMEINOC AYΓ, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

NIKO I MΔEΩN ΔIC NEΩKOΡΩN, Seated left.

No reference.
Gil-galad
sia_059.JPG
Roman, Maximinus I Thrax AE Sestertius, Pax, 235-238 A.D. 158 viewsRef Maximinus I Thrax AE Sestertius, RIC 81, Cohen 38, BMC 148
Maximinus I Thrax Æ Sestertius. MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate, draped bust right / PAX AVGVSTI S-C, Pax standing left with branch and scepter. Cohen 38.
Rome mint.
29.8mm
19.34gr.
Green Patina.

Antonio Protti
Maximinus Portrait.JPG
Roman, Maximinus I Thrax, mid Mar 235 - late May 238 A.D.554 viewsNot sure if this coin fits the bill , but I find the portrait rather Powerfull and expressive.
Your thoughts?
4 commentsjdholds
Maximinus0.jpg
Roman, Maximinus Thrax - AR denarius224 viewsRome
II 236 - XII 236 AD
laureate, draped cuirassed bust right
MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Maximinus standing left, raising hand and holding scepter; standard on either side
P M TR P II_COS P P
RIC 4, C 56
3,01 g 20-19 mm
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Crisis_and_Decline_Comp.jpg
The Year of the Six Emperors (And a Caesar) 60 viewsIn order from top left to right: Maximinus Thrax, murdered; Maximus Caesar, murdered; Gordian I suicide; Gordian II killed in battle; Pupienus, murdered; Balbinus, murdered; Gordian III, probably murdered but possibly died in battle. 4 commentsNemonater
G_364_Byzantion_fac.jpg
Thrace, Byzantion, Artemis, crescent, star 12 viewsByzantion
Thrace
Late 1st century AD.
Obv.: Draped bust of Artemis to right
Rev.: ΒΥΖΑΝΤΙΩΝ, crescent moon above star
AE, 2.99g, 18mm, 6h
Ref.: Schönert-Geiss 1957
Ex Thrax Collection
Ex Roma Numismatics, E-Sale 58, Lot 552
(Normally, the crescent points up and the star is in the center, here it points down and the star is below.)
1 commentsshanxi
GI_080a_img.jpg
TROAS. Alexandria. Ae27. Maximinus Thrax 14 viewsObv:- IMP MAXIMIMVS (retrograde), PIA, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- A in upper left, V in upper right, TROAS in exe, Horse facing right, grazing, tree behind

Bellinger A364, the rev. is type 40, horse r. with tree.
maridvnvm
GI_080a_img~0.jpg
TROAS. Alexandria. Ae27. Maximinus Thrax 10 viewsObv:- IMP MAXIMIMVS(retrograde), PIA, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- A in upper left, V in upper right, TROAS in exe, Horse facing right, grazing, tree behind

Bellinger A364, the rev. is type 40, horse r. with tree
maridvnvm
JuliaMamaeaRIC343.jpg
[1008a] Julia Mamaea, Augusta 13 March 222 - February or March 235 A.D.54 viewsSeverus Alexander for Julia Mamaea. 222-235 AD. AR Denarius, RIC 343; Cohen 35; BMC 43. 2.68 gm, 19mm; VF, Rome mint, 222. Obverse: IVLIA MAMAEA AVG; Draped bust to right; Reverse: IVNO CONSERVATRIX; Juno standing to left, holding patera and sceptre, at her feet a peacock. Toned. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Severan Julias (A.D. 193-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Julia Mamaea
The younger daughter of Maesa, Mamaea had a happier, more successful, and lengthier life as imperial mother than her sister Soaemias. She married Gessius Marcianus, and in 208 bore him a son, Bassianus, later known as Alexander Severus. She was with her mother and sister in the East in 218 AD when her nephew, Elagabalus, was raised to the purple. Alexander was made Caesar in early 222 and soon thereafter became emperor, following the murder of his cousin and aunt. He was fourteen years old and much subject to the control of his grandmother and mother, who effectively governed the empire. After Maesa's death, Mamaea remained the dominant figure until her death.

She had seen to it that Alexander received a good education and, once emperor, chose a council of sixteen senators. Her imperial title was Iulia Augusta, mater Augusti nostri et castrorum et senatus et patriae, recalling the titulature of Julia Domna. Her position in the government was confirmed by the title consors imperii. She was charged with avaritia, but otherwise led a life free from scandal. She was recognized as religiosissima, having had conversation with Origen while in the East. She had accompanied Alexander thither on campaign against the Persians in 230/31. In 235, she was with him in Germany, at Mainz, when they were assassinated by the troops, with Maximinus Thrax chosen as successor. She suffered damnatio memoriae.


Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors;http://www.roman-emperors.org/sevjulia.htm. Used by permission.

Julia Mamaea was the highly intelligent and capable mother of Severus Alexander. After the death of her mother Julia Maesa, Julia Mamaea was the power behind the throne and largely responsible for the impressive recovery of the Roman state that took place during her son's rule. Though popular with the population of the empire, the military was deeply offended at being controlled by a woman. In 235 A.D., Julia Mamaea and Severus Alexander were both murdered by mutinous soldiers led by the thug Maximinus I (Joseph Sermarini).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
SeverusAlexanderRIC70RSC325s.jpg
[1009a] Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.83 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 70, RSC 325, S -, EF, Rome mint, 2.803g, 20.7mm, 0o, 227 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right; Reverse: P M TR P VI COS II P P, Emperor standing left, sacrificing from patera in right over a tripod, scroll in left; cameo-like obverse with toned portrait and legend and bright fields, slightly frosty surfaces, details of head on reverse figure unstruck, slightly irregular flan. Ex FORVM.

In this year Ardashir invaded Parthia and established the Sassanid Dynasty, which claimed direct descent from Xerxes and Darius. The Eastern power grew stronger and the threat to the Romans immense.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imeratoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth, of only seventeen years of age, the reins of government were in the hands of two women, of his mother Mamaea, and of Maesa, his grandmother. After the death of the latter, who survived but a short time the elevation of Alexander, Mamaea remained the sole regent of her son and of the empire." (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 6: Modern Library Edition, p. 130)

"As the imperial system developed, it disclosed its various arcana one by one. How much does the personality of the ruler matter? Less and less, it should seem. Be he boy, buffoon, or philosopher, his conduct may not have much effect on the administration. Habit and routine took over, with groups and grades of bureaucrats at hand to fill the posts." (Syme, Emperors and Biography, 146)

The passages quoted above emphasize two important aspects of the principate of Severus Alexander (or Alexander Severus), his youth and the influence of women during his reign. The significance of the latter invites brief discourse about the four women known as the "Severan Julias," whose origin was Syria. Julia Domna became the second wife of Septimius Severus and bore him two sons, the later emperors Caracalla and Geta. Her role in the administration of her husband was significant, which her expansive titulature, "mother of the camp and the senate and the country," reflected. Her sister, Julia Maesa, had two daughters, each of whom produced a son who was to become emperor. Julia Soaemias was the mother of Elagabalus, and shared his fate when he was assassinated. Julia Mamaea bore Alexander, who succeeded his cousin; he was very young and hence much under the control of grandmother and mother. For the first time in its imperial history, the empire of Rome was de facto, though not de iure, governed by women.

The literary sources, while numerous, are limited in value. Chief among them, at least in scope, is the biography in the Historia Augusta, much the longest of all the lives in this peculiar collection. Though purporting to be the work of six authors in the early fourth century, it is now generally considered to have been produced by one author writing in the last years of this century. Spacious in its treatment of the emperor and extremely favorable to him on the whole, it has little historical merit, seeming rather an extended work of fiction. It must be used with the utmost caution.

Herodian, whose history covered the period 180-238, was a contemporary of Severus Alexander, and his coverage of the latter's reign is extensive. Another contemporary, Dio Cassius, who was consul in 229 and whose judgments would have been most valuable, is unfortunately useless here, since his history survives only in abbreviated form and covers barely a page of printed text for the whole reign (Book 80). Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, the Epitome de Caesaribus, and other Latin sources are extremely brief, informing us of only the occasional anecdote. Christian writers make minimal contribution; legal texts offer much instruction, particularly those dealing with or stemming from Ulpian; coins, inscriptions, papyri, and archaeology help fill the gaps left by the literary sources.

Early Life and Education
The future emperor was born in Arca Caesarea in Phoenicia on October 1, 208 although some sources put the date three years earlier (as Gibbon assumed, see above), the son of Gessius Marcianus, whose career advanced in the equestrian cursus, and of Julia Mamaea, niece of the then empress, Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. He was raised quietly and well educated, at the instance of his mother. He came into the public eye only in 218, when, after Macrinus' murder of Caracalla and accession to the purple, he and his mother were declared hostes publici. In June of that year, Elagabalus defeated Macrinus and succeeded him as emperor. Alexander and Mamaea were soon rehabilitated. As his cousin's activities, religious, political, and personal, became increasingly unacceptable, Alexander was drawn ever more into public life. In mid 221, he assumed the toga virilis, was adopted by Elagabalus as a colleague, was granted the name Alexander, and elevated to the rank of Caesar. There had been talk that he was the illegitimate child of Caracalla, which won him support among the army, and this was confirmed, at least for public consumption, by his filiation in the official titulature back to Septimius. He was now styled Imp. Caes. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. fil., divi Antonini Magni Pii nepos, divi Severi pronepos M. Aurelius Alexander, nobilissimus Caesar imperi et sacerdotis, princeps iuventutis. The connection with Septimius Severus was crucial, since he was the only one of these predecessors who had been deified. Alexander was about 12½ years old. Less than a year later, on March 13, 222, with the murder of Elagabalus, Alexander was hailed as emperor by the army. He considered this date as his dies imperii. He became thereby the youngest emperor in Rome's history. He was immediately thereafter given the titles of Augustus, pater patriae, and pontifex maximus.

His Principate; Grandmother, Mother, Ulpian
Having had no experience in government, the young emperor was largely dependent upon the two senior women in his life to guide his actions. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, may well have died as early as 223, so that his mother, Julia Mamaea, played the major role in the empire's administration from early on until the end. The only other figures who could rival her were the two Praetorian Prefects, both eminent jurists, Ulpian and Paulus, who are well-known to us because of the numerous citations of their legal views and administrative decisions preserved in the Corpus Iuris Civilis. Both were members of Alexander's consilium. Alexander attempted to restore some of the senate's prestige and functions, but with little success. He was even unable to protect Ulpian against the anger of the praetorians, who then murdered the jurist in 223.

Had his principate been peaceful, he might have developed into a significant emperor, certainly in comparison with his immediate predecessors. He was married once, in 225 to Sallustia Orbiana, who received the official titulature Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta, but she was banished to Libya two years later. Her father, L. Seius Sallustius, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

According to the HA life, Alexander was a "good" person, and his mother certainly attempted to guide him well, but much of the last decade of his reign was preoccupied with serious military threats against the empire's prestige, nay existence. In those dangerous circumstances, his abilities, which had not earlier been honed, proved inadequate.

Domestic Policy
Perhaps the greatest service which Alexander furnished Rome, certainly at the beginning of his reign, was the return to a sense of sanity and tradition after the madness and fanaticism of Elagabalus. He is said to have honored and worshipped a variety of individuals, including Christ. His amiability assisted his relationship with the senate, which gained in honor under him without any real increase in its power. Besides jurists in high office, literary figures were also so distinguished; Marius Maximus, the biographer, and Dio Cassius, the historian, gained second consulships, the former in 223, the latter in 229.

The emperor's building program made its mark upon the face of Rome. The last of the eleven great aqueducts, the aqua Alexandrina, was put into service in 226; he also rebuilt the thermae Neronianae in the Campus Martius in the following year and gave them his own name. Of the other constructions, perhaps the most intriguing are the Diaetae Mammaeae, apartments which he built for his mother on the Palatine.

The Persian and German Wars
The first great external challenge appeared in the east, where the Parthian dynasty, which had ruled the Iranian plateau and other large areas for centuries, and who for long had been one of Rome's great rivals, was overthrown by the Persian family of the Sassanids by 227. They aspired to restore their domain to include all the Asian lands which had been ruled in the glory days of the Persian Empire. Since this included Asia Minor as well as all other eastern provinces, the stage was set for continuing clashes with Rome.

These began late in the decade, with significant success early on for the Sassanids. But Rome gradually developed a defense against these incursions, and ultimately the emperor, with his mother and staff, went to the east in 231. There actual military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. Persia's early successes soon faded as Rome's armies brought their power and experience to bear. The result was an acceptance of the status quo rather than a settlement between the parties. This occurred in 233 and Alexander returned to Rome. His presence in the west was required by a German threat, particularly along the Rhine, where the tribes took advantage of the withdrawal of Roman troops for the eastern war.

In 234, Alexander and Julia Mammaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Upper Germany. The military situation had improved with the return of troops from the east, and an ambitious offensive campaign was planned, for which a bridge was built across the Rhine. But Alexander preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the enemy. This policy outraged the soldiers, who mutinied in mid March 235 and killed the emperor and his mother. He had reached the age of 26½ years and had been emperor for almost precisely half his life. He was deified by the senate and received other posthumous honors. With the accession of Maximinus Thrax, the Severan dynasty came to an end.

Death and Evaluation
Tacitus' famous dictum about Galba, that he was properly considered capax imperii, capable of being emperor, until he showed, when emperor, that he was not, could never have been applied to Severus Alexander. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imeratoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/alexsev.htm . Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
SevAl.jpg
[1009b] Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.110 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 19, S -, aF, Rome, 2.806g, 20.0mm, 0o, 223 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right; reverse P M TR P II COS P P, Jupiter standing left cloak over arms, holding long scepter and thunderbolt. Nice portrait. Ex FORVM.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother (Joseph Sermarini).


De Imeratoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth, of only seventeen years of age, the reins of government were in the hands of two women, of his mother Mamaea, and of Maesa, his grandmother. After the death of the latter, who survived but a short time the elevation of Alexander, Mamaea remained the sole regent of her son and of the empire." (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 6: Modern Library Edition, p. 130)

"As the imperial system developed, it disclosed its various arcana one by one. How much does the personality of the ruler matter? Less and less, it should seem. Be he boy, buffoon, or philosopher, his conduct may not have much effect on the administration. Habit and routine took over, with groups and grades of bureaucrats at hand to fill the posts." (Syme, Emperors and Biography, 146)

The passages quoted above emphasize two important aspects of the principate of Severus Alexander (or Alexander Severus), his youth and the influence of women during his reign. The significance of the latter invites brief discourse about the four women known as the "Severan Julias," whose origin was Syria. Julia Domna became the second wife of Septimius Severus and bore him two sons, the later emperors Caracalla and Geta. Her role in the administration of her husband was significant, which her expansive titulature, "mother of the camp and the senate and the country," reflected. Her sister, Julia Maesa, had two daughters, each of whom produced a son who was to become emperor. Julia Soaemias was the mother of Elagabalus, and shared his fate when he was assassinated. Julia Mamaea bore Alexander, who succeeded his cousin; he was very young and hence much under the control of grandmother and mother. For the first time in its imperial history, the empire of Rome was de facto, though not de iure, governed by women.

The literary sources, while numerous, are limited in value. Chief among them, at least in scope, is the biography in the Historia Augusta, much the longest of all the lives in this peculiar collection. Though purporting to be the work of six authors in the early fourth century, it is now generally considered to have been produced by one author writing in the last years of this century. Spacious in its treatment of the emperor and extremely favorable to him on the whole, it has little historical merit, seeming rather an extended work of fiction. It must be used with the utmost caution.

Herodian, whose history covered the period 180-238, was a contemporary of Severus Alexander, and his coverage of the latter's reign is extensive. Another contemporary, Dio Cassius, who was consul in 229 and whose judgments would have been most valuable, is unfortunately useless here, since his history survives only in abbreviated form and covers barely a page of printed text for the whole reign (Book 80). Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, the Epitome de Caesaribus, and other Latin sources are extremely brief, informing us of only the occasional anecdote. Christian writers make minimal contribution; legal texts offer much instruction, particularly those dealing with or stemming from Ulpian; coins, inscriptions, papyri, and archaeology help fill the gaps left by the literary sources.

Early Life and Education
The future emperor was born in Arca Caesarea in Phoenicia on October 1, 208 although some sources put the date three years earlier (as Gibbon assumed, see above), the son of Gessius Marcianus, whose career advanced in the equestrian cursus, and of Julia Mamaea, niece of the then empress, Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. He was raised quietly and well educated, at the instance of his mother. He came into the public eye only in 218, when, after Macrinus' murder of Caracalla and accession to the purple, he and his mother were declared hostes publici. In June of that year, Elagabalus defeated Macrinus and succeeded him as emperor. Alexander and Mamaea were soon rehabilitated. As his cousin's activities, religious, political, and personal, became increasingly unacceptable, Alexander was drawn ever more into public life. In mid 221, he assumed the toga virilis, was adopted by Elagabalus as a colleague, was granted the name Alexander, and elevated to the rank of Caesar. There had been talk that he was the illegitimate child of Caracalla, which won him support among the army, and this was confirmed, at least for public consumption, by his filiation in the official titulature back to Septimius. He was now styled Imp. Caes. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. fil., divi Antonini Magni Pii nepos, divi Severi pronepos M. Aurelius Alexander, nobilissimus Caesar imperi et sacerdotis, princeps iuventutis. The connection with Septimius Severus was crucial, since he was the only one of these predecessors who had been deified. Alexander was about 12½ years old. Less than a year later, on March 13, 222, with the murder of Elagabalus, Alexander was hailed as emperor by the army. He considered this date as his dies imperii. He became thereby the youngest emperor in Rome's history. He was immediately thereafter given the titles of Augustus, pater patriae, and pontifex maximus.

His Principate; Grandmother, Mother, Ulpian
Having had no experience in government, the young emperor was largely dependent upon the two senior women in his life to guide his actions. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, may well have died as early as 223, so that his mother, Julia Mamaea, played the major role in the empire's administration from early on until the end. The only other figures who could rival her were the two Praetorian Prefects, both eminent jurists, Ulpian and Paulus, who are well-known to us because of the numerous citations of their legal views and administrative decisions preserved in the Corpus Iuris Civilis. Both were members of Alexander's consilium. Alexander attempted to restore some of the senate's prestige and functions, but with little success. He was even unable to protect Ulpian against the anger of the praetorians, who then murdered the jurist in 223.

Had his principate been peaceful, he might have developed into a significant emperor, certainly in comparison with his immediate predecessors. He was married once, in 225 to Sallustia Orbiana, who received the official titulature Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta, but she was banished to Libya two years later. Her father, L. Seius Sallustius, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

According to the HA life, Alexander was a "good" person, and his mother certainly attempted to guide him well, but much of the last decade of his reign was preoccupied with serious military threats against the empire's prestige, nay existence. In those dangerous circumstances, his abilities, which had not earlier been honed, proved inadequate.

Domestic Policy
Perhaps the greatest service which Alexander furnished Rome, certainly at the beginning of his reign, was the return to a sense of sanity and tradition after the madness and fanaticism of Elagabalus. He is said to have honored and worshipped a variety of individuals, including Christ. His amiability assisted his relationship with the senate, which gained in honor under him without any real increase in its power. Besides jurists in high office, literary figures were also so distinguished; Marius Maximus, the biographer, and Dio Cassius, the historian, gained second consulships, the former in 223, the latter in 229.

The emperor's building program made its mark upon the face of Rome. The last of the eleven great aqueducts, the aqua Alexandrina, was put into service in 226; he also rebuilt the thermae Neronianae in the Campus Martius in the following year and gave them his own name. Of the other constructions, perhaps the most intriguing are the Diaetae Mammaeae, apartments which he built for his mother on the Palatine.

The Persian and German Wars
The first great external challenge appeared in the east, where the Parthian dynasty, which had ruled the Iranian plateau and other large areas for centuries, and who for long had been one of Rome's great rivals, was overthrown by the Persian family of the Sassanids by 227. They aspired to restore their domain to include all the Asian lands which had been ruled in the glory days of the Persian Empire. Since this included Asia Minor as well as all other eastern provinces, the stage was set for continuing clashes with Rome.

These began late in the decade, with significant success early on for the Sassanids. But Rome gradually developed a defense against these incursions, and ultimately the emperor, with his mother and staff, went to the east in 231. There actual military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. Persia's early successes soon faded as Rome's armies brought their power and experience to bear. The result was an acceptance of the status quo rather than a settlement between the parties. This occurred in 233 and Alexander returned to Rome. His presence in the west was required by a German threat, particularly along the Rhine, where the tribes took advantage of the withdrawal of Roman troops for the eastern war.

In 234, Alexander and Julia Mammaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Upper Germany. The military situation had improved with the return of troops from the east, and an ambitious offensive campaign was planned, for which a bridge was built across the Rhine. But Alexander preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the enemy. This policy outraged the soldiers, who mutinied in mid March 235 and killed the emperor and his mother. He had reached the age of 26½ years and had been emperor for almost precisely half his life. He was deified by the senate and received other posthumous honors. With the accession of Maximinus Thrax, the Severan dynasty came to an end.

Death and Evaluation
Tacitus' famous dictum about Galba, that he was properly considered capax imperii, capable of being emperor, until he showed, when emperor, that he was not, could never have been applied to Severus Alexander. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imeratoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/alexsev.htm . Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Gor3Jup.jpeg
[1106a] Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D.75 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 84, RSC 109, VF, Rome, 4.101g, 24.0mm, 0o, 241 - 243 A.D. Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI STATORI, Jupiter standing facing, head right, thunderbolt in left and scepter in right. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Gordian III (238-244 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Relatively few details are known about the five-and-a-half year reign of the teenage emperor Gordian III. Continuity with the Severan era seems to have marked both the policy and personnel of his government. Security along the frontiers remained the most pressing concern, and the young emperor would die while on campaign against the expanding Sassanian empire and its energetic leader, Shapur I.

The future emperor was born in Rome on 20 January 225. His mother was a daughter of the senator Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus (known later to historians as Gordian I). His father was undoubtedly a senator, but the name of his father is today unknown. The father was already dead before the start of the African uprising, involving the boy's grandfather, against the emperor Maximinus Thrax in early 238. At the time of the revolt, Maximinus was in Pannonia leading military campaigns to protect the Danube region. Maximinus' representative in Rome was a loyal Praetorian Prefect, Vitalianus. Gordian I's 13-year-old grandson faced no hardships as a result of the revolt, because Vitalianus was assassinated by agents sent by Gordian I before the African uprising was revealed in Rome.

Senators in Rome quickly acknowledged Gordian I as emperor, but the revolt in Africa was soon suppressed. After the deaths of the boy's grandfather (Gordian I) and uncle (Gordian II) were announced in Rome, probably near the end of April 238, a select group of 20 senators decided upon two of their own, Pupienus and Balbinus, as new emperors who would continue to lead the uprising against Maximinus. Not all senators were pleased with the selections, and they immediately stirred up their clients and dependents to prevent a public proclamation of the new emperors. Pupienus, moreover, had been an unpopular urban prefect, and many ordinary Romans were quite willing to take part in rioting against his accession. The grandson of Gordian I made a perfect focal point to represent the concerns of the critics of Pupienus and Balbinus. The 13-year-old was brought from his home, named Marcus Antonius Gordianus after his grandfather, and proclaimed Caesar and imperial heir by the senate.

After the death of Maximinus at the siege of Aquileia, perhaps in early June 238, conflicts between the two emperors Pupienus and Balbinus, and among the emperors, soldiers and ordinary Romans, came to the fore. Sometime during the summer, soldiers of the Praetorian Guard became unruly during a festival, stormed into the imperial complex on the Palatine, and captured, tortured and killed the emperors. The young Caesar was then proclaimed emperor by both the soldiers and the senate.

Little reliable information is available about the first few years of Gordian III's reign. Pupienus and Balbinus suffered damnatio memoriae, though it is difficult to ascertain how many other members of the senatorial elite (if any) were either dismissed from their posts or executed by the new regime. The families prominent during the Severan dynasty, and even some families prominent under the Antonines, continued to control offices and commands with a teenage emperor on the throne. In 240, an uprising again originated in the province of Africa, with the proconsul Sabinianus proclaimed emperor. Like the uprising of Gordian I in Africa two years earlier, this uprising was quickly suppressed, but unlike the events of 238, the revolt of Sabinianus failed to gain support in other parts of the empire.

In late 240 or early 241, Gordian III appointed Timesitheus as pretorian prefect. Timesitheus, who was of Eastern origin, had a long career in the imperial service as a procurator in provinces ranging from Arabia to Gaul and from Asia to Germany. Timesitheus' proven abilities quickly made him the central figure in Gordian III's government, and the praetorian prefect's authority was enhanced by the marriage of his daughter, Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, to the young emperor in the summer of 241.

Maintaining security along the frontiers remained the emperor's most serious challenge. Difficulties along the Danube continued, but the greater danger was in the East. The aggressive expansion of the renewed Persian empire under the Sassanian emperor Ardashir I continued under his son and successor, Shapur I. The focus of that expansion was in upper Mesopotamia (in what today is southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and northern Iraq), much of which had been under direct Roman control for more than a generation. Ardashir may already have captured Nisibis and Carrhae during the final months of Maximinus' reign. In 240, the ailing Ardashir seems to have made his son Shapur co-regent. During this year Hatra, the location of Rome's easternmost military garrison, (today in northern Iraq roughly 55 miles south of Mosul), was captured by the Sassanians.

Planning for a massive Roman military counterattack was soon underway. Soldiers travelled from the West during the following year, when Carrhae and Nisibis were retaken, and the Romans won a decisive victory at Resaina. Gordian III joined his army in upper Mesopotamia for campaigning in 243, but during the year the emperor's father-in-law, Timesitheus, died of an illness. The surviving Praetorian Prefect, C. Julius Priscus, convinced the emperor to appoint his brother M. Julius Philippus -- who would succeed Gordian III as the emperor Philip the Arab -- as Timesitheus' successor. The campaign against the Sassanians continued as the Roman army proceeded to march down the Euphrates during the fall and early winter.

Early in 244, the Roman and Sassanian armies met near the city of Misiche (modern Fallujah in Iraq, 40 miles west of Baghdad). Shapur's forces were triumphant, and the city was renamed Peroz-Shapur, "Victorious [is] Shapur." Shapur commemorated his victory with a sculpture and trilingual inscription (at Naqsh-i-Rustam in modern-day Iran) that claimed that Gordian III was killed in the battle.

Roman sources do not mention this battle, indicating instead that Gordian III died near Circesium, along the Euphrates some 250 miles upstream from Peroz-Shapur, and that a cenotaph was built at a location named Zaitha. Philip is universally blamed in these sources for causing Gordian III's death, either directly or by fomenting discontent with the emperor by cutting off the troops' supplies. Philip, who was proclaimed Gordian III's successor by the army, seems to have reported that the 19-year-old emperor died of an illness.

However Gordian III died, it seems unlikely to have been as a direct result of the battle at Misiche/Peroz-Shapur. The emperor's Persian campaigns were promoted within the Roman Empire as a success. Other than the loss of Hatra, the Sassanians gained control over no additional territory as a result of the war, and Shapur did not disturb Roman interests in upper Mesopotamia for nearly eight years. Gordian III was deified after his death, and the positive portrayal his reign received was reinforced by the negative portrayals of his successor, Philip.

Gordian III was a child emperor, but his reign was not perceived as having been burdened by the troubles faced by other young emperors (such as Nero, Commodus and Elagabalus). Competent administrators held important posts, and cultural traditions appear to have been upheld. Gordian III's unlikely accession and seemingly stable reign reveal that child emperors, like modern-day constitutional monarchs, had their advantage: a distance from political decision-making and factionalism that enabled the emperor to be a symbol of unity for the various constituency groups (aristocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, urban residents) in Roman society. The paucity of information about Gordian III's reign makes it difficult to know whether the young emperor truly lived up to such an ideal, but the positive historical tradition about him gives one the suspicion that perhaps he did.

Copyright (C) 2001, Michael L. Meckler
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Gord3Nicaea.jpg
[1106b] Gordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D. (Nicaea, Bithynia, N.W. Asia Minor)52 viewsGordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D., Nicaea, Bithynia, N.W. Asia Minor. Bronze AE 20, S 3671, SNG Cop 526, VF, Nicaea, Bithynia, 2.950g, 18.8mm, 180o, 238 - 244 A.D. Obverse M ANT GOPDIANOC AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: NIKAI / EWN, two legionary eagles between two standards. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Gordian III (238-244 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Relatively few details are known about the five-and-a-half year reign of the teenage emperor Gordian III. Continuity with the Severan era seems to have marked both the policy and personnel of his government. Security along the frontiers remained the most pressing concern, and the young emperor would die while on campaign against the expanding Sassanian empire and its energetic leader, Shapur I.

The future emperor was born in Rome on 20 January 225. His mother was a daughter of the senator Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus (known later to historians as Gordian I). His father was undoubtedly a senator, but the name of his father is today unknown. The father was already dead before the start of the African uprising, involving the boy's grandfather, against the emperor Maximinus Thrax in early 238. At the time of the revolt, Maximinus was in Pannonia leading military campaigns to protect the Danube region. Maximinus' representative in Rome was a loyal Praetorian Prefect, Vitalianus. Gordian I's 13-year-old grandson faced no hardships as a result of the revolt, because Vitalianus was assassinated by agents sent by Gordian I before the African uprising was revealed in Rome.

Senators in Rome quickly acknowledged Gordian I as emperor, but the revolt in Africa was soon suppressed. After the deaths of the boy's grandfather (Gordian I) and uncle (Gordian II) were announced in Rome, probably near the end of April 238, a select group of 20 senators decided upon two of their own, Pupienus and Balbinus, as new emperors who would continue to lead the uprising against Maximinus. Not all senators were pleased with the selections, and they immediately stirred up their clients and dependents to prevent a public proclamation of the new emperors. Pupienus, moreover, had been an unpopular urban prefect, and many ordinary Romans were quite willing to take part in rioting against his accession. The grandson of Gordian I made a perfect focal point to represent the concerns of the critics of Pupienus and Balbinus. The 13-year-old was brought from his home, named Marcus Antonius Gordianus after his grandfather, and proclaimed Caesar and imperial heir by the senate.

After the death of Maximinus at the siege of Aquileia, perhaps in early June 238, conflicts between the two emperors Pupienus and Balbinus, and among the emperors, soldiers and ordinary Romans, came to the fore. Sometime during the summer, soldiers of the Praetorian Guard became unruly during a festival, stormed into the imperial complex on the Palatine, and captured, tortured and killed the emperors. The young Caesar was then proclaimed emperor by both the soldiers and the senate.

Little reliable information is available about the first few years of Gordian III's reign. Pupienus and Balbinus suffered damnatio memoriae, though it is difficult to ascertain how many other members of the senatorial elite (if any) were either dismissed from their posts or executed by the new regime. The families prominent during the Severan dynasty, and even some families prominent under the Antonines, continued to control offices and commands with a teenage emperor on the throne. In 240, an uprising again originated in the province of Africa, with the proconsul Sabinianus proclaimed emperor. Like the uprising of Gordian I in Africa two years earlier, this uprising was quickly suppressed, but unlike the events of 238, the revolt of Sabinianus failed to gain support in other parts of the empire.

In late 240 or early 241, Gordian III appointed Timesitheus as pretorian prefect. Timesitheus, who was of Eastern origin, had a long career in the imperial service as a procurator in provinces ranging from Arabia to Gaul and from Asia to Germany. Timesitheus' proven abilities quickly made him the central figure in Gordian III's government, and the praetorian prefect's authority was enhanced by the marriage of his daughter, Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, to the young emperor in the summer of 241.

Maintaining security along the frontiers remained the emperor's most serious challenge. Difficulties along the Danube continued, but the greater danger was in the East. The aggressive expansion of the renewed Persian empire under the Sassanian emperor Ardashir I continued under his son and successor, Shapur I. The focus of that expansion was in upper Mesopotamia (in what today is southeastern Turkey, northern Syria and northern Iraq), much of which had been under direct Roman control for more than a generation. Ardashir may already have captured Nisibis and Carrhae during the final months of Maximinus' reign. In 240, the ailing Ardashir seems to have made his son Shapur co-regent. During this year Hatra, the location of Rome's easternmost military garrison, (today in northern Iraq roughly 55 miles south of Mosul), was captured by the Sassanians.

Planning for a massive Roman military counterattack was soon underway. Soldiers travelled from the West during the following year, when Carrhae and Nisibis were retaken, and the Romans won a decisive victory at Resaina. Gordian III joined his army in upper Mesopotamia for campaigning in 243, but during the year the emperor's father-in-law, Timesitheus, died of an illness. The surviving Praetorian Prefect, C. Julius Priscus, convinced the emperor to appoint his brother M. Julius Philippus -- who would succeed Gordian III as the emperor Philip the Arab -- as Timesitheus' successor. The campaign against the Sassanians continued as the Roman army proceeded to march down the Euphrates during the fall and early winter.

Early in 244, the Roman and Sassanian armies met near the city of Misiche (modern Fallujah in Iraq, 40 miles west of Baghdad). Shapur's forces were triumphant, and the city was renamed Peroz-Shapur, "Victorious [is] Shapur." Shapur commemorated his victory with a sculpture and trilingual inscription (at Naqsh-i-Rustam in modern-day Iran) that claimed that Gordian III was killed in the battle.

Roman sources do not mention this battle, indicating instead that Gordian III died near Circesium, along the Euphrates some 250 miles upstream from Peroz-Shapur, and that a cenotaph was built at a location named Zaitha. Philip is universally blamed in these sources for causing Gordian III's death, either directly or by fomenting discontent with the emperor by cutting off the troops' supplies. Philip, who was proclaimed Gordian III's successor by the army, seems to have reported that the 19-year-old emperor died of an illness.

However Gordian III died, it seems unlikely to have been as a direct result of the battle at Misiche/Peroz-Shapur. The emperor's Persian campaigns were promoted within the Roman Empire as a success. Other than the loss of Hatra, the Sassanians gained control over no additional territory as a result of the war, and Shapur did not disturb Roman interests in upper Mesopotamia for nearly eight years. Gordian III was deified after his death, and the positive portrayal his reign received was reinforced by the negative portrayals of his successor, Philip.

Gordian III was a child emperor, but his reign was not perceived as having been burdened by the troubles faced by other young emperors (such as Nero, Commodus and Elagabalus). Competent administrators held important posts, and cultural traditions appear to have been upheld. Gordian III's unlikely accession and seemingly stable reign reveal that child emperors, like modern-day constitutional monarchs, had their advantage: a distance from political decision-making and factionalism that enabled the emperor to be a symbol of unity for the various constituency groups (aristocrats, bureaucrats, soldiers, urban residents) in Roman society. The paucity of information about Gordian III's reign makes it difficult to know whether the young emperor truly lived up to such an ideal, but the positive historical tradition about him gives one the suspicion that perhaps he did.

Copyright (C) 2001, Michael L. Meckler
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Valerian1RIC232.jpg
[1112a] Valerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.72 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 232, RSC 10, VF, worn die reverse, Mediolanum mint, 3.909g, 22.2mm, 180o, 257 A.D.; Obverse: IMP VALERIANVS P AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AETERNITATI AVGG, Sol standing left, raising right, globe in left; nice portrait, good silver for the reign. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.
Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright Richard D. Weigel, 2007. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian I was proclaimed emperor after the death of Trajan Decius. He successfully repulsed many barbarian incursions but the standard of living declined and would never recover. In 260 A.D., after four years of war during which Roman forces suffered great losses in battle and to plague, he arranged for peace talks. He set off with a small group to discuss terms with the Sassinian emperor Sapor and was never seen again. The date of his death is unknown, but in Rome it was rumored that he had been murdered and that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GalllienusRIC163.jpg
[1113a] Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.72 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 163, RSC 72, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.716g, 21.6mm, 180o, 268 A.D.; Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; Reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow, Z in exergue; struck on a full and round flan, rare this nice. Commemorates vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Valerian (A.D. 253-260) and Gallienus (A.D. 253-268)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University


P. Licinius Valerianus, or Valerian, was unusual for his time period in that he was an emperor who came from an old Roman senatorial family. He was likely born shortly before 200 A.D., but little is known of his early life. Valerian married Egnatia Mariniana and had two sons, Gallienus and Valerian Junior. Gallienus was born around 218. Valerian makes his first appearance in the sources in 238 A.D. as an ex-consul and princeps senatus negotiating with (more likely than serving on) the embassy sent to Rome by Gordian I's African legions to secure senatorial approval of Gordian's rebellion against and replacement of Maximinus Thrax as emperor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae probably report accurately that Trajan Decius, on the recommendation of the Senate, offered Valerian the censorship in 251. Although the senatus consultum cited and the specific office are of doubtful authenticity, the high reputation Valerian possessed in the Senate and his association with the government under Decius probably are truthful aspects of the story. In 253 Valerian was apparently commanding in Raetia and Noricum when Trebonianus Gallus sent him to bring legions from Gaul and Germany to Italy for the struggle with the forces of Aemilianus. After Gallus' troops killed him and his son and joined Aemilianus, Valerian's men proclaimed their general emperor and their arrival in Italy caused Aemilianus' soldiers to desert and kill their commander and join Valerian's forces in acclaiming Valerian as emperor.

The Senate presumably was pleased to ratify the position of Valerian, one of their own, as emperor and they also accepted his son and colleague, P. Licinius Egnatius Gallienus, as Augustus, rather than just as Caesar. Valerian apparently realized the necessity of sharing power equally with his son and of dividing their efforts geographically, with Gallienus responsible for the West and Valerian himself concentrating on the East. The biographies of Valerian and Gallienus in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, attributed to Trebellius Pollio, are not especially helpful in putting together an account of their joint reign. The life of Valerian is fragmentary and that of Gallienus projects an extremely biased negative interpretation of his career.

Gallienus in the early years of the joint reign concentrated, with some success, on protecting Gaul and the Rhine frontier by driving back Germanic tribes and fortifying cities such as Cologne and Trier. In a move which would characterize later diplomacy with Germans, Gallienus concluded an alliance with one of their chieftains, presumably to assist the Romans in protecting the empire from other Germanic tribes. The invasions increased in number around 257-258 as the Franks entered Gaul and Spain, destroying Tarraco (Tarragona), and the Alamanni invaded Italy. Gallienus defeated the Alamanni at Milan, but soon was faced with the revolts in Pannonia and Moesia led first by his general there, Ingenuus, and then by Regalianus, commander in Illyricum. Gallienus put down these rebellions by 260 and secured stability in the region by concluding an alliance with the Marcomannic king, whose daughter Pipa the emperor apparently accepted as his concubine although he was still married to Cornelia Salonina.

In the East, Valerian had succeeded by A.D. 257 in rescuing Antioch in Syria from Persian control, at least temporarily, but was soon faced with a major invasion of the Goths in Asia Minor. The Scriptores Historiae Augustae biography of Aurelian has Valerian appear to speak in the Baths at Byzantium to publicly commend Aurelian for his success in driving back the Goths and reward him with the consulship and even with adoption as imperial successor. However, it is not clear that Valerian even reached Byzantium because he sent Felix to that city while he remained to protect the eastern section of Asia Minor and then returned to Antioch to guard it against renewed Persian attacks. It was at this point, around 259, that Valerian moved to defend Edessa and his troops lost significant numbers to the plague. Valerian tried to negotiate a peace with the Persian king, Sapor, but was captured by treachery and taken into captivity. The ultimate humiliation of a Roman emperor by a foreign leader was enacted through Sapor's use of Valerian as a human stepping-stool to assist the Persian king in mounting his horse and Valerian's body was later skinned to produce a lasting trophy of Roman submission.

Eusebius discusses the policy of Valerian toward the Christians and says that, after initially treating them most positively, Valerian was persuaded by Macrianus to lead another persecution against them. Valerian in fact after his brutal imprisonment and death in Persia would serve as a negative moral exemplum for some Latin Christian writers who gleefully pointed out that those who oppose the true God receive their just desserts.

Eusebius also credits Gallienus with reversing his father's policy and establishing peace with the Church, citing imperial edicts which established freedom of worship and even restored some lost property. Paul Keresztes claims that Gallienus in fact established a peace with Christians that lasted for forty-three years, from A.D. 260 until 303, and gave the community a kind of legal status which they had previously lacked.

Andreas Alföldi details a growing separation between Gallienus and his father which goes well beyond the geographical one which had developed out of military necessity. In addition to the strikingly different policies, just described, which they pursued toward the Christians, Gallienus began to make his military independence clear through changes in coin inscriptions and by 258 he had created his central cavalry unit and stationed it at Milan. This independent force, which was under the command of a man of equestrian rank and soon stood on a level at least equal to that of the Praetorian Guard, would play a significant role in Gallienus' upcoming battles and, of course, was a foretoken of a new trend for military organization in the future. Alföldi cites as evidence of the increasing separation between the joint emperors the statement that Gallienus did not even seek his father's return from captivity, which Lactantius of course interpreted as part of Valerian's divine punishment, but one wonders what indeed Gallienus might have done and his "indifference" may have been instead his attempt to reassert confidence in his armies and not dwell on the depressing and humiliating servitude and ultimate death of Valerian. Another reform which Alföldi discusses as part of Gallienus' independent stand is his exclusion of the senatorial class from major military commands. H.M.D. Parker credits Gallienus with beginning to separate the civil and military functions of Rome's provincial governors, thus making senatorial governors purely civil administrators and starting to replace them even in this reduced role by equestrians. The disappearance in this period of the S.C. stamp of senatorial authority on bronze coins was probably also seen as an attack on the prestige of the order, although the debasement of the silver coinage had by this time practically reached the point where the "silver" coins were themselves essentially bronze and the change may have been more for economic than for political reasons. Gallienus' exclusion of senators from military command further broke down class distinctions because sons of centurions were by this time regularly given equestrian rank and the move further accelerated the alienation of Rome as center of the Empire. In addition, the bitterness of the senatorial class over Gallienus' policy most likely explains the hatred of Latin writers toward this particular emperor.

Although Gallienus' military innovations may have made his forces more effective, he still had to face numerous challenges to his authority.In addition to systemic invasions and revolts, the plague wreaked havoc in Rome and Italy and probably in several provinces as well. It must have seemed that every commander he entrusted to solve a problem later used that authority to create another threat. When Gallienus was involved in putting down the revolt of Ingenuus in Pannonia, he put Postumus in charge of the armies guarding the Rhine and Gaul. There is some doubt about which of Gallienus' sons, Cornelius Valerianus or P. Cornelius Licinius Saloninus, was left in Cologne under the care of the Praetorian Prefect Silvanus and perhaps also Postumus. In any case, when Postumus revolted and proclaimed his independent Gallic Empire, Silvanus and one of the emperor's sons were killed. Gallienus probably restricted Postumus' expansion, but he never gained the personal revenge that, according to one source, drove him to challenge Postumus to single combat. While Gallienus was thus engaged, and after Valerian's capture by the Persians, Macrianus had his soldiers proclaim his sons, Macrianus and Quietus, emperors in Syria, Asia Minor, and Egypt. Gallienus sent Aureolus to defeat Macrianus and one son in the area of Illyria and Thrace; Odenathus of Palmyra defeated the other son and restored stability in Syria and, with Gallienus' approval, followed that up with a victory over the Persians. After Odenathus' assassination ca. 267, his wife Zenobia continued to rule the independent Palmyrene section of the Empire.

In A.D. 262 Gallienus concluded his tenth year in office by celebrating in Rome his Decennalia with a spectacular procession involving senators, equestrians, gladiators, soldiers, representatives of foreign peoples, and many other groups. This festival included feasts, games, entertainment, and spectacle which probably reminded Romans of the millennial Secular Games celebrations of Philip I and likely were intended to secure popular support at home for Gallienus. Over the next five years little is known about specific activities of the emperor and he presumably spent more time in Rome and less along the frontiers.

Gallienus and Salonina as rulers patronized a cultural movement which collectively is known as the Gallienic Renaissance. The imperial patrons are most directly connected with the philosophical aspects of this movement because Porphyry testifies to their friendship for the Neoplatonic philosopher Plotinus. Porphyry goes on to say that Plotinus asked Gallienus to rebuild an abandoned former city of philosophers in Campania, rename it Platonopolis, and govern it as a kind of Platonic Republic, but that the jealousy and spite of others at court scuttled the plan. In addition to Neoplatonic philosophy, according to Gervase Matthew, the Gallienic Renaissance included the "upward glance" and other stylistic changes in imperial sculpture and religious beliefs that were characterized by "an overwhelming sense of the transcendent and immutable." Matthew points out both the return to artistic models of Augustus, Hadrian, and even Severus Alexander and also "a new Romantic tension" which breaks with the past and points toward a new and very different world. The Hellenic character of much of the Gallienic Renaissance is also stressed in the emperor's trip to Athens where he, likely in imitation of Hadrian, became eponymous archon and received initiation into the Eleusinian cult of Demeter.

Late in his reign, Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians are Apollo, Diana, Hercules, Jupiter, Juno, Liber Pater, Mercury, Neptune, and Sol. For example, Apollo's coin-types portray a centaur, a gryphon, or Pegasus; Hercules is represented by either the lion or the boar. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games, thus to divert their attention away from the same problems and maintain the security of the regime in power.

In A.D. 268, Gallienus saw his third son, Marinianus, become consul, but in the spring another Gothic invasion brought the emperor back to Greece. He defeated the invaders at Naissus in Moesia , but was deterred from pursuing them further by a revolt of the commander of his elite cavalry, Aureolus. He besieged this last rebel emperor in Milan, but a plot involving his Praetorian Prefect and two future emperors, Claudius and Aurelian, all three men Illyrians popular with many of the soldiers, lured Gallienus away from the city on a false pretext and assassinated him.The emperor's brother Valerian and young son Marinianus were also murdered. In spite of the bitter resentment which many of the senators must have felt toward the dead emperor and his reform policies, Claudius II, perhaps only to legitimize his own reign, persuaded the Senate to deify Gallienus.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/gallval.htm. Used by permission.


Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus was born in about AD 213. This means that he was about 40 years old when his father Valerian, in AD 253, was hailed emperor by his troops in Raetia. Gallienus was made Caesar immediately by his father. But within a month, when Valerian got to Rome, Gallienus received the rank of Augustus.

Compared to other Roman emperors of the age, Gallienus was an exception, as far as he was not a soldier-emperor. He was rather a thoughtful, intellectual ruler, possessing sophisticated Greek tastes. However, this made him deeply unpopular with the gritty Danubian generals, who very much understood it as their right to choose a leader among their own ranks to rule the empire.

If the Danubian military elite didn't like Gallienus, then he certainly soon proved that he was a capable military leader. Between AD 254 to AD 256 he campaigned along the Danube, securing this troubled frontier against the barbarians. In AD 256 he then moved west to fight the Germans along the Rhine.

Then by autumn AD 260 the message of Valerian's capture by the Persians reached Gallienus. If Gallienus had always been unpopular among the military leaders, then now with his father gone and Roman authority crumbling, rebellion was in the air.

On a night in September, AD 268, at the siege of Mediolanum (Milan), an alarm was suddenly raised in the camp of the emperor. In the brief moment of confusion, Gallienus was struck down in the dark as he emerged from his tent.

During his reign, Gallienus began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. In doing so, he perhaps saved the empire from oblivion. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers.

As a last gesture of disrespect to this, most unfortunate of emperors, the Romans should lay Gallienus to rest not in one of the great mausoleums in Rome, but in a tomb nine miles south of the capital, along the Via Appia.

Ironically, he was deified by the senate at the request of Claudius II Gothicus, one of the men who must be held accountable for the assassination of Gallienus.
See: http://www.roman-empire.net/decline/gallienus.html


Gallienus was the son of Valerian I and was named Caesar at his father's accession to the throne in 253 A.D. Upon his father's capture by the Parthians he assumed the rank of Augustus and began numerous reforms and military campaigns to defend the empire, as much from usurpers as from barbarians. At the same time he presided over perhaps the last flowering of classical Roman culture, patronizing poets, artists and philosophers. Gallienus was assassinated while besieging Milan. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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