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01115q00.jpg
17 viewsJustin I, 518-527. Pentanummium (Bronze, 11 mm, 1.86 g, 7 h), uncertain mint. [...] Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justin I to left. Rev. The Tyche of Antioch seated left; to left, Є. Cf. DOC 57 var., MIB 678 var. and SB 111 var. (all with bust to right). A curious coin with the portrait facing left instead of right, possibly a contemporary imitation. Very fine. Quant.Geek
CLAUD2-1.JPG
38 viewsCLAUDIVS II - AE Antoninianus - 268/270 - Siscia mint
Obv.: IMP CLAVDIVS AVG; radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev: TEMPORVM FELI; Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae; P in the right field
Gr. 3,25; mm. 22
RIC 192, Cohen 285
Maxentius
RI_064sv_obva.JPG
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - error - obv16 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I - I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICITAS TEMPOR, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae / VICTOR SEVER AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 347 note/ BMCRE 399. RIC 347A/RIC 428. RSC 141b/RSC 749

The reverse of this coin has been struck with two diffrerent reverse dies during the strking process. The coin was originally struck, not removed and then struck again with a different reverse die.
maridvnvm
rjb_car_419_07_06.jpg
41941 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "TEMPORVM FEL"
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopia
Camulodunum Mint
-/-//C
RIC 419
mauseus
rjb_2012_03_29.jpg
419cf35 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "TEMPOR FEL"
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopia
Camulodunum Mint
S/P//C
RIC - (cf 419ff)
mauseus
rjb_car_421cf_07_05.jpg
421cf35 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "TEMPORVM FELIC"
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopia
Camulodunum Mint
S/P//C
RIC - (cf 421)
mauseus
rjb_car_rouen_07_07.jpg
67970 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "TEMPORVM F"
Felicitas stg left with caduceus and cornucopia
Rotomagus mint
RIC 679; Beaujard & Huvelin 54
1 commentsmauseus
Postumus_Double_Sest_RIC_207.jpg
Gallic 1 Postumus30 viewsPOSTUMUS
Double Sestertius, 15.89g
Radiate Bust r. / LAETITIA AVG, Galley
A Contemporary imitation, as indicated by the style and the fact that the E in the reverse legend is retrograde
Bastien 373; RIC 207
ex Harlan J. Berk
1 commentsSosius
Vandals_-__Thrasamund,_496-523_AD,_N_Africa.JPG
106 viewsVANDALS, Thrasamund. 496-523.
Ć Nummus (10mm, 0.40 g)
Contemporary Vandalic imitation. Carthage mint.
Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm
MEC 1, 31-2; BMC Vandals 37-41
Ardatirion
uncertain.jpg
39 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.33 g)
Contemporary counterfeit
Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, GPR (Genio populi Romani) around
Blank
Rostowzew -

This tessera was cast from fractured molds, likely after the they had been discarded by the mint. It is the only possibly counterfeit tessera I have discovered to date.
Ardatirion
ephesos_tessera_in_silver_mount.jpg
36 viewsIONIA, Ephesos. 1st-2nd century AD.
Ć Tessera in contemporary AR mount (23mm, 6.25, 1 h)
KHPIΛIC ωΔE ΠPOC ΠAΛVPIN
Bee
CKωΠI, recumbent stag; E to left, Φ to right
BMC 186; SNG Copenhagen 355
Ardatirion
00084x00.jpg
51 viewsUNITED STATES, Political campaign tokens. William Henry Harrison. President, March 4-April 4 1841.
Ć Political Medallet (23mm, 4.22 g, 12 h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dually dated 9 February 1773 and 1841
MAJ. GEN. W. H. HARRISON/ * BORN FEB. 9. 1773*
Bust of William Henry Harrison left in military uniform
STEAM BOAT VAN BUREN/ FOR SALT RIVER DIRECT.
Early steamboat sailing right with banner inscribed 1841; LOCO-FOCO/ LINE below. '
With attached contemporary ribbon.
Rulau HT 817; Low -
Ardatirion
Asia_Minor_tessera.jpg
24 viewsUNCERTAIN EAST
Circa 300 BC - 100 AD?
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.79 g)
Two punches: bee, Λ A flanking; Nike advancing facing, head right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -; Lang & Crosby -; Howgego -

The first punch depicts a bee with a long, cylindrical body, triangular pointed wings, and globular eyes with the letters Λ and A flanking. A second, added later over the edge of the first, shows Nike striding boldly forward with her head slightly to the right. The elegant engraving of the punches, both unlisted as countermarks in Howgego, contrasts starkly with the rough, unfinished flan. Although the basic types of Nike and a bee are common at Ephesos, the fabric and style differ from the issues of that city. Neither does the piece fit with the tokens found in the Athenian Agora. All considered, this piece appears consistent with what one would expect from a temporary token or entry pass, possibly of the pre-Roman period.
Ardatirion
00056x00~0.jpg
43 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 25 Centimes (21mm, 1.99 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 25 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 18.1a; cf. Arroyo 99 (for official issue); Lissade 95
Ardatirion
00055x00~0.jpg
47 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 50 Centimes (25.5mm, 4.26 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352

On 1 June 1835, local officials arrested engraver Joseph Gardner of Belleville on charges of counterfeiting. When searching his house, officials discovered dies for Spanish 8 reales in various states of completion, coining implements, a bag of gold dust, and several bags of "spurious Haytien coppers." Yet Gardner was not the only individual striking illicit Haitian coins. James Bishop of neighboring Bloomfield, New Jersey had been arrested several months before, and a third person was responsible for the issue brought to Haiti by Jeremiah Hamilton.

Today, two distinct issues of counterfeits can be identified: a group of 25 and 50 Centimes, clearly related in fabric, and two different dates of 100 Centimes. The smaller denominations are most often found lacking a silver plating, while the plating year 26 100 Centimes is fine enough to deceive the likes of NGC and Heritage. Additionally, there are a handful year 27 100 centimes overstruck on US large cents. While I have not yet found a regular strike from these dies, they are the most likely candidate for Belleville's production.
Ardatirion
00004x00~6.jpg
29 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Silvered Brass 50 Centimes (25mm, 4.55 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352
Ardatirion
00014x00~2.jpg
42 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Silvered CU 100 Centimes (31mm, 10.32 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 27 of the Republic (AD 1830/1)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 27
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 100 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM A23a; cf. Arroyo 117 (for official issue); Lissade 103
Ardatirion
charles2-denier-melle-2.JPG
D.626 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1d, Melle)25 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, class 1d, 840-864)

Silver, 1.73 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 5h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX; cross pattée
R/ +METVLLO; carolingian monogram

This coinage with the shorter legend CΛRLVS REX is much rarer than the common one with the legend CΛRLVS REX FR. The composition of a hoard in Poitou suggests that this type can be unambiguously attributed to Charles the Bald. This coinage may have been minted at the beginning of Charles the Bald's reign, just before Pippin II took the control of Melle in 845.
Among the 12 known specimens, 5 have a deformed monogram, with the L and the S exchanging places, and on their sides. This feature, the shorter legend, as well as the unusual position of the legend opening cross on top of the monogram may suggest that there was some confusion in Melle at this time, when Charles gave back (temporarily) Aquitaine to Pippin.
The reverse is slightly double struck.
Droger
philippe2-denier-saintmartin.JPG
Dy.176 Philip II (Augustus): denier tournois (Saint Martin de Tours)23 viewsPhilip II, king of France (1180-1223)
Denier tournois (Saint Martin de Tours)

Billon, 0.96 g, diameter 18.5 mm, die axis 7h
O: PHILIPVS REX; croix pattée
R: +SCS MARTINVS; châtel tournois

The livre parisis was a standard for minting coins (and for unit of accounts) inherited from the Carolingians.
In 1203, John (Lackland) lost Anjou to Philip II. The deniers minted at the Saint Martin abbey in Touraine were considered as very stable. So Philip II decided to adopt the livre tournois (tournois means "of Tours", Tours is a French city in Anjou close to Saint Martin abbey) as a new standard denier and unit of account. Livre parisis and livre tournois coexisted for some time but the livre tournois quickly outstripped the livre parisis as a unit of account. Deniers parisis ceased to be struck a little more than a century later, but livre parisis existed till 17th century.
SCS MARTINVS means Sanctus Martinus (Saint Martin). The name of the abbey was temporarily kept on the deniers tournois, but was soon replaced by the name of the city of Tours.
Droger
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa31 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
a_pius_Tyche__Tomi_blk.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS10 views138 - 161 AD
Ae 21.3 mm, 8.18 g
O: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΑΔΡΙ ΑΝΤωΝΙΝΟС bare head of Antoninus Pius, r.
R: ΤΟΜΙΤΩΝ Η ΜΗΤΡΟΠ Tyche standing, l., holding rudder and cornucopia
Moesia Inferior, Tomi; RPC IV Number 4402 (temporary); AMNG 2637
laney
commodus_horse_anchial_b.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--ANCHIALOS39 views177 - 192 AD
struck ca. 191 - 192 AD, issued by Caecilius Servilianus, Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae
Ć 29.5 mm; 6.90 g
O: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ Λ ΑΥΡ - ΚΟΜΟΔΟC , laureate-headed bust of Commodus wearing cuirass and paludamentum, facing right; two countermarks in ovals: helmeted head of Athena, and DX
R: ΗΓ ΚΑΙ CΕΡΟΥΙΛΙΑΝΟΥ ΑΓΧΙΑΛΕΩΝ , emperor (Commodus) on horseback, r., wearing military dress, holding spear.
Thrace, Anchialos
Ref. cf AMNG 441, pl. VI. 16 (rev.) ; RPC online coin type temporary № 4532 (2 pieces listed) but described as "galloping" ; Moushmov 2799; rare
1 commentslaney
commodus_apollo_hadrianop.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--HADRIANOPOLIS16 views177 – 192 AD
Struck c. 184 AD
Iulius Castus (Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae)
AE 26 mm; 9.08 g
O: ΑV ΚΑΙ Λ ΑΥΡΗ ΚΟΜΟΔΟС laureate-headed bust of Commodus (short beard) wearing cuirass with traces of paludamentum, r.
R: ΗΓΕ ΙΟV ΚΑСΤΟV ΑΔΡΙΑ[ΝΟΠΟΛΕΙΤ] nude Apollo advancing, r., holding strung bow
Thrace, Hadrianopolis; ref. RPC (temporary) 10537; cf Jurukova 122
laney
ZDS.jpg
(172_192) Comode - Aguila (Tracia)22 viewsADPIANOPOLEI.
Coin type
Temporary Number 10552
City; Province; Region Hadrianopolis; Thrace; Thrace
Date 191–192
Obverse design laureate-headed bust of Commodus wearing cuirass(?) and paludamentum, r.
Obverse inscription ΑΥ Κ Λ ΑΥ ΚΟΜΟΔΟΣ
Reverse design eagle standing, facing, head, l., spreading wings
Reverse inscription ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟΠΟΛΕΙΤ
Metal Bronze
Average diameter 17 mm
Average weight 3,30 g
Average die-axis 6
Type reference Jurukova 166
Ségusiaves
MarcusNysaMerge3a.jpg
*Lydia, Nysa. Marcus Aurelius. Regling, Nysa 86 37 viewsĆ23. Lydia, Nysa. Marcus Aurelius (Caesar AD 136–161; Emperor 161–180), laureate head to r., cuirassed bust with paludamentum, back to viewer. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟC or "Imperator Caesar Antoninus" Rev., Zeus seated, holding patera and long scepter. ΕΠ ΓΡ ΑΣΙΑΤΙΚΟΥ Κ[ΟΡΝ] ΝΥΣΑ[ΕΩΝ]. Asiatikos Korn(eliou), grammateus. Regling, Nysa 86; RPC IV (temporary №) 1455. Ex Collegium Josephinum Bonn 1-9-2010.

Same dies as RPC IV specimen: http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/1455/

*Note: Made a slight adjustment to image for brightness, contrast, and intensity.
Mark Fox
Tacitus_1.jpg
*SOLD*20 viewsTacitus Antoninianus

Attribution: RIC 65, Lugdunum
Date: AD 276
Obverse: IMP CL TACITVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas stg. l. w/ caduceus & cornucopiae,
Δ to l., * to r.
Size: 23 mm – “fully silvered”
Weight: 3.13 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
026.jpg
020 GETA8 viewsEMPEROR: Geta, as Caesar
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: L SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, bare-headed draped bust right
REVERSE: FELICITAS TEMPOR, Felicitas standing left, holding short caduceus & cornucopiae.
DATE: 198 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.17 g
RIC: 2
Barnaba6
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-369_C2-013_H-465_K-enthroned_MONETA-RE(G)IS-KARVLI_1327-AD_Q-001_5h_12,9mm_0,46g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #01167 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ MOnЄTA RЄIS KARVLI, Falcon with spread wings standing facing, in circle of dots, head right; border of dots. Without mint-mark.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 12,9mm, weight: 0,46g, axis:5h,
mint: Hungary, ???, mint mark: No, date: 1327 A.D., ref: Unger-369, CNH-2-013, Huszár-465, Pohl-22,
This emission was referred to in contemporary sources as a denarius cum Aquila.
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_AR-Denar_U-369_C2-013_H-465_K-enthroned_MONETA-RE(G)IS-KARVLI_1327-AD_Q-002_7h_13,2mm_0,68g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #02146 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-369, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ MOnЄTA RЄIS KARVLI, Falcon with spread wings standing facing, in circle of dots, head right; border of dots. Without mint-mark.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//--, diameter: 13,2mm, weight: 0,68g, axis:7h,
mint: Hungary, ???, mint mark: No, date: 1327 A.D., ref: Unger-369, CNH-2-013, Huszár-465, Pohl-22,
This emission was referred to in contemporary sources as a denarius cum Aquila.
Q-002
quadrans
Iohannes-Hunyadi-r.gif
036 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-486.g, avers, please click on the picture,156 views036 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-486.g, avers, please click on the picture,
avers: ✠TEMPORE IO GVBERnATOR, Crowned Bohemian Lion advancing left in circle; border of dots.
reverse:-
diameter: mm, weight: 0,00g,
mint: Hungary, Buda, mint mark: h-S, by (Pohl).
date: 1447-1450 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-486.g, CNH-2-157A, Huszár-620,
Q-001
quadrans
Janos-Hunyadi_(1446-1453_AD)_Den_U-485_d_C2-156_H-618_TEmPORE-IOhAnIS_m-RGnI_VnGARIE_h-P_Q-001_6h_12,5-13mm_0,56g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-d., #01,95 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-d., #01,
avers: TEMPORE IOhAnIS (legend variation), Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (h-P); border of dots.
reverse: ✠m•REGnI•VnGARIE, Hungarian shield with Árpadian stripes in circle; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: h/P//--, diameter: 12-13mm, weight: 0,56g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Nagyszegben (Hermanstadt, today Romania: Sibiu, by Pohl), date: 1446 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-485-d., CNH-2-156, Huszár-618, Pohl-175-04,
Q-001
quadrans
Janos-Hunyadi_(1446-1453_AD)_Den_U-485_e_C2-156_H-618_TEmPORE_IOhAnIS_m_REGnI_VnGARIE_h-cX_Q-001_7h_13-13,5mm_0,59g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-e., #01,86 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-e., #01,
avers: TEMPORE•IOhAnIS (legend variation), Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (h-c˟), border of dots.
reverse: ✠m•REGnI•VnGARIE, Hungarian shield with Árpadian stripes in circle; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: h/c˟//--, were srucked by Christophorus de Florentia, (by Pohl). diameter: 13-13,5mm, weight: 0,59g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Nagyszegben (Hermanstadt, today Romania: Sibiu, by Pohl), date: 1446 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-485-e., CNH-2-156, Huszar-618, Pohl-175-05,
Q-001
quadrans
Janos-Hunyadi_(1446-1453_AD)_Den_U-486_d_C2-157A_H-620_TEMPORE-IO-_-GVBERnATOR-_-_Rozetta-MOnETA-_-REGnI-_-VnGARIE_Q-001_19mm_0,72g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-486-d., Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, B-S, #01 113 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-486-d., Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, B-S, #01
avers: ✠TEMPORE•IO•GVBERnATOR, Crowned Bohemian Lion advancing left in circle; border of dots.
reverse: Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (B-S); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/S//-- were strucked by Stephanus Mikola, diameter: mm, weight: 0,00g,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1447-1451 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-486-d., CNH-2-157A, Huszar-620, Pohl-177-04,
Q-001
quadrans
Janos-Hunyadi_Den_U-487_C2-157C_H-623_Q-001_19mm_0,72ga-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-487, Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #01104 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-487, Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, B-I, #01
avers: •TEMPORE IO•GVBERnATOR, Bohemian Lion advancing left in circle, without crown, border of dots.
reverse: Rozette MOnETA•REGnI•VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, in circle, mint-mark on each side (B-I); border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/I//-- were strucked by Iohannes Münczer (by Pohl), diameter: 19mm, weight: 0,72g,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1451-1452 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-487, CNH-2-157C, Huszár-623, Pohl-179,
Q-001
quadrans
Julia_Pergamon_R694.jpg
039 BC - AD 014 - IVLIA8 viewsJulia

Julia the Elder, known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia was the daughter of Augustus, and his second wife, Scribonia.


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
dom as caesar pegasus.jpg
03a Domitian as Caesar RIC 921166 viewsAR Denarius, 3.12g
Rome mint, 76-77 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Pegasus, standing r.
RIC 921 (C2). BMC 193. RSC 47. BNC 169.
Acquired from Nilus Coins, March 2007.

The reverse copies an Augustan one and might possibly allude to Domitian's foray into poetry. (BMCRE xl)

Unlike most of the crude Domitian portraits of the time from the Rome mint, this one has a great beauty and nobility to it that few of his contemporary denarii strive to achieve. Was it a minor slight that most of the better die engravers were used for Vespasian and Titus' coins? Thankfully one slipped through to create a wonderful portrait of the young caesar.

Despite some minor flaws, this is a wonderful coin that I'm happy to add to my collection.
2 commentsVespasian70
041_Commodus,_RIC_III-566,_AE-Sest,_M_COMMOD_ANT_P_FELIX_AVG_BRIT_P_P,_TEMPOR_FELIC_P_M_TR_P_XV_IMP_VIII_COS_VI,_S-C,_C_722,_190_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_26,5-28mm,17,12g-s.jpg
041b Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0566, Rome, AE-Sestertius, TEMP FELIC P M TR P XV IMP VIII COS VI, S/C//--, Caduceus, two crossed cornucopiae, #164 views041b Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0566, Rome, AE-Sestertius, TEMP FELIC P M TR P XV IMP VIII COS VI, S/C//--, Caduceus, two crossed cornucopiae, #1
avers: M COMMOD ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT PP, Laureate head right.
reverse: TEMP FELIC P M TR P XV IMP VIII COS VI, Caduceus between two crossed cornucopiae, S-C across the field.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 26,5-28,0 mm, weight: 17,12 g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 190 A.D., ref: RIC III 566, C-722, BMCRE 655, Sear 5807var.,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Septimius-Severus_AR-Den_IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II_FELI-CIT-TEM-POR_RIC-373var_Emesa-194-5-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_xxmm_2,83g-s~0.jpg
049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 373var, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FELICIT TEMPOR, Stalk of grain, Scarce92 views049 Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 373var, Emesa (Antioch), AR-Denarius, FELICIT TEMPOR, Stalk of grain, Scarce
avers:- IMP-CAEL-SEP-SEV-PERT-AVG-COS-II, Laurate bust right.
revers:- FELI-CIT-TEM-POR, Stalk of grain between crossed cornucopia.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 2,83g, axis: 0h,
mint: Emesa (Antioch), date: 194-95 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-373var, p-141, C-142b,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Ant_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_TEMPORVM-FELICITAS_Roma-RIC-_Q-001_21-22mm_5_02g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I Not in, Caracalla and Ellagabal (plated) fouree Antoninianus contemporary hybrid imitation,83 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I Not in, Caracalla and Ellagabal (plated) fouree Antoninianus contemporary hybrid imitation,
"It's a fourree, and it's a contemporary imitation."- by Robert Brenchley- many thanks
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Caracalla (198 - 217), Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right 215? (Rome).
revers:- TEMPORVM-FELICITAS, Ellagaball (218 - 222), Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia. 219-220 (Rome).
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 5,02g, axis: -h,
mint: ???, date: ??? , ref: ???,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
054-Macrinus_AR-Ant_IMP-C-M-OPEL-SEV-MACRINVS-AVG_FELICITAS-TEMPORVM_RIC-63_p-9_C-20a_Rome_AD-217_Q-001_7h_19,5-21,5mm_4,53gy-s.jpg
054 Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), RIC IV-II 063, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left,107 views054 Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), RIC IV-II 063, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left,
avers:- IMP-C-M-OPEL-SEV-MACRINVS-AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FELICITAS-TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left holding short caduceus and scepter.
exerg: , diameter: 19,5-21,5mm, weight:4,53g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-63, p-9, C-20a,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_064sv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - error21 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I - I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICITAS TEMPOR, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae / VICTOR SEVER AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 347 note/ BMCRE 399. RIC 347A/RIC 428. RSC 141b/RSC 749

The reverse of this coin has been struck with two diffrerent reverse dies during the strking process. The coin was originally struck, not removed and then struck again with a different reverse die.
maridvnvm
RI_064sv_reva.JPG
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - error - rev 115 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I - I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICITAS TEMPOR, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae / VICTOR SEVER AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 347 note/ BMCRE 399. RIC 347A/RIC 428. RSC 141b/RSC 749

The reverse of this coin has been struck with two diffrerent reverse dies during the strking process. The coin was originally struck, not removed and then struck again with a different reverse die.
maridvnvm
RI_064sv_revb.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC - error - rev 215 viewsdenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I - I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICITAS TEMPOR, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae / VICTOR SEVER AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 347 note/ BMCRE 399. RIC 347A/RIC 428. RSC 141b/RSC 749

The reverse of this coin has been struck with two diffrerent reverse dies during the strking process. The coin was originally struck, not removed and then struck again with a different reverse die
maridvnvm
RI_064md_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 27441 viewsDenarius
Obv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– LAETITIA above, TEMPORVM below, ship with mast and fittings, sail raised, gangway to ground; above, four quadrigae; below, bird, lion, zebra, bear, stag, bull and a bear
Minted in Rome. A.D. 206
Reference:– BMC 343. RIC 274. RSC 253.

ex CGB.fr

Updated image.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064md_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 27427 viewsDenarius
Obv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– LAETITIA above, TEMPORVM below, ship with mast and fittings, sail raised, gangway to ground; above, four quadrigae; below, bird, lion, zebra, bear, stag, bull and a bear
Minted in Rome. A.D. 206
Reference:– BMC 343. RIC 274. RSC 253.

ex CGB.fr
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064my_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37212 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICIT TEMPO, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae.
Minted in eastern COS II mint (Emesa ?). A.D. 194-195
Reference:- Cohen 142. BMCRE 347 note. RIC IV 372 (Rated S). RSC 142.

On the face of it this coin is simply RIC IV 372 though RIC notes that Cohen likely has SEPT in error. RIC and BMCRE cite Cohen 142 for this variant (TEMPO instead of the usual TEMPOR). Cohen 142 reads FELICIT TEMPOR or TEMPO. It would appear that RIC and BMCRE could not find other examples of the TEMPO type other than Cohen when mentioning this variation.
maridvnvm
RI_064di_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 37316 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FELICIT TEMPOR, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:- Cohen 142. BMCRE 347, RIC IV 373 (S), RSC 142b
Die axis 0 degrees. Weight 3.18g
maridvnvm
RI_064lv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-)27 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FEILECITAS (sic) TEMPOR, grain ear between crossed cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_065bz_img.jpg
065 - Julia Doman Denarius - cf RIC 61932 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– FELECI[TAS] TEMPOR, Basket of grains and fruit.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference(s) – cf RIC IV 619; cf BMCRE 415;

The FELECI is clear but I am supposing the TAS based upon the spacing and what would appear to be the ghosting of the letter that have been lost through clogging.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_065ab_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 62135 viewsObv:– IVLIA DO-MNA AVG, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– FELECITAS TEMPOR, Grain ear between crossed cornucopiae.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 195
Reference(s) – RIC IV 621 (Rare, Septimius confirmed, noted as doubtful by RIC but with FELICITAS)
Martin Griffiths
RI_068u_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 09415 viewsObv:– L SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FELICITAS TEMPOR, Felicitas standing right, holding long caduceus in left hand clasping hends with Geta standing left holding cornucopia
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 200 - 202
Reference:– BMC 685. RIC 94 (Scarce). RSC 49.

Weight 3.41g. 19.21mm.
maridvnvm
RI 068j img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 095 19 viewsObv:– L SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, Bare headed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FELICITAS TEMPOR, Felicitas standing holding caduceus & cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea ad Mare. A.D. 198-200
Reference:– RIC 95 (Scarce), RSC 44a
maridvnvm
RI 071i img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus Antoninianus - RIC 149 (3e )59 viewsObv:– IMP ANTONINVS AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left with long caduceus and cornucopiae
References:– VM 13, RIC 149 (3e )(Scarce), RCV02 7499, RSC 280
1 commentsmaridvnvm
trajan mines coin RIC709-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 104-110 AD72 viewsobv: IMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GER DAC (laureate head right)
rev: METALLI VLPIANI (Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia)
ref: RIC II 709 (R2), Cohen 182 (30frcs)
3.23gms, 17mm
Very rare

Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the name of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Others theorize that these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function,much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. The exact denomination is unclear. Most appear to be quadrans in the 14-17mm range but some larger examples could be considered semisses.
berserker
99.jpg
099 Tacitus. bill. antoninianus18 viewsobv: IMP CL TACITVS AVG rad. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS Felicitas std.l. holding caduces and cornucopia
fld: AA
hill132
V1494a.jpg
09c Domitian as Caesar- RIC 1494126 viewsAR Denarius, 2.81g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: COS IIII above; Pegasus r.
RIC 1494 (R2). BMC 488 bis. RSC 47 var. RPC 1465 (1 spec.). BNC -.
Ex G&N, eBay, 27 August 2015.

An unknown eastern mint struck a spate of denarii in 76 which copied many contemporary types from Rome. Both RIC and RPC speculate it possibly could be Ephesus, citing a similar style with a previous Ephesian issue from 74 and the use of an annulet as a mint mark. The issue is extremely rare. This denarius copies the much more common Pegasus type struck at Rome for Domitian. Domitian's connection to this unusual type perhaps can be explained by Pegasus' association with Athena/Minerva, Domitian's patron goddess. These eastern denarii are understandably confused with the issues from Rome, however, they can be distinguished by style and the annulet (if visible) below the bust.

A fine styled, nicely toned denarius.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
V1495.JPG
09d Domitian as Caesar- RIC 1495125 viewsAR Denarius, 3.26g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: FIDES PVBL; Hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn ears
RIC 1495 (R). BMC 491. RSC -. RPC 1467 (4 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Solidus, eBay, 29 November 2013.

In 76 AD a mysterious series of denarii appeared in Asia Minor for Vespasian and his sons two years after Ephesus stopped minting denarii. The reverse types were copied from those contemporaneously produced at Rome and featured many mules and blundered legends. Often an 'o' mint mark is visible below the busts, giving rise to the theory that these may be the product of Ephesus. The style is also similar to the last series known from that mint.

Here is a rare reverse type for Domitian as Caesar. At Rome this type is only known for Vespasian and Titus. BMC 491 is listed as no mint mark below bust. A fine style portrait struck on a large flan. Same obverse die as my V1492.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar159 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
rjb_car_1013_07_06.jpg
101324 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv: "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "TEMPORVM FELICIT"
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopia
Unmarked mint
RIC 1013
mauseus
108.jpg
108 Allectus. AE antoninianus21 viewsobv: IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG rad. cuir. bust r.
rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS Felicitas std. l. holding caduceus and cornucopia
ex: S-A//ML
hill132
T-3314,_Tacitus,_AE-Ant_,_IMP_CL_TACITVS_AVG_(D1),_TEMPORVM_FELICITAS_(F1),_RIC_V-I_65,_Lugdunum,_iss-5,_off-4,_276_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_21-22mm,_4,20g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3314, RIC V-I 061, Lugdunum, AE-Antoninianus, TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Δ/A//--, Bust-D1, Felicitas standing left, #177 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3314, RIC V-I 061, Lugdunum, AE-Antoninianus, TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Δ/A//--, Bust-D1, Felicitas standing left, #1
avers: MP CL TACITVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum. (D1).
reverse: TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding long-handled caduceus in right hand and cornucopiae in left hand. (Felicitas 1).
exergue: Δ/A//--, diameter: 21,0-22,0mm, weight: 4,20g, axes: 7h,
mint: Lugdunum, 4th.issue, 4th.off., date: 276 AD., ref: RIC V-I 65., T-(Estiot)-3314, C-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_104,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_PROBVS_P_F_AVG,_(F,B),_TEMPOR_FELICI,_I,_Lugdunum,_4th_em,_277AD,_Q-002,_6h,_20-22mm,_4,03g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 104.4a.1./C-B, -/-//I, TEMPOR FELICI, AE-Ant., Felicitas standing right, #1129 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 104.4a.1./C-B, -/-//I, TEMPOR FELICI, AE-Ant., Felicitas standing right, #1
avers: IMP C PROBVS•P•F•AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (B-F)
reverse: TEMP OR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopia. (C),
exergue: -/-//I, diameter: 20,0-22,0mm, weight: 4,03g, axis:6h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 104.4a.1./C-B, p-29, C-, Bastien 188, HO-616,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVSdotPdotFdotAVG_TEMP-OR-FELICI_I_Bust-F_RIC-104-p-29_Lugdunum_4th-emiss_277-AD_Q-001_7h_21-22,5mm_3,16ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 104.4a.1./C-B, -/-//I, TEMPOR FELICI, AE-Ant., Felicitas standing right, #266 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 104.4a.1./C-B, -/-//I, TEMPOR FELICI, AE-Ant., Felicitas standing right, #2
avers: IMP C PROBVS•P•F•AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F, B)
reverse: TEMP OR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopia
exergue: -/-//I, diameter: 21-22,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis:7h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 104.4a.1./C-B, p-29, C-, Bastien 188, HO-616,
Q-002
quadrans
HENRY_II_Tealby_AR_Penny.JPG
1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR 'Tealby' Penny, Struck 1158 - 1163 at Canterbury (?), England33 viewsObverse: (HE)NRI • R(EX• A -). Crowned facing bust of Henry II, his head facing slightly to the left, holding sceptre tipped with a cross potent in his right hand. Crown has three vertical uprights each topped by a fleur-de-lis.
Reverse: + (ROGI)ER : ON : (C)A(NT) surrounding short cross potent within beaded circle, small cross potents in each quarter. Moneyer: Rogier, cognate with the modern English name of Roger. Mintmark: Cross potent.
Uncommonly clear Class A bust
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 4
Flan chipped and cracked
SPINK: 1337

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' coinage was introduced in England which was of sufficient importance for the contemporary chroniclers to record that 'a new money was made, which was the sole currency of the kingdom.' While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. In fact the 'Tealby' coinage is among the worst struck of any issue of English regal coinage, so much so that collectors consider it something of a bonus if they are able to make out the name of the moneyer, or the mint, from the letters showing.
The cross and crosslet type coinage of King Henry II is more often called 'Tealby' because of the enormous hoard of these coins which was found in late 1807 at Bayons Manor farm near Tealby in Lincolnshire. This hoard, which originally amounted to over 5,700 pieces, was first reported in the Stamford Mercury of the 6th November 1807, but unfortunately the majority of the coins, more than 5,000 of them, were sent to be melted at the Tower of London and only some 600 pieces were saved for national and important private collections.
A total of 30 mints were employed in the initial 'Tealby' recoinage, however once the recoinage was completed only 12 mints were permitted to remain active and this marks the beginning of the gradual decline in the number of mints which were used to strike English coins.
The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when a new style coin of much better workmanship, the short-cross penny, was introduced.
2 comments*Alex
rjb_all_117cf_07_05.jpg
117cf35 viewsAllectus 293-6
Antoninianus
IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
Radiate and cuirassed bust right
TEMPORVM FELI
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopia
Camulodunum Mint
S/P//C
RIC - (cf 117)
mauseus
King_John_AR_Penny.JPG
1199 – 1216, John, AR Short cross penny, Struck 1205 - 1216 at Winchester, England22 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer: Andrev, cognate with the modern English name of Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*Alex
Edward_I_AR_Penny_Berwick.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1296 - 1306 at Berwick-on-Tweed, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: VILLA BEREVVICI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, Class 10 Berwick Type II (Local dies). Issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 21.5mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 1415

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

In September 1290, upon the death of Margaret, Maid of Norway, there arose a number of claimants to the throne of Scotland. The Guardians of Scotland, who were the de facto heads of state until a king was chosen, asked Edward I of England to conduct the court proceedings in the dispute because the late King Alexander III had been married to Edward's sister, Margaret of England.
John Balliol, a descendant of King David I, was chosen and he was inaugurated at Scone, on St. Andrew's Day, 30 November 1292. But Edward I treated both Baliol and Scotland with contempt and demanded military support for his war against France. The Scottish response was to form an alliance with the French, invade England, and launch an attack on Carlisle.
After the failure of the Scottish attack on Carlisle, Edward I marched north and, on 28th March 1296, he crossed the river Tweed which borders the two countries, with his troops. On the following day he marched on the town of Berwick, which was Scotland's most important trading port and second only to London in economic importance in medieval Britain at that time.
Contemporary accounts of the number slain range anywhere from 4,000 to 20,000. ”When the town had been taken in this way and its citizens had submitted, Edward spared no one, whatever the age or sex, and for two days streams of blood flowed from the bodies of the slain, for in his tyrannous rage he ordered 7,500 souls of both sexes to be massacred...So that mills could be turned by the flow of their blood.” - Account of the Massacre of Berwick, from Bower’s Scotichronicon.
Berwick's garrison was commanded by William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, whose life and those of his garrison were spared after he surrendered and the English took the castle.
Berwick was recaptured by the Scots in 1318 but the town changed hands between the two countries several times during the following years until it was finally captured for the English by Richard, Duke of Gloucester, the future Richard III of England, in 1482. The Scots however, did not accept this conquest for at least two centuries after this date as is evidenced by innumerable charters.
2 comments*Alex
RI_130z_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 064 var. Bust Type C (Delta in left field | A in right field)23 viewsObv:– IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (Delta in left field | A in right field)
References:– Cohen 143, Bastien 84 (11 examples), RIC 64 var. Bust Type C (not listed with these field marks in RIC)
Martin Griffiths
RI_130g_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 065 (A in left field | * in right field)13 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (A in left field| * in right field), Emission 7, Officina 1, from May to June A.D. 276
References:– Cohen 144, Bastien 93, RIC 65 Bust Type C
Martin Griffiths
RI 130i img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 065 (A in left field | A in right field)35 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (A in left field | A in right field), Emission 5, Officina 1, from March to April A.D. 286
References:– Cohen 144, RIC 65 Bust type C
maridvnvm
RI 130am img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 065 (A in left field | A in right field) – 16 views18 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (A in left field | A in right field), Emission 5, Officina 1, from March to April A.D. 286
References:– Cohen 144, RIC 65 Bust type C
maridvnvm
RI_130q_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 065 (D in left field | * in right field)14 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (Delta in left field | * in right field)
References:– Cohen 144, Bastien 109, RIC 65 Bust Type C
Martin Griffiths
RI 130y img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 065 (D in left field | A in right field)29 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (Delta in left field | A in right field)
References:– Cohen 144, RIC 65 Bust Type C
maridvnvm
RI_130aa_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 065 (D in left field | A in right field)12 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (Delta in left field | A in right field)
References:– Cohen 144, RIC 65 Bust Type C. Bastien 85
Martin Griffiths
RI_130v_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 065 var (* in left field | A in right field)12 viewsObv:– IMP CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (* in left field | A in right field)
References:– Cohen 144, Bastien 94 (1 example), RIC 65 var. Bust Type C, not listed with this combination of field marks in RIC
Martin Griffiths
RI_131f_img.jpg
131 - Florian Antoninianus - RIC V part II Lugdunum 011 var Bust Type C 24 viewsObv:– IMP C M AN FLORIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (No marks) Emission 1. Start August A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 11 var Bust type C (Not listed without marke in RIC). Cohen 88 (note Cohen lists as Radiate, draped in error). Bastien 124 (12 examples cited)
Martin Griffiths
RI 131j img.jpg
131 - Florian Antoninianus - RIC V part II Lugdunum 012 Bust Type C13 viewsObv:– IMP C M AN FLORIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (//I) Emission 3 Officina 1. August A.D. 276
Reference:– Cohen 89. Bastien 146. RIC 12 Bust type C
maridvnvm
RI_132al_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 052 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)15 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 3, Officina 1. Early A.D. 277
Reference:– Cohen 729, Bastien 176. RIC 52 Bust type F

3.06 gms
23.01mm
maridvnvm
RI_132py_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 052 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)15 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 3, Officina 1. Early A.D. 277
Reference:– Cohen 729, Bastien 176. RIC 52 Bust type F

3.34 gms
maridvnvm
RI_132ah_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 053 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)12 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 4, Officina 1. Mid to Late 277 A.D.
Reference:– Cohen 728, Bastien 186. RIC 53 Bust type F

2.92gms
22.37mm
maridvnvm
RI_132ba_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 053 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)9 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 4, Officina 1. Mid to Late 277 A.D.
Reference:– Cohen 728, Bastien 187. RIC 53 Bust type F

2.92gms
21.87mm
maridvnvm
RI_132tz_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 103 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)11 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Mint – Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 6 Officina 1. A.D.278 to A.D. 279
Reference:– Bastien 266. RIC 103 Bust type F

3.79 gms
maridvnvm
RI_132tq_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 103 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)15 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Mint – Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 6 Officina 1. A.D.278 to A.D. 279
Reference:– Bastien 266. RIC 103 Bust type F

3.80 gms
maridvnvm
RI_132ym_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 103 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)1 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Mint – Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 6 Officina 1. A.D.278 to A.D. 279
Reference:– Bastien 266. RIC 103 Bust type F

?.? gms
maridvnvm
RI_132vc_img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 104 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)20 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Mint – Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 6 Officina 1. A.D.278 to A.D. 279
Reference:– Cohen 713. Bastien 269. RIC 104 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI_132of_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 104 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I) 8 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Mint – Lugdunum (I in exe). Emission 4 Officina 1. Mid to Late A.D.277
Reference:– Cohen 713. Bastien 188. RIC 104 Bust type F

3.80 gms
maridvnvm
RI_132ei_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 104 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)12 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Mint – Lugdunum (I in exe). Emission 4 Officina 1. Mid to Late A.D.277
Reference:– Cohen 713. Bastien 188. RIC 104 Bust type F.
It is likely that this patina is artificial.

3.94 gms
maridvnvm
RI_132ad_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 104 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (I)26 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (I) Emission 6 Officina 1. A.D. 278 - 279
Reference(s) – Cohen 713. Bastien 269. RIC 104 Bust type F (C)

4.60 gms
maridvnvm
RI_132wc_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 106 38 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (shield decorate with Medusa)
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (I) Emission 5, Officina 1. End A.D. 277 – Early A.D. 278
Reference:– Bastien 211 (6 examples cited). RIC 106.

3.96 gms

A coin with some obvious problems but it is a rare variety and one that I am more than happy with. This is the first example of this bust type that I have managed to obtain for Probus from Lugdunum.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132xr_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 106 (Lugdunum) (I)15 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from back
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (//I) Emission 5 Officina 1. End A. D. 277 to Early A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 106. Cohen -, Bastien 210 (11 ex.)

3.97 gms
maridvnvm
RI_132wb_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 106 - Bust Type G (Lugdunum) (I)41 viewsAntonianus
Obv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (I) Emission 5, Officina 1. End A.D. 277 – Early A.D. 278
Reference:– Bastien 209 (11 examples cited). RIC 106 Bust Type G.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132ha_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 106 - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from back (Lugdunum) (I)19 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from back
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICI, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (I in exe) Emission 5, Officina 1. End A.D. 277 to Early A.D. 278
Reference:– Cohen 725. Bastien 212. RIC 106 Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from back

3.92 gms
maridvnvm
RI_132ex_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 107 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (II)12 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (II in exe) Emission 8 Officina 2. Autumn to Late A.D. 281
Reference:– Cohen 727. Bastien 350. RIC 107 Bust type F

Weight 4.34g. 22.45mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132fd_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 107 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (II)7 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (II in exe) Emission 8 Officina 2. Autumn to Late A.D. 281
Reference:– Cohen 727. Bastien 350. RIC 107 Bust type F

Weight 3.83g. 24.08mm. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132pf_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 108 - (Lugdunum) (II)12 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust left with spear over right shoulder
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (II in exe) Emission 8 Officina 2. Autumn to Late A.D. 281
Reference:– Cohen -. Bastien -. RIC 108 (Rare)
Obverse die match to the plate coin in RIC

Weight 3.81g. 22.50mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_132nm_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 109 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (II)9 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (II in exe) Emission 8 Officina 2. Autumn to Late A.D. 281
Reference:– Cohen 726. Bastien 353 (6 examples). RIC 109 Bust Type F

It would appear to be significantly scarcer than RIC would indicate.

Weight 3.56g. 22.30mm. 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI 132bs img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 129 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (B in left field)24 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in left field) Emission 9, Officina 2. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 727. Bastien 386. RIC 129 Bust type F
Weight 4.60 gms
Size 23.04mm
maridvnvm
RI 132bv img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 129 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (B in left field)34 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in left field) Emission 9, Officina 2. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 727. Bastien 386. RIC 129 Bust type F
Weight 2.94 gms
Size 21.73mm


maridvnvm
RI 132es img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 129 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (B in right field)30 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in right field) Emission 9, Officina 2. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 727. Bastien 397. RIC 129 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI 132df img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 129 var - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (B in exe)42 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe) Emission 9, Officina 1. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 727. Bastien 439. RIC 129 var. Bust type F

This is the ONLY coin from emission 9 to have the Officina mark in exe rather than in the left or right fields.
maridvnvm
RI_132df_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 129 var - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (B in exe)19 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– TEMPOR FELICIT, Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe) Emission 9, Officina 1. January to August A.D. 282
Reference:– Cohen 727. Bastien 439. RIC 129 var. Bust type F

3.34 gms

This is the ONLY coin from emission 9 to have the Officina mark in exe rather than in the left or right fields.
maridvnvm
antpius sest-.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE sestertius - struck 149 AD34 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII (laureate bust right)
rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS, COS IIII in exergue, S C across field (crossed cornucopiae from which a grape bunch flanked by two grain ears hang, surmounted by busts of two boys, vis-á -vis)
ref: RIC III 857, Cohen 813 (8frcs), BMC 1825note
23.14gms, 30mm,
Rare

The infants are thought to represent T. Aelius Antoninus and T. Aurelius Antoninus, the twin sons of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior born in 149 AD. These were the first male offspring of the couple, offering hope for the establishment of the new dynasty, but both died in infancy.
The coin is before cleaning.
berserker
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
13594p00.jpg
1502c, Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. (Cyzikus)53 viewsBronze AE 3, S 4118, 2.42g, 16.5mm, 180o,Cyzikus, F/F, obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SMK L(?) in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility was destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Valens.jpg
1502h, Valens, 364-378 A.D. (Heraclea)47 viewsValens, 364-378 A.D., Heraclea mint, VF, Chi-Rho standard reverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility had been destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
1553_-_1554_Mary_I_Tudor_AR_Groat.JPG
1553 - 1558, Mary I Tudor, AR Groat, Struck 1553 - 1554 at London, England2 viewsObverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI. Crowned bust of Mary I, wearing pearl necklace with pendant, facing left. Mintmark in legend after MARIA, pomegranate.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA. Long cross fourchée over quartered royal arms. Mintmark in legend after VERITAS, pomegranate.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 1.7gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2492

Although this coin is undated, Mary married Philip of Spain on the 25th of July, 1554 and thereafter his name appears along with Mary's in the inscriptions on the coinage. Mary only came to the throne on 1st October 1553 and, since Philip's name is absent on this coin, it would appear that it was struck during the ten months of her reign prior to her marriage.
*Alex
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932042 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
439Hadrian_RIC19.jpg
19 ANONYMOUS. Period of Domitian to Antoninus Pius, Quadrans Circa 81-161 AD Mars31 viewsReference.
RIC 19 (pag. 218); Cohen 26; Weigel 10

Obv.
Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Mars right

Rev. S-C
Cuirass.

2.41 gr
18 mm
12h

Note from CNG.
Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the names of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Some scholars believe these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function, much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. Whatever the circumstances, these pieces saw limited use, and, except for one rare type struck by Marcus Aurelius, were not issued at any other period.
2 commentsokidoki
rjb_2016_11_07.jpg
1939 viewsDidia Clara
AE sestertius
Obv "DIDIA CLA[RA AVG]"
Draped bust right
Rev "HILAR TEMPOR SC"
Hilaritas standing, head left, holding palm branch and cornucopia
Rome mint
RIC 20
mauseus
193_Pertinax_As_RIC_33_1.jpg
193_Pertinax_As_RIC_33_115 viewsPertinax (January 1st – March 28th 193 AD)
AE As, Rome, January 1st – March 28th 193 AD
IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG;
Laureate head right
LAETITIA TEMPORVM COS II, S-C;
Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and sceptre
9,43 gr, 24 mm
RIC IVa, 33; BMC V, 34 (Pl. 2, 8); C. 22; CMB I, 4
ga77
geta den-.jpg
198 AD - GETA Caesar denarius 23 viewsobv: L.SEPTIMIVS.GETA.CAES
rev: FELICITAS.TEMPOR (Felicitas standing left left, holding cauduceus & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC2, C.44
mint: Laodicea ad Mare
3.12gms
berserker
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199 Elagabalus 43 viewsElagabalus Denarius. IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left with caduceus & cornucopiae. RIC 150, RSC 282, BMC 168
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
VespDenSalus.jpg
1aw Vespasian44 views69-79

Denarius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN
Salus seated left with patera, SALVS AVG

RIC 513 (C2)

Suetonius wrote: The Flavians seized power, and the Empire, long troubled and adrift, afflicted by the usurpations and deaths of three emperors, at last achieved stability. True they were an obscure family, with no great names to boast of, yet one our country has no need to be ashamed of. . . . Vespasian was born in the Sabine country, in the little village of Falacrinae just beyond Reate (Rieti), on the 17th of November 9 AD in the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus, five years before the death of Augustus. He was raised by his paternal grandmother Tertulla on her estate at Cosa. . . .

Under Claudius, he was sent to Germany (in 41 AD) to command a legion, thanks to the influence of Narcissus. From there he was posted to Britain (in 43 AD), where partly under the leadership of Aulus Plautius and partly that of Claudius himself, he fought thirty times, subjugating two powerful tribes, more than twenty strongholds, and the offshore island of Vectis (the Isle of Wight). This earned him triumphal regalia, and a little later two priesthoods and the consulship (in 51 AD) which he held for the last two months of the year. . . . He won, by lot, the governorship of Africa (in 63 AD), ruling it soundly and with considerable dignity. . . .

An ancient and well-established belief became widespread in the East that the ruler of the world at this time would arise from Judaea. This prophecy as events proved referred to the future Emperor of Rome, but was taken by the Jews to apply to them. They rebelled, killed their governor, and routed the consular ruler of Syria also, when he arrived to restore order, capturing an Eagle. To crush the rebels needed a considerable force under an enterprising leader, who would nevertheless not abuse power. Vespasian was chosen, as a man of proven vigour, from whom little need be feared, since his name and origins were quite obscure. Two legions with eight divisions of cavalry and ten cohorts of auxiliaries were added to the army in Judaea, and Vespasian took his elder son, Titus, along as one of his lieutenants. . . .

Yet Vespasian made no move, though his follower were ready and eager, until he was roused to action by the fortuitous support of a group of soldiers unknown to him, and based elsewhere. Two thousand men, of the three legions in Moesia reinforcing Otho’s forces, despite hearing on the march that he had been defeated and had committed suicide, had continued on to Aquileia, and there taken advantage of the temporary chaos to plunder at will. Fearing that if they returned they would be held to account and punished, they decided to choose and appoint an emperor of their own, on the basis that they were every bit as worthy of doing so as the Spanish legions who had appointed Galba, or the Praetorian Guard which had elected Otho, or the German army which had chosen Vitellius. They went through the list of serving consular governors, rejecting them for one reason or another, until in the end they unanimously adopted Vespasian, who was recommended strongly by some members of the Third Legion, which had been transferred to Moesia from Syria immediately prior to Nero’s death. . . .

Vespasian, an unheralded and newly-forged emperor, as yet lacked even a modicum of prestige and divine majesty, but this too he acquired. . . . Returning to Rome (in 70 AD) attended by such auspices, having won great renown, and after a triumph awarded for the Jewish War, he added eight consulships (AD 70-72, 74-77, 79) to his former one, and assumed the censorship. He first considered it essential to strengthen the State, which was unstable and well nigh fatally weakened, and then to enhance its role further during his reign. . . .
2 commentsBlindado
2014-054-9_ProbusTemporumFelicitas-Forum.jpg
2014.054.912 viewsLugdunum (Lyon), 4.41 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right.
Reverse: TEMPORVM FELICITAS; I in exergue; Felicitas in a long gown, standing facing, head right; caduceus in right; cornucopia in left.
Ref: RIC 52; Bastien 176.
gordian_guy
RIC_0086.jpg
203. MACRINUS191 viewsMACRINUS. 217-218 AD.

Caracalla's mother, Julia Domna, had toyed with the idea of raising a rebellion against Macrinus shortly after her son's murder, but the empress was uncertain of success and already suffering from breast cancer. She chose to starve herself to death instead.

The grandchildren of her sister, Julia Maesa, would become the focus of the successful uprising that began on 15 May 218. Her 14-year-old grandson Avitus (known to history as Elagabalus) was proclaimed emperor by one the legions camped near the family's hometown of Emesa. Other troops quickly joined the rebellion, but Macrinus marshalled loyal soldiers to crush the revolt. Macrinus also promoted his son to the rank of emperor.

The forces met in a village outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Despite the inexperience of the leaders of the rebel army, Macrinus was defeated. He sent his son, Diadumenianus, with an ambassador to the Parthian king, while Macrinus himself prepared to flee to Rome. Macrinus traveled across Asia Minor disguised as a courier and nearly made it to Europe, but he was captured in Chalcedon. Macrinus was transported to Cappadocia, where he was executed. Diadumenianus had also been captured (at Zeugma) and was similarly put to death.

Contemporaries tended to portray Macrinus as a fear-driven parvenu who was able to make himself emperor but was incapable of the leadership required by the job. An able administrator, Macrinus lacked the aristocratic connections and personal bravado that might have won him legitimacy. His short reign represented a brief interlude of Parthian success during what would prove the final decade of the Parthian empire.

AR Denarius (18mm 3.55 gm). IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust with short beard right / SALVS PVBLICA, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar, holding sceptre in left. RIC IV 86; Good VF; Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
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204. Elagabalus29 viewsElagabalus was and is one of the most controversial Roman emperors. During his reign he showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos. Elagabalus' name is a Latinized form of the Semitic deity El-Gabal, a manifestation of the Semitic deity Ēl. He replaced Jupiter, head of the Roman pantheon, with a new god, Deus Sol Invictus, which in Latin means "the Sun, God Unconquered". Elagabalus forced leading members of Rome's government to participate in religious rites celebrating Sol invictus which he personally led.

He also took a Vestal Virgin as one of a succession of wives and openly boasted that his sexual interest in men was more than just a casual pastime, as it had been for previous emperors.

Elagabalus developed a reputation among his contemporaries for eccentricity, decadence, and zealotry which was likely exaggerated by his successors. This black propaganda was passed on and as such he was one of the most reviled Roman emperors to early Christian historians and later became a hero to the Decadent movement of the late 19th century.

Elagabalus Denarius. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, and draped bust right / PM TR P IIII COS III P P, Elagabalus standing left sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar & holding branch, star left. RIC 46, RSC 196
ecoli
rjb_mac1_05_06.jpg
21720 viewsMacrinus 217-8 AD
AR antoninianus
Obv "IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG"
Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev "FELICITAS TEMPORVM"
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and sceptre
Rome mint
RIC 63
mauseus
picinus niger 1.jpg
22 Pescennius Niger94 viewsDenarius. Antioch mint. IMP CAES C PESC [NIGERIV]S AVG COS II, laureate head right / FELICITAS TEMPOR, crossed cornuacopiae. RIC 15 VAR. Weight 2.95 gm. Die axis 5 hr. Max Dia 17.2 mm.2 commentsmix_val
MacrinusBlack.jpg
24 Macrinus RIC 9169 viewsMACRINUS 217-218 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. August 217 AD. (3.5g, 19mm) Obv: IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, Laureate and cuirassed bust right. Rev: SECVRITAS TEMPORVM, Securitas standing left, leaning on short column, holding sceptre.
RIC 91; RSC 122b

Ex: G&N
4 commentsPaddy
macrianus 1.jpg
26 Macrinus62 viewsDenarius. IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate bust right / FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left holding long caduceus & cornucopiae. RIC 56, RSC 8a, BMC 60. Weight 3.31 g. Die axis 6 hr. Max Dia 18.9

2 commentsmix_val
Elagabalus.jpg
28 Elagabalus65 viewsAntoninianus. 219 AD. IMP ANTONINVS AVG, radiate draped bust right / TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left with long caduceus and cornucopiae. RIC 149, RSC 280, BMC 166. Weight 5.4 g. Die axis 12 hr. Max dia 24.1 mmmix_val
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301. Maximinus37 viewsMaximinus Thrax

The first of the "soldier-emperors," Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus spent all three years of his reign on campaign. Although Rome's senatorial elite was eventually able to bring about the downfall of this non-aristocratic emperor, the victory was only a temporary check on the rising importance of the military in the third century. The historical tradition has been universally unkind to Maximinus. His arrival on the throne was similar to that of Macrinus, the only previous emperor who had not been a member of the senatorial class at the time of his accession. Yet unlike Macrinus, Maximinus was a career soldier from a backwards province who had little or no formal education. Maximinus came to be described as a ruthless, semi-barbarian tyrant, and by late antiquity he was regularly referred to with the ethnic epithet Thrax, "the Thracian."

Denarius. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory running right. RIC 16, RSC 99
ecoli
coin239.JPG
305. Trajan Decius32 viewsTrajan Decius

Decius' reign was not well-suited to the demands of a rapidly changing empire.[[45]] Conservatism may have been popular among a certain portion of the Roman elite, but the old aristocracy's power and influence all but disappeared in the third century. Decius clearly had a broader vision of what he wanted to accomplish in his reign than many of his contemporaries, and certainly he was vigorous, but he was also a man who was not sufficiently flexible when the moment called for it. His religious policy caused major disruptions in Rome and; in contrast to some of the other barracks emperors, Decius proved himself less than apt when dealing with Rome's Germanic foes. His death may have been heroic, but it was unnecessary and unsuccessful.

AR Antoninianus. IMP CMQ TRAIANUS DECIUS AUG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right /PANNONIAE, the two Pannoniae standing front with standards. RIC 21b, RSC 86
ecoli
3210034.jpg
324-323 BC, Alexander the great, AR Didrachm 18mm 8.18 g 3h91 viewsBabylon mint,head of Herakles right,wearing lion skin.Rev Zeus Aetophoros seated left,M in left field,.Struck under Stamenes or Archon circa 324/3 BC very rare.
From the last issue of Alexanders lifetime coinage in the city where he died,contemporary with his dekadrachm issue.
1 commentsGrant H
RIC_10_Denario_DIDIA_CLARA_Foro.jpg
42 - 02 - Didia Clara (Augusta 28/03 a 01/06/193 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario
18 mm - 2.46 gr. - 6 hs.

Anv: DIDIA CLA-RA AVG, Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: HILA-R - T-EMPOR, Hilaritas estante de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando larga hoja de palma en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Hija de Didio Juliano, Emperador que asumió su cargo luego de haberlo ganado en una subasta organizada por la guardia Pretoriana, y que solo gobernó por 66 días.

Acuńada: Mayo-Junio 193 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias Bilbliográficas: RIC IV #10D (R4) Pag.16, Plate I #19 - Seaby RSC #3 Pag.4 - BMCRE #14ss Pag.14 - Cohen III #3 Pag.403 - Sear RCTV II # 6086 Pag.435 - Vagi #1680 - Hunter #1 Pag.6 - DVM #2 Pag.174 - Salgado MRDS II/1 #4042 Pag.71
mdelvalle
coin203.JPG
508. Julian II33 viewsJulian II, the Apostate. 361-363 AD.

...Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.

28mm (8.57 gm). Siscia mint. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Bull standing right, two stars above; ASISC. RIC VIII 419; LRBC--. VF. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli
s49.JPG
516. Honorius45 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
ecoli
65-Mary-Tudor.jpg
65. Mary Tudor.14 viewsGroat, 1553-1554; London mint.
Obverse: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI / Crowned bust, left.
Reverse: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA / Royal shield over cross.
Mint mark: pomagranate after first word on both sides.
2.13 gm., 24 mm.
North #1960; Seaby #2492.
Callimachus
Antoniniano Gordiano III RIC 141.jpg
69-19 - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)34 viewsAR Antoniniano 22 x 23 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL [AVG]" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FELICIT TEMPOR" - Felicitas de pié a izquierda, portando caduceo en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuńada 13ava. Emisión En./Feb. 244 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #141 Pag.30 - Cohen Vol.V #72 Pag.28 - RSC Vol. IV #72 Pag.3 - DVM #8 Pag.223
mdelvalle
RIC_141_Antoniniano_Gordiano_III.jpg
69-19 - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)25 viewsAR Antoniniano 22 x 23 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL [AVG]" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FELICIT TEMPOR" - Felicitas de pié a izquierda, portando caduceo en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuńada 13ava. Emisión En./Feb. 244 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #141 Pag.30, Sear RCTV III #8607 P.118, Cohen Vol.V #72 Pag.28, Hunter #48, RSC Vol. IV #72 Pag.3, DVM #8 Pag.223
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 192.jpg
94-10 - CLAUDIO GĂ“TICO (268 - 270 D.C.)52 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 x 17 mm 2.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP CLAVDIVS AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TEMPORVM FELI" - Felicitas (La Felicidad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un largo Caduceo en mano derecha y una cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuńada 4ta. Emisión finales 269 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #192 Pag.227 - Cohen Vol.VI #285 Pag.158 - Alföldi4 /34
mdelvalle
RIC_192_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-12 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)7 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 x 17 mm 2.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP CLAVDIVS AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TEMPORVM FELI" - Felicitas (La Felicidad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un largo Caduceo en mano derecha y una cornucopia en izquierda.

Acuńada 4ta. Emisión finales 269 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia

Referencias: RIC Va #192 (C) P.227, Cohen VI #285 P.158, Alföldi 4 /34, Sear RCTV III #11375 P.404, Hunter pl.lxxxii
mdelvalle
Gallienus_32.jpg
A33 viewsGallienus Antoninianus

Attribution: RIC 207k
Date: AD 267-268
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG; radiate bust r.
Reverse: IOVICONS AVG; goat stg. l.; stigma in exergue
Size: 17 mm
Weight: 2.5 grams

Gallienus’ coinage is perhaps best know by the issuance of his Zoo series. Each coin type depicts a mythical or real animal on the reverse as a dedication to a specific Roman deity: Diana (doe, stag, antelope/gazelle), Apollo (centaur, gryphon), Sol (Pegasus/winged horse, bull), Jupiter (goat), Liber Pater (panther/tigress), Neptune (capricorn, hippocamp), Juno (doe/elk/capreolus), Mercury (hippocamp/criocamp), Hercules (lion, boar).

“The vast majority of Zoo coins were produced at the mint of Rome, with a few rare examples coming from Siscia. Each officina produced a different coin within the series, with some producing a second, less common type also. Occasionally you'll find an animal with the "wrong" officina mark. These are fascinating, and the rarity leads us to believe that they represented mistakes, perhaps when a die engraver was transferred from one workshop to another. He gets the right animal, but the wrong officina. Or maybe one workshop was falling behind, so another was temporarily enlisted to help catch up on the quota?” – from Jim’s page on Coins of Gallienus' Zoo at http://www.ruark.org/coins/Zoo/#ZooLinks
Noah
kymeNero.jpg
aa Aeolis, Kyme. AE19. Magistrate Sekoynda50 viewsO: Hd Amazon Kyme r.
R: Horse stepping r., KY above, EPI PR SEKOYNDAS around.
SNG Cop 116. RPC 1.2432

FORVM post from Curtis Clay:
The CEKOYNDAC issue "was attributed by BMC to the reign of Nero, because of the similarity of the reverse type with 2435 [a coin of Nero at Cyme with rev. unbridled trotting horse]. There are, however, differences of style, detail (bridled versus unbridled horse), technique (the die axis), metal (brass rather than bronze) and ethnic (only the abbreviated KY), which suggest that the issue cannot be exactly contemporaneous. Similar types were used on Hellenistic bronzes, so it does not seem clear when this issue was made, perhaps in either first century BC or the early first century AD."
ancientone
AE_drachm_of_Rupa_Chandra_II_(second_half_of_the_14th_century),_Kangra_Kingdom.jpg
AE drachm of Rupa Chandra II (second half of the 14th century), Kangra Kingdom 88 views1295 Stylized horseman right, Sri above (not visible) / Stylized bull, inscriptions above ("Sri Rupa"), only partially visible, as always. Scarce. Much nicer than these usually are. 14mm, 3.6 grams. "The Catalogue of Katoch rulers of Kangra"#335 or similar.

Rupa Chandra II is known to have been a contemporary of the Sultan of Delhi Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351-1388 AD). The exact dates of the reign of Rupa Chandra II are not known.
Kangra is a district is in the western part of Himachal Pradesh, in the low foothills of the Himalayas. It was the place of an ancient Hindu Kangra Kingdom. The kings of Kangra are almost unknown in history, their existence was shadowy and the dating of their reigns is tentative.Their coins are fairly scarce, not well-studied and difficult to find.
Antonio Protti
Faustina_II_61.jpg
AE Sestertius, RIC 3, p.347, 1673 - Faustina II, children14 viewsFaustina II
Sestertius, AD 161-175
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right.
Rev.: TEMPOR FELIC, Faustina standing left, holding two infants, between four girls at her feet. In field, S – C.
AE, 28.05g, 33.4 mm
Ref.: RIC 1673
Ex Forvm Ancient Coins Shop
shanxi
Hendin1240web.jpg
Agrippa I170 viewsAgrippa I. 37-44 AD. AE 23, 11.45g. Caesarea Paneas Mint, Year 5, 40/1 AD.
O: [ΓΑΙΩ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΙ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΩ ΓΕΡΜΑΝΙΚΩ] (For Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus), Laureate head of Caligula left.
R: [ΝΟΜΙΣΜΑ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΓΡΙΠΠΑ] (coin of King Agrippa). LE (Year 5=40/41) in exergue; Germanicus stands in triumphal quadriga in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, car decorated with Nike standing right.
- Hendin 1240. TJC 230-1,116. AJC II 2. RPC 4976.

One of the rarest coin types of Agrippa I (26 listed?).

The grandson of Herod I, Agrippa I, so-named in honor of the victor of Actium, spent much of his youth in the Roman imperial court. Popular with the imperial family, including the emperor Tiberius, Agrippa passed much of his time in the home of Antonia Minor, the mother of Germanicus and the future emperor Claudius.

There, the boys became great friends, and as an older man, Agrippa became attached to the future emperor Gaius, being appointed governor of the territories of Batanaea and Trachonitis upon Gaius’ accession. Unfortunately contemporary politics placed a significant strain on the relationship between the king and Rome.

In AD 39 Agrippa’s uncle, Antipas, was accused of plotting with the Parthians and was exiled. Agrippa’s loyalty gained him his uncle’s forfeited territories. In AD 40 renewed riots between Greeks and Jews broke out in Alexandria, and Gaius, clearly unhappy with his Jewish subjects, provocatively ordered the installation of a statue of himself within the Holy of Holies in Jerusalem.

Agrippa, who had been unsuccessfully involved in trying to quell similar riots in Alexandria before, sought to emphasize his loyalty to local Roman officials by striking coinage which commemorated his long-standing friendship with Gaius and, especially, Germanicus.

Based on the dupondii struck in honor of the emperor’s father Germanicus, this coin includes the great general riding in his triumphal car in honor of his recovery of the standards lost by Varus, rather than portraying Agrippa himself, an identification emphasized by the specific inclusion of the word NOMISMA (Coin) in the legend.

By avoiding self promotion, Agrippa hoped to successfully navigate the treacherous waters which might result in his own removal from power.
4 commentsNemonater
AG-Macedon,_Alexander_III-3.jpg
Alexander III of Macedon, 336-323 BC - Signed Die9 viewsAR Drachm (16mm, 4.26 g)
Grade Ch VF*; Strike 5/5; Surface 4/5: Price 2090A
Obv.: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion skin headdress, K on skin behind ear
Rev.: AΛEΞANΔPOY, Zeus seated left, holding scepter and eagle; monogram in left field.
This drachm is a lifetime issue from Miletos, circa 325-323 BC. It is signed by the artist who placed a "K" on the lion skin headdress behind Alexander's ear. Extremely Rare. Only two specimens noted in ADM I (both in the ANS collection) and three specimens shown in acsearch.

This issue (Price 2090A) and an equally rare contemporary issue at Magnesia ad Maeandrum are the only two instances of signed dies struck for Alexander.

Because this coin is so rare you can actually follow it from auction to auction and for at least the last three times it sold it got cheaper each time. I may have to pay to sell it the next time :>)
Richard M10
alexamphipolis.jpg
Alexander the Great AR Tetradrachm 325-320 BC21 viewsOBVERSE: Head of Herakles clad in the skin of the Nemean lion
REVERSE: Zeus Aeotophoros enthroned left, ALEXANDROY in right field, Cornucopia in left field.

This classic type was probably minted at Amphipolis in Macedon at or near the end of Alexander's brief reign (333-323BC). The lion was the symbol of Persia and the obverse likely represents his conquest of that Empire. The Figure of Zeus enthroned is almost the same as that of Baal on the silver shekels of the Persian satraps. The significance of the conquest of the East by Greeks was not lost on Alexander or his contemporaries
Price 104 (ref.Wildwinds) Weight 17.1 gm
1 commentsdaverino
Alexander_AE21_6_4g.jpg
Alexander the Great, AE21, contemporary imitation61 views21mm, 6.4g, cast
obv: head of Herakles, wearing lion-skin headdress, right
rev: AΛEΖANΔP[OY]; bow and quiver above, club below
1 commentsareich
1205~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 076.15814 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: SOLI INVICTO
BUST TYPE: A2 = Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIVII
WEIGHT 3.53g / AXIS: h / WIDTH:23mm
MINT: SISCIA
RIC: 767
ALFOLDI 076.158
COLLECTION NO. 1205
Note: This coin was struck in the 7th workshop which opened in 280 A.D. and was operated by an engraver who came from Serdica. The style of the emperor's portrait and the lettering is clearly that of Serdica. The mint at Serdica temporarily closed in 280 A.D. and its scalptores went to open the 7th workshop at Siscia and the 9th workshop at Antioch - see S. Estiot, L’Empereur et l’usurpateur: un 4e atelier oriental sous Probus"; 2015, p. 264-265.
Barnaba6
A-024.jpg
Allectus antoninianus, Felicitas reverse, C mint11 viewsIMP C ALLECTVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
TEMPORVM FELICI / S P / C
Felicitas standing left, holding long caduceus & sceptre
C mint

Burnett: 191
Ice
PIUS_BI__TETRA.png
ANTONINUS PIUS / SERAPIS , Alexandria BILLION TETRADRACHM40 viewsMINTED IN ALEXANDRIA , EGYPT FROM 138 - 161 AD
OBVERSE : ANTwNINO C CEBEUC CEB Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
REVERSE : Draped bust of Serapis right,modius on head. L K
References : SNG Cop 426 ( No, L K ?)

22.2 MM AND 13.15 GRAMS.

Alexandria ( of Egypt ) issued billon tetradrachms in large numbers between the reign of Augustus and the closing of the Alexandrian mint during the reign of Diocletian. These coins were no doubt mainly intended to pay the salaries of government officials, of the permanent garrison, and of the temporary troops stationed in Alexandria for purposes of war. They were probably also the form in which taxes in money were received, and were used for trade among the people within the city of Alexandria and other Graeco-Roman cities in Egypt. They also served the purpose of providing a subsidiary coinage with Greek legends which formed the vehicle for Roman imperial propaganda throughout Egypt. On the reverse of these coins were placed the Egyptian Hellenized deities, as an indication of the goodwill of the Roman emperors towards Egypt.
The greater part of the agricultural population of Egypt had scarcely any need for coins except to pay their taxes. The real currency and measure of value in the agricultural settlements was grain, wine or oil. The chief export of Egypt was grain, and this did not bring much money to the cultivators, for most of the grain was collected as tribute, not in trade, and they got nothing in return. Consequently, there is reason to suppose that considerably fewer coins circulated in Egypt generally than the region of Alexandria.
From the reign of Nero onwards, Egypt enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. Much trouble was caused by religious conflicts between the Greeks and the Jews, particularly in Alexandria, which after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD become the world centre of Jewish religion and culture. Under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Egypt, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous. From his reign onwards buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Under Marcus Aurelius, however, oppressive taxation led to a revolt (139 AD) of the native Egyptians, which was suppressed only after several years of fighting.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
antonisu_pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius Denarius Contemporary Imitation55 viewsAntoninus Pius Denarius. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right / COS IIII, Annona standing left, holding two corn ears and resting left hand on modius, filled with corn ears, set on prow. RSC 291. Great Portrait for imitation.tiberiusjulius
AntoSe27-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 857, Sestertius of AD 149 (Temporum Felicitas) 59 viewsĆ Sestertius (25.4g, Ř33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 149.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPORVM FELICITAS (around) COS IIII (below) S C (in field), Busts of infants on crossed cornucopiae.
RIC 857(S); BMC 1827; Cohen 813; Strack 1026; Banti 410 (23 spec.); RHC 130:70

Issued to commemorate the birth of the Antoninus Pius' grand children Lucilla and T.Aurelius Antoninus, twins to Marcus Aurelius and Faustina in AD 149. Only Lucilla survived, the boy died that same year. (This legend was used again in the abbreviated form "TEMPOR FELIC" 12 years later, in AD 161 to celebrate the birth of second twins: Commodus and Antoninus).
1 commentsCharles S
antoninus_pius_293var_falsum.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC III, 293(e) var., falsum12 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE 17, 2.38g, 17.31mm, 180°
cast denar, contemporary counterfeit
obv. ANTONINVS - AVG PIVS PP
laureate head r.
rev. VOTA SVSCEPTA DEC III / COS IIII
Emperor, togate, stg. l., sacrificing from patera over burning altar
ref.: RIC III, 292(e) var. (note: rev. RIC III, 293); C. 1117
F+/F-, dark green patina, rev. double struck
Jochen
l2~0.JPG
Aquileia AQS33 viewsAquileia

A former city of the Roman Empire, situated at the head of the Adriatic, on what is now the Austrian sea-coast, in the country of Goerz, at the confluence of the Anse an the Torre. It was for many centuries the seat of a famous Western patriarchate, and as such plays and important part in ecclesiastical history, particularly in that of the Holy See and Northern Italy.

The site is now known as Aglar, a village of 1500 inhabitants. The city arose (180 B.C.) on the narrow strip between the mountains and the lagoons, during the Illyrian wars, as a means of checking the advance of that warlike people. Its commerce grew rapidly, and when Marcus Aurelius made it (168) the principal fortress of the empire against the barbarians of the North and East, it rose to the acme of its greatness and soon had a population of 100,000. It was pillaged in 238 by the Emperor Maximinus, and it was so utterly destroyed in 452 by Attila, that it was afterwards hard to recognize its original site. The Roman inhabitants, together with those of smaller towns in the neighbourhood, fled to the lagoons, and so laid the foundations of the city of Venice. Aquileia arose again, but much diminished, and was once more destroyed (590) by the Lombards; after which it came under the Dukes of Friuli, was again a city of the Empire under Charlemagne, and in the eleventh century became a feudal possesion of its patriarch, whose temporal authority, however, was constantly disputed and assailed by the territorial nobility.

002. CONSTANTINOPOLIS Aquileia

RIC VII Aquileia 129 R4

Ex-Varangian
ecoli
233_Aquilia_Severa.jpg
Aquilia Severa - AE silver plated denarius8 viewscontemporary forgery

official - Rome 221 AD
draped bust right
IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG
Concordia standing left, sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar, holding double cornucopiae; * left
CONCORDIA
official - RIC IV 225, RSC III 2a, BMCRE V 185
1,66 g 19-17 mm
Johny SYSEL
IMGP3869Art2combo.jpg
Artabanos II., 10 - 38 AD18 viewsAR dr., 3,73gr, 20,9mm; Sellwood 63.7, Shore 346, Sunrise - ;
mint: Rhagai (?); axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/4-strand diadem, 2 loops and 3 ribbons; short, straight hair, mustache, beard off flan; earring, 3-turn necklace; dotted border 9 - 15:30h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in vise-like outstretched hand; below bow monogram; 5-line meaningless legend; perhaps a contemporary local imitation;

ex: Zurquieh Coins, UAE.
Schatz
IMGP3876Art2combo~0.jpg
Artabanos II., 10 - 38 AD6 viewsAR dr., 3,84gr, 18,75mm; Sellwood 63.8, Shore -, Sunrise - ;
mint: Nisa; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/4-strand diadem, 2 loops and 3 ribbons; short, straight hair, mustache, long square-cut beard on receding chin; earring, 3-turn necklace; dotted border 9 - 14:00h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in vise-like outstretched hand; below bow monogram N; 5-line meaningless legend; perhaps a contemporary local imitation;
Schatz
IMGP3876Art2combo.jpg
Artabanos II., 10 - 38 AD12 viewsAR dr., 3,84gr, 18,75mm; Sellwood 63.8, Shore -, Sunrise - ;
mint: Nisa; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/4-strand diadem, 2 loops and 3 ribbons; short, straight hair, mustache, long square-cut beard on receding chin; earring, 3-turn necklace; dotted border 9 - 14:00h;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in vise-like outstretched hand; below bow monogram N; 5-line meaningless legend; perhaps a contemporary local imitation;
Schatz
Siglos_king_dagger_bow.jpg
Artaxerxes II - Darius III184 viewsPersian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, c. 375 - 340 B.C., Silver siglos, 5.490 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 0, Carradice Type IV (late) C, 46 ff.; BMC Arabia 172 ff.; SNG Kayhan 1031; SGCV II 4683; Rosen 674; Klein 763; Carradice Price p. 77 and pl. 20, 387 ff.

Following Darius II came Artaxerxes II (called Mnemon), during whose reign Egypt revolted and relations with Greece deteriorated. His reign (dated as from 404 to 359 B.C.E.) was followed by that of his son Artaxerxes III (also called Ochus), who is credited with some 21 years of rule (358-338 B.C.E.) and is said to have been the most bloodthirsty of all the Persian rulers. His major feat was the reconquest of Egypt.
This was followed by a two-year rule for Arses and a five-year rule for Darius III (Codomannus), during whose reign Philip of Macedonia was murdered (336 B.C.E.) and was succeeded by his son Alexander. In 334 B.C.E. Alexander began his attack on the Persian Empire.

Siglos was the Greek transliteration of the Semitic denomination ""shekel"" which became a standard weight unit for silver in the Achaemenid Persian Empire after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus the Great in 539 B.C. Ironically, silver sigloi seem to have been struck primarily in the western part of the empire and the standard went on to influence several Greek civic and royal coinages in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. There is endless debate about whether the figure on the obverse represents the Persian Great King or an anonymous royal hero, but since the Greeks regularly referred to the parallel gold denomination as the ""daric"" it seems clear that at least some contemporaries considered it a depiction of the king. Of course, whether this is what the Persian authorities intended or an example of interpretatio Graeca must remain an open question.
4 commentsNemonater
As_medallion_BMC_541.jpg
As medallion BMC 541121 viewsObverse: IMPSEVALEXANDAVGIULIAMAMAEAAVG round edge
Busts face to face of Severus Alexander laureate (seen from the front), slightly bearded, draped (and cuirassed?) and Julia Mamaea draped wearing stephane, left hair in waves
MATAVG below busts
Reverse: (FELICITAS TEMPORVM)
Severus Alexander draped, holding globe and mappa, seated left on curule chair, being crowned with wreath by Victory draped, standing left, holding palm-branch; in front, Felicitas draped, standing front, head right, holding loing caduceus in right hand; background centre, female figure draped, standing front, head right, but this feature is lost because the coin has been holed.
BMC 541 (plate 19), RIC 661
Weight, 10.352g; Die axis, 12h
Ex Mabbott Collection (Schulman Galleries 1969, lot 4804)
2 commentsmix_val
Antoninus_Pius_R604fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Galatia, Ancyra, Antoninus Pius, Amazon7 viewsAntoninus Pius
Galatia, Ancyra
Obv: ΑVΤ ΚΑΙ ΑΔΡΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΩ ϹΕΒ ΠΙΩ, bare head of Antoninus Pius, r.
Rev: Η ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙϹ ΤΗϹ ΓΑΛΑΤΙΑϹ ΑΝΚVΡΑ, Amazon standing, r., wearing tall head-dress, holding double axe, pelta and anchor
Ć, 28mm, 12.43g
Ref.: RPC IV 5686 (temporary)
shanxi
Faustina_II_50.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Faustina II, Artemis, Perseus17 viewsLydia, Hierocaesarea
Faustina II
Mčnodôros the Second, strategos
Obv.: ΦAVCTEINA CEBACTH, draped bust of Faustina left.
Rev.: [EΠI CTPA M]HNOΔ[ΩPOY B.], [IЄ]POKAI[CAPЄΩN] in exerque; nude hero (Perseus) standing right, seen from the back, Artemis standing left, holding bow, having quiver at shoulder; both clasping hands over lighted altar
AE, 38.14g, 36mm
Ref.: RPC IV.2 11395 (temporary) - This Coin
shanxi
Marcus_Aurelius_7.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Marcus Aurelius, Artemis, stag 21 viewsLydia, Hierocaesarea
Marcus Aurelius (Caesar)
Obv: [Μ] ΑV οVΗΡοС [ΚΑΙСΑΡ], bare-headed, lightly bearded bust of Marcus Aurelius wearing cuirass and paludamentum, right.
Rev.: ΙΕΡΟΚΑΙСΑΡΕΩΝ, Artemis standing, right., drawing arrow from quiver at shoulder, holding bow; to right, stag
AE, 5.47g, 19mm
Ref.: RPC online, Volume 4, 2823 (temporary)
shanxi
G_362_Pergamon_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Athena, Telesphoros12 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE17, AD 147-161
Magistrate: I. Pol(l)ion (strategos for the second time, asiarch and neokoros)
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right.
Rev: ΕΠΙ ϹΤΡΑ Ι ΠΩΛΛΙΩ ΤΟ Β, Telesphorus standing, facing
AE, 3.30g, 17mm
Ref.: RPC IV.2, 3297 (temporary), SNG Copenhagen volume 19 #452
1 commentsshanxi
R680_Maximinus_I_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Phyrgia, Eucarpia, Maximinus, Artemis12 viewsMaximinus
Phyrgia, Eucarpia
Obv.: ΑΥΤ Κ Γ ΙΟΥ ΟΥΗΡ ΜΑΞΙΜƐΙΝΟС, laureate and cuirassed bust of Maximinus, r.
Rev.: ƐΥΚΑΡΠƐΩΝ, Artemis standing facing, looking l., holding bow and placing hand on quiver; stag left, looking right; priestess right
AE, 26 mm, 7,22 g
Ref.: SNG Cop. 372, RPC VI, № 5604 (temporary)
1 commentsshanxi
EmerGTetAttica.jpg
Athens Emergency Issue Plated Tetradrachm Circa 406-404 BC946 viewsQuote from David Sear:

"Athens was the greatest power in the Greek world throughout most of the 5th century BC. Its famous 'owl' coinage, principally of silver tetradrachms, possibly commenced in 510 BC on the occasion of the downfall of the tyrant Hippias. On these celebrated coins the helmeted head of the goddess Athena was accompanied by her attendant owl and the first three letters of the ethnic 'AQE'. Later, a diadem of olive leaves was added to Athena's helmet and a cresent moon was placed in the reverse field, though the precise chronological significance of these changes remains uncertain. To the intense chagrin of the Spartans Athens became the leader of the Greek states, including those of Ionia, in the epic struggle against the expansionist policies of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. The victories at Salamis (480 BC) and the Eurymedon (circa 467) clearly established the Athenian supremacy in the Aegean world. Initially, the Delian League (founded in 477) was an alliance of independent states sharing a common cause under the leadership of Athens. It gradually developed into an Athenian maritime empire with the member cities obliged to pay an annual tribute into the League's treasury on Delos. In 454 this treasury, amounting to 5,000 talents of silver, was actually removed to Athens and the vast wealth was openly employed for the aggrandizement of the city, now under the leadership of the great statesman Pericles. Vast building projecdts, such as the monumental edifices on the Acropolis, were financed in this way. From 431, however, Athens became embroiled in the protracted Peloponnesian War and increasingly the wealth of the state was dissipated in this futile cause. This attractive tetradrachm belongs to the exceptionally large ouput of Athenian 'owls' made during the second half of the 5th century. In contrast to the artistic development taking place at mints in other parts of the Mediterranean world, the late archaic style of the earlier 5th century became 'frozen' on these issues which represent the first truly imperial coinage of the Greek world. As Athens restricted or forbade the issue of independent currency at many of the cities within her sphere of influence the 'owls' came to circulate over an increasingly wide area. But this all came to an end with the defeat of Athens by Sparta in 404 BC and during the period immediately preceding this catastrophe the Athenians were reduced to the desperate expedient of issuing bronze tetradrachms and drachms with a thin surface coating of silver. This specimen is an excellent example of this emergency coinage the production of which drew contemporary comment from Aristophanes who, in his play Frogs (717ff), compares the decline in the quality of the leading citizens with the recent debasement of the Athenian coinage."
3 commentsGunner
Attalea.jpg
Attaleia - AE13 viewsc. 180-218 AD
bust of Athena right wearing crested Corinthian helmet and aegis, holding spear
Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
ATTAΛE_ATΩN
RPC IV.2, 2496 (temporary); SNG von Aulock 2911; Mionnet IV, 61; Kraft pl. 114.12a.
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
Bactria,_Apollodotos_AE_Unit_.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Apollodotos I, ca. 175-165 BC Ć Quadruple Unit26 viewsΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ AΠΟΛΛΟΔΟΤΟY ΣΩΤHPOΣ (of King Apollodotos Savior) Apollo standing facing holding bow and arrow.
Tripod on stand in dotted square border outside which Maharajas Apaladasta Iradasa (of King Apollodotos Savior) in Kharoshthi script (reverse image in photo above is inverted).

Mitchiner 209a; Bopearachchi 6A; SNG ANS 9, 346; HGC 12, 41; Sear GCV 7594.

(22 x 21 mm, 12h).
CNG e-Auction 162, 11 Apr. 2007, 134.

Apollodotos was a contemporary of the later Euthydemid rulers, Agathokles, Pantaleon and Antimachos. His Greek coinage is rare with only less than a dozen portrait tetradrachm specimens known. Almost all of his coinage adhered to south Indian traditions, with bi-lingual Greek and Kharoshthi legends and non-portrait types struck on square flans, either elephant and bull on his silver, or Apollo and tripod on the bronze. From this coinage, which comprises the only evidence for his reign, it appears that Apollodotos administered his territories south of the Hindu Kush. The imagery on Apollodotos’ coins breaks with the tradition of the Euthydemid dynasty, portraying seated Athena on the tetradrachms (in the style of the reverse of Lysimachos coinage) and a standing Apollo on AE issues, reminiscent of the Seleukid coinage. Eukratides may have retained him as a provincial ruler through the struggle for power.
1 commentsn.igma
10291.jpg
Bardas Parsakoutenos, magistros and doux of Anatolikon. Lead seal c. AD 970-990 260 views10291|Bardas Parsakoutenos, magistros and doux of Anatolikon. Lead seal c. AD 970-990
Star with six rays ending in something resembling arrows; circular invocational legend + KE ROHΘEI TW CW ΔUΛW
+RAPΔ|MAΓICTP,|S ΔUΞ TWN| ANATOΛ’K|TWN OΠAT|O ΠAPCK’ in six lines
30mm; 16.24gram.

Before turning to the identification of the seal’s owner, there are a number of issues to be addressed about the reverse legend. Up to the fourth line, all is clear. A nominative legend listing Bardas’ dignity of magistros and his office of doux ton Anatolikon. The last line has his family name Pars(a)k(outenos). The fifth line, however, does not make sense. It might be an engraver’s error, repeating TWN of the third line and O ΠAP of the last line. This explanation, even though unelegant, has to do for now, unless an otherwise unknown office or command is meant.
The seal’s owner is probably the person named in Leon Diakonos (VII.1) as one of three brothers Parsakoutenos, who backed Bardas Phokas the younger during his rebellion of AD 970 against John I Tzimiskes. These brothers, Theodore, Bardas and Nikephoros took their name, according to Leon, “after the city of their birth, Parsakouta”, which is a village on the road between Nymphaion and Sardis in the Thrakesian theme (p. 162, n.4 of the English edition). Leon adds that the Parsakoutenoi were cousins of Bardas Phokas and that they held the rank of patrikios and adds that they ‘mustered troops with great zeal’. Skylitzes (291.13-14) adds that Theodore and Nikephoros were the sons of the patrikios Theodoulos Parsakoutenos, and were exarchs in Cappadocia (p. 162, n.3). The rebellion, however, was extinguished by the skilled general Bardas Skleros, and Bardas Phokas was temporarily imprisoned.
Leon Diakonos once again mentions Bardas Parsakoutenos in book X, chapter 7, during the revolt of Bardas Skleros. He is now called magistros, a higher rank than patrikios, which implies that his earlier allegience to a usurper had not frustrated his political career. In the late 970’s, Skleros conquered large parts of Asia and was threatening to blockade the Dardanelles, hindering merchants and grain transports to the capital. In the end, he was defeated by Bardas Phokas on 24th of March 979 and fled to Muslim territory. But before his final defeat on the battleground, according to Leon Diakonos, his fortress at Abydos was seized, his army destroyed, and fire was set to his fleet of triremes by an imperial fleet of fireships dispatched from the capital under the command of Bardas Parsakoutenos. The seal, listing Bardas’ dignity as magistros, not patrikios as attested in AD 970, might well be from this period.
1 commentsGert
307_1.jpg
BASTIEN 15123 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: TEMPORVM FELICITAS
BUST TYPE: B (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//I
WEIGHT 4.43g / AXIS 12h / WIDTH: 20-22mm
RIC: 52
BASTIEN: 151 (15 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 307
Barnaba6
1251.jpg
BASTIEN 16323 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: TEMPORVM FELICITAS
BUST TYPE: B = Radiate, cuirassed bust right
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: A/*//-
WEIGHT: / AXIS: / WIDTH:
RIC: UNLISTED
BASTIEN: 163 (5 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 1251

Note: reused reverse die struck under Tacitus during the 7th emmission (see Bastien 92-93).

Only 6th known specimen to me, but the only one in private hands (the other 5 specimens cited by Bastien are all in public collections).
Barnaba6
234_3.jpg
BASTIEN 17611 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: TEMPORVM FELICITAS
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//I
WEIGHT 4.70g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH:21
RIC: 52
BASTIEN: 176 (31 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 234
Barnaba6
32~5.jpg
BASTIEN 1868 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS�P�F�AVG
REVERSE: TEMPORVM FELICITAS
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//I
WEIGHT 3.31g / AXIS 6h / WIDTH: 20-23mm
RIC: 53
BASTIEN: 186 (20 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 305
Barnaba6
1008.jpg
BASTIEN 20637 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICI
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//I
WEIGHT 3.38 g
RIC: 103
BASTIEN: 206 (9 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 1008
NOTE: SHIELD DECORATED WITH EMPEROR ON HORSE
2 commentsBarnaba6
189~0.jpg
BASTIEN 209 (after cleaning)10 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICI
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//I
WEIGHT 4.84g / AXIS: 1h / WIDTH: 21-22mm
RIC: 106
BASTIEN: 209 (14 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 189
Barnaba6
1278~0.jpg
BASTIEN 210 new photo8 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICI
BUST TYPE: E2 = Radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from rear
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//I
WEIGHT 3.91g / AXIS 12h / DIAMETER: 22 mm
RIC: 106
BASTIEN: 210 (11 ex.)
COLLECTION NO: 1278
Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
79.jpg
BASTIEN 211 50 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICI
BUST TYPE: F1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//I
WEIGHT 5.74g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH:21,5-23mm
RIC:106
BASTIEN: 211 (6 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 815
GORGONEION ON SHIELD
Note: very high weight: 5,74 g!
2 commentsBarnaba6
26~3.jpg
BASTIEN 2129 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICI
BUST TYPE: F8
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//I
WEIGHT 3.70g / AXIS 1h / WIDTH:21-22 mm
RIC: 106
BASTIEN: 212 (9 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 188
Barnaba6
300_2.jpg
BASTIEN 265 RR9 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICI
BUST TYPE: A
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//I
WEIGHT 3.95g / AXIS 12h
RIC: 103 VAR. (BUST A UNLISTED)
BASTIEN: 265 (1 EX.) RRR!!!
COLLECTION NO: 300
Barnaba6
257_2.jpg
BASTIEN 2668 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICI
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//I
WEIGHT 4.34g / AXIS: 12H
RIC: 103
BASTIEN: 266 (18 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 257
Barnaba6
24.jpg
BASTIEN 2709 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICI
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//I
WEIGHT 3.64g / AXIS: 7h / WIDTH:22-23mm
RIC:104
BASTIEN: 270 (17 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 24
Barnaba6
001~0.jpg
BASTIEN 3509 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS•P•F•AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICIT
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//II
WEIGHT 3.87g / AXIS: 1h / WIDTH: 20mm
RIC: 107
BASTIEN: 350 (33 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 1
Barnaba6
35~2.jpg
BASTIEN 3536 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICIT
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//II
WEIGHT 3.78g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 22,5 mm
RIC: 109
BASTIEN: 353 (6 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 905
Barnaba6
286.jpg
BASTIEN 3866 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS•P•F•AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICIT
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: B-//-
WEIGHT 3.43g / AXIS 6h
RIC: 129
BASTIEN: 386 (36 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 286
Barnaba6
1217.jpg
BASTIEN 396 VAR. (DOTTED LEGEND) - UNLISTED IN BASTIEN !!!27 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS•P•F•AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICIT
BUST TYPE: A = Radiate, cuirassed and draped bust right, seen from front
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/B/-
WEIGHT 2.93g / AXIS 12h / DIAMETER: 21-22mm
RIC: 129 VAR. (A BUST UNLISTED)
BASTIEN: unlisted (unlisted also in supplements no. I and no. II) !!!
COLLECTION NO: 1217

Note: unpublished variety, possibly an unicum!
Barnaba6
1281~0.jpg
BASTIEN SUPPLEMENT II 371α UNICUM !!! new photo13 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: FELICIT TEMP
BUST TYPE: H6 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding victoriola
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: retrograde B/-//-
WEIGHT 3.18g / AXIS 12h / DIAMETER: 20-21 mm
RIC: 117 var. (unlisted with h6 bust and b retrograde mintmark)
BASTIEN: (-) Bastien Suppl. II 371α (this example)
COLLECTION NO: 1281

NOTE: very rare and desirable bust type, especially for Lugudnunum's 9th emmission in combination with an atypical reverse depicting a figure typical for the TEMPOR FELICIT reverse but with a FELICIT TEMP obverse legend. Unicum !!!

ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
1282~0.jpg
BASTIEN SUPPLEMENT II 372β new photo17 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: TEMPOR FELICIT
BUST TYPE: H3 = Radiate bust left in consular robe with right hand raised
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/B//-
WEIGHT 3.63g / AXIS 12h / DIAMETER: 20-23 mm
RIC: 130 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH H3 BUST)
BASTIEN: (-) BASTIEN SUPPLEMENT II 372β (THIS EXAMPLE)
COLLECTION NO: 1282

NOTE: extremely rare and desirable bust type !

Only the second known specimen in the world! (the other being in M. Vosper's collection - see coin no. 493 on probuscoins.fr)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
islamic_gold_.jpg
BCC IC133 viewsIslamic - Fatimid Dynasty
al-Mustansir Billah
18th Imam, of Cairo, Egypt.
427-487AH (1036-1095CE)
AV 1/4 Dinar
14.5mm. 0.68gm.
Date and mint off-flan.
Contemporary accounts and recent excavations
indicate that Caesarea was a thriving agricultural
town in this period.
v-drome
BCC_RI24_Caracalla_Indvlg.jpg
BCC RI24 - Hybrid18 viewsRoman Imperial
Caracalla 198-217C.E.
AR Denarius (debased silver?)
Obv:ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate, bearded bust right.
Rev:INDVGENTIA AVGG IN CARTH
Dea Caelestis riding lion right,
over waters.
18mm. 3.50gm. Axis:180
Possible reference for reverse: RIC 130
This is a very unusual coin, perhaps
a contemporary imitation mis-matching
the Dea Caelestis reverse with a later,
mature portrait of Caracalla.
v-drome
Kroton.jpg
Bruttium, Kroton (Circa 425-350 BC)25 viewsAR Stater

7.73 g

Obverse: Eagle standing left, head right, on stag’s head

Reverse: Tripod; ivy leaf to left, QPO to right.

HN Italy 2146; SNG ANS 351-2

Obeying a directive of the oracle of Delphi, A group of Achaean settlers founded Kroton around 710 BC. Like its neighbor to the north, Sybaris, it soon became a city of power and wealth. Kroton was especially celebrated for its successes in the Olympic Games from 588 BC onward (Milo of Kroton being the most famous of its athletes).

The philosopher Pythagoras established himself there about 530 BC and formed a society of 300 disciples who were sympathetic toward aristocratic government. In 510 BC Kroton was strong enough to defeat the Sybarites and raze their city to the ground. However, shortly after the sack of Sybaris the disciples of Pythagoras were driven out, and a democracy established.

The obverse was comparable with similar types on probably contemporary coins from Elis (which put on the Olympic games at the nearby sanctuary of Olympia) The coins of both cities were thus likely issued for athletic festivals in honor of Zeus. In Kroton’s case the coins probably commemorated its citizens’ Olympic victories with the eagle representing Zeus who presided over Olympia and the games themselves. The tripod (reverse) represented the divine sanction for the town's founding from the Oracle of Delphi (who sat on a three legged stool when producing her oracles).
2 commentsNathan P
Sear_1966_[6]_Bulgarian.jpg
Bulgarian imitative type A29 viewsBillon aspron trachy, weight 2.13g., diameter 25mm. Contemporary imitative, from the early years of the 13th century, and probably minted in Thrace. Type A copies the one of the official trachea types of Manuel I (Sear 1966).Abu Galyon
SB2012_Bulgarian_imitative.jpg
Bulgarian imitative type C167 viewsBillon aspron trachy, weight 2.9g., diameter 27mm. Contemporary imitative, from the early years of the 13th century, and probably minted in Thrace. Type C copies the official trachea of Alexius III (Sear 2011-2012-2013). Abu Galyon
DOC_A2_52_3.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Ć Anonymous Class A2 Follis, Contemporary Imitation (DOC III.2-A2.52.3)11 viewsQuant.Geek
Theodosius_I_37.jpg
C105 viewsTheodosius I AE4

Attribution: RIC IX 26a, Heraclea
Date: AD 379-395
Obverse: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG; diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SALVS REIPVBLICAE; Victory advancing l. dragging captive,
SMHA in exergue
Size: 13.1 mm
Weight: 1.6 grams

Emperor Gratian appointed Theodosius as co-emperor of the East until Gratian’s death in AD 383 during a rebellion. He then appointed his eldest son as co-emperor of the East, and later, after the death of Valentinian II, his son Honorius as co-emperor in the West. The reign of Theodosius was marked by dealing with the Goths, who now resided within the borders of the empire. The Goths within the Empire had, as a result of the treaties, military obligations to fight for the Romans as a national contingent, as opposed to being fully integrated into the Roman forces. However, many Goths would serve in Roman legions and others, as foederati, for a single campaign, while bands of Goths switching loyalties became a destabilizing factor in the internal struggles for control of the Empire. In AD 390 the population of Thessalonica rioted in complaint against the presence of the local Gothic garrison. The garrison commander was killed in the violence, so Theodosius ordered the Goths to kill all the spectators in the circus as retaliation; Theodoret, a contemporary witness to these events, reports:

“the anger of the Emperor rose to the highest pitch, and he gratified his vindictive desire for vengeance by unsheathing the sword most unjustly and tyrannically against all, slaying the innocent and guilty alike. It is said seven thousand perished without any forms of law, and without even having judicial sentence passed upon them; but that, like ears of wheat in the time of harvest, they were alike cut down.”

Interestingly, despite his often ruthless policies against rebellious groups and persons, Theodosius promoted Nicene Trinitarianism within Christianity and Christianity within the Empire. On February 27, AD 380, he declared "Catholic Christianity" the only legitimate imperial religion, ending state support for the traditional Roman religion.Theodosius I was the last emperor of a unified Roman Empire. He reunited the Easter and Western empires, yet they were split again upon his death. Towards the end of his reign, Theodosius saw the rise of a Gothic leader named Alaric. Alaric had participated in Theodosius’ campaign against the usurper Eugenius in AD 394, but rebelled against Arcadius soon after the death of the emperor.
2 commentsNoah
Vlasto_413-4.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, c. 385-380 BC. AR Nomos (Contemporary Imitation)37 views21mm, 7.47g, 9h
Nude youth on horseback l., crowning horse with wreath; pellet to l., A below. R/ Phalanthos riding dolphin l., holding kantharos. Cf. Vlasto 413-4; cf. HNItaly 875; SNG Fitzwilliam 257; Fisher-Bossert N 71. Corrosions, VF
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_320-1.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras, c. 415-400 BC. AR Nomos (Contemporary Imitation)37 views20mm, 5.35g, 9h
Nude youth on horseback right, placing wreath on the horse's head; caduceus before.
TARAS, Taras astride dolphin right, left hand extended, right hand at side.
Vlasto 320-1
VF – silver deeply black plated, with green spots where the copper core give up.
In consideration of the artistic quality of the dies, observe in detail the horse head on the obverse.
1 commentsLeo
Vlasto_115.jpg
CALABRIA, Taras. Circa 500-490 BC. AR Nomos33 views8.03 g, 9h
Taras riding dolphin right, holding cuttlefish, left hand extended / Hippocamp left; cockle shell below. Fischer-Bossert 27 (V12/R21); Vlasto 115 (same obv. die); HN Italy 827; McClean 533. VF, minor roughness.

In the time this coinage was produced Tarentum was a monarchy, as it had been since its foundation. Though we have little information concerning the early governance of Tarentum, the monarchy was probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta. According to Herodotus (iii, 136) a certain king Aristophilides ruled over the city in this period.
Since the arrival of the Greeks in the region in the late 8th century BC, a long-running series of skirmishes appears to have taken place between the Tarentines and the indigenous Iapygian tribes (Messapians, Daunians and the Peucetii) who controlled the interior of the Apulian peninsula. Tarentine expansion was therefore limited to the coast because of the resistance of these populations, a situation reflected in their coinage types which are predominantly marine in character.
In c.490 BC the Messapians moved against the Tarentines with a composite force of around 8,000 men including shield infantry, skirmishers, and their skilled cavalry. The Tarentines meanwhile fielded 4,000 citizen hoplites and 1,000 light infantry in support, as well as a combination of light and sword-wielding cavalry. Outside the walls of their city the Tarentines withstood the initial skirmishing and the Messapian charge; despite the superiority of the Messapian cavalry and being greatly outnumbered on foot, the Tarentines appear to have represented their Spartan heritage well in this battle, and were able to claim victory and a temporary respite from the Iapygian attacks. After this defeat the Iapygians would not challenge Taras again for nearly twenty years, but in 473 when they would again come against the Tarentines, they would come in overwhelming numbers.
Leo
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 13 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.


From COINWEEK:
THE ANNALS OF THE ROMAN HISTORIAN TACITUS (56 – 117 CE) survived in one damaged medieval manuscript at the Monte Cassino monastery. The section covering the reign of Emperor Caligula is missing, and we rely largely on fragmentary chapters of Cassius Dio’s Roman History (155-235 CE) and the Twelve Caesars of Suetonius (c.69 – 140 CE), a gossip writer who was the Perez Hilton of Imperial Rome. There are few contemporary eyewitness sources – some passages in the writings of Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) and Philo of Alexandria (c. 25 BCE – 50 CE ).

The story is not a happy one.

The future emperor was born on August 31 in the year 12, probably at Antium (Anzio) south of Rome. His father Germanicus, nephew of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful and popular general. His mother, Agrippina “the Elder”, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa, the brilliant organizer who was largely responsible for Octavian’s victory in the Roman civil war (32-30 BCE).

“Caligula” is a nickname. It means “little boot” in Latin, because as a child he wore a miniature military uniform including tiny hobnailed boots, much to the delight of his father’s veteran legionaries. He grew up to dislike it. His given name, which appears on his coins, variously abbreviated, was Gaius (or Caius) Julius Caesar Germanicus. “Caesar” here is not a title, but a personal name, inherited through Germanicus Julius Caesar, grandson of Emperor Augustus, the adopted son of the famous Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE).

A New Hope
“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

When the reclusive, miserly and increasingly paranoid Emperor Tiberius died on March 16, 37 CE at the age of 78, most Romans greeted Caligula’s accession joyfully. Caligula’s early coinage celebrates his descent from his great-grandfather, the deified Augustus.

Caligula’s laurel-crowned portrait appears on the obverse of his gold aurei and silver denarii surrounded by his titles. On one reverse, which bears no inscription, the head of Augustus, wearing the sun god’s spiky radiate crown, appears between two stars. Another type omits the stars and adds the inscription, “Divine Augustus, Father of the Nation”. On some examples, the portrait seems to have the features of the unpopular Tiberius, who was never deified by the Senate. Perhaps the mint engravers, who had copied and recopied the portrait of Tiberius for 22 years, automatically reproduced a familiar face.

On his birthday in the year 37, Caligula dedicated the Temple of Augustus, which had been under construction for over two decades in the Roman forum. The event is commemorated on a magnificent brass sestertius. On the obverse a veiled seated figure is labeled PIETAS (“piety”) – an untranslatable Latin term for the Roman virtue that combined profound respect for ancestral traditions and meticulous observance of ritual obligations. The reverse shows Caligula in his role as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the state religion, sacrificing an ox before a richly decorated temple. The finest known example of this coin sold for over $269,000 USD in a November 2013 Swiss auction.

Addressing the Guards
The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions, or “cohorts”, each of 500 to 1,000 men.

On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts”. Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”), which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage. An outstanding example of this type (“undoubtedly the finest specimen known”) brought over $634,000 in a 2014 European auction.

Family Ties
Caligula issued numerous types honoring the memory of his parents. Some of these continued under the reign of his uncle and successor, Claudius.

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (May 26, 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans”. This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany. Examples of this type have sold for $500 to $3,000 in recent auctions.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar”. On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

A superb, pedigreed example of this coin (“Very rare and among the finest specimens known. A delicate portrait of sublime style, Tiber tone”) sold for over $98,000 in a November 2013 Swiss auction. More typical examples sell for $1,000 to $3,000.

Perhaps the best-known coin of Caligula is a rare sestertius that depicts his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Julia Livilla as the personifications of Securitas, Concordia and Fortuna respectively. Caligula was close to his sisters, and lavished public honors on them in a way that shocked traditional Roman values. This inevitably led later writers to charge the emperor with incestuous relations, a rumor that is almost certainly false.

In recent auctions, exceptional examples of this type have sold for prices ranging from $15,000 to 21,000. Worn or corroded examples that have been “tooled” to improve the detail can sometimes be found for under $2,000. Cast forgeries are common, mostly modern, some dating back to the Renaissance that are collectable in their own right.

Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

The Making of a Monster
SO MUCH FOR CALIGULA THE EMPEROR; THE REST OF THIS HISTORY MUST NEEDS DEAL WITH CALIGULA THE MONSTER.
— SUETONIUS, THE TWELVE CAESARS, 22.1

Caligula fell seriously ill in October, 37 CE. After he recovered, his personality (always rather dark) took a decided turn for the worse. He became increasingly paranoid, ordering the execution or forcing the suicide of many who were previously close to him. He reportedly took special delight in having people tortured to death in his presence. As his increasingly bizarre expenditures emptied the treasury, he had wealthy Romans executed in order to seize their assets. Nevertheless, Suetonius reports that Caligula was devoted and faithful to his fourth and last wife, Milonia Caesonia, “who was neither beautiful nor young”.



The Death of Caligula

On January 24, 41 CE, conspirators including Cassius Chaerea, an officer of the Praetorian Guard, stabbed Caligula to death as he left a theatrical performance. Caesonia and her young daughter were also murdered. The only certainly identifiable contemporary portrait of Caesonia appears on a rare provincial bronze issued by Caligula’s childhood friend, Herod Agrippa I (11 BCE – 44 CE), the Roman client-king of Judaea.

Collecting the Monster
Gold and silver issues of Caligula are scarce, and in high demand from collectors, especially those determined to complete a set of the “Twelve Caesars” – all the Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian. Some of the bronzes are quite common, particularly the bronze as with Vesta reverse – decent examples can be found at auction for well under $200. For bronzes in the highest grades, with pristine surfaces and untouched patinas, the sky’s the limit.

For an emperor who was supposedly feared and hated by the Romans by the end of his short reign – only three years and 10 months – Caligula’s coins seem to have a good survival rate, and few that reach the numismatic market are mutilated. Some have the first ‘C’ of the emperor’s personal name filed off or scratched out, but it is rare to find deliberate ancient gouges or cuts across the portrait.

Any collector approaching the coinage of Caligula seeking evidence of madness, decadence and depravity will be disappointed. Coinage is conservative, and these coins present an idealized portrait of a rather dorky young man, along with a series of stock images reflecting the conventions of classical art that the Romans adopted from the Greeks
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 16 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius62 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.

Per RIC-Rare
3 commentsGary W2
new_caius_combined.jpg
Caligula RIC 001433 viewsCaligula and Agrippina AR Denarius, aF, toned, bumps and marks,
(17.84 mm, 2.680g) 180o
Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, end of 37 - early 38 A.D.;
Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise), laureate head of Gaius right;
Rev: AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM (counterclockwise), draped bust of Agrippina Senior (his mother), her hair in a queue behind, one curly lock falls loose on the side of her neck,
RIC I 14 (R) (Rome), RSC II 2; BMCRE I 15 (Rome), BnF II 24, Hunter I 7 (Rome), SRCV I 1825
Ex: the Jyrki Muona Collection, Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins.




As you can tell from the photo, this is a worn coin. All denarii of Gaius (Caligula) are scarce, and some are harder to find than others. Denarii of Claudius are also scarce. The speculation is that after Nero debased the denarii, people hoarded all of the good silver coins, and this included denarii of Claudius and Gaius. According to Gresham's law bad money drives out good money. However, this does not explain why there appears to be plenty of earlier denarii available of figures such as Tiberius and Augustus but very few of Claudius and Gaius. We may never have a satisfactory answer.

Now why do I call him Gaius. Caligula (meaning little boots) was a nickname given to Gaius when he was young and travelling with his father's (Germanicus) army. According to contemporary or near contemporary accounts he detested the name. If you were emperor I am sure you would not want to be called "Bootykins".

The reverse of this coin has a portrait of Agrippina the Elder , Gaius' mother. She reportedly starved herself to death 4 years before Gaius became emperor.
orfew
Temporum.jpg
Caracalla206 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate head of Caracalla right

LAETITIA TEMPORVM
The spina of the Circus Maximus decorated as a ship facing l., with the turning posts at its prow and stern, a sail mounted on the central obelisk, and the spina's other monuments visible in between; above the ship, four quadrigas racing l.; below, seven animals: an ostrich at l. and bear at r.; between them a lion and a lioness chasing a wild ass and a panther attacking a bison.

Rome 206 AD

3.34g

Ex-Londinium coins, Ex Professor K.D. White with original envelope.

Sear 6813, RIC 157, BMCRE 257, CSS 793

Very rare! Only 2 examples in the Reka Devnia hoard

Better in hand

Notes by Curtis Clay:

This famous type commemorates the chariot races and animal hunt that took place on the seventh and final day of Severus' Saecular Games in 204 AD, as described in the inscriptional acts of those games which were found in Rome in the 1870s and 1930s. According to the acts, after three days of sacrifices and three days of honorary stage shows, Severus and Caracalla held circus games on the seventh day, consisting of chariot races and then a hunt of 700 beasts, 100 each of "lions, lionesses, panthers, bears, bisons, wild asses, ostriches". Dio Cassius describes the same hunt, adding the detail that the cage from which the animals were discharged was formed like a boat: "The entire receptacle in the theater had been fashioned in the shape of a boat and was capable of receiving or discharging four hundred beasts at once; and then, as it suddenly fell apart, there came rushing forth bears, lionesses, panthers, lions, ostriches, wild asses, bisons, so that 700 beasts in all, both wild and domesticated, at one and the same time were seen running about and were slaughtered. For to correspond with the duration of the festival, which lasted seven days, the number of the animals was also seven times one hundred." In Dio's text this passage follows directly on his account of Severus' Decennalian Games in 202 AD, causing scholars to accuse Dio of misdating the hunt or to postulate that similar hunts of 700 animals were held both in 202 and in 204. But the true explanation, in my opinion, is that Dio's Byzantine epitimator Xiphilinus, on whom we are dependent for this section of Dio's text, has simply jumped without warning or transition from Dio's description of the Decennalian Games of 202 to his description of the circus spectacle concluding the Saecular Games of 204. This hypothesis easily explains why Dio's text as we have it makes no mention of the Saecular Games themselves or of any event of 203: Xiphilinus omitted this whole section of Dio's history! The seven kinds of animals named by both Dio and the inscriptional acts are also depicted in the coin type: on good specimens, especially the aureus BM pl. 34.4, the ostrich and the bear are clear, the lion has a mane, the ass has long ears, the bison has horns and a hump. Two large felines remain, of which we may suppose that the one accompanying the lion is the lioness and the one attacking the bison is the panther. The animals are named somewhat differently in Cohen, BMC, and other numismatic works: though numismatists have long cited Dio's text to explain the coin type, no one previously seems to have posed the question whether the seven animals in the lower part of the type might not be the same seven that Dio and now the inscriptional acts too name! These circus games with the ship and 700 animals were held in 204 AD, but the coin type commemorating them did not appear until two years later: on aurei of Septimius the type is die linked to a dated type of 206 AD, and for Caracalla the type passes from a draped and cuirassed obverse type on the aureus to the "head only" type on his denarii, a transition that took place in 206 AD according to his dated coins.


SOLD October 2014
10 commentsJay GT4
Caracalla_~1.jpg
Caracalla * Lucius Septimius Bassianus * & Agathedaemon Serpent * 196-217 AD. Æ 28mm230 views
THRACE, Serdica. Caracalla. 198-217 AD. Ć 28mm

Obv: AVT K M AVP CEV ANTWNEINOC, laureate and cuirassed bust right; viewed from behind
Rev: OULPIAC CEPDIKHC, Agathedaemon serpent, coiled and erect.

BMC Thrace pg. 174, 23.
Moushmov 4860
Rate F+

Glossy darkish-brown patina


"The elder of the two sons of the emperor Septimius Severus, Caracalla is best-known for arranging the murder of his brother Geta after the two engaged in a power struggle in the months after their father's death. The murder offended contemporaries and colored the following five years of Caracalla's reign, a reign that ended on a Syrian road with the emperor's own murder."

~ DIR USC, Michael L. Meckler
8 commentsTiathena
ccount1ORweb.jpg
Caracalla Base Metal Contemporary Counterfeit Denarius, imitation of RIC IV 22414 viewsUnknown “mint”, Caracalla Base Metal Contemporary Counterfeit Denarius, 210-213 A.D.(?) AE, 19mm 3.42g, imitation of RIC IV 224, RSC 165
O: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right
R: MONETA AVG, Moneta standing left, holding scales & cornucopiae
*note on the actual denarius, Moneta is facing left, the scale is also on the left with the cornucopiae on the right. This coin is exactly backwards.
casata137ec
cf.elagabal_148_mule.jpg
Caracalla, cf. Elagabal RIC 148 (hybrid)33 viewsCaracalla, AD 198-217
unknown illegal mint
AE - Antoninian Fouree (hybrid), 3.68g, 20.4mm
obv. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, radiate, r.
rev. TEMPORVM FELICITAS
Felicitas, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and caduceus in r. hand
cf. Elagabal RIC IV/2, 148
VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Hybrid (mule): Interesting ancient hybrid counterfeit combining obv. of Caracalla with a rev. of Elagabal.
Jochen
Carausius_TEMPORVM_FELIC.png
Carausius Antoninianus - TEMP FELIC13 viewsCarausius Antoninianus

Obverse:
IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse:
TEMP FELIC
Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia
Harry G
Childebert_ab.jpg
Childebert I, Frankish King of Paris, Merovingian Dynasty85 viewsChildebert I (c. 497-558), Merovingian dynasty, Frankish king of Paris (511-558) and Orleans (524-558). Ć (14 mm, 0.81 g). Obverse: EL/DEBER/TIR (first R retrograde) in three lines. Reverse: chi-rho. Prou 36, Belfort 5454.

The coin type may have been minted in Marseille after 536. Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths, ceded Provence to the Franks in 535. The possession of Arles and Marseilles was guaranteed to Childebert by his brothers and the annexation of the province was completed in the winter of 536–537. The type with the king's name and title in three or more lines resembles contemporary Ostrogothic coins.
1 commentsJan (jbc)
Claudius_Ceres_RIC_94.JPG
Claudius Ceres RIC 9424 viewsClaudius, Rome, dupondius, 41 - 54 AD, 10.7g, 26.74mm max., Van Meter 14, RIC 94, SEAR 5 1855
OBV: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP,
REV: CERES AVGVSTA S C, Ceres enthroned left, holding two corn ears and long torch

This issue was a publicity issue to assure Roman citizens of an
ample supply of grain from N Africa.

Possible contemporary imitation.
Romanorvm
claudius2.jpg
Claudius the 2nd contemporary imitation.11 viewsPosthumous death commemorative,eagle antoninianus.tiberiusjulius
Claudius_Thracian_Mint_Dupondius_Ceres.jpg
Claudius Thracian Mint Dupondius Ceres85 viewsObv.
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P
Bare head left

Rev.
CERES AVGVSTA
SC

This coin is part of a rare and little understood issue thought to be from a provincial mint in Thrace, which copy contemporary Roman AE issues. These Thracian issues show unusually good style, rivaling that of the official Roman mint. The Thracian Ceres dupondius of Claudius is notable for having a 12 o'clock die axis, and centration dimples which immediately show it cannot be a product of the official Roman mint. The style is typically good enough though that these issues are often mis-attributed as normal Roman issues, as was the case with my coin.

This thread from 2009 has served as the best reference for these Thracian AE coins of Claudius that I have been able to find:

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=57292.0

3 commentsancientdave
claudius_97_#2~0.jpg
Claudius, RIC 97, contemporary imitation22 viewsClaudius, AD 41-54
AE - As, 10.89g, 28.12mm
Gaul(?), after AD 41
obv. [TI CLAVDIV]S CAESAR AVG P[M TRP IMP]
Bare head l.
rev. [LIBERTAS AVGV]STA
Libertas, in long garment, stg. frontal, looking r., holding pileus in extended r. hand.
in j. and r. field S - C
RIC I, 97; C.47; BMC 145
F+, dark brown patina

Because of the style probably a provincial imitation from Gaul.
Jochen
cl1OR.jpg
Claudius, RIC I 10014 viewsRome mint, Claudius As, 41-50 A.D. AE, 26mm 7.31g, RIC I 100, BMC 224 (possibly a contemporary counterfeit)
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP Bare head to l.
R: Helmeted Minerva advancing to r., brandishing spear in r. hand and holding round shield in l. hand. To the sides S – C
casata137ec
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-KoutjfGaeGOz-Commodus_sestertius.jpg
Commodus (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 3 viewsM COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT - Laureate head right
PIETATI SEN-ATVS - Emperor, holding volumen, and the Genius of the Senate, holding scepter, standing vis-ŕ-vis and clasping hands; S C in field, COS V P P in exergue.
Exergue: COSVPP



Mint: Rome (186-189 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.50g / 28mm / 12h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC III 549
MIR 18, 760-33/30
Banti 236
Mazzini 410
Acquisition/Sale: Centsles eBay $0.00 02/19
Notes: Feb 9, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The Passage of Commodus:
The upper foundation of the Colosseum is crossed by five tunnels, with the four main tunnels, contemporary to the construction, located along the two main axes of the monument, while the fifth tunnel was built later. The four main tunnels divide the upper foundation into four sectors, which in turn were possible sub-divided along radial and elliptic directions by formworks during the construction phase.

The fifth tunnel, named "Passage of Commodus", was dug under Emperor Domitian (81-96 AD), as a private passage for the emperor, directly connected to the imperial residence. The passage is radial-directed and extends for about 60 m from the arena towards south, with a final east-directed part out- side the foundation.

The ceilings are brick-made barrel vaults and both walls and ceilings were originally covered with a thick layer of mortar. However, over time it has been partially removed [La Regina 2001] and nowadays the walls are rough surfaces. Two major earthquakes which occurred in 1349 and 1703 [Molin and Guidoboni 1989], caused the collapse of a large part of the external ring in the southern sector of the Colosseum above the area where the Passage of Commodus is located'
Gary W2
Commodus_Pautalia.jpg
Commodus - Pautalia12 views176-192 AD
laureate head right
AV KAI K_OMOΔOC
snake coiled around altar, head right
OYΛΠIA_C ΠAYTAΛIAC
RPC IV.1, 8935 (temporary); Ruzicka, Pautalia 249, Cop 698,
3,3g
Johny SYSEL
1448_Commodus_Nicopolis_Isis.jpg
Commodus - Philippopolis10 views176-192 AD
laureate head right
AV KAI M AVP__KOMOΔOC
Isis standing left, lotus on head, holding sistrum and situla
ΦIΛIΠΠOΠO_ΛEITΩN
RPC online – Volume IV, № 10928 (temporary)
7,7g 22-21mm
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
0160-310np_noir.jpg
Commodus, Sestertius - *139 viewsMinted in Rome, AD 192
L AEL AVREL CO---MM AVG P FEL, Laureate head of Commodus right
HERCVLI ROMANO AVG, Hercules facing, head left, holding club and lion's skin, resting on trophy. SC in field
21,01 gr
Ref : RCV #5752, Cohen #203, BMC # 314. RIC # 640.

This is the very first roman coin I have ever possessed, gift from my grand father who found it digging a trench at Verdun battle during WWI

The following comment is taken from the description of a similar example (in far much better condition) in NAC auction 54, # 477 :
Few Roman coins excite as much commentary as those of Commodus, which show him possessed of Hercules. Not only do they present an extraordinary image, but they offer incontrovertible support to the literary record. The reports of Commodus’ megalomania and infatuation with Hercules are so alarming and fanciful that if the numismatic record was not there to confirm, modern historians would almost certainly regard the literary record as an absurd version of affairs, much in the way reports of Tiberius’ depraved behaviour on Capri are considered to be callous exaggerations. Faced with such rich and diverse evidence, there can be no question that late in his life Commodus believed that Hercules was his divine patron. Indeed, he worshipped the demigod so intensely that he renamed the month of September after him, and he eventually came to believe himself to be an incarnation of the mythological hero. By tradition, Hercules had fashioned his knotted club from a wild olive tree that he tore from the soil of Mount Helicon and subsequently used to kill the lion of Cithaeron when he was only 18 years old. Probably the most familiar account of his bow and arrows was his shooting of the Stymphalian birds while fulfilling his sixth labour. The reverse inscription HERCVLI ROMANO AVG (‘to the August Roman Hercules’) makes the coin all the more interesting, especially when put into context with those of contemporary coins inscribed HERCVLI COMMODO AVG, which amounts to a dedication ‘to Hercules Commodus Augustus’.
1 commentsPotator II
CSA_CT16_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: CT-16 1861 $50 (Front)14 viewsContemporary Counterfeit of a 1861 $50 Confederate Note.Quant.Geek
CSA_CT16_Rear.jpg
Confederate States of America: CT-16 1861 $50 (Rear)8 viewsContemporary Counterfeit of a 1861 $50 Confederate Note.Quant.Geek
CSA_T8_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: T-08 1861 $50 (Front)15 viewsCuhaj, George S. Confederate States Paper Money

Obv: Bust of George Washington center. Tellus seated at lower left.
Rev: Blank

Total issue was 123,564. Prior to producing this note, Hoyer & Ludwig used these same vignettes in a similar arrangement on a $ 1.50 note of May 1, 1861 printed for the Southern Manufacturers Bank in Richmond. Subsequently, the vignettes were again used, but in a transposed arrangement on State of Florida notes issued during the fall of 1861. This note is occasionally found stamped in green with a “C” inside an oval as illustrated. Its exact use is unknown. While several explanations have been advanced, none answer the question of “Why this issue only?” A small capital “P” in green also appears stamped on some of these notes, as well as Nos. 8 and 10. Varieties of this marking and others such as CST and GIC exist, which raises the question of whether they are contemporary markings by Confederate officials. In any case, the most commonly seen are notes stamped with a “C,” which increases the value approximately 15% to 20%, while those with “P” are worth an additional 25% or more. There are nine varieties of this note not including markings described above. These result from differences in plate letters (B, Bb, C), plain, thin or bond papers, and “For” written or printed. There is also a difference in the location of the oval frame of Washington’s portrait over the “5” — some 5s are more completely covered. This makes additional minor varieties.
SpongeBob
CSA_T68_Back.jpg
Confederate States of America: T-68 1864 $10 (Back)12 viewsCuhaj, George S. (2012-11-30). Confederate States Paper Money: Civil War Currency from the South

Obverse: Field artillery. Bust of R. M. T. Hunter, Confederate cabinet member, at lower right. Pink and black.
Reverse: Blue web reverse with denomination. Plain paper.

This is the most commonly available Confederate note today. Issued in Series 1 to 10 and without series. Over 120 plate letter varieties (A to H) plus many insignificant differences in plate letters. 9,135,920 notes (incomplete data). The design is said to represent Braxton Bragg’s artillery at the Battle of Buena Vista in 1847 during the War with Mexico. If correct, it is apparently based on a portion of a contemporary painting by Carl Nebel, except from a different angle. Bragg became a Confederate general during the Civil War.
SpongeBob
CSA_T68_Front.jpg
Confederate States of America: T-68 1864 $10 (Front)18 viewsCuhaj, George S. (2012-11-30). Confederate States Paper Money: Civil War Currency from the South

Obverse: Field artillery. Bust of R. M. T. Hunter, Confederate cabinet member, at lower right. Pink and black.
Reverse: Blue web reverse with denomination. Plain paper.

This is the most commonly available Confederate note today. Issued in Series 1 to 10 and without series. Over 120 plate letter varieties (A to H) plus many insignificant differences in plate letters. 9,135,920 notes (incomplete data). The design is said to represent Braxton Bragg’s artillery at the Battle of Buena Vista in 1847 during the War with Mexico. If correct, it is apparently based on a portion of a contemporary painting by Carl Nebel, except from a different angle. Bragg became a Confederate general during the Civil War.
SpongeBob
CSA_T8_Back.jpg
Confederate States of America: T-8 1861 $50 (Back)6 viewsCuhaj, George S. Confederate States Paper Money

Obv: Bust of George Washington center. Tellus seated at lower left.
Rev: Blank

Total issue was 123,564. Prior to producing this note, Hoyer & Ludwig used these same vignettes in a similar arrangement on a $ 1.50 note of May 1, 1861 printed for the Southern Manufacturers Bank in Richmond. Subsequently, the vignettes were again used, but in a transposed arrangement on State of Florida notes issued during the fall of 1861. This note is occasionally found stamped in green with a “C” inside an oval as illustrated. Its exact use is unknown. While several explanations have been advanced, none answer the question of “Why this issue only?” A small capital “P” in green also appears stamped on some of these notes, as well as Nos. 8 and 10. Varieties of this marking and others such as CST and GIC exist, which raises the question of whether they are contemporary markings by Confederate officials. In any case, the most commonly seen are notes stamped with a “C,” which increases the value approximately 15% to 20%, while those with “P” are worth an additional 25% or more. There are nine varieties of this note not including markings described above. These result from differences in plate letters (B, Bb, C), plain, thin or bond papers, and “For” written or printed. There is also a difference in the location of the oval frame of Washington’s portrait over the “5” — some 5s are more completely covered. This makes additional minor varieties.
SpongeBob
JCT_Congregation_Shaarey_Zedek.JPG
Congregation Shaarey Zedek (Detroit, Michigan)76 viewsAE token, 35 mm., 1930/31.

Obv: • CONGREGATION • SHAAREY ZEDEK / • שַׁעֲרֵי צֶדֶ הבבמת בית, within border around beaded rim, • Dec 12 1862 • / DETROIT, beneath building in center.

Rev: BLESSED BE HE WHO COMETH IN THE NAME OF THE LORD, within border around reeded rim, design at bottom, candelabra in center flanked by CHAN-UKAH, 5622-5691 beneath.

Ref: None known.

In 1861 seventeen followers of traditional Judaism withdrew from the Beth El Society in Detroit to found the “Shaarey Zedek Society.” It was located at Congress and St. Antoine (from 1865 to 1903); at Winder and Brush (from 1903 to 1913); at Willis and Brush (from 1913 to 1930), rented temporary quarters (from 1930-1932) and at Chicago Boulevard and Lawton (from 1932 to 1962) before moving to its current home on Bell Road in Southfield in 1962. It incorporated in 1904.
Stkp
constance_chlore.JPG
Constance Ier Chlore11 viewsCONSTANTIVS NOB C
buste radié ŕ droite, drapé et cuirassé.
TEMPOR FEL
Felicitas debout ŕ gauche, tenant un caducée long et une corne d'abondance
C
PTR
Estiot-Zanchi 10
CAHN 48
RIC 299/655
1er émission de l'atelier de Tręves(mi-/ fin 293)
PYL
image~2.jpeg
Constans Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio hut40 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constans, 337-350 CE
Diameter: 19 mm, Weight: 4.20 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: D N CONSTANS PF AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to left, holding globe.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Helmeted soldier advancing right, leading small child from hut beneath tree.

Mint: CONSЄ*: Constantinopolis

Notes:
- This coin depicts a small figure with quite foreign features, for example the upright hair. This depiction is quite common, particularly to some Eastern mints, as noted on Bill Welch's excellent hut site. This is why the small figure is sometimes described as a 'barbarian'. However there are plenty of other plausible interpretations.
- ‘FELix TEMPorvm REPARATIO’ = Happy times restored.
- This type was issued at 13 different mints, each using a different tree, shrub or plant.

Ex Bill Welch hut collection eBay UK 2016, eBay 2006
1 commentsPharsalos
Constans_Fel_Temp_Cyzicus_2.jpg
Constans Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio Hut Cyzicus62 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constans, 337-350 CE
Diameter: 21 mm, Weight: 4.20 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: D N CONSTANS PF AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to left, holding globe.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Helmeted and caped Soldier advancing right, dragging small child from hut beneath tree.

Mint: SMKA: Cyzicus

Notes:
- Exceptional strike and style for type; note the graded pearls on the diadem and the beautifully engraved cape over the soldier’s shoulder.
- ‘FELix TEMPorvm REPARATIO’ = Happy times restored.
- This type was issued at 13 different mints, each using a different tree, shrub or plant.

Ex Victor’s Imperial Coins, 2014
3 commentsPharsalos
Contemporary-barbaric-imitation_3,09g_Q-003.jpg
Constantinus-I. (307-337) AE-3 Ancient Counterfeits and Barbarous Imitation #03155 viewsConstantinus-I. Ancient Counterfeits and Barbarous Imitation
avers:- confusing text, --VVoo- CVoV--(probably:IMP-CONSTANT_INVS-PF-AVG), Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right,
revers:- confusing text, (probably:VOTXX/MVLT/XXX/TS dot gamma dot) wreath, legend within
exergo: TS dot gamma dot ??
date: 317-318 ??
mint: Thessalonica ??
diameter: 17-18mm
weight: 3,09g
ref: probably RIC(VII,Thessalonica)-28 imitation !?
Q-003
quadrans
3feltempOR2aweb.jpg
Constantius II46 viewsO: D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, Emperor facing r., rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, , Helmeted soldier to l., shield on l. arm, spearing fallen horsemen; shield on ground at r. Horseman wears pointed cap, turns to face soldier and extends l. arm.
Ex. Gamma SIS zigzag
18mm 2.46g RIC VIII Siscia 362 355-361 A.D.
casata137ec
2feltempOR2web.jpg
Constantius II37 viewsO: D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, Emperor facing r., pearl diadem, draped and cuirassed
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier to l., shield on l. arm, spearing fallen horsemen; shield on ground at r. Horseman wears pointed cap, turns to face soldier and extends r. arm.
PCON in ex. (only top of C or O is visible, ex is guess)
18mm 2.31g. RIC VIII Arles 266, 355-360 A.D.
casata137ec
Constantius_II_Centenionalis.jpg
Constantius II Centenionalis Fel Temp Reparatio hut60 viewsAE Centenionalis
Constantius II, 337-361 CE
Diameter: 21 mm, Weight: 3.97 grams, Die axis: 1h

Obverse: D N CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to left, holding globe.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier advancing right, dragging young barbarian from hut beneath tree.

Mint: TRS: Trier, second mint house

Notes:
- ‘FELix TEMPorvm REPARATIO’ = Happy times restored.
- This type was issued at 13 different mints, each using a different tree, shrub or plant.
- The Fel Temp reform coinage began around 348 CE and initially had a target weight of 5.5 grams and a diameter of 23 mm, with a silver content of 2-3%. From circa 351 the series was gradually debased in both weight and size until it was finally discontinued circa 357 CE. The weight and diameter of this piece indicate it was struck between 351 and 354 CE.
- This coin has a deep glossy green patina; I guess it was found in a sealed container. Only the high points show wear suggesting contact with other coins in a sealed environment.

Ex Central City Coins Brisbane, 2002
3 commentsPharsalos
feltempOR.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VIII Lyons 18345 viewsLyons mint, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. AE, 18mm 3.8g, RIC VIII Lyons 183
O: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed
R: FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, pointed cap, sitting on ground, right arm up
Ex: FPLG
1 commentscasata137ec
constantiusII_134.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VIII, Thessalonica 134(s)69 viewsConstantius II, 324 - 361, son of Constantine I
AE - AE 2, 5.63g, 24mm
Thessalonica 1. officina, 1 March 350 - 25 Dec. 350
obv. DN CONSTAN - TIVS PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, laureate head r.
A behind head
rev. FEL TEMP RE - PARATIO
Helmeted soldier to l., shield on l. arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on
ground at r. Horseman wearing pointed cap and sitting on ground beside
horse (type FH2)
field: left B, right star
exergue: dot TSA dot
RIC VIII, Thessalonica 134(s)
Scarce; about VF(?)

This issue (the Fallen Horseman type) celebrates Constantius' victory in the battle of Singara 344 AD against the Sassanides and the capture of their successor of the throne.
FELICIUM TEMPORUM REPARATIO = Happy days are here again!
Jochen
Picture 341.jpg
Contemporary copy of a Corieltavi stater13 viewshooverman
862Hadrian_RIC221_Limes.JPG
Contemporary Counterfeit 221 Hadrian Denarius Roma 132-34 AD Securitas (contemporary cast)17 viewsReference.
RIC 221 var.; C.1400; Hunter 196; Strack 351

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare head left, with aegis on breast

Rev. SECVR PVB COS III P P,
Securitas seated left, holding sceptre and resting head on hand

3.39 gr
20 mm

Note.
Contemporary cast not silver
Bust not know there must be an official Roma mint out there
new bust left and with aegis on this rare coin (RIC II notes common)
okidoki
Sassanid_1.png
Counterstamped Khurso II AR Drachm56 viewsShahanshah Khurso II
AR Drachm
RY 25 (615/616 AD)
Ohrmazd-Ardaxšīr (AW) mint
Two rings surrounding, Pahlavi Script
Right facing, crowned bust of Khurso II
Three rings surrounding, Pahlavi Script
Fire Altar with two attendants

Hepthalite Counterstamp
Extra: Contemporary Hepthalite gouge in the reverse margin
1 commentsWindchildPunico
8230F123-DB7D-4C79-B827-41FBE7417337.jpeg
County of Tripoli.Raymond II AD 1137-1152 or Raymond III AD 1152-1187. AE Pougeoise .18 viewsCounty of Tripoli.Raymond II AD 1137-1152 or Raymond III AD 1152-1187. AE Pougeoise .
Possibly contemporary imitation after Type 4.
0.46g.
O : garbled CIVITAS TRIPOLI. crescent and eight pointed star.
R : cross pommettée, arrow touching annulet in each angle
Ex Alistair Lilburn collection. Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou.
Vladislav D
Naville452.jpg
Cr 56/2 Ć As Anonymous (Spanish)10 viewsSpanish imitative cast circa 100 BCE (29.5mm., 20.84g)
o: Laureate head of Janus; above, mark of value
r: Prow r.; above, mark of value and value mark before below, ROMA
Crawford 56/2.
In retrospect, why would anyone imitate the ubiquitous "Cr 56/2"? This is a cast contemporary copy, likely from Spain
PMah
662aa185combo.jpg
Cr 272/1 ? Ć Semis Anonymous9 views135-125 B.C.E Unofficial?
o: Head of Saturn right; behind, S
r: Prow right; before, S(?); below, ROMA.
6.61 gm

This coin is a bit of a puzzle. It is quite possibly the already-scarce or even rare Cr 272/1, an issue of just a Semis and a Quadrans, but it has some qualities that suggest it is a contemporary imitation. The reverse is a bit odd; the obverse not so odd. To my eye, illustrations of the official type are pretty close. Perhaps there was one feeble die among a limited number used for a stop-gap issue, as this falls within a few years where bronze is seemingly a bit scarcer than denarii.
PMah
814ag180.jpg
Cr 320/1 fouree AR Denarius Fouree L. Julius L.f. Caesar13 viewsc. 103 BCE fourrée denarius (16.8 mm, 3.01 g, 5 h)
o: CAESAR upwards behind helmeted head of Mars, left; above, control symbol Q OR p
r: Venus driving a chariot left, drawn by two flying erotés; lyre in field beneath; L·IVLI·L·F in ex.
cf. Julia 4
An extremely convincing fouree, with break-through wear on the highest points on the reverse. Crawford says that the type repeats the control mark, which is variable in execution on authentic pieces, on both sides, which I do not clearly see on this otherwise crisp coin; perhaps this was a "tell" to contemporaries.
PMah
664aa207combo.jpg
Cr 325/1b AR Denarius L. Sentius C.f.8 viewsRome, 101 BCE

o: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, ARG * PVB [ligate AR]
r: Jupiter in quadriga right, holding thunderbolt and reins in left hand and sceptre in right hand; below, [control mark] H; in exergue, L.SENTI C.F.

Sentia 1 3.93 gm 21.00 mm

This is a pretty coin despite the weak strike on the important left side of the obverse (also affecting Jupiter on reverse). There, the coin proclaims that it is made from Public Silver, ARGentvm PVBlicvm, although the specific reasons are elusive; several nearly contemporaneous issues use the formula.
PMah
roman_Brno.jpg
Czech Republic, Morava region - Brno - V-shaped ditch of Roman temporary camp73 viewsV-shaped ditch of Roman temporary camp in Brno watching ford crosing on Svratka River in area of Marcoman tribe for while sometimes from 172 - 180 AD in time of Marcus Aurelius' Marcomannic Wars.
Dec 2017 excavated
1 commentsBohemian
Demetrias_Phoenicia_or_Syria.JPG
Demetrias Phoenicia or Syria14 viewsBronze AE 20, BMC Syria p. 289, 1; SNG Spaer -, VF, Demetrias mint, 8.708g, 22.3mm, 0o,
OBV: head right, Demetrios III or Melqart?;
REV: Tyche seated left on rocks, extending hand, river-god swimming at feet;
Forvm writes that this is a rare and interesting coin from the obscure city of Demetrias, located in southern Syria or Phoenicia. BMC describes the obverse as Demetrios III, who our portrait does resemble. Perhaps the city obtained permission to mint municipal coins because of its name. Demetrias might have been Demetrios' capital, Damascus, temporarily renamed. Damascus does have a river flowing through it. However, the portrait also resembles the Tyrian Melqart, so the coin could be a city issue with no connection to the Seleukid king.
Ex Forvm Ancient Coins

VERY RARE
Romanorvm
Faustina_II_50~0.jpg
Denar, RIC 3, p.271, 719 var. - Faustina II, Fecunditas, 6 children 24 viewsFaustina Minor
AR-Denar, Rome
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair tied in bun
Rev.: TEMPOR FELIC, Fecunditas standing left between four children, holding two more in arms, each with star above
Ag, 3.3g.
Ref.: RIC III 719 var. (six children instead of four, possible RIC error), CRE 179 [C]
Ex Münzen&Medaillen GmbH, auction 43, lot 353
Ex Klassische Münzen Dr. Michael Brandt
1 commentsshanxi
DCLARA-1.jpg
Didia Clara, daughter of Didius Julianus, Augusta, 193 CE.307 viewsĆ sestertius (30.5 mm, 21.24 gm), Rome mint, struck April-June, 193 CE.
Obv: DIDIA CLARA AVG, Draped bust right, hair in bun behind.
Rev: HILAR TEMPOR SC (Legend worn). Hilaritas standing, head left, holding palm branch and cornucopia. RIC 20; BMC 38; Cohen 4; Sear 6087.
2 commentsEmpressCollector
coin_7_ALL.jpg
DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG (the 2nd) / FEL TEMP REPARATIO AE3/4 follis (337-361 A.D.)36 viewsDN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right/ FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman in Phrygian helmet, who is reaching backwards. Mintmark SMHΔ (or A) in exergue.

AE3/4, 16-16.5+mm, 1.95g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor, FELicium TEMPorum REPARATIO (or FELicis TEMPoris REPARATIO) = re-establishment of the happy times, SMH = Sacra Moneta Heraclea, officina #1 (alpha) or #4 (delta). Heraclea is now Marmara Ereglisi, Turkey.

Despite the second part of the obverse legend being almost lost, this can only be Constantius II: a Constans' coin would have had a break after DN CONSTA- and a Constantius Gallus' one wouldn't have had a pearl-diademed bust. Also, the last letters of the legend seem to be VG. Factoring in the Phrygian helmet and the reaching back stance of the horseman, very clear H in the mintmark (Heraclea) and absence of any field marks, we can conclude that this must be a variety of RIC VIII Heraclea 90 type. This type should be 17-19mm in size, which is also consistent with this coin. Some sources remark that the fallen horseman type was introduced by Constans and Constantius only in 348, so this coin can be dated 348-361 A.D.

Constantius II (caesar 324-, augustus 337-361), see more info at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147501
2 commentsYurii P
D847.jpg
Domitia RIC 847111 viewsAR Cistophorus
Rome mint (for Asia), 82 AD (Domitian)
Obv: DOMITIA AVGVSTA; Bust of Domitia, draped r., hair massed in front and in long plait behind
Rev: VENVS AVG; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 847 (R). BMC 256. RSC 19. RPC 870 (8 spec.). BNC 226.
Ex CNG E424, 11 July 2018, lot 471.

A brief issue of cistophori were struck for Domitia as Augusta under Domitian in 82. Venus leaning on column was the sole reverse type chosen for her rare cistophori. The style and six o'clock die axis point to Rome as the home mint. K. Butcher and M. Ponting's metal analysis reveal they were struck from a different stock of metal than contemporary Rome mint denarii, possibly from recycled older denarii. At 80% silver fineness these early cistophori were likely struck before Domitian's major coinage reform of 82 when the denarius was raised to nearly 100% fineness.

Domitia Longina was the daughter of the famed Roman general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo who was commanded to commit suicide by Nero for alleged treason. Domitian courted and married Domitia soon after Vespasian's accession, despite her already being the wife of Aelius Lamia. It was a good match - distancing the Flavians from the reign of Nero and uniting them to a beloved general's family. Soon after Domitian become emperor, Suetonius tells us he briefly divorced Domitia because of an adulterous affair she had with the actor Paris. Dio claims Domitian actually considered executing her but was persuaded from doing so by the praetorian prefect Ursus. He soon reunited with her after a brief separation alleging the people demanded it. Where this coin fits into that time frame is hard to tell. We don't know exactly when the divorce occurred or how long it lasted. However, it is likely this coin was struck after their reconciliation and can be seen as symbolically strengthening Domitia's position at court.

Struck in fine early style.
9 commentsDavid Atherton
D56best2.jpg
Domitian RIC 5686 viewsAR Denarius, 3.22g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Minerva adv r., with spear and shield (M1)
RIC 56 (R2). BMC p. 299, ‡. RSC 560a. BNC -.
Ex eBay, September 2017.

Here is a rare Domitian 'PONT' denarius with the legend variant of DOMITIANVS fully spelled out. Denarii with 'PONT' instead of PM in the obverse legend come very early in the reign. Historically, PONT did not stand for Pontifex Maximus under Augustus, but did so under Nero (PONT was used after Nero was already Pontifex Maximus, BMC 9). It is possible Domitian followed Nero's example and used PONT as an abbreviation for Pontifex Maximus. Conversely, it is also possible he followed in Augustus' footsteps and used the temporary title 'PONT' until the ceremony electing him to the position was completed. We simply do not know. The records of the Arval brothers do not show Domitian as Pontifex Maximus by 30 October, so presumably he acquired the title in either November or December. The office seems to have had no fixed date of appointment. Knowing how much of a stickler Domitian was to keeping to the proper forms, the mint likely waited until his election as Pontifex Maximus before the title was displayed on the coinage. Whether or not that title on the coinage after the election was abbreviated as 'PONT' for a brief time is a mystery.

Struck in fine early style with a well centred obverse.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
D281.jpg
Domitian RIC-28183 viewsĆ Sestertius, 26.14g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG GERM COS XI; Bust of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r., with aegis
Rev: S C in exergue; Domitian stg. r., clasping hands over altar with officer stg. l.; behind officer, one soldier with standard and one soldier at r. with spear and shield
RIC 281 (R). BMC 301. BNC 321.
Acquired from Olding, MA Shops, June 2019 = Olding, List 96, March 2019, Sammlung Fritz Reusing, no. 182. From the collection of Fritz Reusing (1874-1956), acquired from the Heynen Collection; inherited and continued by Reusing's nephew Paul Schürer (1890-1976).

In 85 Domitian struck a fairly impressive issue of sestertii, M. Grant hyperbolically called it the most 'ambitious' of any one reign or year. The series is the first major aes issue of Domitian's reign and is dominated by panoramic types commemorating his greatest military victory over the Germanic tribe the Chatti. The Germanic triumph received a certain amount of ridicule from ancient writers who thought the whole thing was a sham (Dio goes so far as to say Domitian raided the palace's furniture stores for his fake spoils!), no doubt the numismatic propaganda for the victory was likely viewed in the same manner by contemporary senatorial elites. This rare sestertius depicts a rather ambiguous scene showing Domitian, the much larger figure on the left, clasping hands with a legate over an altar while two legionaries stand by. What exactly is going on here is a mystery. Mattingly in BMCRE II believed it to be 'the taking of the sacramentum, the military oath'. Others have postulated the scene shows Domitian greeting Agricola upon his return from Britannia. The Agricola connection is highly unlikely. The type is struck for several more years, so it cannot be referring to one single 'event'. It's an intriguing scene in the context of the Germania Capta series, perhaps depicting a post victory ceremony. Whatever the meaning, the reverse strongly underscores Domitian's bond with the military.

This wonderful old cabinet toned piece is from the collection of the German portrait painter Fritz Reusing.

3 commentsDavid Atherton
D397sm.jpg
Domitian RIC-39745 viewsĆ Sestertius, 26.19g
Rome mint, 85 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM XI CENS PER P P; Head of Domitian, laureate, r., with aegis
Rev: GERMANIA CAPTA; S C in exergue; Trophy; to r., German captive stg. r., hands bound, head l.; to l., Germania std. l.; around arms
RIC 397 (R2). BMC 361. BNC -.
Acquired from Incitatus Coins, August 2019.

In 85 Domitian struck a fairly impressive issue of sestertii, M. Grant hyperbolically called it the most 'ambitious' of any one reign or year. The series is the first major aes issue of Domitian's reign and is dominated by panoramic types commemorating his military victory over the Germanic tribe the Chatti. The details of the war are unclear, but the overall impression is that the conflict was a minor affair blown out of proportion by an emperor eager for military glory. Consequently, Domitian's Germanic triumph of 83 received a certain amount of ridicule from ancient writers who thought the whole thing was a sham (Dio goes so far as to say Domitian raided the palace's furniture stores for his fake spoils!), no doubt the numismatic propaganda for the victory was likely viewed in the same manner by contemporary senatorial elites. Germania Capta types were first struck in silver in 84 and in bronze in 85. This iconic Germania Capta sestertius strongly echoes Vespasian's Judaea Capta types - but instead of a palm tree we see a trophy and a bound captive replaces the triumphal emperor. H. Mattingly writes in BMCRE 'the type is closely modelled on the Judaea Capta of Vespasian, but the German element is indicated by the heavy angular cloak worn by the man and by the oblong shields.' Comparing the two triumphs, the Josephian scholar Steve Mason remarked - 'The same people who produced Flavian Triumph I: Judaea were on hand for Flavian Triumph II: Germania, and sequels are rarely as good as the originals.'

The Germania Capta sestertii were produced for only a few short years between 85-88. The present example from the third issue of 85 is a rare variant with an obverse legend struck just after Domitian had become censor for life (CENS PER).
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D816_(5)sm.jpg
Domitian RIC-81672 viewsAR Denarius, 2.73g
Rome mint, 95-96 AD
Obv: DOMITIANVS AVG GERM; Head of Domitian, bare, bearded, r.
Rev: Temple, eight columns, seated figure in centre; IMP CAESAR on architrave
RIC 816 (R2). BMC 243. RSC 175. BNC -.
Ex Private Collection.

Domitian struck a rare undated issue of denarii depicting five different temples. Based on portrait style and the fact that Domitian's moneyers were experimenting with new reverse designs after 94, the issue has been dated to either 95 or 96. Four of the five temples have been identified - Serapis, Cybele, Minerva, and Capitoline Jupiter. The fifth type is an octastyle temple, as seen on the coin above, and its identification remains a mystery. Mattingly conjectured it could be the Temple of Divus Vespasian, P.V. Hill and D. Vagi thought it possibly the Temple of Jupiter Victor, R.H. Darwell-Smith speculated it is the Temple of Jupiter Custos, and M. Tameanko believed it to be the Temple of Divus Augustus. Tameanko makes the strongest case. Earlier renditions of the temple on the coinage under Caligula show it with a hexastyle facade. Domitian restored or rebuilt the temple after the fire of 80. His architect Rabirius may have completely overhauled the building in a more contemporary style producing an octastyle temple. Almost a hundred years later Antoninus Pius restored the temple again and struck a series of coins commemorating the event. His coins indeed depict an octastyle temple very much like the one seen on this denarius and may be proof that under Domitian the temple was rebuilt as an octastyle structure. However, until more evidence comes to light, the identification remains uncertain. Like Domitian's earlier Saecular Games series, the temple denarii were likely struck as a special issue, perhaps reflecting Domitian's new interest as builder. The remarkable bare headed portrait further enhances the issue as something special.

Needless to say it is a fantastically rare piece! Additionally, the eight column type may be the scarcest of the temple group, considering I have located only two other examples in trade over the last 15 years. The other two coins (OldRomanCoins 2002, HJB 145, lot 265) are obverse die matches with mine. Oddly, some specimens (BM 234 for example) lack IMP CAESAR on the architrave.

Worn, with some bumps and scrapes, but well-centred and in good style with plenty of eye appeal.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D844eee.jpg
Domitian RIC-84486 viewsAR Cistophorus, 10.66g
Rome mint (for Asia), 82 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: Aquila between two standards, one surmounted by a banner, the other by a hand
RIC 844 (R). BMC p. 352. RSC 668. RPC 868 (3 spec.). BNC 224.
Ex. Harlan J. Berk 144, 13 July 2005, lot 572.

Rare with undated obverse legend. Struck contemporaneously or subsequently with COS VIII dated cistophori. Style and 6h die axis point to a Rome mint issue.

Good Titus-like portrait in fine early style.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
D851.jpg
Domitian RIC-85173 viewsAR Cistophorus, 9.99g
Rome mint (for Asia), 95 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XIIII IMP XXII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS XVII CENS P P P; Aquila between two standards, one surmounted by a banner, the other by a hand; G in exergue
RIC 851 (C). BMC 253. RSC 94. RPC 873 (8 spec.). BNC -.
Ex NFC Coins, eBay, 18 April 2018.

A small issue of cistophori were struck by Domitian in 95. Style and die axis identify Rome as the home mint. Curiously, K. Butcher and M. Ponting's metal analysis reveal they were struck from a different stock of metal than contemporary denarii, possibly from recycled older denarii. The traditional military type of aquila and standards is the most commonly encountered reverse from the series. It is copied from coins struck for Nero and Galba. The 'G' in exergue may be the mark of an officina.

Struck in good late style.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
D855c_(2)med.jpg
Domitian RIC-85567 viewsAR Cistophorus, 10.28g
Rome mint (for Asia), 95 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: Temple with two columns, inscribed ROM ET AVG in entablature, enclosing Augustus. stg. front to l., with spear, crowned by Roma to r., with cornucopiae; G in exergue
RIC 855 (C). BMC p. 352, *. RSC 407. RPC 875 (2 spec.). BNC -.
Acquired from Emerald Imports, eBay, May 2018. Formerly in NGC holder 4278229-001, grade 'Ch VF', strike 5/5, surface 4/5, 'Fine style'.

A small issue of cistophori were struck by Domitian in 95. The style and six o'clock die axis point to Rome as the probable mint. Interestingly, K. Butcher and M. Ponting's recent metal analysis of the series reveals it was struck from a different stock of metal than contemporaneous denarii, possibly from recycled republican and early imperial pieces. This rare reverse features the temple of Roma and Augustus at Pergamum copied from the cistophori of Claudius. The temple was erected in 29 BC and was an important centre of the imperial cult in the region. No archaeological remains have been found of the structure, only the coins hint at how it may have appeared. RPC speculates the 'G' in exergue may be the mark of an officina, although, why the Rome mint would use a mint mark on the cistophori and not on any other issues is quite puzzling.

This coin originally came in a NGC slab which noted it as 'fine style'. I quite agree.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
elagabalus_ar-antoninianus_felicitas-temporum_4_4gramsEx_-I_-Jones-collection_01.JPG
E Elagabalus AR Antoninianus - TEMPORVM FELICITAS35 viewsEmperor Varius 'Elagabalus' Antoninus
Silver Antoninianus. Struck at the Rome Mint 219-220 A.D.

obv: IMP ANTONINVS AVG - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS - Felicitas standing left with long caduceus and cornucopiae.

4.4 grams, 23mm

RIC149(S), RSC281.

Ex. I Jones collection
4 commentsrexesq
elagabalus_ar-antoninianus_felicitas-temporum_4_4grams.jpg
E Elagabalus AR Antoninianus - TEMPORVM FELICITAS54 viewsEmperor Varius 'Elagabalus' Antoninus
Silver Antoninianus. Struck at the Rome Mint 219-220 A.D.

obv: IMP ANTONINVS AVG - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: TEMPORVM FELICITAS - Felicitas standing left with long caduceus and cornucopiae.

4.4 grams, 23mm

RIC149(S), RSC281.

Ex. I Jones collection
2 commentsrexesq
EB0519_scaled.JPG
EB0519 Gordian III / Felicatas8 viewsGordian III, Antoninianus, 243-244 AD.
Obv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, draped radiate bust right.
Rev: FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicatas standing left with cauduceus and cornucopia.
References: RIC IV 142, RSC 81.
Diameter: 24mm, Weight: 4.39 grams.
EB
EB0537_scaled.JPG
EB0537 Commodus / Athena14 viewsCommodus, AE 26 of Bithynia, Nicomedia.
Obv: [A] K M AV[RO] ANTΩNI[N], Laureate head right.
Rev: MHT NEΩ NEIKOM H∆, Athena standing left, holding galley in right hand, spear and shield in left.
References: RPC IV 9895 (temporary).
Diameter: 26.5mm, Weight: 10.629 grams.
EB
EB0574_scaled.JPG
EB0574 Marcus Aurelius / Lucius Verus12 viewsMarcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, AE 25 of Laodicea ad Mare, Seleucis, Syria 161-169 AD.
Obv: [ΑVΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑ]ΙС[ΑΡ] ΑΝΤΩΝ[ΙΝΟС] ΙΟV (ΙΟV in r. field), Laureate head of Marcus Aurelius right.
Rev: [ΑVΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑ]ΙСΑΡ ΟVΗΡΟС [ΛΑ(Ο) (in r. field)], Laureate head of Lucius Verus right.
References: RIC IV 9261 (temporary).
Diameter: 24.5mm, Weight: 9.064 grams.
EB
EB0580_scaled.JPG
EB0580 Antoninus Pius / Temple, crescent above14 viewsAntoninus Pius, AE 24 of Commagene, Zeugma, Syria, 138-161 AD.
Obv: [Illegible, double or overstrike], Laureate head right.
Rev: ZEY/ΓMA/[TEωN], H in left field, tetrastyle temple, with peribolos containing grove, on right and left a colonnade, in front a portico or panelled wall of two stories; above crescent.
References: RIC IV 5752 (temporary); BMC 8.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 11.871 grams.
EB
EB0817_scaled.JPG
EB0817 Probus / Felicitas8 viewsProbus 276-282, Silvered AE Antoninianus. Lyons mint.
Obverse: IMP C PROBVS PF AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing right with caduceus and cornucopiae. Mintmark I.
References: RIC 53.
Diameter: 23mm, Weight: 4.27g.
EB
Faustina_II_R689_fac.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 153/154, Faustina II, Nilus33 viewsFaustina II
Alexandria
Ć Drachm
Obv.: ΦΑVСΤΙΝΑ СƐΒΑС(С)ΤΗ (legend starting at 1 o'clock), draped bust right
Rev.. Nilus, with crocodile beside him, reclining, l., holding reed and cornucopia; (below, water plants)
L IZ= year 17 of Antoninus Pius (153/154).
Ć, 22.11g, 34mm
Ref.: RPC IV online 14755 (temporary)
2 commentsshanxi
Faustina_II_45~0.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 154/155, Faustina II, Serapis seated, Kerberos 9 viewsFaustina II
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: ΦAVCTINA CEBACTH, draped bust right
Rev.: L - IΘ = year 19 (AD 155/156 ), Draped figure of Serapis, seated on high backed throne to left, holding long sceptre in his left hand and extending his right to touch Kerberos
Billon, 11.48g, 22mm
Ref.: Dattari 3267, RPC IV.4, 14413 (temporary)
shanxi
Elagabalus_(218-222)_denarius_(AR).png
Elagabalus (218-222) denarius (AR)14 viewsObv.: IMP ANTONINVS AVG (Laureate bust of emperor) Rev.: TEMPORVM FELICITAS (Felicitas std. holding caduceus and cornucopia) Diameter: 19,30 mm Weight: 2,12 g RIC 150

Elagabalus is a most fascinating figure. A scion of the Severan line, Elagabalus was the high priest of the cult of Ilāh hag-Gabal (Elagabalus, hence the emperor's nickname), patron deity of Emesa, who was worshipped in the form of a stone. This stone was brought to Rome with great festivities - even coinage was issued to celebrate the event- and was placed in its own temple called the Elagabalium. Elagabalus then proceeded to house the most important religious artifacts of the Romans in this temple, like the flame of Vesta and the Palladium, as if to subordinate them to his deity or in order to create a sort of syncretist religion. He also performed strange dancing rites around the stone in front of the Senate. Whatever the case, he was removed from power by his own grandmother in favour of Severus Alexander. Elagabalus' role as high priest is a recurrent theme on his coinage.
Nick.vdw
Elagabalus-RIC-166.jpg
Elagabalus / RIC 166.37 viewsDenarius, 218-219 AD , Antioch mint.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Rev: CONSVL II / Aequitas standing, holding scales and cornucopiae.
3.28 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #166; Sear unlisted.

This coin shares an obverse die with two other coins in this album: one with a CONCORDIA MILIT reverse (RIC #187), the other with a TEMPORVM FEL reverse (RIC #201).
1 commentsCallimachus
Elagabalus-RIC-187-1.jpg
Elagabalus / RIC 187.37 viewsDenarius, 218-219 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Rev: CONCORDIA MILIT / Two standards between two vexilla.
3.24 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #187; Sear #7505.

This coin shares an obverse die with two other coins in this album: one with a CONSVL II reverse (RIC #166), the other with a TEMPORVM FEL reverse (RIC #201).
1 commentsCallimachus
Elagabalus-RIC-201-2.jpg
Elagabalus / RIC 199.20 viewsDenarius, 218-219 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Rev: TEMPORVM FEL / Felicitas standing, holding patera and caduceus.
2.55 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #201; Sear #7550.
1 commentsCallimachus
Elagabalus-RIC-201var.jpg
Elagabalus / RIC 201 var.34 viewsDenarius, 219-220 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: IMP ANTONINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Rev: - TEMPORVM - FEL - / Felicitas standing, holding patera and caduceus.
3.08 gm. 18 mm.
RIC #201 var.

Note: This coin is not listed in RIC with this obverse legend. I have listed as a variety of RIC 201. Of interest are the wedge-shaped dashes in the reverse legend.
1 commentsCallimachus
Elagabalus-RIC-201-1.jpg
Elagabalus / RIC 201.26 viewsDenarius, 218-219 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Rev: TEMPORVM FEL / Felicitas standing, holding patera and caduceus.
2.40 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #201; Sear #7550.

This coin shares an obverse die with two other coins in this album: one with a CONCORDIA MILIT reverse (RIC #187), the other with a CONSVL II reverse (RIC #166).
1 commentsCallimachus
ericiv150ORweb.jpg
Elagabalus Denarius, RIC IV 15048 viewsRome Mint, Elagabalus denarius, 218-222 A.D. AR, 19.2mm 2.66g, RIC IV 150, RSC III 282
O: IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right
R: TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing half left, long vertical caduceus in right, cornucopia in left
4 commentscasata137ec
Elagabulus12.jpg
ELAGABALUS Fouree Denarius RIC 150, Felicitas14 viewsOBV: IMP ANTONINVS AVG, laureate, draped bust right
REV: TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left with caduceus & cornucopiae
2.4g, 17mm

Struck at Rome, 219 AD
Legatus
129.jpg
Elagabalus, AD 218-22214 viewsAR antoninianus, 22.04mm (5.37 gm).

IMP ANTONINVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae. Rome mint, struck AD 218-222.

RIC IV-II, 149 (pg.38); BMCRE V, 164; RSC III, 281.
socalcoins
ELYMAIS_Unidentified_King.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Probably a contemporary regional counterfeit struck during the reign of Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), or later.49 viewsvan't Haaff --; De Morgan --; BMC --; Sear GICV --; Alram --

AE unit (denomination undetermined), 2.51 g., 12.59 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Bust facing left, side whiskers as double row of dots.

Rev.: Plain diadem of two bands with fine lines, pellet border.

The obverse bust most closely resembles Prince A (late 2nd to early 3rd centuries A.D.), van't Haaff 19.1.1-1A, whereas the reverse mirrors Phraates (early-mid 2nd century A.D.), van't Haaff 14.4.1-2). Due to the decades between these rulers, the coin is probably not a mule. The coins of Phraates may have remained in circulation during the reign of Prince A, and beyond. The coin is probably a contemporary regional counterfeit inspired by the Phraates reverse. However, the diadem on the reverse is a reference to sky god Bel, and the possibility that the coin is an unrecorded official coin, issued by Prince A with the revived iconography of Phraates, cannot be excluded.

Attribution assistance courtesy of Pieter Anne van't Haaff (thanks to Robert L3), and Robert L3.
2 commentsStkp
george_iii_counterf_half-d.jpg
ENGLAND - GEORGE III70 viewsENGLAND - GEORGE III (1760-1820) 1/2-Penny -1787- CONTEMPORARY COUNTERFEIT! Britian did not make an officical issue this year. Many counterfeits circulated in this era alongside regular coinage. Obv: ARmored bust right, GEORGIUS III REX/Reverse: Brittania seated left with shield, holding branch. "BRITAN-NIA" around, date 1787 in exurge. Counterfeit of KM #601.1 commentsdpaul7
00275.jpg
Faustina II (RIC 1673, Coin #275)7 viewsRIC 1673, AE Sestertius, Rome, 179 AD.
Obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA Bust right.
Rev: TEMPORFELIC Faustina stands left between four girls, holding two infants. S C in fields.
Size: 32.5mm 21.86gm
MaynardGee
1493_Faustina_II_Abila.jpg
Faustina II - Abila, Decapolis4 views162-163 AD
draped bust right
ΦAVCTEINA__CEBACTH
Athena standing half left holding branch and spear
CEΛ__EVK__ABIΛA ϚKC
Spijkerman 4; SNG ANS 1120; RPC IV.3, 6507 (temporary)
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
Faustina_II_Sest.jpg
Faustina Jr Sestertius29 viewsFaustina Jr Ć Sestertius. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped & diademed bust right / TEMPOR FELIC S-C, Faustina standing facing, holding two infants, four children at her feet.

RIC 1674 ; Cohen 224.

Scarce

Tanit
0110800.jpg
Faustina Junior TEMPOR FELIC53 viewsAttribution: RIC III 347
Date: 161-176 AD
Obverse: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Reverse: TEMPOR FELIC SC, Fecunditas or Faustina standing left with four children and one in each arm
Size: 25 mm
Weight: 9.8 grams
newone
faustinajr1.jpg
Faustina Junior, Faustina and Children147 viewsO: FAVSTINA - AVGVSTA
Draped bust right

R: TEMPOR - FELIC S/C across fields
Faustina standing facing holding twin boys, four daughters standing at her feet

RIC 1675
Ae Dupon.; 11.78g; 27mm
3 commentsarizonarobin
Faustina_Sestertius.jpg
Faustina Junior. Augusta, AD 147-175. Ć Sestertius.42 viewsRome mint. Struck under Marcus Aurelius, circa AD 161-164.
Obverse ; FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, wearing stephane.
Reverse ; TEMPOR FELIC, Fecunditas standing left , S C , holding an infant on each arm; to either side below, two children standing facing her, the inner children raising their arms to her.
gVG.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
faust.jpg
Faustina Sestertius21 viewsFaustina Sestertius
Ob. FAVSTINA AVGVSTA
Rev. TEMPOR FELIC

RIC 1673
fordicus
as_FELICIT_TEMPOR.jpg
FELICIT TEMPOR16 viewsobv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG laurate, draped and cuirassed bust of gordian right seen from behind
rev: FELICIT TEMPOR Felicitas standing left holding caduceus in right hand and cornucopia in left hand

RIC 328
C 74
leseullunique
Gordian_FELICIT_TEMPOR_cv_b.jpg
FELICIT TEMPOR20 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Rome mint
scarce
Tibsi
Gordianus_c6_b.jpg
FELICITAS TEMPORVM21 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
0510-310.jpg
Florianus, Antoninianus - *88 viewsLyon mint, 3rd emission, 1st officina
IMP C M AN FLORIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right seen from front (A)
TEMPORVM FELICITAS, Felicitas standing raight, holding caduceus in right hand and cornucopia in left hand. I at exergue (1st officina)
4.1 gr
Ref : RCV # 11874v., Bastien # 146 pl. XVI, RIC # 12, C # 89, La Venčra hoard # II.2/2632
5 commentsPotator II
noeyetogether.jpg
Gadhaiya paisa13 viewsChaulukyas of Gujarat. c.1120 to 1210 A.D.
15mm..4.66gr
Obverse-Stylized Head of King Right.
Reverse-Stylized Fire Altar
Contemporary copy?
Paul R3
Julius_Caesar.jpg
Gaius Julius Caesar206 viewsFebruary-March 44 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.90 g, 5h). Rome mint. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Laureate and veiled head right / Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter; shield at base of scepter. Crawford 480/13; CRI 107d; Sydenham 1074; RSC 39. From the Jörg Müller Collection.

Alföldi arranges Crawford 480 series coins in (44 BC) month order as follows:

RRC 480/1, Buca - January
RRC 480/2, DICT QVART - early February
RRC 480/3/4/5, CAESAR IMP - late February
RRC 480/6/7/8/9/10/11/12/13/14, DICT PERPETVO - early to mid March
RRC 480/17/18, CAESAR IMPER - late March
RRC 480/19/20, PARENS PATRIAE - April
RRC 480/15/16, MARIDIANVS - April
RRC 480/21/22, CLEMENTIAE CAESARIS and Mark Antony - April

"Iconography, historical meaning:

The rev. can be understand easily: The Iulians ascribed their gens back to Aeneas who was the son of Venus (Aphrodite) and Anchises.Venus was the tutelary goddess of the gens Iulia and hence of Caesar. 46 BC Caesar has consecrated together with his new built forum also the temple of Venus Genetrix, the ancestress of his gens. On this denarius with Victory, spear and shield it is rather Venus Victrix.

The portrait on obv. is imposing by its realistic depiction. It was for the first time that a living ruler was pictured on a Roman coin. This too raised suspicion that Caesar - even if he wasn't acclaimed king - would behave as such.

Caesar's portrait attracts attention by the wreath he is wearing. It protrudes notable wide beyond his forehead. Furthermore it is padded and very ragged. This characteristic received too little attention until now. There is every indication that it is not a usual wreath but a corona graminea, a Grass or Blockade crown. This crown was dedicated by the army to that commander who has freed them from an encirclement and saved them from certain death. The crown was composed from flowers and tuft of grass which was plucked at the location of their liberation. This crown was regarded as the highest of all crowns! Pliny (nat. 22, 6) has known only of 8 persons with this honour:
1. Lucius Siccius Dentatus, tribunus plebis 454 BC
2. Publius Decius Mus, 343 BC, 1st Samnite War, dedicated even by 2 armies!
3. Marcus Calpurnius Flamma, 258 BC, at Carmina on Sicily
4. Quintus Fabius Maximus, after the departure of the Carthaginians from Italy, 203 BC
(dedicated by the Senate and the people of Rome, possibly posthumous)
5. Scipio Aemilianus Africanus
6. Gnaeus Petreius Atinas, centurio during the war against the Cimbri
7. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, during the Allied War at Nola 89 BC
8. Quintus Sertorius, 97 BC aa military tribune in Spain under Titu Ddius.
To Caesar and Augustus the crown was dedicated by the Senate!

The veil Caesar is wearing as Pontifex Maximus for lifetime.

DICTATOR PERPETVVS

During Republican times a dictator was designated when the state was in an emergency situation. His position was always temporally limited, yes, sometimes designated only for a single task. In the beginning Caesar too was dictator limited to 1 year and had to be designated again for the next year. Already 46 BC Caesar has been nominated dictator for 10 years but the title had to be renewed each year. So we know of coins with DICT, DICT ITER (= again, for the second time), IC TER (for the third time) and DICT QVART.

Since the proclamation as king has failed the title dictator disappeared from the denarii and were replaced by IMP. But soon behind Caesar's head appeares a star, a crescent, or Victory's spear stands on a star. These celestial signs - and that was understod by all - stand for divinity and should raise Caesar high above all Romans. Incompatible with the idea of a republican constituted Rome.

The point of culmination in this series is the legend DICT PERPETVO of this coin. Now the title of dictator was no more temporally limited but was valid like his office as Pontifex Maximus for all his life and it no more was necessary to confirm the title each year. That actually was a spectacular violation of the Roman constitution! The fact that he appeared at the Lupercalia on February 15. 44 BC in the ancient robe of kings strengthened the suspicion that he was looking for the kingship. In fact he has publicly
refused the royal crown that was offered to him by Marcus Antonius, but his authority to exert power was equal a king even without bearing the title of king. That was the most hateful title of the Roman Republic.

Now he has passed a line that his republican enimies couldn't tolerate any more if they still wanted to be taken seriously. So this coin actually led to his murder by the conspirators. So "The coin that kills Caesar" is by no means an exaggeration.

The planned Parthian War:

Caesar has planned a war against the Parthians. In March 44 BC he wanted to start for a campaign to the east. His assassination inhibited this intention. In science disputed are the goals which Caesar has had in mind with his war. They are reaching from a boundary adjustment, as Mommsen suggested, to world domination like Alexander the Great, as Plutarch is writing: According to him Caesar after the submission of the Parthians would go across Hyrcania at the Caspian Sea, then round the Black Sea via the Caucasus, invade the land of the Scyths, attack Germania and would finally return to Italy through the land of the Celts. In this way he would have conquered the world known to the Ancients and his limits were only the shores of the surrounding Okeanos.

Probably Sueton who was sitting directly at the sources was more realistic. And we know of the campaigns of Marcus Antonius and Augustus who surely have known Caesar's plans and have used them for their own purposes. It's clear that Caesar doesn't want to repeat the errors of Crassus who perished at Carrhae, and has tried to avoid he Parthian cavalry units. Therefore a route through Lesser Armenia is most probable. And there was hope that the Mesopotamian cities would raise against the Parthians. Caesar had gathered an army of 16(!) legions, a huge power that alone by its mere bigness would ensure the victory. Caesar was no gambler, rather a cautious and prudential commander.The famous "veni, vidi, vici" doesn't exist longer. What he actually had in mind we don't know. It's speculative. But there is every indication that it was a reorganisation of the east. And that rather by establishing client-kingdoms than creating new Roman provinces.

Probably the conspirators were afraid of Caesar's Parthian War, because a victory, which was possible or even probable, would have strengthen Caesar's position and has made him practically invulnerable." - Jochen
4 commentsNemonater
ID0177_0178_Merged.jpg
Gallienus - Antelope/Gazelle Imitations23 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAVG, Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- IANACONSER??TRI Antelope/Gazelle Right
Exergue:- blank

Two examples of imitations which I believe are contemporary, both coins are noticeably lighter in weight and seem to be created with the same pair of dies. The position of the antelope in relation to the bust is slightly different for both coins.
nogoodnicksleft
0171_Merged.jpg
Gallienus - Gazelle XII Left14 viewsObverse:- GALLIENVSAV[G], Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- DIANAE[CONSAV]G, Gazelle Left
Exergue:- IIX
RIC ???? GOBL ???? CUNETIO ????

An interesting piece with a Officina mint mark error. The style of the gazelle could make it possibly a contemporary imitation. The X is a particularly interesting shape looking more like a cross rather than X, maybe simply an unintentional coincidence or perhaps we could tentatively speculate that it was deliberate act by an early Christian die maker?. Different dies to the ZF57 example in Gobl, and to the coin in Helveticas collection (referenced in Gallienus RIC list).
nogoodnicksleft
Clipboard11~2.jpg
George III, Farthing, 1775. Contemporary counterfeit.34 views
Obv: laureate and cuirassed bust right, georgivs. iii.rex., toothed border both sides.
Rev: Britannia seated left on globe, with shield, spear and spray of leaves, britan nia., date in exergue.
ancientone
younggeta.jpg
Geta (209 - 211 A.D.)57 viewsAR Denarius
O: L SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, draped bust right.
R: FELICITAS TEMPOR, Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopia.
Laodicea, 198 - 200 A.D.
2.7g
18mm
RIC IV 95, RSC III 44a
4 commentsMat
G2.JPG
Geta - Felicitas108 viewsDenarius 198
O/ L SEPTIMIUS GETA CAES Boy's bare-headed bust draped and cuirassed right
R/ FELICIT-AS - TEMPOR Felicitas standing half-left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
C 44 - RIC 2
Mint: Rome (4th off., 1st emission)
1 commentsseptimus
GetaCaesTemporFelicitas.jpg
GETA CAESAR TEMPOR FELICITAS105 viewsP SEPT GETA CAES PONT Draped bust right
R/TEMP/OR.FELI/CITAS in in three lines in laurel-wreath
Denarius 3,18 g
Cohen 196 var , RIC 22
3 commentsgb29400
spikecrossORweb.jpg
Geta, contemporary counterfeit84 viewsGeta, Pautalia, barb., [OV]ΛΠIAC ΠAVTA[ΛIAC], altar *attributed through comment...Thanks A.!
19mm 3.72g
1 commentscasata137ec
Gordian_III_Felicitas_Temporum.jpg
Gordian III - AR antoninianus3 views243 AD
12th emission
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
Felicity standing left with cauduceus and cornucopia
FELICITA_S TEMPORVM
SRCV III 8606, RIC IV 142, RSC IV 81
4,60g
Johny SYSEL
Gordian_III.png
Gordian III Antoninianus23 viewsGordian III Antoninianus

Obverse:
IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse:
FELICITAS TEMPORVM
Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia

RIC IViii 142, C 81
2 commentsHarry G
Gordian III -1.jpg
Gordian III Sestertius19 viewsAE Sestertius

Gordian III Ć Sestertius. IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate bust right / FELICIT TEMPOR S C, Felicitas standing with caduceus & cornucopiae.

RIC 328a, Cohen 73.
Tanit
Gordian_III_Sestertius_RIC_328a.JPG
Gordian III Sestertius RIC 328a9 viewsAE Sestertius
Gordian III, Rome Mint, 243-244AD
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate and draped bust right
Reverse: FELICIT TEMPOR, Felicitas standing with caduceus and cornucopia
RIC 328a; Cohen 73
29mm, 19.5gm
Jerome Holderman
Gordian_III_RIC_142~0.JPG
Gordian III, 238 - 244 AD11 viewsObv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III facing right.

Rev: FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left holding a long caduceus and a cornucopia.

Silver Antoninianus, Rome mint, 243 - 244 AD

4.1 grams, 22.3 mm, 180°

RIC IViii 142, RSC 81, S8608, VM 9
Matt Inglima
4592_4593.jpg
Gordian III, Antoninianus, FELICITAS TEMPORVM10 viewsAR Antoninianus
Gordian III
Augustus: 238 - 244AD
Issued: 243 - 244AD
23.5 x 22.0mm
O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: FELICITAS TEMPORVM; Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia.
Sear 8606, C-81.
Rome Mint
Aorta: 207: B11, O6, R21, T14, M2.
4/4/17
Nicholas Z
GORDIAN3-3-ROMAN~0.jpg
Gordian III, RIC IV-142 Rome17 viewsAR Antoninianus
Rome mint, 243-244 A.D.
22mm, 3.21g
RIC IV-142, RSCv.4-81, RCV.v3-8608

Obverse:
IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
FELICITAS TEMPORVM
Felicitas standing left, holding long caduceus and cornucopiae.
rubadub
rjb_shield13.jpg
Gorgon11 viewsGallienus
Contemporary plated imitation
mauseus
AG-Macedon,_Alexander_III-3~0.jpg
GREEK, Macedonian Kingdom, Alexander III, 336-323 BC –Drachm - Signed Die35 viewsAR Drachm (16mm, 4.26g): Price 2090A

Obv.: Head of Heracles right, wearing lion skin headdress, K on skin behind ear

Rev.: AΛEΞANΔPOY, Zeus seated left, holding scepter and eagle; monogram in left field.
This drachm is a lifetime issue from Miletos, circa 325-323 BC. It is signed by the artist who placed a "K" on the lion skin headdress behind Alexander's ear.

One could say Ho Hum just another drachm of Alexander III, however this coin is a little more interesting than most. From Roma Numismatics Limited’s 2012 description of a specimen it sold – “Extremely Rare. Only two specimens noted in ADM I (both in the ANS collection). This, and an equally rare contemporary issue at Magnesia ad Maeandrum are the only two instances of signed dies struck for Alexander.”

I was able to find two specimens in auction records. The Roma Numismatics Limited’s 2012 specimen in ACSEARCH (don’t use Price 2090A in the search use “signed die”). The Roma Numismatics Limited’s 2012 specimen should really be listed here, as pleased as I am with my specimen the Roma Numismatics Limited’s specimen is truly superior. The second specimen I found was this specimen in the NGC ancient coin auction records. The specimen shown here was sold twice in 2015 by Heritage I purchased the coin from the second sale.
Richard M10
Palmyrene-13mm.jpg
GREEK, Palmyra45 viewsMint-Palmyra
Obv-No legend,Draped bust of Atargatis with *Mauerkrone(mural Crown) in profile right between crescent and star
Rev- No Legend,Radiate draped bust of Sol facing,head left
Size-13mm | Weight-1.17 grams | Date-2nd/3rd Century
Munich SNG 519. Krzyzanowska, Le monnayage de Palmyre, Actes you 9e Congrčs Internationally de Numismatique in 1979 ŕ Berne (1982), 448, fig.1/IV.

*Atargatis is described as wearing a Mauerkrone-Literally mural crown, but you could also use the term turreted.The significance of this headgear is that it represents a convenant bond between Goddess and city.
In The book "Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt: Von den Anfängen Roms bis zum Ausgang der Republik" by Hildegard Temporini, Joseph Vogt and Wolfgang Haase the authors describe the covenant bond between The goddess Artemis and the city of Epheus as such- A technique of sculptural iconography employed to emphasize this concept of covenant between the goddess and the city was that of a mural crown and sanctuary headdress placed upon the head of Artemis. The use of these motifs in ancient artistic symbolism was frequent .In the case of Epheus,the mural crown depicted the goddess' protection of the cities fortifications and thereby it's general welfare.This is the same kind of relationship as Atargatis shared with Palmyra.
black-prophet
Sogdiana,_Imitative_Antiochos_I__AR_drachm_.jpg
Greek, Sogdiana, Imitative Antiochos I Soter, 281-261 BC, AR Drachm 105 viewsLaureate head of Antiochos right.
Retrograde legend ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANT[I]OXOY curving from left to below and before a bridled horned horse head right, circled Δ to far right.
SC 461-462 (var. – controls); HGC 9, 136 (var. - controls) (R3).
Sogidana, uncertain mint, mid-third century BC.
A unique and unrecorded variant of SC 461-462.
(17 mm, 2.86 g, 6h)
ex- William K. Raymond Collection

The crude style, the retrograde semi-circular legend, the disposition of the mint control and the low weight of this coin are indicative of a Sogdian imitation of the Antiochos I drachm type that was issued by the mint at Ai Khanoum in Baktria during the period 281-261 BC. Unlike the imitative coin the official issue was struck on the Attic weight standard of 4.3 grams. The style of this coin and the full replication of the Ai Khanoum mint control place it early in the Sogdian imitative series, possibly contemporaneous with the lifetime Antiochos I issue that it imitates. Marcanda/Samarkand and Bukhara are likely candidates for the origin of this coin.
Lloyd T
179.jpg
Head right (laureate, possibly Titus?)143 viewsSYRIA: DECAPOLIS. Antiochia ad Hippum. Nero. Ć 18. A.D. 67/68 (year 131). Obv: (NEPΩ)N-KA(IΣAP). Laureate head right, crescent before (not visible); countermark on lower part of bust. Rev: (IΠΠH)NΩ(N), (AΛP) below. Horse standing left. Ref: Spijkerman 2a; RPC 4808 (5 pcs). Axis: 15°. Weight: 6.86 g. CM: Laureate (?) head right, in largely oval punch, 6 x 7.5 mm. Howgego 121 (8 pcs). Note: Howgego suggests that the countermarking was contemporary with the next issue of coins under Titus. None of the coins of Titus (or subsequent emperors) are countermarked. Collection Automan.Automan
20171108_113836.jpg
Heraclius, with Martina and Heraclius Constantine. 610-641. Ć Follis12 viewsContemporary imitation of a Constantinople mint issue dated RY 8 (618/9), 4th “officina”.
Obv. Heraclius, in center, flanked by Martina, on left, and Heraclius Constantine, on right, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger;
Rev. Large M; cross above, A/N/N/O u across field; Δ//CON.
References: Cf. DOC 89-91; cf. MIB 161; cf. SB 806.
25mm, 9.25 grams
Canaan
20171108_113820.jpg
Heraclius, with Martina and Heraclius Constantine. 610-641. Ć Follis11 viewsContemporary imitation of a Constantinople mint issue dated RY 10 (620/1), 4th “officina”.
Obv. Heraclius, in center, flanked by Martina, on left, and Heraclius Constantine, on right, each wearing crown and chlamys and holding globus cruciger;
Rev. Large M; cross above, A/N/N/O X across field; Δ//CON.
References: Cf. DOC 89-91; cf. MIB 161; cf. SB 806.
23mm, 5.23 grams
Canaan
Honorius_Lyon_2_ab.JPG
Honorius (RIC X 1361)41 viewsHonorius (384-423), Roman Emperor (393-395) and Western Roman emperor (395-423). Ć (1.63 g, 13 mm), minted in Lugdunum (Lyon) 411-423. Obverse: (DN H)ONORI-VS PF AVG. Reverse: GLORIA R-OVMAVM, emperor standing facing, head to right, holding standard and resting left hand on shield, LV(G) in exergue. Reverse legend GLORIA R-OMANORVM invariably garbled according to RIC X. RIC X 1361 (R4), LRBC 399.

Last Roman issue from Lugdunum. Bastien (1987) has suggested a date between the usurpations of Constantine III and Jovinus, while Kent (RIC X) suggests that the type is best placed in Honorius's later years when southern Gaul had been reorganized and was enjoying a temporary respite from invasions.
Ex Divus Numismatik 2010
Jan (jbc)
john hunyadi.jpg
HUNGARY - Janos Hunyadi, Regent218 viewsHungary - Johann Hunyadi, Regent (1446-1453) AR Denarius. Hus. 620. Toned Fine.
Obverse: Lion, "TEMPORE { }. Reverse: Patriarchal cross, "+MONETA REGIS VNGARIE"
dpaul7
HUN_Kalman_Huszar_37_var.JPG
Huszár 37 var.; Toth-Kiss 11.7 var. sigla --; Unger 28 var.; Réthy I 45 var.; Frynas H.9.5 var.; Adamovszky A52 var.; Kovács pp. 171 ff59 viewsHungary. Kálmán/Coloman the Bookish (1095-1116)

AR denar (average: .50 g., 12-13.5 mm.), .39 g., 12.59 mm. max.

Obv: + COLVMBANVS RE (bungled legend), Cross.

Rev: + LADISLAVS RE (decaying legend), cross with wedges.

Huszár rarity 8, Toth-Kiss rarity 25, Unger rarity 35, Frynas rarity N. This is a variant with a bungled obverse legend and a larger cross on the obverse. It is neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs and is possibly a contemporary counterfeit, per personal email communication with József Géza Kiss on December 14, 2018.

Ladislaus/László I (1077-1095) was canonized in 1192. His name typically appeared, albeit in an increasingly decaying form, on the reverse of 12th century emissions such as this.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Karoly_Huszar_479_Pohl_36-2_(2).jpg
Huszár 479, Pohl 36-2, Unger 378a, Réthy II 8, Frynas H.24.310 viewsHungary. Károly Róbert/Charles Robert (1307-1342)

AR denar (average weight 0.804 g. per Pohl); .82 g., 14.70 mm. max., 180°

Obv: Rev: King enthroned with scepter and imperial orb, lily on left and patriarchal cross on right.

Rev: + KA[ROLV]S : REX : V[n]GhARIE, two-part shield with Angevin fleur-de-lis and Árpádian stripes.

Issued in Esztergom, possibly by Nicholas Szatmári (per Pohl), possibly in 1334 (per Pohl and Gyöngyössy) or in 1333 (per Huszár, Unger, Frynas and Gyöngyössy).

Frynas identifies the side with the king as the reverse whereas all other sources refer to that side as the obverse.

Referred to in the contemporary sources as a "banalis strigoniensis" (Strigoniensis + Esztergom in Latin)

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6, Unger rarity 60+, Frynas rarity R.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-5_1.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-5 var., Unger 443e var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., Toma plate III/3 var. Probably a contemporary counterfeit.16 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .45 g., 15.88 mm. max., 270°

Obv: +mOnIE...R VnGARIE [unconventional-style letter A and other letters], Open crown with h below

Rev: + mOnETA mARIE [unconventional-style letters A and other letters], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). Coins with a letter h privy mark below the crown were struck in Nagyszeben/Hermannstadt, now Sibiu, Romania, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation among just three coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma. Although many letters are indistinct, the style of many letters is unconventional and the legend on the crown side appears to be bungled. This suggests that the coin is a contemporary counterfeit.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, C/a, occurs aamong coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_576_Pohl_117--.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117--, Unger 449-, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.439 viewsHungary. Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .48 g., 13.60 mm. max., 0°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS • VnGARIE ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), H [?] above.

The type was struck in 1390-1427. The mintmark appears to be an H, which is not listed in any of the catalogs, nor recorded for any other coins struck under Zsigmond.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-11.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-11, Unger 449c, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.432 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .47 g., 14.20 mm. max., 270°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS VnGISmVnDI, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), • above.

The type was struck in 1390-1427.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. Erroneous legend on reverse (should be, + REGIS VnGARIE ETC, but is a conflation of the obverse and reverse legends).

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-16.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-16, Unger 449β, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.442 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, 49 g., 14.16 mm. max., 90°

Obv: mOn SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, n in lowest right corner.

Rev: + • REGIS VnGARIE ETC •, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), m above.

The type was struck in 1390-1427. This privy mark was struck in 1399-1405 in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) by Marcus of Nurenberg, oberkammergraf.
Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. Unrecorded variety (no pellet between words on obverse; pellets with style of A on reverse).

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-27.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-27, Unger 449ξ, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.426 viewsHungary. Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .42 g., 12.29 mm. max., 90°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: [+ RE]GIS VnGARIE • ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), C above.
The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This mintmark was struck in Kassa/Kaschau/now Košice, Slovakia (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-28.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-28, Unger 449π, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.421 viewsHungary. Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .42 g., 14.13 mm. max., 0°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS VnGARIE ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), retrograde C above.

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This mintmark was struck in Kassa/Kaschau/now Košice, Slovakia (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-31.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-31, Unger 449τ, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.427 viewsHungary. Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .39 g., 13.22 mm. max., 180°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS • VnGARIE • ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), K above.

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This mintmark was struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz, now Kremnica, Slovakia (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-33.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-33, Unger 449φ, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.422 viewsHungary. Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .46 g., 13.84 mm. max., 90°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS • VnGARIE • ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), n above.

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This mintmark was struck in Nagybánya/now Baia Mare, Romania (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-34.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-34, Unger 449χ, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.422 viewsHungary. Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .51 g., 13.66 mm. max., 180°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS • VnGARIE • ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), O above.

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This mintmark was struck in Offenbánya/now Baia de Arieş, Romania (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-35.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-35, Unger 449ψ, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.424 viewsHungary. Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .57 g., 13.69 mm. max., 270°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS VnGARIE • ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), P above.

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This mintmark was struck in Pécs (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
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Huszár 576, Pohl 117-36, Unger 449ω, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.423 viewsHungary. Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .32 g., 13.63 mm. max., 0°

Obv: mOn [• SIG]-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS • [VnGA]RIE ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), S above.

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This mintmark was struck in Szomolnok/Schmöllnitz/now Smolnik, Slovakia (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
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Huszár 576, Pohl 117-37, Unger 449aa, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.428 viewsHungary. Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .42 g., 13.39 mm. max., 0°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: [+ REGI]S VnGA]RIE ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), T above.

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This mintmark was probably struck in Temesvár//now Timișoara, Romania (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
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Huszár 576, Pohl 117-43, Unger 449d, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.455 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .54 g., 14.03 mm. max., 90°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS VnGARIE ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), •• above.
The type was struck in 1390-1427.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_576_Pohl_117-8.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-8, Unger 449μ, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.428 viewsHungary. Zsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .54 g., 13.58 mm. max., 0°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, •S• between cross arms to right.

Rev: + REGIS Vn[GAR]IE • ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle).

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This mintmark was struck in Szomolnok/Schmöllnitz/now Smolnik, Slovakia (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
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HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_576_Pohl_117---.jpg
Huszár 576, Pohl 117-_, Unger 449_, Réthy II 121, Frynas H.27.432 viewsZsigmond/Sigismund of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar, .43 g., 14.34 mm. max., 180°

Obv: mOn • SIG-ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS VnGARIE • ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle), star above, E to left.

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár, Unger and Frynas). This mintmark was possibly struck in Nagybánya/now Baia Mare, Romania (cf. Pohl 117-45 with the star above).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4; Unger value 8 DM; Frynas rarity rating C. This coin has an apparently unrecorded mintmark.

This emission was struck with a fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and 130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.
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HUN_Hunyadi_Huszar_618_Pohl_175-4.png
Huszár 618, Pohl 175-4, Unger 485d, Réthy II 15699 viewsHungary. János Hunyadi (Governor, 1446-1453). Billon denar, .43 g., 12.80 mm. max., 0°

Obv: TEMPORE– IOhAnIS, Patriarchal cross, h-P flanking

Rev: + M REGnI VnGA]RIE, Shield w/ Árpádian stripes

The type was struck in 1446 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in in Nagyszeben=Hermanstadt (now, Sibiu, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6. This obverse legend is not recorded in any of the catalogs, which record the legend as TEMPORE–IO • GVBER. This legend appears to be common on the coins of the type issued in Hermanstadt and bearing this privy mark.
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Huszár 618, Pohl 175-5, Unger 485e, Réthy II 156, Weszerle B-VIII-9126 viewsHungary. János Hunyadi (Governor, 1446-1453). AR denar, .14-14.5 mm.

Obv: TEMPORE– • IOhAnIS •, Patriarchal cross, h-c/X (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: + M • REGnI • VnGARIE[•], Shield with Árpádian stripes.

The type was struck in 1446 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in in Hermanstadt (now Sibiu, Romania) by Christophorus de Florentia, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6. This obverse legend is not recorded in Huszár, Pohl or Unger, which all record the legend as TEMPORE–IO • GVBER. This legend appears to be common on the coins of the type issued in Hermanstadt and bearing this privy mark.
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Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525 (contemporary counterfeit).15 viewsHungary. Louis/Lajos II (1516-1526)

AR (contemporary counterfeit) denar, .33 g., 15.46 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: [LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI] * 1525, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon [bungled and retrograde legend and date].

Rev: [PATRONA] * – * [VNGAR]IE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B in fields [bungled and retrograde legend].

Type struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl, Unger & Gyöngyössy). Officially struck coins bearing this privy mark struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Bernhard Beheim, the kammergraf appointed by Queen Maria in 1524, who continued in office until 1545 (per Pohl).

The silver content of this coin appears to be comparable to that of the inflationary currency referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova” (Huszár 846, Pohl 258, Unger 675, Réthy II 308A). Four hundred denars, each weighing on average 0.49 g., were struck form an Ofner mark of silver and had an average fineness of 0.250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3, Unger value 8 DM (re official emission).
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Huszár 846, Pohl 258-2, Unger 675e, Réthy II 308A, dated 1523 56 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1523, with rosettes on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, rosette between two pellets on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—K (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) (per Pohl).

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_853.jpg
Huszár 853, Pohl 258-33, Unger 677b, Réthy II 313, dated 1524 26 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, .53 g, 14.50 mm. max., 180°

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, 1 with pellets above and below to left, [• 52] • above, and 4 with pellets above and below to right.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L–R/N (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1524-1525 (per Huszár & Unger). Pohl classifies this type as a mintmark variety of Huszár 846, Unger 675, Réthy II 308A. That type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck from an Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 6.
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HUN_Anonymous_Vienna_Huszar_400.JPG
Huszár 400, Unger 310, RĂ©thy I 35069 viewsHungary. Anonymous Vienna denar (possibly Ladislaus IV (László, in Hun.) (1272-1290), per Unger; or Béla IV (1235-1270), per Rádóczy and Nagy). AR denar, 13-14 mm.

Obv: Agnus Dei facing left with cross-banner.

Rev: Hebrew letter ט (tet) in floral wreath.

Huszár wrote that “t cannot be determined under which ruler th[is] w[as] minted” (Huszár 1977). However, Rádóczy and Nagy determined that coins bearing the Hebrew letter ט (tet) were issued by Teka, who was a kammergraf in 1232 under András II (András, in Hun.) (1205-1235) and 1235-1245 under Béla IV (1235-1270 (per Friedenberg; also per Pohl). They attributed it to Béla IV (per Friedenberg).

“[F]oreign influence spread to contemporary Hungarian coinage from the Vienna denars, a collective term applied to the coins issued by Austrian princes beginning with the end of the 12th century through various mints. Such coins appeared as commercial currency in large quantities all over Hungary in the course of the 13th century . . . [T]he types virtually vied vied with the fantastic animal shapes of contemporary sculpture . . . Of these motifs, that of the Agnus Dei enjoyed particular favour in contemporary Romanesque sculpture.” (Huszár (1963) at 12).

Huszár rarity rating R1.
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Huszár 465, Pohl 22, Unger 369, RĂ©thy II 1361 viewsHungary. Charles Robert (Károly Róbert, in Hun.) (1307-1342). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: King’s half length portrait, facing, between R—K.

Rev: + MOnET[A REI]S KARVLI, Eagle with outstretched wings facing right.

Issued in 1327 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. The reverse legend, as described and depicted in Huszár and Pohl, differs slightly from the description and depictions in Unger and Réthy. The legend on this coin appears to comport with Unger and Réthy.

This emission was referred to in contemporary sources as a denarius cum Aquila.
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Huszár 550 var., Pohl --, Unger 434b var., Réthy II 91 var. 69 viewsHungary. Louis I (Lajos I, in Hun.) (1342-1382). AR denar.

Obv: + MOnETA LODOVICI (counterclockwise and partially retrograde legend), Saracen head right.

Rev: + REGIS hVnGARIE (counterclockwise and partially retrograde legend), Patriarchal cross with random pellets, crown–crown (privy mark) in lowest fields.

Struck in Buda (now Budapest), ca. 1373-1382 (per Huszár & Unger, although Huszár later wrote that the Saracen-head coinage incepted in 1372). Mint and moneyer unknown. Said to possibly be a contemporary counterfeit by Pohl.

Huszár rarity rating 7. This appears to be an uncommon variety of the emission in that the legends on the standard coin are clockwise without retrograde letters. It is neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.

The Saracen's head is a pun on the surname of Jacobus Saracenus (Szerechen, in Hun.) and his brother, Johannes, courtiers of Italian descent who were ennobled by Louis. The image of a Saracen's head appeared on their coat of arms. Jacobus became the kammergraf at the Pécs mint in 1352, and the Comes Camerarum Regalium in 1369. He died in the early 1370s, at which time Johannes succeeded him as kammergraf.
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Huszár 575, Pohl 116, Unger 448, Réthy II 120250 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: + MOnET S[IGISM]VnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + REGIS Vn[GA]RIE, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle).

The type was struck in 1387-1389 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger) in Buda (now Budapest) by Onofrio Bardi (per Pohl & Huszár).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of pellets in the reverse legend. This coin comports with the description and depictions in Unger and Réthy.

This emission was disparagingly called a “bardus” (stupid, slow or dull, in Latin) by contemporaries, and remained in circulation until 1427. It was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that early in the reign of Sigismund, the process of devaluation of the denar, which had begun under Louis I (1342-1382), continued at an accelerating rate, and “collapse[d].” Thus, while 240 denars were the equivalent of an aranyforint in 1386, by 1390 300 denars were the aranyforint’s equivalent.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).


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Huszár 576, Pohl 117-1, Unger 449a, Réthy II 121218 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR denar, 14 mm.

Obv: MOn • SIG—ISMVnDI, Patriarchal cross.

Rev: + • REGIS VnGARIE ETC, Four-part shield (Árpádian stripes and Brandenburg eagle).

The type was struck in 1390-1427 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of pellets in the reverse legend. This coin comports with the description and depictions in Huszár.

This emission was withdrawn from circulation after 1427. It was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.582 silver and an average weight of 0.51 g. (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that in 1390 Sigismund was able to temporarily restore the stability of the denar by the issuance of this new emission, which was referred to as nova moneta. For thirteen years the value of the denar remained stable, and 100 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. In 1403 debasement occurred, and130 were the equivalent of the aranyforint. The debasements continued, so that by 1406 the price of an aranyforint was 160 denars, it was 200 in 1421, 225 in 1423 and 320 in 1426.

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

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Huszár 618, Pohl 175-1, Unger 485a, RĂ©thy II 156 174 viewsHungary. János Hunyadi (Governor, 1446-1453). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: TEMPORE–IO • GVBER •, Patriarchal cross, B–*/n (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: + M • REGnI • VnGARIE •, Shield with Árpádian stripes.

The type was struck in 1446 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) under a collective mark (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6.
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Huszár 618, Pohl 175-7, Unger 485g, RĂ©thy II 156102 viewsHungary. János Hunyadi (Governor, 1446-1453). AR denar, .27 gr., 13 mm.

Obv: TEMPORE–IO • GV[BER], Patriarchal cross, n-C (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: + M • REGnI • VnG[ARIE], Shield with Árpádian stripes.

The type was struck in 1446 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in in Nagybánya (now Baia Mere, Romania) under a collective civic mark (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6.
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HUN_Janos_Hunyadi_Huszar_620_Pohl_177-10.JPG
Huszár 620, Pohl 177-10, Unger 486_, RĂ©thy II 157A123 viewsHungary. János Hunyadi (Governor, 1446-1453). Billon denar, .69 gr., 17 mm.

Obv: + TEMPORE • GVBERnATORI, Crowned lion of Berszterce facing left.

Rev: + MOnETA • REGnI • VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, n–* (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1447-1450 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1447-1451 (per Pohl). This privy mark is a collective mark struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mere, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6. The legends described and depicted in Huszár and Pohl differ slightly from those described and depicted in Unger and Réthy. The obverse of this coin differs significantly from those described, and the reverse comports with is coin comports with Huszár and Pohl.
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Huszár 630, Pohl 185A, Unger --, RĂ©thy II 165101 viewsHungary. János Hunyadi (Governor, 1446-1453) and or in the name of Ladislaus V (László in Hun.) “Posthumous” (1440-1457). Billon denar, .57 gr., 17 mm.

Obv: [* ]MOnTA • LADISLAI • DEI [• G], Patriarchal cross, K-R (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: [+ TEMPOR]E • [IO • GVBER]nATORI, Bohemian lion facing left.

Struck in 1452 per Huszár or post 1447 (probably 1452) per Pohl to pay laborers (per Pohl). This is a mule (Although not noted as such in Huszár, it is stated to be a mule in Unger and Pohl. It was listed as Unger 493 in the first edition of that catalog, but is not listed in the second edition). The “obverse” of this coin is the obverse of a denar (Huszár 654, Pohl 160-3, Unger 505c, Réthy II 183) struck on behalf of Ladislaus V by the Hussite warlord Jan Giskra in 1447-1450 (per Pohl, Huszár and Unger). The “reverse” is the obverse of a denar (Huszár 620, Pohl 177, Unger 486, Réthy II 157A) struck by János Hunyadi in 1447-1450 (per Huszár and Unger) or 1447-1451 (per Pohl). The privy mark is a collective mark struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) that was used on both types in all those years (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating R1. The reverse legend in Huszár differs from that in Réthy only in that there is a final “S” in the legend in Huszár. This coin appears to comport with Réthy.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_716.JPG
Huszár 716, Pohl 217, Unger 563, RĂ©thy II 236 284 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + M MAThIE R VnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in center.

Rev: PETROn — VnGAR, Nimbate (beaded halo) veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—patriarchal cross (privy mark) in fields.

This type was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Veit Mülstein, oberkammergraf, in 1470-1471 (per Pohl) or 1468-1470 (per Huszár & Unger, although these dates do not entirely coincide with Mülstein's tenure at the Kremnitz mint). Said to possibly be a contemporary counterfeit by Huszár.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6.

The substitution of the letter E for the letter A in the word PATROn is not described in Huszár (although depicted there, and in Pohl), nor depicted in Unger or Réthy. Mülstein also made this substitution in another emission bearing this privy mark.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_846_1525_Pohl_258-11.JPG
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-11, Unger 675t, Réthy II 308A, dated 1525 63 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1525, with annulets on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, rosette between two annulets on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—S (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl).

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_846_1522_Pohl_258-2.JPG
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-2, Unger 675e, Réthy II 308A, dated 1522 91 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1522, with rosettes on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, rosette between two pellets on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—K (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) (per Pohl).

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

Stkp
HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_846_1524_Pohl_258-2.JPG
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-2, Unger 675e, Réthy II 308A, dated 1524 168 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1524, with rosettes on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, rosette between two annulets on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—K (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) (per Pohl).

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.
Stkp
HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_846_1525_Pohl_258-24_var.JPG
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-24 var, Unger 675n var., Réthy II 308A, dated 1525 ?149 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1525 [?], with annulets on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, R—D with rosettes above and below on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—R (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) under a collective municipal moneyer-mark.

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This series of privy marks is not recorded, but is closest to Pohl 258-24, Unger 675n (K-D on obverse and L-R on reverse).
Stkp
SeptimiusSeverus-Denar-EMESA-2cornucopiae-RIC373.jpg
I-SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS -c-001-Denar-EMESA-RIC I/IV/37323 viewsAv) IMP CAES L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II
Laureated bust right

Rv) FELICIT TEMPOR
Two crossed cornucopiae, in the middle corn-ears

Weight: 2,7g; Ř:18mm; Reference: RIC IV/I/373;Mint: EMESA; struck.194-195 A.D.
sulcipius
coins115.JPG
Illyria, Dyrrhachium30 viewsGR2. Illyria, Dyrrhachium. After 229 BC. Silver drachm

Obverse : Cow with suckling calf,and the moneyers name MENISKOS above the cow's back, with a small eagle above the name.
Reverse : Double star pattern in a square, with an inscription naming the city around.

In 229 BCE, when the Romans seized the city the "-damnos" part of the name was inauspicious to Latin ears, and its name, as it was refounded, became Dyrrhachium. Pausanias (6.x.8) says "the modern Roman city is not the ancient one, being at a short distance from it. The modern city is called Dyrrhachium from its founder." The name Dyrrachion is found on coins of the fifth century BCE; in the Roman period Dyrrachium was more common. However, the city maintained a semi-autonomy and was turned into a Roman colony.

Dyrrachium was the landing place for Roman passengers crossing the Ionian Sea from Brundisium, which made it a fairly busy way-station. Here commenced the Via Egnatia, the Roman military road to Thessalonica that connected Roman Illyria with Macedonia and Thrace. The city itself was part of Macedonia, more specifically Epirus Nova. In 48 BCE Pompey was based at Dyrrachium and beat off an attack by Julius Caesar (see Battle of Dyrrhachium). In 345 BCE the city was levelled by an earthquake and rebuilt on its old foundations. In the 4th century CE, Dyrrachium was made the capital of the Roman province of Epirus nova.

The name "Epidamnos" was still used by the Byzantines, as for example in the 13th-century Synopsis Chronike, referring to contemporary events.

ecoli
Vandal2_ab.jpg
Imitative issue - Vandal kingdom84 viewsVandal kingdom. Ć nummus (10 mm). 5th century, imitating contemporary roman bronze coins. Obverse: Diademed and draped bust right. Reverse: Victory with wreath advancing left.1 commentsjbc
Gupta_Empire,_Samudragupta,_Gold_Dinar,_7_9g,_Standard_Type.jpg
INDIA, Gupta Empire - Samudragupta65 viewsGupta Empire, Samudragupta, Gold Dinar, 7.9g, Standard or Sceptre Type

Obv: King, nimbate and wearing fine ornaments, standing facing left and sacrificing at fire altar, holding the royal sceptre (rājadanda) in left hand, Garuda-dhwajja (standard) to the left, Brāhmī legend under left arm: Sa-mu-dra, circular sanskrit legend in Upagati metre inscribed in Brāhmī script around /Samarashatavitatavijayo Jitaripur Ajito Divam Jayati meaning (the emperor) who conquered all his enemies scoring victories in numerous battles wins heaven (thru his good deeds).

Rev: Lakshmi enthroned facing, holding cornucopia and diadem, both feet resting on a dotted cushion, tamgha to left and Brāhmī legend at right: Parākramah (Valour)

The Gupta period is considered the "Golden Age" of classical India. This was a time when great universities flourished in Nalanda and Taxila, and great writers such as the playwright Kalidasa and great scientists such as the mathematician and astronomer Aryabhatta, who is credited with the concept of zero among his many achievements, helped create an atmosphere of tremendous creative impulse. Gupta art is regarded as the high point of classical Indian art, and the coinage is equally regarded as among the most beautiful of ancient India.

Samudra Gupta was a prolific coin issuer and issued seven different types of Gold coins viz. the standard type, archer type, the battle axe (Parashu) type, tiger slayer type, Ashwamedha type, the King-Queen type and the ‘Lyrist’ (Veena player) type. While the archer, battle axe and tiger slayer type's showcase his martial achievements, unique amongst Indian Numismatics (and perhaps the World) is the Lyrist type that exhibits his softer and gentler side.

The standard type coin of Samudragupta is undoubtedly one of the first Gupta coins as it shows a close similarity to the 'standing-king-offering-sacrifice-at-fire-altar' type Kushan coins. The Gold coin of the Kushan ruler, Shaka, might be the actual prototype, as he was mentioned in Samudragupta's Allahabad inscription and must have been his contemporary.
mitresh
Mughalagain.jpg
India. Mughal Empire. Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar A.H. 963 - 1014. Copper Dam ND Contemporary Counterfeit.14 viewsIndia. Mughal Empire. Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar A.H. 963 - 1014. Copper Dam ND Contemporary Counterfeit.
Anonymous mint
20.3 grams
21 mm
oneill6217
Mohd_Bin_Tughlaq,_Gold_Dinar,_INO_Caliph_al-Mustakfi,_Daulatabad_mint,_AH_745,_1345_AD,_GG_D-425.jpg
ISLAMIC, Delhi Sultanate, Muhammed Bin Tughlaq, AV Dinar75 viewsDelhi Sultanate, Muhammed Bin Tughlaq, AV Dinar, 10.9g, In the name of Caliph al-Mustakfi, Daulatabad mint, AH 745 / 1345 AD, Ref: GG D-425

Obv: fi zaman al-imam al-mustakfi billah amir al-mu'minin abu' rabi sulaiman khallada allah khilafatahu
(In the time/reign of the Caliph al-Mustakfi billah, Commander of the Faithful, Father of the Victorious, May God Perpetuate his Kingdom)

Rev: duriba hadha al-dinar al-khalifati fi daulatabad shahr sana kham'sa wa arba'oun wa sa'bamia
(was struck this Dinar of the Caliphate in the city of Daulatabad in the year five and forty and seven hundred)


The coins Muhammad Bin Tughlaq (MBT) struck in the name of Abbasid caliphs of Egypt instead of his own name are called the Khilafat or Caliphate issues. Just as the Prophet is the viceregent of God and the Caliph is the viceregent of the Prophet, the monarch is viceregent of the Caliph. No Muslim king could hold the title of Sultan unless there be a covenant between him and the Caliph. The recognition of the supremacy of the Caliph was therefore paramount.

In AH 740 / 1339 AD ie the later part of his rule, MBTs reign was faltering with the Delhi Sultanate facing multiple rebellions across the country. In the south, MBT had lost control of the Deccan with both Vijayanagar Kingdom and Bahamani Sultanate established independent of Delhi Sultanate's control. Besides loss of territory and the fragmentation of the Sultanate, MBT was also struck with doubt about the legitimacy of his reign. MBT therefore sought out the whereabouts of the Caliph and did not rest content until he had made the discovery of the presence of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mustakfi in exile at Cairo, and applied to him for royal investiture. However, unknown to MBT, the Caliph al-Mustakfi had died in that very same year ie AH 740. Meanwhile, anticipating such investiture and to reflect his subservience to the Caliph, MBT struck Gold Dinars in the name of Caliph al-Mustakfi Billah in AH 741. Four years after Caliph al-Mustakfi's death, when the new Caliph al-Hakim II’s envoy reached MBT conveying him with the Caliphal edict, robe of honour and conferring him the title of nasir amir al-mu'minin, MBT at once struck coins in the name of al-Hakim.

MBTs religious devotion to the Caliph and emotional behaviour towards the Caliph's envoys were so ludicurous as to call forth a contemptuous comment from the contemporary chronicler Ziyauddin Barani. So great was the faith of the Sultan in the Abbasid Khalifas, says he, that he would have sent all his treasures in Delhi to Egypt, had it not been for the fear of robbers. But the Sultan must have sent a substantial amount, because when Ghiyasuddin, who was only a descendant of the extinct Caliphal house of Baghdad, visited India, Muhammad's bounty knew no bounds. He gave him a million tanka's (400,000 dinars), the fief of Kanauj, and the fort of Siri, besides such valuable articles as gold and silver wares, pages and slave girls. One thousand dinars were given for head-wash, a bath-tub of gold, and three robes on which in place of knots or buttons there were pearls as large as big hazel nuts. If this was given to a scion of a house which had become defunct, how much more was sent to the living Caliph at Cairo can only be surmised.

As can be expected on Caliphate issues, great care and attention was taken in the style and design of these coins as these reflected the high reverence, esteem and devotion of MBT towards the Caliph. The calligraphy on the coin is exquisite and breath takingly beautiful. The date on the coin (AH 745) indicates this was the last year when Gold Dinar's were struck in the name of Caliph al-Mustakfi Billah as soon thereafter, following the arrival of Caliph's envoy and confirmation of death of Caliph al-Mustakfi, coins were struck in the name of the new Caliph, al-Hakim. Although the coin legend states the coin as a dinar, the weight standard is that of a tanka. The Gold Dinar's in the name of Caliph al-Mustakfi Billah were struck from only 2 mints - Daulatabad and Dehli, with Daulatabad issue classified as Rare by Goron & Goenka.
mitresh
Fatimids,_al-Mustansir_Billah,_Gold_Dinar,_21mm,_4_12_g,_Misr_(Cairo)_mint,_dated_AH_472_(AD_1079,1080).jpg
ISLAMIC, Fatimids, Caliph al-Mustansir Billah, AV Dinar, Misr (Cairo) mint65 viewsFatimids, Caliph al-Mustansir Billah, Gold Dinar, 21mm, 4.12 g, Misr (Cairo) mint, dated AH 472 (AD 1079 / 1080)

The featured specimen is a lovely example and the most distinctive of the "bulls-eye" type coinage introduced by the Fatimid's. It is visually very striking and immediately grabs attention with its unusual legend arrangement and calligraphy. This coin is of the type first used by al-Mustansir Billah's great-great grandfather, al-Mu‘izz.

Legends

Obverse

Inner circle
la ilah illa allah muhammad rasul allah
“no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God”

Middle circle
wa ‘ali afdal al-wasiyyin wa wazir khayr al-mursilin
“and ‘Ali is the most excellent of the caretakers and the vizier of the best of the messengers”

Outer circle
muhammad rasul allah arsalahu bi’l-huda wa din al-haqq li-yuzhirahu ‘ala al-din kullihi wa law kariha al-mushrikun
“Muhammad is the messenger of God who sent him with guidance and the religion of truth that he might make it supreme over all other religions, even though the polytheists detest it” Sura 9 (al-Tawba) v. 33

Reverse

Inner circle
al-mustansir billah amir al-mu’minin
“al-Mustansir billah, Commander of the Faithful”

Middle circle
da’a al-imam ma’add li-tawhid illa lahu al-samad
“the Imam Ma‘add summons all to confess the unity of God the eternal”.

Outer circle
bism allah duriba hadha’l-dinar bi-misr sana ith'nain‘ wa sab'ain wa arba‘mi’a
“in the name of God, this dinar was struck in Misr the year two and seventy and four hundred”


Al-Mustansir’s sixty-year reign was one of the longest in the history of Islam. He was only seven years old at the time of his accession, but was led by his wazir Abu’l-Qasim al-Jarjara‘i until he was old enough to rule on his own.

During his reign new dynasties emerged, while others either disappeared from the scene or shifted their alliances. The Zirids in the Maghrib, for so long allies of the Fatimids, transferred their allegiance to the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad.

In 447 H (1055 AD) the Saljuq dynasty of Iran and Iraq took the place of the Buyids, who, in 334 (946), had brought an end to the Abbasids’ temporal power. For a short time the Fatimids took advantage of this situation.

Ever since their arrival in Egypt in 358 (969) they had coveted the city of Baghdad, and in 450 (1058) a Saljuq military officer by the name of al-Basasiri took up the Fatimid cause.

Using money and supplies provided by al-Mustansir, he marched into Baghdad while the Saljuq leader Tughril Beg was away, and had the khutba (the imam’s speech before Friday prayer) read and coins struck in al-Mustansir’s name.

This proved to be a brief adventure, for the next year al-Mustansir withdrew his financial support, and an angry Tughril Beg drove al-Basasiri out of Baghdad. When his successor Alp Arslan occupied Aleppo in 473 (1080) he caused the Fatimid caliph’s name to be omitted from the khutba in the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.

While there were internal disturbances and frequent wars throughout al-Mustansir’s long reign, Fatimid Egypt was well administered and prosperous, thanks to rich revenues and gold from Africa. Industry and agriculture thrived, and it was a time of intellectual, literary and artistic brilliance. It was then that the first university was established in the Muslim world, al-Ahzar, which is still active today.
mitresh
MISC_Italian_Aquileia_Bernardi_69_.JPG
Italian States. Aquileia, Patriarchate.56 viewsCNI VI 1, Bernardi 69a, Biaggi 193.

AR Soldo da 12 bagattini (denar), .57 gr., 16 mm., struck 1412-1420 under Patriarch Louis II of Teck (Italian, Ludovico II di Teck; German, Ludwig II von Teck) (1412-1439).

Obv: +LODOVICVS ◦ dVX ◦ d ◦ TECh, shield with Patriarchal coat of arms (diamond pattern).

Rev: PAThE – AQVILE, Nimbate Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right.

Aquileia was founded by the Romans in 180/181 B.C., and became one of the most prominent cities in the Roman Empire. It was destroyed by Attila in 452 A.D. and again by the Lombards in 590. The Lombard Dukes of Friuli ruled Aquileia and the surrounding territory until 774, when Charlemagne conquered the Lombard duchy and turned it into a Frankish duchy of the Carolingian Empire. By the 11th century, the patriarch of Aquileia had grown strong enough to assert temporal sovereignty over Friuli and Aquileia. In 1077, the Holy Roman Emperor gave the region to the patriarch as a feudal possession. Louis II of Teck was a German prelate, who was elected as patriarch with the help of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, the King of Hungary. During the war with the Republic of Venice, which broke out in 1411, Louis sided for Sigismund. The patriarchate was conquered by Venice in 1419, and the patriarch lost his temporal authority on July 7, 1420, when his territories were secularized by Venice.
1 commentsStkp
MISC_Italy_Venice_cont_counterfeit_tornasello.jpg
Italian States. Venice. Republic. 19 viewsBillon tornesello, contemporary counterfeit, .66 g., 16.17 mm. max., 270°.

Obv: + Bungled legend, central cross pattée.

Rev: + Bungled legend (with VEN at 6 o'clock), winged lion of St. Mark, seated facing, holding a book.

Probably copied from a tornesello of Dodge Antonio Venier (1382-1400) in the Turkish settlements off the west coast of Asia Minor, per Alan Stahl (personal communication).
Stkp
IMG_0876wp.jpg
Italy, Rome, Arch of Constantine398 viewscommemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius
built in 315
inscription:
IMP · CAES · FL · CONSTANTINO · MAXIMO · P · F · AVGUSTO · S · P · Q · R · QVOD · INSTINCTV · DIVINITATIS · MENTIS · MAGNITVDINE · CVM · EXERCITV · SVO · TAM · DE · TYRANNO · QVAM · DE · OMNI · EIVS · FACTIONE · VNO · TEMPORE · IVSTIS · REM-PVBLICAM · VLTVS · EST · ARMIS · ARCVM · TRIVMPHIS · INSIGNEM · DICAVIT
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Curia_Iulia_front.jpg
Italy, Rome, Curia Iulia, Forum Romanum124 viewsCuria Julia (Latin: Curia Iulia, Italian: Curia Iulia) is the third named Curia, or Senate House, in the ancient city of Rome. It was built in 44 BC when Julius Caesar replaced Faustus Cornelius Sulla’s reconstructed Curia Cornelia, which itself had replaced the Curia Hostilia. Caesar did this in order to redesign both spaces within the Comitium and Forum Romanum. The alterations within the Comitium reduced the prominence of the senate and cleared the original space. The work, however, was interrupted by Caesar's assassination at the Theatre of Pompey where the Senate had been meeting temporarily while the work was completed. The project was eventually finished by Caesar’s successor Augustus in 29 BC. The Curia Julia is one of only a handful of Roman structures to survive to the modern day mostly intact, due to its conversion into the basilica of Sant'Adriano al Foro in the 7th century and several later restorations. However the roof, together with the upper elevations of the side walls and rear façade, are modern. These parts date from the remodeling of the deconsecrated church in the 1930s.Joe Sermarini
Italy- Rome- Actual roman street level.jpg
Italy- Rome- Actual roman street level40 viewsThe old roman street level is about 6- 10 m lower than comtemporary one.John Schou
Italy- Rome- Actual roman street level and a temple.jpg
Italy- Rome- Actual roman street level and a temple35 viewsThe old roman street level is about 6- 10 m lower than comtemporary one.John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and temple of Saturn.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and temple of Saturn45 viewsThe Temple of Saturn (Templum Saturni or Aedes Saturnus) is the oldest temple in the Forum Romanum, consecrated for the first time in c. 498 BCE. It is located in the W. end of the Forum, behind the Rostra and the Basilica Julia, across the Clivus Capitolinus from the Temple of Vespasian and Titus.

There have been three temples dedicated to Saturn on the location. The first was built in the last years of the Roman Kingdom, but was first consecrated in the first decade of the Roman Republic. Very little is known about this archaic temple, but it was probably Etruscan in style, just as the contemporary Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the Capitolium.

The first temple was torn down in 42 BCE and a new temple built in stone, by the aedile L. Munatius Plancus. The tall, massive, travertine clad podium, measuring 40×22.5m with a height of 9m, is from this building. This temple was in turn destroyed by the fire of 283 CE, which destroyed major parts of the Forum Romanum.

The temple was reconstructed under Diocletian after the fire, but the ground plan and podium from 42 BCE was retained. The temple was of the Ionic order with six columns on the facade. The eight surviving columns of red and grey granite are from this third temple, which largely used recycled material—not all columns, bases and capitals match stylistically.

The inscription on the architrave is also from this period. It reads: "Senatus populusque romanus incendio consumptum restituit"; meaning "The Roman senate and people restored what fire had consumed".

In front of the podium, under the now collapsed stairway, were two rooms, one of which served as the Aerarium, the State Treasury. On the side of the podium holes remain from where a plate was attached for the posting of public documents and acts pertinent to the Aerarium.

An altar dedicated to Saturn, the Ara Saturni, stood in front of the temple, on the other side of the road that passes just in front of the temple. The remains of this altar are now under a roof just in front of the Umbilicus Urbis Romae, near the Arch of Septimius Severus. See this map for an illustration of the probable location of the altar.

Inside the temple stood a statue of of Saturn, which would be carried in procession when triumphs were celebrated. The feast of the Saturnalia on December 17th was a part of the cult of Saturn and was started with a sacrifice at the Temple of Saturn.
1 commentsJohn Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and temple of Saturn 1.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and temple of Saturn 131 viewsThe Temple of Saturn (Templum Saturni or Aedes Saturnus) is the oldest temple in the Forum Romanum, consecrated for the first time in c. 498 BCE. It is located in the W. end of the Forum, behind the Rostra and the Basilica Julia, across the Clivus Capitolinus from the Temple of Vespasian and Titus.

There have been three temples dedicated to Saturn on the location. The first was built in the last years of the Roman Kingdom, but was first consecrated in the first decade of the Roman Republic. Very little is known about this archaic temple, but it was probably Etruscan in style, just as the contemporary Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus on the Capitolium.

The first temple was torn down in 42 BCE and a new temple built in stone, by the aedile L. Munatius Plancus. The tall, massive, travertine clad podium, measuring 40×22.5m with a height of 9m, is from this building. This temple was in turn destroyed by the fire of 283 CE, which destroyed major parts of the Forum Romanum.

The temple was reconstructed under Diocletian after the fire, but the ground plan and podium from 42 BCE was retained. The temple was of the Ionic order with six columns on the facade. The eight surviving columns of red and grey granite are from this third temple, which largely used recycled material—not all columns, bases and capitals match stylistically.

The inscription on the architrave is also from this period. It reads: "Senatus populusque romanus incendio consumptum restituit"; meaning "The Roman senate and people restored what fire had consumed".

In front of the podium, under the now collapsed stairway, were two rooms, one of which served as the Aerarium, the State Treasury. On the side of the podium holes remain from where a plate was attached for the posting of public documents and acts pertinent to the Aerarium.

An altar dedicated to Saturn, the Ara Saturni, stood in front of the temple, on the other side of the road that passes just in front of the temple. The remains of this altar are now under a roof just in front of the Umbilicus Urbis Romae, near the Arch of Septimius Severus. See this map for an illustration of the probable location of the altar.

Inside the temple stood a statue of of Saturn, which would be carried in procession when triumphs were celebrated. The feast of the Saturnalia on December 17th was a part of the cult of Saturn and was started with a sacrifice at the Temple of Saturn.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great71 viewsArch of Constantine
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312 AD. Dedicated in 315 AD, it is the latest of the extant triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

General Description
The arch is 21 m high, 25.7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. The lower part of the monument is built of marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork revetted with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum. It has been suggested that the lower part of the arch is re-used from an older monument, probably from the times of the emperor Hadrian (Conforto et al., 2001; for a defence of the view that the whole arch was constructed in the 4th century, see Pensabene & Panella). The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill; immediately after the Arch of Constantine, the procession would turn left and march along the Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and on to the Capitoline Hill, passing both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus. During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.

Decoration
The decoration of the arch heavily uses parts of older monuments, which are given a new meaning in the context of the Constantinian building. As it celebrates the victory of Constantine, the new "historic" friezes illustrating his campaign in Italy convey the central meaning: the praise of the emperor, both in battle and in his civilian duties. The other imagery supports this purpose: decoration taken from the "golden times" of the Empire under Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius places Constantine next to these "good emperors", and the content of the pieces evokes images of the victorious and pious ruler. Another explanation given for the re-use is the short time between the start of construction (late 312 at the earliest) and the dedication (summer 315), so the architects used existing artwork to make up for the lack of time to create new one. As yet another possible reason, it has often been suggested that the Romans of the 4th century lacked the artistic skill to produce acceptable artwork and therefore plundered the ancient buildings to adorn their contemporary monuments. This interpretation has become less prominent in more recent times, as the art of Late Antiquity has been appreciated in its own right. It is, of course, possible that a combination of two or all three of those explanations are correct, as they are not mutually exclusive.

Attic
Above the middle archway, the main inscription (see below) takes the most prominent place of the attic. It is identical on both sides of the arch. Flanking the inscription on both sides, there are pairs of relief panels above the minor archways, 8 in total. They were taken from an unknown monument erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius, and show (north side, left to right) the emperor's return to Rome after the campaign (adventus), the emperor leaving the city and saluted by a personification of the Via Flaminia, the emperor distributing money among the people (largitio), the emperor interrogating a German prisoner, (south side, left to right) a captured enemy chieftain led before the emperor, a similar scene with other prisoners, the emperor speaking to the troops (adlocutio), and the emperor sacrificing pig, sheep and bull. Together with three panels now in the Capitoline Museum, the reliefs were probably taken from a triumphal monument commemorating Marcus Aurelius' war against the Sarmatians from 169 - 175, which ended with his triumphant return in 176. On the largitio panel, the figure of Marcus Aurelius' son Commodus has been eradicated after the latter's damnatio memoriae. On top of each of the columns stand marble statues of Dacian prisoners from the times of Trajan, probably taken from the Forum of Trajan. From the same time date the two large (3 m high) panels decorating the attic on the small sides of the arch, showing scenes from the emperor's Dacian Wars. Together with the two reliefs on the inside of the central archway, they came from a large frieze celebrating the Dacian victory. The original place of this frieze was either the Forum of Trajan, as well, or the barracks of the emperor's horse guard on the Caelius.

Main Section
The general layout of the main facade is identical on both sides of the arch. It is divided by four columns of Corinthian order made of Numidian yellow marble (giallo antico), one of which has been transferred into the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano and was replaced by a white marble column. The columns stand on bases showing victory figures on front, and captured barbarians and Roman soldiers on the sides. The spandrels of the main archway are decorated with reliefs depicting victory figures with trophies, those of the smaller archways show river gods. Column bases and spandrel reliefs are from the times of Constantine. Above each lateral archway are pairs of round reliefs dated to the times of emperor Hadrian. They display scenes of hunting and sacrificing: (north side, left to right) hunt of a boar, sacrifice to Apollo, hunt of a lion, sacrifice to Hercules, (south side, left to right) departure for the hunt, sacrifice to Silvanus, hunt of a bear, sacrifice to Diana. The head of the emperor (originally Hadrian) has been reworked in all medaillons: on the north side, into Constantine in the hunting scenes and into Licinius or Constantius I in the sacrifice scenes; on the south side, vice versa. The reliefs, c. 2 m in diameter, were framed in porphyry; this framing is only extant on the right side of the northern facade. Similar medaillons, this time of Constantinian origin, are placed on the small sides of the arch; on the eastern side, showing the Sun rising, and on the western side, the Moon, both on chariots. The main piece from the time of Constantine is the "historical" relief frieze running around the monument under the round panels, one strip above each lateral archway and at the small sides of the arch. These reliefs depict scenes from the Italian campaign of Constantine against Maxentius which was the reason for the construction of the monument. The frieze starts at the western side with the "Departure from Milan". It continues on the southern, "outward" looking face, with the siege of a city, probably Verona, which was of great importance to the war in Northern Italy; also on that face, the Battle of Milvian Bridge with Constantine's army victorious and the enemy drowning in the river Tiber. On the eastern side, Constantine and his army enter Rome; the artist here has avoided to use the imagery of the triumph, as Constantine probably did not want to be shown triumphant over the Eternal City. On the northern face, looking "towards" the city, two strips with the emperor's actions after taking possession of Rome: Constantine speaking to the citizens on the Forum Romanum, and distributing money to the people.

Inner Sides of the Archways
In the central archway, there is one of the large panels of Trajan's Dacian War on either wall. Inside the lateral archways, eight portraits busts (two on each wall), destroyed to such an extent that it is not possible to identify them any more.

Inscriptions
The main inscription reads:

IMP · CAES · FL · CONSTANTINO · MAXIMO · P · F · AVGUSTO · S · P · Q · R · QVOD · INSTINCTV · DIVINITATIS · MENTIS · MAGNITVDINE · CVM · EXERCITV · SVO · TAM · DE · TYRANNO · QVAM · DE · OMNI · EIVS · FACTIONE · VNO · TEMPORE · IVSTIS · REM-PUBLICAM · VLTVS · EST · ARMIS · ARCVM · TRIVMPHIS · INSIGNEM · DICAVIT

Which means in English:

To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he, inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs.

The words instinctu divinitatis ("inspired by the divine") have been much commented. They are usually read as sign of Constantine's shifting religious affiliation: The Christian tradition, most notably Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, relate the story of a vision of the Christian god to Constantine during the campaign, and that he was victorious in the sign of the cross at the Milvian Bridge. The official documents (esp. coins) still prominently display the Sun God until 324 AD, while Constantine started to support the Christian church from 312 on. In this situation, the vague wording of the inscription can be seen as the attempt to please all possible readers, being deliberately ambiguous, and acceptable to both pagans and Christians. As was customary, the vanquished enemy is not mentioned by name, but only referred to as "the tyrant", drawing on the notion of the rightful killing of a tyrannical ruler; together with the image of the "just war", it serves as justification of Constantine's civil war against his co-emperor Maxentius.

Two short inscriptions on the inside of the central archway transport a similar message: Constantine came not as conqueror, but freed Rome from occupation:

LIBERATORI VRBIS (liberator of the city) - FUNDATORI QVIETIS (founder of peace)

Over each of the small archways, inscriptions read:

VOTIS X - VOTIS XX SIC X - SIC XX

They give a hint on the date of the arch: "Solemn vows for the 10th anniversary - for the 20th anniversary" and "as for the 10th, so for the 20th anniversary". Both refer to Constantine's decennalia, i.e. the 10th anniversary of his reign (counted from 306), which he celebrated in Rome in the summer of 315 AD. It can be assumed that the arch honouring his victory was inaugurated during his stay in the city.




John Schou
Macrinus-Ant-RIC95.jpg
IV - MACRINUS - Antoninian RIC IV/II/9534 viewsAv) IMP C M OPEL MCRINVS AVG
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right


Rv) SECVRITAS TEMPORVM
Securitas sitting left, holding scepter & propping her head with her left hand; before her, a lit altar

Weight: 3,95g; Ř:23mm: Reference: RIC:IV/II 95
Pedigreés: Ex: Garth R. Drewry Collection
Ex: Hans Schulman Auction N.Y. 7.-9.July 1970; Lotnr: 431;
Ex CNG e-Auction 97, Nr 150

NOTE: Nice mistake in the Av-legende: MCRINVS in stead of MACRINUS

1 commentssulcipius
Jdbasket1.jpg
Julia Domna, Basket91 viewsIVLIA DO-MNA AVG
Draped bust right

FELICITAS TEMPOR
Vase shaped basket containing corn ears and poppies

Emesa/Syrian mint
Ar Denarius; 3.8g ; 18.16mm
RIC IV 620 Emesa Mint
1 commentsarizonarobin
069.png
Julian of Pannonia41 viewsJulian of Pannonia, Usurper (284-285).
BI Antoninianus, Siscia mint.
Obv: IMP C M AVR IVLIANVS PF AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: FELICITAS TEMPORVM. Felicitas standing facing, head left, holding caduceus and sceptre; in field, S-B; in exergue, XXI.
RIC 2., C. 1 (Fr. 150). BI. g. 3.14 RRR. Very rare.

Notes from the seller (Artemide LI, Lot 322):
"A superb example. Deep brown patina. Minor areas of weakness, otherwise about EF/Good VF."
4 commentsMark Z
Caesar_Vercingetorix.jpg
Julius Caesar and Vercingetorix37 viewsTHE BATTLE OF ALESIA

Caesar describes this "battle"in his Commentaries on the war in Gaul in Book VII, “Chapters 63-90.”

The story begins in the winter of 54/53 BC when the Eburones attack and destroy the XIVth Legion. The Roman losses have been estimated to be as high as 9000 men. The atmosphere in Rome, at that time, is a politically complex and tense one for Caesar. He realizes he will not be reinforced. Before long, half of Gaul is in revolt; and for the first time individual Gallic tribes--the Senones, Parisii, Pictones, Cadurci, Turoni, Aulerci, Lemovices and Anndes--unite under the leadership of one man, Vercingetorix (Meier 317).

Vercingetorix is a charismatic, highly gifted and ambitious man. He detests the Romans but has carefully studied their tactics. Caesar, himself, comments that “in the exercise of his command Vercingetorix ‘added the utmost care to the utmost severity’” (Meier 318).

The contest between these two leaders is intriguing, and I am unable to do it justice within the confines of this thread. In his book, Caesar, Christian Meir writes not only with the authority of impressive scholarship; he carefully depicts, with the gift of a story teller, the decisions of these men.

Suffice it to say that Vercingetorix seeks temporary refuge with 80,000 men on the summit of a hill named Alesia. His position is “impregnable and impossible to take by storm” (Meier 323). Caesar sees his chance, and in an endeavor that is incredible by any standard, he builds a siege wall/trench that completely surrounds Vercingetorix’s stronghold. “The wall built by the Romans extended for fourteen kilometers, with twenty-three forts as strong points” (Meier 323).

Realizing his predicament, Vercingetorix calls for help. 250,000 Gauls march on Caesar; “the whole of Gaul was to show itself and be victorious” (Meier 324). Surrounded himself, Caesar orders his men to attempt the almost impossible: they must build another siege wall/trench that will surround their first feat of engineering. The Gauls attack Caesar on both sides, and the Romans now fight a battle on two “fronts.”

Caesar, in command of 60,000 men (10 legions or so) is seriously, numerically out numbered. And yet, because of Caesar’s ingenuity and courage; because his legions are superior warriors; perhaps, because Fortune (upon whom Caesar certainly counted) favored the brave (Virgil); and because of the Roman soldier’s other weapon—the shovel; Caesar won a stunning victory. “Few battles, says Plutarch, have been fought with such outstanding bravery and such a wealth of technical invention or ‘martial genius’” (Meier 327).

Works Cited

Meier, Christian. Caesar. London: Fontana Press: 1996.
Cleisthenes
FotorCreated~64.jpg
Kings of Macedon Alexander the great circa 324-323 BC AR Didrachm 18mm 8.18 g 3h14 viewsBabylon mint,struck under Stamenes or Archon.Head of young Herakles right wearing lion skin headdress beaded boarder.Rev Zeus seated left M in left field,monogram below throne.
Very rare from the last issue of Alexanders lifetime coinage in the city where he died.Contemporay with his dekadrachm.
Grant H
lateae4_copy.jpg
Late Roman AE419 viewsArcadius or Theodosius II (?), late 4th cent. AD. Possibly a contemporary imitation, Obv: Emperor right; Rev: VIX over X (?) within wreath, AE 4, 8mm.Molinari
__1.jpg
Lead Contemporary Imitation of Alexander III Tetradrachm9 viewsObverse: Head of Herakles right
Reverse: Zeus seated eft
Size: 24mm, 9.88g.
Canaan
liciniusI_trier120_2.jpg
Licinius I RIC VII, Trier 12028 viewsLicinius I 308 - 324
AE - AE 3, 3.02g, 19.9mm
Trier 2nd officina AD 316
obv. IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
bust laureate, cuirassed, r.
rev. GENIO - POP ROM
Genius turreted, dressed with Himation, stg. l., holding Patera in left hand and Cornucopiae in right arm; folding of drapery fallen over left arm
field: T-F
exergue: BTR
RIC VII, Trier 120;
VF

TF is sometimes interpreted as abbreviation of TEMPORVM FELICITAS, happy times. But really we don't know the meaning
Jochen
Contemporary-barbaric-imitation_Q-001.jpg
Licinus-I. (308-324) or Constantinus-I. (307-337) AE Ancient Counterfeits and Barbarous Imitation #01144 viewsLicinus Ancient Counterfeits and Barbarous Imitation
avers:- confusing text, Helmeted, cuirassed bust left (similar to the Urbs Roma and the avers Constantinopolis)
revers:- confusing text (probably: VICTORIAAVGGNN in RIC-59(VII-Thessalonica)), Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
exergo: confusing text, TSDelta imitation ??
date: 319 AD.??
mint: TSDelta imitation ??
diameter: 17-18mm
weight:
ref: ??
Q-001
quadrans
lverusOR.jpg
Lucius Verus, Schönert-Geiss 95var 12 viewsAugusta Trajana mint, Lucius Verus, 161-169 A.D. AE , 18.5mm 3.69g, Schönert-Geiss 95var (different obverse and reverse die, no. 95 is represented by one spec. in Plovdiv only) ; Varbanov (engl.) lists a similar type as #911 but with the obv. legend AV K AI L AVRH OVHROC (private collection, unpublished) ; cf. RPC temporary № 10347 ; Moushmov -
O: [?... AYP] - HΛI OYHPOC, bare head of Lucius Verus r.
R: AYΓOYCTHC TPAIANHC, snake coiling on decorated altar, r.

casata137ec
ProbusLyonTempoFelGLcaslanc.jpg
Lugdunum - Lyon - PROBUS Tempor Felici143 viewsIMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
Radiate, helmeted (Attic), cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Shield decorated with a rider right.
TEMPOR FELICI
Felicitas standing right, holding caduceus and cornucopiae.
Mintmark: / I

RIC.103 Bastien 206b

5 commentsgb29400
rjb_prob_lug103.jpg
Lugdunum 10335 viewsAntoninianus
IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
TEMPOR FELICI
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and cornucopia
Lugdunum, -/-//I
RIC 103
1 commentsmauseus
LydiaHypaepaHeraclesNike1_(exNicolasLouis).jpg
Lydia, Hypaepa. Pseudo-autonomous issue, time of the Antonines.30 viewsLydia, Hypaepa. Pseudo-autonomous issue, time of the Antonines (AD 138–192). Ć 19.33mm, 3.82 g, 6h.
Obverse: Bearded bust of Heracles right with club over left shoulder, seen behind neck.
Reverse: [V]Π[Α]ΙΠ – ΗΝ[Ω]Ν, Nike walking left, holding wreath in right hand with arm outstretched, and palm branch in left hand/arm.
References: RPC IV Online (temporary №) 3318; SNG Turkey 7 (Ödemiş Museum), 275; Altinoluk T9B.
Ex Nicolas Louis, 11-17-2014.
Mark Fox
LydiaJuliaGordusLuciusVerusAthena_(exPoncin)1.jpg
Lydia, Julia Gordus. Lucius Verus. Potentially unpublished. 12 viewsLydia, Julia Gordus. Lucius Verus (AD 161–169 ). Ć 25mm; 7.71 g, 6h.
Obverse: [ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ] Λ ΑΥΡΗ ΟΥΗ[ΡΟC], laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Reverse: ΙΟΥΛΙЄΩΝ ΓΟ[Ρ]Δ–ΗΝΩΝ, Athena advancing right, brandishing spear in right hand and
holding shield with left arm.
References: Cf. RPC IV Online (temporary No.) 1254 (same obverse die).
Ex Marc Poncin, 5-23-2014.
Mark Fox
Pseudoautonomous_Maeonia_Zeus_Athena_AE26_11.05g.jpg
Lydia, Maionia, Zeus / Athena, AE2675 views26mm, 11.05g
obv: ΖΕΥΣ ΟΛΥΜΠΙΟΣ; head of Zeus Olympios wearing taenia, l.; with traces of drapery
rev: ΕΠΙ ΑΠΟΛ ΤΟ Β ΜΑΙΟΝΩΝ (uncertain); helmeted Athena (or Roma?) seated on cuirass and shield, l., holding Nike and parazonium

RPC online (temporary №) 9540; SNG Tübingen 3719 (magistrate name not clear)

Thanks to Lars for the attribution.
1 commentsareich
MarcusNysaMerge3.jpg
Lydia, Nysa. Marcus Aurelius. Regling, Nysa 86 33 viewsĆ23. Lydia, Nysa. Marcus Aurelius (Caesar AD 136–161; Emperor 161–180), laureate head to r., cuirassed bust with paludamentum, back to viewer. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟC or "Imperator Caesar Antoninus" Rev., Zeus seated, holding patera and long scepter. ΕΠ ΓΡ ΑΣΙΑΤΙΚΟΥ Κ[ΟΡΝ] ΝΥΣΑ[ΕΩΝ]. Asiatikos Korn(eliou), grammateus. Regling, Nysa 86; RPC IV (temporary №) 1455. Ex Collegium Josephinum Bonn 1-9-2010.

Same dies as RPC IV specimen: http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/1455/
Mark Fox
M__Furius_L_f__Philus~0.jpg
M. Furius L.f. Philus - AR denarius6 viewsRome
ą˛119 BC
laureate head of Janus
M·FOVRI·L·F
Roma standing left, transverse long scepter in left hand, with right hand placing wreath on trophy of captured Gallic arms with carnyx and shield on each side, star above
ROMA
(PHI)LI
ąCrawford 281/1, SRCV 156, Sydenham 529, RSC I Furia 18
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

This coin vary from traditional iconography. Reverse commemorates victory over Ligurians and Gauls of moneyer's ancestor P. Furius Philus in 223 BC or depicts contemporary victory by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and Q. Fabius Maximus over the Allobrogoges and the Averni in Gaul in 121 B.C.
Johny SYSEL
PhilipIIMacedonLifetimeTet.jpg
Macedonian Kingdom, Philip II, 359 - 336 B.C., Lifetime Issue131 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Le Rider 233 (D130/R188); SNG ANS 385 ff., VF, Pella, 14.163g, 25.4mm, 225o, 342 - 336 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse "FILIPPOU", naked youth on horse pacing right on horseback holding palm, thunderbolt below; ex CNG 214, 82; very high relief sculptural portrait, nice style, lifetime issue. Ex FORVM.

Philip II expanded the size and influence of the Macedonian Kingdom, but is perhaps best known as the father of Alexander the Great. He personally selected the design of his coins.

Philip II of Macedon (382 BC–336 BC; in Greek Φίλιππος = φίλος (friend) + ίππος (horse), transliterated Philippos) was the King of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination. He was the father of Alexander the Great, Phillip III Arrhidaeus, and possibly Ptolemy I Soter, founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty.

Born in Pella, Philip was the youngest son of King Amyntas III and Eurydice. In his youth, (ca. 368 BC–365 BC) Philip was a hostage in Thebes, which was the leading city of Greece during the Theban hegemony. While a captive there, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from Epaminondas, was involved in a pederastic relationship with Pelopidas and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the Sacred Band of Thebes. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedonia. The deaths of Philip's elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philip managed to take the kingdom for himself that same year.

Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. The hill tribes were broken by a single battle in 358 BC, and Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid. He used the Social War as an opportunity for expansion. In 357 BC, he took the Athenian colony of Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. That same year Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians. In 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian sea-board. Also in 356 Alexander was born and his race horse won in the Olympics in He took Methone in 354 BC, a town which had belonged to Athens. During the siege of Methone, Philip lost an eye.

Not until his armies were opposed by Athens at Thermopylae in 352 BC did Philip face any serious resistance. Philip did not attempt to advance into central Greece because the Athenians had occupied Thermopylae. Also in 352 BC, the Macedonian army won a complete victory over the Phocians at the Battle of Crocus Field. This battle made Philip tagus of Thessaly, and he claimed as his own Magnesia, with the important harbour of Pagasae.
Hostilities with Athens did not yet take place, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonian party which Philip's gold created in Euboea. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again come south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the Balkan hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the Hebrus (Maritza). For the chief of these coastal cities, Olynthus, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands.

In 349 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus. Olynthus at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The Athenians did nothing to help Olynthus. Philip finally took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently.

Macedonia and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his Olympic games at Dium. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about the Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the Thracian prince Cersobleptes. Meanwhile, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip, in 346 BC, again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly. With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip turned to Sparta; he sent them a message, "You are advised to submit without further delay, for if I bring my army into your land, I will destroy your farms, slay your people, and raze your city." Their reply was "If." Philip and Alexander would both leave them alone. Later, the Macedonian arms were carried across Epirus to the Adriatic Sea. In 342 BC, Philip led a great military expedition north against the Scythians, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, Philippoupolis (modern Plovdiv).

In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of Perinthus. Philip began another siege in 339 BC of the city of Byzantium. After unsuccessful sieges of both cities, Philip's influence all over Greece was compromised. However, Philip successfully reasserted his authority in the Aegean by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC. He erected a memorial of a marble lion to the Sacred Band of Thebes for their bravery that still stands today. Philip created and led the League of Corinth in 337 BC. Members of the League agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress revolution. Philip was elected as leader (hegemon) of the army of invasion against the Persian Empire. In 336 BC, when the invasion of Persia was in its very early stage, Philip was assassinated, and was succeeded on the throne of Macedon by his son Alexander the Great.

Philip’s Assassination

The murder happened in October of 336 BC, at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. The court had gathered there for the celebration of the marriage between Alexander of Epirus and Philip's daughter. While the king was entering unprotected into the town's theatre (highlighting his approachability to the Greek diplomats present), he was killed by Pausanias of Orestis, one of Philip's seven bodyguards. The assassin immediately tried to escape and reach his associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance of Aegae. He was pursued by three of Philip's bodyguards and died by their hands.
The reasons for Pausanias' assassination of Phillip are difficult to fully expound, since there was controversy already among ancient historians. The only contemporary account in our possession is that of Aristotle, who states rather tersely that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by the followers of Attalus, the king's father-in-law.

Whatever else that may be written about Philip II it must be recognized that he was responsible for making Macedon the ascendant Greek power. He reorganized the Macedonian army. It was this army that Alexander the Great inherited. Phillip II trained some of Alexander’s best generals: Antigonus Cyclops, Antipater, Nearchus, Parmenion, and Perdiccas.

According to the Greek historian Theopompus of Chios, Europe had never seen a man like king Philip of Macedonia, and he called his history of the mid-fourth century BCE the Philippic History. Theopompus had a point. Not even his better known son Alexander has done so much to change the course of Greek history. Philip reorganized his kingdom, gave it access to the sea, expanded its power so that it could defeat the Achaemenid Empire, and subdued the Greek city-states, which never regained their independence again. To achieve this, he modernized the Macedonian economy, improved the army, and concluded several marital alliances. The result was a superpower with one weakness: it was as strong as its king. When Philip's son Alexander died, the institutions were too weak, and Macedonia never recovered.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Philip_II_of_Macedon
http://www.livius.org/phi-php/philip/philip_ii.htm
Ed. by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
macrinus~0.jpg
Macrinus94 viewsIMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Macrinus right

FELECITAS TEMPORVM
Felicitas standing left holding long caduceus and cornucopiae

Rome 217 AD
2.37g

Sear 7331, RSC 19a, RIC 62

Scarce/Rare: 5 specimens in Reka Devnia Hoard (Cohen 19)

Ex-ANE

Wildwinds speciman #2


Macrinus was the Praetorian prefect during the reign of Caracalla. After hearing a prophecy that he would become Emperor Macrinus feared that Caracalla would have him killed. In order to save his life he arranged Caracalla's assassination and he and his son Diadumenian seized power and were accepted by the senate. Macrinus concluded an unfavourable peace with the Persians. This disgrace, magnified by propaganda of Julia Maesa, Caracalla's aunt, inspired the Syrian legions to revolt. In the ensuing conflict Macrinus was defeated. He fled, only to be betrayed and executed.

SOLD to Calgary Coin June 2017
2 commentsJay GT4
macrinus-ae-denarius-reshoot.jpg
Macrinus (217-218 AD) AE Denarius20 viewsRoman Imperial, Macrinus (217-218 AD) AE Denarius, 2.6g, 18mm

Obverse: IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left holding short caduceus and scepter.

Reference: RIC 62, RSC 19a, BMC 9

Ex: Rudi Smits
Gil-galad
NS-13.jpg
Macrinus (A.D. 217-218)18 viewsAR Denarius, A.D. 217-218, Rome, 19.2mm, 3.82g, 0°, RIC IVii, 59
Obv: IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG. Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: FELICITAS TEMPORVM. Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia.
1 commentsMarti Vltori
macrinus-ae-denarius-felicitas.jpg
Macrinus AE Denarius- Felicitas23 viewsMacrinus AE Denarius. 217-218 AD, 2.6g, 18mm

OBV: IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG. Laureate and cuirassed bust right.

REV: FELICITAS TEMPORVM, Felicitas standing left holding short caduceus and scepter.

REF: RIC 62, RSC 19a, BMC 9

Ex: Rudi Smits
Gil-galad
Macrinus.jpg
Macrinus denarius58 viewsFELICITAS TEMPORVM2 commentstibsi67
Macrinus_FELICITAS_TEMPORVM.jpg
Macrinus_Denar_FELICITAS_TEMPORVM8 viewsNumis-Student
maggloria.JPG
Magnentius AE Centenionalis AD 351-35242 viewsOBV: DN MAGNENTIUS PF AVG; Bare-headed draped bust right, 'A' behind head.
REV: GLORIA ROMANORUM; Emperor on horseback right holding spear, no shield riding down a fallen bare-headed enemy in front of horse, broken shield and spear beneath with star in upper right field. EXE; mintmark RQ, Rome mint

RIC VIII 209, rated 'scarce'

A nice large coin with a heroic portrait of the usurper Magnentius minted in Rome and resembling the style often used on coins of his contemporaries, Constans and Constantius II. It is much more idealized than that of my specimen from the Arles mint which shows him with a chubby face.

diameter 24 mm, wt 5.1 gm
daverino
ANTVESPcounter.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary denarius LEG X IMPVESP139 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
Galley r. mast with banners at prow
IMPVESP counter mark above galley

LEG X?
Legionary eagle between two standards IMPVESP countermark


Patrae mint 32-31BC

3.01g

Ex-Incitatus

Obverse countermarked IMPVESP during Vespasian's reign showing this denarius was in circulation for well over 100 years! In hand I can make out X for the legion number but can't be sure if any other numerals appear after it. This countermark appears mostly on late Republican and Imperatorial denarii, although denarii of Augustus and denarii of the Flavians struck at Ephesus are also recorded. The MP VES countermarks circulated specifically within the province of Asia Minor. Martini noted that the output of silver coinage in relation to the civic bronze for this region was much smaller during the Julio-Claudian period. This suggests the denarii were countermarked to validate locally circulating silver coinage at an acceptable weight while the regional mints opened by Vespasian were gearing up production, a theory which the countermarking of cistophori with the contemporary MP VES AVG countermarks seems to support. The similarly countermarked Flavian denarii struck at Ephesus can be accounted for then as examples accidentally countermarked by unobservant mint workers during the transition.



LEG X (later called Gemina) was levied in 59 BC or earlier by Julius Caesar. It was the first legion levied by him personally and was raised in Spain. It played a major role in the Gallic war featuring prominently in Caesar's "Gallic Wars." Legio X was his most trusted and loyal Legion. In 45 BC the Legion was disbanded and given land grants in Southern Gaul.

During the civil war that followed Caesar's assassination, Legio X was reconstituted by Lepidus in the winter of 44/43 BC making use of many retired legionaries who re-enlisted. It was eventually turned over to Antony and fought for him until the final Battle of Philippi. The veterans obtained lands near Cremona, and an inscription reports that the name of the legion at the time was Veneria, "devoted to Venus." This alluded to Julius Caesar's claimed descent from Venus.

The newly levied Tenth was then taken by Antony to Armenia for his Parthian campaign. During Antony's civil war, the legion fought for him until his defeat at the Battle of Actium, after which the legion changed sides and moved into Octavian's army. They were then taken to Egypt to finish off Antony and Cleopatra. Octavian never fully trusted the 10th Legion as it had been fiercely loyal to both Julius Caesar and Mark Antony. After Antony's death Octavian left the legion in the East in Syria. In 29 BC the legion was due to be discharged. When the legionaries pressed for their release and land grants Octavian was slow in complying. Suetonius says that the entire legion rioted and Octavian dishonorably discharged the entire legion.

Octavian now recruited new legionaries to fill the 10th Legion in its traditional recruiting grounds of Spain. Some of the senior Centurions may have re-enlisted for a third term to serve with the 10th. These men would have been in their late 40's or early 50's. The new legionaries marched over land to Syria to take up their posting. The new 10th Legion's home base was on the Euphrates to keep an eye on the Parthians.

The next discharge date would be 14-13 BC. This time the 10th Legion was settled in Beirut and the city was given Colony status. Ten years later the 10th Legion under Publius Quintilius Varus was marched down to Jerusalem to garrison the city after Herod the Great died. The 10th Legion would remain in Jerusalem until 6 AD.
5 commentsJay GT4
maximi10.jpg
Maximien Hercule15 viewsMAXIMIANVS P F AVG
buste radié ŕ droite, cuirassé
TEMPOR FELICIT
Felicitas tourelée assise ŕ gauche, tenant une patčre et une corne d'abondance
C
PTR
Estiot-Zanchi 13
RIC 481
CAHN 50
1er émission de l'atelier de Trčves (mi-/ fin 293)
PYL
Janos-Hunyadi_Den_U-487_C2-157C_H-623_TEMPORE-IO-_-GVBERnATOR-_-_Rozetta-MOnETA-_-REGnI-_-VnGARIE_Q-001_19mm_0,72g-s.jpg
Medieval, Hungary, Janos Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-487, Rozette-MOnETA-•-REGnI-•-VnGARIE, cross, B-I,532 views036 Janos Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-487, Rozette-MOnETA-•-REGnI-•-VnGARIE, cross, B-I,
avers:-• TEMPORE-IO-•-GVBERnATOR-, Bohemian Lion advancing left without crown,
revers:- Rozette-MOnETA-•-REGnI-•-VnGARIE, Patriarchal cross, B-I across the field,
diameter: 19mm, weight: 0,72g,
mint: Hungary, Buda, mint mark: B-I, by Iohannes Münczer (Pohl).
date: 1451-1452 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-487, CNH-2-157C, Huszar-623,
Q-001
quadrans
Tacitus_31.jpg
MER RIC No: 334122 viewsMint: Lyon Issue 7
Datation: May – June 276
Denomination: Aureliani
Titulature: IMP C M CL TACITVS P F AVG Bust: D1
Legend: TEMPORVM FELICITAS
Reverse Mark: Δ/*//–
Reverse: Felicitas 1
Tacitus
P1000820AMith2combo.jpg
Mithradates II., 121 - 91 BC10 viewsAR dr., 4,11gr, 19mm; Sellwood 26 type, Shore --, Sunrise --;
mint: Eastern ?; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem and 2 ribbons; short cap like hair, mustache, long beard; earring, torque;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand; illegible legend consisting of dots and barbells;
contemporary forgery or Sakaraucan issue (Peus) ?;

ex: Busso Peus Auction 404/405, part of multi-coin lot.
Schatz
IMGP0662Mith2_combo.jpg
Mithradates II., 121 - 91 BC24 viewsfourrée dr., 2,71gr, 18,6mm; Sellwood type 27;
mint: ?, axis 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem and 2 ribbons; short hair, mustache, long beard; earring, partial necklace; cuirass;
rev.: archer, right, on throne, w/bow; 5-line illegible script forming square;

most likely a contemporary Eastern forgery;

ex: H. Hass, Germany.
Schatz
IMGP1090Mith2combo.jpg
Mithradates II., 121-91 BC 24 viewsfourrée dr., 3,29g; Sellwood 24.9 type, Shore 69 type;
mint: ??, axis 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem, knot and ribbons; short cap-like hair, mustache, medium-long beard; earring, torque w/pellett finial; cuirass; dotted border 8 to 12;
rev.: archer, right, on omphalos, w/bow in right hand; 4-line legend beginning on left and forming square: (BA)ΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛoY APΣAKoY EΠIΦAN...;
contemporary official forgery?

ex: H. Hass, Germany.
Schatz
IMGP2652Mith2combo.jpg
Mithradates II., 121-91 BC or Mithradates I, 178-138 BC14 viewscontemporary imitation AR dr., 3,61gr, 20mm;
mint: Eastern?, axis: 11h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem, knot and ribbons; short cap like hair, mustache and medium-long beard; earring, multi-turn torque; complete dotted border; double strike;
rev.: archer, left, on omphalos, w/bow in left hand; 4-line fantasy legend forming square; exergual line;

ex: Vienna, VA, Coin Show.
Schatz
IMGP2652Mith2combo~0.jpg
Mithradates II., 123-88 BC or Mithradates I, 178-138 BC9 views
contemporary imitation AR dr., 3,61gr, 20mm;
mint: Eastern?, axis: 11h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem, knot and ribbons; short cap like hair, mustache and medium-long beard; earring, multi-turn torque; complete dotted border; double strike;
rev.: archer, left, on omphalos, w/bow in left hand; 4-line fantasy legend forming square; exergual line;

ex: Vienna, VA, Coin Show.
Schatz
303,1_Aquillius.jpg
Mn. Aquillius - AR denarius8 viewsRome
˛c. 106 BC
ą109-108 BC
radiate head of Sol right
X
Luna in biga right, crescent and three stars above, star below
(MN)·AQVIL
ROMA
ąCrawford 303/1, Sydenham 557, BMCRR Italy 645, RSC I Aquillia 1, SRCV I 180
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Rauch


Moneyer was son of Manius Auillius consul 129 BC. He would become a Roman general, and consul in 101 B.C. He successfully put down a revolt of the slaves in Sicily but was accused of extortion in the province. He was acquitted on account of his military services, although there was little doubt of his guilt. In the First Mithridatic War he was defeated and taken prisoner in 88 B.C. Mithradates treated him with great cruelty, and is said to have put him to death by pouring molten gold down his throat. The method of his execution became famous and, according to some accounts, was repeated by Parthian contemporaries to kill Marcus Licinius Crassus who was at the time the richest man in Rome and a member of the First Triumvirate.
Johny SYSEL
markianopolis_caracalla_HrJ(2011)6_18_1_8cf.JPG
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis, 18. Caracalla, HrJ (2013) 6.18.01.08 #1 (plate coin)14 viewsCaracalla, AD 197-217
AE 27, 11.77g, 26.94mm, 195°
struck under Julius Faustinianus
obv. AVT M ARHLI - ANTWNEINoc (NE ligate)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. V I FAVCTINIANoV MARKIANOPOLITWN
Eagle with open wings stg. frontal on thunderbolt, head with wreath in beak erected l.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov (engl.)
c) Hristova/Jekov (2013) No. 6.18.1.8 (plate coin)
d) not in Pfeiffer
rare, F+

Pick writes: slightly bearded face of Caracalla. The erroneous form ARHLI instead of AVRHLI recurs on all coins of this group; linguistic significance it has surely not, because on contemporary coins the correct form AVR(HLIOC) occurs too; about the writing of A for the Latin AV see Th. Eckinger, Die Orthographie lateinischer Wörter in griechischen Inschriften (Dissert. Zürich 1892) p.12
Jochen
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RdWwLNiFWFG8-Nero_As_Janus.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS10 viewsNERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP - Laureate head right
PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT - Temple of Janus with latticed window to right and closed doors to left, S-C in exergue.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (65 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.93g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare (SC in exergue)
References:
RIC I 306, 309 var. (SC in exergue),
Sear 1974 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 164 var. (SC in exergue)
BMCRE p. 249, 232 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 163 var. (obv. legend)
Provenances:
ex Munzen und Medaillen Ag Basel 1981
Acquisition/Sale: tradinae Ebay

This is possibly a very rare specimen. This coin is unlisted in all of the major references. Only one other specimen has been found online. a March 3, 2008 auction from Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A.

In RIC on p. 168, there is a footnote stating "309. A Vatican example has S C in ex."

The reverse of this type alludes to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in 66, signifying that there was once again peace throughout the entire Roman world. This extremely rare state of affairs was made possible by the efforts of Nero's general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Corbulo's successful prosecution of the war in the east against the Parthians earned him the respect of the military and popularity among the people of Rome, but also the jealousy and fear of Nero who compelled him to take his own life.

Lettering: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP

Translation:
Nero Caesar Aug (-ustus) Germ (-anicus) Imp (-erator):
"Nero Caesar, August, Victor of the Germans, Emperor".

PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT
S/C

Translation:
Pace P (-opulo) R (-omano) Ubiq (-ue) Parta Janum Clusit:
"Peace of the Roman People being established everywhere, the Gates of the Temple of Janus are Closed".
S (-enatus) C (-onsulto):
"By Decree of the Senate".

From Wikipedia:
In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The Temple doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Temple of Janus was Numa's most famous temple project.

Coins sometimes are the only evidence that survives to illustrate lost Roman monuments, such as the Arcus Neronis, a
monument that probably did not long survive Nero’s downfall. Details of the date and the location of the arch are sketchy,
but the coinage provides an excellent understanding of its form, and, with some variety, we can appreciate the relief’s
decorative elements and statues that adorned it.
It is generally accepted that the arch celebrates the victories of the general Corbulo over the Parthians, and that it was built
on the Capitoline Hill sometime between 58 and 62. Its precise location has not been determined from ancient sources or
from archaeological investigation, though proximity to the Temple of Vejovis or the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus have
both been suggested.
This coin was struck during one of the rare moments of peace within the Empire. Suetonius (Nero 15) describes the visit to
Rome of Tiridates, Rome’s candidate for the throne of the buffer-state Armenia after Corbulo’s victories over the
Parthians. Tiridates made a ceremonial supplication to Nero, was crowned king of his native land, after which, Suetonius
reports, “The people then hailed Nero as Imperator and, after dedicating a laurel-wreath in the Capitol, he closed the
double doors of the Temple of Janus, as a sign that all war was at an end.”

From CNG:

The temple of Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and endings, was one of Rome’s most ancient centers of worship. It was said that Romulus had built it after he made peace with the Sabines, and that it was king Numa who decreed that its doors should be opened during times of war and shut during times of peace. In all of Roman history until the reign of Nero, the temple doors had been shut perhaps five or six times – once under king Numa (who originated the tradition), once at the end of the Second Punic War, three times under Augustus, and, according to Ovid, once under Tiberius.

In 65 AD, when peace had been generally established in the Empire, Nero understandably requested the closing of the temple’s doors. He marked the event with great celebrations and commemorated it by issuing a large and impressive series of coins. The inscription on this issue announces “the doors of Janus have been close after peace has been procured for the Roman People on the land and on the sea." Despite Nero’s contentment with affairs on the empire’s borders, the year 65 AD was rife with domestic tragedy: much of Rome was still in ashes from the great fire of the previous year, Nero narrowly escaped death in the Pisonian conspiracy, and not long afterward he had kicked to death his pregnant wife Poppaea.

From the Dictionary of Roman Coins:
PACE. P.R. TERRA. MARIQ. PARTA. IANVM. CLVSIT. - The first and second brass medals of Nero, on which this interesting legend appears, represent in their type the temple of Janus shut - a circumstance limited to the very rare epochas of an universal peace. - It is only on his coins that Nero is recorded to have closed the sacred fane of old BIFRONS, after having procured peace for the Roman people by land and sea. But possibly the infatuation of that vain tyrant prompted him to boast of a peace which seems denied as a fact by some historians - and though the coinis themselves are common, it is uncertain to what year the reverse alludes. - On others we read Pace populi Romani ubique (instead of Terra Marique) parta Janum clusit. - It will be remarked that CLVSIT is here read for CLVSIT is here read for CLAVSIT. That "this was a mode of writing the word in Nero's time is proved (observes Eckhel), not only by these coins, but by the contemporaneous authority of Seneca, who in various passages of his work employs the term cludere for claudere." - See Janus.
According to Livy, the temple of Janus, which remained always open when Rome was at war, was shut only once, from the foundation of the city to the battle of Actium. Under Augustus it was closed three times; and one of the occasions was about the perion of our Blessed Saviour's Nativity, when as the writings of the Fathers attest, the whole world enjoyed peace.

From Roma:
Janus was a god unique to the Romans, for whom the ancient Greek pantheon (whence the greater part of the Roman religion was derived) had no equivalent. Janus was the god of gateways, beginnings and endings, transitions and duality, of war and peace. The structure commonly referred to as the Temple of Janus, but more correctly the Ianus Geminus, Ianus Quirinus or Portae Belli, was not a temple at all in the traditional sense. Built by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, the doors of the Ianus Geminus were opened to indicate that Rome was at war and closed during times of peace. Since the time of Numa and before the time of Nero, the doors were said to have been closed only in 235 BC, after the first Punic war; and three times during the reign of Augustus.

The structure itself was probably originally conceived and executed in wood and other perishable materials, but contained an archaic bronze statue of the god which held in the one hand a key, denoting his role as the supreme gate-keeper in both spatial and temporal senses, and in the other a staff, signifying both his authority and role as a divine guide. Said to have been situated between the Forum Julium and the Forum Romanum, close to where the Argiletum entered the forum, it consisted of twin gates opposite each other; the cult statue was between them. No roof is indicated, and it may have been an open enclosure. While there is no literary evidence that the temple was destroyed or rebuilt, it must have been moved to make way for the construction of the Basilica Aemilia in 179 BC.

The Ianus Geminus as it existed from that time until the reign of Domitian, and as depicted on this and other coins struck by Nero, evidently had walls of ashlar masonry under a grated window set beneath a decorated frieze. Double doors of bronze and iron are reported by Virgil, and are shown framed by columns, with a wreath hanging overhead. Virgil, whose literary epic the Aeneid enshrined and embellished Roman traditions for eternal posterity, relates that "When the senators have irrevocably decided for battle, the consul himself, a figure conspicuous in Quirine toga of State and Gabine cincture, unbolts these gates, and their hinge-posts groan; it is he who calls the fighting forth" (Virgil, Aeneid, VII.601-615). Yet Virgil and his contemporaries Ovid and Horace disagreed on the meaning of the ritual closing of the gates. To Virgil, it was War that was being locked behind the twin gates; for Ovid and Horace, it was Peace that was kept within. Regardless, the symbolism of opening or closing the gates of the Ianus Geminus was powerful indeed; thus following the favourable end to a war with Parthia in 63 thanks to the efforts of the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, and the general establishment of peace across Rome's borders by 65, Nero famously closed the doors to great fanfare in AD 66 as a sign that all war was at an end.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-Wl8EMMOmMrVX80Z7-Nero_sestertius_Janus.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius10 viewsNERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right
PACE P R TERRA MARIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S-C - Temple of Janus with latticed windows & garland hung across doors; closed double doors on the right.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (65AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 20.70g / 33.75mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 266
cf Sear 1959
BMC 161
WCN 139
Acquisition/Sale: erie-antiques Ebay

The reverse of this type alludes to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in 66, signifying that there was once again peace throughout the entire Roman world. This extremely rare state of affairs was made possible by the efforts of Nero's general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Corbulo's successful prosecution of the war in the east against the Parthians earned him the respect of the military and popularity among the people of Rome, but also the jealousy and fear of Nero who compelled him to take his own life.

The reverse inscription translates: "Peace to the People of Rome both on land and sea having come, the doors of Janus he closed."

From Wikipedia:
In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The Temple doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Temple of Janus was Numa's most famous temple project.

Coins sometimes are the only evidence that survives to illustrate lost Roman monuments, such as the Arcus Neronis, a
monument that probably did not long survive Nero’s downfall. Details of the date and the location of the arch are sketchy,
but the coinage provides an excellent understanding of its form, and, with some variety, we can appreciate the relief’s
decorative elements and statues that adorned it.
It is generally accepted that the arch celebrates the victories of the general Corbulo over the Parthians, and that it was built
on the Capitoline Hill sometime between 58 and 62. Its precise location has not been determined from ancient sources or
from archaeological investigation, though proximity to the Temple of Vejovis or the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus have
both been suggested.
This coin was struck during one of the rare moments of peace within the Empire. Suetonius (Nero 15) describes the visit to
Rome of Tiridates, Rome’s candidate for the throne of the buffer-state Armenia after Corbulo’s victories over the
Parthians. Tiridates made a ceremonial supplication to Nero, was crowned king of his native land, after which, Suetonius
reports, “The people then hailed Nero as Imperator and, after dedicating a laurel-wreath in the Capitol, he closed the
double doors of the Temple of Janus, as a sign that all war was at an end.”

From CNG:

The temple of Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and endings, was one of Rome’s most ancient centers of worship. It was said that Romulus had built it after he made peace with the Sabines, and that it was king Numa who decreed that its doors should be opened during times of war and shut during times of peace. In all of Roman history until the reign of Nero, the temple doors had been shut perhaps five or six times – once under king Numa (who originated the tradition), once at the end of the Second Punic War, three times under Augustus, and, according to Ovid, once under Tiberius.

In 65 AD, when peace had been generally established in the Empire, Nero understandably requested the closing of the temple’s doors. He marked the event with great celebrations and commemorated it by issuing a large and impressive series of coins. The inscription on this issue announces “the doors of Janus have been close after peace has been procured for the Roman People on the land and on the sea." Despite Nero’s contentment with affairs on the empire’s borders, the year 65 AD was rife with domestic tragedy: much of Rome was still in ashes from the great fire of the previous year, Nero narrowly escaped death in the Pisonian conspiracy, and not long afterward he had kicked to death his pregnant wife Poppaea.

From the Dictionary of Roman Coins:
PACE. P.R. TERRA. MARIQ. PARTA. IANVM. CLVSIT. - The first and second brass medals of Nero, on which this interesting legend appears, represent in their type the temple of Janus shut - a circumstance limited to the very rare epochas of an universal peace. - It is only on his coins that Nero is recorded to have closed the sacred fane of old BIFRONS, after having procured peace for the Roman people by land and sea. But possibly the infatuation of that vain tyrant prompted him to boast of a peace which seems denied as a fact by some historians - and though the coinis themselves are common, it is uncertain to what year the reverse alludes. - On others we read Pace populi Romani ubique (instead of Terra Marique) parta Janum clusit. - It will be remarked that CLVSIT is here read for CLVSIT is here read for CLAVSIT. That "this was a mode of writing the word in Nero's time is proved (observes Eckhel), not only by these coins, but by the contemporaneous authority of Seneca, who in various passages of his work employs the term cludere for claudere." - See Janus.
According to Livy, the temple of Janus, which remained always open when Rome was at war, was shut only once, from the foundation of the city to the battle of Actium. Under Augustus it was closed three times; and one of the occasions was about the perion of our Blessed Saviour's Nativity, when as the writings of the Fathers attest, the whole world enjoyed peace.

From Roma:
Janus was a god unique to the Romans, for whom the ancient Greek pantheon (whence the greater part of the Roman religion was derived) had no equivalent. Janus was the god of gateways, beginnings and endings, transitions and duality, of war and peace. The structure commonly referred to as the Temple of Janus, but more correctly the Ianus Geminus, Ianus Quirinus or Portae Belli, was not a temple at all in the traditional sense. Built by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, the doors of the Ianus Geminus were opened to indicate that Rome was at war and closed during times of peace. Since the time of Numa and before the time of Nero, the doors were said to have been closed only in 235 BC, after the first Punic war; and three times during the reign of Augustus.

The structure itself was probably originally conceived and executed in wood and other perishable materials, but contained an archaic bronze statue of the god which held in the one hand a key, denoting his role as the supreme gate-keeper in both spatial and temporal senses, and in the other a staff, signifying both his authority and role as a divine guide. Said to have been situated between the Forum Julium and the Forum Romanum, close to where the Argiletum entered the forum, it consisted of twin gates opposite each other; the cult statue was between them. No roof is indicated, and it may have been an open enclosure. While there is no literary evidence that the temple was destroyed or rebuilt, it must have been moved to make way for the construction of the Basilica Aemilia in 179 BC.

The Ianus Geminus as it existed from that time until the reign of Domitian, and as depicted on this and other coins struck by Nero, evidently had walls of ashlar masonry under a grated window set beneath a decorated frieze. Double doors of bronze and iron are reported by Virgil, and are shown framed by columns, with a wreath hanging overhead. Virgil, whose literary epic the Aeneid enshrined and embellished Roman traditions for eternal posterity, relates that "When the senators have irrevocably decided for battle, the consul himself, a figure conspicuous in Quirine toga of State and Gabine cincture, unbolts these gates, and their hinge-posts groan; it is he who calls the fighting forth" (Virgil, Aeneid, VII.601-615). Yet Virgil and his contemporaries Ovid and Horace disagreed on the meaning of the ritual closing of the gates. To Virgil, it was War that was being locked behind the twin gates; for Ovid and Horace, it was Peace that was kept within. Regardless, the symbolism of opening or closing the gates of the Ianus Geminus was powerful indeed; thus following the favourable end to a war with Parthia in 63 thanks to the efforts of the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, and the general establishment of peace across Rome's borders by 65, Nero famously closed the doors to great fanfare in AD 66 as a sign that all war was at an end.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-RdWwLNiFWFG8-Nero_As_Janus~0.jpg
Nero (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS14 viewsNERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP - Laureate head right
PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT - Temple of Janus with latticed window to right and closed doors to left, S-C in exergue.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (65 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.93g / 28mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare (SC in exergue)
References:
RIC I 306, 309 var. (SC in exergue),
Sear 1974 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 164 var. (SC in exergue)
BMCRE p. 249, 232 var. (SC in exergue)
Cohen 163 var. (obv. legend)
Provenances:
ex Munzen und Medaillen Ag Basel 1981
Acquisition/Sale: tradinae Ebay

This is possibly a very rare specimen. This coin is unlisted in all of the major references. Only one other specimen has been found online. a March 3, 2008 auction from Jean Elsen & ses Fils S.A.

In RIC on p. 168, there is a footnote stating "309. A Vatican example has S C in ex."

The reverse of this type alludes to the closing of the doors of the Temple of Janus in 66, signifying that there was once again peace throughout the entire Roman world. This extremely rare state of affairs was made possible by the efforts of Nero's general, Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Corbulo's successful prosecution of the war in the east against the Parthians earned him the respect of the military and popularity among the people of Rome, but also the jealousy and fear of Nero who compelled him to take his own life.

Lettering: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP

Translation:
Nero Caesar Aug (-ustus) Germ (-anicus) Imp (-erator):
"Nero Caesar, August, Victor of the Germans, Emperor".

PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT
S/C

Translation:
Pace P (-opulo) R (-omano) Ubiq (-ue) Parta Janum Clusit:
"Peace of the Roman People being established everywhere, the Gates of the Temple of Janus are Closed".
S (-enatus) C (-onsulto):
"By Decree of the Senate".

From Wikipedia:
In ancient Rome, the main Temple of Janus stood in the Roman Forum near the Argiletum. It had doors on both ends, and inside was a statue of Janus, the two-faced god of boundaries. The Temple doors (the "Gates of Janus") were closed in times of peace and opened in times of war.

According to Livy 1.19 the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, decided to distract the early, warlike Romans from their violent ways by instilling in them awe and reverence. His projects included promoting religion, certain priesthoods, and the building of temples as a distraction with the beneficial effect of imbuing spirituality. The Temple of Janus was Numa's most famous temple project.

Coins sometimes are the only evidence that survives to illustrate lost Roman monuments, such as the Arcus Neronis, a
monument that probably did not long survive Nero’s downfall. Details of the date and the location of the arch are sketchy,
but the coinage provides an excellent understanding of its form, and, with some variety, we can appreciate the relief’s
decorative elements and statues that adorned it.
It is generally accepted that the arch celebrates the victories of the general Corbulo over the Parthians, and that it was built
on the Capitoline Hill sometime between 58 and 62. Its precise location has not been determined from ancient sources or
from archaeological investigation, though proximity to the Temple of Vejovis or the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus have
both been suggested.
This coin was struck during one of the rare moments of peace within the Empire. Suetonius (Nero 15) describes the visit to
Rome of Tiridates, Rome’s candidate for the throne of the buffer-state Armenia after Corbulo’s victories over the
Parthians. Tiridates made a ceremonial supplication to Nero, was crowned king of his native land, after which, Suetonius
reports, “The people then hailed Nero as Imperator and, after dedicating a laurel-wreath in the Capitol, he closed the
double doors of the Temple of Janus, as a sign that all war was at an end.”

From CNG:

The temple of Janus, the Roman god of beginnings and endings, was one of Rome’s most ancient centers of worship. It was said that Romulus had built it after he made peace with the Sabines, and that it was king Numa who decreed that its doors should be opened during times of war and shut during times of peace. In all of Roman history until the reign of Nero, the temple doors had been shut perhaps five or six times – once under king Numa (who originated the tradition), once at the end of the Second Punic War, three times under Augustus, and, according to Ovid, once under Tiberius.

In 65 AD, when peace had been generally established in the Empire, Nero understandably requested the closing of the temple’s doors. He marked the event with great celebrations and commemorated it by issuing a large and impressive series of coins. The inscription on this issue announces “the doors of Janus have been close after peace has been procured for the Roman People on the land and on the sea." Despite Nero’s contentment with affairs on the empire’s borders, the year 65 AD was rife with domestic tragedy: much of Rome was still in ashes from the great fire of the previous year, Nero narrowly escaped death in the Pisonian conspiracy, and not long afterward he had kicked to death his pregnant wife Poppaea.

From the Dictionary of Roman Coins:
PACE. P.R. TERRA. MARIQ. PARTA. IANVM. CLVSIT. - The first and second brass medals of Nero, on which this interesting legend appears, represent in their type the temple of Janus shut - a circumstance limited to the very rare epochas of an universal peace. - It is only on his coins that Nero is recorded to have closed the sacred fane of old BIFRONS, after having procured peace for the Roman people by land and sea. But possibly the infatuation of that vain tyrant prompted him to boast of a peace which seems denied as a fact by some historians - and though the coinis themselves are common, it is uncertain to what year the reverse alludes. - On others we read Pace populi Romani ubique (instead of Terra Marique) parta Janum clusit. - It will be remarked that CLVSIT is here read for CLVSIT is here read for CLAVSIT. That "this was a mode of writing the word in Nero's time is proved (observes Eckhel), not only by these coins, but by the contemporaneous authority of Seneca, who in various passages of his work employs the term cludere for claudere." - See Janus.
According to Livy, the temple of Janus, which remained always open when Rome was at war, was shut only once, from the foundation of the city to the battle of Actium. Under Augustus it was closed three times; and one of the occasions was about the perion of our Blessed Saviour's Nativity, when as the writings of the Fathers attest, the whole world enjoyed peace.

From Roma:
Janus was a god unique to the Romans, for whom the ancient Greek pantheon (whence the greater part of the Roman religion was derived) had no equivalent. Janus was the god of gateways, beginnings and endings, transitions and duality, of war and peace. The structure commonly referred to as the Temple of Janus, but more correctly the Ianus Geminus, Ianus Quirinus or Portae Belli, was not a temple at all in the traditional sense. Built by the second king of Rome, Numa Pompilius, the doors of the Ianus Geminus were opened to indicate that Rome was at war and closed during times of peace. Since the time of Numa and before the time of Nero, the doors were said to have been closed only in 235 BC, after the first Punic war; and three times during the reign of Augustus.

The structure itself was probably originally conceived and executed in wood and other perishable materials, but contained an archaic bronze statue of the god which held in the one hand a key, denoting his role as the supreme gate-keeper in both spatial and temporal senses, and in the other a staff, signifying both his authority and role as a divine guide. Said to have been situated between the Forum Julium and the Forum Romanum, close to where the Argiletum entered the forum, it consisted of twin gates opposite each other; the cult statue was between them. No roof is indicated, and it may have been an open enclosure. While there is no literary evidence that the temple was destroyed or rebuilt, it must have been moved to make way for the construction of the Basilica Aemilia in 179 BC.

The Ianus Geminus as it existed from that time until the reign of Domitian, and as depicted on this and other coins struck by Nero, evidently had walls of ashlar masonry under a grated window set beneath a decorated frieze. Double doors of bronze and iron are reported by Virgil, and are shown framed by columns, with a wreath hanging overhead. Virgil, whose literary epic the Aeneid enshrined and embellished Roman traditions for eternal posterity, relates that "When the senators have irrevocably decided for battle, the consul himself, a figure conspicuous in Quirine toga of State and Gabine cincture, unbolts these gates, and their hinge-posts groan; it is he who calls the fighting forth" (Virgil, Aeneid, VII.601-615). Yet Virgil and his contemporaries Ovid and Horace disagreed on the meaning of the ritual closing of the gates. To Virgil, it was War that was being locked behind the twin gates; for Ovid and Horace, it was Peace that was kept within. Regardless, the symbolism of opening or closing the gates of the Ianus Geminus was powerful indeed; thus following the favourable end to a war with Parthia in 63 thanks to the efforts of the general Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo, and the general establishment of peace across Rome's borders by 65, Nero famously closed the doors to great fanfare in AD 66 as a sign that all war was at an end.
Gary W2
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Nerva Aequitas Ӕ As (c. 97 A.D.)8 viewsIMP NERVA CAES [AVG P M TR P ? COS ? P P], laureate head right / AEQVITAS AVGVST + S - C across fields, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae

Ӕ, oval 25+ to 28mm, 10.23g, die axis 7.5h, base metal seems yellow, orichalcum? Can it be a dupontius?

Mint: Rome. Regnal period is end 96 – Jan 98 AD, so 97 is the most probable minting year.

End of the obverse legend is missing, so TR P and COS numbers are unknown. Thus three types are possible:

TR P COS II --> RIC II 51, Sear 3060 var
TR P COS III --> RIC II 77, Cohen 7, BMC 127, Sear 3060
TR P II COS III --> RIC II 94, Cohen 10

IMPerator NERVA CAESar AVGustus Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins, no number means first year of reign, II second), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II or III (Nerva started his 3d consulship in 97, so II would mean minting year of 96, he also became a consul for 98, but since he died in January, COS IIII is very rare), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but usually not at the very beginning of the reign, in this case it was probably assumed immediately because of Nerva's old age). Aequitas = justice, equality, conformity, symmetry. Nemesis was originally understood as honest distributor of fortune, neither bad nor good, but in due proportion. Later it gained aspects of justice and divine retribution, but in Nemesis-Aequitas her qualities of honest dealing is emphasized. Aequitas Augusti symbolizes honesty, equality and justice of the emperor towards his subjects. The scales here mean honest measure rather than justice, and the cornucopia is self explanatory. SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious). As or assarius – the basic Roman bronze coin, reintroduced and firmly established for centuries by Augustus (often minted of pure red copper).

On the obverse to the right of the neck there is a mysterious symbol (looks like a special field mint mark in LRB, but these were not used before 4th century I think), which is too far in to be a distorted letter of the legend.

NERVA, *8 Nov 30 (or 35) AD (Narni, central Italy) † 27 Jan 98 AD (aged 67 or 62) Gardens of Sallust, Rome ‡ 18 Sep 96 – 27 Jan 98 (effectively abdicated in autumn 97 naming Trajan as his successor)

Marcus Cocceius Nerva was born in the village of Narni, 50 kilometers north of Rome. Ancient sources report the date as either 30 or 35. He had at least one attested sister, named Cocceia, who married Lucius Salvius Titianus Otho, the brother of the earlier Emperor Otho. Like Vespasian, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, Nerva was a member of the Italian nobility rather than one of the elite of Rome. Nevertheless, the Cocceii were among the most esteemed and prominent political families of the late Republic and early Empire, attaining consulships in each successive generation. The direct ancestors of Nerva on his father's side, all named Marcus Cocceius Nerva, were associated with imperial circles from the time of Augustus.

Not much of Nerva's early life or career is recorded, but it appears he did not pursue the usual administrative or military career. He was praetor-elect in the year 65 and, like his ancestors, moved in imperial circles as a skilled diplomat and strategist. He received many high honors during the reign of Nero and Flavians, including two ordinary (!) consulships of 71 and 90, usually for services that remained unclear, so probably of highly delicate and clandestine nature, e. g. he played a prominent role of uncovering at least two major conspiracies against the ruling emperors. During 69, the transitional Year of the Four Emperors he was nowhere to be seen, but then emerged on the winning Flavian side, which was quite a feat for a former Neronian loyalist and a relative of one of the defeated emperors, Otho. It is also known that Nerva had excellent literary abilities praised by his contemporaries.

On 18 September, 96, Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy organised by court officials. The same day the Senate proclaimed Nerva emperor in somewhat obscure circumstances. Modern historians believe Nerva was proclaimed Emperor solely on the initiative of the Senate, within hours after the news of the assassination broke, to avoid the inevitable civil unrest, and neither him nor the Senate had anything to do with the conspiracy. The change of government was welcome particularly to the senators, who had been harshly persecuted during Domitian's reign. As an immediate gesture of goodwill towards his supporters, Nerva publicly swore that no senators would be put to death as long as he remained in office. He called an end to trials based on treason, released those who had been imprisoned under these charges, and granted amnesty to many who had been exiled. All properties which had been confiscated by Domitian were returned to their respective families. Nerva also sought to involve the Senate in his government, but this was not entirely successful.

Nerva had to introduce a number of measures to gain support among the Roman populace. As was the custom by this time, a change of emperor was to bring with it a generous payment of gifts and money to the people and the army. This was followed by a string of economic reforms intended to alleviate the burden of taxation from the most needy Romans. Furthermore, numerous taxes were remitted and privileges granted to Roman provinces. Before long, Nerva's expenses strained the economy of Rome and necessitated the formation of a special commission of economy to drastically reduce expenditures. The most superfluous religious sacrifices, games and horse races were abolished, while new income was generated from Domitian's former possessions. Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few, instead completing projects which had been initiated under Flavian rule. This included extensive repairs to the Roman road system and the expansion of the aqueducts. The only major landmarks constructed under Nerva were a granary, known as the Horrea Nervae, and a small Imperial Forum begun by Domitian, which linked the Forum of Augustus to the Temple of Peace.

Despite Nerva's measures to remain popular with the Senate and the Roman people, support for Domitian remained strong in the army, which led to problems. Upon his accession, he had ordered a halt to treason trials, but at the same time allowed the prosecution of informers by the Senate to continue. This measure led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

The situation was further aggravated by the absence of a clear successor, made more pressing because of Nerva's old age and sickness. In October 97 these tensions came to a head when the Praetorian Guard laid siege to the Imperial Palace and took Nerva hostage. He was forced to submit to their demands, agreeing to hand over those responsible for Domitian's death. Nerva was unharmed in this assault, but his authority was damaged beyond repair. He realized that his position was no longer tenable without the support of an heir who had the approval of both the army and the people. Shortly thereafter, he announced the adoption of Trajan as his successor, and with this decision all but abdicated.

On 1 January, 98, at the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Shortly thereafter he was struck by a fever and died. His largest legacies were avoiding the civil war after the fall of Flavians and establishing a new dynasty that ruled almost until the end of the 2nd century and achieved "the golden age" of the Roman empire.
Yurii P
IMGP3083Orod1combo.jpg
Orodes I. 90 - 77 BC23 viewsAR dr., 3,91gr, 19mm; Sellwood 31/6 type, Shore 123,124 type, Sunrise --;
mint: ?, axis: 13:30;
obv.: head, left, w/tiara (3 rows of pellets, eight-point star as side decoration, long ear flap) and diadem w/ribbon; mustache, short beard; earring?; cuirass; dotted border 10:30 to 14:30h; style of portrait and die quality suggest a contemporary imitation;
rev>: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand; seven-line legend: BAΣIΛEΩ(Σ) MEΓAΛoV APΣAKoV AVToKPAToPoΣ ΦIΛoΠAToP; EΠIΦANoVΣ ΦIΛEΛΛΗNoΣ; exergual line;

ex: H. Hass, Germany.
Schatz
IMGP3083Orod1combo~0.jpg
Orodes I. 90 - 77 BC6 views
AR dr., 3,91gr, 19mm; Sellwood 31/6 type, Shore 123,124 type, Sunrise --;
mint: ?, axis: 13:30;
obv.: head, left, w/tiara (3 rows of pellets, eight-point star as side decoration, long ear flap) and diadem w/ribbon; mustache, short beard; earring?; cuirass; dotted border 10:30 to 14:30h; style of portrait and die quality suggest a contemporary imitation;
rev: archer, right, on throne, w/bow in one hand; seven-line legend: BAΣIΛEΩ(Σ) MEΓAΛoV APΣAKoV AVToKPAToPoΣ ΦIΛoΠAToP; EΠIΦANoVΣ ΦIΛEΛΛΗNoΣ; exergual line;

ex: H. Hass, Germany.
Schatz
MarcusAmastrisBull2.jpg
Paphlagonia, Amastris. Marcus Aurelius. RPC IV 5397; Rec. 95.14 viewsPaphlagonia, Amastris. Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar (AD 139–161). Ć19 (3.44g.). Struck AD 144–161.
Obverse: ΟVΗΡΟC ΚΑΙCΑΡ, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust of Marcus Aurelius right, with short beard.
Reverse: ΑΜΑ[C]ΤΡΙΑΝ - ΩΝ, Apis-bull walking right.
References: RPC IV Online (temporary №) 5397; Rec. 95 (Pl. XX, fig. 9).
Ex Constantin Paslaru, 12-24-2011.
Mark Fox
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PERTINAX42 viewsAR denarius. 193 AD. Laureate head right. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG. / Laetitia standing left holding wreath and sceptre. LAETITIA TEMPOR COS II. s. 6041.
Dr.Busso P N. 376. Lot 953.
benito
00pertinax.jpg
PERTINAX46 viewsAR denarius. 193 AD. Laureate head right. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG. / Laetitia standing left holding wreath and sceptre. LAETITIA TEMPOR COS II. s. 6041.
1 commentsbenito
Pertinax_Laetitia.JPG
Pertinax Laetitia58 viewsRIC IV 4a, BMCRE V 8, RSC III 20, SRCV II 6041, choice aVF, toned, 3.396g, 18.3mm, 0o, Rome mint, 193 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right; reverse LAETITIA TEMPOR COS II, Laetitia standing half left, wreath in right, long vertical scepter in right; well centered;
Laetitia was a minor Roman goddess of gaiety, her name deriving from the root word laeta, meaning happy.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins

VERY RARE (R2)
2 commentsRomanorvm
philip_RIC19.jpg
PHILIP I AR antoninianus AD24820 viewsobv: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG (radiate head right)
rev: SAECVLARES AVGG (stag walking right), V (or U) in ex.
ref: RIC IViii 19 (C), RSC 182 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
3.35gms, 22mm
Scarcer

In April 248, Philip had the honour of leading the celebrations of the one thousandth birthday of Rome, which according to tradition was founded in 753 BC by Romulus. He combined the anniversary with the celebration of Rome's alleged tenth saeculum. According to contemporary accounts, the festivities were magnificent and included spectacular games, ludi saeculares, and theatrical presentations throughout the city. In the coliseum, more than 1,000 gladiators were killed along with hundreds of exotic animals including hippos, leopards, lions, giraffes, and one rhinoceros.
1 commentsberserker
image00426.jpg
Phoenicia, Arados. Uncertain king. Circa 420-350 BC.6 viewsAR Shekel

18.5 mm, 10.45 g

Obverse: Laureate head of Ba'al-Arwad? right, with frontal eye

Reverse: Galley right above waves with row of shields along the bulwark; M A (in Aramaic) above;

E&E-A Group III.1.1; HGC 10, 28.

Settled in the 2nd millennium BC by the Phoenicians, Arados (Greek name) was located three kilometers off the Syrian shore between Lattaquie and Tripolis. Under Phoenician control, it became an independent kingdom called Arvad or Jazirat (the latter term meaning "island"). The island was a barren rock covered with fortifications and houses several stories in height. Just 800m long by 500m wide, it was surrounded by a massive wall with an artificial harbor constructed on the east toward the mainland.

Like most of the Phoenician cities on this coast, it developed into a trading city. Arados had a powerful navy, and its ships are mentioned in the monuments of Egypt and Assyria. In ancient times, it was in turn subject to the Egyptians, Assyrians, and then Persians (539 BC). But local dynasts were maintained until Straton, son of Gerostratos, king of Arados, submitted to Alexander the Great in 333 B.C.

The earliest coins of Arados (430-410 BC) depict a marine deity, human to the waist, bearded with plaited hair, with the lower body of a fish. Scholars aren't sure exactly who this deity is. Some believe the merman is Dagôn, associated with being the god of grain in the middle Euphrates and old Babylonia. Another option is Yamm (Yam), an ancient god from the semitic word meaning sea. He was worshipped by the semitic religions including Phoenicia and the Canaanites. Today, Elavi and Elayi's (2005) identification of the deity as Ba’al Arwad - a local manifestation of the ubiquitous Semitic god of weather and fertility - seems to be the most commonly accepted interpretation. In later Aradian coinage (like