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Search results - "Syria"
coin623.jpg
92 viewsElagabalus 218 - 222 AD 6.0 gram AE20 of Antioch, Syria. IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, laureate bust right / large DЄ, star beneath, all within laurel wreath. BMC 449, SGI 3098.
Coin #623.
cars100
coin622.jpg
74 viewsGREEK; Antiochus III, King of Syria, 223-187 BC;
AE 12, Antioch mint; Obv: Laureated head of
Apollo right. Rev: Apollo standing left, holds
arrow and leans on bow. Houghton 70
Spaer 583 Coin #622
cars100
coin634.jpg
13 viewsOne of the ones that names Silanos RPC 4268 or 4269
legend EΠΙ ΣΙΛΑΝΟΥ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ
Year ΓΜ = 43, AD 12/13 or , AD 13/14
Antiochia (Syria) Æs
It's often called the "Star of Bethlehem" coin.
Coin #634
cars100
coin627.jpg
16 viewsSeleukid Kings of Syria, Demetrios III Eukairos, 97-87 BC.
Radiate, diademed and bearded head of Demetrios III, r / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΘΕΟΥ
/ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm,
date below, Damaskos mint, HGC 9, 1309. Coin #627
cars100
coin621.jpg
17 viewsSyria Seleucia Pieria AE14
Apollo & tripod. Cop. 399, S 2184 Date: 100BC
Obverse: Head of Apollo right Reverse: Tripod
Size: 14.43 mm Weight: 2.3 grams Coin #621
cars100
syria.jpg
37 views21mmareich
philip_I_Prieur_445.jpg
21 viewsPHILIP I
Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria
28.5 mm, 13.9 grams

OBV: AVTOK K M IOVLI FILIPPOC CEB, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
REV: DHMARC EXOVCIAC VPATOV, Eagle standing right with wreath in beak.
ANTIOXIA SC below.
PRIEUR 445.
ziggy9
philip_I_Prieur_443_CF.jpg
18 viewsPHILIP I
Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
26.3 mm, 11.9 grams

OBV: Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
REV: Eagle standing left, wreath in its beak.
ANTIOXIA in ex.
PRIEUR 443 CF
ziggy9
lot945094.jpg
21 viewsTrajan. Æ (11.50 g), AD 98-117. Laodicea ad Mare in Syria, CY 162 (AD 115/6). AYTOKP NEP TPAIANO? API?T KAI? ?EB ΓEP ΔAK ΠAP, laureate bust of Trajan right, slight drapery on far shoulder. Reverse: IOYΛI[EωN] TωN KAI [ΛAOΔIKEω]N BΞP, turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right; in right field, monogram. BMC 40; SNG Copenhagen 344; RPC 3796.2
Quant.Geek
Augustus_RPC_4151~0.jpg
2 Augustus Antioch Tetradrachm46 viewsAUGUSTUS
AR Tetradrachm, Antioch, Syria. Regnal year 26 = 5 BC.

KAIΣAΡΟΣ ΣΕ—[ΒΑΣΤΟΥ], laureate head of Augustus right / ΕΤΟΥΣ ςΚ ΝΙΚΗΣ, Tyche of Antioch seated on rock, holding palm branch, river Orontes swimming at her feet, ΥΠΑ monogram & IB (= COS XII) in r. field above ANT AYT monogram.

Prieur 50, RPC 4151 Good Fine
RI0013
2 commentsSosius
anixk.jpg
Antiochus IX Kyzikenos14 viewsSeleukid Kings of Syria. Antiochos IX Eusebes Philopator (Kyzikenos) Æ18. Uncertain mint, probably in Phoenicia. Struck 112-101 BCE.
Obverse Winged bust of Eros right
Reverse: BASILEOS ANTIOCOU FILOPATOROS Nike advancing left, holding wreath; no controls or date visible. SC 2388; HGC 9, 1254; cf. DCA 300. 5.5g, 20.2mm,
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
geta1s.jpg
Geta, silver Denarius.198 - 209 CE as Caesar. Laodiciea ad Mare, Syria. 25 viewsGeta Denarius. Laodicea mint, 199 CE
Obverse; P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, draped bust right
Reverse; MINERV SANCT, Minerva standing left leaning on a shield & holding reversed spear.
19.1mm, 3.1 g
RSC 83. Geta Denarius, RIC 105a, RSC 83, BMC 750
NORMAN K
63430q00.jpg
10 Vespasian and Titus29 viewsVespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Antioch, Syria

Silver tetradrachm, Prieur 113, McAlee 336, RPC II 1947, Wruck 86, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.89g, maximum diameter 24.3mm, die axis 0o, 70 - 71 A.D.; obverse ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤ ΚΑΙΣΑ ΟΥΕΣΠΑΣΙΑΝΟΥ, laureate bust right; reverse ETOYC Γ IEPOY (Holy Year 3), eagle standing left on club, wings spread, palm frond left; ex CNG auction 149, lot 286; ex Garth R. Drewry Collection, ex Harmer Rooke (26-28 March 1973), lot 488 (part of).

Struck to pay Titus' legions during and after the First Jewish Revolt. RPC notes c. 320 different dies indicate 6,500,000 Syrian tetradrachms might have been minted. This was the quantity Titus would have needed to pay his four legions. Hoard evidence finds many of these types in Judaea confirming they were used to pay the legions.

Purchased from FORVM!
RI0002
Sosius
Nerva_AE_25_of_Antioch.jpg
13 Nerva AE25 of Antioch15 viewsNERVA
AE25 of Antioch, Syria.
96-97 AD
Laureate head right / SC, I below, all within laurel wreath.
RI0108
Sosius
Philip_I_BMC_531.jpg
2 Philip I17 viewsPHILIP I
AE 29mm of Antioch, Syria.

O: AVTOK K M IOVLI FILIPPOC CEB, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust left

R: ANTIOXEWN METPO KOLWN D-E S-C, turreted, veiled & draped bust of Tyche right, ram jumping right above, star below.

SNGCop 271. BMC 531

F+
Sosius
Philip_II_Fitz_5917.jpg
2.5 Phillip II10 viewsPhilip II
AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria
25mm, 11.98g

Laureate bust of Philip II right / Eagle, wings spread, facing left, with wreath in beak.

Fitz 5917
Sosius
Caracalla_Tet_Prieur_1179.jpg
25 Caracalla18 viewsCARACALLA
AR Tetradrachm. 13g, 26mm
Syria, Laodicea ad Mare.
Struck circa 215-217AD

Laureate head right / Eagle standing facing, head left, holding wreath in beak; star between legs.

McAlee, Severan, Group 6, 40; Prieur 1179
aVF, Ex Amphora Coins. Hendin COA.
Sosius
Elagabalus_Cop_245.jpg
29 Elagabalus12 viewsELAGABALUS
AE 19mm of Antioch, Syria.

AVT KAI M AV ANTWNINOC, radiate head right. / SC within wreath, DE above, eagle standing right below.

SNG Cop 245. Ex Failla Numismatics
Sosius
Treb_Gall_BMC_654.jpg
4 Trebonianus Gallus12 viewsTREBONIANUS GALLUS
Æ 30mm of Antioch, Syria.

O: AVTOK K G OVIB TPEB GALLOC CEB, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust r.; viewed from behind

R: ANTIOCEWN MHTRO KOLWN D-E, SC in ex, tetrastyle temple of Tyche of Antioch, river-god Orontes swimming at her feet; above shrine, ram leaping r.
Sear 2809, SNGCop 292, BMC 654, SGI 4350.

Coin discussed and authenticated on FORVM board
Sosius
rjb_traj_10_07.jpg
9843 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD
AE 24mm
Antioch in Syria
Radiate draped bust right
SC within wreath, X below
Butcher 227
1 commentsmauseus
55535q00.jpg
AHG 272 . The Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Salonina, August 254 - c. September 268 A.D.22 viewsSalonina, August 254 - c. September 268 A.D.
Billon antoninianus . 2.763g, 20.1mm, 0o, Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.
Obverse : CORN SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, crescent behind
Reverse : CONCORDIA AVGG, emperor and empress standing confronted, clasping hands
Göbl MIR 1691p (Samosata), SRCV III 10630 (uncertain Syrian mint), RIC V 63 (Antioch), Cohen 31, AHG 272 (this coin)
From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Ex Forum
Vladislav D
SeleukE_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas128 viewsSerrated AE 21, Syria, Alexander I Balas, Obv: Alexander right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ;, Athena with Nike, monograms, aVF. Lindgren III, pl. 62, 1074, Hoover HGC 9, 900 (R1-2).Molinari
SeleukG_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas35 viewsAE 20, Syria, Alexander I Balas, ca. 128-123 BC, Obv: Alexander right. Rev: ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ, ΓΕΡ around Zeus, c/m of grain, gF/VF. Lindgren I, 1830.Molinari
SeleukQ_copy.jpg
Alexander II, Zebina58 viewsAE 21, Syria, Alexander II Zebina, ca. 128-123 BC, Obv: Alexander right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Athena standing by Nike, Epsilon Psi above, VF. Lindgren III, pl. 63, 1110, SC 2233, Hoover HGC 9, 1163 (C-S).1 commentsMolinari
coinI_copy.jpg
Antiochos IX, Kyzikenos26 viewsAE 18, Syria, Antiochos IX, ca. 116-95 B.C. Obv: Head of bearded Herakles facing right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ ΦΙΛΟ ΠΑΤΡΟΥ around Athena standing left, holding Nike, monogram and aplustre in field. Black patina, gF. Lindgren I, 1867, SC 1250, Hoover HGC 9, 1250 (S).Molinari
Antiochus_IX.jpg
Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C.24 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus IX Cyzicenus, 114 - 95 B.C. Ae 18. Weight 5.2g. Obv: Diademed head rt. Rev: Pallas Athena rt. holding shield and spear ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ. BMC 93.23
Antiochus IX Eusebes, ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Antiochus VII Sidetes and Cleopatra Thea. Upon the death of his father in Parthia and his uncle Demetrius II Nicator's return to power (129 BC), his mother sent him to Cyzicus on the Bosporus, thus giving him his nickname. He returned to Syria in 116 BC to claim the Seleucid throne from half-brother/cousin Antiochus VIII Grypus, with whom he eventually divided Syria. He was killed in battle by the son of Grypus, Seleucus VI Epiphanes in 96 BC.
ddwau
Phoenicia3_copy~0.jpg
Apameia32 viewsAE 20, Syria, Apamea, 30/29 BC. Obv: Dionysus facing right, ME monogram behind. Rev: Thyrsos surrounded by ΑΠΑΜΕΩΝ THΣ EIPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY, Seleukid era date ΓΠΣ (30/29 BC). aF. RPC I, 4347-4352, Hoover HGC 9, 1425 (S).Molinari
coin1009.JPG
Elagabalus, Antioch, Syria33 viewsCuirassed bust right / SC, D above, e below, all in wreath.ecoli
greek6.jpg
Kings of Syria,Seleukos II. AE 16 (4.6gm)17 viewsNewell,wsm 1661 / 246-226 BC
obv: bust of Athena helmeted
rev: nude Apollo std. l. holding arrows and bow
(glossy black and green patina)
hill132
otse.jpg
Marcia Otacilla Severa, Empress of Rome 244-249 CE35 viewsMarcia Otacilla Severa, wife of Philip the Arab
Otacilia Severa AE30 of Antioch, Syria.
Obverse: MAP WTAKIL CEOVHPAN CEB, diademed & draped bust right on crescent.
Reverse: ANTIOCEWN MHTRO KOLWN D-e S-C, turreted & draped bust of Tyche right, ram leaping right above. BMC 543. 28 mm, 12.77 g
1 commentsNORMAN K
Seleucis_and_Pieria.jpg
Seleucis & Pieria - Antioch14 views SYRIA, Seleucis & Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-Autonomous Issue. Æ 15.3~15.9mm (3.65 g). Draped bust of Apollo right / Laurel branchddwau
1000-15-102.jpg
Syria, Commagene. Zeugma. Philip II24 viewsSyria, Commagene. Zeugma. Philip II. A.D. 247-249. Æ 30 (29.8 mm, 17.59 g, 1 h). AVTOK K M IOVLI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ZEVΓMATEΩN, tetrastyle temple with peribolos containing grove of trees; capricorn right below. BMC 37; SNG Cop 35. ecoli
w0143.jpg
ΔAK237 viewsSyria-Coele, Leucas ad Chrysoroas, Balanea Leucas. Trajan 103 A.D. (Year 55). AE-21 mm, 7.67 grs. AV: AU KAI NER - TRAIANOC, Laur. head to right, within dotted border, Rectangular CM: ΔAK, Howgego 529 (43 pcs). RV: [LEU]KAD[EwN], Emperor with szepter in quadriga to right, in the field: EN (Year 55), within dotted border. Note: The CM (ΔAK) refers to Trajan's title "Dacicus". Interestingly, the title is already present on the coin. It has therefore been suggested by H.Seyrig that its application was a means for raising money for a gift for the emperor. Collection: Mueller.Automan
199.jpg
ΔAK in rectangular punch178 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Trajan. Æ 22. A.D. 102/103 (year 55). Obv: (AY)KAINEP-TRAIA(NOCΔAK...) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark before. Rev: (ΛEYKAΔIWN)-KΛAYΔIEWN, EN in field. Emperor, holding sceptre, in quadriga galloping right. Ref: BMC 3; Sear GIC 1082. Axis: 30°. Weight: 9.16 g. CM: ΔAK in rectangular punch, 6 x 3 mm. Howgego 529 (43 pcs). Note: Interestingly, the title Dacicus is already part of the inscription of the coin. Collection Automan.Automan
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ΛΓΓ179 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Gabala. Caracalla. Æ 22. A.D. 198-217. Obv: (AVKMAANTΩNEINOC) or similar. Laureate bust right; countermark across shoulder. Rev: Γ(ABAΛEΩ)N. Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia. Ref: BMC –Axis: 180°. Weight: 7.53 g. CM: ΛΓΓ in rectangular punch, 7.5 x 4 mm. Howgego 551 (5 pcs). Note: Howgego describes the countermark as either ΛΠ or ΛΓI, while this specimen reads ΛΓΓ. Collection Automan.Automan
Y04281.jpg
36 viewsSYRIA, Uncertain. Eloucion?
Magistrate, 2nd-3rd century AD.
PB Tessera (17mm, 3.06 g, 11 h)
HΛOV CION, bust of Shamash right, atop eagle(?)
Nike advancing left; star above crescent before, wheel below
Unpublished

The bust of Shamash (or perhaps Sol) on the obverse is distinctly Syrian in nature. Additionally, the style is dramatically different from the issues of Asia Minor.
1 commentsArdatirion
zeus_ram_beth.jpg
"STAR OF BETHLEHEM", ANTIOCH56 viewsSTRUCK 12-14 AD
AE 21 mm 7.36 g
O: LAUREATE HEAD OF ZEUS RIGHT
R: EPI SILANOU ANTIOCEWN
RAM LEAPING RIGHT, HEAD TURNED BEHIND, STAR ABOVE, DM BELOW (YEAR 44)
ANTIOCH, SYRIA (under the Romans, Legate Silanus)
RPC 4269, BMC Galatia 65 Scarce.
1 commentslaney
antioch_ram_star_2_res.jpg
"STAR OF BETHLEHEM", ANTIOCH34 viewsSTRUCK 12-14 AD
AE 19.5 mm 6.58 g
O: LAUREATE HEAD OF ZEUS RIGHT
R: EPI SILANOU ANTIOCEWN
RAM LEAPING RIGHT, HEAD TURNED BEHIND, STAR ABOVE, DM BELOW (YEAR 44)
ANTIOCH, SYRIA (under the Romans, Legate Silanus)
RPC 4269, BMC Galatia 65 Scarce.
laney
trajan_antioch_wreath.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN13 views98 - 117 AD
AE 27 mm; 18.69 g
O:Laureate head right, countermark on neck
R: SC, C below; all within laurel wreath.
Antioch, Syria
laney
TRAJAN_ANTIOCH_B_RES.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN29 views98 - 117 AD
AE 20 mm 6.51 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Large S C , Officina letter below, all within wreath
SYRIA, Antioch
laney
traja_sc_res.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN27 views98 - 117 AD
AE 27 mm, 13.25 g
O: Laureate head of Trajan right
R: S C, BI below, within laurel wreath
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria. Antiochia ad Orontem
laney
trajan_syria_res.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN23 views98 - 117 AD
struck 98 - 99 AD
AE 21 mm, 6.02 g
O: AYTOKR KAIC NEP TPAIA-NOC CEB ΓEPM; Laur. bust right
R: ΔHMAP / EΞ YΠAT B (barred) in two lines within wreath
BMC and Sydenaham 229 attribute to Caesarea; more recent attributions are "Struck in Rome for Circulation in Syria" (cf McAlee 499)
laney
trajan_sc_res.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN23 views98 - 117 AD
29.5 mm, 13.47 g
O: Laureate head of Trajan right
R: S C, G below, within laurel wreath
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria. Antiochia ad Orontem
laney
hadrian_antioch.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN18 views117 - 138 AD
AE Chalkous 9.77 mm, 1.21 g
O: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: S C; Є below; all within laurel wreath
SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch; McAlee 543e (rare)
laney
a_pius_laodic_ad_mare_res.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS22 views138 - 161 AD
AE 23 mm; 8.11 g
O:Laureate head right
R: Bust of Tyche as city goddess left, wearing headdress of gateway, turret, lighthouse and walls
Syria, Laodicea ad Mare
laney
a_pius_cyrrh_res.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS25 views138 - 161 AD
AE 24 mm, 9.50 g
O ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙ ΤΙΤ ΑΙΛ Α∆ΡΙ − ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟC CΕΒ (or similar), laureate bust right;
R: ΘΕΑCCΥΡΙ / ΑC ΙΕΡΟΠΟ (or similar) /A or D, all within laurel wreath
Hieropolis, Cyrrhestica, Syria
cf. BMC Syria p. 141, 19; RPC online 6976; SNG Hunterian II 2674; Butcher 17; SNG Cop 53 var.
laney
A__Pius_antioch_res.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS16 views138 - 161 AD
AE 22 mm max., 10.16 g
O: Laureate, draped bust right.
R: Large SC, E below, all within laurel wreath
Syria, Antioch
laney
A_PIUS_PETRA_CRESC_STAR.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS18 views138 - 161 AD
AE 12.5 mm; 2.10 g
O: Head right
R: Crescent with star of eight rays between horns
Syria, Decapolis, Petra
cf. Spijkerman # 18, pl.49.
laney
ant_pius_tyche_syria_cm.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS13 views138 - 161 AD
Æ 25 mm, 7.00 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Antoninus Pius right; c/m: bust right within circular incuse
R: Turreted and draped bust of Tyche left.
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria, Laodicea ad Mare.
laney
a_pius_tyche_laodic.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS13 views138-161 AD
Struck 140 – 141 AD
AE 24.5 mm, 9.54 g
O: Laureate and draped bust left.
R:Bust of Tyche as city goddess left, wearing headdress of gateway, turret, lighthouse and walls; KO to left, HP P to right (date).
SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria, Laodikea ad Mare mint; cf BMC 64
laney
l_verus_hierop_d_s__res.jpg
(0161) LUCIUS VERUS19 views161 - 169 AD
AE (double struck)
O: Laureate bearded head right,
R: Legend within wreath
SYRIA, CYRRHESTICA, HIEROPOLIS
laney
chrysoroas_res.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS20 views177 - 192 AD
AE 17 X 18 mm; 3.70 g
O: Laureate bearded head right
R: River god Chrysoroas reclining right, holding cornucopia and grain ears; XPYCO_ beneath
Damascus, Coele-Syria; cf Lindren III 1256
laney
commodus_decapolis_r_res.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--DECAPOLIS, ANTIOCH AD HIPPUM66 views177 - 192 AD
AE 25 mm 9.59 g
O: Laureate head of Commodus, right
R: Turreted Tyche standing left, holding cornucopia and bridle of horse standing left
Syria, Decapolis, Antioch ad Hippum Mint
cf. Spijkerman 25(1) corr., BMC 3
laney
helio_jup_temple_res.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS34 views193 - 211 AD
AE 24 mm; 9.36 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Heliopolitanus, viewed in perspective from above; numerous columns and flight of steps in front
Syria, Heliopolis; cf. SNG Cop 429; SNG München 1031
laney
septimius_heliopolis_eagles.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS16 views193-211 AD
AE 20 mm; 7.17 g
O: Laureate head right
R: COL/HEL in two lines between two legionary eagles, all within wreath
SYRIA, Coele-Syria. Heliopolis; cf Lindgren III 1269; SNG Munich 1030
laney
sept_sev_coel_blk.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS (HELIOPOLIS)42 views193 - 211 AD
AE 24 X 26 mm, 9.84 g
O: Radiate head right
R: GETA - ANT Geta and Caracalla in togas, facing each other and clasping hands; CO/EL between
Heliopolis, Coele-Syria Lindgren III, 71, 1274; very rare
laney
caracalla_res.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA40 views198 - 217 AD
AE 25.5 mm 11.47 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Tyche seated left, holding cornucopia, with star above, and rudder(?)
Syria, Gabala; cf BMC 14
laney
caracalla_helio_res.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA28 views198 - 217 AD
Æ 23 mm max. 5.28 g
O: Radiate draped cuirassed bust right
R: COL/HEL in two lines between two legionary eagles, pellet between eagles, all within wreath
Coele-Syria, Heliopolis
(rare)
laney
unk_prov_06resb.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA29 views198 - 217 AD
AE 16 mm; 2.94 g
O. Laureate head of Caracalla, right.
R: Hermes, nude except chlamys standing facing, head left, holding purse in his outstretched right and kerykeion (caduceus) in left arm.
Syria (Coele-Syria), Heliopolis (Baalbek)
cf. SNG Cop. 430
laney
AUGUSTUS_ARCHIERATIC_RESA.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS34 views5 BC - 4 BC (YEAR 27 ACTIAN ERA)
AE 21.5 mm 7.88g
O: LAUR HEAD R
R: APXIEPATIKON ANTIOXEIS IN 4 LINES WITHIN ARCHIERATIC WREATH,
ALL WITHIN ARCHIERATIC CROWN
SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch
McAlee 202; RPC I 4251
laney
diadum_syria.jpg
(0217) DIADUMENIAN as Caesar39 views217 - 218 AD
AR tetradrachm 24.5 mm max; 11.92 g
O: AVT K M OPEL ANTONEINOC Radiate draped bust of Diadumenian right
R: DMARX CZVPATOC eagle facing, wings spread, head right, lion walking between legs;
Cyrrhestica, Syria; cf Prieur 947; Bellinger 108. Rare
d.s.
laney
coele_quadriga_res.jpg
(0217) MACRINUS29 views218 AD
AE 18.5 mm 5.81 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Diety or Macrinus driving galloping quadriga right; DNC above horses.
SYRIA, Leucas
laney
elagab_tych_antioch_5_14.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS18 viewsAE 25.5 mm; 11.79 g
O: laureate, draped bust right
R:Tyche of Antioch seated left on rocks, holding corn-ears and resting arm on rock, ; river-god swimming left below. In fields; D-E over S-C
Syria, Antioch; cf BMC Galatia etc. pg. 206, 459; L&K 2008; Weber 7969 ID from aeqvitas.com, Butcher 476
laney
elagab_antioch_5_14.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS16 views218 - 222 AD
AE 18.5 mm; 4.03 g
O: ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟC, radiate head right;
R: large S•C, ∆Ε above, eagle left head right below, all within laurel wreath
Syria, Antioch mint
cf. McAlee 788; BMC Galatia p. 203, 426 ff.; SNG Cop 245
laney
elagabal_tyche_river_res_a.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS54 views218-222 AD
AE 33 mm 21.73 g
O: AVT K M AV ··· ANTΩNEI[NOC CE] Laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder
R: ANTIOXEΩN M ΚΟΛ ΔΕ SC Tyche of Antioch seated left on rock outcropping holding grain ears; below, river-god Orontes swimming left, head right; above, ram with head right springing left; D-E above S-C
SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria, Antiochia ad Orontem
Butcher 474a; SNG Copenhagen 251
laney
DE_blk.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views 218 - 222 AD
AE 21 mm, 4.18 g
O: IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, Laureate head right.
R: Large Delta Epsilon; star beneath; all within laurel wreath.
cf: BMC 450
Antioch, Syria
laney
elagabal_antioch_blk_ewa.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS25 views218 - 222 AD
AE 16 mm, 3.01 g
O: Radiate, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind
R: Large SC, K above, A below; all within plain circle surrounded by laurel wreath of eight elements, with wreath fastened at top with garland.
Mcalee 798 (otherwise apparently unpublished); extremely rare.
Syria, Antioch
laney
elagabal_emisa_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS21 views218 - 222 AD
AE 18 mm; 4.41 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Eagle standing right, head reverted with wreath in beak; E below.
Syria, Seleukis and Pieria. Emisa; cf BMC Galatia, etc. pg. 240, 18.
laney
tyre_raphanea_genius_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS32 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23 mm, 9.9 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left
Raphanea, Syria
laney
elagabal_rha_2_res_b.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS29 views218 - 222 AD
AE 23 mm, 7.1 g
O: Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left.
Syria: Seleucis and Pieria-Raphanea; SNG Copenhagen 385 v.
laney
elag_raph_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS23 views218 - 222 AD
AE 22.5 mm; 8.32 g
O: Bust right.
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left.
Syria: Seleucis and Pieria-Raphanea
laney
elagab_antioch_DE_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS23 views218-222 AD
AE 18 mm; 4.10 g
O: Laureate draped bust right
R: Large SC, delta above epsilon below, all within wreath
Antiochia ad Orontem, SELEUCIS AND PIERIA, SYRIA
laney
elagabal_rad_antioch_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218-222 AD
AE 18 mm; 4.21 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Large SC within wreath
Antioch ad Orontes, Syria
laney
elagaba_raph_resb.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218-222 AD
AE 24 mm; 8.65 g
O: Laureate bust right.
R: Genius of the city holding cornucopia, with eagles flanking, bull to left.
Raphanea, Syria; BMC 3
laney
elag_1_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS23 views218 - 222 AD
AE 22 mm; 8.13 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left
Raphanea, Syria
laney
elagabal_2_raph_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS22 views218 - 222 AD
AE 22 mm; 6.48 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left
Raphanea, Syria
laney
marsyas_lao_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS24 views218 - 222 AD
AE 24 mm; 11.15 g
O: Laureate, draped bust right
R: COL LAODIC--, Marsyas standing left, wine-skin over shoulder, right hand raised, D-E across fields
Syria, Laodicea ad mare; cf. Lindgren Coll. I, 2095
laney
elagab_antioch_tyche_b.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS15 views218-222
Æ 25mm., 11.74g.
O: AVT K M AV ANTWNINOC Laureate head r. , with slight drapery.
R: ANTIOXЄΩNM()KO Tyche seated l. on rocks, holding grain ears; below, river god Orontes swimming l.;
Δ-Є and S-C across field
Syria, Antioch; cf Butcher 476
laney
elagab_antio_mcalee_804.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS17 views218-222 AD
AE Octassarion 33 mm. 16.66 g
Obv: AVT K M AV ANTΩNINOC CЄ.
Laureate head right, with slight drapery.
Rev: ANTIOXЄΩN KOΛΩNIAC / S C.
Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears; to left, river god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping between Δ Є.
SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria, Antioch; cf McAlee 804.
laney
elagabalus_raph.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS24 views218 - 222 AD
AE 22.5 X 24 mm; 6.56 g
O: Radiate bust right.
R: Turreted Genius standing facing, head left, holding patera and cornucopia, flanked by eagles; humped bull at lower left.
Syria: Seleucis and Pieria-Raphanea; cf SNG Cop. 385
laney
sev_alex_antioch.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER28 views222 - 235 AD
AE 31 mm 15.02 g
O: laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: ANTIOXEN MHT KOΛ, Tyche std left, holding grain, river god Orontes swimming below, ram running left above, Δ - E / S - C
Antioch, Syria; BMC 470-472
laney
sev_alex_antioch_river_god.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER19 views222-235 AD
AE 30 mm; 12.52 g
O: laureate head right
R: Tyche seated left on rocks, being crowned by Severus who stands behind, another Tyche standing before, holding rudder and cornucopiae; river-god swimming left below, SHC in ex.
Syria, Antioch; cf SNG Cop 256.
laney
philip_temple_res.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I37 views244 - 249 AD
AE 29 mm 17.01 g
O: AVTOK K M IOVL FILIPPOC CEB, laureate draped bust right (COUNTERMARKED)
R: ZEVG[MATEWN], tetrastyle temple (of Zeus?) with peribolos containing grove of trees, capricorn in ex.
Zeugma, Commagene. Roman Syria
laney
phil_2_tyche_blk_res.jpg
(0247) PHILIP II21 views247 - 249 AD
AE 27 mm
O: AVTOK K M IOVLI FILIPPOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: ANTIOxEWN - MHTPO KOLWN D-E S-C, draped and turreted bust of Tyche right, ram over.
Syria, Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria; cf. SMG 272; BMC 566.
laney
treb_gal_temple.jpg
(0251) TREBONIANUS GALLUS17 views251 - 253 AD
AE (8 Assaria) 29 mm; 15.22 g
O:AYTOK K Γ OYIB TPEB ΓAΛΛOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind;
R: ANTIOXEΩN MHTPO KOΛΩN, ∆-E above, SC below, tetrastyle temple; inside Tyche seated left with river god Orontes at her feet swimming left; ram above temple leaping right looking back
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria, Antioch ad Orontem mint
McAlee 1181, SNG Cop 292, BMC Galatia p. 229, 654, SGICV 4350
laney
antioch_eagle.jpg
(0251) VOLUSIAN69 views251 - 253 AD
Billon Tetradrachm 26 mm 10.08 g
O: AVTOK K G AFIN GAL OVEND OVOLOVCCIANOC CEB, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust R
R: DHMAPX EXOVCIAC, eagle standing right with head turned left and wreasth in beak, S (officina) between legs, SC in ex.
Antioch, Syria
Prieur 699 (Rare officina)
3 commentslaney
gallien_heliop_blkres.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS31 views253-268 AD
AE 26 X 29 mm, 12.30 g
O: IMP CAES P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, laureate cuirassed bust right
R: COL IVL AVG FEL HE, three agonistic urns containing palm branches, CERTSACR CAP OECV ISE HEL in three lines in exe
Coele-Syria, Heliopolis SNG COP. 441
laney
valerianb.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN40 views253 - 260 AD
struck 256-258 AD
Billon Antoninianus 20.5 X 23.5 mm, 3.31 g
O: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG - Radiate, draped bust right
R: PIETAS AVGG - Valerian and Gallienus facing each other sacrificing over altar between them, one holding an eagle tipped scepter, the other a parazonium
Uncertain Syrian Mint
Reference SR-9955, RIC V 285
laney
Untitled-1_blk.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN I30 views253 - 260 AD
Capitolene games issue
AE 26.5 mm, 19.34 g
O: IMP CAES P LIC VALERIANVS [PF AVG], laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
R: CER SACR CAP OEC ISEL HEL, COL-HEL across fields, male athlete standing facing, head right, holding palm branch, right hand in a selection urn.
Coele Syria, Heliopolis
Cohen 329
laney
tiberius_cornu_cad_res2.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS31 views14 - 37 AD
Struck 19 - 20 AD
AE 29.5 mm 14.66 g
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right
R: PON MAXIM COS III IMP VII TR POT XXII, crossed cornuacopiae over a winged caduceus
RPC 3869, RIC 90
Syria, Commagene
laney
antioch_wreath_sc.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS20 views41 - 54 AD
AE 24X26 mm; 16.15 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Large SC within wreath
Syria, Antioch
laney
NCLAUD_RES.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS39 views41 - 54 AD
AE 18 mm 7.46 g
O: Laureate head of Claudius right
R: S C in wreath, star at top, ties at bottom
Antioch, Syria; Cf. Lindgren 1964
laney
claudius_antioch_sc_wreath.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS11 views41 - 54 AD
AE 25 mm; 13.64 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Large SC within wreath
Syria, Antioch
laney
nero_antioch.jpg
(06) NERO47 views54 - 68 AD
struck c. 64-68 AD RPC 4297
AE Semis 20.5 mm, 7.91 g
O: laureate head of Nero right.
R: SC within circle, laurel wreath around.
Syria, Antioch cf. RPC 4297
laney
galba_antioch.jpg
(07) GALBA19 views68-69 AD
AE22 (7.16 g), Antioch, Syria.
Obv. IMP SER GALBA CAE AVG, Laureate head to right.
Rev. S C within large wreath.
Antioch, Syria. McAlee 314 (same dies); RPC I 4315var (obv. legend)
From the Richard McAlee Collection
Rare, only the second known to McAlee. Very fine.

laney
DOMITIAN_ANTIOCH_RES.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN32 views81 - 96 AD
AE 24 mm max. 13.59 g
O: Laurate bust of Domitian left.
R; Large S C within wreath
SYRIA. SELEUCIA AND PIERIA, Antioch ad Orontem
laney
DOMITIAN_SYRIA_RES.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN30 views81 - 96 AD
AE 26 mm 15.12 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Large SC within wreath
Syria, Antioch
laney
DOMITIAN_antioch_rews.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN31 views81 - 96 AD
AE 21.5 mm; 6.19 g
O: Laurate bust of Domitian left.
R; Large S C within wreath
SYRIA. SELEUCIA AND PIERIA, Antioch ad Orontem
laney
coin641.jpg
*DS*Antiochus III, AE 1217 viewsSNGIs 583 *DS*Antiochus III, AE 12, Apollo standing rev GREEK; Antiochus III, King of Syria, 223-187 BC; AE 12, Antioch mint; Obv: Laureated head of Apollo right. Rev: Apollo standing left, holds arrow and leans on bow. Houghton 70, Spaer 583,
Coin #641
cars100
zeugmaPius2.jpg
-Syria, Commagene, Zeugma. Antoninus Pius AE2422 viewsObv: laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r.
Rev: temple with four columns; before, colonnaded peribolos containing grove; all in laurel wreath.
ancientone
001_vespasian_tet_14_8grams_feb-01-feb-02-2012_o-r.JPG
0 - a - Vespasian Silver Tetradrachm - 14.8 Grams - Antioch, Syria.74 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Antioch, Syria.
Silver Tetradrachm of Emperor Vespasian ( 69 - 79 AD )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of the Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle, holding a laureate wreath in his beak, standing on club of Hercules facing left, palm branch to left in field.

Size: 28 - 29 mm
Weight: 14.8 Grams.
--
----
--
~*~ CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE ~*~
~~~
~
6 commentsrexesq
caracalla_tet_antioch_small-flan-crack_sphinx_01.jpg
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #141 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 -217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #1
Fourth group, 214-217 AD, First Issue, no 'Delta E' on rev.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.0 Grams,
Diameter: 27mm.
------
Ex Sphinx Numismatics
---
-
4 commentsrexesq
DSC07249_DSC07252_o_r_01.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #1.25 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 -217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #1
Fourth group, 214-217 AD, First Issue, no 'Delta E' on rev.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.0 Grams,
Diameter: 27mm.
~Flan crack @ 2 o'clock obverse/ 10 o'clock reverse~
------
Ex Sphinx Numismatics
3 commentsrexesq
DSC07242_DSC07243_o-96%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #1. 26 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 -217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #1
Fourth group, 214-217 AD, First Issue, no 'Delta E' on rev.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.0 Grams,
Diameter: 27mm.
~Flan crack @ 2 o'clock obverse/ 10 o'clock reverse~
------
Ex Sphinx Numismatics
5 commentsrexesq
caracalla_tet_14_5grams_00.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #222 viewsEmperor Caracalla ( 198 - 217 A.D. )
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #2

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of the Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

14.5 grams
rexesq
caracalla_tet_antioch_14_5grams_obv_02_rev_02_90%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #223 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla ( 198 - 217 A.D. )
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #2

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of the Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

14.5 grams
2 commentsrexesq
caracalla_tet_antioch_14_5grams_obv_05_rev_03.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #2.19 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla ( 198 - 217 A.D. )
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #2

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of the Emperor right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

14.5 grams
rexesq
caracalla_tet_13_48gr_00.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #318 views Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
rexesq
DSC07225_DSC07236_01.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #311 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
1 commentsrexesq
DSC07228_DSC07232_01.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #311 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
rexesq
DSC07264_DSC07273_01.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #39 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
rexesq
DSC07230.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #3 .7 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
---------------------------------------------------
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217) Antioch, Syria Silver Tetradrachm #3 with USA Quarter Dollar (25 cent piece) for size comparison
---------------------------------------------------
rexesq
DSC07227.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #3 .7 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
---------------------------------------------------
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217) Antioch, Syria Silver Tetradrachm #3 with USA Quarter Dollar (25 cent piece) for size comparison
---------------------------------------------------
rexesq
DSC07228.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #3 .13 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 13.48 Grams
Size: 30 mm x 28 mm
---------------------------------------------------
Emperor Caracalla (212 - 217) Antioch, Syria Silver Tetradrachm #3 with USA Quarter Dollar (25 cent piece) for size comparison
---------------------------------------------------
rexesq
caracalla_ar-tet_12_9gr_sara-mizrahi_BIN_185_50%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #438 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #4

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle standing facing, head left, tail left, holding wreath in beak. Prow of ship between legs.

Weight: 13.0 Grams
Size: 28 mm
--------------------------------------------------------
*Note: Wonderful portrait of the emperor on the obverse and the eagle on the reverse, I am very proud of this coin.
4 commentsrexesq
caracalla_ar-tet_12_9gr_sara-mizrahi_BIN_185_o.jpg
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #434 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #4

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle standing facing, head left, tail left, holding wreath in beak. Prow of ship between legs.
13.0 Grams

-FULLSIZE-
(Click to Enlarge)
rexesq
caracalla_ar-tet_12_9gr_sara-mizrahi_BIN_185_r.jpg
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #4.15 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #4

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle standing facing, head left, tail left, holding wreath in beak. Prow of ship between legs.
13.0 Grams

-FULLSIZE-
(Click to Enlarge)
rexesq
caracalla_tets_syro-phoenician_obv_DSC07297_75%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachmai, Syro - Phoenician.7 views4x Caracalla Tets, the one on the bottom row is from Tyre, Phoenicia, and has an interesting Frontal, cuirassed bust, that I have never seen before on a Tyre tet.
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With a USA Quarter (25 cent piece) on the bottom right, for size comparison.
rexesq
caracalla_tets_syro-phoenician_rev_DSC0790_65%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachmai, Syro - Phoenician.8 views4x Caracalla Tets, the one on the bottom row is from Tyre, Phoenicia, and has an interesting Frontal, cuirassed bust, that I have never seen before on a Tyre tet.
---
With a USA Quarter (25 cent piece) in the center for size comparison.
rexesq
caracalla_tets_syro-phoenician_obv_DSC0783_60%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachmai, Syro - Phoenician.10 views4x Caracalla Tets, the one on the bottom row is from Tyre, Phoenicia, and has an interesting Frontal, cuirassed bust, that I have never seen before on a Tyre tet.
---
With a USA Quarter (25 cent piece) in the center for size comparison.
rexesq
__3_(1)~0.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Tetradrachm #64 views Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.

Weight: 12.98 / 13.0 grams
rexesq
__3.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Tetradrachm #6.31 views Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #3

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right.
rev: Eagle standing on leg and thigh of sacrificial animal. Head right, tail right, wings spread, holding wreath in beak.
Delta and Epsilon in fields to either side of eagles' head, above wings.
-Weight: 12.98 / 13.0 grams-
1 commentsrexesq
hadrian_tet_o-r.JPG
0 - Hadrian Silver Tetradrachm41 views-
--
Ancient Roman Empire
Emperor Hadrian (117 - 138 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm, 118 AD.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of Emperor Hadrian facing right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from the Front.
rev: Eagle, head left, body facing right, standing on thigh of sacrificial animal. Nothing in beak.

Weight: 14.1 Grams
Size: 28 mm x 27 mm

(Reference: Prieur 155a)
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--
-
3 commentsrexesq
Diadumenian_AR-tet_11_3gr_mar2012_o-r_90%.JPG
0 - M - Diadumenian - AR - Silver Tetradrachm - Lion beneath Eagle39 views~
~~
~~~
Ancient Roman Empire
Diadumenian as Caesar, Coin Struck AD 218.
Son of Emperor Macrinus (8 April 217 AD – June 218 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Heirapolis.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Radiate bust of Diadumenian facing right. Draped and Cuirassed, Seen from Behind.
rev: Eagle standing facing, wings spread, holding wreath in beak. Lion walking right beneath.

Weight: 11.3 Grams
~~~~
*****~ HUGE PHOTO - CLICK PICTURE TO ENLARGE FULLY ~ *****
~~~
Reference: Prieur 947
I want to thank Mat and Potator for their help with the ID of this coin.
~~~
~~
~
6 commentsrexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_beroea-syria_rev_02.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria19 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
---
Reverse.
1 commentsrexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_beroea-syria_rev_07.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria17 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
---
Reverse.
rexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_beroea-syria_rev_09.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria13 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
---
Reverse.
rexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_beroea-syria_obv_13_cut.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria18 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
---
Obverse, bust cut.
rexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_00.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria19 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
rexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_01_cut_portrait.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria.16 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
------
Bust, cut.
rexesq
_AR-Tet_feb2012.jpg
0 - Roman Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria435 views~~~
Ancient Roman Empire

Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. RARE type.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of Emperor facing right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: Eagle standing with body facing right, head and tail facing left, holding wreath in beak.
Greek letters to either side of eagle's head.
~~~~~
*notes: AMAZING PORTRAIT!!! Very Rare type, I have only ever seen ONE other example with this bust style.
~~~
~
1 commentsrexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_00.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm62 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

Size: 29 / 30 mm
Weight: 11.02 grams
---------------
-------------
100% photo size
----------
4 commentsrexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_150~1.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm36 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

Size: 29 mm / 30 mm - Very Large flan!
Weight: 11.02 Grams
---------------
-------------
150% photo size
----------
1 commentsrexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_000.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm - 0129 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

11.02gr
---------------
rexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_in-flip_obv_01.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm - obv - in flip47 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

11.02gr
---------------
*Photos taken while coin was inside coin flip*
4 commentsrexesq
AD240_tetradrachm_11_02gr_in-flip_rev_01.JPG
00 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm - rev - in flip29 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Tetradrachm struck AD240 at Antioch, Syria ( Seleucis & Pieria )

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing with head left, wings open, holding wreath in beak, SC below.

11.02gr
---------------
*Photos taken while coin was inside coin flip*
1 commentsrexesq
Gordian-III_AR-Tet_13_4gr_30mm_2012o-r_sara_75%.jpg
00. - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm #4.27 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III ( 238 - 244 AD )
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: - Laureate bust of Emperor Gordian III facing right, draped and Cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: - Eagle standing facing, wings spread holding laurel wreath in beak. Head and tail left.
'S C' below, in exergue.

Size: 30 mm
Weight: 13.4 Grams
----------------
*~!CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE - VERY LARGE PHOTO!~*
----------------
4 commentsrexesq
Philip-II_frontal-bust-armored_AR-tet_antioch_001.JPG
001 - Philip II - AR Tetradrachm, Antioch, Syria - Frontal bust, armored; RARE Bust.23 viewsAncient Roman Empire

Philip II ( 244 - 249 AD ). Silver Tetradrachm, from Antioch, Syria.

( titles in Greek )
obv: Laureate bust facing left, rare cuirassed/armored portrait, seen from the front.
rev: Eagle facing left, wreath in beak, standing above city name over " S C ", wings open.
11.3 Grams, 28mm
2 commentsrexesq
2160368.jpg
001a. Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony50 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Chalcis ad Libanum. Mark Antony, with Cleopatra VII. 36-31 BC. Æ 19mm (5.45 g, 12h). Dated RY 21 (Egyptian) and 6 (Phoenician) of Cleopatra (32/1 BC). Draped bust of Cleopatra right, wearing stephane / Bare head of Mark Antony right; dates in legend. RPC I 4771; Rouvier 440 (Berytus); SNG München 1006; SNG Copenhagen 383 (Phoenicia). Near Fine, green patina.

Chalcis was given by Antony to Cleopatra in 36 BC. At the culmination of his spectacular triumph at Alexandria two years later, further eastern territories - some belonging to Rome - were bestowed on the children of the newly hailed “Queen of Kings” (referred to as the “Donations of Alexandria”). Shortly after, Antony formally divorced Octavia, the sister of Octavian. These actions fueled Octavian’s propagandistic efforts to win the support of Rome’s political elite and ultimately led to the Senate’s declaration of war on Cleopatra in 32 BC.

Ex-CNG
ecoli
coin190.JPG
005c. Germanicus48 viewsGermanicus

After the death of Augustus in 14, the Senate appointed Germanicus commander of the forces in Germania. A short time after, the legions rioted on the news that the succession befell on the unpopular Tiberius. Refusing to accept this, the rebel soldiers cried for Germanicus as emperor. But he chose to honor Augustus' choice and put an end to the mutiny, preferring to continue only as a general. In the next two years, he subdued the Germanic tribes east of the Rhine, and assured their defeat in the Battle of the Weser River in 16.

Germanicus died in Alexandria, Egypt. His death was surrounded with speculations, and several sources refer to claims that he was poisoned by Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, governor of Syria, under orders of the emperor Tiberius.

AS, struck under Caligula. GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N, bare head left / C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT around large SC. Cohen 1.

Check
ecoli
gordian-III_tet_ram-below-eagle_14_76gr_mar2012_amphora.jpg
01 - Gordian III Tetradrachm #3 - Ram leaping left beneath Eagle, head reverted, Crescent Moon above ram27 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III ( 238 - 244 AD ) Silver Tetradrachm.
Struck at the Roman Mint at Antioch, Syria.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: Eagle standing, holding laurel wreath in beak, head facing left.
BELOW: Ram leaping left, head turned facing behind (right), with Crescent Moon above head of Ram, all between the legs of the Eagle.

Weight: 14.76 Grams

~~~~
::Great detail on the head and beak of the Eagle, as well as on the Emperor's portrait, very nice coin, good weight for the type too. ::
~~~

*ex Amphora Ancient Coins, with photo-authenticity COA signed by David Hendin, author of Guide to Biblical Coins.
~~
~
5 commentsrexesq
philip-I_tetradrachm_laureate-bust-right-cuirassed_obv_03_rev_04.JPG
01 - Philip I Tetradrachm - Laureate bust left, seen from front, cuirassed. Head of Medusa on breastplate. 45 viewsTetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Dated Year 3 of reign.
obv: Laureate, cuirassed bust left, seen from the front, breastplate decorated with a gorgoneion/medusa head.

rev: Eagle standing facing left, tail right. Wreath in its beak, ANTIOXIA SC below.
2 commentsrexesq
antioch_philip-I_tetradrachm_bust-seen-from-front-cuirassed_01.jpg
01 - Philip I Tetradrachm - Laureate bust left, wearing balteus, seen from front, cuirassed.41 viewsPhilip I Tetradrachm. Regnal Year: 4

obv: Laureate and cuirassed bust left, wearing balteus (sword belt that hangs over the shoulder and across the chest). Seen from the front.
rev: Eagle facing left, tail right, holding wreath in beak and standing on city name.
SC below.

ex Sphinx Numismatics
3 commentsrexesq
philip-I_tetradrachm_bust-left-cuirassed-w-balteus_obv_02.jpg
01 - Philip I Tetradrachm - Laureate bust left, wearing balteus, seen from front, cuirassed..10 viewsPhilip I Tetradrachm. Regnal Year: 4

obv: Laureate and cuirassed bust left, wearing balteus (sword belt that hangs over the shoulder and across the chest). Seen from the front.
rev: Eagle facing left, tail right, holding wreath in beak and standing on city name.
SC below.

*Bad photos, bad lighting, camera trouble.... hard to show the true colour of this coin with my camera.
rexesq
antioch_AD244-249_tetradrachm_philip_13_9grams_regnal-year-3_01~0.JPG
01 - Philip I Tetradrachm - Radiate bust left, seen from front, cuirassed. Medusa Head on breastplate.86 viewsPhilip I AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Dated Year 3.
obv: AYTOK K M IOYLI FILIPPOC CEB - radiate, cuirassed bust left, seen from the front, breastplate decorated with a gorgoneion/medusa head.
rev: DHMARC EXOVCIAC VPATO G - eagle standing facing with wings spread, head right with wreath in its beak, ANTIOXIA SC below.
13.9grams. - Prieur 357
3 commentsrexesq
RPC_I_4247_Augusto_ANTIOQUIA_SIRIA.jpg
01-72 - Antioquia - Siria - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)14 viewsAE27 27 mm 11.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP •AVGVST •TR •POT" Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S C" dentro de una guirnalda.

Acuñada 05 - 04 A.C.
Ceca: Antioquia en Orontes - Siria

Referencias: McAlee #206b - RPC I #4247- Sear GICTV #108 Pag.10 - BMC 20 #126 Pag.166 - SNG Cop #139 - Cohen I #787 Pag.163
mdelvalle
012p_Claudius-I_(41-54_A_D_),_Syria,_Uncertain_Caesarea,_Tyche_Q-001_0h_24-24,5mm_9,7g-s.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, RPC I 4086, AE-24, KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche seated right,154 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, RPC I 4086, AE-24, KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche seated right,
avers:- TIBEPIOC KΛAYΔIOC KAICAP, Bare head of Tiberius right.
revers:- KAICAPEΩN ETOYC E, Veiled Tyche, seated right, on rocks and holding ears of corn, below, river god.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 24,0-24,5mm, weight: 9,7g, axes: 0h,
mint: Syria, Uncertain Caesarea, date: Year 5 = 45 A.D., ref: RPC-I-4086, BMC Anazarbus 4,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
014_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),_Syria,_Antioch,_AR-Tetradrachm,Laur_bust_r_,_Eaglel_,_RPC-4182,_61-62_AD,_Q-001_1h_19,5-20,5mm_8,51g-s.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Syria, Antioch, RPC 4182, AR-Tetradrachm, Palm/H/IP//--, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt,107 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Syria, Antioch, RPC 4182, AR-Tetradrachm, Palm/H/IP//--, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt,
avers:- NEPΩNOΣ KAIΣAPOΣ ΣEBAΣTOY, Laureate bust right, wearing aegis.
revers:- Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, palm branch before, H/IP behind.
exe: Palm/H/IP//--, diameter: 24,5-25,5mm, weight: 14,15g, axis: 1h,
mint: Syria, Antioch, date: Regnal year 8, Caesarian year 110 = 61/62 A.D., ref: RPC 4182,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Syria,_Antioch,_014_Nero_(54-68_A_D_),AE20_Semis_IM_NER_CLAV_CAESAR,_laur_head_R__SC_in_wreath,SNG_Cop_161,_Wruck_51,_RPC-4297_Q-001_1h_19,5-20,5mm_8,51g-s~0.jpg
014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Syria, Antioch, SNG Cop 161, AE-20 Semis, SC within circle, laurel wreath around,157 views014p Nero (54-68 A.D.), Syria, Antioch, SNG Cop 161, AE-20 Semis, SC within circle, laurel wreath around,
avers:- IM•NER•CLAV CAESAR, Laureate head right.
revers:- SC within circle, laurel wreath around.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 19,5-20,5 mm, weight: 8,51g, axis: 1h,
mint: Syria, Antioch, date: 54-68 A.D., ref: SNG Cop 161, RPC 4297, Wruck 51,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
philip-II_as-caesar_frontal-bust-dr_cuir_13_03grams_ex-Hendin.jpg
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front45 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
---
-
---
ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
-----
Seller photo. Great 'Frontal Bust' portrait and very large flan!
4 commentsrexesq
DSC07485_DSC07499.JPG
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front31 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
---
-
---
ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
-----
5 commentsrexesq
DSC07539_philip-II_tets.JPG
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front.33 viewsLEFT: Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria -
obv: Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front. 13.03 Grams

RIGHT: Philip II Tetradrachm, (247 - 249 AD) Antioch, Syria. Regnal year: 4
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind. 11.10 Grams.
4 commentsrexesq
DSC07521_philip-II_tets_angle.JPG
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front.17 viewsLEFT: Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria -
obv: Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front. 13.03 Grams

RIGHT: Philip II Tetradrachm, (247 - 249 AD) Antioch, Syria. Regnal year: 4
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind. 11.10 Grams.
rexesq
DSC07503_philip-II_tets_frontal-busts.JPG
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front.16 viewsPhilip II, Frontal Busts.

LEFT: Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria -
obv: Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front. 13.03 Grams

RIGHT: Philip II Tetradrachm, (247 - 249 AD) Antioch, Syria. Regnal year: 3
obv: Laureate bust left, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front. 10.59 Grams.
rexesq
DSC07494_philip-II_as-caesar_01.JPG
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front.14 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
---
-
---
ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
-----
*Shown next to a US 25 cent piece (quarter-dollar) for size comparison.*
----
rexesq
antioch_tetradrachmai_son-and-father_frontal-busts-left_obv_02.JPG
02 - Philip I and Philip II Tetradrachmai - Frontal Busts Left.32 viewsLEFT: Philip II, Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachm. Regnal year: 3
obv: Laureate bust left, draped and cuirassed, seen from front.
RIGHT: Philip I AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Dated Year 3
obv: Radiate, cuirassed bust left, seen from the front, breastplate decorated with a gorgoneion/medusa head.

*note: Photo is off-color, due to camera problems.
rexesq
antioch_tetradrachm_philip-II_bust-left-front_10_59gr_obv_02_rev_02.JPG
02 - Philip II Tetradrachm. Bust left, seen from front.39 viewsPhilip II, Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachm. Regnal year: 3
obv: Laureate bust left, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing right, wreath in beak. Head right, tail left.
Standing on city name, SC below.
10.59gr
rexesq
024p_Domitian,_Syria,_Antioch,_Seleucis_and_Pieria,_AE-(20)Semis,_RPC_II_2017,_BMC_251,_DOMITIANVS_CAESAR,_Large_SC_in_wreath,_69-81_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_17-20mm,_4,55g-s.jpg
024p Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), Syria, Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, RPC II 2017, AE-(20)Semis, Large SC within laurel-wreath #1109 views024p Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), Syria, Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, RPC II 2017, AE-(20)Semis, Large SC within laurel-wreath #1
avers: DOMITIANVS CAESAR, Laureate head left.
reverse: Large SC within laurel-wreath.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 17,0-20,0mm, weight: 4,55g, axis: 11h,
mint: Syria, Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, date: 69-81 A.D., ref: RPC II 2017, BMC 251,
Q-001
quadrans
augustus as2.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE As - struck c.25 BC48 viewsobv: CAESAR (bare head of Augustus right)
rev: [AVGVS]TVS (within laurel wreath)
ref: RIC 486, BMCRE 731, RPC 2235
mint: Ephesus (?)(Uncertain mint in Cyprus or Syria)
11.18gms, 28mm
Scarce
berserker
027_Traianus,_Syria,_Koinon,_McAlee_500,_AE-19(Hexachalkon),_Traianus_r_,_KOINON_SYRIAC,_Tyche_r_,_Q-001,_6h,_19mm,_4,88g-s.jpg
027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), Syria, Koinon, Mc Alee 500, AE-19(Hexachalkon), KOINON SYRIAC, Turreted bust of Tyche right, 61 views027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), Syria, Koinon, Mc Alee 500, AE-19(Hexachalkon), KOINON SYRIAC, Turreted bust of Tyche right,
avers: AYTOKP KAIC NЄP TPAIANOC CЄB ΓЄPM, Laureate head right.
reverse: KOINON SYRIAC, Veiled and turreted bust of Tyche right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 4,88g, axis: 6h,
mint: Syria, Koinon, date: A.D., ref: Mc Alee 500,
Q-001
quadrans
DSC02611_100%_cut.JPG
03 - Gordian III Tetradrachm - Radiate Bust left, seen from the front. Ram between Eagle's Legs on rev19 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Rare Radiate, Frontal Left Bust.

(titles in Greek)
obv: - Radiate bust left, seen from the front. Draped and Cuirassed.

rev: - Eagle, wings spread, head left, wreath in beak, ram leaping to left beneath crescent moon between
the legs of Eagle.

Weight: 12.3 Grams
Size: 27mm
-
---
-
*Quite Rare.
rexesq
DSC02613_100%_cut.JPG
03 - Gordian III Tetradrachm - Radiate Bust left, seen from the front. Ram between Eagle's Legs on rev - FLASH25 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)

*Rare Radiate, Frontal, Left facing Bust obverse w/ Eagle with Ram & crescent moon below reverse combination*

(titles in Greek)
obv: - Radiate bust LEFT, seen from the FRONT. Draped and Cuirassed.
rev: - Eagle, wings spread, head left, wreath in beak, ram leaping to left beneath crescent moon between the legs of Eagle.

Size: 27 - 28 mm
Weight: 12.3 Grams
-----
*Photo with CAMERA FLASH*
-
--
-
4 commentsrexesq
DSC02628_100%_cut.JPG
03 - Gordian III Tetradrachm - Radiate Bust left, seen from the front. Ram between Eagle's Legs on rev.29 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)

*Rare Radiate, Frontal, Left facing Bust obverse w/ Eagle with Ram & crescent moon below reverse combination*

(titles in Greek)
obv: - Radiate bust LEFT, seen from the FRONT. Draped and Cuirassed.
rev: - Eagle, wings spread, head left, wreath in beak, ram leaping to left beneath crescent moon between the legs of Eagle.

Size: 27 - 28 mm
Weight: 12.3 Grams
rexesq
Gordian-III_tet_75%.JPG
03 - Gordian III Tetradrachm - Radiate Bust left, seen from the front. Ram between Eagle's Legs on rev..38 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)

*Rare Radiate, Frontal, Left facing Bust obverse w/ Eagle with Ram & crescent moon below reverse combination*

(titles in Greek)
obv: - Radiate bust LEFT, seen from the FRONT. Draped and Cuirassed.
rev: - Eagle, wings spread, head left, wreath in beak, ram leaping to left beneath crescent moon between the legs of Eagle.

Size: 27 - 28 mm
Weight: 12.3 Grams
3 commentsrexesq
antioch_tetradrachm_philip-II_bust-left-front_10_59gr_obv_01.JPG
03 - Philip II Tetradrachm. Bust left, seen from front38 viewsPhilip II, Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachm. Regnal year: 3
obv: Laureate bust left, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing right, wreath in beak. Head right, tail left.
Standing on city name, SC below.
10.59gr.
*note: photo is off color due to camera problems.
rexesq
antioch_tetradrachm_philip-II_bust-left-front_10_59gr_obv_07.JPG
03 - Philip II Tetradrachm. Bust left, seen from front24 viewsPhilip II, Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachm. Regnal year: 3
obv: Laureate bust left, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing right, wreath in beak. Head right, tail left.
Standing on city name, SC below.
10.59gr.
*note: photo is off color due to camera problems.
rexesq
antioch_tetradrachm_philip-II_bust-left-front_10_59gr_obv_03.JPG
03 - Philip II Tetradrachm. Bust left, seen from front28 viewsPhilip II, Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachm. Regnal year: 3
obv: Laureate bust left, seen from front, draped and cuirassed.
rev: Eagle standing facing right, wreath in beak. Head right, tail left.
Standing on city name, SC below.
10.59gr
rexesq
antioch_tetradrachm_philip-II_bust-left-front_10_59gr_01.JPG
03 - Philip II Tetradrachm. Bust left, seen from front - obv38 viewsPhilip II, Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachm. Regnal year: 3
Laureate bust left, draped and cuirassed - seen from the front.
rexesq
antioch_tetradrachm_philip-II_bust-left-front_10_59gr_02.JPG
03 - Philip II Tetradrachm. Bust left, seen from front - rev28 viewsPhilip II, Antioch, Syria. Tetradrachm. Regnal year: 3rexesq
Nabatea Aretas II Meshorer 1.jpg
03-05 - Aretas III (82-67 A.C.)111 viewsAE 14 x 15 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: Cabeza de Atenas viendo a derecha, con yelmo y largo cabello de puntos.
Rev: Nike viendo a izquierda, portando un objeto incierto en mano izquierdo y corona en derecha Creciente y "Λ"(A?) en campo izq.

Ceca: Damasco – Syria

Referencias: Meshorer #1
mdelvalle
032_Hadrianus,_Syria,_Chalcidice,_Chalcis_ad_Belum,_AE-24,_Hadrian_r_,_Laurel_wreath,_Delta,_RPC_III_3470,_Q-001,_0h,_21-24mm,_11,56g-s~0.jpg
032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), Syria, Chalcidice, Chalcis ad Belum, RPC III 3470, AE-24, ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔЄωΝ/Δ in wreath,62 views032p Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), Syria, Chalcidice, Chalcis ad Belum, RPC III 3470, AE-24, ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔЄωΝ and Δ in three lines within the laurel-wreath,
avers: ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ ΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС, Laureate head of Hadrian right, with drapery on far shoulder.
reverse: ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔЄωΝ and Δ in three lines within the laurel-wreath.
exergue: -/-//Δ, diameter: 21,0-24,0mm, weight: 11,56g, axis: 0h,
mint: Syria, Chalcidice, Chalcis ad Belum, date: 117-138 A.D., ref: RPC III 3470,
Q-001
quadrans
035_Antoninus_Pius_(138-161_A_D_),_AE-23,_AYTO_KAI_TIT_AIL_ADRI_ANTWNEINOC_CEB,_QEAC_CYR-IAC_IEROPO,_Delta,_Syria,Hieropolis,_BMC-19_Q-001_0h_22mm_ga-s~0.jpg
035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Syria, Hieropolis, BMC 19, AE-22, ΘEAC CYR/IAC IEROΠO and Δ in three lines within wreath,130 views035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Syria, Hieropolis, BMC 19, AE-22, ΘEAC CYR/IAC IEROΠO and Δ in three lines within wreath,
avers:- AYTO KAI TIT AIΛ AΔRI ANTωNEINOC CEB, Laureate head right.
revers:- ΘEAC CYR/IAC IEROΠO and Δ in three lines within wreath.
exe: -/-//Δ, diameter: 22mm, weight: 9,52g, axis: 0h,
mint: Syria, Hieropolis, date: 138-161 A.D., ref: BMC 19, Paris F986, Butcher 17,
Q-001
quadrans
035_Antoninus_Pius_(138-161_A_D_),_AE-26,_SNG-Cop_351,_Laodiceia_ad_Mare,_Turreted_bust_of_Tyche_right,_Syria,__SNG-Cop-351_Q-001_0h_24-25mm_10,43g-s.jpg
035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Syria, Laodikeia Ad Mare, SNG-Cop 351, AE-26, Turreted bust of Tyche right, 62 views035p Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), Syria, Laodikeia Ad Mare, SNG-Cop 351, AE-26, Turreted bust of Tyche right,
avers:- [AVTO] KAI AI ADRI ANTWNEINOC [CEB], Laureate head right.
revers:- IOVLIEWN TWN KAI LAODIKEWN, Turreted bust of Tyche right, date AKP right ( year ),
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24-25 mm, weight: 10,43g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Syria, Laodikeia Ad Mare, date: 138-161 A.D., ref: SNG-Coop 351, BMC 57,
Q-001
quadrans
__57_(4)(3)_gordianIII_tet.JPG
04 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm, Antioch, Syria17 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Antioch, Syria - Tetradrachm.

NGC certified - " Choice XF - 5/5, 4/5 "
1 commentsrexesq
__57_(5)(3).JPG
04 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm, Antioch, Syria.8 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Antioch, Syria - Tetradrachm.

NGC certified - " Choice XF - 5/5, 4/5 "
rexesq
__57_(4)(3).JPG
04 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm, Antioch, Syria.9 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Antioch, Syria - Tetradrachm.

NGC certified - " Choice XF - 5/5, 4/5 "
rexesq
__57_(3)(1).JPG
04 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm, Antioch, Syria.9 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Antioch, Syria - Tetradrachm.

NGC certified - " Choice XF - 5/5, 4/5 "
rexesq
__57_(2)(1).JPG
04 - Gordian III AR Tetradrachm, Antioch, Syria.9 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Gordian III (238 - 244 AD)
Antioch, Syria - Tetradrachm.

NGC certified - " Choice XF - 5/5, 4/5 "
rexesq
philip-II_antioch-tetradrachm_laureate-bust-left_seen-from-front_hendin_rev_06_cut.JPG
04 - Philip II Tetradrachm. 19 viewsPhilip Jr. 247-249 AD - Silver Tetradrachm
Antioch, Syria - Regnal Year: 3

Obverse: Laureate bust left, cuirassed. Seen from the front.
Reverse: Eagle standing right, head right, holding wreath in beak and standing on city name ANTIOXIA.
SC below.

25.7 mm

ex Amphora Ancient Coins
rexesq
philip-II_antioch-tetradrachm_laureate-bust-left_seen-from-front_hendin_01.jpg
04 - Philip II Tetradrachm. Bust left, cuirassed. Seen from the front.39 viewsPhilip Jr. 247-249 AD - Silver Tetradrachm
Antioch, Syria - Regnal Year: 3

Obverse: Laureate bust left, cuirassed. Seen from the front.
Reverse: Eagle standing right, head right, holding wreath in beak and standing on city name ANTIOXIA.
SC below.

25.7 mm

ex Amphora Ancient Coins
rexesq
philip-II_antioch-tetradrachm_laureate-bust-left_seen-from-front_hendin_obv_03_rev_06.JPG
04 - Philip II Tetradrachm. Bust left, cuirassed. Seen from the front.33 viewsPhilip Jr. 247-249 AD - Silver Tetradrachm
Antioch, Syria - Regnal Year: 3

Obverse: Laureate bust left, cuirassed. Seen from the front.
Reverse: Eagle standing right, head right, holding wreath in beak and standing on city name ANTIOXIA.
SC below.

25.7 mm

ex Amphora Ancient Coins
3 commentsrexesq
antioch_philip-II_tets_hendin_left-bust-cuirassed-frontal_right-bust-seen-from-behind_obv_01_rev_01.JPG
04 - Philip II Tetradrachmai - Two Bust types.25 viewsAntioch, Syria. Philip II Tetradrachmai.

left: Laureate bust left, cuirassed. Seem from the front. 25.7 mm. Regnal Year: 3.

right: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from Behind. Regnal Year: 4

Both ex Amphora Ancient Coins
rexesq
Seleuco III, Soter Cerauno.jpg
05-02 - Seleuco III, Soter Cerauno (226 - 223 A.C.)52 viewsSeleuco III Sóter Cerauno (? - 223 adC). Rey de la dinastía seleúcida, hijo mayor de Seleuco II Calinico, a quien sucedió. Su apelativo Cerauno significa “el Rayo”. Su reinado fue breve (apenas tres años, desde el 225 adC). Decidió llevar a cabo el plan que su padre no pudo realizar en vida: enfrentar al rey Atalo I de Pérgamo, aliado de Antioco Hierax, hermano de Seleuco Calinico y tio suyo, el cual había muerto hace poco, pero que había ayudado a Atalo, quien había aprovechado la situación para expandir sus fronteras y conquistar toda el Asia Menor.
En el transcurso de esta campaña realizada en la región del Tauro, Seleuco III murió asesinado víctima de la traición de uno de sus oficiales llamado Nicanor, en complicidad con el galo Apaturios (223 adC).
Fue sucedido por su hermano Antíoco III Megas, contando con el apoyo de Aqueo, pariente del difunto rey quien había tenido gran influencia durante su reinado. Aqueo rechazó la corona que le ofrecieron las tropas y prefirió gobernar como regente del imperio. Nombró a Molón gobernador de las provincias superiores y él se reservó el Asia Menor; combatió con éxito contra Atalo I y lo confinó en Pérgamo, de modo que suyo fue el mérito de ganar la guerra que había empezado Seleuco III. (Wikipedia)
AE 12 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: Busto de Artemisa viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY" - Apolo sentado a izquierda en ónfalo (Piedra semicilíndrica centro del culto de Apolo en Delfos, fetiche de basalto y altar de la madre tierra de la religión micénica) con flecha en mano derecha levantada y apoyando la izquierda en un arco. "CE / Λ" en campo izquierdo y "AP" (Monograma) en exergo.

Ceca: Antioquía en Orontes

Referencias: B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #8 Pag.22 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #6929 Pag.646 - SNG Spaer #518 - Newell E.T. (Western Seleucid Mints) #1036
mdelvalle
Julia-Domna_AR-Den_IVLIA-AVGVSTA_PIETAS-PVBLICA_Laodicea-RIC-IV-I-643_p-170_RSC-156_203-AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-19,5mm_3,10g-s.jpg
050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 643, Laodicea, AR-Denarius, PIETAS PVBLICA, Pietas standing left, #1223 views050 Julia Domna (170-217 A.D.), RIC IV-I 643, Laodicea, AR-Denarius, PIETAS PVBLICA, Pietas standing left, #1
avers:- IVLIA-AVGVSTA, Bust draped right.
revers:- PIETAS-PVBLICA, Pietas standing front, head left, raising hands in prayer over lighted altar.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Laodicea ad Mare, Syria, date: 203 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-643, p-
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AE-30_Tyche_Lindgren-III-191_Syria-Gabala_Q-001_6h_29,5mm_16,44g-s~0.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Syria, (Seleukia and Pieria) Gabala, Lindgren III 191, AE-30, ΓABAΛEωN, Tyche enthroned left, 65 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Syria, (Seleukia and Pieria) Gabala, Lindgren III 191, AE-30, ΓABAΛEωN, Tyche enthroned left,
avers: AYT-KAI-C-M-AYP-ANTωNEINOC-CEB-CE•, Radiate, bust right.
revers: ΓABAΛEωN, Tyche enthroned left, holding sceptre and orb.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 29,5 mm, weight: 16,44g, axis: 6h,
mint: Syria, (Seleukia and Pieria), Gabala, date: 138-161 A.D., ref: Lindgren III 191,
Q-001
quadrans
051p_Caracalla,_Syria,_Antioch,_AR-Tetradrachm,_Eagle,_Prieur_217,_McAlee_677,_Bellinger_18,_214-217-AD,_Q-001_5h_25,5mm_13,01g-s~0.jpg
051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Syria, Antioch, Prieur 217, AR-Tetradrachm, ΔHMAPX•EX•YPA•TO•Δ, Eagle standing half left, #1122 views051p Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), Syria, Antioch, Prieur 217, AR-Tetradrachm, ΔHMAPX•EX•YPA•TO•Δ, Eagle standing half left, #1
avers: AYT K•M•A• ANTΩNEINOC C EB, Laureate head right.
revers: ΔHMAPX•EX•YPA•TO•Δ, Eagle standing half left on the leg and thigh of sacrificial animal, head right, tail right, wreath in beak.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5 mm, weight: 13,01g, axis: 5h,
mint: Syria, Antioch, date: 214-217 A.D., ref: Prieur 217, McAlee 677, Bellinger 18,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_065bj_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC -32 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– FORTVN RE-DVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Syria.
Reference:– BMCRE-. RIC IV -. RSC -.
maridvnvm
RI_065bi_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 62429 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– FORT-VN REDVC, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Minted in Syria.
Reference:– BMCRE p. 103 note citing Cohen 65 (Hamburger Coll.). RIC IV 624 (Rated scarce). RSC 65
maridvnvm
RI_065bh_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 63236 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– VENERI VICTR, Venus standing left, holding apple in right hand, sceptre in left
Minted in Syria.
Reference:– RIC IV 632 (Rated scarce). RSC 194
maridvnvm
GI_066i_img.jpg
066 - Caracalla Tetradrachm - Damascus - Prieur 120937 viewsObv:- ΑΥΤ ΚAI AN-ΤΩΝΙΝΟC CΕ, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right seen from the rear
Rev:- ∆ΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞ ΥΠΑΤΟCΤΟ ∆, Eagle standing facing, head left, wings open, wreath in beak, ram's head left between legs
Minted in Damascus (Syria). A.D. 215-217 (Prieur)
Reference:- Prieur 1209 (5 examples cited)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
437Hadrian_RIC680.jpg
0680 Hadrian half AS Roma 124-28 AD Tyche of Antioch60 viewsReference. Rare.
RPC III, 3756; RIC II 680; BMCRE 1350; cf. Cohen 401; McAlee 544; Strack 622

Issue
Orichalcum coinage struck at Rome for circulation in Syria; Asses

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from rear, r.

Rev. COS III in field S-C
Tyche of Antioch seated on rocks, l., holding in her r. hand ears of wheat and poppy-head; at her feet, river-god Orontes swimming l., looking r.; In field, l. And r., S C

7.61 gr
24 mm
6h
3 commentsokidoki
1221Hadrian_RIC681.jpg
0681 Hadrian half AS Roma 124-28 AD Griffin right32 viewsReverence.
RIC 681; BMC -; Strack 624; van Heesch 150/9b; CRS 30; McAlee 549; C. 433; RPC III, 3759

Issue Orichalcum coinage struck at Rome for circulation in Syria; Asses

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from rear, r.

Rev. COS III
Griffin flying r.; below, S C

7.02 gr
23 mm
12h
4 commentsokidoki
679Hadrian_RIC684.jpg
0684 Hadrian AS Roma 125-28 AD Lyre32 viewsReference.
RIC 684; BMC 1354; Strack 625; van Heesch 148/5; CRS 25; McAlee 546; RPC III, 3757

Issue Orichalcum coinage struck at Rome for circulation in Syria; Asses

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bust of Hadrian, laureate, draped, right, seen from rear.

Rev. COS III
Lyre; in field, l. and r., S C

9.62 gr
24 mm
6h
okidoki
GI_069a_img.jpg
069 - Macrinus, Billon Tetradrachm - Prieur 88937 viewsObv:– AVT K MA OP CE MAKPEINOC CE, laureate draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev:– DHMARC EX VPATOC D, eagle standing facing, feet set on letters B and E, wings open, head left with wreath in beak, palm to left, bird between legs
Minted in Beroea, Cyrrhestica, Syria.
Reference:– SGI 2945. Bellinger 88. Prieur 889

Weight 12.39g. 26.29mm.
maridvnvm
Philippus-I__Antioch_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
074p Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), Syria, Antioch, Prieur-445, AR-Tetradrachm, -/-//ANTIOXIA/S-C, Eagle, #164 views074p Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), Syria, Antioch, Prieur-445, AR-Tetradrachm, -/-//ANTIOXIA/S-C, Eagle, #1
avers:- ΑΥΤΟΚ-ΚΜΙΟΥΛΙ-ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC-CΕΒ, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- ΔΗΜΑΡΧ-ΕΞCΟΥCΙΑ-ΥΠΑΤΟΔ, Eagle standing right with wreath in beak.
exe: -/-//ANTIOXIA/S-C, diameter: 25-28 mm, weight: 11,20 g, axis: 1 h,
mint: Syria, Antioch, date: 249 A.D., ref: Prieur-445 ,
Q-001
quadrans
076pb_Philippus_II__(244-7_A_D_,_Caes,_247-9_A_D__Aug_),_Syria,_Antioch,_Prieur-405,_AR-Tetradrachm,_Eagle,_247_AD,_Q-001,_1h,_25,5mm,_13,76g-s.jpg
076pb Philippus II. (244-7 A.D., Caes, 247-9 A.D. Aug.), Syria, Antioch, Prieur-405, AR-Tetradrachm, -/-//ANTIOXIA/S-C, Eagle standing left, #161 views076pb Philippus II. (244-7 A.D., Caes, 247-9 A.D. Aug.), Syria, Antioch, Prieur-405, AR-Tetradrachm, -/-//ANTIOXIA/S-C, Eagle standing left, #1
avers: ΑΥΤΟΚ Κ Μ ΙΟΥΛΙ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟC CЄΒ, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust left.
reverse: ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ЄΧΟΥCΙΑC ΥΠΑΤΟ Γ, Eagle standing left, with wings spread, holding wreath in beak.
exergue: -/-//ANTIOXIA/S-C, diameter: 25,58 mm, weight: 13,760 g, axis: 1h,
mint: Syria, Antioch, date: 247 A.D., ref: Prieur-405, McAlee 1039a,
Q-001
quadrans
Antíoco IV, Epiphanes.jpg
08-02 - Anti­oco IV, Epiphanes (175 - 164 A.C.)68 viewsAntíoco IV Epífanes (Αντίοχος Επιφανής en griego, 215 adC-163 adC) fue rey de Siria de la dinastía Seléucida desde c. 175 adC-164 adC.
Era hijo de Antíoco III Megas y hermano de Seleuco IV Filopator. Originalmente fue llamado Mitríades, pero adoptó el nombre de Antíoco tras su ascensión al trono (o quizás tras la muerte de su hermano mayor, también Antíoco).
Subió al trono tras la muerte de su hermano Seleuco IV Filopátor que gobernó durante poco tiempo antes que él, hasta que Heliodoro, tesorero suyo, lo mató por ambición. Había vivido en Roma según los términos de la paz de Apamea (188 adC), pero acababa de ser intercambiado por el hijo y legítimo heredero de Seleuco IV, el futuro (Demetrio I Sóter). Antíoco se aprovechó de la situación, y junto con su otro hermano Antíoco, se proclamó rey con el apoyo de Eumenes II de Pérgamo y el hermano de éste, Atalo I. Su hermano Antíoco sería asesinado pocos años después.
Por su enfrentamiento con Ptolomeo VI, que reclamaba Coele-Syria, atacó e invadió Egipto, conquistando casi todo el país, con la salvedad de la capital, Alejandría. Llegó a capturar al rey, pero para no alarmar a Roma, decicidió reponerlo en el trono, aunque como su marioneta. Sin embargo, los alejandrinos habían elegido al hermano de éste, Ptolomeo VII Euergetes como rey, y tras su marcha decidieron reinar conjuntamente. Esto le obligó a reinvadir el país, y así el 168 adC, repitiendo la invasión, con su flota conquistaba Chipre. Cerca de Alejandría se encontró con el cónsul romano Cayo Popilio Laenas, instó a abandonar Egipto y Chipre. Cuando Antíoco replicó que debía consultarlo con su consejo, Popilio trazó un círculo en la arena rodeándole y le dijo: "píensalo aquí". Viendo que abandonar el círculo sin haber ordenado la retirada era un desafío a Roma decidió ceder con el fin de evitar una guerra.
A su regreso, organizó una expedición contra Jerusalén, qué saqueo cruelmente. Según él Libro de los Macabeos, promulgó varias ordenanzas de tipo religioso: trató de suprimir el culto a Yahveh, prohibió el judaísmo suspendiendo toda clase de manifestación religiosa y trató de establecer el culto a los dioses griegos. Pero el sacerdote judío Matatías y sus dos hijos llamados Macabeos consiguieron levantar a la población en su contra y lo expulsaron. La fiesta judía de Jánuca conmemora este hecho.
Antíoco, en campaña contra el Imperio Parto, envió varios ejércitos sin éxito. Mientras organizaba una expedición punitiva para retomar Israel personalmente le sobrevino la muerte. Le sucedió su hijo Antíoco V Eupátor.
Su reinado fue la última época de fuerza y esplendor para el Imperio Seleúcida, que tras su muerte se vio envuelto en devastadoras guerras dinásticas. (Wikipedia)

AE (Canto aserrado) 15 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: Busto velado de Laodicea IV (Esposa de Seleuco IV y Hermana de Antíoco IV) viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Cabeza de elefante a izquierda, proa de galera a izquierda (El elefante simboliza las aspiraciones orientales de los reyes de Seleucia además de ser una de las grandes armas de su arsenal y la proa su importancia como ciudad puerto).

Ceca: Seleucia de Pieria (Costa N. de Siria - Puerto de Antioquía) o Akke Ptolomais

Referencias : B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #3 Pag.43 - SC#1477.2 - Houghton #113 - HGS #684-6 Pag.9 - SNG Spaer #1017-40 - SNG Cop #184 - Hoover #685
1 commentsmdelvalle
GI_089a_img.jpg
089 - Philip I, Billon Tetradrachm - SNGCop 26940 viewsObv:– AVTOK K M IOVLI FILIPPOC CEB, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev:– DEMARC EXOVCIAC VPATO D, eagle standing right with wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA SC below
Minted in Antioch, Syria. Dated 4th consulship A.D. 249
Reference:– SNGCop 269

Weight 12.39g. 27.42mm.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
trajan_RIC642.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 104-110 AD70 viewsobv: [IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP] (laureate, draped bust right)
rev: [ARMENIA ET MESOPOTAMIA IN POTESTATEM P R REDACTAE] (Trajan standing to the front, head turned right, holding spear and parazonium; on both sides of him and reclining are the three females figures, Armenia, Euphrates, Tigris), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 642 (R), BMC 1039, C.39 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
22.41gms, 33mm
Rare

History: Trajan declared war against the Parthians, after overrunning Syria, Mesopotamia and Armenia, he defeated in every encounter, establishing several governments, and thereby gaining from the Roman Senate the title of Parthicus.

This coin is worn enough, even the legends are disappeared, too, but shows the result about one of the most impotant Roman conquest.
berserker
wileycweights24_9mm_8_3g.jpg
1 shekel Hematite Babylonian/Syrian weight22 viewsSphendonoid flat base
24mm/9mm
8.3 g
Hendin; 23
wileyc
1shekel_815g_25mm_10mm5mm(h23_24).jpg
1 Shekel Hematite weight11 views1 Shekel Hematite weight
Sphendonoid Hematite weight
25mm by 10mm by 5 mm
8.15g
Hendin; 23, 24.
Sphendonoid weights have been found in Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia as well as ship wrecks from the 14th/13th centuries BC.
wileyc
IMG_9255.JPG
1. Seleukos I Nikator 12 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Seleukos I Nikator. 312-281 BC. Æ (19mm, 8.99 g, 1h). Apamea on the Orontes mint. Struck circa 300-281 BC. Elephant walking right / Horse’s head left; anchor below. SC 35; HGC 9, 79.ecoli
IMG_9261.JPG
1. Seleukos I Nikator 18 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Seleukos I Nikator. 312-281 BC. Æ Seleukeia II mint. Horned horse head right / Anchor; monogram to right. SC 145.

Seleukos fled from Antigonus the one-eyed in Babylonia on horseback. He credited this animal with saving his life. He then deified the animal on his coinage and in other cult shrines.

He eventually made it to Egypt where Ptolemy sheltered him for a while until he could regroup and begin to definitively establish what would become the Seleucid empire.
ecoli
IMG_9984.JPG
1. Seleukos I Nikator 10 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Seleukos I Nikator. 312-281 BC. Æ. Winged head of Medusa right / Bull butting right; SC 6.1; HGC 9, 107a.ecoli
1_10shekel__87g_25mm(h51).JPG
1/10 Shekel Hematite weight17 viewsSphendonoid Hematite weight
25mm
.87g
Hendin; 51.
Sphendonoid weights have been found in Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia as well as ship wrecks from the 14th/13th centuries BC.
wileyc
AS CLAUDIO SGCTV 472.jpg
10-20 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)66 viewsAE AS (Provincial) 23 x 25 mm 12.9 gr.

Anv: "IM T[I. CLA. CAE. AV. GER]" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S C " dentro de una corona de laureles con 8 grupos de hojas.

Acuñada 41 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Syria - Seleucis and Pieria - Antiochia ad Orontem

Referencias: Sear GICTV #472 Pag.43 - BMC Vol.20 #166 Pag.171 - Cohen Vol.1 #134 Pag.262
mdelvalle
SGICTV_472_AS_Antioquia_Claudio_I.jpg
10-30 - Antioquia ad Orontem - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)10 viewsAE AS (Provincial) 23 x 25 mm 12.9 gr.

Anv: "IM T[I. CLA. CAE. AV. GER]" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S C " dentro de una corona de laureles con 8 grupos de hojas.

Acuñada 41 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Syria - Seleucis and Pieria - Antiochia ad Orontem

Referencias: Sear GICTV #472 Pag.43 - BMC Vol.20 #166 Pag.171 - Cohen Vol.1 #134 Pag.262
mdelvalle
image~1.jpg
108. Didius Julianus58 views193 A.D. - The Year of Five Emperors. On 1 January, the Senate selected Pertinax, against his will, to succeed the late Commodus as Emperor. The Praetorian Guard assassinated him on 28 March and auctioned the throne to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, who offered 300 million sesterces. Outraged by the Praetorians, legions in Illyricum select Septimius Severus as emperor; in Britannia the legions select their governor Clodius Albinus, and in Syria the legions select their governor Pescennius Niger. On 1 June Septimius Severus entered the capital, put Julianus put to death and replaced the Praetorian Guard with his own troops. Clodius Albinus allied with Severus and accepted the title of Caesar. Pescennius Niger was defeated, killed and his head displayed in Rome.


SH67895. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC VI 14, BMCRE V 20, Cohen 3, Cayon III 1, SRCV II 6075, aF, weight 19.437 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, obverse IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONCORD MILIT, S - C, Concordia Militum standing half left, flanked by legionary eagle before in right and standard behind in left.

Ex-FORVM


1 commentsecoli
hadrian_RIC42.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 118 AD52 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG (laureate bust right, cuirassed, draped far shoulder)
rev: P M TR P COS II (Justice is seated on the curule chair, as on a tribunal: with the insignia of the hasta pura and the extended patera she displays her care for religion), IVSTITIA in ex.
ref: RIC II 42, RSC 877
mint: Rome
3.25gms, 19mm

Rare cuirassed bust, RIC not describes (c - not in RIC). Unfortunately the reverse is burned, but still valuable.
The reverse perhaps refer to the edictum perpetuum or Pretorian edict, what was an annual declaration made by the praetor urbanus in which he laid out the principles by which he would exercise his jurisdiction for his year in office. Under Hadrian, the edict became fixed and unchangeable.
And there's an other fact that can refer this reverse. When Hadrian arrived in Rome in July 118 to a hostile reception on the part of the senate, because of the death of the four consulars. The four men were Cornelius Palma, governor of Syria, Avidius Nigrinus, governor of Dacia, Publilius Celsus and Lusius Quietus, governor of Judaea, they were all Trajan's men, and their elimination certainly made Hadrian's course easier. But an Emperor had right everytime, and he was the justice.
berserker
Demetrio II, Nicator.jpg
12-02 - Demetrio II, Nicator (1er.Reino 145 - 139 A.C.)56 viewsDemetrio II Nicátor de la dinastía Seléucida, fue rey de Siria en dos períodos: 146 - 139 A.C. y 129 - 126 A.C. Huyó a Creta tras la derrota y muerte de su padre, Demetrio I Sóter, pero regresó después, proclamándose rey. Fue puesto en fuga casi inmediatamente por el general Diodoto, que primero proclamó rey a un hijo de Alejandro Balas, Antíoco VI Dioniso, y luego a sí mismo con el nombre de Trifón. Demetrio marchó en guerra contra el rey de Partia, Mitrídates I, siendo derrotado y capturado en 139 A.C.
En 129 fue puesto en libertad, con la esperanza de provocar una guerra entre él y su hermano Antíoco VII Evergetes. Sin embargo, Antíoco murió antes de que estallara el conflicto, con lo que Demetrio II se proclamó rey de nuevo. Poco después fue derrotado y muerto por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII, que sostenía al usupador Alejandro Zabinas. Le sucedió su hijo Seleuco V Filométor, bajo la regencia de su viuda Cleopatra Tea. (Wikipedia)

AE 18 x 19 mm 4.9 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema de Demetrio II viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY – TYPIΩN (por Tiro)" - Popa de Galera (Simboliza el poderío naval de Tiro Fenicia bajo los Seléucidas).

Acuñación: 145/4 A.C.
Ceca: Seleucia en Tiro - Fenicia

Referencias: Houghton #753 – SNG Spaer #1722 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #20-22 Pag.60 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7070 Pag.661 - SNG Israel #1708.
mdelvalle
17630101_10155133556532232_2292325010736412416_n.jpg
12. Demetrios II Nikator15 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Demetrios II Nikator. Second reign, 129-125 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Struck 129-128 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nike advancing left, holding wreath and palm; Ξ to inner left. SC 2170.1a; HGC 9, 1133.ecoli
17457717_10155114938012232_4780613556318406928_n.jpg
13. Antiochos VII Euergetes12 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Dated SE 179 (134/3 BC). Winged bust of Eros right / Isis headdress; monogram above grain ear to outer left, ΘOP (date) below. SC 2067.14; HGC 9, 1087. VF, earthen green patina.ecoli
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
17264722_10155129858132232_1181897742428297987_n.jpg
14. Alexander II Zabinas18 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Alexander II Zabinas. 128-122 BC. Serrate AE Perhaps Apamea on the Orontes mint. Head of Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy / Winged Tyche standing left, holding tiller and cornucopia; to outer left, monogram above cornucopia. SC 2242.3; HGC 9, 1166.ecoli
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
Alexander II, Zabinas.jpg
15-02 - Alejandro II, Zabinas (128 - 123 A.C.)28 viewsUsurpador sostenido por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII
AE 17 x 18 mm 7.6 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔPOY” – Joven Dionisio (Baco) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda sosteniendo cántaro en mano derecha y thyrsus (Vara enramada cubierta de hojas de hiedra que suele llevar como cetro Baco) en izquierda. Fecha Seléucida en campo izquierdo.

Acuñación: 129 - 125 A.C.
Ceca: Antioquía

Referencias: B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #16 Pag.82 Plate 22 #6 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7125 Pag.667 – SNG Spaer #2375
mdelvalle
0023-056.jpg
1633 - Mark Antony, Denarius96 viewsStruck in a travelling mint, moving with Mark Antony in 41 BC
ANT AVG IMP III VI R P C, Head of Mark Antony right
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left; at feet, stork; below, PIETAS COS
3,82 gr - 20 mm
Ref : Crawford # 516/2, Sydenham # 1174, HCRI # 241, C # 77
Ex. Auctiones.GmbH

The following comment is copied from NAC auction # 52/294 about the very rare corresponding aureus :
The year 41 B.C., when this aureus was struck at a mint travelling in the East with Marc Antony, was a period of unusual calm for the triumvir, who took a welcomed, if unexpected, rest after the great victory he and Octavian had won late in 42 B.C. against Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi. Antony’s original plan of organising an invasion of Parthia was put on hold after he sailed to Tarsus, where he had summoned Cleopatra VII, the Greek queen of Egypt. She was to defend herself against accusations that she had aided Brutus and Cassius before Philippi, but it is generally agreed that the summons was merely a pretext for Antony’s plan to secure aid for his Parthian campaign. Their meeting was anything but a source of conflict; indeed, they found much common ground, including their agreement that it was in their mutual interests to execute Cleopatra’s sister and rival Arsinoe IV, who had been ruling Cyprus. In addition to sharing political interests, the two agreed that Antony would winter in Egypt to share a luxurious vacation with Cleopatra that caused a further postponement of Antony’s designs on Parthia. Thus began another of the queen’s liaisons with noble Romans, a prior having been Julius Caesar (and, according to Plutarch, Pompey Jr. before him). During the course of his stay in Egypt Cleopatra was impregnated, which resulted in twins born to her in 40 B.C. But this care-free period was only a momentary calm in the storm, for trouble was brewing in both the East and the West. Early in 40 B.C. Syria was overrun by the Parthians, seemingly while Antony travelled to Italy to meet Octavian following the Perusine War, in which Octavian defeated the armies of Antony’s wife and brother. The conflict with Octavian was resolved when they signed a pact at Brundisium in October, and Syria was eventually recovered through the efforts of Antony’s commanders from 40 to 38 B.C.{/i]

5 commentsPotator II
commodus as-.jpg
166-177 AD - COMMODUS Caesar AE As - struck 175-176 AD49 viewsobv: COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM (draped bust right)
rev: SPES PVBLICA (Spes walking left holding flower & raising hem of skirt), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1544 (M.Aurelius), C.710
mint: Rome
8.92gms, 25mm
Scarce

Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, Marcus Aurelius’s headquarters during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus in the presence of the army. The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father’s victory over the Marcomanni. Even the title of Sarmaticus he was given in 175.
During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius in Syria, the prince assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on July 7, 175, thus formally entering adulthood.
berserker
17523700_10155131204972232_2121778819263256059_n.jpg
17. Antiochos VIII Epiphanes13 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos VIII Epiphanes (Grypos). 121/0-97/6 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Dated SE 193 (120/19 BC). Radiate head right / Eagle standing left, with scepter over shoulder; date in exergue. SC 2300.2; HGC 9, 1212; DCA 279.ecoli
Saladin_A788.jpg
1701a, Saladin, 1169-11932046 viewsAYYUBID: Saladin, 1169-1193, AR dirham (2.92g), Halab, AH580, A-788, lovely struck, well-centered & bold, Extremely Fine, Scarce.

His name in Arabic, in full, is SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF IBN AYYUB ("Righteousness of the Faith, Joseph, Son of Job"), also called AL-MALIK AN-NASIR SALAH AD-DIN YUSUF I (b. 1137/38, Tikrit, Mesopotamia--d. March 4, 1193, Damascus), Muslim sultan of Egypt, Syria, Yemen, and Palestine, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty, and the most famous of Muslim heroes.

In wars against the Christian crusaders, he achieved final success with the disciplined capture of Jerusalem (Oct. 2, 1187), ending its 88-year occupation by the Franks. The great Christian counterattack of the Third Crusade was then stalemated by Saladin's military genius.

Saladin was born into a prominent Kurdish family. On the night of his birth, his father, Najm ad-Din Ayyub, gathered his family and moved to Aleppo, there entering the service of 'Imad ad-Din Zangi ibn Aq Sonqur, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria. Growing up in Ba'lbek and Damascus, Saladin was apparently an undistinguished youth, with a greater taste for religious studies than military training.
His formal career began when he joined the staff of his uncle Asad ad-Din Shirkuh, an important military commander under the amir Nureddin, son and successor of Zangi. During three military expeditions led by Shirkuh into Egypt to prevent its falling to the Latin-Christian (Frankish) rulers of the states established by the First Crusade, a complex, three-way struggle developed between Amalric I, the Latin king of Jerusalem, Shawar, the powerful vizier of the Egyptian Fatimid caliph, and Shirkuh. After Shirkuh's death and after ordering Shawar's assassination, Saladin, in 1169 at the age of 31, was appointed both commander of the Syrian troops and vizier of Egypt.

His relatively quick rise to power must be attributed not only to the clannish nepotism of his Kurdish family but also to his own emerging talents. As vizier of Egypt, he received the title king (malik), although he was generally known as the sultan. Saladin's position was further enhanced when, in 1171, he abolished the Shi'i Fatimid caliphate, proclaimed a return to Sunnah in Egypt, and consequently became its sole ruler.

Although he remained for a time theoretically a vassal of Nureddin, that relationship ended with the Syrian emir's death in 1174. Using his rich agricultural possessions in Egypt as a financial base, Saladin soon moved into Syria with a small but strictly disciplined army to claim the regency on behalf of the young son of his former suzerain.
Soon, however, he abandoned this claim, and from 1174 until 1186 he zealously pursued a goal of uniting, under his own standard, all the Muslim territories of Syria, northern Mesopotamia, Palestine, and Egypt.

This he accomplished by skillful diplomacy backed when necessary by the swift and resolute use of military force. Gradually, his reputation grew as a generous and virtuous but firm ruler, devoid of pretense, licentiousness, and cruelty. In contrast to the bitter dissension and intense rivalry that had up to then hampered the Muslims in their resistance to the crusaders, Saladin's singleness of purpose induced them to rearm both physically and spiritually.

Saladin's every act was inspired by an intense and unwavering devotion to the idea of jihad ("holy war")-the Muslim equivalent of the Christian crusade. It was an essential part of his policy to encourage the growth and spread of Muslim religious institutions.

He courted its scholars and preachers, founded colleges and mosques for their use, and commissioned them to write edifying works especially on the jihad itself. Through moral regeneration, which was a genuine part of his own way of life, he tried to re-create in his own realm some of the same zeal and enthusiasm that had proved so valuable to the first generations of Muslims when, five centuries before, they had conquered half the known world.

Saladin also succeeded in turning the military balance of power in his favour-more by uniting and disciplining a great number of unruly forces than by employing new or improved military techniques. When at last, in 1187, he was able to throw his full strength into the struggle with the Latin crusader kingdoms, his armies were their equals. On July 4, 1187, aided by his own military good sense and by a phenomenal lack of it on the part of his enemy, Saladin trapped and destroyed in one blow an exhausted and thirst-crazed army of crusaders at Hattin, near Tiberias in northern Palestine.

So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this one battle that the Muslims were quickly able to overrun nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) fell within three months.

But Saladin's crowning achievement and the most disastrous blow to the whole crusading movement came on Oct. 2, 1187, when Jerusalem, holy to both Muslim and Christian alike, surrendered to the Sultan's army after 88 years in the hands of the Franks. In stark contrast to the city's conquest by the Christians, when blood flowed freely during the barbaric slaughter of its inhabitants, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behaviour of Saladin and his troops. His sudden success, which in 1189 saw the crusaders reduced to the occupation of only three cities, was, however, marred by his failure to capture Tyre, an almost impregnable coastal fortress to which the scattered Christian survivors of the recent battles flocked. It was to be the rallying point of the Latin counterattack.

Most probably, Saladin did not anticipate the European reaction to his capture of Jerusalem, an event that deeply shocked the West and to which it responded with a new call for a crusade. In addition to many great nobles and famous knights, this crusade, the third, brought the kings of three countries into the struggle.

The magnitude of the Christian effort and the lasting impression it made on contemporaries gave the name of Saladin, as their gallant and chivalrous enemy, an added lustre that his military victories alone could never confer on him.

The Crusade itself was long and exhausting, and, despite the obvious, though at times impulsive, military genius of Richard I the Lion-Heart, it achieved almost nothing. Therein lies the greatest-but often unrecognized--achievement of Saladin. With tired and unwilling feudal levies, committed to fight only a limited season each year, his indomitable will enabled him to fight the greatest champions of Christendom to a draw. The crusaders retained little more than a precarious foothold on the Levantine coast, and when King Richard set sail from the Orient in October 1192, the battle was over.

Saladin withdrew to his capital at Damascus. Soon, the long campaigning seasons and the endless hours in the saddle caught up with him, and he died. While his relatives were already scrambling for pieces of the empire, his friends found that the most powerful and most generous ruler in the Muslim world had not left enough money to pay for his own grave.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
H.A.R. Gibb, "The Arabic Sources for the Life of Saladin," Speculum, 25:58-72 (1950). C.W. Wilson's English translation of one of the most important Arabic works, The Life of Saladin (1897), was reprinted in 1971. The best biography to date is Stanley Lane-Poole, Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, new ed. (1926, reprinted 1964), although it does not take account of all the sources.
See: http://stp.ling.uu.se/~kamalk/language/saladin.html
Ed. J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Tetradracma VESPASIANO RPC 1970-3_1.jpg
18-30 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)52 viewsAR Tetradracma (Provincial) 25 x 23 mm 13.6 gr.

Anv: "AYTOK[PAT ΩP KAICAP CEBATOC OYECIIACIANOC]" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ETOY [NEOY IEPOY A ó B ó Γ]" - Aguila parada de frente con su cabeza a izquierda, sobre un garrote con sus alas extendidas y corona de laureles en el pico.

Acuñada 69 - 71 D.C.
Ceca: Syria - Seleucis and Pieria - Antiochia ad Orontem

Referencias: Sear GICTV #736 Pag.70 - BMC Vol.20 #227 Pag.178 - RPC (#1970 =Año 1, #1971=Año 2 ó #1973=Año 3) Grupo 7 - Prieur Syro-Phoenician tatradrachms (2000) pag.20 #132 Grupo 9
mdelvalle
RPC_1970_Tetradracma_Antioquia_Vespasiano.jpg
18-40 - VESPASIANO (69 - 79 D.C.)22 viewsAR Tetradracma (Provincial) 25 x 23 mm 13.6 gr.

Anv: "AYTOK[PAT ΩP KAICAP CEBATOC OYECIIACIANOC]" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ETOY [NEOY IEPOY A ó B ó Γ]" - Aguila parada de frente con su cabeza a izquierda, sobre un garrote con sus alas extendidas y corona de laureles en el pico.

Acuñada 69 - 71 D.C.
Ceca: Syria - Seleucis and Pieria - Antiochia ad Orontem

Referencias: Sear GICTV #736 Pag.70 - BMC Vol.20 #227 Pag.178 - RPC (#1970 =Año 1, #1971=Año 2 ó #1973=Año 3) Grupo 7 - Prieur Syro-Phoenician tatradrachms (2000) pag.20 #132 Grupo 9
mdelvalle
1607059_625273620842886_1594459012_n.jpg
181 Julia Domna - Unlisted81 viewsIVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right; FORTVN REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Unlisted Syrian mint.

Traded :/ :)
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
rjb_car1_01_07~0.jpg
19826 viewsCaracalla 198-217 AD
AR tetradrachm
Heirapolis in Syria
Eagle standing left, head right with wreath in mouth; lion wlking right below
Prieur 929
1 commentsmauseus
TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
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GermanicusAsSC.jpg
1an Germanicus36 viewsAdopted by Tiberius in 4 AD, died mysteriously in 19

As, struck by Caligula

Bare head, left, GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVGVST F DIVI AVG N
C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT SC

RIC 57

Germanicus Julius Caesar (c16 BC-AD 19) was was born in Lugdunum, Gaul (modern Lyon). At birth he was named either Nero Claudius Drusus after his father or Tiberius Claudius Nero after his uncle. He received the agnomen Germanicus, in 9 BC, when it was posthumously awarded to his father in honour of his victories in Germania. Germanicus was the grandson-in-law and great-nephew of the Emperor Augustus, nephew and adoptive son of the Emperor Tiberius, father of the Emperor Caligula, brother of the Emperor Claudius, and the maternal grandfather of the Emperor Nero. He married his maternal second cousin Agrippina the Elder, a granddaughter of Augustus, between 5 and 1 BC. The couple had nine children. Two died very young; another, Gaius Julius Caesar, died in early childhood. The remaining six were: Nero Caesar, Drusus Caesar, the Emperor Caligula, the Empress Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla.

According to Suetonius: Germanicus, who was the son of Drusus the Elder and Antonia the Younger, was adopted (in 4AD) by Germanicus’s paternal uncle, Tiberius. He served as quaestor (in7AD) five years before the legal age and became consul (in12AD) without holding the intermediate offices. On the death of Augustus (in AD14) he was appointed to command the army in Germany, where, his filial piety and determination vying for prominence, he held the legions to their oath, though they stubbornly opposed Tiberius’s succession, and wished him to take power for himself.

He followed this with victory in Germany, for which he celebrated a triumph (in 17 AD), and was chosen as consul for a second time (18 AD) though unable to take office as he was despatched to the East to restore order there. He defeated the forces of the King of Armenia, and reduced Cappadocia to provincial status, but then died at Antioch, at the age of only thirty-three (in AD 19), after a lingering illness, though there was also suspicion that he had been poisoned. For as well as the livid stains which covered his body, and the foam on his lips, the heart was found entire among the ashes after his cremation, its total resistance to flame being a characteristic of that organ, they say, when it is filled with poison.

All considered Germanicus exceptional in body and mind, to a quite outstanding degree. Remarkably brave and handsome; a master of Greek and Latin oratory and learning; singularly benevolent; he was possessed of a powerful desire and vast capacity for winning respect and inspiring affection.

His scrawny legs were less in keeping with the rest of his figure, but he gradually fleshed them out by assiduous exercise on horseback after meals. He often killed enemy warriors in hand-to-hand combat; still pleaded cases in the courts even after receiving his triumph; and left various Greek comedies behind amongst other fruits of his studies.

At home and abroad his manners were unassuming, such that he always entered free or allied towns without his lictors.

Whenever he passed the tombs of famous men, he always offered a sacrifice to their shades. And he was the first to initiate a personal search for the scattered remains of Varus’s fallen legionaries, and have them gathered together, so as to inter them in a single burial mound.

As for Germanicus, Tiberius appreciated him so little, that he dismissed his famous deeds as trivial, and his brilliant victories as ruinous to the Empire. He complained to the Senate when Germanicus left for Alexandria (AD19) without consulting him, on the occasion there of a terrible and swift-spreading famine. It was even believed that Tiberius arranged for his poisoning at the hands of Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the Governor of Syria, and that Piso would have revealed the written instructions at his trial, had Tiberius not retrieved them during a private interview, before having Piso put to death. As a result, the words: ‘Give us back Germanicus!’ were posted on the walls, and shouted at night, all throughout Rome. The suspicion surrounding Germanicus’ death (19 AD) was deepened by Tiberius’s cruel treatment of Germanicus’s wife, Agrippina the Elder, and their children.
1 commentsBlindado
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
VespDenSalus.jpg
1aw Vespasian44 views69-79

Denarius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES VESP AVG CEN
Salus seated left with patera, SALVS AVG

RIC 513 (C2)

Suetonius wrote: The Flavians seized power, and the Empire, long troubled and adrift, afflicted by the usurpations and deaths of three emperors, at last achieved stability. True they were an obscure family, with no great names to boast of, yet one our country has no need to be ashamed of. . . . Vespasian was born in the Sabine country, in the little village of Falacrinae just beyond Reate (Rieti), on the 17th of November 9 AD in the consulship of Quintus Sulpicius Camerinus and Gaius Poppaeus Sabinus, five years before the death of Augustus. He was raised by his paternal grandmother Tertulla on her estate at Cosa. . . .

Under Claudius, he was sent to Germany (in 41 AD) to command a legion, thanks to the influence of Narcissus. From there he was posted to Britain (in 43 AD), where partly under the leadership of Aulus Plautius and partly that of Claudius himself, he fought thirty times, subjugating two powerful tribes, more than twenty strongholds, and the offshore island of Vectis (the Isle of Wight). This earned him triumphal regalia, and a little later two priesthoods and the consulship (in 51 AD) which he held for the last two months of the year. . . . He won, by lot, the governorship of Africa (in 63 AD), ruling it soundly and with considerable dignity. . . .

An ancient and well-established belief became widespread in the East that the ruler of the world at this time would arise from Judaea. This prophecy as events proved referred to the future Emperor of Rome, but was taken by the Jews to apply to them. They rebelled, killed their governor, and routed the consular ruler of Syria also, when he arrived to restore order, capturing an Eagle. To crush the rebels needed a considerable force under an enterprising leader, who would nevertheless not abuse power. Vespasian was chosen, as a man of proven vigour, from whom little need be feared, since his name and origins were quite obscure. Two legions with eight divisions of cavalry and ten cohorts of auxiliaries were added to the army in Judaea, and Vespasian took his elder son, Titus, along as one of his lieutenants. . . .

Yet Vespasian made no move, though his follower were ready and eager, until he was roused to action by the fortuitous support of a group of soldiers unknown to him, and based elsewhere. Two thousand men, of the three legions in Moesia reinforcing Otho’s forces, despite hearing on the march that he had been defeated and had committed suicide, had continued on to Aquileia, and there taken advantage of the temporary chaos to plunder at will. Fearing that if they returned they would be held to account and punished, they decided to choose and appoint an emperor of their own, on the basis that they were every bit as worthy of doing so as the Spanish legions who had appointed Galba, or the Praetorian Guard which had elected Otho, or the German army which had chosen Vitellius. They went through the list of serving consular governors, rejecting them for one reason or another, until in the end they unanimously adopted Vespasian, who was recommended strongly by some members of the Third Legion, which had been transferred to Moesia from Syria immediately prior to Nero’s death. . . .

Vespasian, an unheralded and newly-forged emperor, as yet lacked even a modicum of prestige and divine majesty, but this too he acquired. . . . Returning to Rome (in 70 AD) attended by such auspices, having won great renown, and after a triumph awarded for the Jewish War, he added eight consulships (AD 70-72, 74-77, 79) to his former one, and assumed the censorship. He first considered it essential to strengthen the State, which was unstable and well nigh fatally weakened, and then to enhance its role further during his reign. . . .
2 commentsBlindado
TrajanSestCeres~0.jpg
1bc Trajan48 views98-117

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP
Roma and kneeling Dacian, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC

RIC 485

Eutropius enthused: To [Nerva] succeeded ULPIUS CRINITUS TRAJANUS, born at Italica in Spain, of a family rather ancient than eminent for his father was the first consul in it. He was chosen emperor at Agrippina, a city of Gaul. He exercised the government in such a manner, that he is deservedly preferred to all the other emperors. He was a man of extraordinary skill in managing affairs of state, and of remarkable courage. The limits of the Roman empire, which, since the reign of Augustus, had been rather defended than honourably enlarged, he extended far and wide. He rebuilt some cities in Germany; he subdued Dacia by the overthrow of Decebalus, and formed a province beyond the Danube, in that territory which the Thaiphali, Victoali, and Theruingi now occupy. This province was a thousand miles in circumference.

He recovered Armenia, which the Parthians had seized, putting to death Parthamasires who held the government of it. He gave a king to the Albani. He received into alliance the king of the Iberians, Sarmatians, Bosporani, Arabians, Osdroeni, and Colchians. He obtained the mastery over the Cordueni and Marcomedi, as well as over Anthemusia, an extensive region of Persia. He conquered and kept possession of Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Babylon, and the country of the Messenii. He advanced as far as the boundaries of India, and the Red Sea, where he formed three provinces, Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia, including the tribes which border on Madena. He afterwards, too, reduced Arabia into the form of a province. He also fitted out a fleet for the Red Sea, that he might use it to lay waste the coasts of India.

Yet he went beyond his glory in war, in ability and judgment as a ruler, conducting himself as an equal towards all, going often to his friends as a visitor, either when they were ill, or when they were celebrating feast days, and entertaining them in his turn at banquets where there was no distinction of rank, and sitting frequently with them in their chariots; doing nothing unjust towards any of the senators, nor being guilty of any dishonesty to fill his treasury; exercising liberality to all, enriching with offices of trust, publicly and privately, every body whom he had known even with the least familiarity; building towns throughout the world, granting many immunities to states, and doing every thing with gentleness and kindness; so that during his whole reign, there was but one senator condemned, and he was sentenced by the senate without Trajan's knowledge. Hence, being regarded throughout the world as next to a god, he deservedly obtained the highest veneration both living and dead. . . .

After having gained the greatest glory both in the field and at home, he was cut off, as he was returning from Persia, by a diarrhoea, at Seleucia in Isauria. He died in the sixty-third year, ninth month, and fourth day of his age, and in the nineteenth year, sixth month, and fifteenth day of his reign. He was enrolled among the gods, and was the only one of all the emperors that was buried within the city. His bones, contained in a golden urn, lie in the forum which he himself built, under a pillar whose height is a hundred and forty-four feet. So much respect has been paid to his memory, that, even to our own times, they shout in acclamations to the emperors, "More fortunate than Augustus, better than Trajan!"
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HadrianSestFortuna.jpg
1be Hadrian44 views117-138

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, HADRIANVUS AVG COS III PP
Fortuna standing left with rudder on globe and cornucopia, FORTVNA AVG

RIC 759

According to the Historia Augusta, "Bereft of his father at the age of ten, he became the ward of Ulpius Trajanus, his cousin, then of praetorian rank, but afterwards emperor, and of Caelius Attianus, a knight. He then grew rather deeply devoted to Greek studies, to which his natural tastes inclined so much that some called him 'Greekling. . . .' In the 105-106 second Dacian war, Trajan appointed him to the command of the First Legion, the Minervia, and took him with him to the war; and in this campaign his many remarkable deeds won great renown. . . . On taking possession of the imperial power
Hadrian at once resumed the policy of the early emperors and devoted his attention to maintaining peace throughout the world. . . . [I]n this letter to the Senate he apologized because he had not left it the right to decide regarding his accession, explaining that the unseemly haste of the troops in acclaiming him emperor was due to the belief that the state could not be without an emperor. . . . He was, in the same person, austere and genial, dignified and playful, dilatory and quick to act, niggardly and generous, deceitful and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable. . . . Hadrian's memory was vast and his ability was unlimited ; for instance, he personally dictated his speeches and gave opinions on all questions. He was also very witty. . . ."

After this Hadrian departed for Baiae, leaving Antoninus at Rome to carry on the government. But he received no benefit there, and he thereupon
sent for Antoninus, and in his presence he died there at Baiae on the sixth day before the Ides of July.

According to Eutropius: After the death of Trajan, AELIUS HADRIAN was made emperor, not from any wish to that effect having been expressed by Trajan himself, but through the influence of Plotina, Trajan's wife; for Trajan in his life-time had refused to adopt him, though he was the son of his cousin. He also was born at Italica in Spain. Envying Trajan's glory, he immediately gave up three of the provinces which Trajan had added to the empire, withdrawing the armies from Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, and deciding that the Euphrates should be the boundary of the empire. When he was proceeding, to act similarly with regard to Dacia, his friends dissuaded him, lest many Roman citizens should be left in the hands of the barbarians, because Trajan, after he had subdued Dacia, had transplanted thither an infinite number of men from the whole Roman world, to people the country and the cities; as the land had been exhausted of inhabitants in the long war maintained by Decebalus.

He enjoyed peace, however, through the whole course of his reign; the only war that he had, he committed to the conduct of a governor of a province. He went about through the Roman empire, and founded many edifices. He spoke with great eloquence in the Latin language, and was very learned in the Greek. He had no great reputation for clemency, but was very attentive to the state of the treasury and the discipline of the soldiers. He died in Campania, more than sixty years old, in the twenty-first year, tenth month, and twenty-ninth day of his reign. The senate was unwilling to allow him divine honours; but his successor Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antonius, earnestly insisting on it, carried his point, though all the senators were openly opposed to him.
1 commentsBlindado
MarcAurelSestSalus.jpg
1bj Marcus Aurelius95 views161-180

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG PM
Salus stg, SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII COS III SC

RIC 843

The Historia Augusta relates: He was reared under the eye of Hadrian, who called him Verissimus. . . . And so he was adopted in his eighteenth year, and at the instance of Hadrian exception was made for his age and he was appointed quaestor for the year of the second consulship of Antoninus [Pius], now his father. . . . After Hadrian's death, Pius immediately got his wife to ask Marcus if he would break off his betrothal to the daughter of Lucius Commodus and marry their own daughter Faustina (whom Hadrian had wanted to marry Commodus' son, even though he was badly matched in age). After thinking the matter over, Marcus replied he was willing. And when this was done, Pius designated him as his colleague in the consulship, though he was still only quaestor, gave him the title of Caesar. . . .

When Antoninus Pius saw that the end of his life was drawing near, having summoned his friends and prefects, he commended Marcus to them all and formally named him as his successor in the empire. . . . Being forced by the senate to assume the government of the state after the death of the Deified Pius, Marcus made his brother his colleague in the empire, giving him the name Lucius Aurelius Verus Commodus and bestowing on him the titles Caesar and Augustus.

Eutropius summarizes: They carried on a war against the Parthians, who then rebelled for the first time since their subjugation by Trajan. Verus Antoninus went out to conduct that war, and, remaining at Antioch and about Armenia, effected many important achievements by the agency of his generals; he took Seleucia, the most eminent city of Assyria, with forty thousand prisoners; he brought off materials for a triumph over the Parthians, and celebrated it in conjunction with his brother, who was also his father-in-law. He died in Venetia. . . . After him MARCUS ANTONINUS held the government alone, a man whom any one may more easily admire than sufficiently commend. He was, from his earliest years, of a most tranquil disposition; so that even in his infancy he changed countenance neither for joy nor for sorrow. He was devoted to the Stoic philosophy, and was himself a philosopher, not only in his way of life, but in learning. . . .

Under his rule affairs were successfully conducted against the Germans. He himself carried on one war with the Marcomanni, but this was greater than any in the memory of man,so that it is compared to the Punic wars. . . . Having persevered, therefore, with the greatest labour and patience, for three whole years at Carnuntum,14 he brought the Marcomannic war to an end; a war which the Quadi, Vandals, Sarmatians, Suevi, and all the barbarians in that quarter, had joined with the Marcomanni in raising; he killed several thousand men, and, having delivered the Pannonians from slavery, triumphed a second time at Rome with his son Commodus Antoninus, whom he had previously made Caesar. . . . Having, then, rendered the state happy, both by his excellent management and gentleness of disposition, he died in the eighteenth year of his reign and the sixty-first of his life, and was enrolled among the gods, all unanimously voting that such honour should be paid him.
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1bl Lucius Verus113 views161-169

As
166-167

Laureate head, right, L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX
3 trophies, TR P VII IMP III[I] COS III

RIC 1464

Son of Aelius Caesar and adopted son of Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius elevated his adoptive brother to co-ruler in 161. The Parthians launched an attack against Roman Syria that it had planned before the death of Pius, and Marcus, with the agreement of the Senate, dispatched Lucius to deal with the crisis. According to the Historia Augusta, "Verus, of course, after he arrived in Syria, lived in luxury at Antioch and Daphne, although he was acclaimed imperator while waging the Parthian war through legates." This coin's reverse honors his military victory over the Parthians in 165.

The Historia Augusta describes Verus: He was physically handsome with a genial face. His beard was allowed to grow almost in Barbarian style. He was a tall man, his forehead projected somewhat above his eyebrows, so that he commanded respect. . . In speech almost halting, he was very keen on gambling, and his way of life was always extravagant.
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1bp Pertinax19 views193

Denarius

Bearded laureate head, right, IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG
Ops std, OPI DIVIN TR P COS II

RIC 8

The Historia Augusta has this to say: Publius Helvius Pertinax was the son of a freedman, Helvius Successus by name, who confessed that he gave this name to his son because of his own long-standing connection with the timber-trade. . . . Pertinax himself was born in the Apennines on an estate which belonged to his mother. . . . Winning promotion because of the energy he showed in the Parthian war, he was transferred to Britain and there retained. Later he led a squadron in Moesia. . . . Next, he commanded the German fleet. . . . From this command he was transferred to Dacia. . . . After Cassius' revolt had been suppressed, Pertinax set out from Syria to protect the bank of the Danube, and presently he was appointed to govern both the Moesias and, soon thereafter, Dacia. And by reason of his success in these provinces, he won the appointment to Syria. . . .

Pertinax was made consul for the second time. And while in this position, Pertinax did not avoid complicity in the murder of Commodus, when a share in this plot was offered him by the other conspirators. After Commodus was slain, aetus, the prefect of the guard, and Eclectus, the chamberlain, came to Pertinax and reassured him, and then led him to the camp. There he harangued the soldiers, promised a donative, and said that the imperial power had been thrust upon him by Laetus and Eclectus. . . .

He reduced the imperial banquets from something absolutely unlimited to a fixed standard, and, indeed, cut down all expenses from what they had been under Commodus. And from the example set by the emperor, who lived rather simply, there resulted a general economy and a consequent reduction in the cost of living. . . . [H]e restored to everyone the property of which Commodus had despoiled him. . . . He always attended the stated meetings of the senate and always made some proposal. . . .

A conspiracy l was organized against Pertinax by Laetus, the prefect of the guard, and sundry others who were displeased by his integrity. . . . [T]hree hundred soldiers, formed into a wedge, marched under arms from the camp to the imperial residence. . . . After they had burst into the inner portion of the Palace, however, Pertinax advanced to meet them and sought to appease them with a long and serious speech. In spite of this, one Tausius, a Tungrian, after haranguing the soldiers into a state of fury and fear, hurled his spear at Pertinax' breast. And he, after a prayer to Jupiter the Avenger, veiled his head with his toga and was stabbed by the rest.
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1bq Didius Julianus93 views193

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG
Concorde w/ standard, CONCORDIA MILIT SC

RIC 14

According to the Historia Augusta: Didius Julianus. . . was reared at the home of Domitia Lucilla, the mother of the Emperor Marcus. . . . [T]hrough the support of Marcus he attained to the office of aedile [and] praetor. After his praetorship he commanded the XXII Legion, the Primigenia, in Germany, and following that he ruled Belgium long and well. Here, with auxiliaries hastily levied from the provinces, he held out against the Chauci as they attempted to burst through the border; and for these services, on the recommendation of the Emperor, he was deemed worthy of the consulship. He also gained a crushing victory over the Chatti. Next he took charge of Dalmatia and cleared it of the hostile tribes on its borders. Then he governed Lower Germany. . . .

His consulship he served with Pertinax; in the proconsulship of Africa, moreover, he succeeded him. Pertinax always spoke of him as his colleague and successor. After [Pertinax'] death, when Sulpicianus was making plans to be hailed emperor in the camp, Julianus, together with his son-in-law, . . . discovered two tribunes, Publius Florianus and Vectius Aper, who immediately began urging him to seize the throne; and. . . conducted him to the praetorian camp. When they arrived at the camp, however, Sulpicianus, the prefect of the city and the father-in-law of Pertinax, was holding an assembly and claiming the empire himself, and no one would let Julianus inside, despite the huge promises he made from outside the wall. Julianus then . . . wrote on placards that he would restore the good name of Commodus; so he was admitted and proclaimed emperor. . . .

Julianus had no fear of either the British or the Illyrian army; but being chiefly afraid of the Syrian army, he despatched a centurion of the first rank with orders to murder Niger. Consequently Pescennius Niger in Syria and Septimius Severus in Illyricum, together with the armies which they commanded, revolted from Julianus. But when he received the news of the revolt of Severus, whom he had not suspected, then he was greatly troubled and came to the senate and prevailed upon them to declare Severus a public enemy. . . . Severus was approaching the city with a hostile army. . . and the populace hated and laughed at him more and more every day.

In a short time Julianus was deserted by all and left alone in the Palace with one of his prefects, Genialis, and with Repentinus, his son-in-law. Finally, it was propose'd that the imperial power be taken away from Julianus by order of the senate. This was done, and Severus was forthwith acclaimed emperor, while it was given out that Julianus had taken poison. Nevertheless, the senate despatched a delegation and through their efforts Julianus was slain in the Palace by a common soldier. . . .
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1bs Septimius Severus87 views193-211

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
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1bt Julia Domna14 viewsDenarius

Draped bust, right, IVLIA AVGVSTA
Venus with bare bottom, VENERI VICTR

RIC 536

According to the Historia Augusta, "Next [Septimius Severus] was appointed legate of Lugdunensis. When he wished to marry a second time, after losing his wife, he investigated the horoscopes of potential brides, being very skilled in astrology himself, and since he had heard that there was a certain woman in Syria whose horoscope forecast that she would marry a king, he sought her hand. It was of courseJulia, and he gained her as his bride through the mediation offriends. She at once made him a father! . . . [A]s concerns his family he was less careful, retaining his wife Julia who was notorious for her adulteries and was also guilty of conspiracy."
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1cc Conquests of Trajan: Parthia6 viewsTrajan
98-117

Sestertius

Laureate & draped bust right
REX PARTHIS DATVS, Trajan seated left on platform presenting Parthamaspates to kneeling Parthian, SC in ex

Trajan waged the Parthian War from 114 to 117. Roman victory brings Armenia, Mesopotamia and Assyria as new provinces into the Empire.

RIC 667
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1ce Severus Alexander27 views222-235

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Sev. Alex in armor, P M TR P III COS P P

RIC 74

Herodian recorded: [The soldiers] were more favorably disposed toward Alexander, for they expected great things of a lad so properly and modestly reared. They kept continual watch upon the youth when they saw that Elagabalus was plotting against him. His mother Mamaea did not allow her son to touch any food or drink sent by the emperor, nor did Alexander use the cupbearers or cooks employed in the palace or those who happened to be in their mutual service; only those chosen by his mother, those who seemed most trustworthy, were allowed to handle Alexander's food.

Mamaea secretly distributed money to the praetorians to win their good will for her son; it was to gold that the praetorians were particularly devoted. . . . . Maesa, the grandmother of them both, foiled all his schemes; she was astute in every way and had spent much of her life in the imperial palace. As the sister of Severus' wife Julia, Maesa had always lived with the empress at the court. . . .

When Alexander received the empire, the appearance and the title of emperor were allowed him, but the management and control of imperial affairs were in the hands of his women, and they undertook a more moderate and more equitable administration. . . . At any rate, he entered the fourteenth year of his reign without bloodshed, and no one could say that the emperor had been responsible for anyone's murder. Even though men were convicted of serious crimes, he nevertheless granted them pardons to avoid putting them to death, and not readily did any emperor of our time, after the reign of Marcus, act in this way or display so much concern for human life.

In the fourteenth year, however, unexpected dispatches from the governors of Syria and Mesopotamia revealed that Artaxerxes, the Persian king, had conquered the Parthians and seized their Eastern empire, killing Artabanus [IV], who was formerly called the Great King and wore the double diadem. Artaxerxes then subdued all the barbarians on his borders and forced them to pay tribute. He did not remain quiet, however, nor stay on his side of the Tigris River, but, after scaling its banks and crossing the borders of the Roman empire, he overran Mesopotamia and threatened Syria.

Traveling rapidly, he came to Antioch, after visiting the provinces and the garrison camps in Illyricum; from that region he collected a huge force of troops. While in Antioch he continued his preparations for the war, giving the soldiers military training under field conditions. . . . The Romans suffered a staggering disaster; it is not easy to recall another like it, one in which a great army was destroyed, an army inferior in strength and determination to none of the armies of old.

Now unexpected messages and dispatches upset Alexander and caused him even greater anxiety: the governors in Illyria reported that the Germans [the Alamans] had crossed the Rhine and the Danube rivers, were plundering the Roman empire. . . . Although he loathed the idea, Alexander glumly announced his departure for Illyria. . . . Alexander undertook to buy a truce rather than risk the hazards of war. . . .

The soldiers, however, were not pleased by his action, for the time was passing without profit to them, and Alexander was doing nothing courageous or energetic about the war; on the contrary, when it was essential that he march out and punish the Germans for their insults, he spent the time in chariot racing and luxurious living. . . . They plotted now to kill Alexander and proclaim Maximinus emperor and Augustus. . . . Alexander's troops deserted him for Maximinus, who was then proclaimed emperor by all. . . . Maximinus sent a tribune and several centurions to kill Alexander and his mother, together with any of his followers who opposed them.
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1cn Philippus29 views244-249

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopiae, LIBERALITAS AVGG II

RIC 38b

The Historia Augusta records: Philippus Arabs was made prefect of the guard [in 243]. This Philip was low-born but arrogant, and now could not contain himself in his sudden rise to office and immoderate good fortune, but immediately, through the soldiers, began to plot against Gordian, who had begun to treat him as a father. . . . Timesitheus [Gordian's father-in-law] had stored up such a quantity of supplies everywhere, that the Roman administration could not break down. But now Philip intrigued first to have the grain-ships turned away, and then to have the troops moved to stations where they could not get provisions. In this way he speedily got them exasperated against Gordian, for they did not know that the youth had been betrayed through Philip's intriguing. In addition to this, Philip spread talk among the soldiers to the effect that Gordian was young and could not manage the Empire, and that it were better for someone to rule who could command the army and understood public affairs. Besides this, he won over the leaders, and finally brought it about that they openly called him to the throne. Gordian's friends at first opposed him vigorously, but when the soldiers were at last overcome with hunger Philip was entrusted with the sovereignty, and the soldiers commanded that he and Gordian should rule together with equal rank while Philip acted as a sort of guardian.

Now that he had gained the imperial power Philip began to bear himself very arrogantly towards Gordian ; and he, knowing himself to be an emperor, an emperor's son, and a scion of a most noble family, could not endure this low-born fellow's insolence. And so, mounting the platform, with his kinsman Maecius Gordianus standing by him as his prefect, he complained bitterly to the officers and soldiers in the hope that Philip's office could be taken from him. But by this complaint in which he accused Philip of being unmindful of past favours and too little grateful he accomplished nothing. Next he asked the soldiers to make their choice, after openly canvassing the officers, but as a result of Philip's intriguing he came off second in the general vote. And finally, when he saw that everyone considered him worsted, he asked that their power might at least be equal, but he did not secure this either. After this he asked to be given the position of Caesar, but he did not gain this. He asked also to be Philip's prefect, and this, too, was denied him. His last prayer was that Philip should make him a general and let him live. And to this Philip almost consented not speaking himself, but acting through his friends, as he had done throughout, with nods and advice. But when he reflected that through the love that the Roman people and senate, the whole of Africa and Syria, and indeed the whole Roman world, felt for Gordian, because he was nobly born and the son and grandson of emperors and had delivered the whole state from grievous wars, it was possible, if the soldiers ever changed their minds, that the throne might be given back to Gordian if he asked for it again, and when he reflected also that the violence of the soldiers' anger against Gordian was due to hunger, he had him carried, shouting protests, out of their sight and then despoiled and slain.

Eutropius wrote, "When Gordian was killed, the two PHILIPS, father and son, seized on the government, and, having brought off the army safe, set out from Syria for Italy. In their reign the thousandth year of the city of Rome was celebrated with games and spectacles of vast magnificence. Soon after, both of them were put to death by the soldiery; the elder Philip at Verona, the younger at Rome. They reigned but five years. They were however ranked among the gods."
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1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
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1cy Gallienus17 views253-268

Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
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1dm Tacitus28 views275-276

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Mars stg, MARTI PACIF

RIC 145

A rare emperor nominated by the Senate after the death of the widely revered Aurelianus.

Zonaras recorded: Tacitus, an elderly man, succeeded him. For it is written that he was seventy-five years old when he was chosen for monarchy. The army recognized him, though he was absent, for he was then residing in Campania. When he received the decision there, he entered Rome in private dress and, with the consent of the Senate and the People, donned the imperial garb.

The Scythians, having crossed Lake Maeotis and the Phasis River, attacked Pontus, Cappadocia, Galatia, and Cilicia. Tacitus, who had joined battle with them, and Florianus, who was prefect, slew many, and the remainder sought safety in flight. Tacitus appointed Maximinus, one of his kinsmen, as governor of Syria. But, when he behaved badly in his office, he was killed by his soldiers. Those who had killed him, frightened that the emperor would not leave them unpunished, set out after him too and killed him, not yet seven months after he had assumed sovereignty, but according to some not quite two years.

Zosimus, however, recorded, "Upon [Aurelianus'] death the empire fell into the hands of Tacitus, in whose time the Scythians crossed the Palus Maeotis, and made incursions through Pontus even into Cilicia, until he opposed them. Partly in person, and partly by Florianus, prefect of the court, whom he left in commission for that purpose, this emperor completely routed and destroyed them. He himself was going into Europe, but was thus circumvented and killed. He had committed the government of Syria to his cousin Maximinus, who treated the nobility of that country with such austerity, that he caused them both to hate and fear him. Their hatred became so excessive, that at length conspiring with the murderers of Aurelianus, they assaulted Maximinus, and having killed him, fell on and slew Tacitus also as he was upon his departure."
Blindado
FlorianusAntConcordMil.jpg
1dn Florianus26 views276

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP FLORIANVS AVG
Victory & Flor, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 116Q

Half-brother to Tacitus, he reigned only two months before his troops killed him rather than fight an army under Probus. Concordia Militvm did not really work out for him. Zosimus recorded, "An universal civil disturbance now arose, those of the east chusing Probus emperor, and those at Rome Florianus. The former of these governed all Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine, and Egypt; but the latter was in possession of all the countries from Cilicia to Italy; besides which the homage of all the nations beyond the Alps, the Gauls, Spaniards, Britons, and Africans was paid to him. When both therefore were ready for war, Florianus came to Tarsus, resolving to encamp there, leaving his victory over the Scythians at the Bosphorus unfinished, by which he gave them an opportunity of recovering themselves and returning home, though he had cut off their retreat. Probus protracted the time, because he came with less preparation for a battle. By these means it came to pass, that the weather, being exceedingly hot, a pestilential disorder broke out amongst the troops of Florianus, most of whom were Europeans, and consequently unaccustomed to such excessive heat, by which many were taken off. When Probus understood this, he thought it a proper time to attack the enemy. The soldiers of Florianus, attempting what exceeded their strength, fought some slight skirmishes before the city, but nothing being done worthy of notice, some of the troops of Probus deposed Florianus. Having performed this, he was kept in custody for some time, until his own soldiers said, that it was the will of Probus that he should share the empire. Florianus therefore assumed |32 the purple robe again, until the return of those who were sent to know the true resolution of Probus. On their arrival they caused Florianus to be killed by his own soldiers."
Blindado
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2. Antiochos I Soter26 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos I Soter. 281-261 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Laureate head of Zeus right / Thunderbolt; club and monogram above, jawbone below; SC 343; HGC 9, 149.1 commentsecoli
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2. Antiochos I Soter 14 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos I Soter. 281-261 BC. Æ . Antioch mint. Anchor on boss of Macedonian shield / Elephant standing right; monogram and [club] above, jawbone in exergue. SC 341; HGC 9, 195.1 commentsecoli
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2.1 Augustus. AR tetradrachm. 24/23 BC.8 views
Syria, Seleucis and Pieria. Antiochia ad Orontem.(25 mm, 14.98 g, 12 h). Diademed head of Philip I Philadelphos right / [ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ Φ]ΙΛΙΠΠ[ΟΥ] ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥ[Σ ΦΙ]ΛΑΔΕΛΦ[ΟΥ], Zeus Nikephoros seated left, holding Nike and long scepter; in inner left field, monogram of Antioch; below throne, stylized monogram; in exergue, [date]. McAlee 19; Prieur 19; RPC 4142; SC 2491.16; HGC 9, 1360p.
Ruslan K
2_5shekel340g_12mm_9mm_(h38_39).jpg
2/5 Shekel Hematite weight13 views
Sphendonoid Hematite weight
12mm tall by 9mm base
3.4g
Hendin; 38, 39
Sphendonoid weights have been found in Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia as well as ship wrecks from the 14th/13th centuries BC.
wileyc
szentendre_romkert_04.jpg
2009-Szentendre - roman cemetery41 viewsAt the end of the 2nd century a syrian archer troop with 1000 members [cohors I. miliaria Aur. Ant. Surorum sagittariorum] settled here against the sarmatians who lived to the opposite riverside of the Danube. It needed a similar capability troop, than the archer-rider sarmatians, who often crossed over the frozen river to pillage.
This stone relief with a panther (?) probably had a syrian officer.
berserker
2014-080-2_DenSeptSevEmesaTPRIIIIMPVCOSIICaptive-Forum.jpg
2014.080.236 viewsEmesa, Syria; 2.84 g

Obverse: IMP CAE L SEP SEV • PER[T] • AVG COS II; Laureate, bust right.
Reveres: • T • R• P• III • IMP • V • COS • ΓI • [First I looks like a Gamma]; Captive, wearing peaked hat, seated right, slightly bent forward, right leg extended, left leg drawn back, arms bound behind, (or just right, with left arm resting on left knee and head on left hand); at feet, bow, quiver, round shield and left shield.
Ref: cf RIC 433 and 434; cf BMC 405-407
Different obverse die from RIC and BMC examples.
Per discussions with Maridvnvm I have added a T tentatively to the end of PERT.
1 commentsgordian_guy
145187.jpg
201c. Pescennius Niger127 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Æ 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli
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202. Caracalla; Antiochia ad Orontem, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria18 viewsCARACALLA, 198-217 AD, SYRO-PHOENICIAN COINAGE, AR TETRADRACHM MINTED AT ANTIOCH, PRIEUR # 233 (38) SMALL CLUB ISSUE OF WAR ISSUES MINTED 215-217AD ecoli
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202. Caracalla; Antiochia ad Orontem, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria;13 viewsAntiochia ad Orontem , Caracalla Æ 34, 17.2g

OBVERSE: Laureate bust right.
REVERSE: City-godess seated left on rock, holding ears of corn. River-god Orontes swimming at her feet
ecoli
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203a. Diadumenian64 viewsMarcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus or Diadumenian (d. 218) was the son of Roman Emperor Macrinus, who served his father briefly as Caesar from May, 217 to 218, and as Augustus in 218.

Diadumenian had little time to enjoy his position or to learn anything from its opportunities because the legions of Syria revolted and declared Elagabalus ruler of the Roman Empire. When Macrinus was defeated on June 8, 218, at Antioch, Diadumenian followed his father's death. According to the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Diadumenian emulated Macrinus in tyranny. He called upon his father not to spare any who might oppose them or who made plots. His head was cut off and presented to Elagabalus as a trophy.

Diadumenian, A.D. 218 Nicopolis ad Istrum, Hera
OBVERSE: Draped bust right
REVERSE: Hera standing left holding patera.
25 mm - 10 grams

Check
2 commentsecoli
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204a. Julia Paula166 viewsIVLIA CORNELIA PAVLA was the daughter of Julius Paulus, who was a Praetorian Praefect under Elagablalus. The Emperor Elagabalus, who arrived in Rome in the autumn of 219, was quickly becoming unpopular. It was probably Julia Maesa, his grandmother, who conceived the plan to marry him to a well-born Roman woman for two reasons: 1) to counter his public displays of homosexual and trans-sexual tendencies, and 2) to soften the disdain Romans felt for Syrians. She became the first wife of the fifteen-year-old Elagabalus 219, but was divorced only one year later, and returned to private life.

JULIA PAULA, wife of Elagabalus. Augusta, 219 AD. AR Denarius (20mm, 2.67 gm). Rome mint. Draped bust right / Concordia seated left holding patera; star in left field. RIC IV 211 (Elagabalus); RSC 6a. Toned;Ex-Cng
1 commentsecoli73
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204b. Julia Maesa29 viewsJulia Maesa (about 170- about 226) was daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa in the Roman province of Syria, and grandmother of the Roman emperor Elagabalus. Like her younger sister Julia Domna, she was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman empire.

Julia Maesa was married to Julius Avitus and had two daughters, Julia Mamaea and Julia Soaemias, each one mother of an emperor. Following the accession to the throne of her brother in law Septimius Severus, Julia Maesa moved to Rome to live with her sister. After the murder of her nephew Caracalla, and the suicide of Julia Domna, she was compelled to return to Syria. But the new emperor Macrinus did not proscribe her and allowed her to keep her money. In Syria, Maesa engaged in a plot to overthrow Macrinus and place one of her grandsons, Elagabalus son of Julia Soaemias, in his place. In order to legitimise this pretension, mother and daughter rumoured that the 14-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. The Julias were successful, mainly due to the fact that Macrinus was of an obscure origin without the proper political connections, and Elagabalus became emperor.

For her loyalty and support, Elagabalus honored Julia Maesa with the title Augusta avia Augusti (Augusta, grandmother of Augustus). When the teenager proved to be a disaster as emperor (even taking the liberty of marrying a Vestal virgin), Julia Maesa decided to promote Alexander Severus, another of her grandsons. Elagabalus was forced to adopt Alexander as son and was murdered shortly afterwards.

Julia Maesa died in an uncertain date around 226 AD and, like her sister Domna before her, was deified.

Julia Maesa Denarius. PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre.

Julia Maesa Denarius. IVLIA MAESA AVG, draped bust right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre. RIC 268, RSC 36. s2183. No.1502. nVF.
RSC 444, RIC 88
ecoli
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204c. Julia Soaemias29 viewsJulia Soaemias Bassiana (180-March 11, 222) was the daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Julius Avitus. She was niece of emperor Septimius Severus and sister of Julia Avita Mamaea.

She was married to Sextus Varius Marcellus, a Syrian Roman of an Equestrian family (meaning not a member of the Roman senate). As members of the imperial Roman family, they lived in Rome, where their numerous children were born. In 217, her cousin emperor Caracalla was killed and Macrinus ascended to the imperial throne. Julia's family was allowed to returned to Syria with the whole of their financial assets. They would not allow the usurper to stand unopposed. Together with her mother, Julia plotted to substitute Macrinus with her son Varius Avitus Bassianus (Heliogabalus). To legitimise this plot, Julia and her mother spread the rumour that the 13-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. In 218 Macrinus was killed and Heliogabalus became emperor. Julia then became the de facto ruler of Rome, since the teenager was concerned mainly with religious matters. Their rule was not popular and soon discontent arose. Julia Soaemias and Heliogabalus were killed by the Praetorian Guard in 222. Julia was later declared public enemy and her name erased from all records.

Julia Soaemias Denarius. 220 AD. IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus seated left, holding scepter, extending her hand to Cupid standing before her. RSC 14.
ecoli
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205. Severus Alexander; Antioch, Syria;14 viewsAntioch, Syria, Severus Alexander

Tyche of Antioch seated l on rock, wearing chiton, peplos and turreted head dress; in r hand ears of corn; l hand rests on rock, with orontes at feet swimming; above, ram running l.looking r
ecoli
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205a. Julia Mamaea37 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea (180–235) was the daughter of Julia Maesa, a powerful Roman woman of Syrian origin, and Julius Avitus. She was a niece of emperor Septimius Severus and sister of Julia Soaemias Bassiana.

She was married to Gessius Marcianus had a son, later emperor Alexander Severus. Unlike her sister, Julia Mamaea was reported to be a virtuous woman, never involved in scandals. As a member of the Imperial Roman family, she watched closely the death of her cousin Caracalla and the ascent to power of her nephew Heliogabalus, the oldest grandson of Julia Maesa and her choice to the throne. But eventually Heliogabalus and his mother Julia Soaemias proved incompetent rulers and favour fell on Alexander, Julia's son. He became emperor in 222, following Heliogabalus's murder by the Praetorian Guard. Julia and her mother became regents in the name of Alexander, then 14 years old. Upon adulthood, Alexander confirmed his esteem for his mother and named her consors imperii (imperial consort). It was in this condition that she accompanied her son in his campaigns: a custom started with Julia Domna (Septimius Severus's wife). Thus she travelled to the East, for the campaign against the Parthian empire, and to the Germania provinces. Julia Mamaea was with Alexander in Moguntiacum (modern Mainz), capital of Germania Superior, when he was assassinated by his troops. She suffered the same fate.

Julia Mamaea Denarius. IVLIA MAMAEA AVG, diademed & draped bust right / VESTA, Vesta standing half-left, holding palladium & scepter. RSC 81.
ecoli
diadumenian_RIC216.jpg
217-218 AD - DIADUMENIAN AE As36 viewsobv: M OPEL DIADVMENIANVS CAES (bare-headed, draped bust right)
rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS (Diadumenian standing left, holding wand and scepter; two standards to right), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC IVii 216 (R), Cohen 13 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
10.31gms, 24mm (Better in hand than the picture allows.)

Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus or Diadumenian was the son of Roman Emperor Macrinus, who served his father briefly as Caesar from May, 217 to 218, and as Augustus in 218. He had little time to enjoy his position or to learn anything from its opportunities because the legions of Syria revolted and declared Elagabalus ruler of the Roman Empire. When Macrinus was defeated on June 8, 218, at Antioch, Diadumenian followed his father's death at the end of June.
This coin was found near a little village on plough-land where probably missed a fugitive citizen who fed up with the succession Sarmatian attacks.
berserker
rjb_diad6_04_06.jpg
21835 viewsDiadumenian 218 AD
AE 18 mm
Antioch in Syria
SC within wreath
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2012_08_21.jpg
21822 viewsDiadumenian 218 AD
AE 21 mm
Antioch in Syria
SC within wreath
1 commentsmauseus
ElagBMC438.jpg
218-222 AD - Elagabalus - BMC 438 - Large "S C" with Eagle Reverse30 viewsEmperor: Elagabalus (r. 218-222 AD)
Date: 218-222 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE21

Obverse: AYT KAI MAP AVP [ANTWΩNEINOC CEB] (likely legend)
Head right; laureate

Reverse: Large "S C"; "ΔE" above; Eagle below.
All within laurel wreath.

Mint: Antioch, Syria
BMC 438; SNG Cop 244
3.24g; 21.1mm; 345°
Pep
rjb_2010_05_06~0.jpg
218a12 viewsElagabalus 218-22 AD
AE 18 mm
Antioch in Syria
SC, ΔЄ within wreath
BMC 439
mauseus
22117.jpg
22117 Elagabalus/Sacrificing13 viewsElagabalus/Emperor Sacrificing
Obv: IMP. ANTONINUS PIUS AUG.
Bust of Elagabalus laureate and draped bust right, horn above forehead.
Rev: SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG
Elagabalus, in Syrian priestly robes, standing left, sacrificing out of patera in right hand over tripod, holding branch downwards in left hand; in field, star
Mint: Rome 18mm 3.02g
RIC IV Elagabalus 146 Sear 7549
Ex: Savoca Auction 16th Blue Auction
Blayne W
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Apolo.jpg
23-02 - Anti­oco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)36 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 18 mm 5.0 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Apolo desnudo de pié a izquierda, sosteniendo hoja de palma en mano derecha extendida y descansando la izquierda sobre un trípode.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: LSM.141 (ANS) - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #1 Pag.102 Plate 27 #1 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7200 Pag.675 - Lindgren III #1124 (referencia cruzada con Houghton #870)
mdelvalle
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Zeus.jpg
23-04 - Antioco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)37 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 20 mm 8.6 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Zeus Nicéforo (Nike-phoros portador de victoria, victorioso) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, desnudo de la cintura para arriba, sosteniendo Nike en mano derecha extendida y descansando la izquierda sobre cetro.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: SNG Spaer #2884 - 2888 - Newell LSM. #137 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #6 Pag.102 Plate 27 #4 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7198var. Pag.675 - Houghton #866 - SC #2478
mdelvalle
Trajano_Leucas_Syria.jpg
24 - 2 - 1 TRAJANO (98-117 D.C.)54 views LEUCAS COELESYRIAE, Coele-Syria

AE 20 mm 8.3 gr

Anv: ”AV KAI NEP TPAIANOC ΔAK” – Cabeza laureada viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”ΛEYKAΔIΩN KΛAYΔIEWN ΕN” – Dios Bárbaro / Trajano, portando Tridente/Cetro en la mano de su brazo izquierdo extendido, galopando hacia la derecha en una cuadriga. "EN" en el campo centro superior, es la fecha, año 55 de la era local de Leucas, aproximadamente 102/103 D.C.
RESELLO: "ΔAK", Por el título de Dacius o Dacicus (conquistador de la Dacia) que poseia Trajano.
Referencias del resello: Howgego GIC #511?

Acuñada: 102 - 103 D.C.

Referencias: Sear GICTV #1082, Pag.99; BMC Vol.XX #3 Pag.296; SNG Cop. #306
mdelvalle
SGIC_1082_Coele_Siria_Trajano.jpg
24-35 - TRAJANO (98-117 D.C.)14 views LEUCAS COELESYRIAE, Coele-Syria

AE 20 mm 8.3 gr

Anv: ”AV KAI NEP TPAIANOC ΔAK” – Cabeza laureada viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”ΛEYKAΔIΩN KΛAYΔIEWN ΕN” – Dios Bárbaro / Trajano, portando Tridente/Cetro en la mano de su brazo izquierdo extendido, galopando hacia la derecha en una cuadriga. "EN" en el campo centro superior, es la fecha, año 55 de la era local de Leucas, aproximadamente 102/103 D.C.
RESELLO: "ΔAK", Por el título de Dacius o Dacicus (conquistador de la Dacia) que poseia Trajano.
Referencias del resello: Howgego GIC #511?

Acuñada: 102 - 103 D.C.

Referencias: Sear GICTV #1082, Pag.99; BMC Vol.XX #3 Pag.296; SNG Cop. #306
mdelvalle
1472777_598560563514192_1044810181_n.jpg
240 Valerian I40 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.
Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1700l (Samosata), RIC V 287 (Antioch), SRCV III 9967 (uncertain Syrian mint), Fine or better, Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORIENTIS (restorer of the East), turreted female (the Orient) presenting wreath to the Emperor standing left holding spear, pellet in wreath above; Ex Forvm

"The false propaganda on the reverse is particularly ironic considering Valerian's fate. After years of war and great losses, Valerian arranged peace talks with the Sasanian Persian emperor Sapor. He set off with a small group to discuss terms and was never seen again. In Rome it was rumored that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool."
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
rjb_phil_tet3_01_07.jpg
24437 viewsPhilip I 244-9AD
AR tetradrachm
Antioch in Syria
Eagle standing left with wreath in mouth
Prieur 339
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_phil_tet2_01_07.jpg
24430 viewsPhilip I 244-9AD
AR tetradrachm
Antioch in Syria
Eagle standing right with wreath in mouth
Prieur 445
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_phil_tet1_01_07.jpg
24429 viewsPhilip I 244-9AD
AR tetradrachm
Antioch in Syria
Eagle standing facing, head left with wreath in mouth
Prieur 304
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2010_05_14.jpg
24912 viewsTrajan Decius 249-51 AD
Billon tetradrachm
Antioch in Syria
Eagle standing left with wreath in mouth
Prieur 578
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_tgal_ant_01_07.jpg
251b32 viewsTrebonianus Gallus 251-3 AD
Billon tetradrachm
Antioch in Syria
Eagle standing left, head right with wreath in mouth
Prieur 678
1 commentsmauseus
AurV351.jpg
270-275 AD - Aurelian - RIC V 351 - RESTITVT ORIENTIS24 viewsEmperor: Aurelian (r. 270-275 AD)
Date: 270-275 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Imperator Emperor Aurelian
Bust right; radiate and cuirassed

Reverse: RESTITVT ORIENTIS
The Emperor restores the Orient (Syria) to the Empire.
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling woman.
"C*S" in exergue (Cyzicus mint, second officina)

RIC V Aurelian 351; VM 24a
3.01g; 22.8mm; 15°
Pep
196.jpg
3 countermarks - A.Pius, Tyche and SAE225 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Laodiceia ad Mare. Trajan. Æ 26. A.D. 114-116 (year 162 or 163 in the era of Laodiceia). Obv: (AVTOKPNEPTPAIANOCAPICTKAICCEBΓEPΔAK) or similar. Laureate head right; 3 countermarks: (1) on neck, (2) before face, (3) on head. Rev: (IOVΛIEWNTWNKAI)-ΛAO(ΔIKEWNBΞP) or sim. Turreted bust of Tyche right, uncertain inscription in field to right. Ref: BMC 40-52 (?); Sear GIC 1080(v?). Axis: 360°. Weight: 8.37 g. CM(1): Laureate head of Antoninus Pius right, in oval punch, 4 x 6 mm. Howgego 113 (156 pcs). CM(2): Turreted bust of Tyche right, in oval punch, 4 x 5 mm (?). Howgego 203 ? (4 pcs). CM(3): SAE in rectangular punch, 8 x 4 mm. Howgego 572 (7 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
17554011_10155132734092232_4781416002269487116_n.jpg
3. Antiochos II Theos11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos II Theos. 261-246 BC. Æ Sardis mint. Laureate head of Apollo right / Lyre; monogram in right field; anchor beneath. SC 529.ecoli
17457762_10155130777672232_7574673859809337926_n.jpg
3. Antiochos II Theos10 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos II Theos. 261-246 BC. Æ Sardes mint. Laureate head of Apollo right / Tripod; monograms to left and right; below, anchor to left. SC 525.1; HGC 9, 253aecoli
nerotet2TN.jpg
3. Nero, Syrian Silver Tetradrachm, 63 AD126 viewsAlexandrian Tetradrachm of Nero; young portrait
Obv. SEBASTOS NEPON KAISAP, young portrait of Nero
Rev. BIP (year 112 in Ceasarean era, 63 AD) Eagle clutching palm branch
1 commentsZam
3_4shekal_588g_20mm_10mm6mm(h29).jpg
3/4 Shekel Hematite weight12 viewsSphendonoid Hematite weight
20mm by 10mm by 6mm at end
5.88g
Hendin; 29.
Sphendonoid weights have been found in Mesopotamia, Cyprus, Egypt, Syria, and Phoenicia as well as ship wrecks from the 14th/13th centuries BC.
wileyc
coin242.JPG
306. Trebonianus Gallus28 viewsGaius Vibius Trebonianus Gallus (206 - August, 253), was Roman emperor from 251 to 253, in a joint rule with his son Volusianus.

Gallus was born in Italy, in a family with respected ancestry and a senatorial background. He had two children in his marriage with Afinia Gemina Baebiana: the future emperor Gaius Vibius Volusianus and a daughter, Vibia Galla. His early career was typical with several appointments, both political and military. He was suffect consul and in 250 was nominated governor of the Roman province of Moesia Superior, an appointment that showed the confidence of emperor Trajan Decius in him. In Moesia, Gallus was a key figure in repelling the frequent invasion attacks by the Gothic tribes of the Danube and became popular with the army.

On July 1, 251, Decius and his co-emperor and son Herennius Etruscus died in the battle of Abrittus, at the hands of the Goths they were supposed to punish for raids into the empire. When the army heard the news, the soldiers proclaimed Gallus emperor, despite Hostilian, Decius' surviving son, ascending the imperial throne in Rome. Gallus did not back down from his intention to became emperor, but accepted Hostilian as co-emperor, perhaps to avoid the damage of another civil war. While Gallus marched on Rome, an outbreak of plague struck the city and killed the young Hostilian. With absolute power now on his hands, Gallus nominated his son Volusianus co-emperor.

Eager to show himself competent and gain popularity with the citizens, Gallus swiftly dealt with the epidemic, providing burial for the victims. Gallus is often accused of persecuting the Christians, but the only solid evidence of this allegation is the imprisoning of Pope Cornelius in 252.

Like his predecessors, Gallus did not have an easy reign. In the East, king Shapur I of Persia invaded and conquered the province of Syria, without any response from Rome. On the Danube, the Gothic tribes were once again on the loose, despite the peace treaty signed in 251. The army was not pleased with the emperor and when Aemilianus, governor of Moesia Superior and Pannonia, took the initiative of battle and defeated the Goths, the soldiers proclaimed him emperor. With a usurper threatening the throne, Gallus prepared for a fight. He recalled several legions and ordered reinforcements to return to Rome from the Rhine frontier. Despite these dispositions, Aemilianus marched onto Italy ready to fight for his claim. Gallus did not have the chance to face him in battle: he and Volusianus were murdered by their own troops in August 253.
ecoli
coin245.JPG
308. Valerian I23 viewsRIC 209 Valerian I 253-260 AD AR Antoninianus of Moesia. Radiate draped bust/Aequitas standing holding balance and cornucopia.

Publius Licinius Valerianus (ca. 200-260), known in English as Valerian, was Roman emperor from 253 to 260. His full Latin title was IMPERATOR · CAESAR · PVBLIVS · LICINIVS · VALERIANVS · PIVS FELIX · INVICTVS · AVGVSTVS — in English, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Valerianus Pious Lucky Undefeated Augustus."

Unlike the majority of the usurpers of the crisis of the third century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional Senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana who gave him two sons: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor is known.

In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as Emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the Emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own.

Valerian's first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal, Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the Empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.

By 257, Valerian had already recovered Antioch and returned the Syrian province to Roman control but in the following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa, but an outbreak of plague killed a critical number of legionaries, weakening the Roman position. Valerian was then forced to seek terms with Shapur I. Sometime towards the end of 259, or at the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by the Persians (making him the only Roman Emperor taken captive). It is said that he was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human stepladder by Shapur when mounting his horse. After his death in captivity, his skin was stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the chief Persian temple. Only after Persian defeat in last Persia-Roman war three and a half centuries later was his skin destroyed.
ecoli
coin259.JPG
318. Florian28 viewsAfter Tacitus died, the army chose Florian to succeed him. His full name as Emperor was Imperator Caesar Marcus Annius Florianus Pius Felix Invictus Augustus. The Historia Augusta characterizes the succession as a dynastic coup in which the Senate was ignored, but since Florian like Tacitus issued coins inscribed SC, advertising the Senate's authority for minting them, the Historia Augusta's complaint may be factitious. Most of this biography is.

Florian had hardly assumed office when the armies and provinces of Phoenicia, Palestine, Syria and Egypt declared for Probus. Florian turned from pursuing the the Eruli north to return to Cilicia and confront Probus and his army. Florian appears to have had the larger army, but Probus, an experienced general, held back. After a few weeks of sporadic fighting, Florian was assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus. He had reigned about 88 days.

Florian's different nomen, Annius rather than Claudius, means that he cannot have been Tacitus's full brother as the Historia Augusta implies; but one passage identifies him as Tacitus's half brother by the same mother, which might be true. Some historians doubt, however, whether any blood connexion existed at all. Little can be said about Florian's reign. One inscription assigns him a consulate. Though neither reigned long, both Tacitus and Florian had a large and varied coinage, "lively with hope for a golden age neither emperor ever realized."



Florian, Antoninianus 276 AD 2.77g
Obv: Bust of Florian right 'IMP FLORIANVS AVG'
Rev: Victory presenting a wreath to Florian 'CONCORDIA MILITVM' 'T' in ex.
RIC 116
ecoli
coin398.JPG
322. Numerian30 viewsMarcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus was the younger son of the later emperor Carus, born in about AD 253.
Numerian and his elder brother Carinus were raised to the rank of Caesar in AD 282, soon after their father became emperor.

In AD 282 Numerian accompanied his father to the Danube to defeat the Sarmatians and the Quadi.
Then in December AD 282 or January AD 283 Carus took Numerian with him on his expedition against the Persians to re-conquer Mesopotamia. Meanwhile Carinus stayed in Rome to rule the west.

When Carus died, Numerian succeeded him, thereby becoming joint emperor with his brother Carinus who had been granted the rank of Augustus shortly before Carus' death.

At first, immediately after his father's death, Numerian sought to continue the Persian campaign.
Apparently this was much favoured by Arrius Aper, the prefect of the praetorians and suspect in Carus' death. Conditions for war were favourable. The Persian side was still thought to be weak. But Numerian's initial efforts were not followed by success.
Numerian was to all effect appeared more of an intellectual than a man of war. He wrote poetry, some of which won him critical acclaim in his day.
This lack of ruthless military talent might well have been the reason why Carinus alone had been promoted Augustus, while Numerian remained Caeasar (junior emperor).
And so, after these initial setbacks, Numerian decided it unwise to continue the war.
He sought instead to return back to Rome and the army was not displeased to pull back into Syria were it spent the winter of AD 283.
Thereafter the army set out on its march back west through Asia Minor (Turkey).
Numerian fell ill near Nicomedia, suffering from an eye disease, which he might have caught while still on campaign in Mesopotamia with his father. The illness was explained with severe exhaustion (Today it is believed this was a serious eye infection. This left him partly blind and he had to be carried in a litter.

Somewhere at this time it is believed Arrius Aper, Numerian's own father in-law, had him killed. It;s widely believed that Aper hoped that it would be assumed that Numerian had simply succumbed to his illness and that he, the praetorian prefect, would succeed to the throne in his place.
But why he should have kept up the charade that Numerian was still alive remains a mystery. Perhaps he was waiting for he right moment.
For several days the death went unnoticed, the litter being carried along as usual. Soldiers inquired about their emperor's health and were reassured by Aper, that all was well and that Numerian simply was too ill to appear in public.

Eventually though the stench of the corpse became too much. Numerian's death was revealed and the soldiers realized that Rome had lost yet another emperor (AD 284).

Had it been Aper who hoped to fill the vacancy, then it was Diocletian (still known as Diocles at the time), commander of the imperial bodyguard, who emerged the victor. It was Diocletian who was made emperor by the troops after Numerian's death. It was he who sentenced Aper to death and even executed the sentence himself. Therefore it was he who, benefited most from the deaths of Carus and Numerian. And in his role as body guard he held a key position, enabling him to prevent or enable any action against the emperor. Hence it is unlikely that Diocletian did not have anything to do with the murder of Numerian.

Numerian Antoninianus / Numerian with globe and spear

Attribution: RIC 361
Date: 282-283 AD
Obverse: M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, radiate bust r.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian l. holding globe and spear
Size: 22.39 mm
Weight: 3.5 grams
Description: A nice ant of a scarcer emperor while serving as Caesar
ecoli
Marco_Aurelio_Cyrrhus_Zeus_Kataibates.jpg
33 - 3 - 1 - MARCO AURELIO (161 - 180 D.C.)50 views CYRRHUS Siria Cyrrhestica

AE 24 x 20 mm 9.8 gr

Anv: ”[AY__ AYPHΛ] ΑNTΩNI[NOΣ ΣEB]” – Cabeza radiada viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”[ΔIOΣ KATAIEBATO]Y KYPPHΣT__” – Zeus Kataibates sentado sobre piedras, portando un rayo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido sobre una águila y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda.

Acuñada: 161 – 180 D.C.

Referencias: NY 1944.100.65347 - Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum #20967
mdelvalle
RPC_3602_Cirrus_Marco_Aurelio.jpg
33-50 - MARCO AURELIO (161 - 180 D.C.)15 views CYRRHUS Siria Cyrrhestica

AE 24 x 20 mm 9.8 gr

Anv: ”[AY__ AYPHΛ] ΑNTΩNI[NOΣ ΣEB]” – Cabeza radiada viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”[ΔIOΣ KATAIEBATO]Y KYPPHΣT__” – Zeus Kataibates sentado sobre piedras, portando un rayo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido sobre una águila y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda.

Acuñada: 161 – 180 D.C.

Referencias: NY 1944.100.65347 - Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum #20967 - RPC IV #3602 - SNG Cop - (cf 46) - BMC (cf 134.11ff)
mdelvalle
986_P_Hadrian_RPC3435.jpg
3435 SYRIA, Beroea Hadrian, laurel branch in laurel-wreath10 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3435; Lindgren A1911B; Paris; Butcher pl 25, 12.; Paris 1605-1606

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. Β-Ε
Laurel branch, all within laurel-wreath

2.15 gr
15 mm
12h
okidoki
967_P_Hadrian_RPC3469.jpeg
3469 SYRIA, Chalcis ad Belum Hadrian laurel wreath B18 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3469/7; BMC 7-8; CRS 437/13;SNG München 513

Issue B

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ-ΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on far shoulder

Rev. ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔΕωΝ / Β
within laurel-wreath

10.80 gr
24 mm
6h
okidoki
1073_P_Hadrian_RPC-.jpg
3469 SYRIA, Chalcis ad Belum Hadrian laurel wreath B14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3469/9

Issue B

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ-ΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on far shoulder

Rev. ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔΕωΝ / no letter
All within laurel-wreath

12 gr
22 mm
12h
okidoki
1338_P_Hadrian_RPC3469.jpg
3469 SYRIA, Chalcis ad Belum Hadrian laurel wreath B3 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3469; BMC 7-8; CRS 437/13;SNG München 513

Issue B

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ-ΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on far shoulder

Rev. ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔΕωΝ / Β
Within laurel-wreath

13.77 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
1190_P_Hadrian_RPC3470.jpg
3470 SYRIA, Chalcis ad Belum Hadrian, Laurel wreath Δ12 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3470; CRS 437/15; Butcher Pl. 25, Chalcis 15a; Paris 1762/1763

Issue Δ

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ-ΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on far shoulder

Rev. ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔΕωΝ / Δ
laurel-wreath

10.99 gr
23 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1064_P_Hadrian_RPC3472.jpg
3472 SYRIA, Chalcis ad Belum Hadrian laurel wreath K E14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3472; Butcher 16; SNG Milan 6; SNG Hunterian 2712; BMC Galatia -; SNG München -; SNG Cop -; Lindgren

Issue K E

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ-ΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on far shoulder

Rev. ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔΕωΝ / Κ-Ε
All within laurel-wreath

14.70 gr
22 mm
12h
okidoki
396_P_Hadrian.jpg
3473 SYRIA, Chalcis ad Belum Hadrian, laurel wreath K E31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3473/5; Butcher 16; SNG Milan 6; SNG Hunterian 2712 var (drapery only on far shoulder); BMC Galatia -; SNG München -; SNG Cop -; Lindgren

Issue K E

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑ-ΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
laureate and draped bust right.

Rev. ΦΛ ΧΑΛ/ΚΙΔΕωΝ (FL CAL/KIDEWN) / KE in three lines (KE indicating year 25 of the era of Chalkis)
All within laurel wreath of eight bunches of leaves, closed at the top with a pellet.

14.192 gr
22.3 mm
45o

Note from FORVM
Trajan's last coinage struck at Chalcis ad Belum used the same reverse, also dated KE. The era of the city of Chalkis began in Autumn 92 A.D. Year 25 of the local era was Autumn 116 - Autumn 117 A.D. This reverse was used for Hadrian's coinage only for the short time after the mint learned he was the new emperor until the local New Year's day (29 August?). When the New Year began the date was changed to B referring to Hadrian's second regnal year (a new regnal year began on New Year's day, not the one year anniversary of rule).

Ex FORVM
from Butte College Foundation
ex Lindgren
1 commentsokidoki
RPC_5773_Cirrus_Siria_Lucio_Vero.jpg
35-50 - LUCIO VERO Co-Emperador con Marco Aurelio (161 - 169 D.C.)16 viewsCYRRHUS Siria Cyrrhestica

AE 25 mm 9.2 gr

Anv: ”AVT KΛ AVPHΛOY HPOC CEB” – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”ΔIOC KATEBATOY KYPPHCTΩN” – Zeus Kataibates sentado sobre piedras, portando un rayo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido sobre una águila y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda.

Acuñada: 161 – 169 D.C.

Referencias: SNG II #2656-9 - RPC IV online #5773 - BMC #19-24 - SNG Cop. #47 - BN Paris #1641-3.
mdelvalle
RPC_7152_Antioquia_ad_Orontes_Lucio_Vero.jpg
35-52 - LUCIO VERO Co-Emperador con Marco Aurelio (161 - 169 D.C.)7 viewsANTIOQUIA en Orontes - Seleucis y Pieria - Siria

AE 22 mm 11.6 gr

Anv: ”AVT KΛ AVPHΛ OVHPOC CEB” – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”S C” - IB debajo, todo dentro de una guirnalda.

Acuñada: 161 – 169 D.C.

Referencias: SNG Cambridge #5891 - RPC I #7152 - BN Paris #550 - SNG II #3001 - McAllee #10 - Mionnet V #443.
mdelvalle
565_P_Hadrian_RPC3688.jpg
3688 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian Tetradrachm 118 AD Eagle standing30 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3688; Prieur 156; McAlee 533

Issue Cos II

ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right.

Rev. ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞ ΥΠΑΤ Β
Eagle with wings spread standing facing on leg and thigh of animal, head left.

13.26 gr
25 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1216_P_Hadrian_RPC3689_7.jpg
3689 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119 AD Eagle standing27 viewsReference.
Prieur 157; McAlee 534 (this coin illustrated); RPC III 3689/7

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞ ΥΠΑΤ Γ
Eagle standing l. on leg and thigh of animal

13.96 gr
24 mm
6h

Note.
From the Michel Prieur Collection. Ex Richard McAlee Collection; Classical Numismatic Group XVII (29 September 1993), lot 1301
5 commentsokidoki
469_P_Hadrian_Prieur156.jpg
3690 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian Tetradrachm 119 AD Eagle standing26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3690; Prieur 157; McAlee 535; BMC Galatia pg. 187, 304; SNG Copenhagen 205

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΘΕ ΤΡΑ ΠΑΡ ΥΙ ΘΕ ΝΕΡ ΥΙ ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, r.

Rev. ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞ ΥΠΑΤ Γ
eagle standing facing, head left, on leg of animal.

13.65 gr
26 mm
5h
1 commentsokidoki
779_P_Hadrian_RPC3692.JPG
3692 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. As AB below. Laurel-branch countermark16 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3692; SNG Copenhagen 230; McAlee 536a
Countermark Laurel-branch Howgego 378

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate and cuirassed bust right Countermark Laurel-branch

Rev. S • C
in laurel wreath; beneath: AB

15.23 gr
27 mm
12h
okidoki
234_P_Hadrian_BMC_299.jpg
3694 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian, As ΓΔ below.29 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3694; BMC Galatia 299, p186; McAlee 536(b)

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate and cuirassed bust right Countermark Laurel-branch

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath beneath ΓΔ

14.10 gr
26 mm
12h

According to Howgego, the laurel branch countermark appears as an undertype on a Bar Kochba bronze, indicating that it was applied prior to 132-5 AD.
okidoki
1225_P_Hadrian_RPC3695.jpg
3695 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. As Єς below25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3695; CRS 232; McAlee 536(c); SNG Cop. 209

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. S C
In laurel wreath; beneath: ƐϚ

13.77 gr
26 mm
12h

Note.
W H on obverse?
2 commentsokidoki
313_P_Hadrian.jpg
3696 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. As Єς below.25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3696; SNG Copenhagen 209; McAlee 536c

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/3696/5/

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate and cuirassed bust right

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath beneath Єς

14.28 gr
27 mm
12h
okidoki
723_P_Hadrian_RPC3696.jpg
3696 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. As Єς below. 27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3696; SNG Copenhagen 209; McAlee 536c
Countermark Laurel-branch Howgego 378

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate and cuirassed bust right Countermark Laurel-branch

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath beneath Єς

16.75 gr
27 mm
12h

Note.
Auktion 417 Lot 298
Sammlung Lückger
1927 bei Leo Hamburger, Frankfurt am Main.
okidoki
243_P_Hadrian_BMC_296.JPG
3699 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. As H below.32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3699; BMC Galatia 296, p186; var (without countermark) McAlee 536e; for c/m: Howgego 378 ( According to Howgego, the laurel branch countermark appears as an undertype on a Bar Kochba bronze, indicating that it was applied prior to AD 132-135.)

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/3699/

Obv. TP.Π . ΥΙ.ΘΝΕΡ.ΥΙω.ΤΡ.ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟCCEΒ
Laureate and cuirassed bust right, Countermark Laurel-branch

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath beneath H

15.85 gr
27 mm
12h
okidoki
BNP_1644_Cirrus_Siria_Comodo.jpg
37-50 - COMODO Co-Emperador con Marco Aurelio (177 - 180 D.C.)14 viewsCYRRHUS Siria Cyrrhestica

AE 25 mm 9.7 gr

Anv: ”ΑVΤΟΚ ΛΟ ΑVΡ ΚΟΜΟΔΟС” – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”ΔIOC KATEBATOV KVPPHCTΩN A” – Zeus Kataibates sentado sobre piedras, portando un rayo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido sobre una águila y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda.

Acuñada: 177 – 180 D.C.

Referencias: RPC IV online #5778 - BMC #29 - BN Paris #1644
mdelvalle
312_P_Hadrian.jpg
3701 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. As Θ below.25 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3701; McAlee 536f

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙC Θ ΤΡΠΥΙΘΝEΡΥΙωΤΡΑΑΔΡΙΑΝΟCCΕBΑC
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath beneath Θ

17.02 gr
25 mm
12h
okidoki
902_P_Hadrian_RPC_3703.jpg
3703 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. As I below.12 viewsReference.
CRS 236; McAlee 536(g); RPC III, 3703

Issue SC Bronze coinage

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. S C
In laurel wreath; beneath: Ι

11.92 gr
26 mm
12h
okidoki
1189_P_Hadrian_RPC3704.jpg
3704 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Chalkous no letter13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3704; CRS 239a; McAlee 543(j)

Obv,
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from front or rear

Rev. S C
Laurel wreath; beneath: no letter

1.03 gr
10 mm
12h
okidoki
283_P_Hadrian_RPC3707.JPG
3707 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Chalkous Γ below.15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3707; McAlee 543(c); Butcher 240

Obv. no legend
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from front or rear

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath beneath Γ

gr
10 mm
h
okidoki
793_P_Hadrian_RPC3709.jpg
3709 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Chalkous Ɛ below15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3709; McAlee 543(e); Butcher CRS 244.E

Obv. no legend
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath. Ɛ

1.17 gr
10 mm
h
okidoki
682_P_Hadrian_RPC3711.jpg
3711 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Chalkous Z below17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3711; McAlee 543(g)

Obv. no legend
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath. Z

0.87 gr
10 mm
h
okidoki
1203_P_Hadrian_RPC3712.jpg
3712 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Chalkous H15 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3712; CRS 247; McAlee 543(h)

Obv.
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from front or rear

Rev. S C
Laurel wreath; beneath: H

1.00 gr
10 mm
12h
okidoki
1032_P_HADRIAN_RPC3700cf.jpg
3713 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Chalkous Θ below13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3713; CRS 248; McAlee 543(i)

Obv. no legend
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath. Θ

1.49 gr
10 mm
12h
okidoki
674_P_Hadrian_RPC3714.jpg
3714 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Semis Laurel wreath18 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 3714; McAlee 539c

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath; beneath: no letter(s)

4.50 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
844_P_Hadrian_RPC3715.JPG
3715 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Semis A below.16 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3715; CRS 253; McAlee 539(a)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r.

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath; beneath: A

7.69 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
207_P_Hadrian_Syrie__BMC_289.jpg
3717 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Semis A below.33 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3717; BMC Galatia 289.p185; McAlee 540a

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind with paludamentum

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath beneath A

5.9 gr
20 mm
12h
okidoki
805_P_Hadrian_RPC3719.jpg
3718 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Semis B below22 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3718; McAlee 538b

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. S • C
in laurel wreath; beneath: Β

6.73 gr
19 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
835_P_Hadrian_RPC3719.JPG
3718 Syria Antioch. Hadrian. Semis B below13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3718; McAlee 538b.

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, right

Rev. S • C
in laurel wreath; beneath: Β

7.40 gr
21 mm
6h
okidoki
675_P_Hadrian_RPC3720.JPG
3720 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Semis B below19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3720; CRS 254; McAlee 537b

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒ
Lureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from rear

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath; beneath: Β

4.90 gr
20 mm
12h
okidoki
267_P_Hadrian_BMC_293.jpg
3722 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian. Semis Γ below.33 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3722; BMC Galatia 293, p186; McAlee 538c

Obv. AVTO KAICT PAI AΔPIANOC CEB
Laureate and cuirassed bust right

Rev. S • C
In laurel wreath beneath Γ

6.45 gr
18 mm
12h
okidoki
368_P_Hadrian.JPG
3724 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian 129-30 AD Trichalkon Tyche of Antioch22 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3724; BMC 300; CRS 257; McAlee 541(c)

Obv. AVTOKP KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEBAC
Laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder.

Rev. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕωΝ ΤΗС ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛ(Ε)
Turreted and veiled head of the City of Antioch, to r.; no letter in field, r.

4.45 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
1133_P_Hadrian_RPC3725.jpg
3725 SYRIA Antioch. Hadrian 129-30 AD. Trichalkon Tyche of Antioch9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3725; McAlee 541(a); CRS 258; Paris 436

Obv. AVTOKP KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEBAC
Laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder

Rev. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕωΝ ΤΗС ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛ A
Turreted and veiled bust of the City of Antioch, A to lower right.

4.37 gr
19 mm
12h
okidoki
MacAlee_125.jpg
3730 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian Trichalkon. 128-29 AD Ram A above33 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3730; McAlee 125 (a); SNG Copenhagen 115; BMC --

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ANTIOXЄωN THC MHTPOΠOΛЄωC
Turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right.

Rev. ЄT ZOP
Ram leaping right, head left; star within crescent and A above.

4.26 gr
17 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
414_P_Hadrian.jpg
3732 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian Trichalkon. 128-29 AD Ram Γ above27 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3732; McAlee 125c; BMC 102; SNG Copenhagen 117.

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ANTIOXЄωN THC MHTPOΠOΛЄωC.
Turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right.

Rev. ЄT ZOP
Ram leaping right, head left; star within crescent and in field, l., Γ

4.87 gr
17 mm
12h
okidoki
1289_P_pseudo_RPC3732.jpg
3732 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian Trichalkon. 128-29 AD Ram Γ above46 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3732; McAlee 125c; BMC 102; SNG Copenhagen 117.

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ANTIOXЄωN THC MHTPOΠOΛЄωC.
Turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right.

Rev. ЄT ZOP
Ram leaping right, head left; star within crescent and in field, l., Γ

4.36 gr
18 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
741_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC3733.jpg
3733 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian Trichalkon. 128-29 AD Altar33 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3733; CRS 262; McAlee 124(d)

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗС ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Turreted and veiled head of the Tyche of Antioch, right.

Rev. ΕΤ ΖΟΡ
Lighted garlanded altar; no letter

4.41 gr
18 mm
12h
okidoki
1115_Pseudo_Hadrian_RPC3734.jpg
3734 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian Trichalkon. 128-29 AD Altar23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3734; McAlee 124a

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗС ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Turreted and veiled head of the Tyche of Antioch, r.

Rev. ΕΤ ΖΟΡ
Lighted garlanded altar; Α (in field, l.)

4.20 gr
16 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
1091_P_Hadrian_RPC3740.jpg
3740 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian. 128-29 AD Boule seated19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3740; McAlee 126(c) (rare, same dies); Butcher 270; BMC Galatia 117; SNG Cop 117,

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗС ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Laureate head of Zeus, right

Rev. ΕΤ ΖΟΡ
Boule of Antioch seated, l., dropping pebble into voting urn; Γ (in field, r.)

4.18 gr
18 mm
12h

Note.
In the cities of ancient Greece, a bouleutai was a member of the boule, a council of citizens appointed to run daily affairs of the city. Originally a council of nobles advising a king, boulai evolved according to the constitution of the city; in oligarchies boule positions might be hereditary, while in democracies members were typically chosen by lot and served for one year.
okidoki
748_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC_3742.jpg
3742 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian. 128-29 AD, Laurel-branch Α11 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3742; BMC 901; McAlee 129(a)

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo, right

Rev. ΕΤΟΥС ΖΟΡ
Laurel-branch: Α (in field, r.)

3.75 gr
18 mm
6h
okidoki
615_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC3744.jpg
3744 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian. 128-29 AD ae 16 Laurel-branch Γ16 viewsReference.
RPC 3, 3744; CRS 280a; McAlee 129(c)

http://rpc.ashmus.ox.ac.uk/coins/3/3744/

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo, right.

Rev. ΕΤΟ(ΥС) ΖΟΡ
Laurel-branch: Γ (in field, r.)

3.49 gr
16mm
12h
okidoki
903_P_Hadrian_pseudo_RPC3745.jpg
3745var. SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian. 128-29 AD ae 14 Laurel-branch 13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3745var. bust;

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤ
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo, right.

Rev. ΕΤΟY[С] [ΖΟ]Ρ
Laurel-branch no letter

3.96 gr
14 mm
12h
1 commentsokidoki
1231_P_Hadrian_Pseudo_RPC3746.jpg
3746 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. under Hadrian. 128-29 AD Laurel-branch Α13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3746; CRS 278; McAlee 130(a); BMC Galatia etc. p164, 109

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo, left

Rev. ΕΤΟΥ ΖΟΡ
Laurel-branch: Α (in field, r.)

2.84 gr
15 mm
12h
2 commentsokidoki
762_P_Hadrian_Pseudo_RPC3751.jpg
3754 SYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. Time of Hadrian. Dichalkon 128-29 AD Lyre B above23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3754; McAlee 128b.

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕωС
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo, left.

Rev. ΕΤΟ(ΥС) ΖΟΡ
Lyre; B (above)

3.21 gr
17 mm
6h

Note.
Ex Dr. P. Vogl collection; ex Bankhaus Aufhäuser sold 20.02.1997
okidoki
221_P_Hadrian__BMC_112.jpg
3755 SYRIA, Antioch. Pseudo-autonomous. Time of Hadrian. Dichalkon 128-29 AD Lyre Γ above14 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3755; BMC Syria 112 var (A above) (p.164) ; McAlee 128(c); Waage 427

Issue Civic bronze coins dated Year 177

Obv. ANTIOXEwN THC MHTPOΠ OΛEwC
Laureate and draped bust of Apollo left.

Rev. ETOY ZOP
Lyre (r above)

2.76 gr
16 mm
12h
okidoki
437Hadrian_RIC680~0.jpg
3756 Hadrian half AS Roma 124-28 AD Tyche of Antioch18 viewsReference. Rare.
RPC III, 3756; RIC II 680; BMCRE 1350; cf. Cohen 401; McAlee 544; Strack 622

Issue Orichalcum coinage struck at Rome for circulation in Syria; Asses

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from rear, r.

Rev. COS III in field S-C
Tyche of Antioch seated on rocks, l., holding in her r. hand ears of wheat and poppy-head; at her feet, river-god Orontes swimming l., looking r.; In field, l. And r., S C

7.61 gr
24 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
679Hadrian_RIC684~0.jpg
3757 Hadrian half AS Roma 125-28 AD Lyre10 viewsReference.
RIC 684; BMC 1354; Strack 625; van Heesch 148/5; CRS 25; McAlee 546; RPC III, 3757

Issue Orichalcum coinage struck at Rome for circulation in Syria; Asses

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bust of Hadrian, laureate, draped, right, seen from rear.

Rev. COS III
Lyre; in field, l. and r., S C

9.62 gr
24 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1221Hadrian_RIC681~0.jpg
3759 Hadrian half AS Roma 124-28 AD Griffin right6 viewsReverence.
RIC 681; BMC -; Strack 624; van Heesch 150/9b; CRS 30; McAlee 549; C. 433; RPC III, 3759

Issue Orichalcum coinage struck at Rome for circulation in Syria; Asses

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from rear, r.

Rev. COS III
Griffin flying r.; below, S C

7.02 gr
23 mm
12h
okidoki
1368Hadrian_RIC666.jpg
3761 Hadrian As, Rome 125-28 AD Roma seated5 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3761/19; RIC II, 666; BMC, p. 438*; Strack 627; van Heesch 146/1; CRS 27; McAlee 551

Issue Orichalcum coinage struck at Rome for circulation in Syria; Asses

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from rear, r.

Rev. COS III, S C (in exergue)
Roma helmeted seated l. on cuirass, holding Victory in her r. hand, her l. resting on spear; behind cuirass, round shield

8.94 gr
25 mm
6h
okidoki
1297_P_Hadrian_RPC3803_5.jpg
3803 SYRIA Laodicea ad Mare. Hadrian Tetradrachm 121-22 AD Tyche32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3803.5; Prieur 1107; Adra 1555-7

Issue Year 168

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙϹΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟϹ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ ϹΕΒΑϹΤ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΙΟΥΛΙΕⲰΝ ΤⲰΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕⲰΝ
Turreted and draped bust of Tyche, r.; in field, r., ΗΞΡ

13.55 gr
25.5 mm
12h

Note.
From the Michel Prieur Collection, purchased privately from Joselito Eechtout, May 2013.
3 commentsokidoki
1213_P_Hadrian_RPC3805.jpg
3805 SYRIA Laodicea ad Mare. Hadrian Tetradrachm 123-24 AD Tyche 42 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3805/6; Prieur 1109; Adra 1562-5; Paris 1157

Issue Year 170 (OP)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑСΤ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian right, with gorgoneion on breastplate

Rev. ΙΟΥΛΙΕωΝ ΤωΝ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΕωΝ
Turreted and draped bust of Tyche, right; in field, right, ΟΡ soldiers arming the battlements/towers on Tyche's head

13 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Michel Prieur Collection. Ex Robert O. Ebert Collection (Part I, Stack’s Bowers & Ponterio 174, 11 January 2013), lot 5142; Numismatica Ars Classica 1 (39 March 1989), lot 862; Münzen und Medaillen AG FPL 279 (August 1967), no. 40.
7 commentsokidoki
0001SOS.jpg
4) Antony: Sosius50 viewsGAIUS SOSIUS
General to Antony
Æ 26mm (14.5 g). ~ 38 BC.
Cilicia, Uncertain Mint.

Bare head right / Fiscus, sella, quaestoria and hasta; Q below.

Coin has been attributed to multiple rulers, including Julius Caesar, Augustus and Brutus. Now believed to be Sosius, General to Antony and Governor of Syria.

RPC I 5409; Laffaille 324; Grant, FITA, pg. 13. aFine, brown patina, scratches. Rare.
0001SOS


Sosius was wily and accomplished man. A talented general, he received a triumph. However, he consistently picked the wrong side in Rome's Civil Wars (Senate vs. Caesar, then Antony vs. Octavian) yet somehow managed to keep his head.

According to Wikipedia:

Gaius Sosius was a Roman general and politician.

Gaius Sosius was elected quaestor in 66 BC and praetor in 49 BC. Upon the start of the civil war, he joined the party of the Senate and Pompey. Upon the flight of Pompey to Greece, Sosius returned to Rome and submitted to Julius Caesar.

After the assassination of Caesar, Sosius joined the party of Mark Antony, by whom in 38 BC he was appointed governor of Syria and Cilicia in the place of Publius Ventidius. As governor, Sosius was commanded by Antony to support Herod against Antigonus the Hasmonean, when the latter was in possession of Jerusalem. In 37 BC, he advanced against Jerusalem and after he became master of the city, Sosius placed Herod upon the throne. In return for this services, he was awarded a triumph in 34 BC, and he became consul along with Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus as his colleague in 32 BC.

When civil war broke out between Antony and Octavian, Sosius espoused the cause of Antony and violently attacked Octavian in the senate, for which he was forced to flee to the east. In 31 BC, Sosius commanded a squadron in Mark Antony's fleet with which he managed to defeat the squadron of Taurius Rufus – according to Dio 50.14 – and put it to flight, but when the latter was reinforced by Marcus Agrippa, Sosius's ally Tarcondimotus – the king of Cilicia – was killed and Sosius himself was forced to flee. At Actium, Sosius commanded the left wing of Antony's fleet. After the battle, from which he managed to escape, his hiding place was detected and Sosius was captured and brought before Octavian but, at the intercession of Lucius Arruntius, Octavian pardoned him. He returned to Rome and completed his building project on the temple of Apollo Medicus (begun in 34 BC), dedicating it in Octavian's name.

Unknown sons, but two daughters : Sosia and Sosia Galla, possibly by an Asinia,[1] a Nonia or an Aelia. However the name reappears with Q. Sosius Senecio, (consul in 99 and 107).[2] and Saint Sosius (275-305 AD).

Sosius attended the Ludi Saeculares in 17 according to an inscription CIL 6.32323 = ILS 5050 as a quindecimvir.
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4) Cleopatra - Chalcis, Syria17 viewsCLEOPATRA VII
AE 19 of Chalcis, Syria, 32-31 BC

Diademed and draped bust of Cleopatra right / Nike advancing right, holding palm, within laurel wreath.

RPC I 4772; SNG Copenhagen -; HGC 9, 1452. aVF, flan crack

Ex-Amphora Coins, with Hendin COA
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406a. Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria was Diocletian's daughter and, to cement the alliance between Diocletian and Galerius, Valeria was married to Galerius. It appears that this was not a very happy marriage. Galeria Valeria was sympathetic towards Christians during this time of severe persecution and it is possible that she was actually a Christian herself. The imperial couple were not blessed with any children during their eighteen year marriage. After Galerius died in A. D. 311, Galeria Valeria and her mother went to live at the court of Maximinus Daia, the caesar who became emperor of the East upon the death of Galerius.

Maximinus proposed marriage to Valeria soon afterward. He was probably more interested in her wealth and the prestige he would gain by marrying the widow of one emperor and the daughter of another than he was in Valeria as a person. She refused his hand, and immediately Maximinus reacted with hatred and fury. Diocletian, by now an old man living in a seaside villa on the Dalmatian coast, begged Maximinus to allow the two women to come home to him. Maximinus refused and had Valeria and her mother banished to live in a village in Syria.

During the civil war that erupted between Maximinus and Licinius, Valeria and Prisca disguised themselves and escaped, trying to reach the safety of Diocletian's villa. In the meantime, Diocletian had died, leaving the women without a haven of safety to which to run. For fifteen months the two royal fugitives traveled from one city to another, always living in fear of being discovered and in search of a little peace.

Finally, they were recognized by someone in the Greek city of Salonika. They were hastily taken to a square in the city and beheaded before a crowd of citizens who had once revered them as empresses. The bodies of Valeria and her mother were afterwards thrown into the sea.

Galeria Valeria Follis. AD 308-311. GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed & draped bust right / VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, G to right, (dot)SM(dot)TS(dot) in ex.
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408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Maxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.
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409. Maximinus II Daza37 viewsCaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus, more commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Daza, was from Illyricum and was of peasant origin. He was born 20 November perhaps in the year 270. Daia was the son of Galerius' sister and had served in the army as a scutarius, Protector, and tribunus. He had been adopted by Galerius ; his name had been Daia even before that time. He had a wife and daughter, whose names are unknown, while his son's name was Maximus. When Diocletian and Maximianus Herculius resigned their posts of emperor on 1 May 305, they were succeeded by Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius as Augusti; their new Caesars were Severus and Maximinus Daia respectively. Constantius and Severus ruled in the West, whereas Galerius and Daia served in the East. Specifically, Daia's realm included the Middle East and the southern part of Asia Minor.[[1]]

Immediately after his appointment to the rank of Caesar, he went east and spent his first several years at Caesarea in Palestine. Events of the last quarter of 306 had a profound effect on the Emperor Galerius and his Caesar Daia. When Constantius I Chlorus died in July 306, the eastern emperor was forced by the course of events to accept Constantius' son Constantine as Caesar in the West; on 28 October of the same year, Maxentius , with the apparent backing of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps. Both the attempt to dislodge Maxentius by Severus, who had been appointed Augustus of the West by Galerius after the death of Constantius in late 306 or early 307, and the subsequent campaign of Galerius himself in the summer of 307 failed. Because of the escalating nature of this chain of events, a Conference was called at Carnuntum in October and November 308; Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place and Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum. Daia, however, unsatisfied with this sop tossed to him by Galerius, started calling himself Augustus in the spring of 310 when he seems to have campaigned against the Persians.[[2]] Although, as Caesar, he proved to be a trusted servant of Galerius until the latter died in 311, he subsequently seized the late emperor's domains. During the early summer of that year, he met with Licinius at the Bosporus; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. Several yea rs later, after the death of Daia, Licinius obtained control of his domain. Like his mentor the late emperor, Daia had engaged in persecution of the Christians in his realm.[[3]]

In the autumn of 312, while Constantine was engaged against Maxentius, Daia appears to have been campaigning against the Armenians. In any case, he was back in Syria by February 313 when he seems to have learned about the marital alliance which had been forged by Constantine and Licinius. Disturbed by this course of events and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia left Syria and reached Bythinia, although the harsh weather had seriously weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, garrisoned by Licinius' troops; when the city refused to surrender, he took it after an eleven day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege; he then moved his forces to the first posting station. With only a small contingent of men, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was besieging Heraclea. On 30 April 313 the two armies clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. Divesting himself of the purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomdeia. Subsequently, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there; Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, and Daia fled to Tarsus where he was hard pressed on land and sea. Daia died, probably in July or August 313, and was buried near Tarsus. Subsequently, the victorious emperor put Daia's wife and children to death.

Maximinus II Daza. 309-313 AD. ? Follis. Laureate head right / Genius standing left holding cornucopiae.
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410. Licinius I43 viewsFlavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 250 - 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

Of Dacian peasant origin, born in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close friend the Emperor Galerius on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia.

On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the entire empire with Maximinus Daia, the Hellespont and the Bosporus being the dividing line.

In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan), the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations though it did not "Christianize" the Empire as is often assumed, although it did give Christians a better name in Rome. In the following month (April 30), Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. He then established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.

In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise in favor of Bassianus against Constantine. When his actions became known, a civil war ensued, in which he was first defeated at the battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314), and next some 2 years later (after naming Valerius Valens co-emperor) in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The outward reconciliation left Licinius in possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but he later added numerous provinces to Constantine's control.

In 324 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at the battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in his final submission. He was interned at Thessalonica under a kind of house arrest, but when he attempted to raise troops among the barbarians Constantine had him and his former co-emperor Martinianus assassinated.

O: IMP LICINIVS AVG; Emperor, facing left, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and globe.
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG; Jupiter standing left holding Victory; palm to left, epsilon in right field, SMN in exergue. Sear 3804, RIC Nicomedia 24 (Scarce), Failmezger #278. Remarkable detail on this nicely silvered Late Roman bronze, ex Crisp Collection.

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4100 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian Tyche26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4100; Spijkerman 3; SNG ANS 1360-3 var. (bust type)

Issue Petra metropolis

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian (seen from rear), r.

Rev. ΠƐΤΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙС
Turreted and veiled Tyche seated l. on rock, l., her r. hand extended, holding trophy in l.

13.35 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
The Decapolis ("Ten Cities"; Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Jordan, Israel and Syria. The ten cities were not an official league or political unit, but they were grouped together because of their language, culture, location, and political status, with each possessing a certain degree of autonomy and self-rule. The Decapolis cities were centers of Greek and Roman culture in a region that was otherwise Semitic (Nabatean, Aramean, and Jewish). With the exception of Damascus, Hippos and Scythopolis, the "Region of the Decapolis" was located in modern-day Jordan.

Petra (GreekΠέτρα, Petra, meaning "stone";
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Denario Septimio Severo RIC 510a.jpg
46-08 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)43 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "L SEP SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MONETA AVGG" - Moneta sentada a izquierda, sosteniendo balanza en mano derecha y cornucopia sobre brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 198 - 202 D.C.
Ceca: Laodicea ad Mare - Hoy Siria

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #135A (b) Pag.107 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6316 Pag.462 - BMCRE #669/70 Pag.177 - Cohen Vol.IV #342 Pag.39 - RSC Vol. III #345 Pag.34 - DVM #86 Pag.184
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46-08 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)14 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "L SEP SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MONETA AVGG" - Moneta sentada a izquierda, sosteniendo balanza en mano derecha y cornucopia sobre brazo izquierdo.

Acuñada 3ra. Emisión 198 - 199 D.C.
Ceca: Laodicea ad Mare - Hoy Siria

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #135A (b) Pag.107 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6316 Pag.462 - BMCRE #669/70 Pag.287 (Plate 44 #11) - Cohen Vol.IV #342 Pag.39 - RSC Vol. III #345 Pag.34 - DVM #86 Pag.184 - Salgado II/1 #4178.f Pag.105
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47-46 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio68 viewsQ METEL SCIPIO IMP
head of Africa right, laur. and clad in elephant's skin, corn-ear before, plough below

EPPIVS LEG F C

Naked Hercules standing facing right, hand on hip resting on club set on rock

North Africa
47-46 BC

Sear 1380/1

Born Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica. He was adopted by his uncle by marriage and father's second cousin Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius. He married Aemilia Lepida, daughter of Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus (son of the Censor Marcus Livius Drusus and wife Cornelia Scipio and adopted by Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus) and wife Claudia (sister of Appius Claudius Pulcher (Senior)), and was the father in law of Pompey the Great, married to his daughter Cornelia Metella, called Quinta Pompeia for being his fifth wife.

He was Tribune in 59 BC and became Consul with Pompey the Great in 52 BC. During Caesar's civil war, he served the party of Pompey and fought against Caesar and Marcus Antonius. In 49 BC he was sent as Proconsul to Syria and the following year he took part in the Battle of Pharsalus, where he commanded the center of the Republican battleline. After Pharsalus he fled to Africa were he commanded an army with Cato the Younger, losing in the Battle of Thapsus. After the defeat he tried to escape but was cornered by the fleet of Publius Sittius when he wrecked the ship as he tried to escape to the Iberian Peninsula, to continue to fight from there. He committed suicide by stabbing himself so he would not fall at the hands of his enemies.

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5-pointed star171 viewsSYRIA: COMMAGENE. Zeugma. Antoninus Pius. Æ 20. A.D. 138-161. Obv: AYT(OKAITIANAΔPIANTWNEINOCCE) or similar. Laureate head right; Countermark on neck. Rev: (ZEV)-ГMA-(TWN), (A) in upper field to left (?). Tetrastyle temple, with periobolos containing grove, and having on right and left a collonade and in front a portico or panelled wall of two stories. Ref: BMC 1 (obv. or sim.)/2 (rev.; var. leg. breaks, though). Axis: 360°. Weight: 6.03 g. Note: The meaning of the numerals on the reverse is not known, but may indicate issue. CM: 5-pointed star, in roughly square punch with rounded corners, 4 mm. Howgego 453 var. (32 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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5-pointed star in shaped punch189 viewsSYRIA: COMMAGENE. Zeugma. Antoninus Pius. Æ 20. A.D. 138-161. Obv: (AYTOKAITIAAΔ)PIA.-AN(TWNINOCCEB...) or similar. Laureate head right; countermark on neck. Rev: ZEY-ΓMA-TEWN, A above to left. Tetrastyle temple, with periobolos containing grove, and having on right and left a colonnade and in front a portico or panelled wall of two stories. Ref: BMC 1 (obv)/2 (rev). Axis: 360°. Weight: 8.37 g. Note: The meaning of the numerals on the reverse is not known, but may indicate issue. CM: 5-pointed star in shaped punch, 5 mm from point to point. Howgego 453 (32 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
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501. CONSTANTINE I Siscia SOLI INVICTO COMIT14 viewsSol Invictus ("the undefeated Sun") or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus ("the undefeated sun god") was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire, El Gabal, Mithras, and Sol.

Unlike the earlier, agrarian cult of Sol Indiges ("the native sun" or "the invoked sun" - the etymology and meaning of the word "indiges" is disputed), the title Deus Sol Invictus was formed by analogy with the imperial titulature pius felix invictus ("dutiful, fortunate, unconquered").

A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated when the duration of daylight first begins to increase after the winter solstice,—the "rebirth" of the sun.

Christianity adopted some of the attributes of the Sol Invictus religion, as apparent in the first examples of Christian iconography, depicting Christ with solar attributes such as the radiated crown or, in a few instances, a solar chariot.

Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Church of Rome as evidenced by Christ as Apollo-Helios in a mausoleum discovered under St. Peter's Basilica and dated to 250[1], and, from the beginning of the third century, "Sun of Justice" was used as a title of Christ[2].

The date for Christmas may also bear a relation to the sun worship. According to the Syriac bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi, writing in the twelth century:

"It was a custom of the Pagans to celebrate on the same 25 December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries the Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day." (cited in "Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries", Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997, p155])
Christianity designated Sunday as the "Lord's Day" and the day of rest, rather than Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.


CONSTANTINE I

RIC VII Siscia 32 R3

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510. Valentinian I55 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
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6. Antiochos III ‘the Great’31 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos III ‘the Great’. 223-187 BC. Æ 25mm Uncertain military mint associated with Ecbatana. Struck 210 BC. Diademed head right / Elephant advancing right; anchor to left, monogram between legs. SC 1275. ecoli
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603. Marcian26 viewsMarcian was born in Thrace or Illyria. He spent his early life as an obscure soldier. He subsequently served for nineteen years under Ardaburius and Aspar, and took part in the wars against the Persians and Vandals. In 431, Marcian was taken prisoner by the Vandals in the fighting near Hippo Regius; brought before the Vandal king Geiseric, he was released on his oath never to take up arms against the Vandals.

Through the influence of these generals he became a captain of the guards, and was later raised to the rank of tribune and senator. On the death of Theodosius II he was chosen as consort by the latter's sister and successor, Pulcheria, and called upon to govern an empire greatly humbled and impoverished by the ravages of the Huns.

Upon becoming Emperor, Marcian repudiated the embarrassing payments of tribute to Attila the Hun, which the latter had been accustomed to receiving from Theodosius in order to refrain from attacks on the eastern empire. Aware that he could never capture the eastern capital of Constantinople, Attila turned to the west and waged his famous campaigns in Gaul 451 and Italy (452) while leaving Marcian's dominions alone.

He reformed the finances, checked extravagance, and repopulated the devastated districts. He repelled attacks upon Syria and Egypt (452), and quelled disturbances on the Armenian frontier (456). The other notable event of his reign is the Council of Chalcedon (451), in which Marcian endeavoured to mediate between the rival schools of theology.

Marcian generally ignored the affairs of the western Roman Empire, leaving that tottering half of the empire to its fate. He did nothing to aid the west during Attila's campaigns, and, living up to his promise, ignored the depredations of Geiseric even when the Vandals sacked Rome in 455. It has recently been argued, however, that Marcian was more actively involved in aiding the western Empire than historians had previously believed and that Marcian's fingerprints can be discerned in the events leading up to, and including, Attila's death. (See Michael A. Babcock, "The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun," Berkley Books, 2005.)

Shortly before Attila's death in 453, conflict had begun again between him and Marcian. However, the powerful Hun king died before all-out war broke out. In a dream, Marcian claimed he saw Attila's bow broken before him, and a few days later, he got word that his great enemy was dead.

Marcian died in 457 of disease, possibly gangrene contracted during a long religious journey.

Despite his short reign and his writing off of the west Marcian is considered one of the best of the early "Byzantine" emperors. The Eastern Orthodox Church recognizes him and his wife Pulcheria as saints, with their feast day on February 17.

Marcian AE4.9mm (1.30 grams) D N MARCIANVS P F AV, diademed & draped bust right / Monogram of Marcian inside wreath, * above
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7. Seleukos IV Philopator11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Seleukos IV Philopator. 187-175 BC. Æ Serrated Ake-Ptolemais mint (?). Laureate head of Apollo right; AB monogram behind / Apollo standing left leaning on tripod, holding arrow in right hand; monogram before. SNG Spaer 852.ecoli
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709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Prier_325_AR_Tetradracma_OCTACILIA_SEVERA.jpg
71-20 - OCTACILIA SEVERA (244 - 249 D.C.)14 viewsSyria, Seleucis and Pieria. Antiochia ad Orontem
AR Tetradracma 28,3 mm 11,91 gr. 1 hr.
Esposa de Filipo I y madre de Filipo II.

Anv: "MAP ΩTAKIΛ CЄOVHPAN CЄB" - Busto sobre una media luna, con diadema y vestido, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΔHMAPX ЄΞ OVCIAC" , Águila estante de frente sobre una hoja de palma, viendo a izquierda, con una corona en su pico y sus alas desplegadas, "SC" en exergo.

Acuñada en 244 D.C.
Ceca: Syria, Seleucis and Pieria. Antiochia ad Orontem

Referencias: McAlee #1086; Prieur #325; BMC XX #540 Pag.216; Sear GICTV #4057 Pag.388
mdelvalle
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.135 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
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8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes10 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Antioch on the Kallirhoe (Edessa) mint. Struck circa 168-164 BC. Radiate and diademed head of Antiochos IV right / Zeus standing left, holding eagle and scepter; monogram to outer left. SC 1499; HGC 9, 672.ecoli
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8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ “Egyptianizing” series. Antioch mint. Struck 169-168 BC. Head of Isis right, wearing tainia / Eagle with closed wings standing right on thunderbolt. SC 1414; HGC 9, 644.ecoli
17499204_10155130391552232_8238069206750170059_n.jpg
8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Serrate Æ Ake-Ptolemaïs mint. Struck 175-circa 173/2 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; monogram behind / Apollo seated left on omphalos, testing arrow; aphlaston to left, monogram in exergue. SC 1478.2ecoli
17553773_10155129895437232_5879235887869343412_n.jpg
8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Serrate Æ Ake-Ptolemaïs mint. Struck 175-circa 173/2 BC. Laureate head of Apollo right; monogram behind / Apollo seated left on omphalos, testing arrow; aphlaston to left, monogram in exergue. SC 1478.2 var. HGC 9, 725.ecoli
17554369_10155129880917232_519909646375307760_n.jpg
8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes12 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Serrate Æ Ake-Ptolemaïs mint. Struck circa 173/2-168 BC. Diademed and radiate head right; monogram behind / Veiled goddess standing facing, holding scepter. SC 1479; HGC 9, 726.ecoli
17201161_10155082101002232_969458260036681201_n.jpg
8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes16 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ . “Egyptianizing” series. Antioch mint. Struck 169-168 BC. Head of Isis right, wearing tainia / Eagle with closed wings standing right on thunderbolt. SC 1414; HGC 9, 644.1 commentsecoli
c34.jpg
8. Antiochos IV Epiphanes, Antioch, Seleukid32 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos IV Epiphanes. 175-164 BC. Æ 19mm (4.51 g, 10h). Antioch mint. Struck circa 173/2-169 BC. Diademed and radiate head right / Zeus standing left, holding scepter and thunderbolt. SC 1408; SNG Spaer 992-5.ecoli
1108Hadrian_RIC935var_.jpg
935 var. Hadrian Sestertius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian on horseback28 viewsReference.
Banti 296 (this coin)
RIC 935 var. (bust type not listed); C. 585 var. (same); BMCRE 1689 var. (same); Strack 809; Hill 887

Obv. HADRIANVS COS III P P
Bare head, draped bust right, wearing paludamentum

Rev. EXERCITVS SYRIACVS SC
Hadrian, on horseback right, addressing three soldiers; one holding legionary eagle, two holding standards.

28.20 gr
31 mm
6h

Note.
Ex Monsieur Note (1910-1982) Collection, France.= Lanz 18 1980=Banti 296
3 commentsokidoki
Valens_33.jpg
A127 viewsValens AE3

Attribution: RIC IX, 12b, Antioch
Date: AD 364-378
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm, ANTH in exergue
Size: 18 mm

Approximately one month after his ascension, Valentinian I appointed his younger brother, Valens, joint Augustus and placed him in charge of the eastern provinces including the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. As a dedicated Christian and anti-intellectual, Valens chose those close to him as his officers and ministers. He did not follow the traditional aristocratic ways. The Visigoths along the Danube frontier were being pushed towards the borders of the empire by the Huns. They requested asylum, which was not entirely granted by the emperor. Valens left a small group of riparian commanders to oversee the entry of a small group of Visigoths, but the barbarians crossed into the empire by the tens of thousands. When the riparian commanders began abusing the Visigoths under their charge, they revolted in early AD 377 and defeated the Roman units in Thrace outside of Marcianople. Interestingly, but AD 378, the Visigoths were actually joined by the Ostrogoths, Alans, and Huns, to form a formidable force which the Romans now had to contend with. The emperor of the West, Gratian, pleaded with his uncle, emperor Valens, to wait for his reinforcements to arrive prior to engaging the barbarians. In an act of superciliousness, Valens decided to take care of the problem himself due to his jealousy of his nephew’s successes. Valens sallied forth to the confrontation which would later be called the Battle of Adrianople. Here the hasty emperor met his fate. There are two accounts of his death given by Ammianus. The first states that he was mortally wounded by an arrow and died on the battlefield. The second account tells of how the wounded Valens fled to a wooden hut which was then burned down by Gothic troops who were unaware of his presence inside. Still a third account of his death was specified by the church historian Socrates (see quote below). The Romans never recovered from this debacle; this marked the beginning of the end for the empire. Gratian, only 19 at the time, chose a Spanish officer named Theodosius to take the position vacated by his uncle Valens.

“Some have asserted that he was burnt to death in a village whither he had retired, which the barbarians assaulted and set on fire. But others affirm that having put off his imperial robe he ran into the midst of the main body of infantry; and that when the cavalry revolted and refused to engage, the infantry were surrounded by the barbarians, and completely destroyed in a body. Among these it is said the emperor fell, but could not be distinguished, in consequence of his not having on his imperial habit.” – Church Historian Socrates The Ecclesiastical History VI.38
1 commentsNoah
202.jpg
AΔP149 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Macrinus. Æ 26. A.D. 217 (year 254). Obv: (AVK)OΠEMA-KPEINOCCE. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (Λ)EV(KAΔIΩN), Δ N C in ex. Emperor (?) in quadriga facing. Ref: SNG Switzerland 2174 (var. obv. bust); Lindgren 2187 (?). Axis: 360°. Weight: 16.84 g. CM: AΔP in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 511 (12 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
201.jpg
AΔP129 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Macrinus. Æ 27. A.D. 217 (year 254). Obv: (AV)KOΠEMA-KPEINO(CCE). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark behind. Rev: ΛE-VKAΔIΩN, (Δ N C) in ex. Emperor (?) in quadriga, galloping right. Ref: Sear GIC 2956. Axis: 360°. Veight: 15.97 g. CM: AΔP in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 511 (12 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
200.jpg
AΔP165 viewsSYRIA: COELE SYRIA. Leucas. Trajan. Æ 20. A.D. 102/103 (year 55). Obv: AYKAINEP-TRAIA(NOCΔAK...) or sim.Laur. head right; CM on neck. Rev: (ΛEYKAΔIWN)-KΛAYΔIEWN, EN in field. Emperor, hld. sceptre, in quadriga galloping right. Ref: BMC 3; Sear GIC 1082. Axis: 30°. Weight: 6.52 g. CM: AΔP in rectangular punch, 5.5 x 3 mm. Howgego 511 (12 pcs). Note: Interestingly, no coins countermarks "AΔP" are also countermarked "ΔAK". "ΔAK" is clearly the more common of the two countermarks. The meaning of "AΔP" is uncertain. There are also coins of Macrinus from Leucas countermarked "AΔP", and Howgego therefore argues that it cannot refer to Hadrian. It seems odd, though, that issues of Trajan and Macrinus (but NONE of intervening emperors) should have been countermarked at the same time. If this really were the case, one would expect coins of Trajan to be heavily worn, which is not the case. Collection Automan.Automan
TrajanLeucas.jpg
AΔP on Trajan AE21259 viewsTrajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Leucas, Coele-Syria
9239. Bronze AE 21, SGI 1082, F, 7.73g, 21.1mm, 0o, Leucas ad Chrysoroas mint, 102/103 A.D.; obverse AY KAI NEP TPAIANOC [ ... ], laureate head right, countermarked; reverse LEIKADIWN KLAYDIEWN, Trajan, holding scepter, in galloping quadriga right; date EN (year 55 of the Era of Leucas = 102/103 A.D.); $90.00
The obverse countermark appears to read ADR, Emperor Hadrian; however a nearly identical mark has been interpreted as DeltaAK, Trajan's title Dacius.
1 commentswhitetd49
Antoniniano_Numeriano_RIC_466.jpg
A104-04 - NUMERIANO (Mar.283 - Nov.284 D.C.)80 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 x 18 mm 4.0 gr.
Hijo menor de Caro, acuñada como Co-augusto de su hermano mayor Carino

Anv: "IMP C M AVR NVMERIANVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS AV-GG" – Emperador de pié a la izquierda vestido militarmente, recibiendo Victoriola (Victoria sobre globo) de Júpiter (ó Carus) de pié a la derecha portando en su la mano de su brazo izquierdo un largo cetro vertical. "Γ" en campo centro y "XXI" en exergo.

Acuñada 4ta.Emisión Mar/Jul.283 D.C.
Ceca: Coele Syria – Antioch – Antioquía – Hoy Antakya –Turquía (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: Vol.V Parte II #466 Pag.202 - Cohen Vol.VI #108 Pag.380 - DVM # Pag.
mdelvalle
Ric_466_Antoniniano_Numeriano.jpg
A104-04 - NUMERIANO (Mar.283 - Nov.284 D.C.)11 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 x 18 mm 4.0 gr.
Hijo menor de Caro, acuñada como Co-augusto de su hermano mayor Carino

Anv: "IMP C M AVR NVMERIANVS P F AVG" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS AV-GG" – Emperador de pié a la izquierda vestido militarmente, recibiendo Victoriola (Victoria sobre globo) de Júpiter (ó Carus) de pié a la derecha portando en su la mano de su brazo izquierdo un largo cetro vertical. "Γ" en campo centro y "XXI" en exergo.

Acuñada 4ta.Emisión Mar/Jul.283 D.C.
Ceca: Coele Syria – Antioquía – Hoy Antakya –Turquía (Off.3ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vb #466 P.202, Sear RCTV III #12256 P.504, Cohen VI #108 P.380, DVM #21 P.264, Hunter #44 Pink p.56 serie 4
mdelvalle
Julia_Mamaea_R696_portrait.jpg
AD 225–235 - IVLIA MAMAEA3 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea was a Syrian noble woman and a Roman regent of the Severan dynasty. She was the mother of Roman Emperor Severus Alexander and served as regent of Rome during his reign.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Faustina_Gadara_Decapolis.JPG
AE 22mm Syria, Decapolis, Gadara. Faustina II, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175 AD. AE 22mm (7.89 gm, 12h). Dated CY 225. 161/2 AD. Spijkerman 49 (same dies)60 viewsSyria, Decapolis, Gadara. Faustina II, wife of Marcus Aurelius. Augusta, 147-175 AD. AE 22mm (7.89 gm, 12h). Dated CY 225. 161/2 AD. Obv.: ΦAVCTINA CЄBATH, draped bust right. Rev.: ΓAΔAPЄΩN• ЄKC (date), laureate and draped bust of Zeus right. Spijkerman 49 (same dies); Rosenberger IV 51 (same dies); SNG ANS 1312-3 (same dies). _25601 commentsAntonivs Protti
prov_antioch3.jpg
AE20 of Diadumenian, Antioch, Syria45 views19.9 mm, 5.05 g2 commentsareich
myrina~0.jpg
Aeolis, Myrina. Pseudo-autonomous AE17. AD 253-268. Amazon Myrina47 viewsObv: MVPE-INA, draped, turreted bust of Amazon Myrina left.
Rev: ΜVΡEΙΝΑΩΝ, Tyche in long chiton with cornucopia in l. and rudder in r., standing left.

Myrina, mythological queen of the Amazons. According to Diodorus Siculus she led a military expedition in Libya and won a victory over the people known as the Atlantians, destroying their city Cerne; but was less successful fighting the Gorgons (who are described by Diodorus as a warlike nation residing in close proximity to the Atlantians), failing to burn down their forests. During a later campaign, she struck a treaty of peace with Horus, ruler of Egypt, conquered several peoples, including the Syrians, the Arabians, and the Cilicians (but granted freedom to those of the latter who gave in to her of their own will). She also took possession of Greater Phrygia, from the Taurus Mountains to the Caicus River, and several Aegean islands, including Lesbos; she was also said to be the first to land on the previously uninhabited island which she named Samothrace, building the temple there. The cities of Myrina (in Lemnos), possibly another Myrina in Mysia, Mytilene, Cyme, Pitane, and Priene were believed to have been founded by her, and named after herself, her sister Mytilene, and the commanders in her army, Cyme, Pitane and Priene, respectively. Myrina's army was eventually defeated by Mopsus the Thracian and Sipylus the Scythian; she, as well as many of her fellow Amazons, fell in the final battle. -Wikipedia
1 commentsancientone
axum_anon.jpg
Aksumite, Anonymous53 viewsObverse: Draped bust right, wearing headcloth ('King')
Reverse: Greek cross within circle, with greek legend ('May this please the country')
Date : Circa AD 340-425
Reference : Munro-Hay Type 52; BMC Aksum 140
Grade : VF
Weight : 1.12 g
Metal : AE
Comments : 13mm, The most common of all axumite coins, they are generally attributed to King Ezana, the first Christian King of the Axumites. Part of now Ethiopia, Axum (Askum) was in the path of the ancient commercial trade routes between Africa, Arabia, and India, as a result it became a very wealth and cosmopolitan centre in the ancient world. In the second century AD, Aksum expanded its empire acquired tribute states on the Arabian Peninsula across the Red Sea, conquered northern Ethiopia, and then finally conquered Kush.

In the fourth century, King Ezana, converted to Christianity under the influence of a Syrian bishop named Frumentius and declared Axum to be a Christian state. Axum remained a strong empire and trading power until the rise of Islam in the seventh century AD, when it became cut off from its major trading partners. However, because the Axumites had sheltered Muhammed's first followers, the Muslims never attempted to overthrow Axum as they spread across the face of Africa.

Of general interest they are the only coins minted in sub saharian africa during the ancient times and one of the first nations to offically convert to Christianity and to show Christian icons on their coins.
Bolayi
IMG_0040.JPG
Alexander I Balas 5 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Alexander I Balas. 152-145 BC. Serrate Æ, Uncertain mint, probably in northern Syria. Diademed head right / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; Seleukid anchor below. SC 1818; HGC 9, 909. Rare.
ecoli
IMG_9995.JPG
Alexander I Balas 7 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Alexander I Balas. 152-145 BC. Æ (19mm, 6.23 g, 12h). Antioch on the Orontes mint. Head of Alexander I right, wearing lion skin headdress / Apollo standing left, holding arrow and grounded bow SC 1795.2; HGC 9, 901.
ecoli
00-balas.jpg
Alexander I Balas - Hoover 90018 viewsAlexander I Balas. AE22 Serrate,
Seleukid kings, Syria. 152-145 BC. Antioch mint.
Diademed head of Alexander right /
BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, Athena standing left,
holding Nike in right hand,
left hand resting on shield set on ground; two monograms before.
xokleng
Alexander_I~1.jpg
Alexander I Balas 150-145 B.C.14 viewsAlexander I Balas 150-145 B.C. Ae 18.6~19.4mm. 7.08g. Obv: Head of Alexander I as Alexander the Great r. in crested Macedonian helmet. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Nike standing l. crowning royal name with wreath and holding palm, ear of grain outer l. monogram A/B inner l. Houghton 201, SNG Cop Syria 263, Babelon 851ddwau
SeleukD_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas29 viewsAE 20, Syria, Alexander I Balas, ca. 128-123 BC, Obv: Alexander in crested helm. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ around Nike standing, crowning King's name, monograms to left and right, VF. Lindgren I, 1827, Hoover HGC 9, 899 (R2).Molinari
SeleukF_copy.jpg
Alexander I, Balas39 viewsSerrated AE 21, Syria, Alexander I Balas, Obv: Alexander right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ, Athena with Nike, monograms, VF. Lindgren III, pl. 62, 1074, Hoover HGC 9, 900 (R1-2).Molinari
seleucid1.jpg
Alexander II34 viewsAlexander II, king of Syria
circa 128 BC
8.1g, 19.4mm, 4.9mm thick, 0°
Obv: head of young dionysos right, werathed with ivy
Rev: BAΣIΛΕΩΣ/ AΛEXANΔPOY on either side of Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae,
monogram and aplustre in left field
Sear 7133
areich
seleucid.jpg
Alexander II43 viewsAlexander II, king of Syria
circa 128 BC
5.55g, 18.8mm, 3.5mm thick
Obv: head of young dionysos right, werathed with ivy
Rev: BAΣIΛΕΩΣ/ AΛEXANΔPOY on either side of Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopiae,
monogram and aplustre in left field

Sear 7133
areich
SeleukR_copy.jpg
Alexander II Zebina50 viewsSerrated AE 15, Syria, Alexander II Zebina, ca. 128-123 B.C. Obv: Head of Dionysos facing right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ around winged Tyche wearing modius with anchor and cornucopiae, grape cluster and monogram. Dark brown patina with some base metal exposed, gVF. Lindgren III, pl.63, 1111, SC 2242, Hoover HGC 9, 1166 (R1).Molinari
Alexander_II_Zebina_SC_2242.png
Alexander II Zebina SC 224216 viewsAlexander II Zebinas, BC 128 - 122, AE18 Serrate, Seleukid kings, Syria, 6.72g, 20mm, Apameia ad Axios mint (?), Hoover 1166, SC 2242
OBV: Head of young Dionysos right, wreathed with ivy.
REV: BASILEWS ALEXANDROY, Tyche, winged, standing left, wearing
kalathos, holding rudder and cornucopiae.
SRukke
coinA_copy.jpg
Alexander II, Zebina32 viewsAE 21, 6.60g, Syria, Alexander II Zebina, ca. 128-123 B.C. Obv: Radiate bust of Alexander Zebina right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ either side of double-cornucopiae bound with diadem; A above palm, Pi to right. Grayish patina with red earthen highlights, VF. SGII 7127, B.M.C. 4. 83, 22, SC 2237, Hoover HGC 9, 1164 (C-S).Molinari
ATG_bust_Pergamon.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C.143 viewsAlexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC), better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

"Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.
Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr Joann Fletcher (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml)
Cleisthenes
ATGlifetimeDrachmLydiaSardes.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C. Lifetime Issue108 viewsSilver drachm, Price 2553, VF, 4.297g, 16.4mm, 0o, Lydia, Sardes mint, c. 334 - 323 B.C. Lifetime Issue; Obverse: Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; Reverse: BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, eagle in right, scepter in left, EYE monogram left, rose under throne. Ex FORVM.

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the 13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
AlexTheGreatMemphisTet.jpg
Alexander III The Great, Macedonian Kingdom, 336 - 323 B.C., Possible Lifetime Issue108 viewsThis is the same coin in my collection, different picture, as the Alexander tetradrachm listed as [300mem].

Silver tetradrachm, Price 3971, VF, 16.081g, 26.1mm, 0o, Egypt, Memphis mint, c. 332 - 323 or 323 - 305 B.C.; obverse Herakles' head right, clad in Nemean lion scalp headdress tied at neck; reverse ALEXANDROU, Zeus enthroned left, legs crossed, eagle in right, scepter in left, rose left, DI-O under throne. Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou. Ex FORVM, "The Memphis issues are among the finest style Alexander coins. Experts disagree on the date of this issue. Some identify it as a lifetime issue and others as a posthumous issue (Joseph Sermarini).

Alexandros III Philippou Makedonon (356-323 BC)

"Alexander III of Macedon, better known as Alexander the Great, single-handedly changed the entire nature of the ancient world in little more than ten years.

Born in the northern Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 356 BC, to Philip II and his formidable wife Olympias, Alexander was educated by the philosopher Aristotle. Following his father's assassination in 336 BC, he inherited a powerful yet volatile kingdom, which he had to secure - along with the rest of the Greek city states - before he could set out to conquer the massive Persian Empire, in revenge for Persia's earlier attempts to conquer Greece.

Against overwhelming odds, he led his army to victories across the Persian territories of Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt without incurring a single defeat. With his greatest victory at the Battle of Gaugamela, in what is now northern Iraq, in 331 BC, the young king of Macedonia, leader of the Greeks, Overlord of Asia Minor and Pharaoh of Egypt also became Great King of Persia at the age of 25.

Over the next eight years, in his capacity as king, commander, politician, scholar and explorer, Alexander led his army a further 11,000 miles, founding over 70 cities and creating an empire that stretched across three continents and covered some two million square miles.

The entire area from Greece in the west, north to the Danube, south into Egypt and as far east as the Indian Punjab, was linked together in a vast international network of trade and commerce. This was united by a common Greek language and culture, whilst the king himself adopted foreign customs in order to rule his millions of ethnically diverse subjects.

Primarily a soldier, Alexander was an acknowledged military genius who always led by example, although his belief in his own indestructibility meant he was often reckless with his own life and that of those he expected to follow him. The fact that his army only refused to do so once, in the13 years of a reign during which there was constant fighting, indicates the loyalty he inspired.

Following his death in 323 BC at the age of only 32, his empire was torn apart in the power struggles of his successors. Yet Alexander's mythical status rapidly reached epic proportions and inspired individuals as diverse as Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, Louis XIV and Napoleon.

He continues to be portrayed according to the bias of those interpreting his achievements. He is either Alexander the Great or Iskander the Accursed, chivalrous knight or bloody monster, benign multi-culturalist or racist imperialist - but above all he is fully deserving of his description as 'the most significant secular individual in history'."

By Dr. Joann Fletcher
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alexander_the_great.shtml

"When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer."--attributed to Plutarch, The Moralia.
http://www.pothos.org/alexander.asp?paraID=96

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsJames Fitzgerald
Alexander Zabinas - SG 7128.JPG
Alexander Zabinas - SG 712838 viewsSeleukid Kingdom
AE21, 128-123 BC
Obverse: Head right, clad in lion skin headdress.
Reverse:BASILEWS ALEXANDPOY, Nike advancing left with wreath and palm. Monogram left.
21mm, 9.0 gm.
Sear Greek 7128; BMC, Seleucid Kings of Syria, pg 83 and plate XXII, #10
Jerome Holderman
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Anchor234 viewsSyria, Seleucid Kingdom. AE-17 mm, 4.47 grs. AV: Head of Helios(?) to right. RV: Apollo(?) to left, altar behind, traces of legend. Circular CM: Anchor. Collection: Mueller.1 commentsAutoman
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Ancient Greek Coin Collection From Sixth to First Centuries B.C.309 viewsHere are the coins I started collecting from 2012 to present. As Aristotle wrote two millennia ago that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts, there is no better way to present a collection of Greeks than to put them all together in a single shot. (Please click on picture for bigger resolution and to show greater details on coins).

Top row from left to right: AEOLIS, MYRINA. AR "Stephanophoric" Tetradrachm. Circa 150 BC**ILLYRIA, DYRRHACHION. AR Stater. Circa 340-280 BC**IONIA, SMYRNA. AR “Stephanophoric” Tetradrachm. Circa 150-145 BC** PELOPONNESOS, SIKYON. AR Stater. Circa 335-330 BC**ATTICA, ATHENS. “New style” Tetradrachm. Circa 169 BC.

Fifth row: BACTRIA, Antialkidas. AR Drachm. Circa 145-135 BC**CAPPADOCIA. Ariobarzanes I AR Drachm. Circa 96-63 BC**THRACE, ABDERA. AR Tetrobol. Circa 360-350 BC**THRACE, CHERSONESSOS. AR Hemidrachm. Circa 386-338 BC.

Fourth row: LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 510-480 BC**THESSALIAN LEAGUE. AR Stater. Circa 196-146 BC**MACEDONIA. Kassander AR Tetradrachm. Circa 317-315 BC**AKARNANIA, LEUKAS. AR Stater. Circa 320-280 BC**PAMPHYLIA, ASPENDOS. AR Stater. Circa 330-300 BC.

Third row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos VI AR Drachm. Circa 144-143 BC**LUCANIA, METAPONTION. AR Stater. Circa 340-330 BC**LUCANIA, VELIA. AR Stater. Circa 280 BC**PARTHIA. Mithradates II AR Drachm. Circa 121-91 BC.

Second row: MYSIA, PERGAMMON. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm. Circa 263-241 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Mazaios AR Stater. Circa 361-334 BC**THRACE. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 297-281 BC**CILICIA, TARSOS. Pharnabazos AR Stater. Circa 380-374 BC**THRACE, MARONEIA. AR Tetradrachm. Mid 2nd cent. BC.

Bottom row: SELEUKID SYRIA. Antiochos Euergetes VII AR Tetradrachm. Circa 138-129 BC**MACEDON. Alexander III AR Tetradrachm. Circa 325-315 BC**CILICIA, AIGEAI. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 30 BC**PAIONIA. Patraos AR Tetradrachm. Circa 335-315 BC**PAMPHYLIA, SIDE. AR Tetradrachm. Circa 155-36 BC.
10 commentsJason T
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Antioch28 viewsAE 19, 5.89g, Syria, Antioch, ca. A.D. 68-69. Obv: Laureated head of Zeus facing right. Rev: Garlanded and lighted altar, Caesarian year 117. Dark brown patina with red earthen highlights, gVF. RPC 4322, B.M.C. 92.Molinari
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Antioch 48 viewsSYRIA, Seleukis & Pieria. Antioch. 38/7 BC. Æ 18mm. Obv: Laureate head of Zeus right. Rev: Tripod; corncuopiae on either side, Tripod, ΑΝΤΙΟΞΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ Caesarean Era Date BI (12=38/7 BC) in ex. XF, green patina with red-orange earthen highlights, RPC I 4299; SNG Copenhagen 83 var.Molinari
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Antioch17 viewsSyria, Antioch under Roman rule AE18mm. Weight 5.12g. Obv: Turreted and veiled bust of Tyche right. Rev: Tripod flanked by date Z K, ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ / ΑΥΤΟΝΟΜΟΥ. SNG Cop 94. RPC 4263ddwau
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ANTIOCH - Syria54 viewsANTIOCH - Syria, Bronze AE 27, RPC I 4223; BMC Galatia pg. 154, 25, 41 - 40 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse ANTIOCEWN MHTROPO THS IERAS KAI ASULOU, Zeus seated left holding Nike and scepter; pileus surmounted by star before, date BOG below (= Seleukid year 272).

Data from FORVM catalogue: About the time this coin was minted, the Parthians led by Quintus Labienus and Pacorus I attacked Syria, which was under Marc Antony's authority. Quintus Labienus was the son of Caesar's general Titus Labienus. He served under Brutus and Cassius, and after the battle at Phillipi fled to Parthia, which he had visited before as an ambassador. After several battles against Antony's governor, Saxa, they occupied the entire province and later Asia Minor and Palestine. In Judea, Pacorus deposed king John Hyrcanus II and appointed his nephew Antigonus king in his place. Labienus was killed during a Roman counter attack in 39 B.C. The territory they captured was recovered for Rome. Pacorus retreated to Parthia but died one year later in an attack on a Roman camp.
1 commentsdpaul7
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Antioch Ad Orentiem Syria Severus Alexander Bronze Coin36 viewsSeverus Alexander 222 - 235 AD Antiochia Ad Orentem Syria mint
Bronze 29 mm 11.8 gram
Obverse: Bust Right. Reverse: Bust of Tyche Left _3000

Antonivs Protti
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Antioch ad Orontem 128 - 129 A.D.16 viewsCivic dichalkon, Antioch ad Orontem, Syria, Ae 15.6~15.9mm. 3.31g. Dated Year 177 Caesarean era. (AD 128-129). Obv: ANTIOXEWN MHTPOΠOΛE, laureate head of Apollo left. Rev: ETOYC ZOP A, six string lyre, star above. Butcher 274; McAlee 128 (a).ddwau
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Antioch ad Orontem ca. 90 B.C.25 viewsSemi-autonomous coinage of Antioch ad Orontem, Syria, ca. 90 B.C. 4.58g. 15.0~16.2mm. Obv: Turreted and veiled bust of Tyche right. Rev:ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ THΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ to right and left of tripod, BMC 19-20 var (field mark); Mionnet 5, 20.1 commentsddwau
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Antioch ad Orontem, Philip I (244-249 AD), AE17 viewsRoman Provincial, Antioch ad Orontem, Philip I (244-249 AD), AE

Obverse: AYTOK K M IOYΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CƐB, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.

Reverse: ANTIOXƐΩN MHTPO KOΛΩN Δ-Ɛ, S-C, Turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right, ram jumping right above, star below.

Reference: BMC 531, SNG Cop 271

Ex: VCoins - Holyland Ancient Coins Corporation - Musa Ali
Gil-galad
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Antioch ad Orontem, Syria, Semi-autonomous, AE19. 65-66 AD27 viewsObv. Turreted head of Tyche right.
Rev. Lighted garlanded altar, date ET HP
19mm , 5.64Grams.
BMC 76. 
1 commentsCanaan
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Antioch AE30 Trebonianus Gallus AE 30 of Antiochia ad Orontem, Syria. 38 views15.03 grams.
27 mm.
Antioch AE30
Trebonianus Gallus AE 30 of Antiochia ad Orontem, Syria. Bust right / tetrastyle temple, Tyche seated left within, river-god below. SGI 4350. BMC 653 sold
Antonio Protti
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Antioch AR tetradrachm of Philip I, 249 AD47 viewsPhilip I
Antioch, Syria
AR tetradrachm, 249 AD
laureate, draped, cuirassed bust r.
AVTOK K M IOVΛI ΦIΛIΠΠOC CEB
eagle standing r. with wreath in beak
ΔEMAPX EΞOVCIAC VΠATO Δ, ANTIOXIA SC in ex.
SNG Copenhaged 269

Ardatirion
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Antioch AR4Drachm Prieur 375 Philip I Billon Tetradrachm of Syria, Antioch. Dated 3rd consulship = 248 AD.79 viewsAntioch AR4Drachm
Prieur 375 Philip I Billon Tetradrachm of Syria, Antioch. Dated 3rd consulship = 248 AD. AVTOK K M IOVLI FILIPPOC CEB, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / DEMARC EXOVCIAC VPATO G, eagle standing right with wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA SC below. BMC 512, SNGCop 265.

http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/philip_I/_antioch_AR4Drachm_Prieur_375.jpg

1 commentsAntonivs Protti
Irradiated_Phillip_the_Arab_Syria,_Antioch_AR_Tetradrachm.JPG
Antioch AR4Drachm Prieur 375 Philip I Billon Tetradrachm of Syria, Antioch. Dated 3rd consulship = 248 AD.80 viewsAntioch AR4Drachm
Prieur 375 Philip I Billon Tetradrachm of Syria, Antioch. Dated 3rd consulship = 248 AD. AVTOK K M IOVLI FILIPPOC CEB, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / DEMARC EXOVCIAC VPATO G, eagle standing right with wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA SC below. BMC 512, SNGCop 265.

http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/philip_I/_antioch_AR4Drachm_Prieur_375.jpg

Antonivs Protti
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Antioch AR4Drachm Prieur 578 Trajan Decius AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. 250/1 AD.89 viewsAntioch AR4Drachm
Prieur 578 Trajan Decius AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. 250/1 AD. AYT K G ME KY TPAIANOC DEKIOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; two pellets below / DHMAPX EXOYCIAC, eagle standing right on palm, holding wreath in beak, SC in ex.

1 commentsAntonivs Protti
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Antioch AR4Drachm Prieur 578 Trajan Decius AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. 250/1 AD. 52 viewsAntioch AR4Drachm
Prieur 578 Trajan Decius AR Tetradrachm of Antioch, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria. 250/1 AD. AYT K G ME KY TPAIANOC DEKIOC CEB, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; two pellets below / DHMAPX EXOYCIAC, eagle standing right on palm, holding wreath in beak, SC in ex.
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
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Antioch c. 47 - 41 B.C. Cleopatra Countermark. AE 10 viewsAntioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Roman Provincial Syria, Cleopatra Countermark. AE , SGCV 5855 - 5856; RPC 4218 ff., Coin and countermark F, Antioch mint, , c. 47 - 41 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, countermarked; reverse “ANTIOCEWN THS MHTROPOLEWS”, Zeus enthroned left holding Nike and scepter. jimbomar
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Antioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Apollo or Cleopatra Countermark. AE 2438 viewsAntioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Roman Provincial Syria, Apollo or Cleopatra Countermark. Bronze AE 24, SGCV 5855 - 5856; RPC 4218 ff., Coin and countermark F, Antioch mint, 11.012g, 23.7mm, 180o, c. 47 - 41 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, countermarked; reverse “ANTIOCEWN THS MHTROPOLEWS”, Zeus enthroned left holding Nike and scepter, uncertain date in ex; brown patina. Ex FORVMPodiceps
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Antioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Roman Provincial Syria, Apollo or Cleopatra Countermark. AE 2411 viewsAntioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Roman Provincial Syria, Apollo or Cleopatra Countermark. Bronze AE 24, SGCV 5855 - 5856; RPC 4218 ff., coin and countermark VG, Antioch mint, 11.797g, 24.4mm, 0o, c. 47 - 41 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, countermarked; reverse “ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ”, Zeus enthroned left holding Nike and scepter, uncertain date in ex; brown patina. RPC notes this countermark as "Head of Apollo" but it may be Cleopatra. The bun behind the head and the piece of hair dangling behind the neck are similar to portraits of Cleopatra on bronze coins from Chalkis and Cyprus and tetradrachms from Syria. Perhaps it was countermarked by the mint that struck the Cleopatra / Antony tetradrachms. Ex FORVMPodiceps
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Antioch Civic Issue Under Nero25 viewsAntioch, Roman Syria under Nero, 59 - 60 A.D.
Bronze AE 19, McAlee 106(b), RPC I 4292, SNG Cop 102, VF, Antioch, 6.389g, 20.1mm, die axis 45o,
OBV: ANTIOXEΩN, turreted and veiled bust of Tyche right;
REV: burning, garlanded altar, on ground line, no dot below altar, ET HP (year 108) in ex;

EX: Forvm Ancient Coins
Romanorvm
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Antioch eagle, tetradrachm19 viewsNero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D., Antioch, Syria. Silver tetradrachm, Prieur 79 ff., F, Antioch mint, 14.238g, 25.9mm, 0o, c. 59 - 63 A.D.; obverse NERWNOS KAISAROS SEBASTOU, laureate beardless bust right wearing aegis; reverse , eagle standing on a thunderbolt, wings spread, palm frond left, date off-flan right. ex FORVMPodiceps
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Antioch in Syria, era of Hadrian, ca. 117 - 138 AD. AE 11 - 14mm5 viewsAntioch in Syria, era of Hadrian, ca. 117 - 138 AD.
bronze uncia (1/4 obol)
Obv. no legend, laureate head right, border of dots;
Rev. large S C in wreath, Greek letter below, all within border of dots
Ref. , Butcher 239a - 248; Vagi 1379, RIC II 629b
Lee S
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Antioch Mint, Elagabalus Bronze Coin69 viewsElagabalus circa 218 - 222 AD Antioch Syria
Bronze 20 mm 5.4 gram
Obverse: Head Right. Reverse: Wreath with SC Eagle below _2250

4 commentsAntonivs Protti
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Antioch of Syria under Augustus48 viewsAugustus AE20 of Antioch, Syria.
Silanus, Legatus Augusti pro praetore
(Legate issue under Augustus)
OBV: Laureate head of Zeus right
REV: EPI SILANOY ANTIOXEWN,
Ram leaping right, looking back at large star, DM below.

RPC I 4269, BMC Galatia p159, 65
Mintmark: Delta M (year 44) - A.D. 12-14
7.66gm 20mm
2 commentsgoldenancients
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Antioch on the Orontes40 viewsAE 20, 7.04g, Syria, Antioch on the Orontes, c. 41-17 BC. Obv: Zeus facing right, dotted border. Rev: Zeus enthroned holding Nike and Scepter, ΑΝΤΙΟΞEΩΝ MHTPOΠOLEΩΣ/AYTONOMOY, aXF/VF, light green patina. Hoover HGC 9, 1372 (C).Molinari
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Antioch on the Orontes23 viewsAE 20, Syria, Antioch on the Orontes, c. 63-49/8 BC. Obv: Laur. head of Zeus right, dotted border. Rev: Zeus enthroned holding Nike and scepter, ΑΝΤΙΟΞΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ,Pompeian era date not visible, black patina, F. Hoover HGC 9, 1371 (C).Molinari
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Antioch on the Orontes28 viewsAE 20, Syria, Antioch on the Orontes, c. 62/1 BC. Obv: Laur. head of Zeus right, dotted border. Rev: Zeus enthroned holding Nike and scepter, ΑΝΤΙΟΞΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ,Pompeian era date E (62/1 BC), black patina, VF. Hoover HGC 9, 1371 (C).Molinari
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ANTIOCH ON THE ORONTES21 viewsANTIOCH ON THE ORONTES - AE-18. 7.39 g. Large denomination. Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right. Rev.: ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ / ΤΗΣ / ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ Zeus seated left, holding Nike and scepter. Date in exergue, letter in field left. Seleucid era, Seleucid era date is mostly off flan, but as middle letter appears to be Δ date range would be 82-75 B.C. Reference: Hoover HGC Syria 1370.
dpaul7
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Antioch S & P Syria Mint Elagabalus Bronze Coin64 viewsElagabalus 218 - 222 AD Antioch Mint S &P Syria
Bronze 23 mm 5.3 gram coin
Obverse: Bust right. Reverse: AE within wreath _2000

Antonivs Protti
Antioch_Syria_Mint_Elagabalus_Bronze_Coin.jpg
Antioch Syria Mint Elagabalus Bronze Coin218 - 222 AD80 views19 mm 8.9 gram coin Obverse: Bust Right Reverse: ∆E in wreath, star below
Antonivs Protti
Antioch_Syria_Mint_Severus_Alexander_Bronze_Coin.jpg
Antioch Syria Mint Severus Alexander Bronze Coin55 viewsSeverus Alexander 222 - 235 AD
Antioch Syria mint
Bronze 23 mm 9.76 gram coin
Obverse: Bust Right
Reverse: Tyche on rock Right

Antonivs Protti
Antioch_Syria_Mint,_Antoninus_Pius_Bronze_Coin.jpg
Antioch Syria Mint, Antoninus Pius Bronze Coin66 viewsAntoninus Pius circa 138 - 161 AD
Antioch Syria Mint
Bronze 17 mm 27 gram coin
Obverse: Head Right
Reverse: SC in wreath
Antonivs Protti
Antioch_Syria_Mint,_Elagabalus_Bronze.jpg
Antioch Syria Mint, Elagabalus Bronze Coin55 viewsElagabalus 218 - 222 AD
Antioch Syria mint
Bronze 16 mm 4.1 gram coin
Obverse: Bust Right
Reverse: SC and KA in wreath
Antonivs Protti
Antioch_Syria_Mint,_Hadrian_Bronze_Coi.jpg
Antioch Syria Mint, Hadrian Bronze Coin160 viewsBronze 6.4 gram 20 mm coin Obverse: Bust Right Reverse: SC in wreath



1 commentsAntonivs Protti
elagabal-2.jpg
Antioch tetradrachm20 viewsElagabalus, Antioch, Syria. Billon tetradrachm, Prieur 257 ff., SNG Cop 236-237, SGICV 3096, Antioch mint, 12.668g, 24.4mm, 0o, 219 A.D.; obverse AUT K M A ANTWNEINOC CEB, laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder; reverse DHMARC EX UPATOC TO B = twice consul = 219 A.D., eagle standing facing, wings spread, head left, wreath in beak, star beneath, ex FORVMPodiceps
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Antioch, civic issue19 viewsAntioch, Syria. Municipal Coinage, civic issue. AE21,weight 8.00 g. Laureate head of Zeus right / ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ to left and right of Zeus seated left, holding Nike (with wreath) and sceptre in left, date in ex.ddwau
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Antioch, civic issue39 viewsAntioch, Syria. Municipal Coinage, civic issue. AE20,weight 6.99 g. Laureate head of Zeus right / ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ to left and right of Zeus seated left, holding Nike (with wreath) and sceptre in left, date in ex.

1 commentsddwau
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Antioch, Civic Issue, 1st Century B.C.17 views
Bronze AE 21 tetrachalkon, BMC Syria p. 153, 12 ff.; RPC I 4201 ff., F, Antioch mint, weight 5.853g, maximum diameter 20.0mm, die axis 0o, obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse ANTIOCEWN THS METROPOLEWS, Zeus enthroned left, Nike in outstretched right, long scepter in left; ex Forvm
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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Antioch, Revised Posthumous Philip, RPC 413655 viewsAntioch Mint, revised posthumous Philip, year = 19 (31/30 B.C.) AR, 26mm 14.39g, RPC 4136, Newell, no. 23
O: Diademed head of Philip Philadelphus, r.
R: BAEILEWE FILIPPOY EPIFANOYE FILADELFOY, Zeus, seated l., holding Nike and scepter
EX: THI
* "In the early fifties, the Romans revived the coinage of King Philip Philadelphus to be their coinage of Syria, copying his types (portrait of Philip/Zeus seated l.), though in a debased style. The coinage lasted from then until the reign of Augustus, and was discussed most recently by H.R. Baldus (in CRWLR, pp. 127-30, with earlier references for H. Scying, E. T. Newell, A. R. Bellinger and C. M. Kraay). The first issues were made with the monogram of Gabinius (57-55 BC), Crassus (54/53 BC) and Cassius (52/51 BC). There after the establishment of a Caesarian era at Antioch in 44/48 BC, their monogram was replaced by one standing for Antioch )or ‘autonomous’: see Wr. 21) and the coins were dated in the exergue by the years of this era. Year 3-12 and, then with a new style (see E. T. Newell, NC, 1919, pp. 69ff.; Baldus, p. 150, n. 14) 19-33 are known.
It may seem odd that the Romans chose the Tetradrachm of Philip (92-83 BC) to revive, rather than those of the last king, Antiochus XII; it is true that the last substantial issue of Seleucid tetradrachms was made by Philip, so that his would have comprised a most important proportion of the currency (so Newell, pp 80-4; M. J. Price ap. Baldus, op. cit., p. 127), but it is hard to see that this provides a sufficient reason, and it is possible that some other consideration might be relevant. While Antiochus (c. 69-65 BC) was away campaigning against the Arabs, the people of Antioch revolted and put forward, as king, Philip, the son of Philip Philadelphus. As the claims of Antiochus were rejected by Pompey when he formed the province, the Roman view may have been that Philip was the last legitimate Seleucid king, and, if so, his coins would naturally have been chosen as the prototype of the Roman coinage in Syria.
The Philips were interrupted from year 12 until year 19, and it seems that in this gap the tetradrachms of Cleopatra and Antony were produced. The evidence for their production at Antioch, however, does not seem sufficient, and they have been catalogued elsewhere, under ‘Uncertain of Syria’ (4094-6). It is certain, however, that a unique drachm portraying Antony was produced at Antioch during this period, as it bears the ethnic ANTIOXEWN MHTPOPOLEWS. See also addenda 4131A.
After the defeat of Antony, the coinage of posthumous Philip was revived in 31/30 BC, though it is not clear whether this represents a conscious decision to avoid putting Octavian’s portrait on the coinage, as happened in Asia and Egypt (similarly, the portrait does not appear on city bronzes of Syria before the last decade BC) or whether it is just the simple reinstatement of the previous type, after the new type of Antony and Cleopatra became unacceptable. At any rate the coinage continued until at least year 33 (= 17/16 BC). Current evidence does not permit us to be sure that it continued any later, to the year 36 (= 14/13 BC), as Newell thought, though this is not impossible."

RPC I, pp. 606-607
casata137ec
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Antioch, Seleukis & Pieria (Syria)60 viewsFirst Century B.C.
Bronze AE24
12.89 gm, 24 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right, boarder of dots
Rev.: Zeus wearing himation enthrowned facing left holding Nike in right, facing away, and sceptre in left, whole in laural wreath; thunder bolt above, cornucopiae in lower left, ANTIOXEΩN/ THΣ right, MHTΡOΠOΛEΩΣ left
IΘ in ex.? (= year 19 of Pompey (48 B.C.))
BMC 20, p.155, 33;
Sear 5857v; RPC I 4216
2 commentsJaimelai
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Antioch, Seleukis and Pieria, SYRIA; Trebonianus Gallus.28 viewsObverse: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Reverse: Eagle standing right, head left, holding wreath in beak; B between legs.

ecoli
Antiochus_b.jpg
Antioch, Syia, Municipal Coinage c.48-41BC20 viewsAntioch, Syria. Municipal Coinage. AE22-23,weight 10.94 g. ca 48-41 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ ΤΗΣ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ to left and right of Zeus seated left, holding Nike and sceptre in left, thunderbolt above, date mark on thunderbolt in exergue. Hoover 1367; Butcher 14-17; McAlee 45-51.ddwau
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Antioch, Syria25 views166 - 167 A.D. (Reign of Marcus Aurelius)
AE, 3.05 gm, 16 mm
Obv.: Veiled and turreted head of Tyche of Antioch right [ANTIOXEΩN MHTΡO]
Rev.: ETO-YC- ZC (year 207) Ram running right, looking back, crescent with star above
Antioch mint, 166 - 167 A.D.
BMC 123, SNG Cop 126 var
Jaimelai
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Antioch, Syria54 viewsFirst Century B.C.
Bronze
7.90 gm, 19.5 mm
Obv.: Laureate head of Zeus right, boarder of dots
Rev.: ANTIOXEΩN THΣ right, MHTΡOΠOΛEΩΣ left
Zeus wearing himation enthrowned facing left holding Nike in right, crowning with wreath, and sceptre in left
Monogram lower left
BMC 20, p.156, 43
Jaimelai
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Antioch, Syria, Civic Coinage under Nero, 59 - 60 A.D.21 viewsAntioch, Syria, Civic Coinage under Nero, 59 - 60 A.D. Ae 16.5~17.2mm. 4.60g. Antioch mint, Pseudo-autonomous issue. Obv: Diademed head of Apollo right. Rev: ANTIOXE ET HΡ (Antioch year 108 Caesarian Era), lyre. RPC I 4293, McAlee 107b.1 commentsddwau
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Antioch, Tetradrachm; eagle head left23 viewsPhilip II, July or August 247 - late 249 A.D.
12.6g, 26mm. SYRIA, ANTIOCH, Billon tetradrachm, Rev. ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞΟΥCΙΑC ΥΠΑΤΟ Δ, Eagle standing facing, wings open, head left, wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA S C below. GIC 4146 var. 1 commentsPodiceps
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Antioch, Tetradrachm; eagle head right7 viewsPhilip II, July or August 247 - late 249 A.D.
12.6g, 26mm. SYRIA, ANTIOCH, Billon tetradrachm, Rev. ΔΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞΟΥCΙΑC ΥΠΑΤΟ Δ, Eagle standing facing, wings open, head right, wreath in beak, ANTIOXIA S C below. GIC 4146 var.Podiceps
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Antioch,Syria AE20 Of Elagabalus 218-222 AD 48 views3.65 grams.
15 mm.
Elagabalus AE20 of Antioch, Syria. IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS AVG, laureate bust right / large DЄ, star beneath, all within laurel wreath. BMC 449. SGI 3098

Antonivs Protti
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Antioch. AE 19.2mm, Tyche23 viewsHadrian A.D. 117-138, Syria, Antioch. AE 19.2mm (3.96g) AVTOKP KAIC TPAIAN AΔPIANOC CEBAC; Laur. head of Hadrian r., with slight drapery at neck/ ANTIOXEWN THC MHTPOΠOLE; Towered and veiled bust of Tyche r., A below chin. McAlee 541a; Ex Gert Boersema, photo credit Gert BoersemaPodiceps
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Antioch. AE 19mm, Zeus/ voting scene9 viewsSyria, Antioch. AE 19mm (5.16g), Time of Nero, dated AD 66-67 / Voting scene. ANTIOXEΩN; Laureate head of Zeus r./ ETO EIP; The Boule of Antioch seated l., placing pebble in voting urn. RPC 4305; McAlee 112a; Ex Gert Boersema, photo credit Gert BoersemaPodiceps
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Antioch; SC, Δ above, ε below; AE1738 viewsMacrinus, Antioch, Syria. AE 17mm, AVT K M O MAKPINOC CE, laureate head right / SC, Δ above, ε below. BMC 385, SNGCop 233. Podiceps
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ANTIOCHA AD ORONTEM - SYRIA52 views"Star of Bethlehem" bronze of Antioch
Anonymous Issue under Nero, AE Small Denomination, 56/57 (Caesarean Year 105), Syria: Seleucis and Pieria-Antiochia ad Orontem ANTIOXEWN - Veiled, turreted head of Tyche right, countermark of star (of Bethlehem?) in left field - EPIKOUADRATOU Ram leaping right, looking back, star and crescent above
ET EP in exergue 16mm. Butcher Antioch 121; SNG Copenhagen 101
Michael Molnar, an astronomer, believes this coin depicts Jupiter's occultation of Aries in 6 B.C., the most probable "Star of Bethlehem."
dpaul7
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Antioches I Soter23 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA, Antiochos I Soter, Tarsos mint, 281-261 BC, Æ 22mm, 7.17 g, SC 332c, SNG Spaer 228 var. (monogram), Houghton 452
OBV: Helmeted head of Athena right
REV: Caps of the Dioskouroi; monogram in exergue
Romanorvm
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Antiochia ad Orontem 1st century B.C.14 viewsSyria, Seleukis and Pieria. Antiochia ad Orontem. 1st century B.C. AE dichalkon 15.3 mm, 4.14 g. Obv: Turreted and veiled bust of Tyche right. Rev: ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ THΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ to right and left of tripod. SNG Copenhagen 71; BMC 19-20 var (field mark); Mionnet 5, 20.1 commentsddwau
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Antiochia ad Orontem, AE16, Artemis/ Lyre27 viewsAntiochia ad Orontem, Syria. Quasi-autonomous AE16, 59/60 A.D. (time of Nero), 15mm, 2.99g. Obv: diademed bust of Artemis right. Rev: ANTIOXE ET HP, Lyre. BMC 88, SNG Righetti 1899. Very fine, off center strike. Ex Rutten & WielandPodiceps
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Antiochia ad Orontem; Volusian14 viewsSYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria. Antioch. Volusian. AD 251-253. Æ 29mm Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / Tetrastyle temple of Tyche of Antioch, river-god Orontes swimming at her feet; above shrine, ram leaping right, head left; D-E above. BMC Galatia etc. p. 231, 665; SNG Copenhagen 295; SNG München 790.ecoli
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Antiochia, Seleucis and Pieria, Syria; Philip I20 viewsSYRIA, Seleucis and Pieria, Antiochia. Philip I.
244-249 AD. Æ 28mm (15.37 gm). Laureate and
draped bust right / Turreted, veiled and draped
bust of Tyche right; above, ram jumping right,
looking back; below star. BMC Galatia pg. 215,
527
ecoli
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Antiochos I Soter 5 viewsSELEUKID KINGS OF SYRIA. Antiochos I Soter (281-261 BC). Ae. Smyrna.
Obv: Helmeted head of Athena right.
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY.
Elephant head left. Controls: Two monograms.
SC 312.
ecoli
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Antiochos I Soter, AE19, BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY8 viewsAE19
Antiochos I Soter
King: 281 - 261BC
19.0mm 6.30gr 12h
O: NO LEGEND; Laureate head of Apollo, right.
R: BAΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY; Tripod.
Antioch, Syria Mint
Ex. Harlan Berk
SNG Spaer 179-182
JAZ Numismatics/John Zielinski Auction 138, Lot 3
8/16/18 12/5/18
Nicholas Z
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Antiochos II Theos 2 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochos II Theos. 261-246 BC. Æ (17mm, 4.09 g, 12h). Sardes mint. Laureate head of Apollo right / Tripod; anchor below; H to left, ∆I monogram to right. SC 522.9 var. (∆ to right); HSC 9, 253a.
ecoli
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Antiochos II Theos11 viewsSELEUKID KINGS OF SYRIA. Antiochos II Theos, 261-246 BC. AR Tetradrachm (29 mm, 16.71 g, 12 h), Ephesos (?). Diademed head of Antiochos II to right. Rev. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ Apollo, nude, seated left on omphalos, holding arrow in right hand and leaning with left on bow; to left, monogram of ΠA. HGC 239. SC 543.3.Rob D
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Antiochos III Megas52 viewsAR Tetradrachm (28mm, 17.04 g, 12h). ΔI mint, in Southern or Eastern Syria. Struck circa 197-187 BC. Diademed head right / Apollo Delphios, testing arrow and placing hand on grounded bow, seated left on omphalos; ΔI in exergue. SC 1112; HGC 9, 447y. 1 commentsThatParthianGuy
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Antiochos III Megas 223-187 B.C.16 viewsAntiochus III, Uncertain mint, Syria, Ae 19.6~20.2mm. 8.51g. Obv: Head of Athena in crested helmet right, ΜΑΧ lower left. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ, winged Nike standing left holding wreath, anchor counterstamp in inner left field. ddwau