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Randy.JPG
Falling horseman67 viewsAll 15 official mints.
Alexandria
Amiens
Antioch
Aquileia
Arles
Constantinople
Cyzicus
Heraclea
Lyons
Nicomedia
Rome
Sirmium
Siscia
Thessalonica
Trier
Barbaous Mint

Updated coins with a new background (thanks Jay!)
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
crisp21.jpg
Crispus AE follis. 324-325 AD.Sirmium RIC VII 4914 views

Crispus AE follis.. 324-325 AD. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / ALEMANNIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy and palm, treading upon bound captive on right. Mintmark dot SIRM dot. Cohen 1.
Britanikus
jv119b.jpg
Jovian , RIC VIII 119 Sirmium, 363-364 CE17 viewsJovian AE3
Obverse: DN IOVIA NVS PF AVG, rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VOT V, MVLT X within wreath on 4 lines.
BSIRM in ex. Sirmium mint, 20.7 mm, 2.8 g.
NORMAN K
jv119.jpg
Jovian , RIC VIII 119 Sirmium, 363-364 CE10 viewsJovian AE3
Obverse: DN IOVIA NVS PF AVG, rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VOT V, MVLT X within wreath on 4 lines.
BSIRM in ex. Sirmium mint, 19.2 mm, 3.1 g.
NORMAN K
tgtb.jpg
JULIAN II, RIC VIII 108 Sirmium 22 viewsJulian II, 361-363 CE. Æ 20.5 mm., 3.3 g. Sirmium mint.
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust right, holding spear forward and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines across field within wreath; ASIRM.; LRBC 1619. hard green patina
NORMAN K
AE.JPG
Valens, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, 364-378 AD. AE 18. Struck 364 AD. Sirmium mint. 18 viewsDN VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLORIA RO MANORVM, Valens advancing right, dragging captive and holding labarum; ASIRM.
Sirmium RIC 4b
Antonivs Protti
valentinien1-votvmvltx-sirmium.JPG
RIC.8.2 Valentinian I (AE3, Vot V Mvlt X)14 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
AE3 : Vot V Mvlt X (364, Sirmium)

bronze, 19 mm diameter, 3.56 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VOT / V / MVLT / X / BSIRM in exergue; in wreath
Droger
valentinien1-silique-urbs-roma-treves.JPG
RIC.27d1 Valentinian I (siliqua, Vrbs Roma)10 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
Siliqua : Vrbs Roma (367-375, Trèves)

silver, 17 mm diameter, 1.79 g, die axis: 7 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VRBS - ROMA / TRPS• in exergue, Roma seating on cuirass, head left, holding globe and spear
Droger
csts_ii_ft_bsirm_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II26 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18.5 mm max., 2.02 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; BSIRM in exe.
Sirmium mint
laney
c_ii_ft_sir_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II23 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 17.5 mm 2.31 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier spearing fallen horseman; "M" in left field
Sirmium mint
laney
JULIAN.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II35 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
struck 360 - 363 AD as Augustus
AE 20 mm 3.69 g
O: [DN FL CL] IVLIANVS PF AVG
HELMETED DIAD DUIR BUST L HOLDING SHIELD AND SPEAR
R: VOT/X/MVLT/XX WITHIN WREATH
BSIRM IN EXE
SIRMIUM
laney
Novbilder_(34).jpg
004 - Julian II "the Apostate" (360-363 AD), AE 3 - RIC 10857 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearldiademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear in right and shield in left hand.
Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / XX within wreath.
Minted in Sirmium (ASIRM in exe), first officina, summer 361 - 26 Jun 363 AD.
3 commentspierre_p77
coin247~0.JPG
004. Constantius II Sirmium Fel Temp7 viewsSirmium 48 C2

From Uncleaned

ecoli
coin522.JPG
005. Constantius Gallus Fel Temp Sirmium 9 viewsSirmium 51 C2

ecoli
coin858.JPG
005. Constantius Gallus Sirmium Fel Temp6 viewsSirmium 49
ecoli
01a_019.jpg
013 - Jovian (363-364), AE3 - RIC 118A45 viewsObv: DN IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VOT / V / MULT / X within wreath.
Minted in Sirmium (ASIRM in exe), first officina, 363-364 AD.
pierre_p77
070.jpg
069 Julian II7 viewsEMPEROR: Julian II
DENOMINATION: AE3
OBVERSE: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
REVERSE: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within a wreath with a fancy bow
EXERGUE: BSIRM
DATE: 361-363 AD
MINT: Sirmium
WEIGHT:
RIC VIII Sirmium 108
Barnaba6
IMG_2275.JPG
07 Constantius II48 viewsConstantius II AE2. 351-355 AD.
25mm 4.6g
D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing a fallen horseman wearing a Phrygian helmet, clutching, Star left,SMK Gamma in ex.

Boljetin hoard, Sirmium VIII Cyzicus, 529
R5
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
000_012.JPG
12 Constantius II92 viewsConstantius II AE3. 351-355 AD. D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, Delta behind / FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Soldier standing right, right leg raised, spearing a fallen horseman who is bare-headed, reaching backwards, A beneath horse, BSIRM in ex.
Sirmium
RIC VIII 40
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2541.JPG
12 Constantius II61 viewsDN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG Constantius II pearl-diademed, draped, A behind, cuirassed bust right
FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO III left, soldier spearing Horseman, bearded, bare-headed, reaching
[*]ASIRM in ex
Sirmium 32
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_3687.jpg
12 Constantius II46 viewsConstantius II
DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
FEL TEMP-REPARATIO
soldier spearing horseman, bare-headed, reaching
BSIRM
Sirmium 48
ex DS
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
RI_130ay_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - Siscia mint unlisted25 viewsObv:– IMP C M CLA TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax advancing left holding branch and transverse sceptre
Minted in Siscia (Q in left field)
References:– RIC -. La Venera -. Estiot p. 368, specimens in Vienna and Sirmium Hoard.

There are no examples of this coin in LaVenera though there is an equivalent coin with the Q in exe, LV 1799 (2 examples cited, 2234-2235). The usual type is Pax standing.
maridvnvm
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constantinus-I_RIC-VII-14-6h_22mm_2,75ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 014, AR-Miliarense, -/-//SIRM, CRISPVS ET CO(NSTANTINVS C C), Cripus and Costantinus-II, Bare head right.150 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 014, AR-Miliarense, -/-//SIRM, CRISPVS ET CO(NSTANTINVS C C), Cripus and Costantinus II., Bare head right.
avers:- CONSTANTI(NVS MAX AVG),
revers:- CRISPVS ET CO(NSTANTINVS C C), Busts of Crispus (left) and Constantine II. (right) facing each other.
exe: -/-//SI(RM), diameter: 22mm, weight: 2,74g(half), axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 14, p-469, C-3, Gnecchi-8,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG_SARMATIA-DEVICTA_SIRM_RIC-VII-48-p-475-c3_C-x_Sirmium_th_-off__324-5-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_19-20mm_3,03g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 048, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, SARMATIA DEVICTA, #1,81 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 048, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, SARMATIA DEVICTA, #1,
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1,B1, Laureate head right.
rever:- SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, stepping on captive, holding trophy and palm.
exergo: -/-//SIRM, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,03g, axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 324-325 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-48, p-475,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG_SARMATIA-DEVICTA_SIRM_RIC-VII-48-p-475-c3_C-x_Sirmium_th_-off__324-5-AD__Q-002_axis-6h_18-19,5mm_3,18g-s~0.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 048, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, SARMATIA DEVICTA, #2,119 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VII 048, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, SARMATIA DEVICTA, #2,
avers:- CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1,B1, Laureate head right.
rever:- SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, stepping on captive, holding trophy and palm.
exergo: -/-//SIRM, diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 324-325 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-48, p475,
Q-002
quadrans
Sirmium_RIC_VII_049,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-CAES-5-B1_ALEMANI-A-DEVICTA_dot-SIRM-dot_p475-c2_324-25-AD__Q-001_6h_19mm_2,94g-zs.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VII 049, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SIRM•, ALEMANIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, #176 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VII 049, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SIRM•, ALEMANIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, #1
avers:- FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-CAES-5-B1, Laureate head right.
rever:- ALEMANI-A-DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, stepping on captive, holding trophy and palm.
exergo: -/-//•SIRM•, diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 2,94g, axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 324-325 AD., ref: RIC-VII-49-p475, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Sirmium_RIC_VII_049,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-CAES-5-B1_ALEMANI-A-DEVICTA_dot-SIRM-dot_p475-c2_324-25-AD__Q-002_0h_19-19,5mm_2,75g-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VII 049, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SIRM•, ALEMANIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, #2112 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VII 049, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SIRM•, ALEMANIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, #2
avers: FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-CAES-5-B1, Laureate head right.
rever: ALEMANI-A-DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, stepping on captive, holding trophy and palm.
exergo: -/-//•SIRM•, diameter: 19-19,5mm, weight: 2,75g, axis: 0h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 324-325 AD., ref: RIC-VII-49-p475, C2,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_ALEMANI-A-DEVICTA_dot-SIRM-dot_RIC-VII-51_r1_p475-7b-B4_Sirmium_324-5-AD__Q-001_axis-11h_17-19mm_2,85ga-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 051, Sirmium, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SIRM•, ALEMANIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, R1!104 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), RIC VII 051, Sirmium, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SIRM•, ALEMANIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, R1!
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C-7b-B4, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- ALEMANI-A-DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, stepping on captive, holding trophy and palm.
exergo: -/-//•SIRM•, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,85g, axis: 11h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 324-325 AD., ref: RIC-VII-51-p475, R1!,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II_AR-Siliqua-Sirm_Q-001_a-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 015, AR-Siliqua, -/-//SIRM, VOTIS/XXX/MVLTIS/XXXX, in four lines within wreath, Rare!83 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 015, AR-Siliqua, -/-//SIRM, VOTIS/XXX/MVLTIS/XXXX, in four lines within wreath, Rare!
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Pearl-Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VOTIS/XXX/MVLTIS/XXXX, in four lines within wreath.
exergo: -/-//SIRM, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-355 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-015, p-385, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_A_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_III_star-SIRM_RIC-VIII-21-p-386-Cs1-D3_Sirmium_351-55_AD_Q-001_0h_23-24,5mm_5,28gs.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 021, AE-2 Follis, A/-//--, III/-//*SIRM, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard, 67 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 021, AE-2 Follis, A/-//--, III/-//*SIRM, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard,
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1,D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "A" behind the busts.
rever:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor diademed, and military dress standing, faceing, head left, above him star. In each hand he holds a standard with Chi-Rho on the banner. "III" in the left field.
exergo: A/-//--, III/-//*SIRM, diameter: 23-24,5mm, weight: 5,28g, axis: 0h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-355 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-021, p-386,
Q-001
quadrans
147_Constantius_II_,_Sirmium_RIC_VIII_044,_AE-2,_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG,_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO,_Delta,__S__A_SIRM,__2nd_series_p-387,_351-55AD,_Q-001_0h_20,5-21,5mm_4,47g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 044, AE-2 Follis, Δ/-//--, •S•/-/A//ASIRM, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1120 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 044, AE-2 Follis, Δ/-//--, •S•/-/A//ASIRM, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "Δ" behind teh bust.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left, knee raised, spearing a fallen horseman who is bare-headed. "•S•" in left field, "A" beneath horse.
exergo: Δ/-//--, •S•/-/A//ASIRM, diameter: 20,5-21,5mm, weight: 4,47g, axis:0h,
mint: Sirmium, 2nd. series(Δ behind teh bust), date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 044, p-387,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II__Sirmium_RIC_VIII_052,_AE-3_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO_BSIRMdot_3rd_series_p-388_351-55AD_Q-001_7h_16,5mm_2,66g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #191 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, (reaching type).
exergo: -/-//BSIRM•, diameter: 16,5mm, weight:2,66g, axis:7h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 052, p-388,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II__Sirmium_RIC_VIII_052,_AE-3_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO_BSIRMdot_3rd_series_p-388_351-55AD_Q-002_6h_17-18,3mm_2,33g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #276 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FELTEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #2
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, (reaching type).
exergo: -/-//BSIRM•, diameter: 17,0-18,3mm, weight:2,33g, axis:6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 052, p-388,
Q-002
quadrans
13594p00.jpg
1502c, Valens, 28 March 364 - 9 August 378 A.D. (Cyzikus)53 viewsBronze AE 3, S 4118, 2.42g, 16.5mm, 180o,Cyzikus, F/F, obverse D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left, SMK L(?) in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility was destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Valens.jpg
1502h, Valens, 364-378 A.D. (Heraclea)47 viewsValens, 364-378 A.D., Heraclea mint, VF, Chi-Rho standard reverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valens (365-369 AD.)

Noel Linski, University of Colorado

Valens was the brother of Valentinian I. On March 28, 364, precisely one month after his accession by Roman reckoning, Valentinian appointed his brother Flavius Valens co-emperor at the Hebdomon, the first in a long line of emperors proclaimed there. Themistius was present and later recounted the occasion in his Or. 6. After only two months of co-rulership, the two departed from Constantinople for their native Illyricum. Outside Naissus, in Moesia, they divided their administrative staff between them and at Sirmium they did the same with their mobile forces. Valens was to rule the east, from Thrace in the North and Cyrenaica in the South eastward to the Persian frontier. Valentinian ruled the west. They did not spend long in Sirmium. By late August 365 Valentinian had moved on toward Milan, where he resided for the following year before moving on to Trier, which remained his capital until 375. Similarly, Valens was back in Constantinople by December 364.and he was declared Augustus in 364 A.D. He was given command of the Eastern provinces, where he spent much of his time campaigning against the Goths and Persians.

In 376 A.D., Valens allowed Gothic tribes, who were being driven forward by the Huns to settle in the Danube provinces. The Goths were so badly treated by the Romans that they rebelled. Valens marched against the confederated barbarian army, and on August 9, 378, the two forces met at Adrianople. Although negotiations were attempted, these broke down when a Roman unit sallied forth and carried both sides into battle. The Romans held their own early on but were crushed by the surprise arrival of Greuthungi cavalry which split their ranks.

In one historical account, Valens was wounded in battle but escaped to a nearby farmstead where he was burned to death in a tower by Gothic marauders. The fourth century A.D. Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus does not seem to concur with this story. Regardless, when the battle was over Valens' body was never recovered, 10,000 roman soldiers lay dead and the perception of Roman military invincibility had been destroyed.

Adrianople was the most significant event in Valens' career. Though he displayed some talent as an administrator, Valens' persecutions of Nicene Christians and pagan philosophers, his halting efforts at military achievement and his obtuse personality rendered him a less than glorious emperor. To have died in so inglorious a battle has thus come to be regarded as the nadir of an unfortunate career. This is especially true because of the profound consequences of Valens' defeat.

Adrianople spelled the beginning of the end for Roman territorial integrity in the late empire and this fact was recognized even by contemporaries. The Roman historian Ammianus (325-391 AD) understood that it was the worst defeat in Roman history since Cannae. Rufinus (340–410 CE), monk, historian, and theologian; called it "the beginning of evils for the Roman empire then and thereafter."

Noel Lenski, University of Colorado
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)70 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)79 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius-Gallus_AE-3_DN-CONSTANTIVS-IVN-NOB-C_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_ASIRMdot_RIC-VIII-53_p-388_Sirmium_351-354-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
152 Constantius Gallus (351-354 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 053, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIRM•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing horseman,65 views152 Constantius Gallus (351-354 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 053, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIRM•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing horseman,
avers:- D N CONSTATIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FEL TEMP RE PARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is wearing helmet, reading backwards.
exe: -/-//ASIRM•, diameter: 20mm, weight: 1,91g, axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-354 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 53, p-388,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-Gallus_AE-3_DN-CONSTANTIVS-IVN-NOB-C_VICTORIA-CAESARIS_SIRM_RIC-VIII-Not-in_ERIC-31_Sirmium_351-354-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18mm_2,20g-s.jpg
152 Constantius Gallus (351-354 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII Not-in, ERIC-31, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, VICTORIA-CAESARIS, Victory advancing left, Rare !!!160 views152 Constantius Gallus (351-354 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII Not-in, ERIC-31, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, VICTORIA-CAESARIS, Victory advancing left, Rare !!!
avers:- D N CONSTATIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIA CAESARIS, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
exe: -/-//SIRM, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,20g, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium, date: A.D., ref: RIC VIII Not in ! (Unlisted in RIC and Cohen for Sirmium.), ERIC-31, Sirmium, Rare !!!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_x-A-SIRM-x_Sirmium-360-63_RIC-000_Q-001_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 106, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*ASIRMwreath, Bull standing right, #1173 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 106, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*ASIRMwreath, Bull standing right, #1
avers:- D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (D3).
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergo: -/-//*ASIRMwreath, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 106, C
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_A-SIRM_Sirmium-360-63_RIC-000_Q-001_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 107, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*ASIRMpalm, Bull standing right, #165 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 107, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*ASIRMpalm, Bull standing right, #1
avers:- D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (D3).
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergo: -/-//*ASIRMpalm, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 107, C
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_star-B-SIRM-palm_Sirmium-360-63_RIC-000_Q-002_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 107, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*BSIRMpalm, Bull standing right, #2218 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 107, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*BSIRMpalm, Bull standing right, #2
avers:- D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (D3).
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergo: -/-//*BSIRMpalm, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 107, C
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_A-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-002_6h_19mm_3,04g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//ASIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #162 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//ASIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//ASIRM, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-002
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-001_6h_20,5mm_3,35g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #180 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-003_0h_20mm_3,10g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #265 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #2
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//BSIRM, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-003
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-004_7h_20,5-21,5mm_3,20g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #366 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #3
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//BSIRM, diameter: 20,5-1,5mm, weight: 3,20g, axis: 7h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-003
quadrans
Julian-II-proba-gif2b.gif
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, Nice animation !!!, 69 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, Nice animation !!!,
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_x-SIRN-x_Sirmium-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-003_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #1065 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #10
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-010
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-30_BARBAR_x-SIRN-x_Sirmium-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-001_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0165 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #01
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above, ?-SIRN-? in exergue.
exergue:-/-//-SIRN-, diameter:30mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium (Barbar), date: ??, ref: RIC VIII 106-107 ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_x-SIRN-x_Sirmium-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-002_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0266 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #02
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above, ?-SIRN-? in exergue.
exergue:-/-//-SIRN-, diameter:25mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium (Barbar), date: ??, ref: RIC VIII 106-107 ???,
Q-002
quadrans
153-Julianus-II_AE-1-23_-Barbar_-Imitation_AD_Q-051_1h_22,5-23,5mm_6_18g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0375 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #03
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: /-//confusing text, diameter: 22,5-23,5mm, weight: 6,18g, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium (Barbar), date: ???, ref: RIC VIII 106-107 ???,
Q-003
1 commentsquadrans
Jovianus_AE-3_DN-IOVIA-NVS-PF-AVG_VOT-V-MVLT-X_B-SIRM_Jv1-D3-Sirmium_363-64-AD__RIC-VIII-118-p394_Q-001_axis-6h_20-21mm_4,16g-s.jpg
154 Jovianus (363-364 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 118, AE-3, VOT/V/MVLT/X, in wreath, -/-//ASIRM, Scarce ! #189 views154 Jovianus (363-364 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 118, AE-3, VOT/V/MVLT/X, in wreath, -/-//ASIRM, Scarce ! #1
avers:- D N IOVIA NVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, Jv1-D3.
revers:- No legend, wreath VOT/V/MVLT/X within ,
exergo: -/-//ASIRM, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 4,16g, axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, 1st.off., date: 363-64 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 118, p-394, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
Jovianus_AE-3_DN-IOVIA-NVS-PF-AVG_VOT-V-MVLT-X_B-SIRM_Jv1-D4-Sirmium_363-64-AD__RIC-VIII-119-p394_Q-001_axis-1h_19,5mm_3,40g-s.jpg
154 Jovianus (363-364 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 119, AE-3, VOT/V/MVLT/X, in wreath, -/-//BSIRM, Scarce ! #169 views154 Jovianus (363-364 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 119, AE-3, VOT/V/MVLT/X, in wreath, -/-//BSIRM, Scarce ! #1
avers:- D N IOVIA NVS P F AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, Jv1-D4.
revers:- No legend, wreath VOT/V/MVLT/X within ,
exergo: -/-//BSIRM, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,40, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium, 2nd.off., date: 363-64 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 119, p-394, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
Jovianus_AE-1-28_DN-IOVIANV-S-PF-AVG_VICTORIA-ROMANORVM_TES-Gamma_Thessalonica_RIC-VIII-234_Q-001_5h_28-29mm_6,32g-s.jpg
154 Jovianus (363-364 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 234, AE-1, VICTORIA ROMANORVM, -/-//TESΓ, Jovian standing front, Scarce ! #1209 views154 Jovianus (363-364 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 234, AE-1, VICTORIA ROMANORVM, -/-//TESΓ, Jovian standing front, Scarce ! #1
avers:- D N IOVIA NVS P F AVG, Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers: VICTORIA ROMANORVM, Jovian standing front, head right, holding Victory and labarum.
exergo: -/-//TESΓ, diameter: 28-29mm, weight: 6,32g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 363-64 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 234, p-, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
Valens_AE-3_DN-VALEN-S-PF-AVG_RESTITV-T-ORBIS_A-SIRM_RIC-IX-6B-A_Sirmium_-Rare_AD_Q-001_axis-5h_18-19mm_2,92g-s.jpg
156 Valens (364-378 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC IX 006B-A, AE-3, RESTITVT ORBIS, -/-//ASIRM, Emperor standing, #189 views156 Valens (364-378 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC IX 006B-A, AE-3, RESTITVT ORBIS, -/-//ASIRM, Emperor standing, #1
avers:- D N VALEN S P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust right.
revers:- RESTITV T ORBIS, Emperor standing facing, head right, holding laburum and Victory on globe.
exe: -/-//ASIRM, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 2,92g, axis: 5h,
mint: Sirmium, date: A.D., ref: RIC IX 6B-A, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
M.Aurelius RIC1033.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AE sestertius - struck 171-172 AD44 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXVI (laureate head right)
rev: IMP VI COS III (Roma with Victory in her right hand and spear in her left enthroning left, beside her shield. Victorious type), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1033, C. 281
23.13gms, 30mm,

History: In 170, during the course of the bellum Germanicum sarmaticum the Iazyges defeated and killed Claudius Fronto, Roman governor of Lower Moesia, and his troops. Operating from Sirmium on the Sava river, Marcus Aurelius moved against the Iazyges personally. After hard fighting, the Iazyges were pressed to their limits. In 172, the Roman legions crossed the Ister (Danube) river at Vindobona and Carnuntum and went into Marcomannic territory. The Romans achieved success, subjugating the Marcomanni and their allies, the Naristi and the Cotini. This coin commemorate the victories in the first Marcomannic War.
berserker
RI 163f img.jpg
163 - Helena - RIC VII Sirmius 054 (AE3)23 viewsObv:– FL HELENA AVGVSTA, Diademed draped bust right, with necklace
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Helena standing left, holding branch
Minted in Sirmium. SIRM in exe. A.D. 325-326
Reference:– RIC VII Sirmium 54 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI_170ep1_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Rome 25621 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Delta behind bust
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield at ground to right. Horseman turns to face the soldier, and reaches his left arm up towards him. He wears a Phrygian cap
Minted in Sirmium (Dot S Dot | _ / A // BSIRM).
References:- RIC VIII Sirmium 44

4.04 gms. 21.36 mm. 0 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_170dl_img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - AE2 - RIC VIII Sirmium 52/5915 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground at right. Horseman is bare headed and bearded and reaches back towards the emperor.
Minted in Sirmium (ASIRM Dot).
Reference:- RIC VIII Sirmium 52/59 (C2)

19.01 mm. 2.11 gms. 180 degrees
maridvnvm
RI 170h img.jpg
170 - Constantius II - RIC VIII Sirmium 1554 viewsAr Siliqua
Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VOTIS XXX MVLTIS XXXX in wreath
Minted in Sirmium, SIRM in exe.
Reference:– RIC VIII Sirmium 15
Broken into three neat pieces.
maridvnvm
RI_175u_img.jpg
175 - Constantius Gallus - AE2/3 - RIC VIII Sirmium 45 23 viewsAE2/3
Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, Bare, bust draped and cuirassed right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is bare headed, reaching back towards emperor
Minted in Sirmium (.S. | _ / A //BSIRM),
Reference:– RIC VIII Sirmium 45 (C2)
maridvnvm
RI_175l_a_img.jpg
175 - Constantius Gallus - AE3 - RIC VIII Sirmium 4521 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, Bare, bust draped and cuirassed right; Delta behind bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is bare headed, reaching backwards
Minted in Sirmium (.S. | _ / A // BSIRM),
Reference:– RIC VIII Sirmium 45 (C2).
maridvnvm
RI_175z_img.jpg
175 - Constantius Gallus - AE3 - RIC VIII Sirmium 5113 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, Bare, bust draped and cuirassed right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is bare headed, reaching backwards
Minted in Sirmium (Ev | _ // ASIRM)

Reference:– RIC VIII Sirmium 51 (C2)

19.05 mm. 2.37 gms, 0 degrees
maridvnvm
RI_175e_img.jpg
175 - Constantius Gallus - AE3 - RIC VIII Sirmium 53 11 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, Bare, bust draped and cuirassed right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is bare headed, reaching backwards
Minted in Sirmium (// ASIRM Dot), September A.D. 352 - Winter A.D. 354
Reference:– RIC VIII Sirmium 53
maridvnvm
RI_176i_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Sirmium 108 24 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
Rev:– VOT X MVLT XX, within wreath
Minted in Sirmium (//BSIRM), Spring A.D. 360- A.D. 363
Reference:– RIC VIII Sirmium 108 (C2)

20.80 mm. 3.41 gms. 180 degrees.

A nice strike from fresh dies.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
IMG_3783~0.jpg
186. Jovian (363-364 A.D.)24 viewsAv.: DN IOVIANVS PF AVG
Rv.: VOT V MVLT X
Ex.: ASIRM

AE Follis Ø19 / 3.3g
RIC VIII 118 Sirmium
Juancho
CrispusAE3Victoria.jpg
1ef Crispus67 viewsCaesar 317-326

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA CAESS NN. Mintmark dot TS dot epsilon dot.

Zosimus recorded Crispus' elevation to Caesar: "Constantine, having taken Cibalis, and Sirmium, and all the towns that Licinius had abandoned, sent five thousand men in pursuit of him. But as these were ignorant of the course he had taken, they could not overtake him. Constantine however, having rebuilt the bridge over the Saus, which Licinius had broken down, was with his army almost at his heels. Having entered Thrace, he arrived at the plain where Licinius lay encamped. On the night of his arrival there he marshalled his army, and gave orders for his soldiers to be ready for battle by day-break. As soon as it was light, Licinius, perceiving Constantine with his army, drew up his forces also, having been joined by Valens, whom he styled Caesar, after the battle of Cibalis. When the armies engaged, they first fought with bows at a distance ; but when their arrows were spent, they began to use their javelins, and poignards. Thus the battle continued very obstinately for a considerable time, until those whom Constantine had sent in pursuit of Licinius descended from an eminence upon the armies while they were engaged. These wheeled round the hill |46 before they arrived at them, deeming it best to join their own party from the higher ground, and to encompass the enemy. The troops of Licinius, being aware of them, courageously withstood against them all, so that many thousands were slain on both sides, and the advantage was equal, till the signal was given for both to retire. Next day they agreed on a truce, and entered into an alliance with each other, on condition that Constantine should possess Illyricum and all the nations westward, and that Licinius should have Thrace and the east; but that Valens, whom Licinius had made Caesar, should be put to death, because be was said to be the author of all the mischief which had happened. Having done this, and sworn on both sides to observe the conditions, Constantine conferred the rank and title of Caesar on Crispus, his son by a concubine called Minervina, who was as yet but a youth, and on Constantine, who was born but a few days before at Arelatum. At the same time Licinianus, the son of Licinius, who was twenty months of age, was declared Caesar, Thus ended the second war."

According to Zonaras, "By a concubine he also had another son, called Crispus, older than his other sons, who distinguished himself often in the war against Licinius. His stepmother Fausta, being erotically obsessed with him, since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse."

Constantine had his son strangled to death in Pula.

RIC 62
Blindado
JovianIIAE3VotMult.jpg
1eo Jovian85 views363-364

AE 3, Heraclea

Diademed bust left, draped & cuirassed, D N IOVIANVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X in wreath, Mintmark HERACA

RIC 110A

Zosimus recorded: A meeting of the officers and soldiers was afterwards convened, in order to appoint a successor to the empire : since it would be impossible for them without a ruler to avoid the dangers to which they were exposed in the midst of an enemy's country. The general voice was in favour of Jovianus, the son of Varronianus, tribune of the domestic forces. When Jovian had assumed the purple and the diadem, he directed his course homewards with all possible speed. . . . They then marched forward four days, continually harassed by the enemy, who followed them when they were proceeding, but fled when the Romans offered any resistance. At length, having gained some distance of the enemy, they resolved to crops the Tigris. For this purpose they fastened skins together, and floated over. When the greater part had gained the opposite bank, the commanders crossed over in safety with the remainder. The Persians, however, still accompanied them, and followed them with a large army so assiduously, that the Romans were in perpetual danger, both from the unfavourable circumstances in which they were placed, and from the want, of provisions. Although the Roman army was in this condition, the Persians were willing to treat for peace, and for that purpose sent Surenas with other |90 officers to the Roman camp. Jovian, upon hearing this, sent to them Sallustius, prefect of the court, together with Aristaeus, who, after some discussion, agreed on a truce for thirty years. The conditions were, that the Romans should give up to the Persians the country of the Rabdiceni, and that of the Candueni, Rhemeni, and Zaleni, besides fifteen castles in those provinces, with the inhabitants, lands, cattle, and all their property ; that Nisibis should be surrendered without its inhabitants, who were to be transplanted into whatever colony the Remans pleased. The Persians also deprived the Romans of great part of Armenia, leaving them but a very small part of it. The truce having been concluded on these conditions, and ratified on both sides, the Romans had an opportunity of returning home unmolested, neither party offering or sustaining any injury, either by open force; or secret machination.

Jovian marched through all the towns in great speed, because they were so filled with grief [because they were being given over to Persian rule], that the inhabitants could not look patiently on him; such being the custom and disposition of those countries. Taking with him the imperial guard, he proceeded to Antioch. . . . Jovian now turning his attention to the affairs of government, made various arrangements, and sent Lucilianus his father-in-law, Procopius, and Valentinian, who was afterwards emperor, to the armic.s in Pannoriia, to inform them of the death of Julian, and of his being chosen emperor. The Bavarians who were at Sirmium, and were left there for its protection, as soon as they received the news, put to death Lucilianus who brought such unwelcome intelligence, without regard to his relationship to the emperor. Such was the respect they had to Jovian's relations, that Valentinian himself only escaped from the death they intended to inflict on him. Jovianus proceeding from Antioch towards Constantinople, suddenly fell sick at Dadostana in Bithynia, and died after a reign of eight months, in which short time he had not been able to render the public any essential service.
Blindado
BOTLAUREL_2012.JPG
201243 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
20k-Constantine-Sir-048.jpg
20k. Constantine: Sirmium.18 viewsAE3, 324 - 325, Sirmium mint.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SARMATIA DEVICTA / Victory advancing, holding trophy and branch, captive seated on ground at right.
Mint mark: SIRM
2.83 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #48; PBCC #802; Sear #16286.
Callimachus
divoclaudio_RIC266.jpg
268-270 AD - CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS) AE antoninianus58 viewsobv: DIVO CLAVDIO (radiate head right)
rev: CONSECRATIO (eagle standing front, wings spread, head right)
ref: RIC Vi 266 (C), Cohen 43
mint: Rome
3.36gms, 19mm

Claudius II issued after his death by Quintillus and later emperors.
History: Late in 269 Claudius was preparing to go to war against the german Vandals tribe, who were raiding in Pannonia. Next year the pannonian legions led by Claudius defeated the Vandals, but the Emperor fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died in Sirmium early in August of 270. The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.
berserker
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314. Claudius II37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Claudius Gothicus (May 10, 213/214 - January, 270), more often referred to as Claudius II, ruled the Roman Empire for less than two years (268 - 270), but during that brief time, he was so successful and beloved by the people of Rome that he attained divine status.

His origin is uncertain. Claudius was either from Syrmia (Sirmium; in Pannonia Inferior) or from Dardania (in Moesia Superior). Claudius was the commander of the Roman army that defeated decisively the Goths at the battle of Naissus, in September 268; in the same month, he attained the throne, amid charges, never proven, that he murdered his predecessor Gallienus. However, he soon proved to be less than bloodthirsty, as he asked the Roman Senate to spare the lives of Gallienus' family and supporters. He was less magnanimous toward Rome's enemies, however, and it was to this that he owed his popularity.

Claudius, like Maximinus Thrax before him, was of barbarian birth. After an interlude of failed aristocratic Roman emperors since Maximinus's death, Claudius was the first in a series of tough soldier-emperors who would eventually restore the Empire from the Crisis of the third century.

At the time of his accession, the Roman Empire was in serious danger from several incursions, both within and outside its borders. The most pressing of these was an invasion of Illyricum and Pannonia by the Goths. Not long after being named emperor (or just prior to Gallienus' death, depending on the source), he won his greatest victory, and one of the greatest in the history of Roman arms.

At the Battle of Naissus, Claudius and his legions routed a huge Gothic army. Together with his cavalry commander, the future Emperor Aurelian, the Romans took thousands of prisoners, destroyed the Gothic cavalry as a force and stormed their chariot laager (a circular alignment of battle-wagons long favored by the Goths). The victory earned Claudius his surname of "Gothicus" (conqueror of the Goths), and that is how he is known to this day. More importantly, the Goths were soon driven back across the Danube River, and a century passed before they again posed a serious threat to the empire.

While this was going on, the Germanic tribe known as the Alamanni had crossed the Alps and attacked the empire. Claudius responded quickly and swiftly, routing the Alamanni at the Battle of Lake Benacus in the late fall of 268, a few months after the battle of Naissus. He then turned on the "Gallic Empire", ruled by a pretender for the past 15 years and encompassing Britain, Gaul and Spain. He won several victories and soon regained control of Spain and the Rhone river valley of Gaul. This set the stage for the ultimate destruction of the Gallic Empire under Aurelian.

However, Claudius did not live long enough to fulfill his goal of reuniting all the lost territories of the empire. Late in 269 he was preparing to go to war against the Vandals, who were raiding in Pannonia. However, he fell victim to an epidemic of plague and died early in January of 270. Before his death, he is thought to have named Aurelian as his successor, although Claudius' brother Quintillus briefly seized power.

The Senate immediately deified Claudius as "Divus Claudius Gothicus", making him one of the few Roman emperors of the period to be so honored.

Historia Augusta reports Claudius and Quintillus having another brother named Crispus and through him a niece. Said niece Claudia reportedly married Eutropius and was mother to Constantius Chlorus. Historians however suspect this account to be a genealogical fabrication by Constantine the Great.

Claudius II Gothicus AE Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint. IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped bust right / FORTUNA REDUX, Fortuna standing left with rudder & cornucopiae. RIC 234, Cohen 88.
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319. Probus27 viewsMarcus Aurelius Probus (c. 232–September/October, 282), Roman Emperor (276–282), was a native of Sirmium in Pannonia.

Siscia 651
Antoninianus
IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
CONCORD MILIT
Concordia greeting Probus
V//XXI
RIC 651

ecoli
4746LG.jpg
320. Carus122 viewsMarcus Aurelius Carus (c. 230 - late July/early August, 283), Roman emperor (282-283), was born probably at Narbona (more correctly, Narona -- now the ruins at Vid, Croatia) in Illyria, but was educated at Rome. He was a senator, and had filled various civil and military posts before he was appointed prefect of the Praetorian Guard by the emperor Probus. After the murder of Probus at Sirmium, Carus was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers.

Although Carus severely avenged the death of Probus, he was himself suspected of having been an accessory to the deed. He does not seem to have returned to Rome after his accession, but contented himself with an announcement of the fact to the Senate.

Bestowing the title of Caesar upon his sons Carinus and Numerian, he left Carinus in charge of the western portion of the empire, and took Numerian with him on the expedition against the Persians which had been contemplated by Probus. Having defeated the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube, Carus proceeded through Thrace and Asia Minor, conquered Mesopotamia, pressed on to Seleucia and Ctesiphon, and carried his arms beyond the Tigris.

His hopes of further conquest were cut short by his death. One day, after a violent storm, it was announced that he was dead. His death was variously attributed to disease, the effects of lightning, or a wound received in a campaign against the Huns. However it seems more probable that he was murdered by the soldiers, who were averse to further campaigns against Persia, at the instigation of Arrius Aper, prefect of the Praetorian Guard.

VF/VF Carus AE Antoninianus / Virtus
Attribution: VM 16
Date: 282-283 AD
Obverse: IMP C M AVR CARVS P F AVG, radiate bust r.
Reverse: VIRTVS AVGGG, Carus receiving globe from Jupiter
Size: 20.32 mm
Weight: 2.7 grams
Description: An attractive Carus ant
ecoli73
33010.jpg
33010 CONSTANTIUS II/Fel Temp4 viewsCONSTANTIUS II/Fel Temp 33010
Obv: DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG,
pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:FEL TEMP REPARATIO,
soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman;
ASIRM• in Exergue
Mint:Sirmium 18.5mm 1.9g
RIC VIII Sirmium 52/69
Blayne W
CsIIVIIISirm52.jpg
337-361 AD - Constantius II - RIC VIII Sirmium 052/069 - FEL TEMP REPARATIO30 viewsEmperor: Constantius II (r. 337-361 AD)
Date: 351-358 AD
Condition: Fair/Fine-
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Constantius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
The restoration of happy times.
Helmeted soldier to right, shield on left arm, spearing falling bare-headed horseman, his shield on ground to right, he turns to face soldier and extends left arm.
Exergue: ASIRM● (Sirmium mint, first officina)

RIC VIII Sirmium 52/69; VM 100
2.51g; 17.7mm; 0°
Pep
JulIIVIIISirm81.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Sirmium 081 - SPES REIPVBLICE31 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fair/Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN IVLIA-NVS NOB C
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bareheaded, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
Exergue: (A?)SIRM (Sirmium mint, first? officina)

RIC VIII Sirmium 81
1.80g; 17.1mm; 195°
Pep
JulIIVIIISirm81or83.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Sirmium 081 or 083? - SPES REIPVBLICE44 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: D N IVLIA-NVS NOB C
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bareheaded, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear, a captive at his feet.
Exergue: unknown (SIRM?)

RIC VIII Sirmium 81 or 83?
1.99g; 16.5mm; 345°
Pep
JovVIIISirm118.jpg
363-364 AD - Jovian - RIC VIII Sirmium 118 - VOT / V / MVLT / X33 viewsEmperor: Jovian (r. 363-364 AD)
Date: 363-364 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN IOVIA-NVS P F AVG
Our Lord Jovian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: VOT / V / MVLT / X
Legend within wreath.
Because of the vows, 5 years; through more vows, 10 years.
Exergue: (A or B)SIRM (Sirmium mint, first or second officina)

RIC VIII Sirmium 118; VM 13
2.42g; 19.2mm; 180°
Pep
coin200.JPG
402. Maximianus53 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. 250 - July, 310), known in English as Maximian, was Roman Emperor (together with Diocletian) from March 1, 286 to 305.

Born to a poor family near Sirmium (city in Pannonia), Maximian made a career in the army until 285, when the new emperor Diocletian, a friend of his, made him caesar (sub-emperor) and the ruler of the western part of the empire. The next year Maximian became augustus next to Diocletian, and in 293, when Diocletian introduced the Tetrarchy, Constantius Chlorus became Maximian's caesar and married Maximian's daughter Flavia Maximiana Theodora.

During his reign, Maximianus had several military successes, against the Alemanni and Burgundians in northern Germany, against the Carpi on the Danube frontier and against Carausius, who had rebelled in Britain and declared himself emperor there. He also strengthened the frontier defenses in Africa.

On May 1, 305, Diocletian and Maximian retired together; it is clear that this was not a voluntary act of Maximian's, but that he was forced to do so by Diocletian. Galerius and Constantius Chlorus became the new emperors; Flavius Valerius Severus and Maximinus Daia became their caesars. When Constantius died the next year, Maximian's son Maxentius took the western emperorship, and named Maximian to be his augustus. Maximian resolved the conflicts around this emperorship by defeating Severus and Galerius in battle and bringing Constantius' son Constantine on his side by having Constantine marry his daughter Fausta.

However, in 308 Maximian rebelled against his own son, and marched upon Rome, but was beaten and forced to find refuge with Constantine in Gaul. In 310 he declared himself emperor for the third time, but was unable to defend himself against Constantine, who forced him to commit suicide.

For his own and his colleagues' victories, Maximian received the titles Germanicus Maximus V, Sarmaticus Maximus III, Armeniacus Maximus, Medicus Maximus, Adiabenicus Maximus, Persicus Maximus II, Carpicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus.

Maximianus 286-305, Reform Follis - Siscia Mint
9.16g
Obv: Bust of Maximianus right "IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG"
Rev: Moneta standing left holding a scale and cornucopiae "SACRA MONET AVGG E CAESS NOSTR" "SIS" in the exergue.
RIC 134b
ecoli
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501. Constantine I Sirmium HOC SIG NO VICTOR ERIS8 viewsConstantine I Sirmium HOC SIG NO VICTOR ERIS

obv. DN CONSTAN - TVS PF AVG
bust draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
Letter A behind bust
rev. HOC SIG - NO VICTOR ERIS
Emperor, diad. an in military dress, stg. facing, head l., holding standard with Chi-Rho on
the banner, and spear. To the r. stands Victory crowning him with a wreath and holding a
palm-branch.
III in L. of reverse field
ex. star SIRM
RIC VIII, Sirmium 23; LRBC 1586
struck Sept. 351 - 6 Nov. 355; common

ecoli
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504. CONSTANTIUS II148 viewsFlavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty

Constantius was the second of the three sons of Constantine I and his second wife Fausta. Constantius was born in Sirmium (in Illyricum) and named Caesar by his father. When Constantine died in 337, Constantius II led the massacre of his relatives decended from the second marriage of his grandfather Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving himself, his older brother Constantine II, his younger brother Constans and two cousins (Gallus and his half-brother Julian) as the only surviving adult males related to Constantine. The three brothers divided the Roman Empire among them, according to their father's will. Constantine II received Britannia, Gaul and Hispania; Constans ruled Italia, Africa, and Illyricum; and Constantius ruled the East.

This division changed when Constantine II died in 340, trying to overthrow Constans in Italy, and Constans become sole ruler in the Western half of the empire. The division changed once more in 350 when Constans was killed in battle by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius. Until this time, Constantius was preoccupied with fighting the Sassanid Empire, and he was forced to elevate his cousin Gallus to Caesar of the East to assist him, while he turned his attention to this usurper.

Constantius eventually met and crushed Magnentius in the Battle of Mursa Major, one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history, in 351. Magnentius committed suicide in 353, and Constantius soon after put his cousin Gallus to death. However, he still could not handle the military affairs of both the Eastern and German frontiers by himself, so in 355 he elevated his last remaining relative, Julian, to Caesar. As Julian was hailed Augustus by the army in Gaul, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with violent force. As the two armies sought engagement, Constantius died from a fever near Tarsus on November 3, 361, and Julian was hailed Augustus in the whole of the Roman empire.

Constantius took an active part in the affairs of the Christian church, frequently taking the side of the Arians, and he called the Council of Rimini in 359.

Constantius married three times, first to a daughter of Julius Constantius, then to Eusebia, and last to Faustina, who gave birth to a posthumous daughter, Faustina Constantia, who later married Emperor Gratian.

CONSTANTIUS II. 337-361 AD. Æ 18mm (2.41 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 351-355 AD. D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing falling enemy horseman who wears conical hat; at right, shield on ground; ASIS. RIC VIII 350. Good VF, green patina. Ex CNG
1 commentsecoli73
coin814.JPG
504. Constantius II Sirmium FEL TEMP10 viewsDN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
FEL TEMP-REPARATIO
BSIRM dot
Sirmium 52/69 C2

ecoli
coin518.JPG
508. Julian II VOTA Sirmium9 viewsSirmium

Sirmium was one of the oldest cities in Europe. Archaeologists have found a trace of organized human life dating from the 5000 BC.

When the Romans conquered the city in the 1st century BC, Sirmium already was a settlement with a long tradition.

In the 1st century, Sirmium gained a status of a colony of the citizens of Rome, and became a very important military and strategic location in Pannonia province. The war expeditions of Roman emperors Traian, Marcus Aurelius, and Claudius II, were prepared in Sirmium.

In 103, Pannonia was split into two provinces: Upper Pannonia and Lower Pannonia, and Sirmius became the capital city of Lower Pannonia.

In 296, Diocletian operated a new territorial division of Pannonia. Instead of previous two provinces, there were four new provinces established in former territory of original province: Pannonia Prima, Pannonia Valeria, Pannonia Savia and Pannonia Secunda. Capital city of Pannonia Secunda was Sirmium.

In 293, with the establishment of tetrarchy, the Roman Empire was split into four parts; Sirmium become one of the four capital cities of Roman Empire, the other three being Trier, Mmediolanum, and Nicomedia. During the tetrarchy, Sirmium was the capital of emperor Galerius. With the establishment of praetorian prefectures in 318, the capital of the prefecture of Illyricum was Sirmium. Sirmium was capital of this prefecture until 379, when the prefecture was divided politically into Eastern and Western Illyricum. The western part (including Sirmium) was included into prefecture of Italia. The eastern part of Illyricum remained a separate prefecture with the capital in Thessalonica.

The city also was an important Christian centre. Several Christian councils were held in Sirmium.

008. Julian II Sirmium

RIC VIII Sirmium 108 ASIRM???

ecoli
coin396.JPG
513. Gratian29 viewsFlavius Gratianus Augustus (April 18/May 23, 359 - August 25, 383), known as Gratian, was a Western Roman Emperor from 375 to 383. He was the son of Valentinian I by Marina Severa and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia.

On August 4, 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus. On the death of Valentinian (November 17, 375), the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son (by a second wife Justina) emperor under the title of Valentinian II.

Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Milan. The division, however, was merely nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian.

The Eastern Roman Empire was under the rule of his uncle Valens. In May, 378 Gratian completely defeated the Lentienses, the southernmost branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria, near the site of the modern Colmar. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9.

In the same year, the government of the Eastern Empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he promoted Theodosius I on January 19, 379 to govern that portion of the empire. Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Balkans of barbarians in the Gothic War (377–382).

For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success but gradually sank into indolence, occupying himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose of Milan.

By taking into his personal service a body of Alani, and appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, he aroused the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops. A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army. Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on August 25, 383.

RIC IX Antioch 46b S

DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG
CONCOR-DIA AVGGG
ecoli
Centenional Constancio II RIC VIII Sirmiun 48A.jpg
A130-77 - Constancio II (337 - 361 D.C.)58 viewsAE3 Maiorina reducida ó 1/2 Centenional 18 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "DN CONSTAN- TIVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FEL TEMP REPARATIO" - Soldado con yelmo a derecha, portando escudo en brazo izquierdo, alancea con derecha a un jinete caido que tiene su cabeza desnuda, lo mira y extiende su brazo izquierdo hacia él. "ASIRM" en exergo.

Acuñada 354 - 355 D.C.
Ceca: Sirmium (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Sirmium) #48 Pag.388 - Cohen Vol.VII #48 Pag.447 - DVM #100 Pag.300 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8667.g. Pag.215 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4010 - LRBC #1603
mdelvalle
1354~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 096.251 18 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG (Mars walking right, holding tropaion)
BUST TYPE: E2 = radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from rear
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/V//XXI
WEIGHT 3.64g / WIDTH 21 mm
RIC 810 VAR. (E2 bust unlisted)
ALFOLDI 096.251 (1 ex.)
COLLECTION NO. 1354
Note: Rare and desirable bust type!
Only 3rd SPECIMEN KNOWN TO ME (THE OTHER BEING: SIRMIUM HOARD NO. 2261 AND VOETTER'S SPECIMEN CITED BY ALFOLDI)
Barnaba6
Costanzo_II_Sirmium.jpg
Campgate: Costanzo II, AE3, zecca di Sirmium14 viewsConstantius II (A.D. 324- 325)
AE, 19 mm 3.1gr, R
D/ FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate draped and cuirassed bust left.
R/ PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, campgate with two turrets, star between them. SIRM in ex
RIC VII Sirmium 53
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 16 aprile 2014, numero catalogo 210); ex Victor Clark collection (Nashville TN, Usa, fino al 2014)

paolo
roman_spurs_1.jpg
Cavalry Spurs, top views126 viewsTop view of two Roman cavalry spurs, circa 1st century AD. The upper spur has knob terminals, which would have buttoned into slits in leather straps to go over the boots. It also has a hole (not visible in this image) for a separate iron prick. An example in the Romisches Museum Germany is from Sirmium. The lower spur is a hackenspur which also had a separate iron prick inserted - remnants of which can still be seen. The hook at the top and at the ends of the termilas gave the type its name and were used to help attached it to leather boot straps. Examples in the Romisches Museum Germany are from Dangstetten, Vindonissa and Haltern.otlichnik
1138_Constantine_I_SIRM.jpg
Constantine I - AE 3 (follis)8 viewsSirmium
324-325 AD
laureate head right
CONSTAN_TINVS AVG
Victory half right, holding trophy and palm, treading on bounded captive right head left with left foot
SARMATIA__DEVICTA
SIRM
RIC VII Sirmium 48
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
Constantine_I_SARMATIA_DEVICTA.jpg
Constantine I AD 306-337 AE3, SARMATIA DEVICTA, Sirmium mint55 viewsConstantine I AD 306-337 AE3 struck 324-325
19.6mm, 3.25g, 180°
Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev: SARMATIA DEVICTA - Victory advancing right, holding trophy, palm branch and spurning captive on ground to right. SIRM in exe. RIC VII Sirmium 48
areich
constantine samartia com.JPG
Constantine I RIC VII Sirmium 4852 viewsAE 17-20 mm 31 grams
OBV :: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG. Laureate head right
REV :: SARMATIA DEVICTA. Victory advancing right, holding trophy, palm branch & spurning captive on ground to right
EX :: SIRM ( Sirmium )
RIC VII Sirmium 48
RIC rated C3
purchased 03/2008


Copied from Numiswiki

This coin alludes to the Sarmatian war and the victories of Constantine in the year of Christ 322. According to Zosimus (lib. 2) that great emperor drove back the routed Sarmatae beyond the Danube, and they pursued them to a place where they had rallied for the purpose of renewing the fight. He there again defeated and put them to flight, taking a great number of them prisoners, whom he doomed to captivity, and their King, Rausimodus being left among the slain.
Johnny
constantinI_sirmium48.jpg
Constantine I RIC VII, Sirmium 4860 viewsConstantine I the Great 307 - 337
AE - AE 3, 3.55g, 19mm
Sirmium 1. officina, 324 - 325
obv. CONSTAN - TINVS AVG
laureate head r.
rev. SARMATIA - DEVICTA
Victory advancing r., holding trophy in r. hand and
palmbranch in l. hand, spurning captive sitting on ground to r.
exergue: SIRM
RIC VII, Sirmium 48; C.487; LRBC 802
about EF, flan crack
Jochen
constantinI_sirmium48~0.jpg
Constantine I RIC VII, Sirmium 48538 viewsConstantin I the Great, AD 307 - 337
AE - AE 3, 3.55g, 19mm
Sirmium 1. officina, 324 - 325
obv. CONSTAN - TINVS AVG
laureate head r.
rev. SARMATIA - DEVICTA
Victory advancing r., holding trophy in r. hand and
palmbranch in l. hand, spurning captive sitting on ground to r.
exergue: SIRM
RIC VII, Sirmium 48; C.487; LRBC 802
about EF, flan crack at 6 o'clock
3 commentsJochen
Constantine I SARMATIA DEVICTA RIC 48.jpg
Constantine I SARMATIA DEVICTA RIC VII Sirmium 4891 viewsAE3, 20mm, 2.61g.

Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head R.

Reverse: SARMATIA - DEVICTA, Victory advancing R with trophy and branch, treading captive R.

Exe: SIRM (Sirmium).

RIC VII 48, 324-5, C3.
1 commentsRobert_Brenchley
Sarmatia_k.jpg
Constantine I, AD 307-3375 viewsÆ Follis, 20mm, 3.0g, 12h;Sirmium mint, AD 324-5
Obv.: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Rev.: SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, carrying trophy and palm branch; captive seated right, head left, on ground at right // SIRM
Reference: RIC VII Sirmium 48, p. 475
John Anthony
Constantine_II_Sirmium.jpg
Constantine II AD 337-AD34023 viewsDie Axis 350 degrees
RIC 189
mint Nicomedia Beta
1 commentsPaul D3
constantinII_sirmium_50.jpg
Constantine II RIC VII, Sirmium 5058 viewsConstantine II 317 - 340, son of Constantine I
AE - AE3, 3.13g, 18.5mm
Sirmium 324 - 325
obv. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES
draped, cuirassed bust, laureate head r., Aegis on l. shoulder
rev. ALAMANNI - A DEVICTA
Victory advancing r., holding trophy in r. hand and
palmbranch in l. hand, spurning captive sitting on ground r.
exergue: dot SIRM dot
RIC VII, 50
Rare; EF, found in Croatia 2004
Jochen
Constantine II-Sirmium- RIC 50.JPG
Constantine II-Sirmium- RIC 5026 viewsAE3, 324-325 AD, Sirmium
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: ALAMANNIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy and palm, trampling captive.
(pellet)SIRM(pellet) in exergue
RIC 50
18mm, 2.4 gm
Jerome Holderman
Constantine_Sarmatia.png
Constantine Sarmatia13 viewsConstantine 307-337, Sirmium mint 324-5. 2.5g
Diademed head of Constantine right "CONSTANTINVS AVG" / Victory advancing right holding a trophy, captive at her feet "SARMATIA DEVICTA".
RIC VII 49 Sirmium.
Ajax
Constantine Sirmium- RIC 48.JPG
Constantine Sarmatia Devicta, Sirmium- RIC 4826 viewsAE3, Sirmium Mint, 324-325 AD
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Reverse: SARMATIA-DEVICTA, Victory advancing right with trophy and palm, trampling captive seated right.
SIRM in Exergue, Sirmium mint, RIC 48
18mm, 2.9gm
1 commentsJerome Holderman
CONST_SIRM.JPG
Constantine the Great30 viewsConstantine I - Sirmium Mint - AE3 - RIC VII 48

O: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right

R: SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy, palm branch & spurning captive on ground to right, SIRM in exergue

3.5g, 18.5/19.0mm, 150 degree die axis, 324-325AD
1 commentsBiancasDad
102- Constantine -12.JPG
Constantine The Great -1230 viewsAE3, 324-325 AD, Sirmium mint.
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right carrying trophy and palm, captive at her feet.
SIRM in exergue.
18mm, 2.6gm.
RIC 48, Sear 3885.
jdholds
c1sarmdevicta.jpg
Constantine the Great AE centenionalis AD323-32428 viewsobv:CONSTANTINVS.AVG
rev:SARMATIA.DEVICTA / SIRM
ref:RICvii-Sirmium48
mint:Sirmium, 3.07g, 18mm
Scarce
berserker
Constantius_Gallus_53.jpg
Constantius Gallus - AE 323 viewsSirmium
28.9.351- winter 354 AD
bare, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
soldier spearing falling horseman
FEL TEMP__REPARATIO
ASIRM·
Sirmium 53
1,99 g 18-16,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
constantinius-galllus-2-fallen-horseman-reshoot.jpg
Constantius Gallus AE2, 351-354 AD13 viewsRoman Imperial, Constantius Gallus AE2, 351-354 AD, Sirmium, 5.0g, 21mm

Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, Delta behind.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman (bare-headed, reaching type), BSIRM in ex, A in center beneath horse. "Restoration of Happy Times"

Reference: RIC VIII Sirmium 45
Gil-galad
Player_133.JPG
Constantius Gallus AE3. Sirmium 25 viewsConstantius Gallus AE3 16mm. D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is bare-headed, reaching backwards. Mintmark BSIRM.
RIC VIII 49; 2.23 grams. 19 mm.
2 commentsAntonio Protti
Constanius_Gallus.jpg
Constantius Gallus RIC VIII Sirmium 2234 viewsAE 2
3,74 g / 24 mm
obv. DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
bare-headed, draped,
cuirassed bust right, A behind head.
rv.CONCORDIA-MILITVM
emperor, diademed and in military
dress, standing facing, head left, holding standard with chi-
rho banner in each hand. Star above, in left field III
ex. star SIRM
mint Sirmium
Holger G
constance_galle.jpg
Constantius Gallus, Nummus10 viewsSirmium Mint
DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C - Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Δ behind bust.
FEL TEMP REPARATIO // ?SIRM - Soldier spearing fallen horseman.

351-354AD

Ref:RIC 49 (Sirmium)
byzancia
CONGALL-2-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantius Gallus, Sirmium RIC VIII-03619 viewsAE2
Sirmium mint, 351-354 A.D.
22mm, 3.42g
RIC VIII-36

Obverse:
D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
Δ behind head
Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
FEL TEMP REPARATIO
BSIRM
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground at right. Horseman bare-headed, turns to face soldier, and extends left arm.
Will J
CONGALL-3-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantius Gallus, Sirmium RIC VIII-04913 viewsAE3
Sirmium mint. 351-354 A.D.
19mm, 1.87g
RIC VIII-49

Obverse:
D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
FEL TEMP REPARATIO
ASIRM
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground at right. Horseman bare-headed, turns to face soldier, and extends left arm.
Will J
constantius~0.jpg
Constantius Gallus-Maiorina828 viewsThis is one of my coins that was mint in Sirmium. Coins mint in Sirmium are sharp, perfectly round, usually with great patina.Marcus Aurelius
Constantius_II_Fel_Temp_Sirmium.jpg
Constantius II29 viewsOBV: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
Pearl diademed, draped, curiassed bust right. D in field.
REV: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing fallen horseman with Phrygian helmet.
ASIRM in exergue. •S• in upper fight field.
A.D. 351-355 RIC VIII (Sirmium Mint) 44
3.62g 20.5 mm
1 commentsgoldenancients
94001220.jpg
Constantius II28 viewsConstantius II. AD 337-361. AR Siliqua (21mm, 3.24 g, 6h). Sirmium mint. Struck late AD 353-early AD 354. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS/XXX/MVLTIS/XXXX in four lines within wreath; •SIRM. RIC VIII 17; RSC 342-3f. Good VF, toned.


From the Demetrios Armounta Collection. Ex RW Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 85, 15 September 2010), lot 1220. and Auction 94
1 commentsTLP
Constantius_II_52-69.jpg
Constantius II - AE 324 viewsSirmium
15.3.351 - 6.11.355 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N CONSTAN_TIVS P F AVG
soldier spearing falling horseman
FEL TEMP__REPARATIO
ASIRMS·
Sirmium 52/69
2,34g 18,5-17mm
Johny SYSEL
Constantius_II_48.jpg
Constantius II - AE 323 viewsSirmium
15.3.351 - 6.11.355 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N CONSTAN_TIVS P F AVG
soldier spearing falling horseman (bare-headed)
FEL TEMP__REPARATIO
ASIRM
Sirmium 48
2,14 g 17,5-16 mm
Johny SYSEL
constantius_II_sirmius.jpg
Constantius II AE3. Sirmium Mint 355-361 AD.15 viewsConstantius II AE3. Sirmium Mint 355-361 AD. Obverse: D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor helmeted in military dress standing left, globe in right and spear in left, BSIRM in exergue. RIC VIII: 80.

Rare!!!
Britanikus
Constantius_II_FT_Sirmium_1~0.JPG
Constantius II FT Sirmium 133 viewsCONSTANTIUS II. Æ Centenionalis, 337-361 AD. (21mm, 4.9g) DN CONSTAN TIVS PF AVG, Δ behind bust , diademed, draped and
cuirassed bust right. / FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman. • S• / A // ASIRM. (mint of Sirmium). RIC VIII, pg 387, #44.
Good Fine, brown patina with earthen deposits highlighting. Strong strike with lots of details .
Romanorvm
Constantius_II_FT_Sirmium_2~0.JPG
Constantius II FT Sirmium 227 viewsConstantius II , Augustus 347-61AD AE3, 18mm, 2.3g, Sirmium, RIC VIII 48, Sear 4010
OBV: DN CONSTAN TIVS PF AVG, diademed bust rightbust, right
REV: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spears fallen horseman. BSIRM in exe. RIC VIII 48 Sear 4010 
Romanorvm
Constantius_II_FT_Sirmium_3.jpg
Constantius II FT Sirmium 351 viewsCONSTANTIUS II, Sirmium, 337 - 361 AD, (struck 355 - 361 AD)19.08mm, 2g, RIC VIII 75, LRBC 1612
OBV: DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
REV: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman
M in left field, •ASIRM• in exergue
3 commentsRomanorvm
Constantius_II_FT_Sirmium_4.JPG
Constantius II FT Sirmium 440 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing a fallen horseman, A SIRM in exergue
Weight: 2.2 gm
Diameter: 16 mm
Ref: RIC Sirmium 48
1 commentsRomanorvm
cons-vetranio com.JPG
Constantius II RIC VIII Siscia 295 Issued by Vetranio22 viewsAE 18 mm 1.9 grams 350 AD
OBV :: D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: VIRTVS AVGVSTORVM, Emperor, standing right, holding spear and globe, at feet seated capped captive
EX :: ASIS ( Siscia )
RIC VII Siscia 295
RIC rated Scarce
ex-Forvm ancient coins
Purchases 05/2008
Forum Rating very Scarce
issued by Vetranio during his 10 month reign

the following is an excerpt from numiswiki

Vetranio, who commanded the legions in Illyria and Pannonia at the murder of Constans by Magnentius in AD 350, followed the example of this usurper and assumed the purple at Sirmium. Constantius II marched with his army to meet him, and on a plain near Serdica, Constantius II, appealing to the assembled armies that he was a son of Constantine the Great, Vetranio took off his diadem and abdicated. Constantius II treated him with kindness and allowed him to retire to Prusa in Bithynia, where he spent the remaining six years of his life.
Johnny
Constantius_II_RIC_68.JPG
Constantius II, 337 - 361 AD43 viewsObv: DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing right.

Rev: VOTIS / XXX / MVLITS / XXXX in four lines, within an oak-wreath; SIRM in exergue.

Silver Reduced Siliqua, Sirmium mint, c. 355 - 361 AD

2.92 grams, 21.25 mm, 0°

RIC VIII Sirmium 68, RSC 342-3u, VM 65
SPQR Coins
4702_4703.jpg
Constantius II, AE3, FEL TEMP REPARATIO7 viewsAE3
Constantius II
Caesar: 324 - 337AD
Augustus: 337 - 361AD
Issued: September, 351 - November, 355AD
17.5mm 1.90gr
O: DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG; Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO; Soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman.
Exergue: BSIRM
Sirmium Mint
RIC VIII Sirmium 48; Sear 4010.
Aorta: 2043: B10, O9, R17, T99, M14.
slcfisherman 301643038640
5/30/15 3/8/17
Nicholas Z
117.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VIII 48, Sirmium33 viewsObv: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing fallen horseman. FH-3 reaching.
Exe: BSIRM
Date: 351-361 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "C"
Bluefish
221 Constantius II.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VIII 52 / 69, Sirmium40 viewsObv: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Bust: Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing fallen horseman. FH3 - Reaching.
Exe: ASIRM (dot)
Date: 351-361 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "C2"
Bluefish
177.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VIII 69 or 52. Sirmium38 viewsObv: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing fallen horseman. FH3 - reaching.
Exe: BSIRM (dot)
Denom: Ae3
Rated "C"
Bluefish
144.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VIII 86, Sirmium33 viewsObv: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Bust: Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SPES REIPVBLICE
Emperor standing left holding globe and reversed spear.
Exe: ASIRM. (symbol) field left, (dot) field right
Date: 355-361 AD
Rated: "R5" unlisted reverse, (dot) in field right.
Bluefish
0670-210np_noir.jpg
Constantius II, Siliqua126 viewsSiliqua struck in Sirmium
D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Diademed bust of Constantius right
VOTIS / XXX / MVLTIS / XXXX, in a wreath. SIRM at exergue.
2.07 gr
Ref : Cohen #342, RC #3997
1 commentsPotator II
CONTIUS2-42-ROMAN.jpg
Constantius II, Sirmium RIC VIII-06641 viewsAR Siliqua
Sirmium mint, 355-361 A.D.
21mm, 3.08g
RIC VIII-66

Obverse:
D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
VOTIS
XXX
MVLTIS
XXXX
.SIRM.
Legend within wreath.
3 commentsrubadub
CONTIUS2-11-ROMAN~0.jpg
Constantius II, Sirmium RIC VIII-080(B)28 viewsAE4
Sirmium mint, 355-361 A.D.
16mm, 2.23g
RIC VIII-80

Obverse:
D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
SPES REIPVBLICE
BSIRM
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
rubadub
CONTIUS2-44-ROMAN.jpg
Constantius II, Sirmium RIC VIII-48A23 viewsAE3
Sirmium mint, 351-355 A.D.
18mm, 2.14g
RIC VIII-48

Obverse:
D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
FEL TEMP REPARATIO
ASIS
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground at right. Horseman is bareheaded, turns to face soldier and extends left arm.
rubadub
Constantius II, Spes Reipvblice.jpg
Constantius II- Sirmium RIC 8082 viewsobv: DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG
rev: SPES REIPVBLICE, Emperor holding spear and globe
[o]SIRM in exergue
RIC Sirmium 80
wolfgang336
siliquadeconstantius.jpg
Constantius II. RIC VIII 1731 viewsConstantius II. AR Siliqua (21mm, 3.09 g, 12h).
DNCONSTANTIVSPFAVG
VOTIS XXX MLTIS XXXX
*SIRM in ex.
Sirmium mint. Struck AD 351-355.
SIRM.; RSC 3 RIC VIII
ex CNG
1 commentsxokleng
Constantinvs_II_a-horz~0.jpg
Constantius II. AE3 351-354 AD. Sirmium mint.15 viewsCONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
ALAMANNI-A DEVICTA, Victory holding trophy and branch, stepping over captive.

RIC VII 050, Rare.
Pedja R
coin14_quad_sm.jpg
CONSTANTIVS PF AVG (the 2nd) / VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN, AE4 follis, Siscia, 347-348 6 viewsCONSTANTI - VS PF AVG, pearl-diademed with rosettes, draped and cuirassed bust right/ VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN, two winged Victories facing each other, each holding wreath and palm branch; between them: a palm branch upright. Mintmark ЄSIS in exergue.

Ӕ4, 15-16mm, 1.39g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

RIC VIII Siscia 194. Palm branch upright between the victories is a very specific feature, that immediately narrows the search down, and together with ЄSIS mintmark it gives RIC 194 type.

P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor, VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN = victoriae dominorum augustorum que nostrorum = victories of our lords and emperors (lit. ...which (are) ours), triumphal wreath and palm branch were common attributes of Victories; officina #5 (epsilon) of SIScia mint (Sisak, Croatia).

CONSTANTIVS II, * 317 in Sirmium, Pannonia (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) † 3 November 361 (aged 44) in Mopsuestia, Cilicia (near Adana, southern Turkey) ‡ 13 November 324 – 22 May 337: Caesar under his father, Constantine I; 337 – 340: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans; 340 – 350: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constans; 350 – 3 November 361: mostly (see below) sole Augustus of the Roman Empire.

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147501
Yurii P
36.jpg
COSTANZO II, 337-361 d.C., Sirmium?41 viewsCostanzo II, 337-361 d.C.
Bronzo AE 3, 2.355 gr, 19.3 mm, 180°, B-
Zecca di Sirmium?
D/ D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, busto a dx con diadema di perle, drappeggiato e corazzato
R/ FEL TEMP - REPARATIO, soldato che trafigge cavaliere, marchio di zecca in basso.
S4010, o RIC Sirmium 52/69
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (25 marzo 2008, numero catalogo 104); ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2008)
paolo
cr16.JPG
CRISPUS ALAMANNIA DEVICTA107 viewsFL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
laureated head right
ALAMANNI - A DEVICTA
Victory with trophy and palm branch advancing right, spurning captive on ground to right
.SIRM.
Sirmium mint
RIC. VII, 49
1 commentsgb29400
251- Crispus Alamannia.JPG
Crispus Alamannia20 viewsAE3, 324-325 AD, Sirmium
Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Reverse: ALAMANNIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy and palm, trampling captive.
(pellet)SIRM(pellet)cin exergue
RIC 49
19mm, 3.3gm
Jerome Holderman
s42.JPG
Crispus ALAMANNIA DEVICTA Sirmium39 viewsThe Alamanni were continually engaged in conflicts with the Roman Empire. They launched a major invasion of Gaul and northern Italy in 268, when the Romans were forced to denude much of their German frontier of troops in response to a massive invasion of the Goths. Their depredations in the three parts of Gaul remained traumatic: Gregory of Tours (died ca 594) mentions their destructive force at the time of Valerian and Gallienus (253–260), when the Alemanni assembled under their "king", whom he calls Chrocus, "by the advice, it is said, of his wicked mother, and overran the whole of the Gauls, and destroyed from their foundations all the temples which had been built in ancient times. And coming to Clermont he set on fire, overthrew and destroyed that shrine which they call Vasso Galatae in the Gallic tongue," martyring many Christians (Historia Francorum Book I.32–34). Thus 6th century Gallo-Romans of Gregory's class, surrounded by the ruins of Roman temples and public buildings, attributed the destruction they saw to the plundering raids of the Alemanni.

In the early summer of 268, the Emperor Gallienus halted their advance in Italy, but then had to deal with the Goths. When the Gothic campaign ended in Roman victory at the Battle of Naissus in September, Gallienus' successor Claudius II Gothicus turned north to deal with the Alamanni, who were swarming over all Italy north of the Po River.

After efforts to secure a peaceful withdrawal failed, Claudius forced the Alamanni to battle at the Battle of Lake Benacus in November. The Alamanni were routed, forced back into Germany, and did not threaten Roman territory for many years afterwards.

Their most famous battle against Rome took place in Argentoratum (Strasbourg), in 357, where they were defeated by Julian, later Emperor of Rome, and their king Chnodomar ("Chonodomarius") was taken prisoner.

On January 2, 366 the Alamanni crossed the frozen Rhine in large numbers, to invade the Gallic provinces.

In the great mixed invasion of 406, the Alamanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river, conquered and then settled what is today Alsace and a large part of Switzerland. Fredegar's Chronicle gives an account. At Alba Augusta (Aps) the devastation was so complete, that the Christian bishopric was removed to Viviers, but Gregory's account that at Mende in Lozère, also deep in the heart of Gaul, bishop Privatus was forced to sacrifice to idols in the very cave where he was later venerated may be a generic literary trope epitomizing the horrors of barbarian violence.

Sirmium RIC 49

Crispus AE3. 324-325 AD. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / ALAMANNIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy & palm, treading upon bound captive on right, .SIRM. in ex.

need new pic
ecoli
coin569.JPG
Crispus Alamannia Devicta Sirmium13 viewsCrispus

FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
ALAMANNI-A DEVICTA

dot SIRM dot

RIC VII Sirmium 49
ecoli
crispus adevict-.jpg
CRISPUS Caesar AE3 AD324-32526 viewsobv: FL.IVL.CRISPVS.NOB.CAES (laureate head right)
rev: ALEMANNI-A.DEVICTA / SIRM (Victory advancing right, holding trophy & palm, treading upon bound captive on right, .SIRM. in ex)
ref: RIC VIII-Sirmium49, C.1
3.25g, 18mm
Gaius Flavius Julius Crispus was the eldest son of Constantine I, he was proclaimed Caesar in 317 AD. Talented general, but unfamiliar with intrigues, he was executed in 326 AD.
berserker
crispusalam.JPG
Crispus RIC 49 "Victory Alamanni”28 viewsCrispus AE3 "Victory Alamanni” CE 316-326 AE3
"Behold the conquest of the Alamanni"
Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES - Laureate head right
Reverse: ALAMANNI-A DEVICTA - Victory advancing right,
holding trophy and palm, treading upon bound captive
dot SIRM dot in ex. Sirmium mint.
19.53mm., 3.2g
sold 4-2018
1 commentsNORMAN K
Crispus_RIC_VII_49.jpg
Crispus RIC VII 4919 viewsFollis, 324/25, Sirmium mint, 2nd officina.
Obv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laur. head r.
Rev: ALAMANNI-A DEVICTA
Victory advancing r., holding trophy, palm-branch, spurning captive standing on ground to r.
3.05g, 19mm
2 commentsklausklage
crispus_sirm_49.jpg
Crispus RIC VII, Sirmium 4962 viewsCrispus 317-326, son of Constantine I
AE - AE 3, 3.55g, 20.1mm
Sirmium AD 324/5
obv. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
laureate head r.
rev. ALAMANNI - A DEVICTA
diademed Victory standing frontal, head r., holding trophy and palm-branch,
spurning captive sitting r. before her
exergue: dot SIRM dot
RIC VII, Sirmium 49
about EF, from a hoard from Croatia 2004
1 commentsJochen
Coin013_quad_sm.jpg
DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG (the 2nd) / SPES REIPVBLICAE AE3/4 follis, Sirmium, 355-361 7 viewsDN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right/ SPES [REI - PVBLICAE], emperor helmeted, draped, cuirassed, standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand. -S- in the left field, [dot in the right field? all other examples of this type have it, but here it is difficult to say] Mintmark BSIRM in exergue.

AE3/4, 16mm, 1.43g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

Seems RIC VIII Sirmium 86 (mint mark BSIRM and –S- in the left field are enough to narrow the search down even with unclear legends), but other similar types are 80 (with clear fields and the most common) and 82, 88, 90 (no idea what they are, cannot find examples or descriptions). Mint years are probably late, 355-361, because issued together with caesar Julian coins (Julian became caesar in 355).

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor, SPES REIPVBLICAE = The hope of the Republic, officina #2 (beta) of SIRMium mint (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).

CONSTANTIVS II, * 317 in Sirmium, Pannonia (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) † 3 November 361 (aged 44) in Mopsuestia, Cilicia (near Adana, southern Turkey) ‡ 13 November 324 – 22 May 337: Caesar under his father, Constantine I; 337 – 340: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans; 340 – 350: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constans; 350 – 3 November 361: mostly (see below) sole Augustus of the Roman Empire.

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147501
Yurii P
drachm.jpg
Eastern Celts, near Sirmium21 viewsEastern Celts, near Sirmium
Imitating Philip II of Macedon
AR drachm , 1st cent BC
Kugelwange type
Stylized bust of Zeus r.
Stylized horse walking l.
Cf. Kostial 503
Ardatirion
Harness_6.jpg
Equestrian Harness Hanger 1st century AD.90 viewsThis large thin bronze hanger is for an equestrian harness, circa 1st century AD. A parallel is found at the Romische Museum in Germany with finds from Vinonissa and Rheingonheim. The Dura Europos report, volume 7, shows and example on page 92, #230 and 272 and cites another from South Shields. This example is from near Sirmium.otlichnik
fhc7.JPG
Falling horseman95 viewsAll 15 official mints.
Alexandria
Amiens
Antioch
Aquileia
Arles
Constantinople
Cyzicus
Heraclea
Lyons
Nicomedia
Rome
Sirmium
Siscia
Thessalonica
Trier
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
143.JPG
Fausta AD 324-326 Sirmium (SIRM)104 viewsObv: FLAVMAX-FAVSTAAVG
Rev: Fausta Holding Sons,
SALVS REIPVBLICAE
RIC VII 55

I really like the reverse detail of this coin. Note how the legs of the children intertwine. In hand, you can see the children's facial details.
1 commentsLaetvs
collage-1.jpg
Fausta, Sirmium197 viewsFLAV MAX-FAVSTA AVG
Mantled and bareheaded bust right with waved hair

SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
Empress (as Salus) standing facing, looking left, head veiled, and holding two children in her arms.

SIRM

RIC VII Sirmium 55
Ae 19-20mm; 3.01g

The reverse detail on this one is fantastic- the infants are beautifully rendered!
1 commentsarizonarobin
2-2014-10-027.JPG
Fausta, Siscia37 viewsAe 17-19mm; 2.27g

FLAV MAX- FAVSTA AVG
draped bust right

SPES REIP-VBLICAE
Empress/Spes standing, facing, holding 2 children

dot ASIS dot (Siscia Mint)

RIC VII Siscia 205; Sear 16570
I bought this one for the interesting Spes/Children. I love the arms and the depiction of the children. Not as well rendered as the one I have from Sirmium but still not the norm!
1 commentsRobin Ayers
fhlbld.jpg
Fel Temp Reparatio Fallen Horseman197 viewsAlexandria
Amiens
Antioch
Aquileia
Arles
Constantinople
Cyzicus
Heraclea
Lyons
Nicomedia
Rome
Sirmium
Siscia
Thessalonica
Trier
Barbaous Mint
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
forvpltft.jpg
FEL TEMP REPARATIO from the Forvm Catalog383 viewsRow 1 Fallen Horseman

Constantius II-Aquileia
Constantius II-Constantinople
Constantius II-Heraclea

Row 2Fallen Horseman

Constantius II-Arles
Constantius II-Thessalonica
Julian II-Sirmium
Julian II-Siscia
Constantius Gallus-Constantinople

Row 3 Barbarian Hut

Constans-Aquileia
Constans-Alexandria
Constantius II-Cyzicus

Row 4 Galley

Constantius II-Thessalonica
Constans-Siscia

Row 5 Galley

Constantius II-Thessalonica
Constantius II-Siscia
Constans-Siscia
Constans-Thessalonica

Row 6 Phoenix

Constantius II-Siscia
Constans-Siscia
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
5682_5683.jpg
Gallus Caesar, AE3, FEL TEMP REPARATIO4 viewsAE3
Gallus Caesar
Caesar: 351 - 354AD
Issued: 351 - 354AD
19.0mm 2.50gr
O: DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C; Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO; Solider standing left, spearing fallen horseman.
Exergue: ASIRM
Sirmium Mint
Aorta: 311: B3, O4, R2, T19, M12.
okta2000-2013 272046455195
11/25/15 2/3/17
Nicholas Z
Sirmium_ab.jpg
Gepids/Ostrogoths - Sirmium - quarter siliqua115 viewsGepids independently or under Ostrogothic rule in the name of Anastasius, 1/4-siliqua (16 mm, 0.81 g), minted in Sirmium 491-518 AD. Obverse: diademed head right, DN ANST-SIVS PP C . Reverse: VICTORIA (AVGGG) around SRM in open frame, (CO)NO in exergue. Apparently missing in major references. Two similar coins sold in auctions: NAC 33 (2006) lot 693 and Rauch 81 (2007) lot 816.

2 commentsJan (jbc)
Gepids2_ab.jpg
Gepids/Ostrogoths - Sirmium - quarter siliqua88 viewsGepids under Ostrogothic rule in the name of Anastasius, 1/4-siliqua (13 mm, 0.93 g), minted in Sirmium 491-518 AD. Obverse: diademed and cuirassed bust right, DN ANASTASIVS PP AVC. Reverse: INVIT-A ROMA, MD in exergue copying coins from Mediolanum, monogram of Theoderic the great. Ref. MIB 46.

Ex Rauch Auction 92, lot 1503, 2013
Jan (jbc)
Demo-80.jpg
Gepids: Uncertain King (454-552) AR Quarter Siliqua, Sirmium (MEC-1; Demo-80; Stefan-2; COI, p. 43, Fig. 22; Gennari-111b)14 viewsObv: D N VƧ(M over W)VISTΛIWS P P Λ[VC], pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: (star) IИMVIT + IROИVΛ, Theoderic monogram

Imitation of a Ravenna mint Quarter Siliqua of Theoderic in the name of Justinian I

Quant.Geek
00helena.jpg
HELENA27 viewsAE follis. Sirmium 324-325 AD. 3,29 grs. Pearl diademed and draped bust right,wearing necklace . FL HELENA AVGVSTA. / Securitas standing left holding olive branch in extended right hand. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE. In exergue SIRM.
C12. RIC 54. LRBC 808.
1 commentsbenito
00helena~2.jpg
HELENA35 viewsAE follis. Sirmium 324-325 AD. 3,29 grs. Pearl diademed and draped bust right,wearing necklace . FL HELENA AVGVSTA. / Securitas standing left holding olive branch in extended right hand. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE. In exergue SIRM.
C12. RIC 54. LRBC 808.
1 commentsbenito
oohelena.jpg
Helena. Mother of Constantine166 viewsAE follis. Sirmium 324-325 AD. 3,29 grs. Pearl diademed and draped bust right,wearing necklace . FL HELENA AVGVSTA. / Securitas standing left holding olive branch in extended right hand. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE. In exergue SIRM.
C12. RIC 54. LRBC 808.
1 commentsbenito
Harness_1.jpg
Horse Harness Junction Ring89 viewsThis ring links two straps allowing both to swing freely. Examples are known with three or four straps. Circa early- to mid-1st century AD. Parallels are known from the British Museum and the Romisches Museum Germany from Sirmium, Holtern and Vindonissa. Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 70, shows two examples from Rhingonheim and Kempten (UK).1 commentsotlichnik
00103.jpg
Jovian (RIC 118, Coin #103)7 viewsRIC 118 (C), AE3, Sirmium, 363-364 AD.
Obv: DN IOVIANVS PF AVG Rosette, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VOT V MVLT X (BSIRM) Four lines of text in wreath.
Size: 19.7mm 2.36gm
MaynardGee
00470.jpg
Jovian (RIC 118, Coin #470)6 viewsRIC 118, AE3, Sirmium, 363 - 364 AD.
Obv: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VOT V MVLT X (ASIRM) Four lines of text in wreath.
Size: 19.8mm 3.24gm
MaynardGee
304_Jovian_ASIRM.jpg
Jovian - AE 34 viewsSirmium
27.6.363 - 17.2.264 AD
pearl-diademed draped and cuirassed bust right
D N IOVIA_NVS P F AVG
within wreath:
VOT / V / MVLT / X
ASIRM
RIC VIII Sirmium 118
2,32g
Johny SYSEL
Jovian1__opt.jpg
JOVIAN AE2/3 RIC 118b, Vota17 viewsOBV: DN IOVIA-NVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right
REV: VOT V MVLT X in four lines across field within wreath; BSIRM
3.0g, 20mm

Minted at Sirmium, 363-4 AD
Legatus
jovianAE3-.jpg
JOVIAN AE3 AD363-36415 viewsobv: D.N.IOVIANVS.PF.AVG (pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right)
rev: VOT V MVLT X in four lines across field within wreath / ASIRM
ref: RIC VIII-Sirmium116
3.78g, 20mm
berserker
5128_5129.jpg
Jovian, AE3, NO LEGEND, Wreath, VOT V/MVLT X, within.5 viewsAE3
Jovian
Augustus: 363 - 364AD
Issued: 363 - 364AD
19.0mm 2.80gr
O: DN IOVIANVS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: NO LEGEND; Wreath with VOT/V/MVLT/X, within.
Exergue: BSIRM
Sirmium Mint
Aorta: 139: B2, O3, R16, T24, M11.
okta2000-2013 281764230058
8/13/15 2/3/17
Nicholas Z
jovian119b.jpg
Jovian, Sirmium, RIC VIII 119B, 363-364 CE.16 viewsJovian AE3
Obverse: DN IOVIA NVS PF AVG, rosette diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VOT V, MVLT X within wreath on 4 lines.
BSIRM in ex. Sirmium mint, 20.45 mm, 2.3 g.
NORMAN K
Jovian_Sirmium,_VOT_V.jpg
Jovian, VOT V, Sirmium, laurel and rosette diademed11 viewsJovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC VIII 120, aVF, Sirmium mint, 2.557 grams, 20.0 mm, die axis 180o, 27 Jun 363 - 17 Feb 364 A.D.; obverse D N IOVIA-NVS P F AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VOT V MVLT X, in four lines within wreath, ASIRM in exergue; scarce; ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
jovian.jpg
Jovian, VOT V, Sirmium, pearl-diademed10 viewsJovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC VIII 118, VF, Sirmium mint, 3.045 g, 20.0 mm, 0o, obverse D N IOVIA-NVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VOT V MVLT X, in four lines within wreath, ASIRM in exergue. ex FORVMPodiceps
JV333.PNG
Jovian. AD 363-364.Sirmium.10 viewsObv. Rosette-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. VOT/V/MVLT/X in four lines within wreath; BSIRM in exergue.
References: RIC VIII 119b.
18mm, 3.12g.
Canaan
0700-320np_noir.jpg
Jovianus, AE394 viewsAE3 struck in Sirmium, 2nd officina
D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, Diademed and draped bust of Jovianus right
VOT V MULT X IN A LAUREL WREATH. BSIRM at exergue
3.32 gr
Ref : Cohen #35, RC #4087, LRBC #1624
Potator II
Julian3.jpg
Julian II43 viewsDN IVLIANVS NOB C
Bare head right

SPES REIPVBLICE
Emperor standing left holding globe and spear

ASIRM or BSIRM, no field marks
RIC VIII Sirmium 81

Sirmium Mint

Sold Forum Auctions
Titus Pullo
julian_I.jpg
JULIAN II56 viewsAE 1 (maiorina). 361-363 AD. 8.75 g, 12h. Sirmium ,1st officina. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right. D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG. / Bull standing right, two stars above. SECVRITAS REIPVB . ASIRM between star and palm in exergue. RIC VIII 107 ; LRBC 1622.
CNG photograph.
1 commentsbenito
00julianIIbull.jpg
JULIAN II29 viewsAE 1 (maiorina). 361-363 AD. 8.75 g, 12h. Sirmium ,1st officina. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right. D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG. / Bull standing right, two stars above. SECVRITAS REIPVB . ASIRM between star and palm in exergue. RIC VIII 107 ; LRBC 1622.
benito
julia2pek~0.jpg
JULIAN II15 viewsAE 3. Sirmium, 361-363 AD. 2,75 grs. 1 h. Pearl diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding shield and spear. DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG / VOT / X / MVLT / XX in four lines,all within wreath. BSIRM in exergue.
RIC 108. LRBC 1619.

benito
julia2pek.jpg
JULIAN II34 viewsAE 3. Sirmium, 361-363 AD. 2,75 grs. 1 h. Pearl diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding shield and spear. DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG / VOT / X / MVLT / XX in four lines,all within wreath. BSIRM in exergue.
RIC 108. LRBC 1619.
2 commentsbenito
Julian_II.jpg
Julian II18 viewsObv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG Helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX within wreath, ASIRM in ex.
Id: Type: 61, Legend within Wreath "VOT", RIC 108 Sirmium
Size: 19.5mm, 2.93gm
Minted: Sirmium, 361-363AD
From un- cleaned lot summer 2010
ickster
julianIIvotxmultxx-.jpg
JULIAN II AE3 - AD362-36316 viewsobv: DN.PL.CL.IVLIANVS.PF.AVG (helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield)
rev: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines across field within wreath / BSIRM
ref: RIC VIII-Sirmium108
3.04g, 19mm
berserker
apostate.jpg
Julian II "The Apostate"13 viewsA bronze coin of Julian II. Minted in Sirmium between 355-360 AD

Obverse: D N IVLIA-NVS NOB CAES, cuirassed bust right

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M in left field, ASIRM* in ex

Attribution: RIC VIII 78
chuy1530
julian-ii-wreath-sirmium.jpg
Julian II (361-363 AD) AE 2, Sirmium mint9 viewsRoman Imperial, Julian II (361-363 AD) AE 2, Sirmium mint

Obverse: DN FL CL IVL-ANVS PF AVG, Helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield.

Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX within wreath; Mintmark: BSIRM

Reference: RIC VIII Sirmium 108, LRBC 1619.
Gil-galad
julianIIspes-.jpg
JULIAN II (as Caesar) AE3 - AD350-35419 viewsobv: D N IVLIANVS NOB C (bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: SPER.REI-PVBLICE / ASIRM (emperor standing left, helmeted and in military dress, holding globe & spear)
ref: RIC VIII-Sirmium81, C.41
1.52g, 17mm
berserker
00135.jpg
Julian II (RIC 108, Coin #135)7 viewsRIC 108, AE3, Sirmium, 361-363 AD.
Obv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG Hlemeted bust left holding spear and shield.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX (BSIRM) Text within wreath.
Size: 19.8mm 3.74gm
MaynardGee
00369.jpg
Julian II (RIC 108, Coin #369)16 viewsRIC 108, AE3, Sirmium, 360-363 AD.
Obv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, helmted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX (ASIRM) Legend within laurel wreath.
Size: 19.2mm 3.16gm
MaynardGee
IIII_Julian_II_BSIRM.jpg
Julian II - AE 37 viewsSirmium
6.11.355 - II 360
draped and cuirassed bust right
D N IVLIA_NVS NOB C
Julian II facing, head left, holding globe and spear
SPES REI_PVBLICE
BSIRM
RIC VIII Sirmium 81
1,68g
Johny SYSEL
roman.jpg
Julian II AE Double Maiorina29 views361-363 AD. Sirmium mint.
Obv.: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian II.
Rev.: SECVRITAS REI PVB - Bull right, 2 stars above.
RIC 106.
Minos
julianII AE1-2.jpg
JULIAN II AE1 (double majorina) AD360-36326 viewsobv: D.N.FL.CL.IVLIANVS.PF.AVG (diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: SECVRITAS.REIPVB / ASIRM (Apis Bull standing right, two stars above)
ref: RIC VIII-Sirmium107
6.22gms, 28mm

Julian came to power in 360 CE in a revolt against Constantius II and tried to reinstate pagan gods. Julian would certainly be looking for a heavenly sign to offset the Christian vision of Constantius' father, Constantine the Great. This event materialized on May 4, 360 as Mars and Venus occulted, thus forming one very bright star. This occultation happened to occur in the constellation of Taurus directly between the horns. Two weeks prior to the occultation, the planets were in the exact location indicated on the coin. This was probably the last coin minted by the Romans that had an astrological base.
berserker
Julian_II.jpg
Julian II AE3 A.D. 361-363 RIC 108, Sear (1988 edition) 407425 viewsDN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted diademed bust left, cuirassed, holding spear and shield. / VOT X MVLT XX, in four lines surrounded by wreath, in ex HSIRM, Mint of Sirmium, Yugoslavia.
Maximum Diameter: 20.5 mm
Weight: 3.01 g
TheEmpireNeverEnded
julian-ii-reshoot.jpg
Julian II AE3 as Caesar - Fallen Horseman13 viewsRoman Imperial, Julian II AE3, (355-361 AD)

Obverse: DN IVLIA-NVS NOB C, Bare-headed draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman who is bare-headed, reaching backwards. BSIRM• in ex. "Restoration of Happy Times"

Reference: RIC Sirmium 70
Gil-galad
Julian_Sirmium.JPG
Julian II “The Philosopher” (as Caesar)21 views355-360 AD
AE3 (16mm, 1.98g)
O: Bare head right; DN IVLIANVS NOB C.
R: Emperor standing left, holding globe and spear; SPES REIPVBLICE, [B]SIRM in ex.
Sirmium mint.
RIC VIII Sirmium 81; Sear 4064
From the J. Grande collection

2 commentsEnodia
j2ricviiisir70OR.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII Sirmium 7048 viewsSirmium mint, Julian II, 360-363 A.D. AE, 16mm 2.05g, RIC VIII Sirmium 70
O: DN IVLIA-NVS NOB C, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed, bust r.
R: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen, bare headed, horseman
Ex: BSIRM dot
casata137ec
julianII_sirmium_78.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII, Sirmium 7827 viewsJulian II. as Caesar, AD 360-363
AE 3, 2.37g, 18.62
Sirmium, 2nd officina, 6.Nov.355-summer 361
obv. DN IVLIA - NVS NOB C
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
Soldier spearing fallen horseman; who has turned to soldier and extends hand to him.
(RIC type FH3 reaching)
in l. field M
in ex. BSIRM star
ref. RIC VIII, Sirmium 78; LRBC 1614
S!, F+/about VF, brown patina

What happpened with the back of the horse?
Jochen
JULIAN-1-ROMAN~0.jpg
Julian II, Sirmium, RIC VIII-07425 viewsAE3
Sirmium mint, 355-361 A.D.
19mm, 2.91g
RIC VIII-74

Obverse:
D N IVLIANVS NOB C
Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
FEL TEMP REPARATIO
M in field
ASIRM.
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground at right. Horseman bare-headed, turns to face soldier, and extends left arm.
rubadub
jull.jpg
Julian II, The Apostate (355 - 363 A.D.)34 viewsÆ3
O:  D N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES, Bare head, draped and cuirassed right.
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Helmeted soldier to l., shield on l. arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground r. Horseman turns head to soldier and extends l. arm. M in l. field, BSIRM star in exergue.
Sirmium Mint, 355-61 A.D.
19mm
2.24g
RIC 78

Scarce
3 commentsMat
102_Julian_II_ASIRM.jpg
Julian the Apostate - AE 35 viewsSirmium
3.11.361 - 26.6.363 AD
helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
D N FL CL IVLI_ANVS P F AVG
within wreath:
VOT / X / MVLT / XX
ASIRM
RIC VIII Sirmium 108
2,89 g 20-19 mm
Johny SYSEL
julianus.jpg
Julianus II AE3 361-363 AD Sirmium mint37 viewsObverse: DN FL CL IULI-ANVS PF AVG; Helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
Reverse: VOT/X/MVLT/XX in four lines enclose by wreath, ASIRM in Exergue

RIC 108
1 commentsdaverino
231 Julian.jpg
Jullian II (Apostate), RIC VIII 108, Sirmium24 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Bust: Helmeted and wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding spear in right hand and shield in left
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX
4 lines within laurel wreath
Exe: BSIRM
Date: 361-363 AD
Denom: Ae2
Rated "C2"
Bluefish
maximinusI sest-victory.jpg
MAXIMINUS I Thrax AE sestertius - 235-236 AD26 viewsobv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG (laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: VICTORIA AVG (Victory advancing right bearing wreath & palm), S-C across fields
ref: RIC 67, Cohen 100, BMC 108
24.82gms, 31mm
History: The first "soldier-emperor," Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus spent the winter of AD 235-36 at Sirmium and then led successful campaigns against Dacian and Sarmatian tribes. The Senate granted the titles Sarmaticus Maximus and Dacicus Maximus for him, but these titles aren't on his coins.
berserker
Misterium_Lead_plackett_Sirmium_Q-001_80x95mm_0,00g-s.jpg
Misterium Plakett, Lead, Romae, Sirmium, #01 211 viewsMisterium Plakett, Lead, Romae, Sirmium, #01
diameter: 80x95mm,
weight:
mint: Sirmium,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Julian-II-proba-gif2b~0.gif
Nice animatio, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, RIC VIII 108, Sirmium, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, B SIRM112 viewsNice animatio, To playing with Photoshop
153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, RIC VIII 108, Sirmium, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, B SIRM
avers: - DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG-J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
revers: - No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exerg: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Dark-Age,_Otrogoth-Gepid,_AR_quarter_Siliqua,_Sirmium_Group,_Anastasius,_Alain_Gennari_38bvar__2_4,_Monogram_(10),_Q-001,_4h,_16-17mm,_0,71g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius or Justin" type, Alain Gennari No: 038bvar., Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 10.), Extremely Rare! 161 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius or Justin" type, Alain Gennari No: 038bvar., Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 10.), Extremely Rare!
avers: D II IHVIIƧTAIIWS P P Λ, Diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: ✠ TIVINH * dΩVIIΛ, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 10.).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0-17,0mm, weight: 0,71g, axis: 4h,
mint: Sirmium group, date: 491-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari, 038bvar. (avers type: 144, reverse type: 181, monogram type 10), Extremely Rare!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
2 commentsquadrans
Theoderich-493-526AD-Ostrogoth-or-Gepid-Dark-Age_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_DN-ANASTASIVS-PP-AV_star-AINVIMA-ROMANl-Theoderich-Monogram_Sirmium_Q-001_0h_16-17mm_0,47gx-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.), 140 viewsAs a "chocolate paper" copy of the original coin !!!
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.),
avers: D N ANAƧTAƧIVƧ P P AV (all S are invers), (In the name of Anastasius ), Pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 24.).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 0h,
mint: Sirmium ,date: 493-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari No: 068, (avers type: 134, reverse type: 162, monogram type 24)
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0

I used on this thread :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=110289.msg673332#msg673332
1 commentsquadrans
Theoderich-493-526AD-Ostrogoth-or-Gepid-Dark-Age_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_DN-ANASTASIVS-PP-AV_star-AINVIMA-ROMANl-Theoderich-Monogram_Sirmium_Q-001_0h_16-17mm_0,47g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ-ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.), Extremely Rare!141 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.), Extremely Rare!
avers: D N ANAƧTAƧIVƧ P P AV (all S are invers), (In the name of Anastasius ), Pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 24.). Extremely Rare!
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 0h,
mint: Sirmium ,date: 493-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari No: 068, (avers type: 134, reverse type: 162, monogram type 24)
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
1 commentsquadrans
Ostrogoth-or-Gepid-Dark-Age_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_DN-ANASTASIVS-P-A_VIN-VITA-ROMANl-Monogram_-_Q-001_5h_15-16mm_0,83g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 090, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 18), Rare!180 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 090, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 18), Rare!
avers: D N ANASTASIVS P AV, Diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VIN VITA ✠ A ROMANI *, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 18).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 0,78g, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium ,date: 493-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari 090, (avers type: 47, reverse type :64, monogram type: 18), Rare!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
2 commentsquadrans
Dark-Age,_Ostrogoth-Gepid,_AR_quarter_Siliqua,_Sirmium,_D_N_ANASTASIVS_P_A,_VIN_VICTA_ARVHANl,_Monogram,_AG_106_Q-001,_5,5h,_15-16,5mm,_0,67g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 106, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 10.), Very Rare!135 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 106, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 10.), Very Rare!
avers: D Ͷ ΛͶΛSTASIVS P ΛV, Diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: ΛINVICTΛ ✠ ΛRVMΛNI *, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 10.). Very Rare!
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0-16,5mm, weight: 0,67g, axis: 5h,
mint: Sirmium group, date: 491-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari, 106. (avers type: 59, reverse type: 78, monogram type 10)
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
quadrans
Barbar_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_OV-HI-IVSTINVS-99_no_text_Q-001_1h_15,5-16mm_0,69g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 126b, No monogram, Plate coin, Figure 26.(and 126b) this coin!, Unique!!!139 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 126b, No monogram, Plate coin, Figure 26.(and 126b) this coin!, Unique!!!
avers: D N HIIIVSTSIVS ꟼ ꟼ Λ, The name of Justin I. The Legend are affected the diademed and cuirassed bust right,
reverse: No legend, Two person sitting face to face, between the third person who standing facing, holding the long cross in right hands and the small thing in the left hand.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,5-16,0mm, weight: 0,69g, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium, date: A.D., ref: Alain Gennari 126b, (avers type: 158, reverse type :202, monogram No monogram!) Plate coin Figure 26. this coin! Unique!!!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
quadrans
Barbar_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_IVSTINVS-II-name_Styl-Monogram_Gepida_Sirmium_Rauch-81_lotNo-815_Q-001_1h_21mm_0,78ga-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 158, Cunimund monogram, Simplified monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 48., Plate coin, Figure 17. this coin!), Very Rare!193 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 158, Cunimund monogram, Simplified monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 48., Plate coin, Figure 17. this coin!), Very Rare!
avers: DN IVSTINV*PNVI, The name of Justin I. The Legend are affected the diademed head right,
reverse: No legend, Stylized monogram, Alain Gennari: Type 48.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 0,78g, axis: 1h,
mint: ,date: A.D., ref: MIB - (cf 50), cf Metlich, Ostrogothic Italy, S. 43, Abb. 23. RR s.sch. ,( another exampl: Ref:H.D.Rauch 81, Lot. No.:815,) Alain Gennari 158, (avers type: 93, reverse type :111, monogram type:48) Plate coin Figure 17. this coin! Very Rare!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
quadrans
Marcus_Aurelius_39.jpg
Q132 viewsMarcus Aurelius Sestertius

Attribution: RIC III 964
Date: AD 168-169
Obverse: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIII, laureate head r.
Reverse: SALVTI AVG COS III, Salus stg. l. feeding snake wrapped around altar, and holding scepter, S-C across fields
Size: 30-34 mm
Weight: 25.93 grams
(Image of Marcus Aurelius courtesy Phillip Harland: Archaeological Museum, Selçuk, Turkey)

“He studied philosophy with ardor, even as a youth. For when he was twelve years old he adopted the dress and, a little later, the hardiness of a philosopher, pursuing his studies clad in a rough Greek cloak and sleeping on the ground; at his mother’s solicitation, however, he reluctantly consented to sleep on a couch strewn with skins.” – Historia Augusta Life of Marcus II.6

Marcus Aurelius assumed the role of emperor upon the death of the Deified Antoninus Pius in AD 161. He quickly made his brother, Lucius Verus, joint emperor. This partnership endured successfully until the death of Verus in AD 169. Unfortunately, Marcus’ rule was one beleaguered by warfare (i.e. the Parthian War) made worse by the plague (brought back from the war), invasion (the Germanic Quadi and Marcomanni on the Danube front), and insurrection (the revolt of Cassius, governor of Syria). Marcus sought solace in his philosophical meanderings. His writings were not bright and cheerful, because, after all, they came from a man latent with preoccupations. During another campaign against the Germanic Quadi in AD 179-180, Marcus fell ill. He had dealt with stomach and chest problems for a few years prior to this (some historians speculate it was cancer). He took the drug theriac to endure the pain. Theriac contains opium, so Marcus may have been addicted to this “medication”. He lived only one week after the inception of this final malady. He died near Sirmium on March 17, AD 180. His body was placed in the Mausoleum of Hadrian, and he was subsequently deified by the senate.

“The first rule is, to keep an untroubled spirit; for all things must bow to Nature’s law, and soon enough you must vanish into nothingness, like Hadrian and Augustus. The second is to look things in the face and know them for what they are, remembering that it is your duty to be a good man. Do without flinching what man’s nature demands; say what seems to you most just – though with courtesy, modesty, and sincerity.” – Marcus Aurelius Meditations (To Myself) VIII.5
4 commentsNoah
Jovian_1.jpg
RIC 8, p.394, 188 - Jovian, Sirmium, wreath11 viewsJovian (363-364 AD)
Æ Follis
Obv.: DN IOVIA-NVS PF AVG, Diademed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: : VOT / V / MVLT / X in wreath
Æ, 2,96 g, 18 mm
Ref.: RIC 118
Ex Lanz-Numismatik
shanxi
18137p00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - CONSTANTIUS GALLUS28 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 49, VF, 2.381g, 18.8mm, 180o, Sirmium mint, 351 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, helmeted soldier with shield on his left arm spearing a fallen horseman wearing a pointed cap, BSIRM in exdpaul7
16128p00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - JULIAN II "THE APOSTATE"25 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 81, VF, 1.979g, 16.3mm, 0o, Sirmium mint, as Caesar, 6 Nov 355 - 3 Nov 361 A.D.; obverse D N IVLIA-NVS NOB C, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SPES REI-PVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear, ASIRM in exdpaul7
ga_0030.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - JULIAN II - THE APOSTATE22 viewsJulian II AD 355-363 AE3 "Vows X Mult XX" "I promise ten years and perhaps twenty" Obv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG - Helmeted diademed bust left, cuirassed holding spear and shield Rev: VOT X MVLT XX - Within wreath Exe: ASIRM Sirmium mint: AD 361-363 = RIC VIII, p. 393, 108, 2.59 g.
dpaul7
ROMAN_EMPIREP_VALENTINIAN_I_SIRMIUM_RIC_6a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Valentinian I13 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Valentinian I (364-375) AE3. Obv.: DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right Rev.: RESTITVTOR REIP, Valentinian standing facing holding labarum and Victory, ASIRM in exergue = Sirmium mint. Reference: Sirmium RIC 6a dpaul7
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG_SARMATIA-DEVICTA_SIRM_RIC-VII-48-p-475-c3_C-x_Sirmium_th_-off__324-5-AD__Q-002_axis-6h_18-19,5mm_3,18g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantine I (307-337 AD.) AE-3 Follis, SARMATIA DEVICTA, Sirmium, #2,1036 viewsConstantinus-I (307-337 AD.) AE-3 Follis, SARMATIA DEVICTA,
avers:- CONSTAN-TINVS-AVG, 1,B1, Laureate head right.
rever:- SARMATIA-DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, stepping on captive, holding trophy and palm.
exergo: SIR M,
diameter: 18-19,5mm,
weight: 3,18g,
mint: Sirmium,
axis: 6h,
date: 324-325 AD.,
ref: RIC-VII-48-p475,
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
sarmatia-devicta--numismatikforum.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantine I (the Great)12 viewsSirmium 324-325 n. Chr.
RIC 48 (c3)
Numis-Student
moneta 354.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantine I, Sirmium - RIC VII 4858 viewsConstantine I AE3
obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG. Laureate head right.
rev: SARMATIA DEVICTA. Victory advancing right, holding trophy and palm branch, pushing captive seated on ground.
exergue: SIRM
Struck 324-325 A.D. at Sirmium
RIC VII 48
Van Meter 87
Note: Refers to a major victory over the Sarmatians in 322 A.D.
1 commentsJericho
bpC1G6Sirmium.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantine I, Sirmium RIC VII, 48, C337 viewsAe3, 3 gm, 19 mm, Struck 324-25 AD, Mark: SIRM
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG
Laureate head, right.
Rev: SERMATIA DEVICTA
Victory advancing right, holding trophy and palm branch, spurning captive seated on ground to right.
Comment: Issued in celebration of Constantine's victories.
Massanutten
moneta 511.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius Gallus, Sirmium - RIC VIII 22274 viewsConstantius Gallus Centenionalis
obv: D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C. Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, A behind bust
rev: CONCORDIA MILITVM. Emperor standing, holding two standards topped by Chi-rho banners. Star above, III in left field.
exergue: star SIRM
Struck 351 A.D. at Sirmium
RIC VIII 222
Van Meter 1 (VB2)
Note:Mintmark, thus RIC #, not 100% certain - other option is star after, which seems unlikely.
Jericho
152~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius II AD 337-361 Sirmium (SIRM) 48 viewsObv: DNCONSTAN-TIVSPFAVG
Rev: Victory with Two Wreaths,
VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM
RIC VIII 25
Laetvs
moneta 665.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius II AE3, Sirmium54 viewsobv: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who reaches back
exergue: ASIRM
Struck 351-355 A.D. at Sirmium
RIC VIII 48
Van Meter 100
Jericho
CONTIUS2-11-ROMAN.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius II, Sirmium RIC VIII-066169 viewsAR Siliqua
Sirmium mint, 355-361 A.D.
21mm, 3.08g
RIC VIII-66

Obverse:
D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Pearled-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
VOTIS
XXX
MVLTIS
XXXX
.SIRM.
Legend within wreath.
3 commentsrubadub
Crispus_AE-3-Follis_FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-CAES-5-B1_ALEMANI-A-DEVICTA_dot-SIRM-dot_RIC-VII-49-p475-c2_Sirmium_324-25-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_19mm_2,94g-ys.jpg
Roman Empire, Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VII 049, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SIRM•, ALEMANIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, #1293 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VII 049, AE-3 Follis, -/-//•SIRM•, ALEMANIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, #1
avers:- FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-CAES-5-B1, Laureate head right.
rever:- ALEMANI-A-DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, stepping on captive, holding trophy and palm.
exergo: -/-//•SIRM•, diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 2,94g, axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 324-325 AD., ref: RIC-VII-49-p475, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
crispusalam~0.JPG
Roman Empire, Crispus RIC 49 "Victory Alamanni”62 viewsCrispus AE3 "Victory Alamanni” CE 316-326 AE3
"Behold the conquest of the Alamanni"
Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES - Laureate head right
Reverse: ALAMANNI-A DEVICTA - Victory advancing right,
holding trophy and palm, treading upon bound captive
dot SIRM dot in ex. Sirmium mint
19.53mm., 3.2g
sold 4-2018
2 commentsNORMAN K
Jovian1__opt~0.jpg
Roman Empire, JOVIAN AE2/3 RIC 118b, Vota71 viewsOBV: DN IOVIA-NVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right
REV: VOT V MVLT X in four lines across field within wreath; BSIRM
3.0g, 20mm

Minted at Sirmium, 363-4 AD
Legatus
095.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Jovian AE3 AD 363-364 Sirmium (BSIRM)101 viewsObv: D N IOVIA-NVS P F AVG
Rev: VOT V MVLT X
RIC VIII 118b
1 commentsLaetvs
bpLRE1A4Jovian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Jovian, Ae3, Sirmium, RIC VIII 118, C, 363-364 AD42 viewsObv: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: VOT V MVLT X
Votive legend in four lines within wreath.
2.3 gm, 18.6 mm, Exergue: ASIRM
Massanutten
JulianFTRSirmor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP Sirmium101 viewsAE3 17.7x18.1mm
Obv. DN IVLIA_NVS NOB C
Bust right, bare head, no beard
Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing falling horseman,
M in left field.
Ex. dot BSIRN dot
Sirmium mint
ca. 355-358 AD
gparch
bpCD1V7Julian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II (The Apostate), Sirmium, RIC 106, C, 361-63 AD60 viewsObv: D N FL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB
Bull standing right, two stars above.
8.2 gm 28.5 mm Ae1 Exergue: *ASIRM(wreath)
Comment: Julian met his death in a skirmish on June 26, A.D.363 while on a failed Sassanian campaign.
Massanutten
julian-2-vot.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, JULIAN II - VOTX35 viewsJULIAN II-JULIAN II- Æ 20m Minted at Sirmium

OBV. Helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield
REV. VOT/ X/ MVLT/ XX within wreath
EX. BSIRM.
Attrib.RIC 108,LRBC 1619
black-prophet
aFTRSirmor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP SIRM61 viewsJulian seems to have had long hair,
curled at the ends, in the Sirmium mint. See also the example from Thessalonica.
gparch
a39.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP Sirmium20 viewsAE3 17.5x19.3mm, 2.61g
Obv. DN IVLIA_NVS NOB C
Bust right, bare head, no beard.
Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Falling horseman,
M in left field.
Ex. BSIRM
Sirmium mint, ca. 355-360 AD
gparch
VotSirm2or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM54 viewsAE 3 18x20.6mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, helmet, spear and shield
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath.
Ex. ASIRM
Sirmium mint
361-363 AD
gparch
JSIRMor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM19 viewsAE3 18.8x19.4mm 3.2g
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, short beard, spear, shield, helmet
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX
Ex. BSIRM
Sirmium mint
361-363 AD
gparch
05336q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM8 viewsAE3, 19.4x20.3mm
Ex: BSIRM
362-363 AD
Sirmium mint, second officina
gparch
44_1_b.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT Sirmium15 viewsAE3
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANUS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, with spear, shield and helmet.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. ? SIRM
gparch
JAE3or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT Sirmium19 viewsAE3 19.2x20.1mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, spear, shield and helmet
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. BSIRM
Sirmium mint, 2nd officina
gparch
ebay265sm.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT Sirmium11 viewsgparch
JulSirmor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT Sirmium18 viewsgparch
JulianspesOR.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE4 SPES Sirmium16 viewsAE 4
Obv. Bust right, bare head
Rev. Emperor standing, globe in
right hand, spear in left, point down.
Ex. B SIRM
Sirmium mint
gparch
julian-1-vot.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, JULIAN II, AE3 Sirmium63 viewsJULIAN II- Æ 20m Minted at Sirmium

OBV. Helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield
REV. VOT/ X/ MVLT/ XX within wreath
EX. ASIRM.
Attrib.RIC 108,LRBC 1619
2 commentsblack-prophet
valentinianbsirms1~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Valentinian I, RIC IX 6aB Sirimium32 viewsThe mint of Sirmium was closed in the first year of Valentinian's reign. It was reopened 14 years later but only to strike in precious metal. Coins from the short early period are scarce.
Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 6(a)B, VF, Sirmium mint, 2.8g, 18.1mm, 364 A.D.;
Obverse; D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse; RESTITV-TOR REIP, emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and Victory on globe.
BSIRM in ex Sirimium Mint
NORMAN K
valentinian_zusa.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valentinian I, AE38 viewsSirmium
RIC 8 (s)
Numis-Student
Valentinianor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valentinian I, AE3 VOT33 viewsSirmium
Obverse noticably double-struck
Reverse VOT V MVLT X in wreath
*SIRM
gparch
bpLRE1B4ValentinianI.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valentinian I, Ae3, Sirmium, RIC 8 (S), LRBC 1629, 364 AD39 viewsObv: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: VOT/V/MVLT/X
Legend in four lines within wreath.
3.7 gm 19 mm Exergue: BSIRM
Massanutten
VALENTINIAN_I__AE3_VOTVMULTX.JPG
Roman Empire, VALENTINIAN I. AE3 of Sirmium. Struck A.D.364.14 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian I facing right.
Reverse: VOT V MVLT X in laurel-wreath; in exergue, ASIRM.
RIC IX : 8
SCARCE
*Alex
Constantine_Sirmium_RIC_VII-48.JPG
Roman Imperial: Constantine I the Great (307-337) AE Follis, Sirmium (RIC VII 48)12 viewsObv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG; laureate head right
Rev: SARMATIA DEVICTA; Victory advancing right, holding trophy, palm branch and spurning captive on ground to right; SIRM in exergue
Quant.Geek
JulianII.jpg
Roman Julian II "The Apostate" Bronze Coin13 viewsA Roman bronze coin of Julian II "The Apostate" minted in Sirmium between 355-360 AD. 17.6mm, 2.1g. chuy1530
Roman_Empire_Emperor_Julian_II_(2).jpg
Roman, Julian II162 viewsFRONT/ DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG Helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield.   BACK/ VOT X MVLT XX within wreath; BSIRM in ex.  Sirmium Mint.  Struck 361-363 AD.  Ref: RIC VIII Sirmium 108, page 393, rated C2.  LRBC 1619.  Max. Dia. 20mm. 

Sam Mansourati Collection
Sam
julianbull.jpg
Roman, JULIAN II183 viewsAE 1 (maiorina). 361-363 AD. 8.75 g, 12h. Sirmium ,1st officina. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right. D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG. / Bull standing right, two stars above. SECVRITAS REIPVB . ASIRM between star and palm in exergue. RIC VIII 107 ; LRBC 1622.

1 commentsbenito
Helena.jpg
SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE42 viewsAE3 Follis, 3.10 g, 19 mm, 12 h, 324-325 AD

Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA
Diademed bust with mantle and necklace right

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE
Securitas standing left, holding downward pointing branch with right hand and raising skirt with left hand

Exergue: SIRM

Sirmium mint

RIC VII 54
1 commentsdrjbca
julian.jpg
siliqua, Sirmium7 viewsJULIAN II, A.D. 360-363 AR Siliqua (18), Rev. VOTIS V MVLTIS X within wreath, SIRM in exergue, mint of Sirmium. 1.5 g RIC 102. RSC 164aPodiceps
Sirm_32_A_var-No_star.jpg
Sirm 32 A var-No star in mintmark5 views22mm, 4.63g, 12 O'clock
I have yet to see a Sirmium 32 coin with a clear star preceding the mintmark, my other 32's have the mintmark close enough to the edge of the flan to make it uncertain if the star is there or not.
agord
Sirm_32_var-Delta_obv_mark.jpg
Sirm 32 var-Delta obv mark6 views22mm, 4.28g,6 O'clock
The mintmark on this coin is not readable, but I have assigned it to Sirmium based on style and comparison to Dane's (FT44) coin with Delta obv mark and III rev mark.
agord
Constantius-II_AR-Siliqua_Q-001_a-s.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 015, 147 Constantius-II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), AR-Siliqua, -/-//SIRM, VOTIS/XXX/MVLTIS/XXXX, in four lines within wreath, Rare!63 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII 015, 147 Constantius-II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), AR-Siliqua, -/-//SIRM, VOTIS/XXX/MVLTIS/XXXX, in four lines within wreath, Rare!
avers:- DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG, Pearl-Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VOTIS/XXX/MVLTIS/XXXX, in four lines within wreath.
exergo: -/-//SIRM, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-355 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-015, p-385, Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-II__AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG_A_CONCORDIA-MILITVM_III_star-SIRM_RIC-VIII-21-p-386-Cs1-D3_Sirmium_351-55_AD_Q-001_0h_23-24,5mm_5,28g-s.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 021, 147 Constantius-II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), AE-2 Follis, A/-//--, III/-//*SIRM, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard, 63 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII 021, 147 Constantius-II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), AE-2 Follis, A/-//--, III/-//*SIRM, CONCORDIA MILITVM, Emperor with two standard,
avers:- DN-CONSTAN-TIVS-PF-AVG, Cs1,D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "A" behind the busts.
rever:- CONCORDIA-MILITVM, Emperor diademed, and military dress standing, faceing, head left, above him star. In each hand he holds a standard with Chi-Rho on the banner. "III" in the left field.
exergo: A/-//--, III/-//*SIRM, diameter: 23-24,5mm, weight: 5,28g, axis: 0h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-355 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-021, p-386,
Q-001
quadrans
147_Constantius_II_,_Sirmium_RIC_VIII_044,_AE-2,_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG,_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO,_Delta,__S__A_SIRM,__2nd_series_p-387,_351-55AD,_Q-001_0h_20,5-21,5mm_4,47g-s~0.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 044, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), AE-2 Follis, Δ/-//--, •S•/-/A//ASIRM, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1110 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII 044, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), AE-2 Follis, Δ/-//--, •S•/-/A//ASIRM, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1
avers: D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, "Δ" behind the bust.
reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left, knee raised, spearing a fallen horseman who is bare-headed. "•S•" in left field, "A" beneath horse.
exergue: Δ/-//--, •S•/-/A//ASIRM, diameter: 20,5-21,5mm, weight: 4,47g, axis:0h,
mint: Sirmium, 2nd. series(Δ behind the bust), date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 044, p-387,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II__Sirmium_RIC_VIII_052,_AE-3_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO_BSIRMdot_3rd_series_p-388_351-55AD_Q-001_7h_16,5mm_2,66g-s~0.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #184 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII 052, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #1
avers: D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on the ground at right, (reaching type).
exergue: -/-//BSIRM•, diameter: 16,5mm, weight:2,66g, axis:7h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 052, p-388,
Q-001
quadrans
147_Constantius_II__Sirmium_RIC_VIII_052,_AE-3_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO_BSIRMdot_3rd_series_p-388_351-55AD_Q-002_6h_17-18,3mm_2,33g-s~0.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 052, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #284 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII 052, 147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing falling enemy, #2
avers: D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Cs1, D3, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on the ground at right, (reaching type).
exergue: -/-//BSIRM•, diameter: 17,0-18,3mm, weight:2,33g, axis:6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-53 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 052, p-388,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Constantius-Gallus_AE-3_DN-CONSTANTIVS-IVN-NOB-C_FEL-TEMP-REPARATIO_ASIRMdot_RIC-VIII-53_p-388_Sirmium_351-354-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 053, 152 Constantius Gallus (351-354 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIRM•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing horseman,62 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII 053, 152 Constantius Gallus (351-354 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIRM•, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing horseman,
avers: D N CONSTATIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP RE PARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman, who is wearing the helmet, reading backward.
exergue: -/-//ASIRM•, diameter: 20mm, weight: 1,91g, axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 351-354 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 53, p-388,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_A-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-002_6h_19mm_3,04g-s~0.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, -/-//A-SIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, A SIRM, #285 viewsSirmium,RIC VIII 108, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, -/-//A-SIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, A SIRM, #2
avers: - DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG-J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
revers: - No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exerg: -/-//A-SIRM, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-002
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-003_0h_20mm_3,10g-s~0.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, -/-//B-SIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #362 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII 108, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, -/-//B-SIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #3
avers: - DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG-J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
revers: - No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exerg: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-003
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-004_7h_20,5-21,5mm_3,20g-s~0.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, -/-//B-SIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #474 viewsSirmium,RIC VIII 108, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, -/-//B-SIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #4
avers: - DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG-J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
revers: - No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exerg: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20,5-1,5mm, weight: 3,20g, axis: 7h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-004
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-001_6h_20,5mm_3,35g-s~0.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, -/-//B-SIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, B SIRM,72 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII 108, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, -/-//B-SIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, B SIRM,
avers: - DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG-J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
revers: - No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exerg: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-001
quadrans
Jovianus_AE-3_DN-IOVIA-NVS-PF-AVG_VOT-V-MVLT-X_B-SIRM_Jv1-D3-Sirmium_363-64-AD__RIC-VIII-118-p394_Q-001_axis-6h_20-21mm_4,16ga-s.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 118, 154 Jovianus (363-364 AD.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIRM, VOT/V/MVLT/X, in wreath, Scarce ! 65 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII 118, 154 Jovianus (363-364 AD.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIRM, VOT/V/MVLT/X, in wreath, Scarce !
avers:- DN-IOVIA-NVS-PF-AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, Jv1-D3.
revers:- No legend, wreath VOT-V-MVLT-X within ,
exergo: -/-//ASIRM, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 4,16g, axis: 6h,
mint: Sirmium, 1st.off., date: 363-64 AD., ref: RIC-VIII-118, p-394, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
Jovianus_AE-3_DN-IOVIA-NVS-PF-AVG_VOT-V-MVLT-X_B-SIRM_Jv1-D4-Sirmium_363-64-AD__RIC-VIII-119-p394_Q-001_axis-1h_19,5mm_3,40ga-s.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII 119, 154 Jovianus (363-364 AD.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/V/MVLT/X, in wreath, Scarce ! 62 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII 119, 154 Jovianus (363-364 AD.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/V/MVLT/X, in wreath, Scarce !
avers:- DN-IOVIA-NVS-PF-AVG, Rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, Jv1-D4.
revers:- No legend, wreath VOT-V-MVLT-X within ,
exergo: -/-//BSIRM, diameter: 19,5mm, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium, 2nd.off., date: 363-64 AD., ref: RIC-VIII-119, p-394, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
Constantius-Gallus_AE-3_DN-CONSTANTIVS-IVN-NOB-C_VICTORIA-CAESARIS_SIRM_RIC-VIII-Not-in_ERIC-31_Sirmium_351-354-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18mm_2,20g-s~0.jpg
Sirmium, RIC VIII Not-in, ERIC-31, 152 Constantius Gallus (351-354 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, VICTORIA CAESARIS, Victory advancing left, Rare !!!64 viewsSirmium, RIC VIII Not-in, ERIC-31, 152 Constantius Gallus (351-354 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, -/-//SIRM, VICTORIA CAESARIS, Victory advancing left, Rare !!!
avers:- D N CONSTATIVS IVN NOB C, bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIA CAESARIS, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
exe: -/-//SIRM, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,20g, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium, date: A.D., ref: RIC VIII Not in ! (Unlisted in RIC and Cohen for Sirmium.), ERIC-31, Sirmium, Rare !!!
Q-001
quadrans
CRISPUS_ALEM-DEV.JPG
Struck A.D.323. CRISPUS CAESAR. AE3 of Sirmium12 viewsObverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES. Laureate head of Crispus facing right.
Reverse: ALAMANNIA DEVICTA. Victory carrying trophy advancing right, left foot on seated captive; in exergue, •SIRM•.
RIC VII : 49

This coin was struck to commemorate the victories of Crispus in Germany.
2 comments*Alex
Constantius-2_Aug_SIRM_(Sirmium).JPG
Struck A.D.351 - 355. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE3 of Sirmium6 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGVSTORVM. Victory walking left, holding wreath in each hand; in exergue, SIRM.
RIC VIII : 25.
RARE
*Alex
Julian_2_Fel_Temp.JPG
Struck A.D.355 - 360. JULIAN II as CAESAR. AE3 of Sirmium6 viewsObverse: D N IVLIANVS NOB C. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian facing right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Soldier standing facing left, spearing fallen horseman; in left field, M; in exergue, BSIRM.
Weight: 2.25gms
RIC VIII : 72, 74 or 78 dependant on whether there was a • or ✱ after the mint-mark (off flan).
(72) BSIRM - Scarce | (74) BSIRM• & (78) BSIRM✱
*Alex
Valentinian-1_Restitvt_ASIRM.JPG
Struck A.D.364. VALENTINIAN I. AE3 of SIRMIUM19 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pear-diademed draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian I facing right.
Reverse: RESTITVTOR REIP. Valentinian standing facing, head right, holding standard in his right hand and Victory in his left; in exergue, ASIRM.
RIC IX : 6a.
SCARCE
1 comments*Alex
Valentinian-1_VOTVMVLTX_ASIRM.JPG
Struck A.D.364. VALENTINIAN I. AE3 of SIRMIUM7 viewsObverse: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Valentinian I facing right.
Reverse: VOT V MVLT X in laurel-wreath; in exergue, ASIRM.
RIC IX : 8
SCARCE
*Alex
Barbar_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_DN-ANASTASIVS-P-A_VIN-VITA-ROMAl-Monogram_-_Q-001_axis-5h_15-16mm_0,83g-s.jpg
SUB-ROMAN, Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 090, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 18), Rare! 305 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 090, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 18), Rare!
avers: D N ANASTASIVS P AV, Diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VIN VITA ✠ A ROMANI *, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 18).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 0,78g, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium ,date: 493-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari 090, (avers type: 47, reverse type :64, monogram type: 18), Rare!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
1 commentsquadrans
Barbar_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_IVSTINVS-II-name_Styl-Monogram_Gepida_Sirmium_Rauch-81_lotNo-815_Q-001_axis-1h_21mm_0,78g-s.jpg
SUB-ROMAN, Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 158, Cunimund monogram, Simplified monogram of Theoderich, Very Rare!610 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 158, Cunimund monogram, Simplified monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 48., Plate coin, Figure 17. this coin!), Very Rare!
avers: DN IVSTINV*PNVI, The name of Justin I. The Legend are affected the diademed head right,
reverse: No legend, Stylized monogram, Alain Gennari: Type 48.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 0,78g, axis: 1h,
mint: ,date: A.D., ref: MIB - (cf 50), cf Metlich, Ostrogothic Italy, S. 43, Abb. 23. RR s.sch. ,( another exampl: Ref:H.D.Rauch 81, Lot. No.:815,) Alain Gennari 158, (avers type: 93, reverse type :111, monogram type:48) Plate coin Figure 17. this coin! Very Rare!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
quadrans
H12a.jpg
Unique Constantine I AV Solidus143 viewsOne of the new additions to my collection. Despite my current focus on Augustan coins, I have a particular fondess for this one...

Constantine I AV Solidus. Sirmium. 324 AD. CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. / SECVRITAS PERPETVA, Constantine laureate, in military attire, cloak hanging from back, holding sceptre and crowning a trophy of arms at the foot of which lies crested helmet, cuirass and shield. 4,45 g. RIC -, Unique and unpublished.

UNIQUE
GOOD EXTREMELY FINE

Ex. Stock Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007

This piece is similar to RIC VII, 473, 42 (with laureate head right, rev. PERPETVAE).
An example with PERPETVA is known from Ticinum: RIC 367, 49 (laureate head right), and from Nicomedia we know of a multiple of 2 solidi corresponding to this bust type: (though always with PERPETVAE on the reverse), RIC 610, 54.
3 commentsTrajan
valentinian vota com.JPG
Valentinian I84 viewsAE 19 mm 3.2 grams 364 - 376 AD
OBV :: DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG. Pearled diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: VOT V MVLT X. Written in four lines all withing wreath.
EX :: ASIRM (Sirmium )
RIC rated Scarce
From uncleaned lot 09/06
Johnny
v1AE3-.jpg
VALENTINIAN I AE3 - AD 367-37545 viewsobv: D.N.VALENTINIANVS.PF.AVG (diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: GLORIA.ROMANORVM / M / */P / BSISC (emperor walking right, head turned back, grasping bound captive at the top of the head & holding christogram tipped banner)
ref: RIC-Siscia14aB (C2), C.12
2.28gms, 17mm
In 374, the Quadi resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Sirmium with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.
1 commentsberserker
valentinianIAE3-.jpg
VALENTINIAN I AE3 - AD364-36719 viewsobv: D.N.VALENTINIANVS.PF.AVG (diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: RESTITV-[TOR.REIP] / ASIRM (Valentinian standing facing holding labarum and Victory)
ref: RIC IX-Sirmium6a (S), C.21
2.44g, 18mm
Rare
berserker
Valentinian_I_VOT_SIRM.jpg
Valentinian I, AD 354-3759 viewsAE3: 19mm, 3g, 12h; Sirmium mint: AD 364.
Obv.: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: VOT/V/MVLT/X in wreath // BSIRM
Reference: RIC IX Sirmium 8, mint mark 2 (p. 159).
Notes: A scarce, Sirmium-only issue, struck for several months before the mint was closed. See RIC IX p. xv for analysis.
John Anthony
Valentinian_I_RIC_6.JPG
Valentinian I, RIC 611 viewsDN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG
RESTITVTO RREIP
AE3, 18mm, 2.05g
Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Valentinian standing facing holding labarum and Victory
ΔSIRM in ex.
Sirmium mint
novacystis
valentinian6ab.jpg
VALENTINIAN I, RIC IX 6aB, Sirmium.29 viewsVALENTINIAN I, AE3 AD 364-375
Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: RESTITV-TOR REIP, Valentinian standing facing, head right holding labarum and Victory on globe
BSIRM in ex., 18.4 mm, 2.8 g.
The mint of Siemium was closed in the first year of Valentinian's reign. It was reopened 14 years later but only to strike coins in precious metal. Coins from the short early period are scarce.



NORMAN K
Valentinian_I,_25_Feb_364_-_17_Nov_375_A_D_.jpg
Valentinian I, VOT V MVLT X, Sirmium20 viewsValentinian I, 25 Feb 364 - 17 Nov 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC IX 8, gVF, Sirmium mint, 2.940g, 19.1mm, 180o, 364 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse , VOT V MVLT X in wreath, [ ] SIRM; nice glossy dark sea green patina; rare, Probably this reverse die was in service under Jovian, the type being abundantly struck by Sirmium during his reign. However coins with a Valentinian obverse are rare since the mint was closed in the first year of the new regime. It was reopened 14 years later but only to strike in precious metal. ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
1762.jpg
Valentinian I- Sirmium RIC 4a17 viewsAE3. 364 AD. DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right / GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor dragging captive, holding labarum, BSIRM in ex. 2.8g, 18mm.

RIC 4a (Sirmium).

SkySoldier
12916.jpg
Valentinian I- Sirmium RIC 813 viewsAE3. Sirmium, 364 AD. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed draped & cuirassed bust right / VOT V MVLT X in wreath; ASIRM in ex. 3.18g, 19mm.

RIC 8.
SkySoldier
TrajanDeciusRIC11b.jpg
[1108a] Trajan Decius, July 249 - June or July 251 A.D. 144 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC 11b, RSC 4, choice EF, Rome mint, 3.923g, 23.3mm, 0o, 249 - 251 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, from behind; Reverse: ADVENTVS AVG, Trajan Decius on horseback left, raising right hand and holding scepter. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Trajan Decius (249-251 A.D.) and Usurpers During His Reign

Geoffrey Nathan and Robin McMahon

Geoffrey Nathan
San Diego State University



Early Life and Public Career

Any discussion of Decius (and for most third century emperors) must be prefaced by an understanding that the historical tradition is incomplete, fragmentary, and not wholly trustworthy. Any reconstruction of his life and reign will therefore be to some degree speculative. With that caveat in mind, Gaius Messius Quintus Decius was born, to a provincial yet aristocratic Senatorial family during the transitional Severan age, possibly in 201. His family may have been from Italian stock, although that is by no means certain. Attempts to describe his life previous to the consulship are problematic, although he did serve as governor in Moesia in the mid-230's. That also means that Decius probably had been a member of the Senate for some time. We know little else about his early life, other than at some point he married Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, apparently from the Senatorial ordo as well. His political fortunes rose in the troubled 240's. As instability grew in the mid-third century, Philip the Arab charged Decius, suffect consul for 249, with restoring order along the Danubian frontier. In addition to the border unrest, a low-level army officer, Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus, had led a rebellion of the armies in Pannonia and Moesia. For a short time, Marinus apparently claimed the imperial purple and along with movements of the Gepidae, represented a clear threat to the stability of Philip's rule.

Philip's decision to send Decius was perhaps more motivated by political expediency than by any great confidence in his military abilities. Decius had an aristocratic pedigree, and so was likely to have been a popular choice with a Senate that was increasingly doubtful of Philip's abilities. He was also a native of Sirmium in Pannonia Inferior, and so was likely familiar with the intricacies of life and politics in the region. Finally, he had, of course, served as governor of the wayward province, and thus undoubtedly had connections there among the civil and military curia--ones that Philip hoped Decius could exploit. Thus, the consul was charged with restoring order along one of the Empire's most problematic borders. Accompanied by his son, Herennius, Decius traveled to Moesia, probably to reclaim the Legio IV Flavia Felix and possibly the Legio XI, both of which were stationed in that province.

Shortly before his arrival, Marinus was killed and local troops quickly named Decius emperor, encouraging him to assert this newfound responsibility in a war against Philip. Philip's inability to deal decisively with the worsening military crises on the borders, the fear of punishment, and the opportunity for enrichment no doubt motivated the soldiers to place the purple on a local leader--a now increasingly common practice. Decius' lineage also probably appealed to traditionalists in Rome, who begrudged Philip his humble origins and his possible involvement in the death of Gordian III. Philip led out an army in June of 249 to meet his newest rival for the purple and at an unknown location (possibly Verona or Beroea) lost the battle. Whether Philip died in the fighting or was assassinated by his own troops--another increasingly common practice--is unknown. Philip's son, Philip Junior, recently made an Augustus, was quickly put to death by the Praetorian Guard in Rome. Decius was the first emperor to come from the Balkans region. How much he wanted to serve is unknown. While this account undoubtedly contains fictional elements, with several popular literary topoi, the rough outlines of the story are undoubtedly true: we have epigraphic evidence in July for support among the Pannonian Legio X, suggesting that Decius owed his accession in no small part to local troops

Publicity and Power
The victory of an established Senatorial aristocrat was one that seemed to reassert the authority and place of traditional political power, despite the means of Decius' ascension. The new emperor, no doubt aware of the perils of his position, seems to have embarked upon a highly conservative program of imperial propaganda to endear himself to the Roman aristocracy and to the troops who had thrust the purple upon him. One of his earliest acts was to take the honorific name of Trajan, whose status as the greatest of all emperors after Augustus was now becoming firmly established. The fact that Trajan had commanded legions in Upper Germany and had close links to both Pannonia and Moesia at the time of his accession invited the comparison. The name was cleverly chosen: Trajan had been an active and successful general throughout his reign, but had also established a reputation for a widely popular civil government.

Decius also served as consul in every year of his reign and took for himself traditional republican powers, another way to underscore his authority and conservatism. He even tried to revive the long defunct office of censor in 251, purportedly offering it to the future emperor, Valerian. Decius moreover portrayed himself as an activist general and soldier. In addition to leading military campaigns personally, he often directly bestowed honors upon his troops, high and low alike. He also holds the dubious distinction of being the first emperor to have died fighting a foreign army in battle. Finally, in 250, he associated his sons Herennius and Hostilianus in his rule by making them Caesars, eventually raising the former (and elder) to Augustus. Undoubtedly, Decius sought to create a dynasty in much the same way the Gordians had in the previous decade. This traditionalism may to be a large extent, however, a construction rather than a reality. When we abandon the literary tradition and look instead at other forms of evidence, his imperial aims are less clear. The legal record, extremely thin, is only vaguely supportive of a conservative policy: most of his surviving enactments deal with private law issues consistent with earlier Severan jurisprudence.

On the other hand in late 249, when Decius returned to Rome, he embarked upon an active building program in the capital. After a destructive fire, he extensively restored the Colosseum. He later commissioned the opulent Decian Baths along the Aventine. He perhaps also was responsible for the construction of the Decian Portico. Such activities contrasted to a twenty-year period of relative building inactivity. Both the kind of building projects and their stylistic qualities suggest an attempt to recall the glories of the past. The numismatic evidence also suggests some degree of traditionalism. It is there that we see the first references to Trajan Decius, as well as an association with both Pannonia and Dacia. His Liberitas and Uberitas issues, combined with his wife's Pudicitia and his sons' Princeps Iuventi coins, all seem to rearticulate traditional ideology. Legends tend to be conservative, so this is hardly surprising, but there were no great innovations to suggest a new set of ideological principles. In sum, while the literary reconstructions of Decius' life are problematic, it seems clear that traditionalism was an important factor in his administration, especially in the wake of Philip's reign.

The Persecution of Christians
Another possible aspect of this conservatism was a reported wide-scale attack on the growing Christian minority. The third century saw the slow creation of sizeable communities in the Empire's urban populations. For the first time, if we are to believe Christian sources, an Empire-wide persecution of Christians was begun under Decius. The state required all citizens to sacrifice to the state gods and be in receipt of a libellus, a certificate from a temple confirming the act. The rationale for the emperor's actions, however, is not entirely clear. Eusebius writes he did so because he hated Philip, who purportedly was a secret Christian. Probably the enmity was real, but it seems unconnected to the introduction of these policies. More likely, if Decius did indeed seek to persecute Christians, he was reacting to the growing visibility of the religion, especially in the city of Rome itself. One of the more prominent martyrs of the age was Fabian, the bishop of the imperial capital.

But the new policy of public religiosity was much more probably a program to reassert traditional public piety, consistent with some of the other conservative initiatives introduced during the emperor's short reign. The libelli themselves were largely generalized in nature and language, and there is no implication that they were directed at any one group per se. Whatever intended effect it may have had on Christianity was thus to a degree unplanned. Christians would have no doubt seen it differently. It is possible then that fourth and fifth century Christian polemicists have misinterpreted (whether purposefully or not) Decius' libelli. In the particular cases of Eusebius and Lactantius, both wrote in the wake of the great persecution of Diocletian and no doubt magnified upon the theme of the tyrant-persecutor. A hostile tradition notwithstanding, the new requirements did impact Christians most acutely, causing considerable division in the growing ranks of the new religion.

Imperial and Military Problems
Like other third century emperors, Decius was not free of threats to his authority, either from within or without. The revolt of Jotapianus, either in Syria or Cappadocia, had actually begun in Philip's reign, but was quickly quelled after Decius' accession. Probably the usurper's own soldiers murdered the would-be emperor, since the accounts state that his body was delivered to Decius while still in Rome in the summer of 249.
A potentially more serious revolt broke out while Decius was out of Rome in 250 fighting the Goths. Julius Valens Licinianus, also a member of the Senatorial aristocracy with some popular support, took the purple at the Empire's capital. It appears to have been relatively short-lived grab for power, ending in a few days with his execution. The governor of Macedon, Titus Julius Priscus, also permitted himself to be proclaimed Augustus at Philippopolis towards the end of 251, probably with Gothic collusion. The Senate declared him a public enemy almost as soon as he chose usurpation. He probably survived Decius, but is likely to have perished when Gallus became emperor.

Of greater concern than sporadic rebellions, which were relatively minor, were the vitreous northern borders. For the first time, a new and aggressive Germanic people, the Goths, crossed into and raided Roman territory in the 250's. At the time of Decius' forced accession, the Gepidae and the Carpi were both raiding deep into the Moesian provinces. They, along with the Goths, raided Pannonia and Dacia as well. Decius was forced to fight campaigns each year of his reign, doing his best to keep the borders stable.

His final campaign in 251 led to the death of his son, Herennius, and to his own. Decius led a successful attack on the Carpi, pushing them out of Dacia. But Moesia Inferior had been left largely undefended and Cniva, king of the Goths, led a sizeable portion of his army into the province. The emperor, after chasing the Germanic force around the region, engaged Cniva's forces outside of Philippopolis, which had recently been sacked by the king and held by the rebel, Priscus. It was here that his elder son was slain by an arrow and the emperor, seeking to reassure his troops, famously proclaimed that the death of one soldier was not a great loss to the Republic. Cniva then led his troops homeward, laden with the spoils of war. The loss became Decius' undoing. Trebonianus Gallus, one of the emperor's commanders, may have revolted, although it is not entirely clear. Instead of regrouping his forces and re-securing the borders, Decius unwisely sought to chase down Cniva before he left Roman territory. His decision may have been motivated by his son's death (despite his insistence otherwise) or it may have been an attempt to salvage what had been a failed campaign. In either case, it was ill-advised.

It was at Abrittus, about 100 kilometers northeast of Nicopolis that Decius finally met his death. Hoping to cut off Cniva's escape route (and perhaps minimize any help from Gallus), Decius' army was itself cut off in the marshy terrain. The details are sketchy, but Cniva divided his seventy thousand man army into three groups and surrounded the emperor's force. On July 1st, the emperor and most of his troops were slain. In the aftermath, the survivors named Trebonianus Gallus emperor, a decision subsequently confirmed by the Senate. Some contemporaries called the death tragic; others heroic. An Altar of Decius was erected where the emperor fell, still apparently famous two centuries later. Decius and Herennius may have even been deified. Christian polemicists, as might be expected, took pleasure in describing Decius' body being stripped and left on the battlefield to be devoured by animals. Whatever else, his was the first death of an emperor at the hands of an enemy of Rome. But even the account of his death, along with that of his son, must be looked on suspiciously. Their deaths bring to mind the sacrificial devotions of the famous Republican Decii father and son, P. Decius Mus senior and junior. The circumstances of Decius' death, therefore, are perhaps as opaque as those of his accession.

Assessment
In spite of gaining some modicum of praise from both ancient and modern observers, Decius' reign was not well-suited to the demands of a rapidly changing empire. Conservatism may have been popular among a certain portion of the Roman elite, but the old aristocracy's power and influence all but disappeared in the third century. Decius clearly had a broader vision of what he wanted to accomplish in his reign than many of his contemporaries, and certainly he was vigorous, but he was also a man who was not sufficiently flexible when the moment called for it. His religious policy caused major disruptions in Rome and; in contrast to some of the other barracks emperors, Decius proved himself less than apt when dealing with Rome's Germanic foes. His death may have been heroic, but it was unnecessary and unsuccessful. This best sums up Decius Trajan's reign.

Ancient Sources

Relatively little remains about Decius' reign. If there were a biography of Decius in the SHA, it no longer survives, although there are scattered references to his rule in the biographies of Claudius II Gothicus and Aurelian. Zosimus, i: 21-23, Aurelius Victor, 29-30, Zonaras 12, Eutropius 9, Jordanes Get. 17-8, and Sylvius Polemius 37-40 have brief accounts of his reign. There are fragments in John of Antioch, fr. 148 and Dexippus, fr. 18. Eusebius, vi: 39-41, vii:1, 11, 22, and viii:4, discusses his persecution, and there are passing references to his persecution in Socrates and Lactantius. Inscriptions and coinage are relatively abundant.

Copyright (C) 2002, Geoffrey Nathan and Robin McMahon. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families; http://www.roman-emperors.org/decius.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
CIIGRICV197unlistedvar.jpg
[1114a] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.58 viewsSilvered antoninianus, RIC V 197 var (pellet in exergue), aEF, 3.880g, 21.1mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 268 - 270 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, cornucopia in left, • in exergue; full silvering, bold strike, excellent centering and eastern style, rare this nice; rare variety. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CIIGRICV214.jpg
[1114b] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.53 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC V 214, VF, 2.930g, 20.3mm, 180o, Antioch mint; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate bust right; Reverse: NEPTVN AVG, Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident in left hand, • in exergue; excellent centering. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
ClaudiusIIGothicusRIC34.jpg
[1114c] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.51 viewsAntoninianus. RIC 34. Weight, Size. F. Rome mint. Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, Radiate, draped bust right; Reverse: FIDES EXERCI, Fides standing left, holding two standards. Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Claudius II Gothicus (268-270)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

M. Aurelius Claudius, known to history as Claudius Gothicus or Claudius II, was born in either Dalmatia or Illyria on May 10, probably in A.D. 213 or 214. Although the most substantive source on Claudius is the biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae (SHA), this account is riddled with fabrications and slanted with fawning praise for this particular emperor, who in the fourth century was viewed as an ancestor of Constantine's father and thus of the ruling imperial family. This biography, attributed to one Trebellius Pollio, must be read with extreme caution and supplemented with information from other sources, including Aurelius Victor, the Epitome de Caesaribus, Eutropius, Orosius, Zonaras, and Zosimus, as well as coins and inscriptions.

The SHA account describes Claudius as being tall, with fiery eyes, and so strong that he could knock out the teeth of man or beast with one punch. It also says that Trajan Decius rewarded him after Claudius demonstrated his strength while wrestling another soldier in the Campus Martius. The SHA author suggests that Claudius may have been descended from the Trojan King Ilus and even from Dardanus, son of Zeus and ancestor of the Trojan royal family, but these suggestions are very likely fabricated to further ennoble Claudius and his putative descendants, the family of Constantine. The SHA biography also includes false letters attributed to the emperors Trajan Decius, Valerian, and Gallienus, all attesting to their high opinions of Claudius. Reference is made in these letters to Claudius' service as tribune in an otherwise unattested legion V Martialis and also as general in command of Illyria, but these positions may also be fictitious. One can assume that Claudius had served for some time in the army, at least under Gallienus and perhaps also under several earlier emperors.

There is some evidence that Claudius was wounded in Gallienus' campaign to put down the revolt of Ingenuus and that he later served with Aureolus under Gallienus in the war with Postumus. By 268, when Gallienus took his troops into Italy to put down Aureolus' revolt, Claudius had emerged as heir-apparent to Gallienus and may also have been involved in the plot to assassinate the emperor. Aurelius Victor says that when Gallienus was killed by his own troops besieging Aureolus in Milan, Claudius as tribune was commanding the soldiers stationed at Ticinum, some twenty miles to the south, and that prior to dying Gallienus designated Claudius as his heir. Victor goes on to claim that after succeeding to the purple Claudius forced the Senate to deify Gallienus. The SHA account states that the soldiers mutinied after Gallienus' death and had to be quieted with a donative of twenty aurei each before settling down and accepting their new emperor. Once in power, Claudius quickly dealt with Aureolus, who surrendered and was killed almost immediately. The new emperor also demanded clemency for the supporters of Gallienus.

The story of Gallienus' deathbed selection of his successor is doubtful at best and is very likely an attempt to deflect blame for the assassination plot from Claudius. The suggestion that the new emperor pressured the Senate to deify Gallienus is more difficult to assess. It is true that securing divine status for one's predecessor is generally seen as a pious act (e.g. Antoninus Pius requesting deification of Hadrian) that reflects positively on the initiator and the story, recorded only in Aurelius Victor, could just be a fabrication used to build up Claudius' moral reputation. What is difficult to penetrate is the biased condemnation of Gallienus that particularly dominates the Latin sources. They make it hard to see why anyone would want to deify Gallienus and so the story seems out of place. However, deification of a predecessor could also be interpreted as the expected thing to do and the act could have fostered legitimacy of the new emperor and gained support from those who were still loyal to Gallienus so it may well have taken place.

The first major challenge facing the new emperor was that of the Alemanni, who had invaded Raetia and Italy. After an early defeat, Claudius replaced some irresponsible officers and soldiers, designated Aurelian as cavalry commander, and led the army to a decisive victory over the Alemanni. This victory earned Claudius the title of Germanicus Maximus and several of his coin-types appear to refer to victory over the Germans.

In 269 Claudius served as consul with Paternus. This year would also feature his major campaign against the Goths. There are indications that Spain separated itself from the Gallo-Roman Empire of Postumus and Tetricus and recognized Claudius, at least nominally, as emperor. In addition, rebellion within Gaul itself demonstrated the weakening of this independent state, although Claudius avoided engagement at Augustodunum and chose only to send a small force to protect Narbonese Gaul. While Claudius concentrated on protecting Roman territory against the Alemanni and Goths, Zenobia extended her Palmyrene Empire by taking Antioch, parts of Asia Minor, and most of Egypt. Although Eusebius and Sulpicius Severus portray the period between the reign of Valerian and that of Diocletian as a peaceful pause in the persecution of Christians, the Acts of the Martyrs does list some individuals allegedly martyred during Claudius II's reign.

The coins issued by Claudius II provide some limited insight into his reign. In addition to the standard "personified virtues" coins that are common with most emperors of the second and third centuries, Claudius struck coin-types proclaiming the security of the Empire (SECVRITAS PERPETVA and PAX AETERNA), the fidelity of the army (FIDES MILITVM), and military victories over the Germans and Goths (VICTORIA GERMAN and VICTORIAE GOTHIC). In addition, Claudius Gothicus' mints struck some other interesting and unusual coin-types. For example, Claudius is one of very few emperors who issued coins portraying the god Vulcan. These must have been limited issues because they are struck only by the Antioch mint and are very rare. The type shows Vulcan standing, with his special tools, the hammer and tongs, and features the unique inscription REGI ARTIS. A variant type with a similar image has been described as carrying another unique coin inscription, DEO CABIRO, and interpreted as depicting one of Vulcan's sons, the Cabiri, with the same tools. However, the existence of this variant type is doubtful. Although the reason for honoring Vulcan (and his sons?) with these coins is unclear, there may be a connection to the fact that the Cabiri were patron gods of Thessalonica who had protected that city against an attack by the Goths. Although a connection between Claudius Gothicus and the Cabiri as defenders against Gothic attacks is relatively attractive, it is weakened somewhat by the fact that Valerian and Gallienus had also issued coins with Vulcan in a temple so there may be some other reason for his reappearance on coins in this period.

Claudius II issued an unusual and scarce series of coins that features a pair of deities, who are presumably conservatores Augusti, on each reverse. The AETER AVG type depicts Apollo and Diana, who, as gods of the sun and moon, are associated with the concept of aeternitas. A type featuring Serapis and Isis is combined with a CONSER AVG inscription and one of Hercules and Minerva with one of CONSERVATORES AVG. Apollo and Diana are depicted with a SALVS AVG inscription, Aesculapius and Salus with one of SPES PVBLIC, and Vulcan and Minerva with VIRT AVG. The general message is that these deities will protect the future of the empire and the emperor.

Other unusual coin-types include MARS VLTOR, the god Augustus had honored with a temple for securing revenge for Caesar's assassination. This deity had appeared on Roman coins in the reigns of Galba and Severus Alexander. Claudius II also minted coins with rarely-seen NEPTVN AVG [see this reverse type in my collection] and SOL AVG types. The latter coin indicates some early interest in the god who would become so dominant a few years later on the coins of Aurelian, yet Claudius also used the INVICTVS AVG inscription that Gallienus had paired with an image of Sol with one of Hercules. ROMAE AETERNAE coin-types were fairly common in the mid-third century, but Claudius II issued an unusual variant type on an aureus that showed the goddess in her temple and echoed the SAECVLVM NOVVM images associated with Philip I. In addition, Claudius introduced a IOVI VICTORI reverse combined with the image normally paired with a IOVI STATORI inscription and a IOVI FVLGERAT reverse inscription, both of which had not been used by any of his predecessors. Andreas Alföldi suggested that Claudius' GENIVS SENATVS type signified improvement of the relationship between emperor and Senate following the senatorial hostility toward Gallienus.

Claudius Gothicus also produced coin-types with reverses of goddesses customarily found paired on coins with images of the Roman empresses. The deities portrayed include Ceres, Diana, Diana Lucifera, and Diana Victrix, Minerva, Venus, and the goddess naturally associated with the image of an empress, Juno Regina. One might suggest that Claudius issued these images because he had no empress with which to pair them, but an examination of other emperors' reigns during this period reveals that those emperors who did not issue coins bearing the empress' image also did not strike these particular goddess types. Although Ceres and Venus images are sometimes paired with an emperor's portrait, Diana Lucifera is rarely found on emperors' coins and Claudius II is the only emperor paired on coins with Juno Regina. In addition, Claudius was the first emperor to issue imperial coins that featured an isolated image of the exotic Egyptian goddess, Isis Faria.

Claudius II's short reign was vulnerable to internal as well as external attack. There may have been a revolt in 269-270 led by a Censorinus, although the date and even the existence of this usurper remain in doubt. The SHA includes him as the last of the "thirty tyrants" and lists a whole series of offices for him, including two consulships, but no other record exists to confirm such service. The SHA account states that he was proclaimed emperor by his soldiers, but soon afterwards killed by them because of his enforcement of strict discipline. His tomb is listed as being in Bologna, which may provide some idea of the location for the revolt. Henry Cohen dates the revolt to the beginning of the year 270, perhaps on the basis of a reference in the Epitome de Caesaribus, but suggests that coins attributed to Censorinus in earlier works may not exist.

The Gothic challenge in 269 proved to be the greatest that Claudius II would face. The Goths assembled a large invading force, reportedly amounting to 320,000 men transported on a fleet of at least 2,000 ships, and first attacked coastal cities along the Black Sea in Moesia. After passing into the Aegean the Goths besieged Thessalonica. At this point, in 269, Claudius left Rome to stop the invasion. The Goths then sent the larger segment of their troops on land toward the Danube, while the fleet took the remaining group to continue the naval attack on Aegean coastal cities. Claudius sent Aurelian's cavalry to Macedonia to protect Illyria from attack, while he commanded the forces blocking the route to the Danube. In the area of Doberus and Pelagonia, the Goths lost 3,000 men to Aurelian's cavalry. At Naissus in Moesia, Claudius' force succeeded in killing some 50,000 Goths. There were follow-up operations on both land and sea, but the Gothic War had essentially been won. Staving off the attacks of the Goths was a major contribution to the survival of the Roman Empire. It was a significant step leading to the subsequent success of Aurelian and the resurrection of the Empire under Diocletian and Constantine. When the Goths eventually succeeded in taking parts of the western Empire in the fifth century, their disruption to the course of civilization was likely much less violent than it would have been had they succeeded in the third century.

In addition to bad weather, a lack of supplies, and hunger, plague was a major factor in the defeat of the Goths. Many of the Gothic prisoners were either impressed into Roman military service or settled on farms as coloni. Claudius received the title Gothicus in recognition of his triumph over the Goths. At some point he had also been given the title Parthicus, but the unlikelihood of any conflict with the Parthians in his short reign makes this difficult to explain. Perhaps Damerau was correct in his suggestion that a Parthian unit may have been involved in one of the battles with the Palmyrenes, although on this front there were few achievements to claim. In any case, Claudius' victory over the Goths was short-lived. The emperor himself caught the plague and died at Sirmium early in 270. He was 56 years old. Claudius' brother, Quintillus, became emperor briefly before losing out to Aurelian. Claudius also had another brother, Crispus, and the SHA traces the link to Constantius through Crispus' daughter Claudia.

The Roman Senate showed its respect for Claudius Gothicus by setting up a gold portrait-shield in the Curia and by approving his deification. He was also honored with a golden statue in front of the great temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and a silver statue set on a column on the Rostra.

In many ways, Claudius II received more adulation and honor in his Nachleben than he had during his lifetime. In the fourth century, attempts to link Constantine's family to Claudius resulted in the phrases of adoration and outright fabrication that dominate the SHA life and most of our other sources. Constantine even issued commemorative coins honoring Claudius. These carried inscriptions such as: DIVO CLAVDIO OPT[IMO] IMP[ERATORI], MEMORIAE AETERNAE, and REQVIES OPT[IMORVM] ME[RITORVM]. A tradition grew that changed the story of Claudius' death in some sources. In this version, Claudius, instead of dying from the plague, had actually performed a devotion, in response to an oracle found in the Sibylline Books, and sacrificed his life so that Rome could win the Gothic War. One of the most surprising things about the SHA account is that it ignores this more dramatic tradition and has Claudius simply dying from the plague.

One must, of course, reject the excessive claims of the SHA to the effect that Claudius II was "destined to rule for the good of the human race" and would, had he lived longer, "…by his strength, his counsel, and his foresight have restored to us the Scipios, the Camilli, and all those men of old." However, Claudius Gothicus was clearly a good emperor who made a significant contribution to protecting and restoring the Empire. In the third century there aren't too many emperors who merit such an assessment.

Copyright (C) 2001, Richard D. Weigel. Used by permission.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/claudgot.htm


Claudius II Gothicus was born in Illyricum around 215 A.D. Under Valerian and Gallienus he was recognized as a superb general. After the murder of Gallienus, Claudius Gothicus was proclaimed emperor and preceded to crush the Alemani tribe who had invaded Roman territory. Soon after an enormous horde of Goths poured into the empire. Against all advice, Claudius confronted the barbarians at Naissus in Upper Moesia. He fought a brilliant battle and annihilated them. Unfortunately for the empire, he died of plague after a reign of only two years (Joseph Sermarini, FORVM;
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=741&pos=0#Recovery%20of%20the%20Empire%20Coins).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Aurel.jpg
[1116a] Aurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D. (Antioch)48 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 386, VF, Antioch, 4.56g, 21.4mm, 0o. Obverse: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: RESTITVT ORBIS, Woman (Oriens) presenting wreath to Aurelian standing left, extending arm and holding spear, Z in center, XXI in exergue.

L Domitius Aurelianus was born in Sirmium about 207 A.D. Of humble background, Aurelian rose in the ranks to become one of Rome's greatest generals. Proclaimed emperor around 270 A.D., he quickly crushed the various usurpers, restoring Rome to its largest extent--except for Dacia, which was abandoned permanently. Aurelian then embarked on a series of public works meant to restore the empire's shattered infrastructure. His brilliant rule was cut short by a court conspiracy ending in his assassination in 275 A.D (See: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0).
Cleisthenes
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[1119a] Probus, Antoninianus, 276-282 A.D.84 viewsProbus (AD 276-282) AE Antoninianus; Obverse: Radiate bust, left, wearing imperial mantel and holding scepter surmounted by eagle IMP. PROBVS P. F. AVG. Reverse: Cult image of Roma seated within six column temple ROMAE AETER. R thunderbolt A in exergue; Rome mint 21mm x 22mm, 3.59g; VF; RIC, Vol. 5. Part 2, #183.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Probus (276-282 A.D.) and Rival Claimants (Proculus, Bonosus, and Saturninus)of the 280s

Robin Mc Mahon
New York University

Probus's Background
M. Aurelius Probus was most likely born in Sirmium in 232 A.D. It is difficult to reconstruct Probus' career before he became emperor because of the unreliable nature of the account in the Historia Augusta, but it is certainly possible that he was a tribune under Valerian. Perhaps all that can be said with any reliability is that he served in the military and was on Aurelian's staff during his Eastern campaigns. There is a certain amount of confusion in the sources about him because of the fact that he has often been confused with a certain Tenagino Probus, who served as prefect in Egypt under Claudius II Gothicus.

Accession to Power
After the murder of Aurelian, the Senate chose as his successor the septuagenarian senator, Tacitus, who took up the burdens of state and headed with the army to the East. The Eruli had overrun Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia and finally Cilicia, where Tacitus, with help from his half-brother Florianus, defeated them. Tacitus, however, either died of an illness or was killed by his own troops; he was succeeded by Florianus. In the meantime, Probus had been declared Emperor by his own troops in mid-276, and prepared to meet Florianus, who was marching from the Bosporus, having broken off his victorious engagement against the Eruli. Florianus was acknowledged in Rome and was supported by Gaul, Spain, Britain, and Italy; Probus was supported by Syria, Phoenicia, Palestine and Egypt. The two fought a desultory campaign near Tarsus. With a much smaller force, Probus decided his best strategy would be to avoid a pitched battle and let the heat overcome the troops of Florianus. The latter, having reigned barely two months, was murdered by his own troops. Probus became sole Emperor, possibly by August 276.
Probus in the West: 276-279
His first order of business was to punish the murderers of Aurelian, who may have also had a hand in the murder of Tacitus. On the basis of numismatic evidence, Probus appears to have traveled from the east across the Propontis, and then through the provinces of Thrace, Moesia and Pannonia. It is at this time that he must have defeated the Goths because he already had the title Gothicus by 277 A.D. Shortly after he arrived at the Rhine River he made a trip to Rome to have his powers ratified by the Senate.

Following the death of Postumus in 258, the situation in Gaul had rapidly deteriorated and numerous bands of invaders had swept across the Rhine. In the south, the Longiones, together with the Alamanni, had advanced through the Neckar valley into Gaul. The Franks had crossed the Rhine further north. In order to meet this simultaneous threat, Probus divided his forces having his generals campaign against the Franks, while he himself fought against the Longiones and Alamanni. Both Probus and his generals were victorious; in fact, Probus even captured Semnon, the leader of the Longiones, with his son. Both groups of invaders agreed to terms and booty and prisoners were returned; in the end, Probus allowed Semnon and his son their freedom.

Probus is next reported to have fought victoriously against the Burgundians and to have secured his victory with some ingenuity. Because his forces were smaller than those of the invaders, he wanted to engage the enemy on terms as favorable as possible; the Romans were on one side of the river and the barbarians were on the other. Probus was able to induce them to cross the river by having his soldiers hurl insults at them, and being enraged, they began crossing the river. Before the barbarians were able to organize themselves, the Roman army soundly routed them. Smarting from their defeat, the enemy did not live up to their end of the treaty, with the result that, in a second battle, they were again worsted by Probus. The barbarians who were taken prisoner were enrolled in the Roman Army and sent to Britain.

Not content with merely defeating the barbarians along the Rhine, Probus took important steps to secure the boundary for the future. He planned and constructed a series of forts and depots on the German side of the Rhine at various crossing points, which he garrisoned with troops. Further, Probus apparently took measures to restore economic stability to Gaul by encouraging the planting of vineyards. Probus' titles Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus suggest claims to the success of his operations in the area.

Events in the East 279-280
The sources do not give many details of Probus's activities in Raetia and Illyricum, but Zosimus does say he repulsed an invasion of Vandals from Illyricum in a battle along a river generally identified as the Lech. In 279, theatre of operations was Lycia. Zosimus records the curious story of the adventures and death of a robber chieftain name Lydius who may be the same individual called Palfuerius in the Historia Augusta. In order to prevent further troubles, Probus constructed fortresses, and settled large groups of veterans in this area, giving them land in exchange for the promise that their sons would also serve in the legions when they were old enough.

Probus's Military and Economic Activities In Egypt
Meanwhile, Probus had sent his generals to Egypt, where the Blemmyes were stirring up trouble in 280; they had broken through the border, advanced up the Nile, and, in league with the city of Ptolemais, captured the city of Koptus. They were eventually expelled and order was restored by Probus' generals. Once Probus had restored order, he set about the task of a large-scale reconstruction of the dikes, canals, and bridges along the Nile, something which not been done since it had been undertaken by Augustus in the years 27-25 B.C. More specifically, the Vita Probi notes, "On the Nile, moreover, he did so much that his sole efforts added greatly to the tithes of grain. He constructed bridges and temples porticos and basilicas, all by the labour of the soldiers, he opened up many river-mouths, and drained many marshes, and put in their place grain-fields and farms"(9.3-4). The importance of this type of work cannot be underestimated since a large percentage of the food supply for Rome came from Egypt and the African provinces.

The Revolts of Proculus, Bonosus, and Saturninus
According to the Historia Augusta, although the Persian King, Vahram II, had made peaceful overtures, Probus had rejected these and was planning to push the war forward when he was faced with a series of revolts both in the West and East. It is difficult to place them in their exact time-frame since the sources do not agree. Nevertheless, the situation was serious enough for Probus to cancel his plans for war with Persia and hurry back to the West. On his return Probus settled large numbers of barbarians in the Empire. Perhaps this was done to repopulate areas which had been left abandoned by the effects of invasions and plague. This policy, which Probus did not begin, and which was continued by his successors was, however, destined to bring trouble to Rome in the future.

The writer of the Vita Probi in the Historia Augusta indicates that in 280 A.D. Proculus revolted in the vicinity of the city of Lugdunum, which had been severely dealt with by Aurelian and, for reasons not given, spurred on by this fear, had adopted a hostile attitude towards Probus. Proculus apparently had some connections to the Franks and he had hoped to rally them to his cause. They appear, however, to have handed him over to Probus when he arrived on the scene. Probably at the same time, Bonosus revolted. His rebellion seems to have been serious as it appears to have required considerable force to be suppressed. Bonosus, an officer in charge of the Rhine fleet, had somehow let the Germans slip over the border and burn the fleet. Fearful of retribution, he apparently took shelter in proclaiming himself emperor. He was, in spite of his lapse with the fleet, an excellent soldier. The fighting was only stopped when Bonosus, despairing of his position, hanged himself. Probus spared the lives of his sons as well as that of his wife.

Julius Saturninus, one of Probus 's commanders in Syria, probably seized power in the year 281. A close friend and associate of Probus, he may have been compelled to adopt the purple by his unruly troops. Although he initially rejected a request of the people of Alexandria to put on the purple, he later changed his mind and proclaimed himself Augustus. In any case, Probus planned to put down the rebellion. However, Saturninus was killed by his own troops before Probus had a chance to act.

The sources do not provide much in the way of material to analyze the extent of these revolts and how widespread the feeling was against Probus in the West. There are indications that the revolts were more than local affairs because inscriptions from as far away as Spain have been found where Probus's name has been erased.

In 281 Probus was in Rome to celebrate his victories. Although the Historia Augusta goes into great detail to describe the events of Probus’s triumph and celebrations of his victories in respect to the number of animals and prisoners involved, there may be some truth to its description because Zosimus states there was a uprising which at this time required a force of soldiers to suppress. On a more substantial note, Probus completed the wall around Rome which had been begun by Aurelian.

Probus' Assassination
Probus was too anxious to push ahead with his plans for an invasion of Persia, which had been postponed due to the revolts and unrest in the West, and, to this end, he left Rome in 282 and proceeded first to his native town of Sirmium when news came that M. Aurelius Carus, Perfect of the Guard, had been proclaimed emperor. When troops sent by Probus to quell the rebellion went over to Carus, Probus' remaining troops killed the emperor. His death occurred sometime between September or October 282.
Copyright (C) 1999, Robin Mc Mahon. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families; http://www.roman-emperors.org/probus.htm. Used by permission.

Probus started as a simple soldier but advanced to general and was declared emperor after the death of Tacitus. Florian's murder left him as undisputed ruler. His leadership brought peace and prosperity but he was murdered by mutinous soldiers, enraged at being employed on public building projects. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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[1601a] Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. 67 viewsBronze AE 2, RIC 83(b), EF, Constantinople mint, 4.389g, 22.1mm, 180o, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: VIRTVS E-XERCITI, Emperor standing right holding standard and globe, foot on captive, cross in left field, CONSA in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
man1pano.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)155 viewsManuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180). AE billon trachy; Sear 1964; 30mm, 3.91g.; Constantinople mint; aF. Obverse: MP-OV-The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Reverse: Maueil standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriachal cross. Ex SPQR.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ManuelStGeorge.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)131 viewsMANUEL I COMNENUS AE tetarteron. 1143-1180 AD. 19mm, 2.8g. Obverse: Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear. Reverse: MANVHL-DECPOT, bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum & globe-cross. Simply wonderful style, very sharp for the issue. A gorgeous late Byzantine coin! Ex Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MarcusAureliusLiberalitas_sestertius.jpg
[905a] Marcus Aurelius, 7 March 161 - 17 March 180 A.D.137 viewsMARCUS AURELIUS AE [b[Sestertius. RIC 1222. 30mm, 24.5g. Struck at Rome, 177 AD. Obverse: M ANTONINUS AVG GERM SARM TR P XXXI, laureate head right; Reverse: LIBERALITAS AVG VII IMP VIIII COS III P P, Liberalitas standing left holding coin counter & cornucopia, SC in fields. Nice portrait. Ex Incitatus. Photo courtesy of Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161-180)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University


Introduction and Sources
The Vita of the emperor in the collection known as the Historia Augusta identifies him in its heading as Marcus Antoninus Philosophus, "Marcus Antoninus the Philosopher." Toward the end of the work, the following is reported about him, sententia Platonis semper in ore illius fuit, florere civitates si aut philosophi imperarent aut imperantes philosopharentur (27.7), "Plato's judgment was always on his lips, that states flourished if philosophers ruled or rulers were philosophers." It is this quality of Marcus' character which has made him a unique figure in Roman history, since he was the first emperor whose life was molded by, and devoted to, philosophy (Julian was the second and last). His reign was long and troubled, and in some ways showed the weaknesses of empire which ultimately led to the "Decline and Fall," yet his personal reputation, indeed his sanctity, have never failed of admirers. Contributing to his fame and reputation is a slender volume of Stoic philosophy which served as a kind of diary while he was involved in military campaigns, the Meditations, a book which can be described as an aureus libellus, a little golden book.

The sources for understanding Marcus and his reign are varied but generally disappointing. There is no major historian. The chief literary sources are the biography in the Historia Augusta, as well as those of Hadrian, Antoninus, Verus, and Avidius Cassius. Debate about this collection of imperial biographies has been heated and contentious for more than a century. In all likelihood, it is the work of a single author writing in the last years of the fourth-century. The information offered ranges from the precisely accurate to the wildly imaginative.

Cassius Dio, who wrote in the decade of the 230s, produced a long history of the empire which has survived, for our period, only in an abbreviated version. Fourth century historians, such as Aurelius Victor and Eutropius, occasionally furnish bits of information. Marcus' teacher, Fronto, a distinguished orator and rhetorician, is extremely useful. Papyri, inscriptions, coins, legal writings, and some of the church writers, such as Tertullian, Eusebius, and Orosius, are very important. Archaeology and art history, with their interpretation of monuments, make the history of Marcus' principate literally visible and offer important clues for understanding the context of his actions.

Early Life
He was born M. Annius Verus on April 26, 121, the scion of a distinguished family of Spanish origin (PIR2 A697). His father was Annius Verus (PIR2 A696), his mother Domitia Lucilla (PIR2 D183). His grandfather held his second consulate in that year and went on to reach a third in 126, a rare distinction in the entire history of the principate, and also served Hadrian as city prefect. The youth's education embraced both rhetoric and philosophy; his manner was serious, his intellectual pursuits deep and devoted, so that the emperor Hadrian took an interest in him and called him "Verissimus," "Most truthful," by punning on his name. He received public honors from an early age and seems to have long been in Hadrian's mind as a potential successor. When Hadrian's first choice as successor, L. Ceionius Commodus, died before his adoptive father, the second choice proved more fruitful. The distinguished senator T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus, from Cisalpine Gaul, did succeed Hadrian, whose arrangements for the succession planned for the next generation as well. He required Antoninus to adopt the young Verus, now to be known as M. Aelius Aurelius Verus, as well as Commodus' son, henceforth known as L. Aelius Aurelius Commodus (PIR2 C606). The former was a bit more than seventeen years old, the latter was eight.

Career under Antoninus Pius
The long tenure of Antoninus Pius proved one of the most peaceful and prosperous in Roman history. The emperor himself was disinclined to military undertakings and never left Italy during his reign. Disturbances to the pax Romana occurred on the fringes of empire. Responses were decisive and successful, with legates in charge in the provinces. As a consequence, neither Caesar gained military experience nor was shown to the armies, a failing which later could have proved decisive and disastrous. Marcus rose steadily through the cursus honorum, holding consulates in 140 and 145, combining magistracies with priesthoods. He received the tribunicia potestas in 147, and perhaps also imperium proconsulare. Yet he never neglected the artes liberals. His closest contacts were with Fronto (c.95-c.160), the distinguished rhetorician and orator. His acquaintance included many other distinguished thinkers, such as Herodes Atticus (c.95-177), the Athenian millionaire and sophist, and Aelius Aristides (117-c.181), two of whose great speeches have survived and which reveal much of the mood and beliefs of the age. Yet it was Epictetus (c.50-c.120) who had the greatest philosophical impact and made him a firm Stoic. In the year 161 Marcus celebrated his fortieth birthday, a figure of noble appearance and unblemished character. He was leading a life which gave him as much honor and glory as he could have desired, probably much more than his private nature enjoyed, yet his life, and that of the empire, was soon to change. The emperor died on March 7, but not before clearly indicating to magistrates and senate alike his desire that Marcus succeed him by having the statue of Fortuna, which had been in his bedroom, transferred to Marcus. There was no opposition, no contrary voice, to his succession. He immediately chose his brother as co-emperor, as Hadrian had planned. From the beginning of the year they were joint consuls and held office for the entire year. Their official titulature was now Imperator Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus Augustus and Imperator Caesar L. Aurelius Verus Augustus. The military qualities adumbrated by the word Imperator were soon much in demand, for the empire was under pressure in the year 161 in Britain, in Raetia, and in the east, where Parthia once again posed a significant danger.

The Parthian War (161-166)
The incursion in northern Britain and the difficulties along the Danube were soon satisfactorily managed by legates. The danger in the East was of a different magnitude. Tensions between Rome and Parthia had intensified in the last years of Antoninus' reign over control of Armenia, the vast buffer state which had often aroused enmity between the two powers, since each wished to be able to impose a king favorable to its interests. With Antoninus' death and the uncertainty attendant upon a new emperor (in this case two, a dyarchy, for the first time in Rome's history), the Parthian monarch, Vologaeses III, struck rapidly, placed his own candidate upon the Armenian throne, and inflicted severe setbacks upon the Roman forces sent to oppose him. Marcus decided to send his colleague Lucius Verus, whose imperial prestige would underscore the seriousness of the empire's response. Verus lacked military experience and was sorely lacking in the attributes of leadership and command; further, he was notorious for being chiefly interested in amusements and luxury. But Marcus surrounded him with several of the best generals at the empire's disposal, chief among them Avidius Cassius (c.130-175) (PIR2 A1402). From 162 on, Rome's successes and conquests were extensive and decisive. Most of Parthia's significant cities and strongholds, such as Seleucia and Ctesiphon, were stormed and destroyed, and the army's movements eastward recalled the movements of Alexander the Great some five centuries earlier. By 166, Parthia had capitulated and a Roman nominee sat on the Armenian throne. The victory appeared to be the most decisive since Trajan's conquest of Dacia, but, when Verus returned to Italy with his triumphant army, there came also a devastating plague, which had enormous effect on all provinces.
As is the case with all ancient diseases, it is almost impossible to identify this one. In all likelihood, however, it was smallpox; how severe the toll was is debated. Clearly, it cast a pall over the triumph celebrated by the two emperors, who were honored with the titles Armeniacus and Parthicus. The last years of this decade were dominated by efforts to overcome the plague and provide succour to its victims. But already in 166, the German tribes smashed the Danubian limes, threatening the empire's stability and even existence, more than Parthia had ever done. The first campaigns were punctuated by the death of Verus in 169, leaving Marcus as sole emperor. And so began the most difficult period of his life.

The German Wars
Early in 169, the Marcomanni and Quadi crossed the Danube, penetrated the intervening provinces, and entered Italy. The culmination of their onslaught was a siege of Aquileia. The effect upon the inhabitants of the peninsula was frightful. This was the first invasion of Italy since the late second century B.C., when the Cimbri and Teutones had been separately crushed by Marius. Perhaps more vivid in the collective imagination was the sack of Rome by the Gauls in 387, when the city was saved only by the payment of ransom.
The two emperors hastened north, after a rapid mobilization of forces, which included the drafting of slaves, since the manpower potential of the empire had been so impaired by the consequences of the plague and the losses and troop commitments in the East. Verus died while in the north; Marcus returned to Rome with the body and gave his brother full honors. He then turned north again and began his counterattacks against the barbarians. He did not know it at the time, but he was destined to spend most of his remaining years on the northern frontier. The only interlude was caused by revolt in the east.

We have no record of Marcus' ultimate intentions in these campaigns, yet the various stages were clear. First and foremost, the enemy had to be driven out of Italy and then into their own territory beyond the Danube. He strove to isolate the tribes and then defeat them individually, so that the ultimate manpower superiority of the empire and its greater skill in warfare and logistics could more easily be brought to bear. It was a successful strategy, as one tribe after another suffered defeat and reestablished ties with Rome. But it was a time-consuming and expensive operation, requiring the recruitment of two new legions, II Italica and III Italica, the construction of many new camps, such as the legionary fortress at Regensburg, with success accruing year by year. He intended to create two new provinces, Marcomannia and Sarmatia, thereby eliminating the Hungarian Plain and the headwaters of the Elbe as staging areas for invasion.

This steady, slow progress was interrupted in 175 by the action of the distinguished general Avidius Cassius, governor of Syria, who claimed the empire for himself. Whether he responded to a rumor of Marcus' death or, as gossip had it, conspired with Marcus' wife, the emperor's response was quick and decisive. Leaving the northern wars, he traveled to the East, but Avidius was killed before Marcus arrived in the region. After spending time settling affairs and showing himself to some of the provinces, with particular attention shown to Athens, where he was initiated into the Eleusinian mysteries, as Hadrian and Verus had been. He returned to Italy and soon answered the call to duty once more on the northern frontier. He took with him as colleague his son Commodus, now merely sixteen years old but already long since marked out as his father's intended successor. The military campaigns proved successful, but in the spring of 180, when Marcus died, at least one more year of warfare was necessary for the attainment of the grand enterprise. Marcus recommended to Commodus continuation of the war, but the new emperor was eager to return to Rome and the ease and luxury of the imperial court and entered into a peace agreement. Never again was Rome to hold the upper hand in its dealings with the Germanic tribes beyond the now reestablished borders of the empire.

Administrative and Religious Policy
Marcus was a conscientious and careful administrator who devoted much attention to judicial matters. His appointments to major administrative positions were for the most part admirable. Difficult tasks were put in the charge of the most capable men; he was not afraid of comparison with his subordinates. Social mobility continued as it had been under his predecessors, with men from the provinces advancing into the upper echelons of the Roman aristocracy. Those of humble birth could make a good career; such a one was Pertinax (126-193), a gifted general, who in early 193 became emperor for a space of less than three months.

The judicial administration of Italy was put in the hands of iuridici, who represented the emperor and thus spoke with his authority. This was a practice which had been established by Hadrian but had been allowed to lapse by Antoninus. The centralization of government continued apace. The imperial finances were sorely stretched by the almost continuous wars. Trajan had brought great wealth, Decebalus' treasure, into the empire after his conquest of Dacia. No such profit awaited Marcus. When preparing for the northern wars, he auctioned off much of the imperial palace's valuables. In spite of the enormous expenses of war, Commodus found ample funds upon his accession as sole emperor for his expenditures and amusements.

Although Marcus was a devoted thinker and philosopher, he was deeply religious, at least outwardly. The state cult received full honor, and he recognized the validity of other people's beliefs, so that the variety of religions in the vast extent of the empire caused no difficulties for inhabitants or government, with one significant exception. The Christians were not hampered by any official policy; indeed the impact of the church spread enormously in the second century. Yet their availability as scapegoats for local crises made them subject to abuse or worse. There was violence against them in 167, and perhaps the worst stain on Marcus' principate stemmed from the pogrom of Christians in Lugdunum in southern France in 177. He did not cause it, nor, on the other hand, did he or his officials move to stop it. Indeed, Tertullian called him a friend of Christianity. Yet the events were a precursor of what would come in the century and a quarter which followed.

Building Programs and Monuments
Many of Marcus' predecessors transformed the face of the capital with their building programs, either by the vast range of their undertaking or by the extraordinary significance of individual monuments. Others did very little to leave a tangible mark. Marcus fell into the latter group. There is record of very few monuments for which he and his brother were responsible. Very early in their reign they honored the deceased Antoninus with a column in the Campus Martius, no longer in situ but largely surviving. The shaft, which seems not to have been sculpted, was used for the restoration of Augustus' obelisk, now in Piazza Montecitorio, in the eighteenth century. The base, which was sculpted on all four sides, is now on display in the Vatican Museum. The chief feature is the apotheosis of the emperor and his long deceased wife, the elder Faustina, as they are borne to heaven. Also presented on this relief are two eagles and personifications of the goddess Roma and of the Campus Martius, represented as a young male figure.

There were three arches which commemorated the military achievements of the two emperors. No trace has been found of an early monument to Verus. Two arches later honored Marcus, both of which have disappeared but have left significant sculptural remains. The eight rectangular reliefs preserved on the Arch of Constantine came from one arch. Similarly, the three reliefs displayed in the stairwell of the Conservatori Museum on the Capitoline Hill came from another. One relief has disappeared from the latter monument.

Certainly the best known monument of Marcus' principate is the column, which rises from Piazza Colonna. It is twin to Trajan's column in height and design, although the artistic craftsmanship of the reliefs which envelop the shaft is much inferior. The subject is Marcus' campaigns against the Marcomanni and Sarmati in the years 172-75. The most interesting panel represents the famous rainstorm, when the army, overwhelmed by drought, was suddenly saved by the divine intervention of rain. Although begun in the latter part of the decade, the column was not completed until 193, when Septimius Severus had become emperor.

The famous equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which survived the centuries near San Giovanni in Laterano because the rider was identified as Constantine, no longer greets the visitor to the Capitoline, where Michelangelo had placed it in the sixteenth century. It was removed in the 1980s because pollution was destroying it. After careful treatment and restoration, it is now displayed within the museum, with a replica placed in the center of the piazza.

Although outside Rome, mention should be made of the monumental frieze commemorating Lucius Verus' victory over the Parthians in 165. It was an ornament of the city of Ephesus; the extensive sculptural remains are now in the Ephesus Museum in Vienna.

Family
As part of Hadrian's plans for his succession, when Ceionius Commodus was his choice, Marcus was betrothed to the latter's daughter. But when Ceionius died and Antoninus became Hadrian's successor, that arrangement was nullified and Marcus was chosen for the Emperor's daughter, the younger Faustina (PIR2 A716). She had been born in 129, was hence eight years younger than he. They were married in 145; the marriage endured for thirty years. She bore him thirteen children, of whom several died young; the most important were a daughter, Lucilla, and a son Commodus. Lucilla was deployed for political purposes, married first to Lucius Verus in 164, when she was seventeen, and then, after his death, to Claudius Pompeianus Quintianus of Antioch, a much older man who was an important associate of her father /ii]PIR2 C973). Commodus became joint-emperor with his father in 177 and three years later ruled alone.

Faustina's reputation suffered much abuse. She was accused of employing poison and of murdering people, as well as being free with her favors with gladiators, sailors, and also men of rank, particularly Avidius Cassius. Yet Marcus trusted her implicitly and defended her vigorously. She accompanied him on several campaigns and was honored with the title mater castrorum. She was with him in camp at Halala in southern Cappadocia in the winter of 175 when she died in an accident. Marcus dedicated a temple to her honor and had the name of the city changed to Faustinopolis.

Death and Succession
In early 180, while Marcus and Commodus were fighting in the north, Marcus became ill. Which disease carried him off we do not know, but for some days Marcus took no food or drink, being now eager to die. He died on March 17, in the city of Vindobona, although one source reports that it was in Sirmium. His ashes were brought to Rome and placed in Hadrian's mausoleum. Commodus succeeded to all power without opposition, and soon withdrew from the war, thereby stymieing his father's designs and ambitions. It was a change of rulers that proved disastrous for people and empire. Dio called the succession a change from a golden kingdom to one of iron and rust.

Reputation
Gibbon called Marcus "that philosophic monarch," a combination of adjective and noun which sets Marcus apart from all other Roman emperors. His renown has, in subsequent centuries, suffered little, although he was by no means a "perfect" person. He was perhaps too tolerant of other people's failings, he himself used opium. The abundance of children whom his wife bore him included, alas, a male who was to prove one of Rome's worst rulers. How much better it would have been if Marcus had had no son and had chosen a successor by adoption, so that the line of the five good emperors, Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus, Marcus, could have been extended. It was not to be, and for that Marcus must accept some responsibility.

Yet he was a man of ability and a sense of duty who sacrificed his own delights and interests to the well-being of the state. He was capax imperii, he did his best, and history has been kind to him. As Hamlet said to Horatio, when awaiting the appearance of the ghost of his father,

"He was a man! Take him for all in all, I shall not look upon his like again." (I 2, 187-88)

His memory remains vivid and tactile because of the famous column, the equestrian statue, and his slender volume of thoughts, written in Greek, the Meditations, from which I choose two quotations with which to conclude:

"If mind is common to us, then also the reason, whereby we are reasoning beings, is common. If this be so, then also the reason which enjoins what is to be done or left undone is common. If this be so, law also is common; if this be so, we are citizens; if this be so, we are partakers in one constitution; if this be so, the Universe is a kind of Commonwealth." (4.4)

"At dawn of day, when you dislike being called, have this thought ready: 'I am called to man's labour; why then do I make a difficulty if I am going out to do what I was born to do and what I was brought into the world for?'" (5.1; both in Farquharson's translation)

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CommodusRSC190.jpg
[906a]Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.168 viewsCOMMODUS AR silver denarius. RSC 190. RCV 5644. 16.5mm, 2.3g. F. Obverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, bust of Commodus wearing lion skin in imitation of Hercules and Alexander the Great, facing right; Reverse: HER-CVL RO-MAN AV-GV either side of club of Hercules, all in wreath. RARE. Ex Incitatus.

This coin refers to Commodus' belief that he was Hercules reincarnated. According to the historian Herodian, "he issued orders that he was to be called not Commodus, son of Marcus, but Hercules, son of Jupiter. Abandoning the Roman and imperial mode of dress, he donned the lion-skin, and carried the club of Hercules..." (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Commodus (A.D. 180-192)

Dennis Quinn

Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, the son of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife-cousin Faustina, was born in Lanuvium in 161 AD. Commodus was named Caesar at the age of 5, and co-Augustus at the age of 17, spending most of his early life accompanying his father on his campaigns against the Quadi and the Marcomanni along the Danubian frontier. His father died, possibly of the plague, at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son.[[1]] Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war. Commodus, and much of the Roman army behind him, entered the capital on 22 October, 180 in a triumphal procession, receiving a hero's welcome. Indeed, the youthful Commodus must have appeared in the parade as an icon of new, happier days to come; his arrival sparked the highest hopes in the Roman people, who believed he would rule as his father had ruled.[[2]]

The coins issued in his first year all display the triumphant general, a warrior in action who brought the spoils of victory to the citizens of Rome.[[3]] There is a great deal of evidence to support the fact that Commodus was popular among many of the people, at least for a majority of his reign. He seems to have been quite generous.[[4]]. Coin types from around 183 onward often contain the legend, Munificentia Augusta[[5]], indicating that generosity was indeed a part of his imperial program. Coins show nine occasions on which Commodus gave largesses, seven when he was sole emperor.[[6]] According to Dio, the emperor obtained some of this funding by taxing members of the senatorial class.[[7]] This policy of munificence certainly caused tensions between Commodus and the Senate. In 191 it was noted in the official Actus Urbis that the gods had given Commodus to Populus Senatusque Romanus. Normally the phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus was used. [[8]] While the Senate hated Commodus, the army and the lower classes loved him.[[9]] Because of the bad relationship between the Senate and Commodus as well as a senatorial conspiracy,[[10]] Rome "...was virtually governed by the praetorian prefects Perennis (182-185) and Cleander (186-9)."[[11]]

Commodus began to dress like the god Hercules, wearing lion skins and carrying a club.[[12]] Thus he appropriated the Antonines' traditional identification with Hercules, but even more aggressively. Commodus' complete identification with Hercules can be seen as an attempt to solidify his claim as new founder of Rome, which he now called the Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. This was legitimized by his direct link to Hercules, son of Father Jupiter.[[13]] He probably took the title of Hercules officially some time before mid-September 192.[[14]]

While the literary sources, especially Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta, all ridicule the antics of his later career, they also give important insight into Commodus' relationship to the people.[[15]] His most important maneuver to solidify his claims as Hercules Romanus was to show himself as the god to the Roman people by taking part in spectacles in the amphitheater. Not only would Commodus fight and defeat the most skilled gladiators, he would also test his talents by encountering the most ferocious of the beasts.[[16]]

Commodus won all of his bouts against the gladiators.[[17]] The slayer of wild beasts, Hercules, was the mythical symbol of Commodus' rule, as protector of the Empire.[[18]]

During his final years he declared that his age should be called the "Golden Age."[[19]] He wanted all to revel in peace and happiness in his age of glory, praise the felicitas Commodi, the glorious libertas, his pietas, providential, his victoria and virtus aeterna.[[20]] Commodus wanted there to be no doubt that this "Golden Age" had been achieved through his munificence as Nobilissimus Princeps. He had declared a brand new day in Rome, founding it anew in 190, declaring himself the new Romulus.[[21]] Rome was now to be called Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana, as noted above, and deemed "the Immortal," "the Fortunate," "the Universal Colony of the Earth."[[22]] Coins represent the archaic rituals of city-[re]foundation, identifying Commodus as a new founder and his age as new days.[[23]]

Also in 190 he renamed all the months to correspond exactly with his titles. From January, they run as follows: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, Pius.[[24]] According to Dio Cassius, the changing of the names of the months was all part of Commodus' megalomania.[[25]] Commodus was the first and last in the Antonine dynasty to change the names of the months.


The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which imported grain from Africa was called Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the Senate was deemed the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the Roman people were all given the name Commodianus.[[26]] The day that these new names were announced was also given a new title: Dies Commodianus.[[27]] Indeed, the emperor presented himself with growing vigor as the center of Roman life and the fountainhead of religion. New expressions of old religious thought and new cults previously restricted to private worship invade the highest level of imperial power.[[28]]

If Eusebius of Caesarea [[29]] is to be believed, the reign of Commodus inaugurated a period of numerous conversions to Christianity. Commodus did not pursue his father's prohibitions against the Christians, although he did not actually change their legal position. Rather, he relaxed persecutions, after minor efforts early in his reign.[[30]] Tradition credits Commodus's policy to the influence of his concubine Marcia; she was probably his favorite,[[31]] but it is not clear that she was a Christian.[[32]] More likely, Commodus preferred to neglect the sect, so that persecutions would not detract from his claims to be leading the Empire through a "Golden Age."[[33]]

During his reign several attempts were made on Commodus' life.[[34]] After a few botched efforts, an orchestrated plot was carried out early in December 192, apparently including his mistress Marcia. On 31 December an athlete named Narcissus strangled him in his bath,[[35]] and the emperor's memory was cursed. This brought an end to the Antonine Dynasty.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alföldy, G. "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.

Aymard, J. "Commode-Hercule foundateur de Rome," Revue des études latines 14 (1936): 340-64.

Birley, A. R. The African Emperor: Septimius Severus. -- rev. ed.-- London, 1988.
________. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. London, 1987.

Breckenridge, J. D. "Roman Imperial Portraiture from Augustus to Gallienus," ANRW 2.17. 1 (1981): 477-512.

Chantraine, H. "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975): 1-31.

Ferguson, J. The Religions of the Roman Empire. Ithaca, 1970.

Fishwick, D. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West. Leiden, 1987.

Gagé, J. "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne," ANRW 2.17.2 (1981), 663-83.

Garzetti, A. From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192. London, 1974.

Grosso F. La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo. Turin, 1964.

Hammond, M. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome, 1956.

Helgeland, J. "Roman Army Religion," ANRW II.16.2 (1978): 1470-1505.

Howe, L. L. The Praetorian Prefect from Commodus to Diocletian (A. D. 180-305). Chicago, 1942.

Keresztes, P. "A Favorable Aspect of Commodus' Rule," in Hommages à Marcel Renard 2. Bruxelles, 1969.

Mattingly, R. The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus. London, 1930.

Nock, A. D. "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947): 102-116.

Parker, H. M. D. A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337. London, 1935.
________. and B.H. Warmington. "Commodus." OCD2, col. 276.

Raubitschek, A. E. "Commodus and Athens." Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear. Hesperia, Supp. 8, 1948.

Rostovtzeff, M. I. "Commodus-Hercules in Britain," Journal of Roman Studies 13 (1923): 91-105.

Sordi, M. "Un senatore cristano dell'éta di Commodo." Epigraphica 17 (1959): 104-112.

Speidel, M. P. "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993): 109-114.

Stanton, G. R. "Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus: 1962-1972." ANRW II.2 (1975): 478-549.

Notes
[[1]] For a discussion of the circumstances surrounding the death of Marcus Aurelius, see A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography -- rev. ed. -- (London, 1987), 210.
Aurelius Victor, De Caes. 16.4, writing around the year 360, claimed Aurelius died at Vindobona, modern Vienna. However, Tertullian, Apol. 25, who wrote some seventeen years after Marcus' death, fixed his place of death at Sirmium, twenty miles south of Bononia. A. R. Birley (Marcus Aurelius, 209-10) cogently argues Tertullian is much more accurate in his general description of where Marcus was campaigning during his last days.
For the dating of Marcus Aurelius' death and the accession of Commodus, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy (Rome, 1956), 179-80.

[[2]] For the army's attitude toward peace, the attitude of the city toward the peace, and the reception of the emperor and his forces into Rome, see Herodian, 1.7.1-4; for Commodus' subsequent political policies concerning the northern tribes, see G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.
For a commentary on the early years of Commodus in the public perception as days of optimism, see A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192 (London, 1974), 530. For a more critical, and much more negative portrayal, see the first chapter of F. Grosso, La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo (Turin, 1964).

[[3]]The gods Minerva and Jupiter Victor are invoked on the currency as harbingers of victory; Jupiter Conservator on his coins watches over Commodus and his Empire, and thanks is given to divine Providence (H. Mattingly, The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [London, 1930] 356-7, 366-7). In 181, new coin types appear defining the new reign of Commodus. Victory and peace are stressed. Coins extol Securitas Publica, Felicitas, Libertas, Annona, and Aequitas (ibid., 357).
By 186 Commodus is depicted as the victorious princes, the most noble of all born to the purple. Herodian (1.5.5) describes how Commodus boasted to his soldiers that he was born to be emperor. See also H. Chantraine, "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quatralschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975), 26. He is called Triumphator and Rector Orbis, and associated with the Nobilitas of Trojan descent (Mattingly, RIC III.359; idem, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum. Volume IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [Oxford, 1940], clxii).

[[4]] Dio tells us that Commodus liked giving gifts and often gave members of the populace 140 denarii apiece (Cass. Dio, 73.16), whereas the Historia Augusta reports that he gave each man 725 denarii (SHA, Comm., 16.3).

[[5]]Mattingly, RIC, III.358.

[[6]] Idem., CBM, IV.clxxiv.

[[7]]Cass. Dio, 73.16.

[[8]]M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 113.

[[9]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.xii. Commodus was also popular amongst the northern divisions of the army because he allowed them to wield axes in battle, a practice banned by all preceding emperors. See, Speidel, JRS 83 (1993), 114.

[[10]]Infra, n. 34.

[[11]] H. Parker and B.H. Warmington, OCD2, s.v. "Commodus," col. 276; after 189, he was influenced by his mistress Marcia, Eclectus his chamberlain, and Laetus (who became praetorian prefect in 191 (Idem.).

[[12]]Herodian, 1.14.8. Hadrian appears on medallions in lion skins; but as far as the sources tell us, he never appeared in public in them. See J. Toynbee, Roman Medallions,(New York, 1986), 208.
He would often appear at public festivals and shows dressed in purple robes embroidered with gold. He would wear a crown made of gold, inlaid with the finest gems of India. He often carried a herald's staff as if imitating the god Mercury. According to Dio Cassius, Commodus' lion's skin and club were carried before him in the procession, and at the theaters these vestiges of Hercules were placed on a gilded chair for all to see (Cass. Dio, 73.17). For the implications of the golden chair carried in procession in relation to the imperial cult, see D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, (Leiden, 1987-91 ), 555.

[[13]] H. M. D. Parker, A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337, (London, 1935), 34; For medallions that express the relationship between Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus extolling Hercules as a symbol of civic virtue, see Toynbee, Roman Medallions, 208. For a general statement on the symbolism of Hercules in the Antonine age, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy, 238.
For a discussion of Commodus' association with Hercules, see
Rostovtzeff, "Commodus-Hercules," 104-6.
Herodian spells out the emperor's metamorphosis in detail (1.14.8).

[[14]]See Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor," 114. He argues this general date because a papyrus from Egypt's Fayum records Hercules in Commodus' title on 11 October 192.

[[15]]For a preliminary example, Herodian writes (1.13.8), "people in general responded well to him."

[[16]]As Dio reports, Commodus, with his own hands, gave the finishing stroke to five hippopotami at one time. Commodus also killed two elephants, several rhinoceroses, and a giraffe with the greatest of ease. (Cass. Dio, 73.10), and with his left hand (ibid., 73.19). Herodian maintains that from his specially constructed terrace which encircled the arena (enabling Commodus to avoid risking his life by fighting these animals at close quarters), the emperor also killed deer, roebuck, various horned animals, lions, and leopards, always killing them painlessly with a single blow. He purportedly killed one hundred leopards with one hundred javelins, and he cleanly shot the heads off countless ostriches with crescent-headed arrows. The crowd cheered as these headless birds continued to run around the amphitheater (1.15-4-6; for Commodus' popularity at these brutal spectacles, see Birley, The African Emperor, 86) (and Dio tells his readers that in public Commodus was less brutal than he was in private [73.17ff]).

[[17]] According to Herodian (1.15-17), "In his gladiatorial combats, he defeated his opponents with ease, and he did no more than wound them, since they all submitted to him, but only because they knew he was the emperor, not because he was truly a gladiator."

[[18]]Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.360.

[[19]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[20]] Mattingly, RIC, III.361. For Commodus' propaganda of peace, see W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392.

[[21]] W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392-3. In 189 a coin type was issued with the legend Romulus Conditor, perhaps indicating he began the official renaming process during that year. For a discussion on Commodus as Romulus, see A. D. Nock, "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947), 103.

[[22]] HA, Comm. 7.1; Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[23]]Mattingly, RIC, III.361. See also, Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.386.

[[24]]The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473.
HA, Comm., 12.315; Cass. Dio, 73.15; Herodian, I.14.9. These new names for the months seem to have actually been used, at least by the army, as confirmed by Tittianus' Altar. See M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 112.

[[25]] Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[26]]Legions:Idem.; the Grain fleet: SHA, Comm., 12.7. For a further discussion of Commodus' newly named fleet, see, A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines, 547. For coins issued extolling the fleet, see Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxix; RIC, III.359; the Senate: Cass. Dio, 73.15; the Imperial Palace: SHA, Comm., 12.7; the Roman People: Ibid., 15.5.

[[27]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[28]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxxxiv.

[[29]]Eusebius, Hist.Ecc., 5.21.1.

[[30]]For a discussion of the treatment of Christianity during the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus as well as persecutions during the reign of Commodus, see Keresztes, "A Favorable Aspect," 374, 376-377.

[[31]]Herodian, 1.16.4; Dio, 73.4. A Medallion from early 192 shows Commodus juxtaposed with the goddess Roma, which some scholars have argued incorporates the features of Marcia. See, Roman Medallions, "Introduction." Commodus was married, however, to a woman named Crispina. He commissioned several coins early in his rule to honor her.

[[32]]The Christian apologist Hippolytus tells that she was a Christian (Philos. 9.2.12), Dio tells that she simply favored the Christians (73.4). Herodian does not take a stand on the matter either way (1.16.4).

[[33]]Cass. Dio, 73.15. He pronounces Commodus' edict that his rule should be henceforth called the "Golden Age."

[[34]]H. Parker and B.H. Warmington note that Commodus..."resorted to government by means of favorites...which was exacerbated by an abortive conspiracy promoted by Lucilla and Ummidius Quadratus (182)." (OCD2, col. 276).

[[35]]Herodian, 1.17.2-11; Dio Cass., 73.22; SHA, Comm.,17.1-2.

Copyright (C) 1998, Dennis Quinn. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Used by Permission.

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