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T1118LG.jpg
C POBLICIUS Q F. 80 BC91 viewsHelmeted bust of Roma right / Hercules strangling the Nemean lion; bow and quiver at left; club below. Cr. 380/1.

POBLICIA, a plebian family, but of consular rank. Its cognomen on coins is Malleolus. There are fifteen varieties, all of silver, on some of which a small hammer or mallett is engraved, evidently alluding to the surname Malleolus.

The first of Heracles' twelve labours, set by King Eurystheus (his cousin) was to slay the Nemean lion.

According to one version of the myth, the Nemean lion took women as hostages to its lair in a cave near Nemea, luring warriors from nearby towns to save the damsel in distress. After entering the cave, the warrior would see the woman (usually feigning injury) and rush to her side. Once he was close, the woman would turn into a lion and kill the warrior, devouring his remains and giving the bones to Hades.

Heracles wandered the area until he came to the town of Cleonae. There he met a boy who said that if Heracles slew the Nemean lion and returned alive within 30 days, the town would sacrifice a lion to Zeus; but if he did not return within 30 days or he died, the boy would sacrifice himself to Zeus.[3] Another version claims that he met Molorchos, a shepherd who had lost his son to the lion, saying that if he came back within 30 days, a ram would be sacrificed to Zeus. If he did not return within 30 days, it would be sacrificed to the dead Heracles as a mourning offering.

While searching for the lion, Heracles fetched some arrows to use against it, not knowing that its golden fur was impenetrable; when he found and shot the lion and firing at it with his bow, he discovered the fur's protective property when the arrow bounced harmlessly off the creature's thigh. After some time, Heracles made the lion return to his cave. The cave had two entrances, one of which Heracles blocked; he then entered the other. In those dark and close quarters, Heracles stunned the beast with his club and, using his immense strength, strangled it to death. During the fight the lion bit off one of his fingers. Others say that he shot arrows at it, eventually shooting it in the unarmoured mouth.

After slaying the lion, he tried to skin it with a knife from his belt, but failed. He then tried sharpening the knife with a stone and even tried with the stone itself. Finally, Athena, noticing the hero's plight, told Heracles to use one of the lion's own claws to skin the pelt.

When he returned on the thirtieth day carrying the carcass of the lion on his shoulders, King Eurystheus was amazed and terrified. Eurystheus forbade him ever again to enter the city; in future he was to display the fruits of his labours outside the city gates. Eurystheus warned him that the tasks set for him would become increasingly difficult. He then sent Heracles off to complete his next quest, which was to destroy the Lernaean hydra.

The Nemean lion's coat was impervious to the elements and all but the most powerful weapons. Others say that Heracles' armour was, in fact, the hide of the lion of Cithaeron.
ecoli
Craw_235_1a_Denario_Sextus_Pompeius_Fostulus.jpg
03-10 - SEX POMPEIUS FOSTLUS (137 A.C.)21 viewsAR Denario 18.5 mm 3.75 gr

Anv: Cabeza con yelmo de Roma viendo a derecha - "X = Marca de valor = 10 Ases" debajo del mentón y "Jarron" detrás del busto.
Rev: Loba estante a derecha amamantando a los mellizos Rómulo y Remo, árbol en segundo plano con 3 aves y el Pastor Faustulus estante a derecha detrás - "FOSTLVS" en la izquierda, "SEX POM" en la derecha y "ROMA" en exergo.

Ceca: Roma

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #112 Pag.95 - Craw RRC #235/1a - Syd CRR #461 - BMCRR I #928 Pag.132 - RSC Vol.1 Pompeia #1 Pag.76
mdelvalle
0010-053.jpg
0899 - S. Pompeius Fostlus, Denarius69 viewsRome mint, 137 BC
Helmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, jug behind head
SEX PO [FOSTLVS] She wolf suckling Remus and Romulus, fig tree in background, the shepherd Faustulus behind. ROMA at exergue
3,73 gr
Ref : RCV # 112 var, RSC Pompeia # 1a, Crawford # 235/1c
2 commentsPotator II
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Rep_AR-Den_Sex_Pompeius_Helm-head-of-Roma_r_behind-jug-before-X_She-wolf-r__SEX-PO_ex-ROMA_Crawford-235-1_Syd-461a_Rome_137-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_17-19,5mm_3,73g-s.jpg
137 B.C., Sextus Pompeius, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-235-1, Rome, Wolf standing right, 78 views137 B.C., Sextus Pompeius, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-235-1, Rome, Wolf standing right,
avers:- Head of Roma, X below chin, jug behind.
revers: - SEX POMP FOSTLVS, Wolf standing right, head turned, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, shepherd to left, birds on fig tree behind, ROMA in ex.
exerg: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 17-19,5mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 137 B.C.,, ref: Crawford-235-1, Syd-461a, Pompeia 1,
Q-001
quadrans
Faust.jpg
137 BC Sextus Pompeius57 viewsHelmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, jug behind

FOSTLVS SEX POM
ROMA in Ex.
She-wolf standing rightsuckling the twins Romulus and Remus, fig tree in background with three birds, the shepherd Faustulus standing right behind

Rome 137 BC
Sear 112
CRR 461

ex-ANE

This moneyer was the husband of Lucilia (sister of the poet C. Lucilius) and father to Cn. Pompeius Sex. f Strabo, and grandfather of Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great). He may also have been praetor in 119 BC.
2 commentsJay GT4
JuliusCaesarDenEleph.jpg
1af Julius Caesar Wages Civil War12 viewsJulius Caesar

Denarius
49-48 BC

Elephant right, trampling on serpent [probably], CAESAR in ex
Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat

Evidently a military issue, no agreement exists on the meaning of the coin's imagery (see e.g. http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.msg552803#msg552803)

Seaby 49

Given the chance that the coin was minted to pay Caesar's armies in the civil war, here is a description of the beginning, according to Suetonius: He then overtook his advanced guard at the River Rubicon, which formed the boundary between Gaul and Italy. There he paused for a while and, realising the magnitude of the step he was taking, turned to his staff, to remark: ‘We could turn back, even now; but once over that little bridge, and it will all come down to a fight.’ . . . As he stood there, undecided, he received a sign. A being of marvellous stature and beauty appeared suddenly, seated nearby, and playing on a reed pipe. A knot of shepherds gathered to listen, but when a crowd of his soldiers, including some of the trumpeters, broke ranks to join them, the apparition snatched a trumpet from one of them, ran to the river, and sounding the call to arms blew a thunderous blast, and crossed to the far side. At this, Caesar exclaimed: ‘Let us follow the summons, of the gods’ sign and our enemy’s injustice. The die is cast.’ And crossing with the army, he welcomed the tribunes of the people, who had fled to him from Rome. Then, in tears, he addressed the troops and, ripping open the breast of his tunic, asked for their loyalty.
Blindado
MaximinusDenPax.jpg
1ch Maximinus51 views235-238

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Pax stg, PAX AVGVSTI

RIC 12

Herodian recorded: There was in the Roman army a man named Maximinus whose half-barbarian family lived in a village in the most remote section of Thrace. They say that as a boy he was a shepherd, but that in his youthful prime he was drafted into the cavalry because of his size and strength. After a short time, favored by Fortune, he advanced through all the military ranks, rising eventually to the command of armies and the governing of provinces.

Because of his military experience, which I have noted above, Alexander put Maximinus in charge of training recruits for the entire army; his task was to instruct them in military duties and prepare them for service in war. By carrying out his assignments thoroughly and diligently, Maximinus won the affection of the soldiers. He not only taught them their duties; he also demonstrated personally to each man what he was to do. . . .

He won their devotion by giving them all kinds of gifts and rewards. Consequently, the recruits, who included an especially large number of Pannonians, praised the masculinity of Maximinus and despised Alexander as a mother's boy. . . . The soldiers were therefore ready for a change of emperors. . . . They therefore assembled on the drill field for their regular training; when Maximinus took his position before them, either unaware of what was happening or having secretly made prior preparations for the event, the soldiers robed him in the imperial purple and proclaimed him emperor. . . .

When he assumed control of the empire, Maximinus reversed the situation, using his power savagely to inspire great fear. He undertook to substitute for a mild and moderate rule an autocracy in every way barbarous, well aware of the hostility directed toward him because he was the first man to rise from a lowly station to the post of highest honor. His character was naturally barbaric, as his race was barbarian. He had inherited the brutal disposition of his countrymen, and he intended to make his imperial position secure by acts of cruelty, fearing that he would become an object of contempt to the Senate and the people, who might be more conscious of his lowly origin than impressed by the honor he had won. . . .

[A]fter Maximinus had completed three years as emperor, the people of Africa first took up arms and touched off a serious revolt for one of those trivial reasons which often prove fatal to a tyrant. . . . The entire populace of the city quickly assembled when the news was known, and the youths proclaimed Gordian Augustus. He begged to be excused, protesting that he was too old. . . .

[In Rome], the senators met before they received accurate information concerning Maximinus and, placing their trust for the future in the present situation, proclaimed Gordian Augustus, together with his son, and destroyed Maximinus' emblems of honor. . . . Embassies composed of senators and distinguished equestrians were sent to all the governors with letters which clearly revealed the attitude of the Senate and the Roman people. . . . The majority of the governors welcomed the embassies and had no difficulty in arousing the provinces to revolt because of the general hatred of Maximinus. . . .


Blindado
AntoSee1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 615a, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Aeneas) 114 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.15g, Ø33mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-44.
Obv/ ANTONINVS · AVGVSTVS PIVS, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right, aegis on left shoulder.
Rev/ P P TR P COS III (in field) [S C (in ex.)], Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloak, advancing right, looking back, carrying Anchises on his shoulder and holding Ascanius by the hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum (shepherd's crook) in left hand.
RIC 615a (R2), BMCRE 1264, Cohen 655 (80 Fr.), Strack 904 (3 specimens found); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 309 (same obv. and rev. dies, 3 specimens found).
ex Numphil (Paris, june 2014 auction)

This type is part of a series figuring scenes from ancient Roman legends. The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Troy with his son Ascanius and his father Anchises. According to the legend, Aeneas, son of Venus and the Trojan Anchises, fled by boat with some inhabitants of Troy as it fell to the Greeks, taking the Palladium - the ancient sacred statue of Athena - and eventually made their way west to resettle in Italy. They intermarried with the local inhabitants and founded the town of Lavinium, and became the nucleus of the future Roman people. One of the descendants of Aeneas'son Ascianus was Rhea Silvia, the mother of the twins Romulus and Remus.

Numismatic note: This issue has been struck from a single obverse die with the unique obverse legend "ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS" found nowhere else in the coinage of Antoninus Pius. This obverse die was used exclusively with two reverse dies with slightly different legends: the one in the photo above, and a similar one with the legend "P P TR POT COS III". The use of the aegis on the bust is not exclusive for this issue, but very rare for Antoninus Pius.
2 commentsCharles S
HN_Italy_2497.jpg
Bruttium, Rhegion, 415-387 B.C., Drachm 26 views14mm, 3.89 grams
Reference: Sear 502; B.M.C.1.38
Lion's scalp facing.
PHΓINON, Laureate head of Apollo right, olive-sprig behind.

"Dionysios I, after concluding a peace with the Carthaginians, went about securing his power in the island of Sicily. His troops, however, rebelled against him and sought help from, among others, the city of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 14.8.2). In the ensuing campaigns, Dionyios I proceeded to enslave the citizens of Naxos and Katane, with whom the Rhegians shared a common history and identity (Diod. Sic. 14.40.1). This association was a source of anger and fear for the inhabitants of Rhegion. The Syracusan exiles living there also encouraged the Rhegians to go to war with Syracuse (Diod. Sic. 14.40.3). The overarching strategy of Dionysios I included extending his power into Italy by using Rhegion as a stepping stone to the rest of the peninsula. In 387 BC, after a siege that lasted eleven months, the Rhegians, on the brink of starvation, surrendered to Dionysus. Indeed, we are told that by the end of the siege, a medimnos of wheat cost about five minai (Diod. Sic. 14.111.2). Strabo remarks that, following Dionysios' capture of the city, the Syracusan “destroyed the illustrious city” (Strabo 6.1.6).

The next decade or so of the history of Rhegion is unclear, but sometime during his reign, Dionysios II, who succeeded his father in 367 BC, rebuilt the city, giving it the new name of Phoibia (Strabo 6.1.6). Herzfelder argues that this issue was struck by Dionysios II of Syracuse after he rebuilt the city, and dates it to the period that Dionysios II is thought to have lived in the city. Due to civil strife at Syracuse, Dionysios II was forced to garrison Region, but was ejected from the city by two of his rivals circa 351 BC (Diod. Sic. 16.45.9).

The coin types of Rhegion, founded as a colony of Chalcis, are related to its founding mythology. Some of the earliest tetradrachms of the city, from the mid-5th century BC, depict a lion’s head on the obverse, and a seated figure on the reverse. J.P. Six (in NC 1898, pp. 281-5) identified the figure as Iokastos, the oikistes (founder) of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 5.8.1; Callimachus fr. 202). Head (in HN), suggested Aristaios, son of Apollo. Iokastos was one of six sons of Aiolos, ruler of the Aeolian Islands. All of the sons of Aiolos secured their own realms in Italy and Sicily, with Iokastos taking the region around Rhegion. Aristaios, born in Libya, discovered the silphium plant, and was the patron of beekeepers (mentioned by Virgil), shepherds, vintners, and olive growers. He also protected Dionysos as a child, and was the lover of Eurydike. The replacement of the seated figure type with the head of Apollo circa 420 BC also suggests the figure could be Aristaios. An anecdote from the first-century BC geographer Strabo (6.1.6 and 6.1.9), which connects Rhegion’s founding to the orders of the Delphic Oracle and Apollo, as the reason for the advent of the new type could be simply serendipitous.

Different theories exist for the lion’s head on the coins of Rhegion. The lion’s head (or mask as it is sometimes described) first appeared on the coinage of Rhegion at the start of the reign of Anaxilas, in about 494 BC. E.S.G. Robinson, in his article “Rhegion, Zankle-Messana and the Samians” (JHS vol. 66, 1946) argues that the lion was a symbol of Apollo. He makes a comparison to the coinage of the nearby city of Kaulonia, “At Kaulonia Apollo’s animal was the deer; if at Rhegion it was the lion, the early appearance and persistence of that type is explained. The lion is a certain, though infrequent, associate of Apollo at all periods.” The link, he suggests, is that the lion was associated with the sun, as was Apollo himself.

The lion’s head could also relate to the exploits of Herakles, who had some significance for the city. The extant sources tell us that Herakles stopped at southern Italy near Rhegion on his return with the cattle of Geryon (Diod. Sic. 4.22.5). It was here that supposedly a bull broke away from the rest of the herd and swam to Sicily (Apollod. 2.5.10). Though but a passing reference in Apollodorus, it is very possible that the Rhegians venerated Herakles. Indeed, Herakles was a very important figure throughout the entire area. Dionysios of Halicarnassus says that “in many other places also in Italy [besides Rome] precincts are dedicated to this god [Herakles] and altars erected to him, both in cities and along highways; and one could scarcely find any place in Italy in which the god is not honoured” (I.40.6). As the skin of the Nemean Lion was one of the main attributes of Herakles, the lion’s head may refer to him through metonymic association."
1 commentsLeo
claudiopolis_maximiusI_SNGfrance791.jpg
Cilicia, Ninica-Claudiopolis, Maximinus I, SNG Levante Supp. 170 (plate coin)142 viewsMaximinus I AD 235-236
AE 30 mm, 14.59 g
obv. IMP.CAES.SA.IVL.VER.MAXI / MINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
behind bust c/m Howgego 338 eagle r., head l.
rev. NINIC COL CLA / VDIOPO / L
She-wolf standing right under Ruminal fig tree, head l., suckling the twins
Remus and Romulus
SNG Levante 618 (same dies); SNG Levante Supp. 170 (this coin); SNG Paris 791 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 5775 (same dies)
Choice EF, nice olive-brown patina, rare this nice.
published on www.wildwinds.com

The fig tree was sanctified to the goddess Rumina. Later the twins were found by the shepherd Faustulus. The rest is well-known!
The legend is in Latin because the city was a Roman colonia. The she-wolf looks a bit like a horse!
6 commentsJochen
80ArteCombo.png
Cr 235/1a AR Denarius Sex. Pompeius Fostlus 10 views137 BCE
o: Helmeted head of Roma right; below chin, X; behind, jug
r: SEX. POM FOSTLVS. She-wolf suckling twins; behind, ficus Ruminalis; in left field, the shepherd Faustulus leaning on staff; in exergue, ROMA.
Cr. 235/1a. Pompeia 1. (g. 3.91 mm. 20.00)
This one's quite nice, pix do not do it justice.
PMah
kos1.JPG
GREEK, Kos, Caria, AR Drachm19 views63328. , cf. BMC Caria p. 198, 44 ff., SNG Cop 636 ff., SNGvA 2756 - 2757, SNG Keckman 293 - 294, Fine/Fair,
3.120 g,
14.1 mm,
Cos mint, c. 357 - 166 B.C.;
obverse bearded head of Herakles right, wearing Nemean lion scalp headdress; reverse KWION, crab, magistrates name and club below, all within square dot border; (Ex FORVM)


"Herakles was travelling by sea when Hera, who hated him, sent a storm, sinking his boats. Hercules and only a few friends survived, swimming to Kos. Once ashore they asked a shepherd for food and shelter. The shepherd refused and insulted Hercules and they fought. People from nearby Antimachia joined the fight against Hercules. Hercules and his friends slipped into a house, disguised as women, and escaped. Another town welcomed Hercules and declared war on Antimachia. Hercules killed the king of Antimachia and married the newly elected king's sister, Halkiopi. Their son, Thessalos, would later be the king of Kos and Nisyros."
superflex
IMG11190.JPG
Italy, Aquileia - mosaic floor199 viewsscene of the Good Shepherd with the Mystic Flock
Christ is portrayed as a beardless young man bearing the lost lamb upon his shoulders. In one hand he holds the syrinx, symbol of the gentless he takes cere of his flock with.
Post-Theodorian South hall (end of 4th century)
Mosaics were originally part of Theodorian complex destroyed by Attila. Basilica was built on its site in 1031 and mosaics remained untouched under the floor.
Johny SYSEL
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino34 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino27 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores27 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn51 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum24 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
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Jesus Christ, Pantocrator45 viewsThe iconic image of Christ Pantocrator (Christ, Ruler of All) was one of the first images of Christ developed in the Early Christian Church and remains a central icon of the Eastern Orthodox Church. In the half-length image, Christ holds the New Testament in his left hand and blesses with his right.

The oldest known surviving example of the icon of Christ Pantocrator was painted in encaustic on panel in the sixth or seventh century, and survived the period of destruction of images during the Iconoclastic Disputes that racked the Eastern church, 726 A.D. to 815 A.D. and 813 A.D. to 843A.D., by being preserved in the remote desert of the Sinai, in Saint Catherine's Monastery. The gessoed panel, finely painted using a wax medium on a wooden panel, had been coarsely overpainted around the face and hands at some time around the thirteenth century. It was only when the overpainting was cleaned in 1962 that the ancient image was revealed to be a very high quality icon, probably produced in Constantinople (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Pantocrator).

The Christ Pantocrator Icon at St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai

In 544 AD, a cloth bearing an image of Jesus was discovered hidden above a gate in Edessa's city walls. Six years later, an icon was produced at St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai.
(See: http://www.shroudofturin4journalists.com/history.htm)

There are startling similarities between the icon and the image we see on the Shroud of Turin. There are, perhaps, too many similarities for it to be a mere coincidence.

The general placement of facial features including eyes, nose and mouth. In fact, when a transparency of the Shroud face is superimposed over the icon, there are no significant variations.

The hair on the left side (your right) falls on the shoulder and swoops outward. The hair on the other side is shorter.

The eyes are very large.

The nose is particularly thin and long. The face is gaunt.

There is a gap in the beard below a concentration of facial hair that is just below the lower lip.

The neck is particularly long.

It is particularly interesting to note that starting about this time a dramatic change took place in the way Jesus was portrayed on coins, icons, frescoes and mosaics. Before this time, Jesus was usually portrayed in storybook settings such as a young shepherd or modeled after the Greek Apollo.

After the discovery of the Edessa Cloth, images of Jesus were suddenly full-frontal facial images.

The story of the Shroud of Turin is fascinating. It began, for me, ironically when I thought the "story" had finally been laid to rest. Carbon 14 dating conducted in 1988 had just proved that the Shroud was medieval. Along with most, I accepted these results--the fact that two of my former Alma Maters (The University of Arizona and Oxford University) were involved in the testing lent a comfortable sense of closure (to give them their due, scientists from the Institut für Mittelenergiephysik in Zurich, Columbia University, and the British Museum were also involved in the tests). I was re-engaged by the Shroud story in 2005 when an article in the scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal Thermochimica Acta by an equally eminent scientist, Raymond N. Rogers, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, subverted the 1988 tests. Very briefly, the sample cut from the Shroud in 1988 was shown not to be valid. In fact, the article noted, the Shroud was much older than the carbon 14 tests suggested. Curiouser and curiouser. . . and I'll leave the story at this juncture. If you are interested, see the following site:
http://www.shroudofturin4journalists.com/pantocrator.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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Kyme, Aeolis35 viewsCumae (Cuma, in Italian) is an ancient Greek settlement lying to the northwest of Naples in the Italian region of Campania. The settlement is believed to have been founded in the 8th century BC by Greeks from the city of Cuma and Chalkis in Euboea upon the earlier dwellings of indigenous, Iron-Age peoples whom they supplanted. Eusebius placed Cumae's Greek foundation at 1050 BC. Its name comes from the Greek word kyma (κύμα), meaning wave - perhaps in reference to the big waves that the peninsula of Κyme in Euboea has.

There is also a small, modern Greek Euboean city called Kύμη (Kyme or Cuma or Cyme) as well as the nearby recently excavated ancient Greek city of Cuma [1], the source point for the Cumae alphabet. According to a myth mentioned by Aristotle and Pollux, princess Demodike (or Hermodike) of Kyme, is the inventor of money. (Aristot. fr. 611, 37; Pollux 9, 83,[2])

Cumae was the first Greek colony on the mainland of Italy (Magna Graecia), there having been earlier starts on the islands of Ischia and Sicily by colonists from the Euboean cities of Chalcis (Χαλκίς) and possibly Eretria (Ερέτρια) or Cuma (Kύμη).

Cumae is perhaps most famous as the seat of the Cumaean Sibyl. Her sanctuary is now open to the public. The colony was also the entry point onto the Italian peninsula for the Cumean alphabet, a variant of which was adapted by the Romans.

The colony spread throughout the area over the 6th and centuries BC, gaining sway over Puteoli and Misenum and, thereafter, the founding of Neapolis in 470 BC.

The growing power of the Cumaean Greeks, led many indigenous tribes of the region, notably the Dauni and Aurunci with the leadership of the Capuan Etruscans. This coalition was defeated by the Cumaeans in 524 BC under the direction of Aristodemus. The combined fleets of Cumae and Syracuse defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae in 474 BC.

Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, the last mythical King of Rome, lived his life in exile at Cumae after the establishment of the Roman Republic.

Cumae was also a place where a widely influential early Christian work The Shepherd of Hermas was said to have been inspired by way of visions.

The colony was built on a large rise, the seaward side of which was used as a bunker and gun emplacement by the Germans during World War II.

In Roman mythology, there is an entrance to the underworld located at Avernus, a crater near Cumae, and was the route Aeneas used to descend to the Underworld


Kyme in Aeolis, c.350-250 BC, Ae 9-16 mm, cf. Sear 4186-7

Obv: Eagle
Rev: One handled vase (or cup, it is upside down in photo)
From Ebay

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ecoli
Papia_1n_img.jpg
L Papius Denarius Serratus, Papia 1, Sym. var. RRC 06927 viewsObv:– Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin tied under chin. Behind head, shepherd's crook.
Rev:– Gryphon running right; in ex., L. PAPI.; in field, mask of Pan
Minted in Rome from . B.C. 79.
Reference:– RSC Papia 1. RRC 384/1. RCTV 311.
Symbol variety – RRC 69. Babelon 2. BMCRR 69. CNR: unknown.

Trade guild: farmers and shepherds
maridvnvm
LEO-XIII-(1878-1903)_AE-30_LEO_XIII_PONT_MAX_AN_XXV_PASTOR-BONVS-ANIMAM-SVAM_DAT-PRO-OVIBVS-SVIS_JOHNSON_Q-001_0h_30mm_11,85g-s.jpg
LEO XIII (1878-1903), AE-30, The Good Shepherd. Extraordinary Medal, 1900. Patrignani 53.101 viewsLEO XIII (1878-1903), AE-30, The Good Shepherd. Extraordinary Medal, 1900. Patrignani 53.
avers: - LEO•XIII•PONT•MAX•AN•XXV, Leo XIII bust left, JOHNSON under the bust
revers: - PASTOR-BONVS-ANIMAM-SVAM-DAT-PRO-OVIBVS-SVIS, "The Good Shepherd lays down his life for his sheep".
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 30mm, weight:11,85g, axes: h,
material: AE, mint: , artist: JOHNSON, date: 1900 A.D.,
ref: Patrignani 53.
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Jeton_15.jpg
Low countries, silver jeton 1581: the Dutch renounce Philip II as their king92 viewsObverse: POTIVS•MORI•QVAM•UT•CANIS•AD•VOMITVM, rose above, 1581 below, man (=representation of king Philip II) threatening to beat a dog, which refuses to eat its own vomitted food, with a morning star (=spiked club)
Reverse: PERDE•QUI•CONTRISTANT•ANIMA•MEAM, the same man (king Philip II) is being struck down by an arrow from the clouds, giving the dog the opportunity to escape

Minted in: Dordrecht

On 23 January 1579 the 'Union of Utrecht' was signed in Utrecht, the Netherlands, which was a treaty unifying the northern provinces of the Netherlands, until then under the control of Habsburg Spain. Following this, the Dutch formally declared their independence from the Spanish king Philip II in 1581. To this end the rebellious States-General of the Low Countries signed the 'Act of Abjuration' on 26 July 1581, officially declaring the throne vacant. The Dutch name for the 'Act of Abjuration': "Plakkaat van Verlatinghe", which may be translated as "Placard of Desertion", referred not to desertion of Philip by his subjects, but rather to a suggested desertion of the Dutch "flock" by their malevolent "shepherd," Philip (because of his (bad) behavior towards the Low Countries). (Source: wikipedia)

The independence from Spain is represented on this jeton as the dog (=the Dutch people) that escapes its oppressor (=king Philip II).



RomaVictor
Middlesex_860.jpg
Middlesex 86030 viewsObv: A shepherd reclining under a tree, countryside and mountain peak in the distance. 1790 in exergue.

Rev: A stag sprinting past a tree.

Edge: Plain

Thomas Spence, Halfpenny Conder token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex 860
SPQR Coins
669_Pella.jpg
Pella - AE 228 views187-31 BC
head of Pan right, pedum (shepherd's crook) at his shoulder
Athena Alkidemos holding spear and shield advancing right
ΠΕΛ / ΛΗΣ
(ΠΩPA) / (?)
BMC #5; Sear #1445; Moushmov #6449; SNG ANS 577
8,07g
Johny SYSEL
ninica_claudiopolis_maximinusI_SNGlevsupp170+.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Cilicia, Ninica-Claudiopolis, Maximinus I, SNG Levante Supp. 170 (plate coin)102 viewsMaximinus I AD 235-236
AE 30 mm, 14.59 g
obv. IMP.CAES.SA.IVL.VER.MAXI / MINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. NINIC COL CLA / VDIOPO / L
She-wolf standing right under Ruminal fig tree, head l., suckling the twins
Remus and Romulus
ref. SNG Levante 618 (same dies); SNG Levante Supp. 170 (this coin); SNG Paris 791 (same dies); SNG von
Aulock 5775 (same dies)
Choice EF, nice olive-brown patina, rare this nice.
published on www.wildwinds.com

The fig tree was sanctified to the goddess Rumina. Later the twins were found by the shepherd Faustulus. The rest is well-known!
The legend is in Latin because the city was a Roman colonia. The she-wolf looks a bit like a horse!
2 commentsJochen
5590.jpg
Roman lead seal “Good Shepherd”186 viewsRoman lead seal “Good Shepherd” c. 3rd-4th century AD
Jesus Christ, as the Good Shepherd, standing left, wearing short sleeveless tunic, carrying sheep across his shoulders. Two more sheep on either side.
Cf. J. Spier “Late antique gems” S10-17, Asamer and Winter “Antike Bleiplomben”, 122, no. 4; 18x14x7mm; 4.45g; extremely fine
2 commentsGert
Lead-Seal_Snail-Camel_Q-001_15,5x10,5_4,98g-s.jpg
Roman, Lead Seal, Snail and Camel, Crescent, #135,265 viewsRoman, Lead Seal, Snail and Camel, Crescent, #135,
Snail and Camel, Crescent.
weight: 4,98g,
diameter: 15,5x10,5mm,
date : cc. 300 A.D.,
" I think that's a camel rising from a shell. The reverse has a figure - probably a shepherd milking a - again probably - goat. The obverse fits into a beloved theme on engraved gems of a large animal rising from a shell (lion, elephant, pegasus, and your camel). Seals share iconography with engraved gems more than coins, so these images appear on lead as well. The reverse image is also well attested on gems. It is part of a wide range of pastoral images that appear on engraved stones. As for this seal, I would say it is definitely Roman. My guess would be around AD 300." by Gert. Thank you Gert.
Q-135
quadrans
Roma-Lead-seal-Q-030_xxmm_xxg-sx.jpg
Rome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT"179 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT"
"The upper register indeed shows Christ as the good shepherd. The lower register shows a married couple with their child. Can't tell their gender from this photo. A cross (or christogram?) above. The inscription probably reads ICOV XPICT - I(H)COV XPICT(OV), Jesus Christ. I'd say the date is first half 4th century." by Gert, Thank you Gert.
1 commentsquadrans
Roma-Lead-seal-Q-030_xxmm_xxg-sx~0.jpg
Rome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT"296 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT"
"The upper register indeed shows Christ as the good shepherd. The lower register shows a married couple with their child. Can't tell their gender from this photo. A cross (or christogram?) above. The inscription probably reads ICOV XPICT - I(H)COV XPICT(OV), Jesus Christ. I'd say the date is first half 4th century." by Gert, Thank you Gert.
2 commentsquadrans
Roma-Lead-seal-Q-030_xxmm_xxg.jpg
Rome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT" Higher magnification,345 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT" Higher magnification,
"The upper register indeed shows Christ as the good shepherd. The lower register shows a married couple with their child. Can't tell their gender from this photo. A cross (or christogram?) above. The inscription probably reads ICOV XPICT - I(H)COV XPICT(OV), Jesus Christ. I'd say the date is first half 4th century." by Gert, Thank you Gert.
2 commentsquadrans
sextus_pompeius_fostlus_CR235.1c.jpg
S. Pompeius Fostlus, Crawford 235/1c152 viewsSextus Pompeius Fostlus, gens Pompeia
AR - denarius, 20mm, 3.88g
Rome, 137 BC
obv. Head of Roma, wearing winged helmet, r.
X before, jug behind
rev. SEX.PO - F - OSTLV - S
She-wolfe, stg. r., head turned back, suckling the twins Remus und Romulus; behind tree with three woodpeckers, at left herdsman Faustulus, wearing short cloak and pointed hat, stg. with crossed legs bended r., with l. hand resting on staff, r. hand raised.
in ex. ROMA
Crawford 235/1c; Sydenham 461a; Pompeia 1a; BMC 927
attractive VF
Pedigree:
ex Kagin's Long Beach Sale, Feb. 1987, lot 4474

This family was of plebian origin and it would appear that they claimed descent from Faustulus, the royal shepherd of Amulius, who found the twins suckled by the wolf at the foot of the Palatine, the cradle in which they had been borne down the Tiber having overturned under a fig tree (Seaby)

Fore more informations please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'!
Jochen
RRromuloyremo~0.jpg
S.POMPEIUS FOSTULUS33 viewsAR denarius. 137 BC. 3,73 grs. Helmeted head of Roma right ,capis behind, X (mark of value) below chin / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. Behind, birds on fig tree; on left, shepherd standing right. SEX•PO F around. In exergue ROMA.
Crawford 235/1. RSC Pompeia 1.
benito
RRromuloyremo.jpg
S.POMPEIUS FOSTULUS19 viewsAR denarius. 137 BC. 3,73 grs. Helmeted head of Roma right ,capis behind, X (mark of value) below chin / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. Behind, birds on fig tree; on left, shepherd standing right. SEX•PO F around. In exergue ROMA.
Crawford 235/1. RSC Pompeia 1.
benito
Sex__Pompeius_Fostlus_.png
Sex. Pompeius Fostlus18 viewsRoman Republic, Sex. Pompeius Fostlus, Denarius, Rome, 137 BC, 3.76g, 17mm. Helmeted head of Roma r.; capis to l. R/ She-wolf standing r., head l., suckling the twins (Remus and Romulus); to l., shepherd Faustulus standing r.; in background, birds on fig tree. Cr. 235/1c; RBW 972; RSC Pompeia 1a1 commentsAjax
00756.jpg
Sex. Pompeius Fostlus (RSC I Pompeia 1a, Coin #756)2 viewsRSC I Pompeia 1a, AR Denarius, Rome, 137 BC
OBV: X; Helmeted head of Roma right, jug behind.
REV: FOSTLVS / SEX PO ROMA; She-wolf right suckling Romulus and Remus, fig tree behind with three birds in the branches, the shepherd Faustulus standing right behind.
SIZE: 18.9mm, 2.84g
MaynardGee
Sex__Pompeius_Fostlus.JPG
Sex. Pompeius Fostlus – Pompeia-167 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC AR Denarius Sex. Pompeius Fostlus. 137 BC. (18mm, 3.96 g, 6h). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; capis to left, X (mark of value) below chin / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Remus and Romulus; to left, shepherd Faustulus standing right; in background, birds on fig tree. Crawford 235/1a; Sydenham 461; RCV 112; Pompeia 1. From the Dr. Robert A. Kilmarx Collection2 commentsBud Stewart
Pompeia_1a.JPG
Sextus Pompeius Fostlus 30 viewsObv: Helmeted head of Roma facing right, jug behind, X below chin.

Rev: [FOSTLVS] left, SEX PO on right; She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, fig tree behind with three birds in the branches, the shepherd Faustulus standing right; (ROM)A in exergue.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, c. 137 BC

3.8 grams, 20 mm, 225°

RSC Pompeia 1, S112

Ex: FORVM
SPQR Coins
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Thrace, Pantikapaion, Tauric Chersonesos, 2nd - 1st Century B.C23 viewsPan is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, fields, groves, mountain wilderness, and wooded glens, hunting, rustic music, theatrical criticism, and companion of the nymphs. He is connected to fertility and the season of spring. He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat and is usually represented in the form of a satyr, with a cloak of goat's skin, playing the Syrinx, or flute of seven pipes, and holding the pedum or pastoral staff.

GB88294. Bronze AE 18, MacDonald Bosporus 67, SNG Cop 32, SNG BM 890, SNG Stancomb 557, Anokhin 132, HGC 7 84, gVF, beveled obverse edge, casting sprue remnant, edge crack, scratches, reverse slightly off center, Pantikapaion (Kerch, Crimea) mint, weight 4.854g, maximum diameter 17.7mm, die axis 0o, c. 2nd - 1st century B.C.; obverse head of Pan left; reverse ΠAN, head of bull left; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins
4 commentsMark R1
alexandreia_troas_commodus_BellingerA202(rev).jpg
Troas, Alexandreia, Commodus, Bellinger A202 (rev. only)5 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 23, 5.04g, 23.04mm, 0°
obv. IMP CAI M AVR - COMOD AVG
Laureate head r. (youthful portrait)
rev. [COL AVG] - TRO / AD
Horse grazing r., behind shepherd bent stg. r., holding pedum; to left tree
ref. Bellinger A202 (Type 44) (rev); cf. RPC IV online 2578 (temp.)
rare, F+, brown patina

The depiction refers to an old, unknown founder myth of Alexandreia: The horse seems to have found a plant where the city was to be built. Here you can see how the shepherd observes the horse so that nothing escapes him.
Jochen
Urbs_Roma_37.jpg
Z24 viewsConstantine the Great
City Commemorative (VRBS ROMA)

Attribution: RIC VII 62, Constantinople
Date: AD 333-335
Obverse: VRBS ROMA; helmeted and cuirassed bust l.
Reverse: She-wolf stg. l. suckling Romulus and Remus; two stars above; CONSIA in exergue
Size: 19.1 mm
(Etruscan bronze Capitoline Wolf statue: In front of City Hall, Rome)
My very first Roman coin ever!!!

Romulus and Remus are the twin brothers and central characters of Rome's foundation myth. Their mother is Rhea Silvia, daughter to Numitor, king of Alba Longa. Before their conception, Numitor's brother Amulius seizes power, kills Numitor's male heirs and forces Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, sworn to chastity. Rhea Silvia conceives the twins by the god Mars, or by the demi-god Hercules; once the twins were born, Amulius has them abandoned to die in the river Tiber. They are saved by a series of miraculous interventions: the river carries them to safety, a she-wolf finds and suckles them, and a woodpecker feeds them. A shepherd and his wife find them and foster them to manhood, as simple shepherds. The twins, still ignorant of their true origins, prove to be natural leaders. Each acquires many followers. When they discover the truth of their birth, they kill Amulius and restore Numitor to his throne. Rather than wait to inherit Alba Longa they choose to found a new city. Romulus wants to found the new city on the Palatine Hill; Remus prefers the Aventine Hill. They agree to determine the site through augury but when each claims the results in his own favor, they quarrel and Remus is killed. Romulus founds the new city, names it Rome, after himself, and creates its first legions and senate.
Noah
   
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