Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "SB"
Arcadius-Constantinople- RIC 60-4.JPG
37 viewsAE3, Constantinople mint, 395-401 AD
Obverse: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VIRTVS EXERCITI, Emperor standing facing in military uniform, being crowned from behind by Victory.
CONSB in exergue
RIC 60
17mm, 2.1gms.
Jerome Holderman
DenLIliusBursio.jpg
102 viewsDenarius - 85 BC. - Rome mint
L. IVLIVS BVRSIO - Gens Iulia
Obv.: Winged male head right with the attributes of Neptune, Apollo and Mercury, control-mark & trident behind
Rev.: Victory in quadriga right holding reins and wreath, L IVLI BVRSIO in ex.
Gs. 3,9 mm 19,79
Crawf. 352/1a, Sear RCV 268, Grueber 2485



Maxentius
coin409.jpg
83 viewsSear Byzantine Coins and their Values # sb1760
Romanus I. 920-944 AD. Æ Follis. Constantinople
mint. Crowned facing bust, holding sceptre and
globus cruciger / +RWMA /N EN QEW bA SILE
VS RW/MAIWN. Coin #409
cars100
coin410.jpg
31 viewsAnastasius, Constantinople mint, SB 29 DOC 26
Bust pearl diad.,draped and cuirassed. Rev. large
Epsilon with 2 dots, Gamma in field left. Coin #410
cars100
coin413.jpg
38 viewsAnastasius I Antioch mint SB 53 Doc 49
Bust r. pearl diad.,draped and cuirassed, DN ANAS
TASIVS PP AVG/ Large Epsilon with N over delta
Over A. Coin #413
cars100
coin633.jpg
26 viewsIt is a copper lion of Mary Queen of Scots.
It is also known as a "hardhead", they were issued
1555-1560. It contains about 10% silver. they
were valued at three halfpence Scots, and were
equal in value to the french denier. The coin carries
the monogram FM, which appeared on her coinage
after her husband, the Dauphin, became Francis II
of France, on 10th July 1559. Francis died in 1560,
so this was issued within that period. Coin #633

cars100
01115q00.jpg
18 viewsJustin I, 518-527. Pentanummium (Bronze, 11 mm, 1.86 g, 7 h), uncertain mint. [...] Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justin I to left. Rev. The Tyche of Antioch seated left; to left, Є. Cf. DOC 57 var., MIB 678 var. and SB 111 var. (all with bust to right). A curious coin with the portrait facing left instead of right, possibly a contemporary imitation. Very fine. Quant.Geek
01141q00.jpg
13 viewsJustinian I, 527-565. 1/2 Siliqua (Silver, 14 mm, 1.31 g, 9 h), Carthage, 534/7-552. D N IVSTINIANVS P P AG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I to right. Rev. Large monogram; cross above, S below; all within wreath. DOC -. MIB 53. SB 254 ('siliqua'). Darkly toned. Struck on the usual somewhat irregular flan, otherwise, good very fine. Quant.Geek
sb360,29mm1491gpir.jpg
91 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on L., and Sophia, on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between heads.
Reverse: Large M between ANNP and regnal year (G,I) yr 7, cross above, officina letter "deta" below, In ex. CON.
Date: 569/70 CE
Mint: constantinople
Sear 360 DO 22-43
29mm 14.91 gm
wileyc
sb509,18mm590gpir.jpg
18 viewsObverse: DN MAVRC TIB PP AVG or similar, Helmeted sometimes crowned, and cuir. Bust facing, holding gl. cr., and shield.
Reverse: Large K ANNO to left, cross above, regnal yr 3 (III) to rt. but the mint mark sometimes reads TE, TH,TEC or backward S < E< and T, instead of TES.
Mint: Thessalonica
Date: 584/5 CE
Sear 509, DO 74-90
18mm, 5.90g
wileyc
Fujino-02.JPG
220 viewsA 15 tray cabinet purchased by a collector in Tokyo, Japan.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
1 commentscmcdon0923
Romanus_III,_Class_B_Follis,_Constantinople,_1028-1034_AD~0.JPG
44 viewsRomanus III, Class B Follis, Constantinople, 1028-1034 AD

IC to left, XC to right
Christ, bust facing, square in each limb of nimbus cross,
holding book of gospels
IS-XS / BAS-ILE / BAS-ILE
cross with dots at the ends, on three steps
SB 1823
11.8g / 27mm
Antonivs Protti
bizantina_1,6_gr___15mm.JPG
33 viewsManuel I. AE Tetarteron. Thessalonica mint. QGE to left, P-over-w GIOS (or O GEORGIOC) to left or QGE to left, WGIOC to right of bust facing of St. George, unbearded, nimbate, wearing tunic, cuirasse and cloak, holding spear and shield / MANVHL DECPOTH (or MANOVHL DEC), crowned, unbearded bust facing of Manuel, wearing loros, holding labarum and cross on globe. SB 1975, BMC 75-77.
1,6 gr. 15mm.
Antonivs Protti
bizantina_1,0_gr__11_mm.JPG
43 viewsManuel I, Comnenus. 1143-1180 AD. AE 1/2 Tetarteron, Greek Mint, 1.2 grams. AE14. (As SB1975 but much smaller). P-over-w GIOC to left of bust facing of St. George, unbearded, nimbate, wearing tunic, cuirass and cloak, holding spear and shield / MANVHL DECPOTH (or MANOVHL DEC), crowned, unbearded bust facing of Manuel, wearing loros, holding labarum and cross on globe. SB 1980, BMC 78.
1.0 gr. 11mm.
Antonivs Protti
bizantina_2,3_gr__18_mm.JPG
26 viewsManuel I, AE Tetarteron, 1143-1180 AD, Thessalonica. MANVHL DECPOTH, Manuel, crowned and wearing loros, bust facing, holding labarum and cross on globe / barred IC - barred XC to left and right of cross with X at centre, on three steps. SB 1976, BMC 86-90. SB 1976
2,3 gr. 18 mm.
Antonivs Protti
bizantina_2,2_gr__16_mm.JPG
24 viewsManuel I. AE Tetarteron. Thessalonica mint. QGE to left, P-over-w GIOS (or O GEORGIOC) to left or QGE to left, WGIOC to right of bust facing of St. George, unbearded, nimbate, wearing tunic, cuirasse and cloak, holding spear and shield / MANVHL DECPOTH (or MANOVHL DEC), crowned, unbearded bust facing of Manuel, wearing loros, holding labarum and cross on globe. SB 1975, BMC 75-77.
2,2 gr. 16mm.
Antonivs Protti
Augsburg_Kaiser_Joseph_II__Cu_Pfennig_1786_Vindelicorum_Kupfer_Pyr.jpg
11 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich - Augsburg, Reichsstadt

Zeit Joseph II. 1765 - 1790



Pfennig 1786

Stadtpyr in Kartusche/Wertzahl,darunter Jahreszahl.

Erhaltung: Sehr schön.

Durchmesser: 16 mm

Gewicht: 1,9 g (Cu) _1989
Antonivs Protti
HABSBURG_WIEN_6_Kreuzer_1800_Franz_Kopf_Krone_Doppeladler.jpg
34 viewsRDR -- Haus Habsburg

Franz II. (1792-1806-1835)

1800

6 Kreuzer (Kupfer)

Münzstätte: Wien (A)

Vs: Kopf nach rechts, darunter in Verzierung Münzzeichen (A). Umschrift: "FRANZ•II•RÖM•KAI•KÖN•Z•HU•U•BÖ•ERZH• Z•OEST•"

Rs: unter Krone Doppeladler, auf der Brust Wertzahl. Umschrift: "SECHS•KREUTZER•ERBLAENDISCH•1800•"

Gewicht: 12,4g

Durchmesser: 31 mm

Erhaltung: schön _799
Antonivs Protti
Habsburg_RDR_Taler_1780_Maria_Theresia_Polierte_Platte.jpg
31 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich

Haus Habsburg

Maria Theresia, 1740-1780

Taler 1780 (Silber)

Vs.: Büste nach rechts

Rs.: Gekrönter Doppeladler

Gewicht: 28,2g

Durchmesser: 41,5mm

Erhaltung: fein getönt, Polierte Platte-

Posthume Prägung aus den 1970er Jahren, vorallem hergestellt für den Export in die USA _2691
Antonivs Protti
Westfalen_Hieronymus_Napoleon_3_Cent_1809_Kassel_Kupfer_Monogramm.jpg
21 viewsKönigreich Westfalen

Hieronymus Napoleon, 1807 - 1813

3 Cent 1809 C, Kassel

Monogramm aus HN im Kranz.

Rs: Landesbezeichnung, Wert, Mzz. und Jahr.

Erhaltung: Sehr schön

Durchmesser: 25 mm

Gewicht: 4,3 g _694
Antonivs Protti
Moore_03.JPG
193 viewsA 15 tray cabinet ordered as a surprise Valentine's Day gift.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
Filer_01.JPG
188 viewsA special smaller coin box I built for a collector. The box measures about 8.5" wide by 9" deep by 5" tall. It contains 6 thicker trays with slightly deeper recesses.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
AJB_92.JPG
176 viewsA cabinet I built for a collector, featuring 18 trays and locking doors.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
1 commentscmcdon0923
xBS_01.jpg
157 viewsAn example of a cabinet built for a collector, and friend of mine.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
JL-1b.JPG
146 views12 tray cabinet

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
Sue_01.JPG
126 viewsA little six tray "mini-cabinet" built for a collector to display her collection of Lincoln cents....plus a few larger spaces to hold some Native American arrowheads.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
PICT0242.JPG
128 viewsAn 18 tray cabinet with doors. This was one of five cabinets I built for this collector to house his collection of ancient electrum and gold.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
XP_004.JPG
133 viewsAn 18 tray cabinet with locking doors, built to hold a collection of ancients.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
Sear-336.jpg
21 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. Æ Decanummium (16mm, 2.75 g). Uncertain mint. Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger and shield / Large six-pointed star within wreath. DOC 368; MIBE 239 (Ravenna); SB 336. VF, dark green patina. An attractive example of this rare issue. Quant.Geek
B_068_Isaac_II__Angelus_(1185-1195_A_D_),_SB_2005,_AE-Half-Tetarteron,_Thessalonica,_Q-001_6h_20x20mm_5,69g-1-2-s.jpg
63 viewsquadrans
100_1889_crop.JPG
182 viewsHere is an example of a cabinet showing three different available styles of trays for storage. At the top is a standard round recess type tray....very traditional.

In the middle is an open format tray for displaying items "free form", or for items of unusual sizes/shapes such as large medals, military decorations or pocket watches.

On the bottom is a new offering; a drawer for slabs. Each drawer can hold 30 slabs from any of the three major slabbing firms; PCGS, NCG, or ANACS. Other commercial, or "DIY" slabs should also fit, provided they are no larger than any from the "big three" firms.

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
Sear-840.jpg
28 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine. 610-641. Æ Follis (29mm, 8.63 g, 6h). Cyzicus mint, 1st officina. Dated RY 3 (AD 612/3). Crowned and draped figures of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each holding globus cruciger; cross above / Large M; cross above, A/N/N/O III (date) across fields; A//KYZ. DOC 175a; MIB 185; SB 840Quant.Geek
30599.jpg
34 viewsanonymous (attributed to Alexius I). Ca. 1081-1118. AE follis (25.96 mm, 5.26 g, 12 h). anonymous class J. Constantinople mint. Facing bust of Christ, cross behind his head with 5 pellets in each limb; wearing pallium and colobium; raising hand and holding book of Gospels; / IC - C / XC / Crosss with globule and two pellets at each extremity; beneath, large crescent; around, four globules, each surrounded by pellets. SBCV 1900. Overstruck on a class I anonymous follis SBCV 1889 1 commentsQuant.Geek
combined.jpg
67 viewsAn 8 tray cabinet with 15 inch wide trays capable of holding items up to 1/2" thick. Built for a collector to house a collection of medals, he also requested brass carrying handles.


CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
Sear-653.jpg
19 viewsPhocas. 602-610. Æ Follis – 40 Nummi (32mm, 12.92 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Dated RY 5 (606/7). Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross / Large XXXX; ANNO above, Ч to right; TЄS. DOC 47; MIBE 91; SB 653. Good VF, dark brown-black patina, hint of earthen deposits, cleaning marks. Overstruck on a Nicomedia follis of Maurice Tiberius (SB 512). Quant.Geek
Sear-328.jpg
10 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. Æ Decanummium (17mm, 3.46 g, 6h). Uncertain mint, possibly Perugia. Dated RY 26 (552/3). Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Large I; cross above, date across field; P. DOC 357; MIBE 101a; SB 328. VF, dark green patina, minor roughness. Rare.


Quant.Geek
Sear-2429.jpg
11 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus, with Michael IX. 1282-1328. Æ Assarion (19mm, 1.70 g, 6h). Class III. Constantinople mint. Struck 1295-1320. Winged seraph / Half-length facing figures of Andronicus and Michael, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC 638-46; SB 2429. VF, green and brown patina.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2365.jpg
8 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus. 1282-1328. Æ Trachy (23.5mm, 1.09 g, 6h). Class VIII. Thessalonica mint. Six-petaled flower / Half-length facing figures of Michael, holding [cruciform scepter], and St. Demetrius, holding spear, holding between them a staff surmounted by cross within ring. DOC 736-9; SB 2365. VF, dark green and brown patina.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2374.jpg
13 viewsAndronicus II Palaeologus. 1282-1328. Æ Trachy (23.5mm, 1.61 g, 6h). Class IV. Thessalonica mint. Facing bust of St. Demetrius, holding spear and shield / Half-length winged facing figure of Andronicus, holding sword and akakia, above crenelated wall with archways. DOC 730-1; SB 2374. VF, dark green patina, minor areas of weak strike, struck on irregular flan.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
Sear-2217.jpg
10 viewsJohn Comnenus-Ducas. As emperor of Thessalonica, 1237-1242. BI Trachy (20mm, 1.67 g, 6h). Type R, Variety A. Thessalonica mint. Outstretched wing to left / Facing half-length bust John, holding banner decorated with two cross-in-rings. DOC 31; SB 2217. VF, dark green and brown patina, hint of roughness, small flan split.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
4050632.jpg
10 viewsJohn Comnenus-Ducas. As emperor of Thessalonica, 1237-1242. BI Trachy (14mm, 0.38 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator / Facing busts John and St. Demetrius, holding patriarchal cross between them. DOC –; SB –; NAC 56, lot 830 (hammer 800 CHF). VF, dark green patina, obverse struck with worn die, ragged flan. Extremely rare.


From the Iconodule Collection.
Quant.Geek
100_2605.JPG
68 viewsA 15 tray cabinet with extra wide (15") trays lined with red felt. Each tray can hold an item up to 1/2 inch thick...perfect for medals or other over-sized items.

CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
image00327.jpg
19 viewsHeraclius & Heraclius Constantine overstruck on Phocas & Leontia . 610-641 / 602-610. Æ follis (26.89 mm, 8.78 g, 6 h). Host coin, Theopolis (Antioch) mint, 602-610 / after 610. overstrike, Thessalonica mint. Overstrike: fragmentary, d N hЄRA[CLIЧS PP AVG] Host coin, also fragmentary, [O N FOCA] NЄ PЄ [AV] , Overstrike: Heraclius (on left, and Heraclius constantine, barely visible on right) standing facing, each holding globus cruciger, cross between their heads Host coin: Phocas on left and Leontia standing facing; Emperor holds globus cruciger, Empress holds cruciform scepter; cross between their heads / Overstrike, large M between A / N / N / O and date (not struck-up), cross above, B below, ΘЄC in exergue Host coin, large m between [A / N /] N / O and date (unclear) cross above, ThЄЧP' in exergue. Host coin, Cf. SBCV 671; Overstrike, Cf. SBCV 824. VF for type, dark green patina on devices, lighter encrustation on fields - overstrike at ~ 90º ccw.

multiply struck: host coin is Phocas & Leontia from Antioch, SBCV 671 or similar overstrike, at ~ 90º ccw, is Heraclius from Thessalonica
Quant.Geek
Sear-243(1).jpg
12 viewsJustinian I. 527-565. Æ pentanummium (18.01 mm, 2.49 g, 1 h). D N IVSTINI-ANVS AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Justinian I right / large Є with crossbar in center, to right, lunate V. SB 243; DOC 270. Quant.Geek
SB830_2110464.jpg
10 viewsNOT MY COIN - For References OnlyQuant.Geek
SB830_2087901.jpg
9 viewsNOT MY COIN - For References OnlyQuant.Geek
SB830_1372952.jpg
10 viewsNOT MY COIN - For References OnlyQuant.Geek
SB830_1358980.jpg
11 viewsNOT MY COIN - For References OnlyQuant.Geek
SB830_1212225.jpg
12 viewsNOT MY COIN - For References OnlyQuant.Geek
SB830_88001628.jpg
10 viewsNOT MY COIN - For References OnlyQuant.Geek
SB830_3828501.jpg
7 viewsNOT MY COIN - For References OnlyQuant.Geek
SB830_3550671.jpg
7 viewsNOT MY COIN - For References OnlyQuant.Geek
Sear-847.jpg
11 viewsHeraclius and Heraclius Constantine. A.D. 610-641. AE follis (25.80 mm, 6.21 g, 7 h). Seleucia Isauriae mint, 1st officina. Dated RY 7 (616/7). Crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, each holding globus cruciger / Crowned and draped facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, each holding globus cruciger / Large K; cross above, A below; A/N/N/O ςI (date) across field. SB 847; DOC 182a; MIB 195. VF.



The Seleucia Isauriae mint was in use between 615 and 618 to support Heraclius’ campaigns against the Sasanians
Quant.Geek
Sear-1966.jpg
28 viewsManuel I Comnenus. 1143-1180. BI Aspron Trachy (30mm, 2.62 g, 6h). Constantinople mint. Struck 1167-1183(?). Christ Pantokrator enthroned facing; star to either side / Manuel standing facing, wearing loros, being crowned by the Theotokos (Virgin Mary) standing left. DOC 13d; SB 1966Quant.Geek
combined~0.jpg
39 viewsHere are two views of a 10 tray cabinet I built for a collector in Singapore. I absolutely love the grain pattern!!

CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
Sear-366.jpg
6 viewsJustin II, with Sophia. 565-578. Æ Half Follis (20mm, 6.62 g, 6h). Thessalonica mint. Dated RY 8 (572/3). Nimbate figures of Justin and Sophia seated facing on double throne, holding globus cruciger and cruciform scepter, respectively / Large K; cross above, date across field; TЄS. DOC 73; MIBE 70a; SB 366. Quant.Geek
100_3660.jpg
30 viewsAn 18 tray cabinet with brushed nickel finish hardware and locking doors. The collector specifically requested no felts in the trays, as he was going to look into a custom material for lining them.

CabinetsByCraig.net
cmcdon0923
merged.jpg
47 viewsHere is my most recent project, both for the same collector. There are two separate cabinets, one containing 5 drawers each capable of holding 60 slabs. The other was a 45 tray cabinet with a variety of tray configurations, with a total capacity of over 2,200 raw coins. They were shipped in four boxes weighing approximately 215 pounds, total. (The pictures were taken in slightly different lighting conditions, which tends to make them look different in color, but they actually matched quite well.)

www.CabinetsByCraig.net
2 commentscmcdon0923
sbvc1612,19_15mm2_76g.jpg
Nicephorus I w/Stauracius AE follis17 viewsObverse: Bust of Nicephorus facing, with short beard, wearing crown and
loros, and holding cross potent; to l., N; to r., I/K/H.
Reverse: Facing bust of Stauracius, beardless, wearing crown and chlamys,
and holding globe cross; to l., C; to r., T/A/V
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 803-811 CE
20mm/15mm; 2.76g
SBVC 1612;DOC 11
wileyc
hsb2.jpg
CASTULO, HISPANIA ULTERIOR, C. 165 - 80 BCE20 viewsHeart shaped Bronze SNG Spain II 427 ff.; SNG BM Spain 1314ff.; SNG Loruchs 374; Sng Cop 209, Burgos 545;f, Castulo mint.
Obverse: diademed male head right, crescent before.
Reverse: helmeted sphinx walking right,star before, KASTILO in Iberic script below ex. 29.75 mm., 16.0 g.
NORMAN K
sbvc1612_20_15mm_2_53g.jpg
Nicephorus I w/Stauracius AE follis9 viewsObverse: Bust of Nicephorus facing, with short beard, wearing crown and
loros, and holding cross potent; to l., N; to r., I/K/H.
Reverse: Facing bust of Stauracius, beardless, wearing crown and chlamys,
and holding globe cross; to l., C; to r., T/A/V
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 803-811 CE
19mm/15mm; 2.53g
SBVC 1612;DOC 11
wileyc
Macrinus_Sby_2965.jpg
27 Macrinus19 viewsMACRINUS
AR Tetradrachm of Phoenicia, Tyre. AD 217-8. (11g, 25.6mm)

AYT K M OP CE MAKPINOC CE, laureate bust right, with drapery at front of truncation / DHMAPX EX YPATOC PP, eagle standing on club facing, head left, murex shell between legs.

Prieur 1555
Sosius
Justinian_Decanum_Rome_1.jpg
4. Justinian I 18 viewsJUSTINIAN I
AE Decanummium, Rome Mint, 527-565

DN IVSTINIANVS P AVG, Helmeted, cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield / Large I, star to left and right, all within wreath

SB308, MIB 228 aF
Sosius
Justinian_SB_308.jpg
4. Justinian I 23 viewsJUSTINIAN I
AE Decanummium, Rome Mint, 527-565

DN IVSTINIANVS P AVG, Helmeted, cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe and shield / Large I, star to left and right, all within wreath

SB308, MIB 228 VF/EF
Sosius
Maurice_Tiberius_SB_587.jpg
8. Maurice Tiberius26 viewsMAURICE TIBERIUS
Half Follis, Rome Mint, 582-602 AD

DN MAVRICI TIb PP AV, Bust facing holding cross on globe / Large XX, cross above, ROM below

SB 587, DOC 283
Sosius
sear_363.jpg
AE AE Pentanummium Justin II SB 36352 viewsObverse: Monogram 8
Reverse: Large E, officina delta to r.
Date: 565-548 CE
Sear 363 DO 60a-d
12mm 2.82gm
wileyc
DSC_s363b.jpg
AE Pentanummium Justin II SB 36358 viewsObverse: Mongram 8
Reverse: Large E, Officina Letter "B" to r.
Date: 565-578 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear: 363, DO 60a-d
15mm 1.70gm
3 commentswileyc
Asia_Minor.jpg
Asia Minor26 viewsAncient Greek coinage of Asia Minor: Black Sea Area (Bosporos, Kolchis, Pontos, Paphlagonia, & Bithynia), Western Asia Minor (Mysia, Troas, Aiolis, Lesbos, Ionia, Lydia, & Caria), & Central & Southern Asia Minor (Phrygia, Lycia, Pamphylia, Pisidia, Lycanonia, Cilicia, Galata, Cappadocia).1 commentsChristian T
john.jpg
Basil II & Constantine VIII, (976-1028 A.D.)53 viewsÆ “Anonymous” Follis
Class A2
O: EMMANOVHΛ, Nimbate bust of Christ facing, wearing pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels; IC – XC in fields to left and right.
R: + IhSЧS / [X]RISTЧ[S] / bASILЄЧ / bASILЄ / ·, legend in four lines.
8.68g
26mm
SBCV 1793
5 commentsMat
con199s.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII 199 Thessalonica25 viewsConstantine II, AE follis, 18.6 mm, 1.8 g. Thessalonica.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERCITVS, two soldiers standing, heads facing each other with two standards between them and each holds a spear and hand resting on a shield.
Mintmark SMTSB Thessalonica. 337-340 CE.
NORMAN K
coniivotj.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII, 128 Thessalonica16 views
Constantine II, AE3, 324, Thessalonica, Officina 2
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM , Legend surrounding laurel wreath terminating in large jewel enclosing VOT / . / X
TSBVI in exergue Thessalonica
NORMAN K
diocletian21.jpg
Diocletian RIC 21a, Thessalonica, 300-301 CE.22 viewsDiocletian AE Follis
Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys opver left shoulder, holding patera from which liquid flows and cornucopia.
Mintmark dot TSB dot Thessalonica, 29 mm., 6.9 g.
NORMAN K
islamic_ummayad_falsb.jpg
ISLAMIC--UMAYYAD7 views ISLAMIC--UMAYYAD
ca. late 7th - early 8th Century AD
AE Fulus (Fals) 14 mm 1.86 g
Umayyad Caliphate
laney
20110425-205933-1sb2046.jpg
Latin trachy type C small module Sear 2046193 viewssmall module as SB 2023

Obverse:MP_OV barred in upper fields. Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon throne with back;holds beardless nimbate head of Christ on breast.
Reverse. Emperor seated on throne without back, collar-peice and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter, and in l., anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper rt. field.
Mint:?Constantinople
Date 1204-
SB 2046, DOC LIII,32
15mm
wileyc
leowi.jpg
Leo VI the Wise (870 - 912 A.D.)57 viewsÆ Follis
O: + LEOn bASILVS ROm, bust facing, with short beard, wearing crown with cross and chlamys, holding akakia in left hand.
R: + LEOn/En ΘEO bA/SILEVS R/OMEOn, inscription in four lines.
Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint
8.58g
26mm
SBCV 1729
1 commentsMat
sb1964_clipped_18mm_165gjpg.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196416 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphrium, she holds nimbate head of the infant Christ facing; to l. MP to r. Theta V.
Reverse: MANUHA AECIIOTHC or similar, Manuel stg. facing wearing crown, divitision and chlamys and holding labarum (one dots= on shaft) and globus surmounted by patriarchal cross.
Mint: Constantinople Third metropolitan coinage Variation B
Date: 1143-1180 CE
Sear 1964 DO 15.5-10
18mm 1.65 gm
wileyc
sear1966clipped.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196666 viewsObverse: IC-XC (bar above) in field, Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, seated upon throne without back; holds gospels in left hand.
Reverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOT or var, MP OV bar above in upper right field, Full-length figure of emperor, bearded on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and jewelled loros of simplified type; holds in right hand labarum-headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.
four main varieties:
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1167-1183?
Sear 1966 Var d, Fourth coinage; H 16.14,15; 17.1-4
rev: Jewel within circle on loros waist
16mm .89gm
As discussed in the Byzantine forumThese are the "neatly clipped" trachies.
During the reign of Manuel I the silver content of the trachy was dropped from c.6% to c.3%, but later types were sometimes issued with the higher silver content.
In Alexius III's time these high silver types were clipped down to half size, probably officially, presumably so as to match the lower silver content of the later issues.
Of course this would only have worked as long as the populace accepted the idea that the clipped coins were all high silver versions to start with. Once smarties started clipping ordinary coins these types would soon have have fallen out of favour and been withdrawn.

Ross G.


During the reign of Alexius III were reused coins of previous releases, clipping its border in a very regular mode and thus reducing to half their weight. Regularity of shearing and the fact that they were found to stock uniforms, suggesting that this clipping is a formal issuance of mint. Based on the stocks found in Constantinople , some of which consist only of clipped coins, it may safely be dated between 1195 and 1203.
Hendy and Grierson believe that this shearing was a consequence of the devaluation of trachy mixture during the reign of Isaac II and Alexius III. They reduced by half the already low silver content of this coin: shearing coins of previous emperors, still widely in circulation, made their trachy consistent with the intrinsic value of current emissions. Of course, this does not justify the clipping of coins already degraded of Isaac II and Alexius III. Therefore, reason for their declassification is not understood. I think that reason of Ross is right!
The structure of their dispersion in hoards indicates that, however, were made after the other emissions. Clipped trachys appear in small amounts along with regular trachy in hoards, represents a rarity. Were clipped trachys of Manuel I, Andronicus I, Isaac II and Alexius III, and perhaps of John II; those of Manuel are less scarce. In principle, we must believe that all trachys after Manuel I have been clipped, although many have not yet appeared.

Antvwala
wileyc
Manuel_I_SBCV_1975(Brockage).JPG
Manuel I, SBCV 197520 viewsFull Brockage
MANγHΛ ΔECΠOT
Facing bust wearing crown and loros, holding labarum and globus cruciger
Constantinople
AE tetarteron, 23mm, 4.85g
novacystis
sb1874_20mm175g.jpg
Michael VII, Ducus Miliaresion12 viewsObverse: EN TOVTW NIKATE MIXAHL S MARIA, cross crosslet on globus resting on
three steps, x at center of cross, pellet within crescent on shaft;
in field to left, facing bust of Michael, bearded, wearing crown and
jeweled chlamys; to right, facing bust of Maria, wearing crown and
loros; triple border
Reverse: MIXAHL KAI MARIA PICTOI RACILEIC PWMAIWN in
five lines; -+- above and below; triple border.
Mint:Constantinople
Date: 1071-1078 CE
SB 1874, DO 6
20mm, 1.75g (clipped)
wileyc
osbd.jpg
Otacilla Severa, Wife of Philip I, 244-249 CE.12 viewsObverse: MARCIA OTACIL SEVHRA AVG, diademed and draped bust right
Reverse: COL FL PAC DEVLT, Concordia standing left, patera in right hand and cornucopia in left.
Thrace, Deultum reverse die broken
SNG Bulgaria 1965ff. 19.6 mm diam., 2.9 g.
NORMAN K
ThoriusBalbus.jpg
#L. Thorius Balbus. 105 BC. AR Denarius32 viewsRome mint. ISMR behind, head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin headdress / L THORIVS below, BALBVS in exergue, bull charging right.

"The obverse refers to the the cult of Juno Sospita at Lanuvium, the moneyer's birthplace. The reverse is likely a play on the moneyer's name (Taurus sounds like Thorius). Cicero described L. Thorius Balbus as a man who lived in such a manner that there was not a single pleasure, however refined or rare, that he did not enjoy. This is one of the most common republican denarii." -- Roman Silver Coins edited by David Sear and Robert Loosley
ancientone
00053x00.jpg
33 viewsROME. Euhemerus, freedman of Lesbus (?)
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.42 g, 12 h)
EVHE/MERI
LES/B L
Rostovtsev 1444; Rostovtsev & Prou 422m; Turcan 193; Scholz 1436; BM 2228
Ardatirion
00009x00_copy.jpg
17 viewsATTICA, Athens
PB Tessera. (15mm, 4.00 g)
Struck circa 200-263 AD
Helmeted head right
Blank
Lang & Crosby 246

The style of the bust on this token closely matches one discovered in the Stoa at the Athenian Agora, firmly dated to the mid 3rd century AD.
Ardatirion
Athens_token.jpg
30 viewsATTICA, Athens
PB Tessera. (24mm, 7.60 g)
Struck circa 50-200 AD
Helmeted head of Athena right
Boukranion
Lang & Crosby 251

Ardatirion
Asia_Minor_tessera.jpg
24 viewsUNCERTAIN EAST
Circa 300 BC - 100 AD?
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.79 g)
Two punches: bee, Λ A flanking; Nike advancing facing, head right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç -; Lang & Crosby -; Howgego -

The first punch depicts a bee with a long, cylindrical body, triangular pointed wings, and globular eyes with the letters Λ and A flanking. A second, added later over the edge of the first, shows Nike striding boldly forward with her head slightly to the right. The elegant engraving of the punches, both unlisted as countermarks in Howgego, contrasts starkly with the rough, unfinished flan. Although the basic types of Nike and a bee are common at Ephesos, the fabric and style differ from the issues of that city. Neither does the piece fit with the tokens found in the Athenian Agora. All considered, this piece appears consistent with what one would expect from a temporary token or entry pass, possibly of the pre-Roman period.
Ardatirion
tiberius_and_livia_resb~0.jpg
(00040b) LIVIA (with Tiberius)25 viewsb. 58 BC - d. 29 AD
(wife of Augustus; mother of Tiberius; grandmother of Claudius)
struck 14-37 AD
AE 19mm, 8.82 g
O: Laureate head of Tiberius right
R: Veiled and draped bust of Livia r., wearing stephane
Macedonia, Thessalonica; cf RPC 1570
laney
hadrian_salus_resb.jpg
(0117) HADRIAN22 views117 - 138 AD
Æ 23 X 26 mm, 10.13 g
O: [HAD]RIANVS AVG COS III PP laureate head right
R: SALVUS AVG Salus seated left, resting left arm on chair, feeding serpent on altar
RIC 833
laney
a_pius_epirus.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS--EPIRUS23 views138 - 161 AD
AE 16.5 mm; 2.78 g
O: Laureate head of Antoninus Pius, r.
R: Α with curved crossbar, within wreath, legend surrounding wreath
Epirus, Nicopolis
Ref: Oikonomidou 25, BMC 25; or Oikonomidou 16-23, 26 and 28-9
d.s.
laney
bostra_decap_faust_resb.jpg
(0138) FAUSTINA I--BOSTRA35 views138 - 141 AD
AE 14 mm max., 1.35 g
O: ΘEA Φ[AVCT], draped and veiled bust right;
R: NT - O/B, three heads of barley fastened together, all within wreath
Provincia Arabia, Bostra mint; Kindler 11; Rosenberger 11-2; Spijkerman 15; rare
laney
unk_prov_06resb.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA29 views198 - 217 AD
AE 16 mm; 2.94 g
O. Laureate head of Caracalla, right.
R: Hermes, nude except chlamys standing facing, head left, holding purse in his outstretched right and kerykeion (caduceus) in left arm.
Syria (Coele-Syria), Heliopolis (Baalbek)
cf. SNG Cop. 430
laney
rhesanea_vex_resb.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA30 views198 - 217 AD
AE 17 X 19 mm; 5.31 g
O: Bust right, supported by eagle.
Rev: LEG-III; vexillum with star at center;
Mesopotamia, Rhesaena
laney
sep_car_temp_b_resb.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA and SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS 37 views198-217 AD
Struck ca. 208 AD (on the tenth anniversary of Caracalla's reign)
AE 23 mm; 10.04 g
O: [IMPP CAESS SEVER ANT AVGG], laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Severus, seen from behind, to left, facing bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla, seen from behind, to right. (confronted busts)
R: [DECENNALES ANTONINI COS III /] COL BER, tetrastyle temple, with stairs from front, containing Astarte facing, crowned by Nike standing on column.
Berytus, Phoenicia; cf BMC 70.122-71.129; Sear GIC 2302, SNG Righetti 2246. Rare
laney
elagaba_raph_resb.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS26 views218-222 AD
AE 24 mm; 8.65 g
O: Laureate bust right.
R: Genius of the city holding cornucopia, with eagles flanking, bull to left.
Raphanea, Syria; BMC 3
laney
sev_alex_edessa_resb.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER 38 views222-238 AD
AE 25 mm; 8.61 g
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left, with eagle-tipped scepter
R:Tyche seated left; flaming altar in front; star in l. and r. field.
Edessa in Mesopotamia
laney
GALLIENUS_LYRE_RESB.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS43 views253 - 268 AD
AE 23 mm 5.43 g
O: ΠOΛIKEΓΓAΛΛIIINOCCEB Radiate draped bust right, behind head is unknown flowing or draped object
R: [NIKA]-I-EΩN Apollo seated, playing lyre, resting right elbow on column.
Nicaea, Bithynia
SNG von Aulock 7085
laney
probus_rest_orb_z_resb.jpg
(0276) PROBUS17 views276 - 282 AD
Silvered AE
Ant. 21 mm, 3.92 g
O: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG radiate draped cuirassed bust right
R: RESTITVT ORBIS woman standing right presenting wreath to emperor holding globe and scepter; Z in lower center field; XXI in exe.
Antioch mint; RIC V Part 2 925
(nearly fully silvered)
laney
probus_rest_orb_a_resb.jpg
(0276) PROBUS19 views276 - 282 AD
Silvered AE Ant. 21 mm 4.07 g
O: IMP C AVR PROBVS PF AVG radiate draped bust right
R: RESTITVT ORBIS woman standing right p0resenting wreath to emperor standing left, holding globe and scepter; A in lower center; XII in exe
Antioch mint; RIC 925
(nearly fully silvered)
laney
tiberius_and_livia_resb.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS20 views14-37 AD
AE 19mm, 8.82 g
O: Laureate head of Tiberius right
R: Veiled and draped bust of Livia right, wearing stephane
Macedonia, Thessalonica; cf RPC 1570
laney
tiberius_nero_drusus_resb.jpg
(03) TIBERIUS20 views14 - 37 AD
AE 28.5 mm; 11.46 g
O: His bare head left
R: Confronted heads of Caesars Nero and Drusus
Spain (Hispania Tarraconensis), Carthago Nova mint
cf RPC 179, SNG Cop 500 Scarce
laney
constantine_antioch_genio_resb.jpg
(0306) CONSTANTINE I (as Caesar)48 viewsstruck 306-307 AD
AE Follis 27.5 mm 8.22 g
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right
R: GENIO POPV_LI ROMANI; Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, liquors flowing from patera in right hand,cornucopiae in left.
D (Officina) in right field
ANT in exergue, Antioch
Not listed in RIC
laney
maxentius_discouri_comb_resb.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS (USURPER)23 views306 - 312 AD
struck 309 AD
AE FOLLIS 24.5 mm 5.78 g
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, LAUR BUST R
R: AETERNITAS AVG N, DIOSCURI STANDING FACING EACH OTHER, WITH STAR ABOVE EACH HEAD, HOLDING HORSES BY BRIDLES, SHE-WOLF AND TWINS BELOW
MOSTB IN EXE
(usurper, killed by Constantine I at Battle of the Milvian Bridge)
OSTIA
RIC (VI) 16
laney
csts_ii_ft_cons_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II16 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 15.6 mm, 2.28 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier advancing left and spearing a fallen horseman; E in left field; CONSB in exe.
Constantinople mint
laney
constantius_cg_r_6_res.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II (as Caesar)16 views324 - 337 AD as Caesar
337 - 361 AD as Augustus
AE 18 mm, 1.81 g
O: F L IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Camp gate with two turrets, star between; 6 rows with pellets in top row; SMTSB in ex
Thessalonica mint
laney
constans_hut_res.jpg
(0333) CONSTANS54 views333 - 337 (as Caesar)
337 - 350 AD (as Augustus)
struck ca. 348-350 AD.
AE2 Centenionalis 22.mm 4.02 g
O: DN CONSTANS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding globe
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier advancing right, head left, holding spear pointed downwards between legs, leading small bare-headed figure from hut beneath a tree
CONSB in exe., Constantinople
1 commentslaney
constans_victoriae_smtsb_res.jpg
(0333) CONSTANS15 views333 - 337 (as Caesar)
337 - 350 AD (as Augustus)
AE 16 mm, 1.88 g
O: CONSTANS P F AVG Diademed draped bust right
R: VICTORIAE D D AVG G Q NN Two Victories facing, holding wreath and palm branches; upright branch between; SMTSB in exe.
Thessalonica mint
laney
constans_prow_res.jpg
(0333) CONSTANS30 views337-350 AD
(struck 348 - 350 AD)
AE 18 mm; 3.12 g
O: D N CONSTA_NS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO Emperor in military dress standing facing, head left, phoenix on globe in right hand, labarum inscribed with Christogram on banner in left hand, all within galley piloted by Victory; TESB in exergue
Thessalonica mint; RIC VIII, 120
laney
csts_2_fel.jpg
(0337) CONSTANTIUS II18 views337 - 361 AD
AE 18 mm; 2.63 g
O: D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, pellet center; CONSB in exe
Constantinople mint
laney
val_I_restit_reip_res.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I50 views364 - 375 AD
AE 19 mm; 3.20 g
O: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: RESTITVTOR REIP Emperor standing facing, head right, hohlding a Victory and a labarum ; TESB in exe.
Thessalonica mint
laney
valentinian_gloria_sisc_11resb.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I44 views364 - 375 AD
AE 17 mm; 2.63 g
O: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left hand
Siscia mint
laney
theodosius_resb.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I40 views379 - 395 AD
AE 13 mm 1.22 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left with trophy & captive; Chi-Rho in l. field. SMKA in ex.
CYZICUS MINT

laney
theo_1_reparat_asisc_resb.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I19 views379 - 396 AD
AE 23 mm; 3.12 g
O: D N THEODOSIVS PF AVG. Pearl diademed, draped and cuirasseed bust at right.
R: REPARATIO REI PVB, Theodosius standing front, head left, offering right hand to female on left to rise from kneeling position, in other hand he holds Victory on a globe. ASISC in exergue.
Siscia mint; RIC XI 26c
laney
anastasius_3_7_26.jpg
(0491 ) ANASTASIUS63 views491 - 518 AD
STRUCK 498 - 518 (5th Officina)
AE FOLLIS 32 mm 15.64 g
O: D N ANASTA SIVS P P AVC, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: Large M (mark of value); star to left and right, cross above, below, CON IN EXE.
CONSTANTINOPLE
DOC 23i; MIBE 27; SB 19

laney
anastasius_i_nummus_monogramresbkb.jpg
(0491) ANASTASIUS I14 views491 - 518 AD
AE Nummus 7 mm; 0.7 g
O: Diademed bust right
R: Monogram of Anastasius I
laney
clau_min_cm_resb.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (MINERVA)31 views41-54 AD
Struck 41-42 AD
AE 30 mm max., 10.66 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head left; PR countermark
R: S-C across fields, Minerva advancing right, brandishing spear and holding shield
Rome mint, RIC I 100
laney
justin_i_follis_con.jpg
(0518) JUSTIN I 18 views518 - 527 AD
ca. 520 AD
AE Follis, 30 mm; 10.89 g
O: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG; Bust right
R: M with stars on both sides, cross above, Gamma officina, CON in ex.
Constantinople mint; SB 62 var.
laney
justinian_i.jpg
(0527) JUSTINIAN I41 views527 - 565 AD
2nd OFFICINA, STRUCK 527 - 538 AD
AE FOLLIS 30 mm max. 17.89 g
O: D N IVSTINI ANVS P P AVC, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, with star on shoulder
R: Large M ; star to left, cross above and to right, B below; CON. IN EXE
CONSTANTINOPLE
DOC 28b; MIBE 84; SB 158
laney
justinian_half_follis_8.jpg
(0527)JUSTINIAN I26 views527 - 565 AD
AE Half Follis 23.5 mm 7.16 g
O: Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: Long cross dividing N/I to left OF LARGE K, B TO RIGHT
SEAR SB 202, Nicomedia
laney
maurice_tiberius_cyzicus.jpg
(0582) MAURICE TIBERIUS37 views582 - 602 AD
Struck year 7 (588/9)
AE FOLLIS 26 mm 10.19 g
O: Crowned and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus crucger, shield on arm
R: Large M, cross above; ANNO to left, GI to right; A/KYZ. DOC 123a; SB 518
CYZICUS
laney
byz_one_bkk.jpg
(0602) PHOCAS14 views602-610.
Struck 603-610, 5th officina
Æ Half Follis 25 mm, 5.63 g
O: Crowned facing bust, wearing consular robes, holding mappa and cross
R: Large XX; star above; CONЄ
Constantinople mint DOC 37e; SB 644.
laney
phocas_half_follis_with_leontia.jpg
(0602) PHOCAS with Leontia12 views 602-610 AD.
Æ Half Follis 21.5 mm, 4.52 g
Dated RY 1 (602/3 AD).
O: ON FOCA NEPE AV, Phocas holding globus cruciger, and Leontia holding cross sceptre, standing facing; cross above
R: Large X•X; cross above; mint monogram below.
Antioch mint; cf DOC II 91; MIB II 85; SB 673
laney
LEO_VI.jpg
(0886) LEO VI (The Wise)36 views886 - 912 AD
AE FOLLIS 25 mm 6.69 g
O: + LЄOn ЬAS ILЄ[V]S ROm
BUST FACING, WITH SHORT BEARD, WEARING CROWN & CHALMYS
R +LЄOn/Єn ӨЄO ЬA/SILЄVS R/OmЄOn IN FOUR LINES ( Leo by the grace of God king of the Romans )
CONSTANTINOPLE
SBV 1729 - DO8
laney
connstantine_x_a.jpg
(1059) CONSTANTINE X26 views1059-1067 AD
AE FOLLIS 27 mm 4.17 g
Obverse: Christ facing
Reverse: Eudocia and Constantine facing
SB 1853
laney
constantine_x.jpg
(1059) CONSTANTINE X27 views1059-1067 AD
AE FOLLIS 31 mm max. 6.92 g
Obverse: Christ facing
Reverse: Eudocia and Constantine facing
SB 1853
(gouges on obverse are the result of overstriking on an earlier issue that appears to be a class D anonymous follis (Sear 1836).
laney
TITUS_JUDAEA_RESB.jpg
(11) TITUS26 views79 - 81 AD
AE 23 mm 10.27 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Trophy flanked by Judaea seated left, mourning and shield to right
"Judea Capta"
JUDAEA, CAESAREA MINT

laney
manuel_I_tetarteron.jpg
(1143) MANUEL I, COMNENUS34 views8 April 1143 - 24 September 1180 A.D.
AE TETRATERON 20 mm 3.19 g
O: CROSS WITH X AT CENTER STANDING ON 3 STEPS, IC TO L, XC TO R
R: MANMHΛ ΔεCΠOTH (or similar)
HALF LENGTH FIGURE OF MANUEL I FACING, WEARING LOROS AND CROWN AND HODING LABARUM AND BLOBUS CRUCIGER
THESSALONICA
SBCV 1976?
laney
domitian_ascalon_resb.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN31 views81 - 96 AD
struck 85 - 86 AD
AE 23.4 mm max., 14.03 g
O: ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ, laureate head right
R: ASKAΛΩ, ΘΠΡ, Tyche standing left, on prow of galley, holding standard in right, aphlaston in left, incense altar in left field, dove in right
Ascalon mint; RPC II 2212; Rosenberger 114; SNG ANS 697; BMC Palestine p. 121
(ex Forum)
laney
072~0.JPG
(610-641) Heraclius [Sear 871]8 viewsAR Half Siliqua, 0.70 gm. Carthage mint. Struck 617-641 AD. Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust of Heraclius right / no legend, facing busts of Heraclius Constantine on left, wearing crown and chlamys, and Martina on right, wearing crown with long pendilia, and robes; cross between their heads, sometimes with four dots between their shoulders. DOC 233; MIB 149; SB 871.Ségusiaves
_T2eC16J,!)!FIcVeTMb)BSJhtPOzsw~~60_12.JPG
(613-632) Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine [Sear 886]18 viewsHeraclius and Heraclius Constantine, AE Decanummium, Catania mint. No legend, Heraclius, bearded on left and Heraclius Constantine, unbearded on right, crowned, draped and cuirassed busts facing, cross between their heads / Large I, ANNO to left, regnal year to right, mintmark CAT. SB 886, MIB 241.Ségusiaves
mi5K3Gagpx4S8iREL9tBCrX7oP6fc2.jpg
(717-741) LEO III [Sear 1530]12 viewsCrowned bust facing, wearing chlamys, holding cross on globe and akakia / DN O CONSTANTI... around crowned, facing bust of Constantine V, holding akakia and cross on globe, all above ornate horizontal bar; SC to left, L to right; large M below. SB 1530, DOC 54Ségusiaves
Augsburg_2_kreuzer_1625.jpg
*SOLD*30 viewsFerdinand II Augsburg - 2 Kreuzers

Attribution: KM #16
Date: AD 1625
Obverse: AVGVSTA VINDELICORVM Ω, bush on pedestal, 1625 across fields
Reverse: FERDINAND II. D G ROM IMP S AVG, black eagle with two heads, shield with 2 (kreuzers)
Noah
002_Justin_I.JPG
002. Justin I, 518-527. AE 40 Nummi.45 viewsObv. Bust of Justin I.
Rev. Large M, stars on either side, CON below.
Constantinople Mint.
SB 62
1 commentsLordBest
Byzag.jpg
003 - John I Tzimisces (969-976 AD), Millaresion - Sear 179241 viewsObv: +IhSyS XRISTyS NICA*, Cross crosslet on globus above two steps. at centre, circular medallion containing facing bust of John with short beard, wearing crown and loros and dividing the inscription I/W - A/N. Triple border ornamented with eight equally spaced glbules.
Rev: IWANN / EN XW AVTO / CRAT´EVESb´/ bASILEVS / RWMAIW´in five lines, -:- above and beneath, triple bordet as on obv.
1 commentspierre_p77
p24.JPG
003. Constans Thessalonica two victories57 viewsCONSTANS-PF AVG
VICTORIAE DD AVGGQ NN
SMTSB
RIC VIII Thessalonica 101 C2

ecoli
marsbilder_(40).jpg
005 - Septimius Severus (193-211 AD), denarius - RIC 27882 viewsObv: SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laurate bust right.
Rev: LIBERALITAS AVG VI, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
Minted in Rome 208 AD
1 commentspierre_p77
005_Tiberius_Constantine.JPG
005. Tiberius Constantine, 578-582. AE 40 Nummi.47 viewsObv. Bust of Tiberius Constantine
Rev. Large M, CON below ANNO II to sides
Constantinople Mint, 580.
SB 430.
LordBest
5514.jpg
005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Æ 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

ecoli
Follis Anastasio I SB0014.jpg
01-02 - Anastasio I (11/04/491 - 01/07/518 D.C.) 66 viewsAE Follis Post-Reforma (Módulo pequeño) 23 x 25 mm 7.7 gr.

Anv: "D.N.ANASTASIVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " M ", con una " +" arriba. "CON" en exergo.

Acuñada 498 - 518 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #14 Pag. 37 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #16 - B.M.C. #41 -Tolstoi M.B. #31 - Ratto M.B. #354 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #11-22 - Hahn M.I.B.#22
mdelvalle
Follis Anastasio I SB0022.jpg
01-06 - Anastasio I (11/04/491 - 01/07/518 D.C.) 40 viewsAE Follis Post-Reforma (Módulo pequeño) 23 mm 8.6 gr.

Anv: "D.N.ANASTASIUS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " M ", con " +" arriba, " * " a izquierda, "Medialuna" a derecha y "ε" (Letra de Officina) debajo. "CON" en exergo.

Acuñada 491 - 518 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.5ta.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #22 Pag. 38 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #23 m - B.M.C. #17 -Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #85 - Hahn M.I.B.29, 30
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Anastasio I SB0025.jpg
01-10 - Anastasio I (11/04/491 - 01/07/518 D.C.) 29 viewsAE Medio Follis (Módulo grande) 28 mm 8.3 gr.

Anv: "D.N.ANASTASIVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " K ", con " +" a izquierda y "Γ" (Letra de Officina) a derecha.

Acuñada 491 - 518 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.3ra.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #25 Pag. 39 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #24 - B.M.C. #30-33 - Tolstoi M.B. #38-42 - Ratto M.B. #356/8 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #86/8 - Hahn M.I.B. #33
mdelvalle
145197.jpg
011a. Julia Titi56 viewsJulia Flavia (17 September 64 - 91) was the only child to the Emperor Titus from his second marriage to the well-connected Marcia Furnilla. Titus divorced Furnilla after Julia's birth. Julia was born in Rome.

When growing up, Titus offered her in marriage to his brother Domitian, but he refused because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina. Later she married her second cousin Titus Flavius Sabinus, brother to consul Titus Flavius Clemens, who married her first cousin Flavia Domitilla. By then Domitian had seduced her.

When her father and husband died, she became Emperor Domitian’s mistress. He openly showed his love. Falling pregnant, Julia died of a forced abortion. Julia was deified and her ashes her mixed with Domitian by an old nurse secretly in the Temple of the Flavians.

AEOLIS, Temnus. Julia Titi. Augusta, AD 79-91. Æ 16mm (2.18 gm). Draped bust right / EPI AGNOU THMNIT, Athena standing left, holding palladium and scepter, shield resting on ground. RPC II 981. Near VF, dark green patina, small flan crack. Ex-CNG

From the Garth R. Drewry Collection. Ex Classical Numismatic Group 51 (15 September 1999), lot 875; Marcel Burstein Collection.
ecoli
102155.jpg
012a. Domitia101 viewsDomitia, wife of Domitian. Augusta, 82-96 AD.

In 70, Domitia was married to Lucius Aelius Lamia, but she attracted the attention of Domitian, son of emperor Vespasian. Shortly afterwards she was taken from her husband and remarried with the future emperor. They had a son in the next year and a daughter in 74, both died young. Domitian was very fond of his wife and carried her in all his travels. In 83, Domitia Longina's affair with the actor Paris was disclosed. Paris was executed and Domitia received her letter of divorce from Domitian. She was exiled, but remained close to Roman politics and to Domitian.

CILICIA, Epiphanea. Æ 21mm (7.18 gm). Dated year 151 (83/84 AD). Draped bust right / Athena standing left, righ hand extended, left resting on shield; ANP (date) left. RPC I 1786; SNG Levante 1813; SNG France -; SNG Copenhagen -. VF, dark green patina, some smoothing. Very rare, only 1 specimen (the Levante specimen), recorded in RPC. Ex-CNG
ecoli73
Follis Justino I SB0062.jpg
02-02 - Justino I (10/07/518 - 01/08/527 D.C.) 44 viewsAE Follis 31 mm 11.7 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " M ", con " * " a ambos lados y "Ilegible" (Letra de Officina) debajo. "CON" en exergo.

Acuñada 518 - 527 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.Incierta)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #62 Pag. 45 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #8 - B.M.C. #20-28 - Tolstoi M.B. #27-30-32-35 - Ratto M.B. #390/6 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-9 - Hahn M.I.B. #11
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino I SB0068.jpg
02-10 - Justino I (10/07/518 - 01/08/527 D.C.) 22 viewsAE Medio Follis 25 x 21 mm 8.1 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " K ", con larga " + " a izquierda y " A " (Letra de Officina) a derecha.

Acuñada 518 - 527 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.1ra.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #68 Pag. 46 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #14 - B.M.C. #33-35 - Tolstoi M.B. #55-58 - Ratto M.B. #403, 404, 406 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. p.42 - Hahn M.I.B. #18
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino I SB0069.jpg
02-11 - Justino I (10/07/518 - 01/08/527 D.C.) 24 viewsAE Medio Follis 18 x 19 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " K ", con larga " + " a izquierda, " * " arriba y abajo y " Δ " (Letra de Officina) a derecha.

Acuñada 518 - 527 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #69 Pag. 46 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #15 - B.M.C. #34 - Tolstoi M.B. #56-58 - Ratto M.B. #403, 405 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. p.42 - Hahn M.I.B. #19
mdelvalle
RICb_0119,_RIC_II(1962)_0023a,_022_Titus__AR-Den_IMP_TITVS_CAES_VESPASIAN_AVG_P_M,_TR_P_IX_IMP_XV_COS_VIII_P_P,_Rome,_80_AD_Q-001,_5h,_17,8-18,9mm,_3,02g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0119, RIC II(1962) 0023a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Thunderbolt (winged) on the draped table, #111 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0119, RIC II(1962) 0023a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Thunderbolt (winged) on the draped table, #1
avers: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right.
reverse: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Thunderbolt (winged) on the draped table or chair with one, two or no crossbars.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,8-18,9mm, weight: 3,02g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0119, RIC II(1962) 0023a p-119, RSC 316, BMC 51,
Q-001
"This denarius is part of a series that was struck for the lectisternium (religious ceremony) celebrating the opening of the Colosseum in 80 AD."
1 commentsquadrans
Titus_AR-Denar_IMP-TITVS-CAES-VESPASIAN-AVG-P-M_TR-P-IX-IMP-XV-COS-VIII-P-P_RIC-new-119_RIC-II-23a_C-316_Rome_80-AD__Q-001_18mm_3,28g-s.jpg
022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0119var., RIC II(1962) 0023a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Thunderbolt (wingless) draped table, #1181 views022b Titus (69-79 A.D. Caesar, 79-81 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0119var., RIC II(1962) 0023a, AR-Denarius, Rome, TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Thunderbolt (wingless) on the draped table, #1
avers: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M, Laureate head right.
reverse: TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, Thunderbolt (wingless) on the draped table or chair with one, two or no crossbars.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0119var., RIC II(1962) 0023a p-119, RSC 316, BMC 51,
Q-001
"This denarius is part of a series that was struck for the lectisternium (religious ceremony) celebrating the opening of the Colosseum in 80 AD."
4 commentsquadrans
FaustinaI_denar.jpg
025 - Faustina I (138-141 AD), commemorative denarius - RIC 35835 viewsObv: DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right
Rev: AVGVSTA, Ceres standing right, holding scepter and grain ears.
Minted in Rome 148-161 AD.

Commemorative issues were struck in huge quantitis under the husband Antoninus Pius after Faustinas death in 141 AD.
pierre_p77
Medio Follis Justiniano I SB00165.jpg
03-10 - Justiniano I (01/08/527 - 14/11/565 D.C.) 21 viewsAE Medio Follis 28 x 30 mm 7.1 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINIANVS PP.AVG." - Busto con yelmo y coraza, portando "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda, viendo al frente. A su Izquierda " + " .
Rev: Gran " K ", " + " arriba, " A/N/N/O " a izquierda, " XII " (Año de reinado) a derecha y " Δ " (Letra de Officina) debajo.

Acuñada Año=12, 538/9 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #165 Pag. 61 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #62-75 - B.M.C. #107/12, 115/19 - Tolstoi M.B. #318/36 - Ratto M.B. #539/42, 547 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #82-91 - Hahn M.I.B. #96 (H.Weller)
mdelvalle
16 Nummi Justiniano I SB00177.jpg
03-15 - Justiniano I (01/08/527 - 14/11/565 D.C.) 23 viewsAE 16 nummi 22 x 18 mm 7.3 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINIANVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " I ", " A " a izquierda y " SP " a derecha. " * + * " arriba. "TES" en exergo.

Acuñada 527 - 565 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalónica

Referencias: Sear BCTV #177 Pag. 64 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #98c - B.M.C. #167/9 - Tolstoi M.B. #487 - Hahn M.I.B. #169d
mdelvalle
16 Nummi Justiniano I SB00178.jpg
03-16 - Justiniano I (01/08/527 - 14/11/565 D.C.) 32 viewsAE 16 nummi 20 x 20 mm 6.7 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINIANVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " I ", " A " a izquierda y " SP " a derecha. " Signo Chi-Ro " arriba. "TES" en exergo.

Acuñada 527 - 565 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalónica

Referencias: Sear BCTV #178 Pag. 64 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #98d - B.M.C. #171 - Tolstoi M.B. #485 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #9 - Hahn M.I.B. #169c
1 commentsmdelvalle
Decanummium Justiniano I SB00167.jpg
03-25 - Justiniano I (01/08/527 - 14/11/565 D.C.) 26 viewsAE Decanummium (10 nummi) 15 mm 4.6 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINIANVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " I ", " + " arriba, " A/N/N/O " a izquierda y " X/X/X " (Año de reinado) a derecha. " CON " en exergo.

Acuñada Año=30, 556/7 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #167 Pag. 62 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #76-85, 88-95 - B.M.C. #126/32, 135/37 - Tolstoi M.B. #408/16 - Ratto M.B. #552/4, 556/9 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #92/6 - Hahn M.I.B. #99 (I.T.Roper Coll.)
mdelvalle
Decanummium Justiniano I SB00326.jpg
03-27 - Justiniano I (01/08/527 - 14/11/565 D.C.) 32 viewsAE Decanummium (10 nummi) 15 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINIANVS PP.AVG." - Busto con yelmo y coraza, portando "Sphaira" ó "globus cruciger" u "Ordis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda, viendo al frente. A su Izquierda " + ".
Rev: Gran " I ", " A/N/N/O " a izquierda y " XX/XV/II " (Año de reinado) a derecha. " CON " en exergo.

Acuñada Año=37, 563/4 D.C.
Ceca: Ravenna

Referencias: Sear BCTV #326 Pag. 85 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #347/55 - B.M.C. #404/9 - Tolstoi M.B. #450/2 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #2/7 - Hahn M.I.B. #229
1 commentsmdelvalle
03-Constantius-The-25.jpg
03. Constantius I: Thessalonica fractional.21 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI / Veiled bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: . T . SB .
1.78 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #25; PBCC #908; Sear unlisted.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
Follis Justino II SB00360.jpg
04-02 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 33 viewsAE Follis 30 x 28 mm 13.4 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Sofia a la derecha, sentados de frente en doble trono, ambos nimbados, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz.
Rev: Gran " M ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " + " arriba, "Ilegible" (Año reinal) a derecha y " Γ" (Letra de Officina) debajo. "CON" en exergo.

Acuñada Incierto - 565 - 578 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.3ra.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #360 Pag. 91 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #22-43 - B.M.C. #28-81 - Tolstoi M.B. #57-109 - Ratto M.B. #782-824 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-43 - Hahn M.I.B. #43
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino II SB00361D.jpg
04-10 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 28 viewsAE Medio Follis 21 x 25 mm 7.3 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Sofia a la derecha, sentados de frente en doble trono, ambos nimbados, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz.
Rev: Gran " K ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " + " arriba, "Signo=5" (Año reinal) a derecha y " Δ" (Letra de Officina) debajo.

Acuñada Año=5 - 569/70 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #361 Pag. 92 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #44-58 - B.M.C. #82-100 - Tolstoi M.B. #217-234 - Ratto M.B. #825-833 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #45-51 - Hahn M.I.B. #44a-c
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino II SB00365.jpg
04-14 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 21 viewsAE Medio Follis 21 x 24 mm 5.2 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Busto con yelmo y coraza, portando "Sphaira" ó "globus cruciger" u "Ordis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda, viendo al frente.
Rev: Gran " K ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " + " arriba, " I " (Año reinal) a derecha y " TES " debajo.

Acuñada Año=1 - 565/6 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalónica

Referencias: Sear BCTV #365 Pag. 93 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #61/4 - B.M.C. #101/4 - Tolstoi M.B. #38-40 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-5 - Hahn M.I.B. #68a-b
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino II SB00366.jpg
04-15 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 21 viewsAE Medio Follis 21 x 24 mm 5.2 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Sofia a la derecha, sentados de frente en doble trono, ambos nimbados, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz.
Rev: Gran " K ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " Ilegible " arriba, " ε " (Año reinal) a derecha y " TES " debajo.

Acuñada Año=5 - 569/70 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalónica

Referencias: Sear BCTV #366 Pag. 93 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #65-85 - B.M.C. #105/24 - Tolstoi M.B. #173-188 - Ratto M.B. #835-842 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #6-15 - Hahn M.I.B. #70a-f
mdelvalle
RI_044al_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian denarius - RIC II 268 var (bust type)28 viewsObv:- HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P, laureate head left
Rev:- SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, patera in right, scepter in left, altar at feet
Minted in Rome.
Reference:- RIC II 268 var (bust type). BMC 726 note. RIC 268 var. (laureate r.). Strack 266 (citing 3 examples - Sofia, Berlin, and St. Petersburg).

A rare variety.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Ferd-I_AR-Den__1531_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1531_Q-001_7h_15,7mm_0,49g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1531, Madonna and child, #01208 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1531, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •1531•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 15,7 mm, weight: 0,49 g, axis: 7h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1531 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
quadrans
Ferd-I_AR-Den__1534_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-rozette-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1534_Q-001_9h_16,3mm_0,54g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1534, Madonna and child, #01222 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1534, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •1534•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-rozette-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 16,3 mm, weight: 0,54 g, axis: 9h,
mint mark: K-B,, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1534 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
quadrans
Ferd-I_AR-Den__1551_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1551_Q-001_9h_14,6mm_0,53g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child #01211 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child #01
avers:- •1551•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 14,6 mm, weight: 0,53 g, axis: 9h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1551 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
quadrans
Ferd-I_AR-Den__1551_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-rozette-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1551_Q-002_7h_15,2mm_0,56g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child, #02233 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hugary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1551, Madonna and child, #02
avers:- •1551•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-rozette-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 15,2 mm, weight: 0,56 g, axis: 7h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1551 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-001
quadrans
Ferd-I_AR-Den__1528_FERDINAND_D_G_R_VNG_PATRONA_-_VNGARIE_K-B_U-745a_C3-40_H-935_1528_Q-001_4h_15,5mm_0,55g-s.jpg
044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1528, Madonna and child, #01246 views044 Ferdinand I., (Ferdinand I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1526-1564 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-745a, 1528, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •1528•FERDINAND•D•G•R•VNG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: 15,5 mm, weight: 0,55 g, axis: 4h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1528 A.D.,
ref: Unger-745a, CNH-3-40, Huszár-935,
Q-00
quadrans
Miksa_AR-Den_K-B_U-766a_C3-94_H-992_1566_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
045 Miksa., (Maximilian of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1564-1576 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-766a, 1566, Madonna and child, #01115 views045 Miksa., (Maximilian of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1564-1576 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-766a, 1566, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •MAX•II•D•G•E•RO•I•S•AV•G•HV•B•R•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield are Austrian shield. The year 1566 on the top of the shield.
revers:- PATRONA•-rozette-•VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. K-B crossed the field.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1566 A.D.,
ref: Unger-766a, CNH-3-94, Huszár-992,
Q-001
quadrans
Rudolf_(1576-1608_AD),_AR-Gross,_1601,_N-B,_H-1049,_CNH_III__150,_U-805,_Q-001,_11h,_23,5-24mm,_1,56g-s.jpg
046 Rudolf, (Rudolph II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1576-1608 A.D.), AR-Groschen, H-1049, CNH III.-150, U-805, N-B, 1601, Rare!128 views046 Rudolf, (Rudolph II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1576-1608 A.D.), AR-Groschen, H-1049, CNH III.-150, U-805, N-B, 1601, Rare!
avers: ֍ RVDOL•II•D:G•RO•IM•S•AV•GE•HVN•B•R•, Crowned Madonna sits with child on her right arm. N-B crossed the field.
reverse: •MONETA•NOVA•ANNODOMINI•1601, Ornamented, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Central shield is Austrian shield. All in
diameter: 23,5-24,0mm, weight: 1,56g, axis: 11h,
exergue, mint mark: N/B//--, mint: Nagybánya, (today Romania: Baia Mare), date: 1601 A.D.,
ref: Huszár-1049, CNH III.-150, Unger-805,
Q-001
quadrans
Mathias-II__(1608-1619AD)_AR-Den_MAT_II_D_G_HV_BO_REX_1613_PATRONA-Shield-HVNGARI_K-B_U-869_C3-240_H-1140_1613_Q-001_1h_14,5-15mm_0,37g-s.jpg
047 Mathias II., (Mathias of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1608-1619 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-869, 1613 A.D.,79 views047 Mathias II., (Mathias of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1608-1619 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-869, 1613 A.D.,
avers:- MAT•II•D•G•HV•BO•REX•1613, Crowned Hungarian shield in circle of dots, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- PATRONA HVNGARI•, Madonna seated facing, on crescent, in sunburst, in circle of dots, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, Austrian shield with band below, border of dots.
diameter: 14,5-15mm, weight: 0,37g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark:
date: A.D., ref: Unger-, CNH-, Huszar-,
Q-001
quadrans
Ferd-II__(1619-1637AD)_AR-Den_FER_II_D_G_R_I_S_A_G_H_B_R__PATRONA-HVNGARI__1629_K-B_U-917a_C3-303_H-1204_Q-001_7h_14,1mm_0,51g-s.jpg
048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-917a, 1629, Madonna and child, #0185 views048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-917a, 1629, Madonna and child, #01
avers: FER•II•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•R•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross). The year 1629 on the top of the shield, K-B crossed the field.
reverse: PATRONA-HVNGARI•, Madonna sits with child on her left arm.
diameter: 14,1mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 7h,
mint mark: K-B, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1629 A.D.,
ref: Unger-917a, CNH-3-303, Huszár-1204,
Q-001
quadrans
048_Ferdinand_II_,_(1619-1637_A_D_),_AR-Groschen_(9-denar),_U-909,_CNH-3-290,_H-1191,1623_AD,_Q-001_4h_20,3mm_1,86g-s.jpg
048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Groschen, U-909, 1623, Rare!119 views048 Ferdinand II., (Ferdinand II. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1619-1637 A.D.), AR-Groschen, U-909, 1623, Rare!
avers: FER•II•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned, draped bust right.
reverse: VIIII/KB/GROS•REGN/HVNG:NOV•/DENARIO/1623, Between Crowned Hungarian shield and crowned two-headed eagle.
diameter: 20,3mm, weight: 1,86g, axis: 4h,
exergue, mint mark: KB//--, mint: Körmöczbánya, date: 1623 A.D.,
ref: Unger-909, CNH-3-290, Huszár-1191,
Q-001
quadrans
Byz_Rome_Decanum.jpg
05. JUSTIN II AND SOPHIA28 viewsJUSTIN II AND SOPHIA
Half follis, Rome Mint , 565-578 AD

DN IVSTINVS PP AVG, Justin on l. and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne / Large XX, cross above, ROM below.

SB 404, DOC 206
Sosius
I_Lipot_3kr_1694_U-1089_H-1469_N-B_P-O_Q-001_0h_20-21,5mm_1_37g-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-3-Groschen, U-1089, Madonna and the child in the Mandorla, N/B//P-O, 1694, #01228 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-3-Groschen, U-1089, Madonna and the child in the Mandorla, N/B//P-O, 1694, #01
avers:- LEOPOLD•D•G•R•[3,as value sign] I•S•A•G•H•B•R•, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, below in value sign 3.
revers:- •S•IMMAC•VIR• [coat of arms] M•MAT•D•P•H• 16-94, Madonna in the Mandorla, the child in her right hand, below crowned coat of arms, mint marks and mint marks on the side.
diameter: 20,0-21,5mm, weight: 1,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: N/B//P-O, Nagybánya, (today Romania : Baia Mare),
date: 1694 A.D., ref: Unger-1089, Huszar-1469,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Leopoldus-I-Denar_a-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-1107a, /1683, Madonna and child, #0170 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-1107a, /1683, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Hungarian shield in circle, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- PATRONA•HVNGA•1683, Madonna seated facing on crescent in sunburst in circle, holding infant Jesus in her left, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1683 A.D., ref: Unger-1107a, CNH-, Huszar-1503/1683,
Q-001
quadrans
Leopoldus-I-Duarius-3_-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1698, #0168 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1698, #01
avers:- LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Madonna seated facing on crescent, holding infant Jesus in her left, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, DUARIVS/1698 (date) below, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, P/H//DVARIVS/1698, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1698 A.D., ref: Unger-1105a, CNH-, Huszar-1499,
Q-001
quadrans
Leopoldus-I-Duarius-2_-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1700, #0176 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1700, #01
avers:- + LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Madonna seated facing on crescent, holding infant Jesus in her left, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, DUARIVS/1700 (date) below, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, P/H//DVARIVS/1700, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1700 A.D., ref: Unger-1105a/1700, CNH-, Huszar-1499/1700,
Q-001
quadrans
Leopoldus-I-Duarius-1_-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1703, #0164 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1703, #01
avers:- + LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Madonna seated facing on crescent, holding infant Jesus in her left, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, DUARIVS /•1703• (date) below, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, P/H//DVARIVS/•1703•, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1703 A.D., ref: Unger-1105a/1703, CNH-, Huszar-1499/1703,
Q-001
quadrans
JustISB69.jpg
0518-0527 AD - Justin I - Sear 69 - Half Follis32 viewsEmperor: Justin I (r. 518-527 AD)
Date: 518-527 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AVG
Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, with cross rising from front of diadem.

Reverse: Large K; to left, long cross; to right, "B"; stars above and below.

Constantinople mint, second officina
Sear 69
7.99g; 24.4mm; 180°
Pep
JustISB75.jpg
0518-0527 AD - Justin I - Sear 75 - Pentanummium28 viewsEmperor: Justin I (r. 518-527 AD)
Date: 518-527 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Pentanummium

Obverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: Large Chi-Rho
"E" in right field
"Δ" in left field

Constantinople mint, fourth officina
Sear 75; DOC 21d.2
1.72g; 13.8mm; 165°
Pep
JustnnSB159.jpg
0527-0565 AD - Justinian I - Sear 159 - Follis48 viewsEmperor: Justinian I (r. 527-565 AD)
Date: 527-565 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG
Bust right; diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: no legend
Large "M"; cross above, crosses to left and right; "E" below.
Exergue: CON (Constantinople mint, fifth officina)

Sear 159
15.64g; 33.26mm; 180°
Pep
053_Károly_III_,_(Carolus_VI__of_Habsburg),_King_of_Hungary,_(1711-1740_A_D_),_AR-den,_1733_AD,_K-B,_Huszar-1641,_Q-001,_h,_26,5mm,_g-s.jpg
053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Denar, Huszár-1641, 1733, K-B, #01164 views053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Denar, Huszár-1641, 1733, K-B, #01
avers: +CAR•VI•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•H•B•R•, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side.
reverse: PATRONA•HUNGA•1733, Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her left arm.
diameter: 26,0-26,5mm, weight: g, axis: 0h,
mint mark: K/B//--, mint: Hungary, Körmöczbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), date: 1733 A.D., ref: Huszár 1641/1733, Unger-2 1208/1733,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Karolus-III(VI)_POLTURA_1715_U2-1202_H-1631_J_N__P-H_Q-001_0h_18-19,5mm_0,90ga-s.jpg
053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Poltura, U2-1202, /1715, #01100 views053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Poltura, U2-1202, /1715, #01
avers: CAROLUS•VI•D:G:R:I:S:A:G:H:H:B:R•, Emperor bust right in circle, border of dots.
revers: P-H//POLTURA/*1715*/*, Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, POLTURA / date below, border of line and border of dots.
diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 0,90g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: P-H//POLTURA/*1715*/*,,
date: 1715 A.D., ref: Unger-2 1202/1715, Huszar 1631,
Q-001
quadrans
054_Macrinus_(217-218_A_D_),AE-27-Pentassarion__AV_K_OPPE_CEV-_Markianopolis-Moesia_Inf_Mus-532_Var1214v__217-18-AD-Q-001_axis-6h_26,5-27,5mm_10,41g-s.jpg
054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Mushmov-532., Varbanov-, AE-27, Pentassarion, 62 views054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Mushmov-532., Varbanov-, AE-27, Pentassarion,
avers:- AY-K-OΠEL-CEV-MAKREINOC-K-M-OΠEL-AN-TΩNEINOC•, Laureate head of Macrinus facing bare-headed bust of Diadumenian.
revers:- VΠ-ΠONTIANOV-MAΡKIANO-ΠOΛEITΩN, Artemis advancing right, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver on her back, hound running right at foot, retrograde E in left field.
exe: Ǝ/-//ΠOΛIT, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 12,38g, axis: 6h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Mushmov-532., Varbanov-.,
a) AMNG I/1, 730 (like ex. 3, 4, 5, Paris, St.Petersburg, Wien)
b) Hristova/Jekov (2013) 6.24.13.3 (same dies)
c) not in Pfeiffer (2013)
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_1kr,_1758,_U-1298a_H-1821_K-B_Q-001_0h_15,0mm_0,75g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01112 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-1 Kreuzer, U-1298a, H-1821, K-B/1758, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I• S•A•GE•IER•REX•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN TE DOMINE• -1- SPERAVI •1758•, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "1" below, border of dots.
diameter: 15,0mm, weight: 0,75g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//1, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1758 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1298a/1758, Huszar 1821/1758,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_3kr,_1765,_U-1296a_H-1815_K-B_Q-001_0h_20,0mm_1,67g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01110 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-3 Kreuzer, U-1296a, H-1815, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -3- SPERAVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value "3" below; border of dots.
diameter: 20,0mm, weight: 1,67g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//3, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1296a/1765, Huszar 1815/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
Lotharingiai_Ferenc_(_-1765_AD),_XVIIkr,_1765,_U-1291b_H-1803_K-B_Q-001_0h_28,0mm_5,92g-s.jpg
055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01107 views055 Ferenc of Lotharingia, (Franc I. Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty), Husband of Maria Theresa (Qeen of Hungary), ( -1765 AD A.D.), AR-XVII Kreuzer, U-1291b, H-1803, K-B/1765, #01
Franc I. was also a Holy Roman Emperor and King in Germany.
avers: FRANC•D:G•R•I•S•A•GE•IER•R•LO•B•M•H•D•, Emperor bust right, border of dots.
revers: IN THE DOMINE• -XVII- SPER AVI •1765• X, Crowned two-headed eagle, shield on chest, mint-mark on each side, mark of value XVII below; border of dots.
diameter: 28,0mm, weight: 5,92g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//XVII, Körmöcbánya, (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1765 A.D., ref: Unger-3 1291b/1765, Huszar 1803/1765,
Q-001
quadrans
056_Jozsef_II_,_(1780-1790_A_D_),_AR-halb-Thaler,_U-III-1324a,_H-1875,_A-Wien,1789_AD,_Q-001_0h_33,8mm_14,02g-s.jpg
056 Jozsef II., (Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1780-1790 A.D.), AR-1/2 Thaler, U III 1324a, 1789 A, 114 views056 Jozsef II., (Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1780-1790 A.D.), AR-1/2 Thaler, U III 1324a, 1789 A,
avers: IOS II•D•_G•R•IMP•S•A•_G•H•B•REX•A_•A•D•B•& L•, Two winged Angel holding Hungarian Crown over the Hungarian Shield.
revers: S•MARIA_MATER DEI_ A _PATRONA HUNG•1789•X, Crowned Madonna (Virgin Marie) seated, child (Jesus) on the left arm.
diameter: 33,8mm, weight: 14,02g, axis: 0h,
exe, mint mark: -/-//A, mint: Wien, date: 1826 A.D.,
ref: Unger III 1324a, Huszár-1875,
Q-001
quadrans
JustIISB366.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis62 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 569-570 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, cross; to left, A/N/N/O; to right, E
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
4.76g; 23.5mm; 150°
Pep
JustIISB366_2.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis - 2nd Example38 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 574-575 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, symbol(s); to left, A/N/N/O; to right, X
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
5.07g; 22.3mm; 165°
Pep
JustIISB366_3.jpg
0565-0578 AD - Justin II - Sear 366 - Half Follis - 3rd Example38 viewsEmperor: Justin II (r. 565-578 AD)
Date: 577-578 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Half Follis

Obverse: D N IVSTINVS PP AV (or similar)
Justin, on left, and Sophia, on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds globus cruciger, she holds cruciform sceptre.

Reverse: Large K; above, symbol(s); to left, A/N/N/O; to right, XI/II
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint)

Sear 366
5.05g; 22.1mm; 165°
Pep
056_Elagabalus_(218-222_A_D_),_AE-17,_Markianopolis,_Moesia,_Moushmov_648,_MARKIANO_OLIT_N,_Four_stars_in_crescent_moon_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Varbanov (engl.) 1394, AE-17, MARKIANOΠOLITΩN, Four stars in crescent moon,67 views056p Elagabalus (218-222 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Varbanov (engl.) 1394, AE-17, MARKIANOΠOLITΩN, Four stars in crescent moon,
avers:- AVT K M AVP ANTΩNINOC (ΩN ligate) , Laureate head right.
revers:- MARKIANOΠOLITΩN (AΡ and ΩN ligate), Four stars in crescent moon.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: 217-218 A.D.,
ref: a) AMNG I/1, 933 (2 ex., Gotha, St. Petersburg)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 1394
c) Hristova/Jekov (2012) No. 6.26.48.2 corr. (ligations not mentioned)
d) not in Pfeiffer (2013)
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina-Sr-RIC-394a.jpg
057. Faustina Senior.16 viewsDenarius, after 141 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: DIVA AVG FAVSTINA / Bust of Faustina.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG / Pietas veiled, standing, dropping incense on altar, and holding a box.
3.59 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #394a; Sear #4598.

Faustina died early on in the reign of her husband. Most of her coinage is from the extensive memorial coinage issued in the years after her death. The portrait on this particular coin is exceptionally elegant and dignified.

Visible on the reverse (lower right edge) of this coin is an inclusion of copper that did not get melted and mixed with the silver when the planchet was made. That this coin is probably not a fouree is evidenced by the fact that it weighs a bit more than other denarii of the period.
Callimachus
058_Ferenc_I_,_(1792-1835_A_D_),_AR-Thaler,_U-III-1363b,_H-1943,_G-Nagybanya,1813_AD,_Q-001_0h_39,4mm_28,0gx-s.jpg
058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1363b, 1813, 113 views058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1363b, 1813,
avers: FRANCISCVS I:D:G:AVSTRIAE IMPERATOR •, Laureate bust right.
revers: HVN:BOH:GAL:REX•A:A: - LO:WI:ET IN FR:DVX •1813 •, Crowned two-headed eagle.
diameter: 39,4mm, weight: 28,0g, axis: 0h,
exe, mint mark: -/-//G, mint: Nagybánya, date: 1813 A.D.,
ref: Unger III-1363b, Huszár-1943,
Q-001
quadrans
058_Ferenc_I_,_(1792-1835_A_D_),_AR-Thaler,_U-III-1365a,_H-1947,_B-Kormocbanya,1826_AD,_Q-001_0h_39,0-39,7mm_28,2g-s.jpg
058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1365a, 1826 B, 115 views058 Ferenc I., (Franc I. of Habsburg-Lotharingia), King of Hungary, (1792-1835 A.D.), AR-Thaler, U III 1365a, 1826 B,
avers: FRANCISCVS I•D•G•AVSTRIAE IMPERATOR •, Laureate bust right.
revers: HVN•BOH•LOMB•ET VEN• - GAL•LOD•IL•REX•A•A•1826•, Crowned two-headed eagle.
diameter: 39,0-39,7mm, weight: 28,2g, axis: 0h,
exe, mint mark: -/-//B, mint: Körmöcbánya, date: 1826 A.D.,
ref: Unger III-1363b, Huszár-1947,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_064sb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 432 var12 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SPE (sic) SEV - PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P III IMP V COS II, captive seated right with peaked cap, hands bound behind, quiver and shields behind, curved sword in ex
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:– RIC 432 var (obv legend). RSC 660 var (same)
maridvnvm
Follis Focas SB00671.jpg
07-02 - Focas (23/11/602 - 05/10/610 D.C.) 27 viewsAE Follis 26 mm 8.1 gr.

Anv: "O.N. FOCA.NE.PE.AV." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Leontia a la derecha, de pié de frente, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz. Entre sus cabezas una cruz.
Rev: Gran " m ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " + " arriba y "Signo/II=5/II" (Año reinal) a derecha. " THEUP' " en exergo.

Acuñada Año=7 - 608/9 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia/Theoupolis (Antioquía cambia su nombre luego del gran terremoto del año 528 D.C.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #671 Pag. 151 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.II #83/9 - B.M.C. #102/10 - Tolstoi M.B. #142/8 - Ratto M.B. #1269/75 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-15 - Hahn M.I.B. #83a-b
mdelvalle
780_P_Hadrian_RPC728.jpg
0728 THRACE, Bizya, Hadrian 117-19 AD City gate 31 viewsReference.
RPC III, 728; Jurukova Bizye, pl. 1, 3; 6 (same dies) 1A; Price-Trell p. 247, 83; Varbanov 1421 var.

Magistrate Maec- Nep- (presbeutès and antistrategos)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ СΕΒ ΓΕΡ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. ΕΠΙ ΜΑΙ ΝΕΠ ΠΡΕСΒ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤ ΒΙΖΥΗΝΩΝ
City gate, flanked by two towers, surmounted by a figure in quadriga, r.

18.00 gr
31 mm
6h

Note.
The portrait of Hadrian is based on the features of Trajan, as were the earliest coins of Hadrian in Rome.

ex Numismatik Lanz auction 160, lot 414
ex FORVM
okidoki
2860420.jpg
08. Maurice Tiberius23 viewsAV Solidus (21mm, 4.41 g, 7h). Constantinople mint, 7th officina. Struck 583-602 AD.

O: Helmeted, draped, and cuirassed facing bust, holding globus cruciger

R: Angel standing facing, holding long staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; Z//CONOB. DOC 5g; MIBE 6; SB 478. VF, small dig on reverse.

Ex CNG

1 commentsSosius
TheopSB1667.jpg
0829-0842 AD - Theophilus - Sear 1667 - Follis39 viewsEmperor: Theophilus (r. 829-842 AD)
Date: 829-842 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ΘEOFIL' bASIL'
Three-quarter length figure facing, wearing loros and crown surmounted by tufa (which is ornamented with pellets); he holds labarum in right hand and globus cruciger in left hand.

Reverse: +ΘEO / FILE AV / OVSE SV/ ICAS in four lines.

Constantinople mint
Sear 1667
6.49g; 27.0mm; 195°
Pep
Tituria1DenSabines.jpg
0a Abduction of the Sabines21 viewsL Titurius Sabinus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Head of Tativs, right, SABIN behind
Two Roman soldiers bearing women

Seaby, Tituria 1

When the hour for the games had come, and their eyes and minds were alike riveted on the spectacle before them, the preconcerted signal was given and the Roman youth dashed in all directions to carry off the [Sabine] maidens who were present. The larger part were carried off indiscriminately, but some particularly beautiful girls who had been marked out for the leading patricians were carried to their houses by plebeians told off for the task. One, conspicuous amongst them all for grace and beauty, is reported to have been carried off by a group led by a certain Talassius, and to the many inquiries as to whom she was intended for, the invariable answer was given, "For Talassius." Hence the use of this word in the marriage rites. Alarm and consternation broke up the games, and the parents of the maidens fled, distracted with grief, uttering bitter reproaches on the violators of the laws of hospitality and appealing to the god to whose solemn games they had come, only to be the victims of impious perfidy. The abducted maidens were quite as despondent and indignant. Romulus, however, went round in person, and pointed out to them that it was all owing to the pride of their parents in denying right of intermarriage to their neighbours. They would live in honourable wedlock, and share all their property and civil rights, and - dearest of all to human nature - would be the mothers of freemen. He begged them to lay aside their feelings of resentment and give their affections to those whom fortune had made masters of their persons. An injury had often led to reconciliation and love; they would find their husbands all the more affectionate, because each would do his utmost, so far as in him lay, to make up for the loss of parents and country. These arguments were reinforced by the endearments of their husbands, who excused their conduct by pleading the irresistible force of their passion - a plea effective beyond all others in appealing to a woman's nature.

The feelings of the abducted maidens were now pretty completely appeased, but not so those of their parents.

Livy, History of Rome 1.9-1.10
1 commentsBlindado
Caecilia47Den.jpg
0aa2 Defeat of Hannibal in the Second Punic War, 202 BC14 viewsQ. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio
Imperator 47-46 BC

Denarius

Head of Jupiter, right, Q METEL PIVS
Elephant, right, SCIPIO IMP

Seaby, Caecilia 47

At least one theory for the depiction of the elephant on the reverse of this coin is that it refers to Scipio Africanus' defeat of Hannibal in the Battle of Zama in 202 BC, which ended the Second Punic War. It could also simply refer to the location of the mint in Africa. Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio became Pompey's father-in-law in 53 BC. in 49, he got the Senate to issue the ultimatum that Caesar disband his army before crossing the Rubicon River or be branded a public enemy. He commanded Pompey's center at Pharsalus. After Pompey's death, he fought on from North Africa. At Thapsus, Caesar routed Scipio again (46 BC). He escaped again only to fall on his sword and drown a few months later in a naval battle near Hippo.
Blindado
Focas_Solidus_sm.jpg
10. Phocas16 viewsPHOCAS
602-610 AD
AV Solidus (22mm, 4.49 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 1st officina. Struck 604-607.
Crowned, draped, and cuirassed bust facing, holding globus cruciger / Angel standing facing, holding staff surmounted by staurogram and globus cruciger; A//CONOB. DOC 5a; MIBE 7; SB 618. EF.
Ex-CNG 10/2013
Sosius
60304LG.jpg
102a. Plotina136 viewsPlotina, wife of Trajan.

Under Trajan, his female relations played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. Trajan's wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

Æ trial strike of denarius dies (23 mm, 7.42 g). Rome. [PL]OTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI, diademed and draped bust right, hair in queue down neck / CAES AVG GERMA [D]A[C] COS V[I P P], Vesta seated left, holding palladium in right hand, sceptre in left. Cf. RIC 730 (Trajan); cf. BMC 526 (Trajan); cf. RSC 3. VF, rough green patina. Very unusual and probably unique. Ex Spink 160 (9-10 October 2002), 852.
ecoli73
coin224.JPG
103a. Sabina25 viewsSabina

Vibia Sabina was born in 86 CE was the daughter of Salonia Matidia, daughter of Trajan's sister Marciana, and her first husband Lucius Vibius Sabinus. Hence she was a grand niece of emperor Trajan. By the intervention of Trajan's wife Plotina she married Hadrian in 100 CE, thus reinforcing Hadrian's claim to the throne.

The marriage was not happy and she didn't bear him any children. She did, however, follow Hadrian on his many travels, and she received the title of Augusta in 128 CE. She died in 136 or 137 CE and was dutifully deified after her death

AR denarius. SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG Diademed and draped bust right, hair in plait behind / VES TA Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. RIC 410, RSC 81.
ecoli
coin285.JPG
104a. Faustina 32 viewsFaustina I

Annia Galeria Faustina, "the Elder", was the wife of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, an aunt of Marcus Aurelius, and mother of Faustina the Younger. She was the daughter of the consul Marcus Annius Verus, and married Antoninus around 110 AD. They had two sons and two daughters. She became Augusta upon the accession of her husband. Although Augustan History impugned her character, criticizing her for "excessive frankness" and "levity", she and Antoninus seem to have been happily married until her death in 140 or 141

obv: DIVA FAVSTINA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: AVGVSTA (Pietas standing left with raised hand, altar at foot left)
ref: RIC III 374 (Ant.Pius), RSC 124 (2frcs)

Corrected attribute...
ecoli
coin194.JPG
106a. Crispina48 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
ecoli
NiceIIISB1889.jpg
1078-1081 AD - Nicephorus III - Sear 1889 - Anonymous Follis39 viewsEmperor: Nicephorus III (r. 1078-1081 AD)
Date: 1078-1081 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Anonymous Follis (Class I)

Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels; to left, ; to right, ; normal border.

Reverse: Latin cross, with X at centre, and globule and two pellets at each extremity; in lower field, on either side, floral ornament; in upper field, on either side, crescent.

Constantinople mint
Sear 1889
3.35g; 25.6mm; 180°
Pep
JohnIISB1954.jpg
1118-1143 AD - John II - Sear 1954 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: John II (r. 1118-1143 AD)
Date: 1118-1143 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: IC-XC
Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium & colobium, and holding book of Gospels in left.

Reverse: I ΔECΠOT
John standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1954
1.67g; 15.7mm; 180°
Pep
JohnIISB1954_2.jpg
1118-1143 AD - John II - Sear 1954 - Half Tetarteron - 2nd Example29 viewsProbable Emperor: John II (r. 1118-1143 AD)
Date: 1118-1143 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: IC-XC
Christ standing facing on footstool, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium & colobium, and holding book of Gospels in left.

Reverse: I ΔECΠOT
John standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1954
2.14g; 16.3mm; 210°
Pep
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_exe-R_RIC-V-II-204var(Not_in_thisBust)-p-39_Rome_2nd-emiss_277-AD_Q-x01_axis-5h_22-25mm_4,66g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204 var, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H-var (Not in RIC), Sol in spread quadriga,113 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204 var, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H-var (Not in RIC), Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, and globe in right hand. (H-var Not in RIC)
revers:- SO-LI-IN-VIC-TO, Sol in spread quadriga holding globe and whip.
exergo: -/-//R, diameter: 22-25mm, weight: 4,66g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, 2nd emission of Rome, 277, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 204var (Not in RIC), p-39,
Q-001
"What is particularly interesting in this coin is that it was unlisted till now with this exergue // R (cf. S. Estiot & Ph. Gysen, L'atelier de Rome au début du règne de Probus: corpus et documents inédits, Revue Numismatique 2006, tables p. 254-255)
[downloadable : http://www.academia.edu/1368399/Latelier_de_Rome_au_debut_du_regne_de_Probus_276-277_corpus_et_documents_inedits ]
In fact since our 2006 article has been published, I realized that there was such a coin in Vienna: so Joe's is the second known exemplary; furthermore, it has been struck with the same reverse die as the coin in Vienna. "by S.Estiot, Thank you S. Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
ManISB1980.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I - Sear 1980 - Half Tetarteron37 viewsProbable Emperor: Manuel I (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Half Tetarteron

Obverse: to left, /Γ/E; to right, /ΓI/O/S (or similar)
Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear and shield.

Reverse: MANHΛ ΔECΠOT (or similar)
Bust facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Uncertain Greek mint
Sear 1980; DOC 23
2.32g, 16.1mm; 180°
Pep
IssacIISB2005.jpg
1185-1195 AD - Isaac II - Sear 2005 - Tetarteron47 viewsEmperor: Isaac II (r. 1185-1195 AD)
Date: 1185-1195 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Tetarteron

Obverse: Facing bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding jewelled sceptre (sometimes surmounted by trefoil device) and globus cruciger; to left, O//AP; to right, /MI (or similar)

Reverse: Bust of Issac facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre and akakia; to left, ICA/AKI/OC; to right, ΔE/CΠO/TH/C (or similar).

Thessalonica mint
Sear 2005
1.89g; 17.9mm; 150°
Pep
Heraclius_SB_876.jpg
12. Heraclius7 viewsHERACLIUS
Decanummium, Carthage , 610-641 AD

DN ERACLIO PP AVS, Bust facing, no beard / Large X, dot over N over dot to l., cross above, dot over M over dot to r., star below

SB 876, DOC 236
Sosius
Heraclius_SB_890.jpg
12. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine12 viewsHERACLIUS & HERACLIUS CONSTANTINE
Half follis, Rome, 610-641

DD NN ERACLIORVN Facing busts of Heraclius, no beard, on l., Heraclius Constantine, no beard, on r. / Large XX, cross above, ROM below

SB 890, DOC 262 aF/F
Sosius
2860424.jpg
12. Heraclius with Heraclius Constantine18 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine

AV Solidus (19mm, 4.51 g, 7h). Constantinople mint, 5th officina. Struck 616-circa 625.

O: Crowned facing busts of Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine; cross above

R: Cross potent set on three steps; Є//CONOB.


DOC 13d; MIB 11; SB 738. VF.

Ex CNG
1 commentsSosius
image~4.jpg
12. Heraclius with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas41 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. 610-641.
AV Solidus (18mm, 4.34 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 6th officina.
Dated IY 11 (AD 637/8).
Crowned figures of Heraclonas, Heraclius, and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each holding globus cruciger / Cross potent set on three steps; monogram to left, IA monogram (date) to right; ς//CONOB.
DOC 39e; MIB 45; SB 764. EF, areas of weak strike.
Ex-CNG
1 commentsSosius
Heraclius_6_Nummi.jpg
12. Heraclius, AE 6 Nummi, Alexandria.7 viewsHeraclius, AE 6 Nummi, Alexandria.

O: dd M hERACLS around cross potent on one or two steps, sometimes with globes on ends of arms

R: Large S.

SB 862, DOC 198
Sosius
LatinByzSB2021.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2021 - AE Trachy69 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: unknown legend
Virgin Mary enthroned, holding an image of Christ's face on her chest.

Reverse: unknown legend
Generic "emperor" figure; in his upraised right hand a labarum, in his left an akakia.

Sear 2021
1.31g; 21.7mm; 180°
Pep
LatinByzSB2024.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2024 - AE Trachy60 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ.

Reverse: MANHCΛ ΔECΠOTHC
Emperor standing, holding sceptre cruciger.

Sear 2024
1.39g; 16.7mm; 180?°
Pep
LatinByzSB2038.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2038 - AE Trachy35 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre/Fair
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: unknown legend
Christ seated.

Reverse: unknown legend
Virgin Mary, orans.

Sear 2038
1.24g; 17.1mm; ?°
Pep
LatinByzSB2044.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2044 - AE Trachy47 viewsProbable: Latin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: unknown legend
Virgin Mary enthroned.

Reverse: unknown legend
Emperor standing, holding labarum and akakia.

SB 2044
0.93g; 18.5mm; 180?°
Pep
LatinByzSB2045.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2045 - AE Trachy50 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: unknown legend
Christ enthroned.

Reverse: unknown legend
Generic "emperor" figure; in his right hand a sword, in his left a globus cruciger.

Sear 2045
0.87g; 17.9mm; 180°
Pep
LatinByzSB2047.jpg
1204-1261 AD - Latin Occupation of Constantinople - Sear 2047 - AE Trachy58 viewsLatin Occupation of Constantinople (1204-1261 AD)
Date: 1204-1261 AD
Condition: Mediocre/Fair
Denomination: AE Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ seated.

Reverse: no legend
Half-length figure of emperor.

Sear 2047
1.12g; 19.4mm; 180°
Pep
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
RI 132sb img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 388 - Bust Type G (Ticinum) (VXXT)22 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVAT, Emperor standing right, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre.
Minted in Ticinum (VXXT) Emission 3 Officina 5. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 388 Bust type G
maridvnvm
Faust.jpg
137 BC Sextus Pompeius57 viewsHelmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, jug behind

FOSTLVS SEX POM
ROMA in Ex.
She-wolf standing rightsuckling the twins Romulus and Remus, fig tree in background with three birds, the shepherd Faustulus standing right behind

Rome 137 BC
Sear 112
CRR 461

ex-ANE

This moneyer was the husband of Lucilia (sister of the poet C. Lucilius) and father to Cn. Pompeius Sex. f Strabo, and grandfather of Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great). He may also have been praetor in 119 BC.
2 commentsJay GT4
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England7 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
faustina_I_RIC343.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AR denarius - struck 150 AD41 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA (draped bust right)
rev: AED DIV FAVSTINAE (front view of temple of six columns on five steps, fencing before, statue of Faustina within)
ref: RIC III 343 (S) (AntPius), RSC 1 (10frcs), BMC 339
3.34gms, 18mm,
Scarce

This coin represents the aedes, or templum, with which, after her death, the elder Faustina was honoured by Antoninus Pius. According to Capitolinus, it was situated in the Via Sacra, and was at first dedicated to Faustina alone. But, after the decease of the husband, religious rites were paid therein to him also. A nice coin with an image of a building which still stands today in Rome.
berserker
cnfh.jpg
14 Constans82 viewsConstans, AE2. Silvered Thessalonica. DN CONSTA-NS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, holding globe / FEL TEMP RE-PARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman who is bare-headed, forwards, on hands and knees. Mintmark TSB star. RIC VIII Thessalonica 116.

Another apparently common coin according to RIC :)
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REIP-VBLICAE_SMTS-B_RIC-VII-161-p-519-13-A6_R3_Thessalonica_326-28-AD__Q-001_axis-5h_20mm_3,21g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 161, -/-//SMTSB, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R3!!!, #178 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 161, -/-//SMTSB, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R3!!!, #1
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//SMTSB, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,21g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-161, p-513, R3 !!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Fausta_AE-3-silvered_FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG_SPES-REIP-VBLICAE_SMTS-B_RIC-VII-161-p-519-13-A6_R3_Thessalonica_326-28-AD__Q-002_axis-5h_19mm_2,95g-s.jpg
141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 161, -/-//SMTSB, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R3!!!, #2160 views141 Fausta (290 -326 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 161, -/-//SMTSB, SPES REIPVBLICAE, Spes standing left, R3!!!, #2
avers:- FLAV-MAX-FAVSTA-AVG, 13, A6, Draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SPES-REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing left, holding baby in each arm.
exergo: -/-//SMTSB, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,95g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-161, p-513, R3 !!!,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France29 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM_VOT-dot-X-_TSB-VI_RIC-VI-128-p-513_2nd-off_-c3-7-B4l_C-x_Thessalonica_324-AD__Q-001_11h_17-19mm_2,72gx-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 128, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TSBVI, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X in wreath, #180 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 128, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TSBVI, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X in wreath, #1
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C, 7, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
rever:- CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X in wreath.
exergo: -/-//TSBVI, diameter: 17-19 mm, weight: 2,72g, axis: 11h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 324 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-128-p-513, c3,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM_VOT-dot-X-_TSB-VI_RIC-VI-128-p-513_2nd-off_-c3-7-B4l_C-x_Thessalonica_324-AD_Q-002_0h_18,5-19mm_3,40g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 128, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TSBVI, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X in wreath, #283 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 128, AE-3 Follis, -/-//TSBVI, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X in wreath, #2
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C, 7, B4l., Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
rever:- CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X in wreath.
exergo: -/-// TSB-VI, diameter: 18,5-19 mm, weight: 3,40g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 324 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-128-p-513, c3,
Q-002
quadrans
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C_GLORI-A-EXER-CITVS_S-MTS-B_RIC-VII-199_p526-2nd-off_r1-7-B5_C-x_Thessalonica_335-6-AD__Q-001_axis-11h_17-19mm_2,72ga-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 199, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSB, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers with two standards, R1!111 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VII 199, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMTSB, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers with two standards, R1!
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C-7-B5, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- GLORI-A-EXER-CITVS, Two soldiers standing either side of two standards.
exe: -/-//SMTSB, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,72g, axis: 11h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 335-336 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-199-p-526, R1!
Q-001
quadrans
Constans_AE-2-Follis_DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG-Cn8-G3L_FEL-TEMP-RE-PAR-ATIO_TSB-star_RIC-VIII-116-p-412_348-35-AD_Q-001_6h_22-25mm_5,59ga-s.jpg
146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 116, -/-//TSB*, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Falling horseman,74 views146 Constans (333-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-350 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 116, -/-//TSB*, AE-2 Follis, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Falling horseman,
avers:- DN-CONSTA-NS-PF-AVG, (Cn8, G3R), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding globe in right hand.
revers:- FEL-TEMP-RE-PAR-ATIO, Helmeted soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman who is bare-headed, forwards, on hands and knees.
exergo: -/-//TSB*, diameter: 22-25mm, weight: 5,59g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 348-350 A.D.,ref: RIC-VIII-116-p-412,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II_,_Thessalonica,_RIC_VIII_172,B,_AE-3,_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG,_FEL_TEMP_RE_PARATIO,__#915;-star,_starTSBstar,_350-5AD,_Q-001,_11h,_23,3-24mm,_5,40gx-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 172, AE-2 Follis, Γ/*//*TSB*, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor and captive, #1122 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 172, AE-2 Follis, Γ/*//*TSB*, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Emperor and captive, #1
avers: D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, (Cs1,D3,) Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP RE PARATIO, Emperor in military dress advancing left, treading on captive (Phrygian helmet), holding Victory on a globe and a chi-rho standard, Γ left, star right.
exergue: Γ/*//*TSB*, diameter: 21,6-23mm, weight: 5,12g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 350-355 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 172, p-418, LRBC #1671,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
147_Constantius_II__Thessalonica_RIC_VIII_215,_AE-3_D_N_CONSTAN_TIVS_P_F_AVG_SPES_REI_PVBLICE_star_SMTSB_p-422_355-61AD_Q-001_11h_15,0-16,0mm_2,22g-s.jpg
147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 215, AE-3 Follis, */-//SMTSB, SPES REI PVBLICE, Constantius in military dress standing left, #188 views147 Constantius II. (324-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-361 A.D. Augustus), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 215, AE-3 Follis, */-//SMTSB, SPES REI PVBLICE, Constantius in military dress standing left, #1
avers:- D N CONSTAN TIVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
rever:- SPES REI PVBLICE, Constantius in military dress standing left holding spear and globe.
exergo: */-//SMTSB, diameter: 15,0-16,0mm, weight: 2,22g, axis: 11h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 355-361 A.D., ref: RIC VIII Thessalonica 215., p-422,
Q-001
quadrans
Edward_IV_AR_Groat_London.JPG
1471 - 1483, EDWARD IV (Second Reign), AR Groat, Struck 1477 - 1480 at London, England24 viewsObverse: EDWARD DEI GRA REX ANGL (Z FRANC +). Crowned bust of Edward IV facing within tressure of arches, trefoils on cusps, all within beaded circle. Small crosses in spaces between words in legend. Mintmark, off-flan, pierced cross.
Reverse: POSVI DEVM ADIVTORE MEVM +/ CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing two concentric legends separated by two beaded circles into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Mintmark, pierced cross, small crosses between words in outer legend.
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 2096 var. (DEI rather than DI in obverse legend)

Edward IV was King of England from March 1461 to October 1470, and again from April 1471 until his sudden death in 1483. He was the first Yorkist King of England. The first half of his rule was marred by the violence associated with the Wars of the Roses, but he overcame the Lancastrian challenge to the throne at Tewkesbury in 1471 and there were no further rebellions in England during the rest of his reign.
In 1475, Edward declared war on France, landing at Calais in June. However, his ally Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, failed to provide any significant military assistance leading Edward to undertake negotiations with the French, with whom he came to terms under the Treaty of Picquigny. France provided him with an immediate payment of 75,000 crowns and a yearly pension of 50,000 crowns, thus allowing him to "recoup his finances.” Edward also backed an attempt by Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany and brother of King James III of Scotland, to take the Scottish throne in 1482. Edward's younger brother, the Duke of Gloucester (and future King Richard III) led an invasion of Scotland that resulted in the capture of Edinburgh and the Scottish king himself. Alexander Stewart, however, reneged on his agreement with Edward. The Duke of Gloucester then withdrew from his position in Edinburgh, though he did retain Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Edward became subject to an increasing number of ailments when his health began to fail and he fell fatally ill at Easter in 1483. He survived long enough though to add some codicils to his will, the most important being to name his brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester as Protector after his death. He died on 9th April 1483 and was buried in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. He was succeeded first by his twelve-year-old son Edward V of England, who was never crowned, and then by his brother who reigned as Richard III.
It is not known what actually caused Edward's death. Pneumonia, typhoid and poison have all been conjectured, but some have attributed his death to an unhealthy lifestyle because he had become stout and inactive in the years before his death.
2 comments*Alex
1485_-_1509_Henry_VII_AR_Penny.JPG
1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*Alex
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*Alex
Follis Anonimo Clase A2 SB01813.jpg
15-02 - Follis Anónimo Clase A2 (976 - 1025 D.C.)28 viewsAtribuida al reinado conjunto de Basilio II y Constantino VIII.
AE Follis 30 x 27 mm 9.6 gr.

Anv: "EMMA - NOVHΛ", "IX - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Busto de Cristo de frente nimbado (Forma rectangular en la cruz del limbo), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios (5 puntos en el libro).
Rev: " IhSUS / XRISTUS / bASILEU / bASILE " (Jesús Cristo Rey de Reyes), leyenda en 4 líneas, debajo y arriba ornamentos tipo 47 (Forma rectangular).

Acuñada 976 - 1025 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1813 Pag. 376 - Bellinger D.O. pp.651 - B.M.C. (Basil II and Constantine VII) #21-40 - Ratto M.B.(Basil II and Constantine VII) #1951-65 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. pp.596/8 #1-66
mdelvalle
Follis Anonimo Clase D SB01836.jpg
15-04 - Follis Anónimo Clase D (1042 - 1055 D.C.) 25 viewsAtribuida al reinado de Constantino IX.
AE Follis 28 x 26 mm 10.9 gr.

Anv: "IX - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con ambas manos.
Rev: " IhSUS / bASILEU / bASILE " (Jesús Rey de Reyes), leyenda en 3 líneas, ornamentado debajo con "- u -" y arriba con "- + -".

Acuñada 1042 - 1055 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1836 Pag. 378 - Bellinger D.O. pp.685/7 - B.M.C. (Constantine X) #10-17 - Ratto M.B.(Constantine X) #2015/7 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. pp.601 #107/19
mdelvalle
image~3.jpg
15. Constans II44 viewsConstans II. 641-668.
AV Solidus (10mm, 4.43 g, 6h).
Carthage mint. Dated IY 2 (AD 643/4).
Crowned and draped facing bust, holding globus cruciger / Cross potent set on three steps; ΔB (date)//CONOB.
DOC 107.2; MIB 566; SB 1029. Good VF, lightly toned.
From the Sasha Collection.
Ex-CNG
2 commentsSosius
Constans_II_Doc_26b.jpg
15. Constans II with Constantine IV18 viewsBYZANTINE
Constans II, with Constantine IV
641-668. AV Solidus (20mm, 4.40 g, 6h). Const. mint, 3rd off. Struck 654-659.

O: Crowned facing busts of Constans, bearded, and Constantine, beardless; cross above

R: Cross potent on 3 steps; Γ//CONOBI. DOC 26b; MIB 28; SB 960. Near EF.
R: Cross potent on 3 steps; Γ//CONOBI.

DOC 26b; MIB 28; SB 960. Near EF.

Ex CNG
1 commentsSosius
Constans_II_Solidus.jpg
15. Constans II with Constantine IV8 viewsConstans II, with Constantine IV.
641-668.
AV Solidus (19mm, 4.32 g, 7h).
Constantinople mint, 10th officina. Struck 654-659.

O: ∂ N CONSτA τINЧS C CONSτA, crowned and draped busts facing; cross between

R: VICTORIA AVςЧ, cross potent set on three steps; I//CONOB. DOC 25j; MIB 26; SB 959.

Good VF, graffiti on the reverse.

Ex CNG
Sosius
Constans_II_Solidus_2.jpg
15. Constans II with Constantine IV11 viewsConstans II, with Constantine IV.
641-668.
AV Solidus (19mm, 4.39 g, 7h).
Constantinople mint, 7th officina.
Struck 654-659.

O: ∂ N CONSτAτINЧS C CONSτ, crowned and draped busts facing; cross between

R: VICTORIA AVςЧ, cross potent set on three steps; Z (retrograde)//CONOB+.

DOC 27; MIB 27; SB 961. VF.

Ex CNG
Sosius
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)78 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-P-F-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_palm-star-TES-B-dot-palm_Thessalonica-361-3_RIC-226_Q-001_6h_26,5-27mm_8,55g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 226, AE-1, -/-//palm*TESB•palm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Scarce, #1136 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 226, AE-1, -/-//palm*TESB•palm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Scarce, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//palm* TESB•palm, diameter: 26,5-27,0 mm, weight: 8,55g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-226, Scarce !,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_palm-TES-B-palm_Thessalonica-360-63_RIC-216_Q-001_0_00g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII Not in !, AE-1, -/-//palm•TESBpalm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #162 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII Not in !, AE-1, -/-//palm•TESBpalm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//palm•TESBpalm, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII Not in, Rare!,
Q-001
quadrans
Procopius_5h_18-19mm_3,73g-s.jpg
157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 017a.1, AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, object down/-//CONSB, Procopius standing, R2!!, #1108 views157 Procopius (365-366 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC IX 017a.1, AE-3, REPARATIO FEL TEMP, object down/-//CONSB, Procopius standing, R2!!, #1
avers:- D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed, draped cuirassed bust left.
revers:- REPARATI O FEL TEMP, Procopius standing, facing, holding labarum and resting hand on shield. Small indeterminate object down in the left field and christogram up in right field.
exe: object down/-//CONSB, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 5h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 364-367A.D., ref: RIC IX-17a.1, p-215, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Lucius_VerusBlack.jpg
16 Lucius Verus RIC 46 viewsLucius Verus. 161-169 AD. AR Denarius. Rome mint. Struck February-December 168 AD. (18mm, 3,19 g, 6h) Obv: L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX, Laureate head right. Rev: TR P VIII IMP V COS III, Aequitas seated left holding scales and cornucopiae.
RIC 595; RSC 318. Near EF!

Ex: Marc Walter, V-coins
1 commentsPaddy
RI 160m img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Thessalonica 15332 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with six rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top and bottom rows blocks.
Minted in Thessalonica. • in right field, SMTSB in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 153
maridvnvm
faustina2 RIC744(M.Aurelius).jpg
161-176 AD - FAUSTINA Junior AR denarius - struck 176-180 AD27 viewsobv: DIVA FAV-STINA PIA (draped bust right)
rev: CONSEC-RATIO (peacock standing right)
ref: RIC III 744 (M.Aurelius), C.71
3.12gms, 18mm

History: Faustina junior accompanied her husband, Aurelius on his journey to the east in 175, and died at Halala, a village at the foot of the Taurus Mountains.
berserker
s-l400_(52)~0.jpg
1672 KB - Hungary - 6 Krajczar, Silver, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I25 views Hungary - 1672, AR Six Krajczar coin.
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I (the hogmouth) of the Hapsburg family that ruled Austria for centuries.

obv:" LEOPOLDUS.D.G.R.I.S.GE.HU.B.REX." - Laureate crowned, draped bust facing right, titles encircling designs.
Below Bust of Emperor ; Roman Numerals: "VI" encircled at 6 O'Clock, denomination, 6 Silver Krajczar.

rev:" PATRONA.HUNGARIÆ .1672. " - Madonna(Mary) holding Christ child in arms.
Coat of Arms below at 6 O'Clock.
2 commentsrexesq
CHARLES_II_AR_Farthing_Pattern_1676.JPG
1676 Charles II AR "Pattern Farthing"40 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II with long hair facing left, 1676 below.
Reverse: QVATVOR•MARIA VINDICO•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; BRITANNIA in exergue. No pellet between MARIA and VINDICO.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 5.9gms | Die Axis: 12h
Peck : 492
PATTERN OR MEDALET - RARE

This periwigged portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The legend, "Quatuor Maria Vindico," means "I claim the four seas," which Peck explains was "intended to give prominence to the king's pride and interest in the navy." The reason this legend never appeared on circulating coinage was probably because the legend was thought to be too provocative to the King of France.

It was Montagu who called this a Roettier pattern farthing of Charles II which, until the discovery in 1903 of 89 specimens in the cabinet of the Marquis of Ailsbury, had hitherto been considered the rarest of the “pattern farthings” of this type.
Peck, however, rejected Montagu's idea that these were patterns and wrote that it was much more likely that they were official medalets. In support of this view it should be noted that not only was this issue struck on a broader flan than usual, it was produced some four years after the issue of regular farthings had begun. It is perhaps also significant that this issue is unknown in copper and that it's die orientation is 12h (medallic orientation), against the 6h orientation which is the norm for the regular farthing coinage of the period. Incidentally, the silver value of this "farthing" would have been equivalent to one shilling and sixpence, that is 72 times the face value of a farthing at the time.
3 comments*Alex
hungary_1678_15-krajczar_02.JPG
1678 KB - Austria-Hungary - Hungary 1678 KB Silver 15 Krajczar200 views Hungary, 1678 - Silver 15 krajczar.
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
"K B" mintmark = Kremnitz (Kormoczbanya) Mint, Hungary.

obv: LEOPOLD.D:G.R.I.S.A.G.H.B.REX - Laureate bust right.
Roman numerals 'XV' below bust; 15 Krajczar, Silver.

rev: PATRONA . HUNGARIAE 16+78 - Radiating Madonna and child. -KB- on either side. Shield/Arms below.

Titles on both sides written on scrolls. Very nice.
rexesq
RI_168bg_img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - Follis - RIC VII Ticinum 16717 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES, Laureate, draped amd cuirassed bust right
Rev:– CLARITAS REIPVBLICAE, Sol standing left, right hand raised, holding globe in left with cloak draped over left shoulder
Minted in Thessalonica (//.TSB.).
Reference:– RIC VII Thessalonica 23 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 168k img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Tessalonica 11621 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V within wreath, dot in centre
Minted in Tessalonica. TSBVI in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Tessalonica 116 (R5)
(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 168b img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Tessalonica 12230 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V within wreath, dot in centre
Minted in Tessalonica. Dot in centre TSBVI in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Tessalonica 122 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI 168f img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Tessalonica 12826 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust left
Rev:– CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V within wreath
Minted in Tessalonica. TSBVI in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Tessalonica 128 (C3)
maridvnvm
RI 168p img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Tessalonica 22332 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed bust, right
Rev:– GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing standard between them
Minted in Tessalonica. SMTSB in exe.
Reference:– RIC VII Tessalonica 223 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI_169w_img.jpg
169 - Constans - AE2 - RIC VIII Thessalonica 11828 viewsAE2
Obv:- D N CONSTA-NS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Rev:- FEL TEMP REPAR-ATIO, Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points downwards, between the soldier's legs.
Minted in Thessalonica; (//TESB), A.D. 348-350 A.D.
Reference:– RIC VIII Thessalonica 118; LRBC 1636
maridvnvm
1_-_1774_-_D123_variante_cuivre.JPG
1774 - États de Rennes12 views

Louis XVI
8,90g
29 mm
cuivre
LUD XVI. REX CHRISTIANISS.
"Louis XVI roi très chrétien"
Tête à droite, avec un bandeau dans les cheveux,
sans signature
JETON DES ETATS DE BRETAGNE 1774
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
variante du Daniel 123

voir : Gildas Salaün, "De nouveaux jetons des Etats de Bretagne en cuivre", ASBNH, 2004.
PYL
1794_LACKINGTON_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. J. Lackington, London, Middlesex.36 viewsObverse: J. LACKINGTON ✤. Three-quarter facing bust of J.Lackington left, 1794 below.
Reverse: HALFPENNY OF LACKINGTON • ALLEN & Co ★ / CHEAPEST BOOKSELLERS IN THE WORLD • in a double line of text around Fame, portrayed as a winged female figure facing right, head left, holding a laurel-wreath and blowing a trumpet.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE TEMPLE OF THE MUSES ★ / ★ / ★.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 353

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Roger Dixon.
It was issued by James Lackington who was a bookseller with a large business at his premises known as “The Temple of the Muses”, No 32 Finsbury Place South, Finsbury Square, London. This token marked the sale of a 25% interest in his company to Robert Allen.
*Alex
Sear_1296.jpg
18. Justinian II13 viewsJustinian II
First reign, 685-695 AD.
AE Follis. Syracuse mint.

O: no legend, crowned bust facing wearing chlamys, holding akakia in left hand and cross on globe in right hand; upright palm branch to left

R: Large M, TNA-like monogram above (Sear type 38); mintmark SCL.

SB 1296, DOC 55.

Not pretty, but rare.

Thanks to FORVM member Obryzum for helping to ID!
Sosius
IMG_8324.JPG
192. Theodosius I (378-395 A.D.)26 viewsAv.: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
Rv.: GLORIA ROMANORVM
Ex.: CONSB

AE Maiorina Ø21 / 5.0g
RIC IX 88a Constantinople
Juancho
s-1931-4c.jpg
1931B ALEXIUS AE TETARTERON S-1931 DOC 40 CLBC 2.4.7 SBCV-1910???49 viewsOBV Jeweled radiate Cross, decorated at the end of each limb with one large globule and two smaller, all on two steps.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 25/22mm

Weight 3.2gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

DOC lists 25 examples with weights running from1.09gm to 4.22gm and sizes ranging from 17mm to 23mm

This example is more than likely the coin listed as S-1910 , Sear 1931 struck over a Class I or Class K anonymous follis. Hendys ( S-1910) lists at 2.96gm around 23mm
Simon
s9.jpg
1933D ALEXIUS 1/2 TETARTERON ? S-1933 DOC43 CLBC 2.4.9 13 viewsOBV Full Length figure of Christ bearded and nimbate wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and wearing jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand labarum on long shaft and in l. gl.cr.

Size 21/12mm

Weight 1.3gm

Interesting point, these coin sizes in my collection represent 1gm to 5 gm, this coin is the lightest and in the best condition. Even though it is on a small flan the coin I wouldhave to say this is the finest example known.

DOC Lists 1 example not in their collection. Weight 2.44gm and size 18mm

I have several examples with weights from 1.3 gm to 5gm, Sommer in his catalog lists this coin as a half tetarteron? and SBCV lists it as a full tetarteron.
Simon
1938.jpg
1938 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Constantinople First Coinage SBCV-193825 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 30mm

Weight 4.0gm
.
DOC lists 17 examples with weights from 4.04gm to 4.40gm and sizes ranging from 30mm to 36mm

Not a perfect example but had a wonderful Provenance, has original ticket from J Schulman coin dealers in Amsterdam before WWII, (From the start Jacques Schulman kept meticulous records of every coin and medal in his inventory, sales, and auctions. These were index cards that formed a database in the exact same way libraries kept their catalogue card index for books, and other printed materials.
Simon
d3~0.jpg
1939 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 2 Constantinople Second Coinage SBCV-193923 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.

Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: r hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.
REV Full length figure of emperor on l. , crowned by Virgin. Emperor wears stemma, divitision. Collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l., anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 32mm

Weight 4.38gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 3.73gm to 4.45gm and sizes from 30 mm to 34mm
Simon
septsev_RIC32.jpg
194 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius39 viewsobv: L SEPT SEV PERT - AVG IMP III (laureate head right)
rev: LIBERO PATRI (Bacchus [Liber] standing left, holding oenochoe [wine-cup] over panther on left and thyrsus in other hand)
ref: RIC IVi, 32 (S), RSC 301 (5frcs)
mint: Rome
2.89 gms, 17 mm
Rare

In Roman mythology, Liber was originally associated with husbandry and crops, but then was assimilated with Dionysos. He is the consort of Ceres and the father of the goddess Libera. His festival, the Liberalia, was on 17 March when young men celebrated the arrival of manhood.
1 commentsberserker
b5~0.jpg
1940 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 3 Constantinople Third Coinage Variation B SBCV-194028 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.

Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Pellet in each limb of the cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. , crowned by Virgin. Emperor wears stemma, divitision. Collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft, and in l., anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 30.57mm

Weight 4.3gm

DOC lists 5 examples of type B with weights from 4.22gm to 4.43gm and sizes from 30 mm to 31mm
Simon
p6~0.jpg
1941 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8 Constantinople SBCV-194119 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, holds sword in l. hand.

Size 31.13 mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists several variations 4 examples total with weights from 3.56gm to 4.45gm and sizes from 32 to 34 mm.
Simon
q6~0.jpg
1942 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8c Variation II Constantinople SBCV-194217 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, Emperor and Saint hold patriarchal cross on a long shaft at the base of which three steps.

Size 30.47mm

Weight 3.7gm

DOC lists 9 examples total with weights from 3.11gm to 4.40gm and sizes from 30 to 33 mm.
Simon
1943~0.jpg
1943 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 9 Constantinople SBCV-194318 viewsOBV MP OV in field
Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon throne without back; holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma,short military tunic, and sagion; holds in right hand labarum on long shaft, and in left gl.cr

Size 28.71mm

Weight 3.6gm

DOC lists 3 examples total with weights from 3.59gm to 3.92gm and sizes from 29 to 30 mm.
Simon
1944.jpg
1944 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 10 Constantinople SBCV-194423 viewsOBV IC XC in field
Bust of Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, holds Gospels in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision,collar piece and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. gl.cr

Size 29.10

Weight 4.9gm

DOC lists 20 examples total with weights from 2.59gm to 5.00 gm and sizes from 28 to 30 mm. It has two variations A and B , both are equal in rarity , the difference is a stroke on shaft on type B.

This coin is very heavily silvered, it was part of a hoard that was once thought to be electrum, it is not, just very heavily silvered.
Simon
4c~1.jpg
1945 JOHN II, METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 60 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 21mm

Weight 4.03.gm

I have this coin in the best of type gallery. Beautiful example.
Simon
1945.jpg
1945 JOHN II, METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1945 DOC 12 CLBC 3.4.1 17 viewsOBV Full length figure of Christ standing on a dais, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.

REV Full length figure of Emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of a simplified type. Holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. hand gl. cr.

Size 21mm

Weight 4.03.gm
Simon
s6~0.jpg
1947 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-194716 views JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Thessalonica First Coinage SBCV-1947
OBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 29mm

Weight 4.5gm

Thicker metal than Constantinople issue, very difficult to differentiate between the same issue from different mints.
Simon
y4~1.jpg
1951 JOHN II ASPRON TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 8e Thessalonica SBCV-195120 viewsOBV IC XC in upper field.
Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne without back: , holds gospels in l. Single pellet at each end of cushion on throne.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. and of St. George, nimbate and beardless, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision and chlamys; saint wears short military tunic, breastplate and sagion, Emperor and Saint hold between them labarum on a long shaft at the base of which a small globe.

Size 30.48mm

Weight 4.1gm

DOC lists 3 examples total with weights from 3.98gm to 4.12gm and sizes from 31 to 33 mm.
Simon
g3.jpg
1952 JOHN II BILLION TRACHY NOMISA IV DOC 11 Thessalonica SBCV-1952 22 viewsOBV MO OV in field
Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion , seated upon throne without back; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast

REV Full-Length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and loros of traditional type; holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. anexikakia

Size 27.19mm

Weight 4.0gm

DOC lists 5 examples total with weights from 2.65gm to 4.46 gm and sizes from 27 to 28 mm.
Simon
x4.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation92 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size

Weight

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm
3 commentsSimon
1953.jpg
1953 JOHN II AE TETARTERON Thessalonica SBCV-1953 DOC IV 14 CLBC 3.4.3 14 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 22mm

Weight 4.1gm

DOC list 9 examples with weights ranging from 2.63gm to 4.19gm and sizes ranging from 19mm to 24mm

A personal favorite that has been in my collection for at least ten years. An ex Forum Coin.
Simon
h4~0.jpg
1953A JOHN II AE TETARTERON S-1953V DOC 14 Zervos Variation 21 viewsOBV Half length figure of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds gospels open in l. hand

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r. hand jeweled scepter on a long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 19.17mm

Weight 3.6gm

This is a variation of the normal SBCV-1953 first published by Orestes Zervos in Jan 2005, The difference is very subtle, the article deals with this being found in the excavations at Corinth in almost equal numbers of SBCV-1953 but I found it a difficult and rare coin to acquire.

Simon
c5.jpg
1968d MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1968 DOC 15 CLBC 4.4.227 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia

Size 20.53mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm

The coins only flaw, wear on the Virgins face. Other that near perfect centering and a wonderful reverse strike.
2 commentsSimon
e5.jpg
1968f MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1968 variation patriarchal cross20 viewsOBV Full length figure of the Virgin, nimbate, orans, wearing tunic, and maphorion turned to the r. Manus Dei (Hands of God) in upper field to r.

REV Full length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and Saigon; holds in right hand patriarchal cross and in l. anexikakia

Size 20.53mm

Weight 4.2gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

DOC lists 34 examples with weights from 2.32 to 4.9gm and size from 17mm to 22mm

Tis is the only type I have seen with this type cross.

Simon
z5~0.jpg
1986 ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 4 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size 20.84

Weight 4.55gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

I have had this one from the early years of my collection, it far surpasses my other example
Simon
FulviaQuinariusLion.jpg
1ae2 Fulvia45 viewsFirst wife of Marc Antony

ca 83-40 BC

AR Quinarius
Bust of Victory right with the likeness of Fulvia, III VIR R P C
Lion right between A and XLI; ANTONI above, IMP in ex

RSC 3, Syd 1163, Cr489/6

Fulvia was the first Roman non-mythological woman to appear on Roman coins. She gained access to power through her marriage to three of the most promising men of her generation, Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius. All three husbands were politically active populares, tribunes, and supporters of Julius Caesar. Fulvia married Mark Antony in 47 or 46 BC, a few years after Curio's death, although Cicero suggested that Fulvia and Antony had had a relationship since 58 BC. According to him, while Fulvia and Antony were married, Antony once left a military post to sneak back into Rome during the night and personally deliver a love letter to Fulvia describing his love for her and how he had stopped seeing the famous actress Cytheris. Cicero also suggested that Antony married Fulvia for her money. At the time of their marriage, Antony was an established politician. He had already been tribune in 49 BC, commanded armies under Caesar and was Master of the Horse in 47 BC. As a couple, they were a formidable political force in Rome, and had two sons together, Marcus Antonius Antyllus and Iullus Antonius.

Suetonius wrote, "[Antony] took a wife, Fulvia, the widow of Clodius the demagogue, a woman not born for spinning or housewifery, nor one that could be content with ruling a private husband, but prepared to govern a first magistrate, or give orders to a commander-in-chief. So that Cleopatra had great obligations to her for having taught Antony to be so good a servant, he coming to her hands tame and broken into entire obedience to the commands of a mistress. He used to play all sorts of sportive, boyish tricks, to keep Fulvia in good-humour. As, for example, when Caesar, after his victory in Spain, was on his return, Antony, among the rest, went out to meet him; and, a rumour being spread that Caesar was killed and the enemy marching into Italy, he returned to Rome, and, disguising himself, came to her by night muffled up as a servant that brought letters from Antony. She, with great impatience, before received the letter, asks if Antony were well, and instead of an answer he gives her the letter; and, as she was opening it, took her about the neck and kissed her."

After Julius Caesar was assassinated, Antony became the most powerful man in Rome. Fulvia was heavily involved in the political aftermath. After Caesar's death, the senate realized his popularity and declared that they would pass all of Caesar's planned laws. Antony had attained possession of Caesar's papers, and with the ability to produce papers in support of any law, Fulvia and Antony made a fortune and gained immense power. She allegedly accompanied Antony to his military camp at Brundisium in 44 BC. Appian wrote that in December 44 and again in 41 BC, while Antony was abroad and Cicero campaigned for Antony to be declared an enemy of the state, Fulvia attempted to block such declarations by soliciting support on Antony's behalf.

Antony formed the second triumvirate with Octavian (the future emperor Augustus) and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on 43 BC and began to conduct proscriptions. To solidify the political alliance, Fulvia's daughter Clodia was married to the young Octavian. Appian and Cassius Dio describe Fulvia as being involved in the violent proscriptions, which were used to destroy enemies and gain badly needed funds to secure control of Rome. Antony pursued his political enemies, chief among them being Cicero, who had openly criticized him for abusing his powers as consul after Caesar's assassination. Though many ancient sources wrote that Fulvia was happy to take revenge against Cicero for Antony's and Clodius' sake, Cassius Dio is the only ancient source that describes the joy with which she pierced the tongue of the dead Cicero with her golden hairpins, as a final revenge against Cicero's power of speech.

In 42 BC, Antony and Octavian left Rome to pursue Julius Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus. Fulvia was left behind as the most powerful woman in Rome. According to Cassius Dio, Fulvia controlled the politics of Rome. Dio wrote that "the following year Publius Servilius and Lucius Antonius nominally became consuls, but in reality it was Antonius and Fulvia. She, the mother-in‑law of Octavian and wife of Antony, had no respect for Lepidus because of his slothfulness, and managed affairs herself, so that neither the senate nor the people transacted any business contrary to her pleasure."

Shortly afterwards, the triumvirs then distributed the provinces among them. Lepidus took the west and Antony went to Egypt, where he met Cleopatra VII. When Octavian returned to Rome in 41 BC to disperse land to Caesar's veterans, he divorced Fulvia's daughter and accused Fulvia of aiming at supreme power. Fulvia allied with her brother-in-law Lucius Antonius and publicly endorsed Mark Antony in opposition to Octavian.

In 41 BC, tensions between Octavian and Fulvia escalated to war in Italy. Together with Lucius Antonius, she raised eight legions in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian, an event known as the Perusine War. Fulvia fled to Greece with her children. Appian writes that she met Antony in Athens, and he was upset with her involvement in the war. Antony then sailed back to Rome to deal with Octavian, and Fulvia died of an unknown illness in exile in Sicyon, near Corinth, Achaea.
Blindado
AugustusDenApollo.jpg
1ai Augustus25 views27 BC-14 AD

Denarius
Laureate head left, AVGVSTVS DIVI F
Apollo stg. Right, IMP XII

Van Meter notes that after about 15 BC, Augustus moved the production of gold and silver to Lugdunum and underscored the end of the moneyer issues by using "IMP" on the reverse.

RIC 180

Suetonius summarized Augusts' life in these words: He lost his father at the age of five (58BC). At twelve he delivered a funeral oration in honour of his grandmother Julia, Julius Caesar’s sister (51BC). At sixteen, having assumed the toga, he was decorated by Caesar during the African triumph (46BC) even though he had been too young to fight. When Caesar went to conquer Pompey’s sons in Spain (in 46BC), Augustus followed, despite still being weak from severe illness, and despite being shipwrecked on the way, with a minimal escort, over roads menaced by the enemy, so endearing himself greatly to Caesar, who quickly formed a high opinion of Augustus’ character, beyond merely his energetic pursuit of the journey.
After recovering the Spanish provinces, Caesar planned an expedition against the Dacians, to be followed by an attack on Parthia, and sent Augustus ahead (in 45BC) to Apollonia in Illyria, where he spent his time studying. When news came of Caesar’s assassination (in 44BC), and that the will named him as the main heir, Augustus considered seeking protection from the legions quartered there. However he decided it would be rash and premature, and chose to return to Rome, and enter on his inheritance, despite the doubts expressed by his mother, and strong opposition from his stepfather, the ex-consul Marcius Philippus.

Augustus went on to levy armies and rule the State; firstly for a twelve-year period (from 43BC to 30BC), initially with Mark Antony and Lepidus and then (from 33BC) with Antony alone; and later by himself for a further forty-four years (to his death in AD14).

In his youth he was betrothed to Servilia, the daughter of Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus, but on his reconciliation with Mark Antony following their first dispute, the troops begged them to become allied by some tie of kinship, and he married (in 43BC) Claudia, Antony’s stepdaughter, born to Fulvia and Publius Clodius Pulcher, even though Claudia was barely of marriageable age. However he quarrelled with Fulvia, and divorced Claudia before the marriage had been consummated.

Not long afterwards (in 40BC), he married Scribonia, whose previous husbands had been ex-consuls, and to one of whom she had borne a child. He divorced her also ‘tired’, he wrote, ‘of her shrewish ways,’ and immediately took Livia Drusilla from her husband Tiberius Nero though she was pregnant at the time (38BC), loving and esteeming her alone to the end.
Blindado
TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
Blindado
DrususAsSC.jpg
1am Drusus22 viewsHeir to throne until assassination by Sejanus in 23

As

Bare head, left, DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N
PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER SC

RIC 45

Nero Claudius Drusus, later adopted as Drusus Julius Caesar (13BC - 23AD), called Drusus the Younger, was the only child of Tiberius and his first wife, Vipsania Agrippina. Tiberius and Drusus delivered the only two eulogies for Augustus in front of the temple to the god Julius. In 14, after the death of Augustus, Drusus suppressed a mutiny in Pannonia. In 15 he became consul. He governed Illyricum from 17 to 20. In 21 he was again consul, while in 22 he received tribunicia potestas (tribunician power), a distinction reserved solely for the emperor or his immediate successor. Drusus married his paternal cousin Livilla in 4. Their daughter Julia was born shortly after. Their son Tiberius Gemellus (his twin brother Germanicus Gemellus died in infancy) was born in 19. By 23 Drusus, who made no secret of his antipathy towards Sejanus, looked likely to succeed Tiberius as emperor. Sources concur that with Livilla as his accomplice Sejanous poisoned her husband Drusus.

Suetonius says, "He lacked affection not only for his adopted son Germanicus, but even for his own son Drusus the Younger, whose vices were inimical to him, Drusus indeed pursing loose and immoral ways. So inimical, that Tiberius seemed unaffected by his death (in 23AD), and quickly took up his usual routine after the funeral, cutting short the period of mourning. When a deputation from Troy offered him belated condolences, he smiled as if at a distant memory, and offered them like sympathy for the loss of their famous fellow-citizen Hector!"
Blindado
JuliaTitiDupVesta.jpg
1ax2 Julia Titi15 viewsDupondius

Draped bust right, hair in bun at back of head, IVLIA IMP T AVG F AVGVSTA
S-C either side of Vesta enthroned left holding Victory, VESTA in ex

RIC 398

The daughter of Titus and Marcia Furnilla, she lived with her uncle Domitian for a time as his wife. Suetonius records, "He had been offered marriage with his niece, Julia, Titus’s daughter, while she was still a young girl, but refused her repeatedly because of his infatuation with Domitia Longina, yet he seduced Julia shortly afterwards, while Titus was still alive, and when she was newly married to Flavius Sabinus. After the deaths of her father and husband, he loved her ardently and openly, and indeed caused her death by forcing her to abort a child by him." When Domitian died at the age of 44, his nurse cremated his body and "secretly carried [the ashes] to the Flavian Temple and there mingled them with those of his niece Julia, Titus’s daughter whom she had also nurtured."
Blindado
LucillaSestVenus.jpg
1bm Lucilla164 viewsWife of Lucius Verus, executed 182 AD

Sestertius
Draped bust, right, LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F
Venus standing facing left holding apple, drawing out robe, VENUS

RIC 1767

Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior, she married Lucius Verus in 164.

According to Herodian: For the present, however, the memory of his father and his respect for his advisers held Commodus in check. But then a disastrous stroke of ill fortune completely altered his previously mild, moderate disposition. It happened this way. The oldest of the emperor's sisters was Lucilla. She had formerly been married to Lucius Verus Caesar. . . . But after Lucius died, Lucilla, who retained all the privileges of her imperial position, was married by her father to Pompeianus.

Commodus, too, allowed his sister to retain the imperial honors; she continued to occupy the imperial seat at the theaters, and the sacred fire was carried before her. But when Commodus married Crispina, custom demanded that the front seat at the theater be assigned to the empress. Lucilla found this difficult to endure, and felt that any honor paid to the empress was an insult to her; but since she was well aware that her husband Pompeianus was devoted to Commodus, she told him nothing about her plans to seize control of the empire. Instead, she tested the sentiments of a wealthy young nobleman, Quadratus, with whom she was rumored to be sleeping in secret. Complaining constantly about this matter of imperial precedence, she soon persuaded the young man to set in motion a plot which brought destruction upon himself and the entire senate.

Quadratus, in selecting confederates among the prominent senators, prevailed upon Quintianus, a bold and reckless young senator, to conceal a dagger beneath his robe and, watching for a suitable time and place, to stab Commodus; as for the rest, he assured Quintianus that he would set matters straight by bribes.

But the assassin, standing in the entrance to the amphitheater (it was dark there and he hoped to escape detection), drew his dagger and shouted at Commodus that he had been sent by the Senate to kill him. Quintianus wasted time making his little speech and waving his dagger; as a result, he was seized by the emperor's bodyguards before he could strike, and died for his stupidity in revealing the plot prematurely.

This was the initial reason for the young emperor's hatred of the Senate. He took Quintianus' words to heart and, ever mindful of what his attacker had said, now considered the entire Senate his collective enemy.

This incident also gave Perennis sufficient excuse for taking action, for he was always advising the emperor to eliminate and destroy the prominent men. By confiscating their property, Perennis easily made himself the richest man of his time. After the attempt at assassination had been thoroughly investigated by the prefect, Commodus without mercy put to death his sister, all those actually involved in the plot, and any who were under the slightest suspicion as well.
3 commentsBlindado
ClaudiusIIAntLiberalit.jpg
1di Claudius Gothicus26 views268-270

AE antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust right, IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Liberlitas stg, LIBERALITAS AVG

RIC 57

Zosimus recorded: When the troops were calmed by their commanders, Claudius was chosen emperor, having previously been designed for that dignity by general consent. Aureolus, who had for a long time kept himself out of the hands of Gallienus, presently sent agents to Claudius, to effect a peace. Surrendering himself, he was killed by the guards of the emperor, who still remembered the hatred they bore against him for his treachery.

The Scythians were by this time so elated by their former success, that they appointed a place of meeting with the Heruli, Peucae, and Gothi, near the river Tyra, which empties itself into the Pontus; where having built six thousand vessels, and put on board them three hundred and twenty thousand men, they sailed across the Pontus, and made an attempt on Tomes, a fortified town, but were repulsed from it. From thence they proceed to Marcianopolis, a city of Mysia, but failing there likewise in their attack on it, they took the opportunity of a favourable wind and sailed forward. . . . they passed through the Hellespont, and arrived at Mount Athos. Having there refitted and careened their vessels, they laid siege to Cassandria and Thessalonica, which they were near taking by means of machines which they raised against the walls. But hearing that the emperor was advancing with an army, they went into the interior, plundering all the neighbourhood of Doberus and Pelagonia. There they sustained a loss of three thousand men, who were met with by the Dalmatian cavalry, and with the rest of their force engaged the army of the emperor. Great numbers were slain in this battle on both sides, but the Romans, by a pretended flight, drew the Barbarians into an ambuscade and killed more than fifty thousand of them.

Egypt being thus reduecd by the Palmyrenians, the Barbarians, who survived the battle of Naissus between Claudius and the Scythians, defending themselves with their carriages which went before them, marched towards Macedon, but were so distressed by the want of necessaries, that many of them and of their beasts perished with hunger. They were met likewise by the Roman cavalry, who having killed many of them, drove the rest towards Mount Haemus; where being surrounded by the Roman army, they lost a vast number of men. But a quarrel ensuing between the Roman horse and foot soldiers, the emperor wishing the foot to engage the Barbarians, the Romans, after a smart engagement, were defeated with considerable loss, but the cavalry, coming up immediately, redeemed in some degree the miscarriage of the infantry. After this battle, the Barbarians proceeded on their march, and were pursued by the Romans. The pirates who cruized about Crete and Rhodes retired without doing any thing worthy of mention; and being attacked by the plague on their way home, some of them died in Thrace and some in Macedon. All that survived were either admitted into the Roman legions, or had lands assigned for them to cultivate and so become husbandmen. Nor was the plague confined to the Barbarians alone, but began to infest the Romans, many of whom died, and amongst the rest Claudius, a person adorned with every virtue. His death was a severe loss to his subjeets, and was consequently much regretted by them.
Blindado
MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus22 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
Blindado
JulianIIAE3VotX.jpg
1en Julian II "Apostate"26 views360-363

AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
Blindado
Tib_Constantine_Follis.jpg
20. Tiberius II8 viewsTiberius II
AE follis, Nicomedia

DM TIb CONSTANT PP AVG, crowned, mantled bust facing, holding mappa and eagle-tipped sceptre, cross above eagle / Large m, ANNO left, cross above, regnal year to right, mintmark
NIKOA.

SB 441, MIB 35 VF
1 commentsSosius
regensburg_castra_regina_01.JPG
2009-Germany - Regensburg18 viewsIn 179 the Roman fort Castra Regina ("fortress by the river Regen") was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Porta Praetoria was the north gate of the Roman fortress „Castra Regina“.berserker
regensburg_castra_regina_02.JPG
2009-Germany - Regensburg35 viewsWhat remains today is the western half of the originally double arch and the east tower. berserker
regensburg_castra_regina_03a.JPG
2009-Germany - Regensburg27 viewsRegensburg's Porta Praetoria gains significance as the only remaining gate of a Roman military camp in northern Europe.1 commentsberserker
regensburg_castra_regina_04.JPG
2009-Germany - Regensburg40 viewsThe gate Porta Praetoria is now a part of a modern hotel.berserker
regensburg_the_danube.JPG
2009-Germany - Regensburg21 viewsThe Danube at Regensburg with the famous old bridge. This is one of the oldest bridge in Europe, it stay where probably the Pertinax-led Legios crossed over the river on the built ponton bridge and fought against the Marcomanns a millenium earlier.berserker
the_walhalla_01b.JPG
2009-Germany - The Walhalla16 viewsThe Walhalla is a hall of fame for "famous personalities in German history – politicians, sovereigns, scientists and artists" housed in a neo-classical building above the Danube River east of Regensburg.
This picture shows the back of the Walhalla Temple.
berserker
BOTLAUREL_2019.JPG
201939 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
RIC_0391[carac]a.jpg
201a. JULIA DOMNA139 viewsJULIA DOMNA, mother of Caracalla.

When Septimius Severus claimed the empire after Didius Julianus had succeeded Pertinax in 193, two serious rivals challenged him, Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in the West. Julia accompanied her husband in the campaign against Pescennius, having been honored with the title mater castrorum. After this successful campaign, there was another campaign in the East, against the Parthians, in 197. Afterwards, she was with Severus on a journey to Egypt and other parts of the empire. She was widely honored with inscriptions throughout this period, and numerous coin issues emphasized her imperial position.

She opposed Plautianus, the praetorian prefect and father-in-law of Caracalla, and was partially responsible for his downfall and his daughter Plautilla's disgrace. She was often accused of adultery; nonetheless, the emperor chose to ignore these charges, if true, and the marriage continued. Among her passions were literature and philosophy; she gathered writers and philosophers in a kind of salon, and urged Philostratus to write the life of Apollonius of Tyana.

In 212, Caracalla murdered Geta while he sought succor in his mother's arms; covered with his blood, she was forbidden by Caracalla to grieve. Her relationship with Caracalla during the six years of his reign was mixed. She had some public duties but largely devoted herself to philosophy. She accompanied Caracalla to the east on campaign against the Parthians in 217; when she learned, in Antioch, that he had been assassinated, she resolved upon death, which followed her refusal to take food.

AR Denarius
(19mm, 2.86 gm). IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped
bust right / VESTA, Vesta, veiled, seated left,
holding simpulum and sceptre. RIC IV 391 (Caracalla); BMCRE 31 (same); RSC 226. EF. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli73
albinusBlack.jpg
21 Clodius Albinus RIC 5c22 viewsClodius Albinus, as Caesar. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 193-195 AD. (3.08g, 17mm, 5h) Obv: D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES, Bare head right. Rev: FORT REDVCI COS II, Fortuna seated left, holding rudder set on globe and cornucopiae, wheel under seat.
RIC 5c.

Ex: Roma Numismatics
Paddy
Phillippicus_SB1460A.jpg
21. Philippicus, 711-713 AD27 viewsPhilippicus
711-713 AD.
AE Follis. Syracuse.

O: illegible legend, emperor standing facing, helmeted wearing military dress (resembling loros), holding cross on globe in l. hand and long eagle-tipped sceptre in r. hand

R: Large M, star to left, PFK above, star to right; mintmark SCL.

SB 1460A, MIB 24, SB 1460A

VF+, Very Rare

Found in lot of Byzantine culls bought on ebay in 2009!
1 commentsSosius
a7.jpg
2115 JOHN III DUCAS AE Tetarteron SBCV- 2115 DOC 5741 views

OBV Head of Cherub with 4 wings, Pellets flanking on l. side

REV John III seated facing on throne with back, wearing stamma with pendilia, chlamys, holding labarum and gl cr.

Size 19.33mm

Weight 1.974 gm
2 commentsSimon
VIRGIN2Stars.jpg
2119 John III (Magn.) AE Tetarteron SBCV -2119 DOC 61 62 views
OBV. * in field. Three quarters length figure of Virgin nimbate and orans, wearing tunic and maphorion, turned slightly. R.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and jeweled loros of simplified type; Holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter, and in l. globus surmounted by patriarchal cross, which he holds by the shaft.

Weight 2.4gm

Size 18.37mm

Doc lists 4 examples with weights from 1.63 to 3.73gm and sizes from 18 to 22mm
3 commentsSimon
v5~0.jpg
2145 Theodore II (Magn.) AE Tetarteron SBCV-2145 DOC IV 13 19 viewsOBV- Lys. Pellet in Upper and lower field, to either side.

REV- Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and Chalmys; holds in r hand labarum on a long shaft and in l. anexikakia.

Size 18.57

Weight 1.9gm

DOC lists 2 examples sized 17mm and 21mm and only one weight .95gm
Simon
3c.jpg
2154 Anonymous1 (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2154 DOC IV 6 Type D50 viewsOBV Cross radiate, with lunate ornaments, decorated with pellets , at ends.

REV Half length figure of Virgin, nimbate, orans wearing tunic.

Size 21mm

Weight 2.6gm

DOC lists 4 examples. weight vary 1.32gm to 2.52gm and 19 to 22mm
Simon
w5.jpg
2154a Anonymous (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2154 DOC IV 6 Type D 19 viewsOBV Cross radiate, with lunate ornaments, decorated with pellets , at ends.

REV Half length figure of Virgin, nimbate, orans wearing tunic.

Size 20mm

Weight 2.61gm

DOC lists 4 examples. weight vary 1.32gm to 2.52gm and 19 to 22mm
Simon
5c~0.jpg
2155 Anonymous3 (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2155 DOC IV 7 Type E47 viewsOBV ICXC Cross decorated with pellets.

REV Two B's back to Back . Pellets in the loops on r.

Size 18.47mm

Weight. 2.5gm

Doc lists 8 examples from weights 1.81 to 2.55gm , Sizes from 16mm to 21mm
Simon
p6~1.jpg
2155a Anonymous3 (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2155 DOC IV 7 Type E 31 viewsOBV ICXC Cross decorated with pellets.

REV Two B's back to Back . Pellets in the loops on r.

Size 17mm

Weight. 2.78gm

Doc lists 8 examples from weights 1.81 to 2.55gm , Sizes from 16mm to 21mm
1 commentsSimon
2c~0.jpg
2156 Anonymous (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2156 DOC IV 857 views
OBV- Head of Flower

REV – Two B’s back to back decorated with pellets. Pellet in loops of letter to r.

Size 18.11

Weight 1.9gm

DOC lists only one example, no weight 21mm
1 commentsSimon
i4~0.jpg
2157 Anonymous2 (Magn.) AE Tetarteron – SBCV-2157 DOC IV 9 Type G 27 viewsOBV Radiate, floriated, cross

REV Three-Quarter-length figure of St. Theodore, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and Saigon Holds in r. hand sword resting over shoulder in l. shield

( This coin is lacking an inscription for St Theodore, should be appearing in two columnar groups.)

Size 20mm

weight 2.9gm

DOC lists 3 examples weighing between 2.07gm to 2.60gm and sizes 20 to 22m
Simon
z3.jpg
2170 Theodore Ducas AE Tetarteron SBCV-2170 DOC IV 11 Var. B CLBC 69 viewsOBV- Inscription in 5 lines

REV- Half length figure of emperor on l. and st Demetrius beardless and nimbate. Between them a patriarchal cross-crosslet, on a long shaft decorated with crescent and pellet, the base of the shaft ending in three steps.

Size 23.4mm

Weight 4.8gm

Doc lists 7 examples with weights from 2.63gm to 5.50gm and sized at 23mm with one variation at 17mm
Simon
22124a.jpg
22124 Lesbos/Rooster16 viewsLESBOS. Methymna. Hemiobol
(Circa 500/480-460 BC).
Obv: Female head right, with hair in sakkos.
Rev: MAΘ.
Cock standing right within incuse square.
Ex Savoca 17th Blue Auction Lot 581
Rare Condition: Nearly Very fine.
Weight: 0.20 g.Diameter: 7 mm
Blayne W
MacrinusBlack.jpg
24 Macrinus RIC 9169 viewsMACRINUS 217-218 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. August 217 AD. (3.5g, 19mm) Obv: IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, Laureate and cuirassed bust right. Rev: SECVRITAS TEMPORVM, Securitas standing left, leaning on short column, holding sceptre.
RIC 91; RSC 122b

Ex: G&N
4 commentsPaddy
Sear_1569.jpg
26. Constantine V and Leo IV9 viewsConstantine V and Leo IV.
751-775 AD.
AE Follis. Syracuse mint.

O: K-LEWN to right and left of Constantine V, bearded on left, and Leo IV, beardless on right, standing facing (usually three-quarter length), each wearing crown and chlamys and holding akakia in arm across their chests; cross between their heads

R: LEON-DECP downwards to left and right, Leo III, bearded, half-length, standing facing, wearing crown and chlamys and holding cross potent.

SB 1569, DOC 19.

Thanks to FORVM member joma-tk for helping to ID.
Sosius
severina ant01-.jpg
274-275 AD - SEVERINA AE antoninianus 23 viewsobv: SEVERINAE.AVG (diademed, draped bust right on crescent)
rev: CONCORDIAE.MILITVM / - (Concordia standing left with two ensigns)
ref:?
mint: no mint-marks (by obverse ex the mint was Ticinum or Siscia)
3.29gms, 22mm
not in RIC
Severina was the wife of Aurelian and was made Augusta c.274. After her husband's death she ruled, if only nominally, during the interregnal period before Tacitus.
1 commentsberserker
thessalonica7.jpg
282 Constantine I9 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: -dot//SMTSB
hill132
thessalonica15.jpg
290 Constantius II13 viewsobv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMTSB
hill132
coin169.JPG
303. Gordian III; Alexandria, Egypt17 viewsRÖMISCHES REICH, Gordian III., 238-244, Bil.-Tetradrachme, Jahr 2 =238/239, Ägypten, Stadt Alexandria. Belorb. Brb.r. Rs.Nilusbüste r. , Datt.4757, BMC 16.246, 1899 Var., Försch.-, selten, vz ecoli
ConIIVIIThes128.jpg
316-337 AD - Constantine II as Caesar - RIC VII Thessalonica 128 - CAESARVM NOSTRORVM31 viewsCaesar: Constantine II (Caes. 316-337 AD)
Date: 324 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Constantine Junior Noble Caesar
Bust left; laureate, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM
Laurel wreath enclosing VOT / X.
The Prince of our people offers vows so that he may serve for a prosperous ten years.
Exergue: TSBVI (Thessalonica mint, second officina)

RIC VII Thessalonica 128; VM 32
2.66g; 18.9mm; 345°
Pep
33-Constantius-II-Con-93.jpg
33. Constantius II / Phoenix.16 viewsHalf Maiorina (AE 3), 348-350, Constantinople mint.
Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constantius.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO / Phoenix standing on globe, holding wreath in its beak.
Mint mark: CONSB*
2.29 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #93; LRBC #2019; Sear #18253.
Callimachus
image~2.jpg
34. Theophilus 49 viewsTheophilus. 829-842.
AV Semissis (12mm, 1.91 g, 5h). Syracuse mint.
Struck 829-circa 830.
Crowned facing bust, wearing loros and holding globus cruciger / Crowned and draped facing bust holding globus cruciger.
DOC 19; Anastasi 544; SB 1676. Near EF.
From the Sasha Collection.
Ex-CNG
2 commentsSosius
2AnastasiusI491AD.jpg
491-518 AD, Anastasius I18 viewsAe; 2.03g; 13mm

DN ANASTASIVS PP AVG
pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Large Epsilon, pellets within, A in right field

SB29; Doc 26
Robin Ayers
1AnastasiusI491AD.jpg
491-518 AD, Anastasius I16 viewsAe; 22mm; 7.55g

DN ANASTASIVS PP AVG
pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Large M, star to left, cross above, star to right, A below.
CON in exergue

(countermarked in left field at top of star, circle with star?)

SB16; Doc 20a
Robin Ayers
3AnastasiusI491AD.jpg
491-518 AD, Anastasius I17 viewsAe; 12mm; 2.03g
DN ANASTASIVS PP AVG
pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right

Large Epsilon, B in right field

SB29; Doc 26
Robin Ayers
836_P_Antoninus_Pius_RPCIV_5018.JPG
5018 MACEDONIA Amphipolis, Antoninus Pius Ae 25 147-61 AD Tyche9 viewsReference
RPC IV 5018 (temp); Köhler-Osbahr 465; Be (Righetti 342)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΝΤωΝΙΝο[С]
Laureate head of Antoninus Pius

Rev. ΑΜΦΙΠοΛΙС (sic)
Turreted Tyche seated, left, holding patera and extending her drapery

8.13 gr
25 mm
6h
okidoki
coin269.JPG
501a. Fausta47 viewsFausta Flavia Maxima was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus married her to Constantine I in 307.

It is suspected that Fausta was fiercely anti-Christian and plotting the Roman empire's return to paganism behind her husband's back. Although the real reasons are not clear, Constantine eventually put her to death along with Crispus, his eldest son by a previous marriage to Minervina, in 326. Eusebius of Caesarea suspected step-mother and step-son to be lovers to each other.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II reigned 337 - 340, Constantius II reigned 337 - 361, and Constans reigned 337 - 350. Variety of sources, of more or less reliability, attest that she bore daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Gallus Caesar, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e they were of the same generation).

Fausta, wife of Constantine I. 325-326 AD. Æ Follis

OBVERSE: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right
REVERSE: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, holding two children in her arms
19mm - 3.1 grams

RIC VII Thessalonica 161 R3

Sear 3903
ecoli
coins284.JPG
502. Constantine II Constantinople GLORIA EXERCITVS7 viewsCONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
CONSB

RIC VII Constantinople 138 r1

ecoli
coins333.JPG
502. Constantine II Thessalonica GLORIA EXERCITVS20 viewsCONSTANTI-NVS PF AVG
GLORI-A EXER-CITVS
SMTSB, dot on banner
RIC VIII Thessalonica 55 C2


ecoli
coin944.JPG
502. Constantine II Thessalonica GLORIA EXERCITVS16 viewsCONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS
SMTSB
RIC VII Thessalonica 184 C3

ecoli
coins177.JPG
504. Constantius II Campgate Thessalonica14 viewsFL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C
PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS
SMTSB

VII Thessalonica 158 C3
ecoli
coin274.JPG
509. Jovian21 views09. Jovian39 viewsJovian was born at Singidunum in A.D. 330, the son of the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards. He also joined the guards and by A.D. 363 had risen to the post that his father had once held. He accompanied the Roman Emperor Julian on the disastrous Mesopotamian campain of the same year against Shapur II, the Sassanid king. After a small but decisive engagement the Roman army was forced to retreat from the numerically superior Persian force. Julian had been mortally wounded during the retreat and Jovian seized his chance. Some accounts have it that on Julian's death Jovian's soldiers called out "Jovianus!" The cry was mistaken for "Julianus", and the army cheered Jovian, briefly under the illusion that the slain Emperor had recovered from his wound.

Shapur pressed his advantage and Jovian, deep inside Sassanid territory, was forced to sue for peace on very unfavourable terms. In exchange for safety he agreed to withdraw from the provinces east of the Tigris that Diocletian had annexed and allow the Persians to occupy the fortresses of Nisbis, Castra Maurorum and Singara. the King of Armenia, Arsaces, was to stay neutral in future conflicts between the two empires, and was forced to cede some of his kingdom to Shapur. The treaty was seen as a disgrace and Jovian rapidly lost popularity.

After arriving at Antioch Jovian decided to hurry to Constantinople to consolidate his position.

Jovian was a Christian, in contrast to his predecessor Julian the Apostate, who had attempted a revival of paganism. He died on February 17, 364 after a reign of eight months.

Jovian AE3. D N IOVIA NVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VOT V MVLT X inside wreath
ecoli
coin399.JPG
515a. Aelia Flacilla33 viewsEmpress, wife of Theodosius the Great, died c. A. D. 385 or 386. Like Theodosius himself, his first wife, Ælia Flaccilla, was of Spanish descent. She may have been the daughter of Claudius Antonius, Prefect of Gaul, who was consul in 382. Her marriage with Theodosius probably took place in the year 376, when his father, the comes Theodosius, fell into disfavour and he himself withdrew to Cauca in Gallæcia, for her eldest son, afterwards Emperor Arcadius, was born towards the end of the following year. In the succeeding years she presented two more children to her husband Honorius (384), who later became emperor, and Pulcheria, who died in early childhood, shortly before her mother. Gregory of Nyssa states expressly that she had three children; consequently the Gratian mentioned by St. Ambrose, together with Pulcheria, was probably not her son. Flaccilla was, like her husband, a zealous supporter of the Nicene Creed and prevented the conference between the emperor and the Arian Eunomius (Sozomen, Hist. eccl., VII, vi). On the throne she was a shining example of Christian virtue and ardent charity. St. Ambrose describes her as "a soul true to God" (Fidelis anima Deo. — "De obitu Theodosii", n. 40, in P. L., XVI, 1462). In his panegyric St. Gregory of Nyssa bestowed the highest praise on her virtuous life and pictured her as the helpmate of the emperor in all good works, an ornament of the empire, a leader of justice, an image of beneficence. He praises her as filled with zeal for the Faith, as a pillar of the Church, as a mother of the indigent. Theodoret in particular exalts her charity and benevolence (Hist. eccles., V, xix, ed. Valesius, III, 192 sq.). He tells us how she personally tended cripples, and quotes a saying of hers: "To distribute money belongs to the imperial dignity, but I offer up for the imperial dignity itself personal service to the Giver." Her humility also attracts a special meed of praise from the church historian. Flaccilla was buried in Constantinople, St. Gregory of Nyssa delivering her funeral oration. She is venerated in the Greek Church as a saint, and her feast is kept on 14 September. The Bollandists (Acta SS., Sept., IV, 142) are of the opinion that she is not regarded as a saint but only as venerable, but her name stands in the Greek Menæa and Synaxaria followed by words of eulogy, as is the case with the other saints

Wife of Theodosius. The reverse of the coin is very interesting; a nice bit of Pagan-Christian syncretism with winged victory inscribing a chi-rho on a shield.
1 commentsecoli
s49.JPG
516. Honorius45 viewsFlavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. He was the younger son of Theodosius I and his first wife Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of the Eastern emperor Arcadius.

Honorius was declared Augustus in 393 by his father and became western emperor at the age of 10, following his father's death in January 395. For the first part of his reign he depended on the military leadership of the Vandal general Stilicho. To strengthen his bonds to the young emperor, Stilicho married his daughter Maria to him.

At first Honorius based his capital in Milan, but when the Visigoths entered Italy in 402 he moved his capital to the coastal city of Ravenna, which was protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications. While the new capital was easier to defend, it was poorly situated to allow Roman forces to protect central Italy from the barbarian incursions.

The most notable event of his reign was the assault and sack of Rome on August 24, 410 by the Visigoths under Alaric.

The city had been under Visigothic siege since shortly after Stilicho's deposition and execution in the summer of 408. Lacking a strong general to control the by-now mostly barbarian Roman Army, Honorius could do little to attack Alaric's forces directly, and apparently adopted the only strategy he could do in the situation: wait passively to Visigoths to grow weary and spend the time marshalling what forces he could. Unfortunately, this course of action appeared to be the product of Honorius' indecisive character and he suffered much criticism for it both from contemporaries and later historians.

Whether this plan could have worked is perhaps debatable, especially since he deprived himself of several skillful officers by only promoting Catholics to the top military positions. In any case it was overtaken by events. Stricken by starvation, somebody opened Rome's defenses to Alaric and the Goths poured in. The city had not been under the control of a foreign force since an invasion of Gallic Celts some seven centuries before. The victorious Visigoths did untold damage to the city and the shock of this event reverberated from Britain to Jerusalem, and inspired Augustine to write his magnum opus, The City of God.

The year 410 also saw Honorius reply to a British plea for assistance against local barbarian incursions. Preoccupied with the Visigoths and lacking any real capabilities to assist the distant province, Honorius told the Britons to defend themselves as best they could.

There is a story (which Gibbon disbelieved) that when he heard the news that Rome had "perished", Honorius was initially shocked; thinking the news was in reference to a favorite chicken he had named "Roma", he recalled in disbelief that the bird was just recently feeding out of his hand. It was then explained to him that the Rome in question was the city.

His reign of twenty-eight years was one of the most disastrous in the Roman annals. Honorius' supposed weakness and timidity in the face of internal dissension and the attacks of the Visigoths and Vandals is often said to have contributed to the rapid disintegration of the western half of the empire.



RIC X Antioch 153
ecoli
coin410.JPG
517. Arcadius32 viewsFlavius Arcadius (377/378–May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death.

Arcadius was the elder son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Honorius, who would become a Western Roman Emperor. His father declared him an Augustus in January, 383. His younger brother was also declared an Augustus in 393.

As Emperors, Honorius was under the control of the Romanized Vandal magister militum Flavius Stilicho while Arcadius was dominated by one of his ministers, Rufinus. Stilicho is alleged by some to have wanted control of both emperors, and is supposed to have had Rufinus assassinated by Gothic mercenaries in 395, but definite proof of these allegations is lacking. In any case, Arcadius' new advisor Eutropius simply took Rufinus' place as the power behind the Eastern imperial throne. Arcadius was also dominated by his wife Aelia Eudoxia, who convinced her husband to dismiss Eutropius in 399. Eudoxia was strongly opposed by John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who felt that she had used her family's wealth to gain control over the emperor. Eudoxia used her influence to have Chrysostom deposed in 404, but she died later that year.

Arcadius was dominated for the rest of his rule by Anthemius, the Praetorian Prefect, who made peace with Stilicho in the West. Arcadius himself was more concerned with appearing to be a pious Christian than he was with political or military matters, and he died, only nominally in control of his empire, in 408.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 67d and 70a, choice aEF, 1.14g, 13.8mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 383-395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left holding trophy over right shoulder, dragging captive with left, staurogram left, ANTG in ex; Ex Aiello; Ex Forum
ecoli
Follis Constantino X SB01853.jpg
52-02 - Constantino X (25/12/1059 - 21/05/1067 D.C.)24 viewsAE Follis 26 x 30 mm 4.3 gr.

Anv: "EMMA - NOVHΛ", "IC - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Cristo de pié de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con ambas manos.
Rev: " ΕVΔO AVΓ - +RΘKWN TΔK " Emperador barbado a derecha y Emperatriz Eudocia a izquierda, de pié de frente vistiendo corona, Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y Pendilia (Tiras de perlas que colgaban a ambos lados de la corona). Entre ellos Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial, con Crismón (Simbolo Chi-Ro) en su bandera), Cruz en el mastil y apoyado sobre una tarima con tres escalones.

Acuñada 1059 - 1067 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1853 Pag. 363 - Bellinger D.O. Vol. III #8 - B.M.C.#18-31 - Ratto M.B.#2021/3 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-29
mdelvalle
1JustinianI527AD.jpg
527-565 AD, Justinian I20 viewsAe; 25mm; 9.13g

DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG
helmeted, cuirassed bust facing, holding cross on globe in right hand and
shield and cross in left

Large K, ANNO to left, cross above, XXXI to right, P with angled downstroke below

DO 246; SB 231; MIB 155
Antioch mint, Year 31, April 557- March 558
1 commentsRobin Ayers
2JustinianI527AD.jpg
527-565 AD, Justinian I24 viewsAE Pentanummium; 15mm; 2.26g

DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right

epsilon with + at center, star to right

SB 244, DOC 271
Antioch Mint, April 551- March 556
1 commentsRobin Ayers
3JustinianI527AD.jpg
527-565 AD, Justinian I37 viewsAe Follis; 30mm; 16.15g

DN ISTINI-ANVS PP AVG
Helmeted, draped and cuirassed facing bust, holding globe with cross in right hand, cross in left

Large M, ANNO to the left, cross above, XXXI to right, B below
NIKO in exergue

SB201 (year 31), DOC 137b, MIB 113a
Nicomedia mint
1 commentsRobin Ayers
1JustinII565AD.jpg
565-578 AD, Justin II16 viewsÆ Decanummium; 20mm; 3.71g

D N IV_STI-P P AVG
Helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, Victory on globe crowning emperor in right hand, cross in right field

Large I surmounted by cross, A/N/N/O to left, */I/* to right, THEUP' in exergue

SB 382; DO 147
Year 1 (565/566), Antioch
Robin Ayers
2JustinII565AD.JPG
565-578 AD, Justin II & Sophia28 viewsAe 1/2 follis; 23mm; 7.32g

DNIVSTI-NVS PP AVG
Justin on left, Sophia on right, seated facing on double-throne, both nimbate, Justin holding cross on globe, Sophia holding sceptre

Large K, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year to right
KYZ in exergue

SB 373, MIB 51, DO 132.1
Cyzicus Mint, 573/4 AD
2 commentsRobin Ayers
3JustinII560AD.jpg
565-578 AD, Justin II & Sophia23 viewsAe Follis; 30mm; 15.06g

DN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Justin on left holding cross on globe and Sophia on right, holding sceptre topped by cross, both nimbate, seated facing on double-throne

Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year to right II over II, officina A below
CON in exergue

SB 360; MIB 43; DO 25a
Constantinople, 568/9 AD
1 commentsRobin Ayers
2-2014-11-12_coinsnov20142.JPG
565-578 AD, Justin II & Sophia18 viewsAe Follis; 28-29mm; 11.87g

DNIVSTI-NVS PP AVG
Justin & Sophia, seated facing on double throne

ANNO in left field, cross/Large M/I, U in right field
NIKO in exergue

SB369; Nicomedia mint
Robin Ayers
2-2014-11-12_coinsnov20143.JPG
565-578 AD, Justin II and Sophia13 viewsAe half follis; 20mm; 5.16g

DN IVSTINVS PP AVG
Justin on left, Sophia on right, seated facing on double throne, both nimbate, Justin holding cross
on globe, Sophia holding scepter

ANNO in left field, cross/Large K, II/III
TES in exergue

SB366, MIB 70
Robin Ayers
Aspron Trachy Vellón Manuel I SB01964.jpg
58-10 - Manuel I (08/04/1143 - 24/09/1180 D.C.)66 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 32 x 29 mm 5.6 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando a izquierda.
Rev: " MANγHΛ - ΔεCΠOTHC " Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Chlamys (Manto largo o capa/mandyas, usado como traje de ceremonia imperial). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz patriarcal en izquierda.

Acuñada 1143 - 1180 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1964 Pag. 396 - Hendy CMBE pl.15.5-10 - B.M.C.#56/7 - Ratto M.B.#2138-41 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #5-16
mdelvalle
Aspron Trachy Vellón Manuel I SB01966.jpg
58-12 - Manuel I (08/04/1143 - 24/09/1180 D.C.)73 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 30 mm 5.4 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "IC - XC" (Jesús Cristo) en campos izquierdo y derecho - Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con mano izquierda." * " en campo izquierdo.
Rev: " MANγHΛ - ΔεCΠOT " Emperador de pié de frente a izquierda vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz en izquierda. A su derecha La Virgen de pié de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), con su mano derecha corona al Emperador.

Acuñada 1143 - 1180 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1966 Pag. 396 - Hendy CMBE pl.16.1-15, pl.17.1-4 - B.M.C.#40-51 - Ratto M.B.#2127/34 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #17-42
mdelvalle
Tetarterón Andronico I SB01987.jpg
59-05 - Andronico I (09/1183 - 12/09/1185 D.C.)28 viewsAE Tetarteron 18 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "MH - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - Busto de la Virgen vista de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando al frente.
Rev: " ANΔPONIKOC" Algo larga figura del Emperador de frente, vistiendo corona, Scaramagion y Sagion (Sago - capa corta romana de uso militar). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz en izquierda.

Acuñada 1183 - 1185 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1987 Pag. 401 - Hendy CMBE pl.19.2 - B.M.C.#13-16 - Ratto M.B.#2171 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-5
mdelvalle
01644p00.jpg
6. Faustina Sr. silver Denarius, Rome Mint201 viewsChoice gVF, 3.48g., 12.1 mm, 0º, Rome Mint 147-161 AD
O: DIVA FAVSTINA, minted by husband Antoninus Pius after her death
R: CERES, Ceres holding heads of grain and a torch
5 commentsZam
120.jpg
60. Alexius I Comnenus17 viewsAlexius I Comnenus
Pre-reform AR Miliaresion Constantinople mint. Struck 1081-1092.

The Theotokos (Virgin Mary) standing facing, orans / Alexius standing facing, holding long cross and sheathed sword, pellet in field.

DOC 10; SB 1897; aF/F, very rare
Sosius
coin411.JPG
601. Eudoxia24 viewsAelia Eudoxia (d. 6 October 404) was the wife of the Eastern Roman emperor Arcadius.

The daughter of a certain Bauto, a Frankish magister militum serving in the Western Roman army during the 380s, Eudoxia owed her marriage to the youthful Emperor Arcadius on 27 April 395 to the intrigues of the eunuch of the palace, Eutropius. She had very considerable influence over her husband, who was of rather weak character and who was more interested in Christian piety than imperial politics.

In 399 she succeeded, with help from the leader of the Empire's Gothic mercenaries, in deposing her erstwhile benefactor Eutropius, who was later executed over the protests of John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople.

John Chrysostom was already becoming unpopular at court due to his efforts at reforming the Church, and in 403 Eudoxia and Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded in having the outspoken Patriarch condemned by a synod and then deposed. He was exiled to Armenia the next year after a brief return to power resulting from popular disgust at his fall and an earthquake which reinforced those feelings.

Eudoxia had a total of seven pregnancies, five of which were successful. Her final pregnancy ended in a miscarriage which led to her death on October 6, 404. One of her children was the future emperor Theodosius II.

In 403, Simplicius, Prefect of Constantinople, erected a statue dedicated to her on a column of porphyry. Arcadius renamed the town of Selymbria (Silivri) Eudoxiopolis after her, though this name did not survive.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 102, S 4241, VM 6, VF, 2.14g, 17.0mm, 180o, Nikomedia mint, 401-403 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDOXIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right with hand of God holding wreath over her head; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated on cuirass inscribing Christogram on shield, SMNA in ex; softly struck reverse; rare
ecoli
Aspron Trachy Vellón Isaac II SB02003.jpg
61-05 - Isaac II Angelus (12/09/1185 - 08/04/1195 D.C.)49 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 30 x 27 mm 4.1 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando al frente.
Rev: " I / CAA / KI / OC (a izquierda) ΔEC / ΠO /TH / C (a derecha)" Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco), Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y sagion (Sago - capa corta romana de uso militar). Portando Cetro con crucifijo y Akakia(Rollo de pergamino o tejido fuerte, relleno de tierra, que llevaban los emperadores bizantinos como símbolo de su mortalidad. En realidad es una cristianización de la mappa consular romana). Él es coronado por la Mano de Dios arriba a la derecha. " * " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 1185 - 1195 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2003 Pag. 405 - Hendy CMBE pl.20.9-13, pl.21.1-7 - B.M.C.#19-31 - Ratto M.B.#2180, 2184-91 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-40
mdelvalle
Aspron Trachy Vellón Isaac II SB02003_1.jpg
61-06 - Isaac II Angelus (12/09/1185 - 08/04/1195 D.C.)77 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 27 x 29 mm 2.8 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando al frente. " * " en campo izquierdo.
Rev: " I / CAA / KI / OC (a izquierda) ΔEC / ΠO /TH / C (a derecha)" Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco), Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y sagion (Sago - capa corta romana de uso militar). Portando Cetro con crucifijo y Akakia(Rollo de pergamino o tejido fuerte, relleno de tierra, que llevaban los emperadores bizantinos como símbolo de su mortalidad. En realidad es una cristianización de la mappa consular romana). Él es coronado por la Mano de Dios arriba a la derecha.

Acuñada 1185 - 1195 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2003 Pag. 405 - Hendy CMBE pl.20.9-13, pl.21.1-7 - B.M.C.#19-31 - Ratto M.B.#2180, 2184-91 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-40
mdelvalle
17910811_10154754189164011_895183192_n-side.jpg
62 Julian II RIC 22523 viewsJulian II 360-363 AD. AE1 (Double Maiorina). Tessalonica Mint.362-363 AD. (29.30mm) Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, bearded, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, head facing, two stars above. palm branch TESB palm branch in ex.
RIC 225
Actual name: Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus
Wildwinds: Julian II, "The Apostate": Caesar 355-360 AD, Augustus 360-363 AD. The last true "pagan" emperor who revered the ancient gods until the day he died in 363 from a javelin wound fighting the Persians.
Paddy
Aspron Trachy Vellón Alexio III SB02012.jpg
62-05 - Alexio III Angelus Commenus (08/04/1195 - 17/07/1203 D.C.)84 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 25 x 27 mm 2.6 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "IC - XC" (Jesús Cristo) en campos izquierdo y derecho - Busto de Cristo sin barba, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), levantando su mano derecha en señal de bendición y sosteniendo un rollo de pergamino con mano izquierda." + Kε ROHΘεI " leyenda rodeando el busto.
Rev: " AΛEΣIω ΔεCΠ O KωNcTANTI " Emperador a derecha y San Constantino, barbado y nimbado a izquierda, ambos de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando entre ellos Orbe con cruz y labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), el Emperador en mano derecha y el santo en la izquierda.

Acuñada 1195 - 1203 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2012 Pag. 407 - Hendy CMBE pl.22.8-12, pl.23.1-7 - B.M.C.#16-18 - Ratto M.B.#2005/13 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-16
mdelvalle
Aspron Trachy Vellón Gobernantes Latinos SB02027.jpg
65-05 - Gobernantes latinos de Constantinopla (1204 - 1261 D.C.)80 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 26 x 21 mm 1.6 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con mano izquierda.
Rev: Emperador de pié de frente a izquierda vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz en izquierda. A su derecha La Virgen de pié de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), con su mano derecha corona al Emperador.

Acuñada 1204 - 1261 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2016 Pag. 412 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.IV pl.XLIX, 6 - Hendy CMBE pl.26, 2(F)
mdelvalle
663Hadrian_RPC6568.jpg
6567 Hadrian As 132-34 AD Hadrian on horsback left31 viewsReference. Very Rare
RIC -; C.-; BMC 1433; RPC III, 6567;

Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder

Rev: ADVENTVS AVGVSTI / COS III P P.
Hadrian on horse rearing left, raising hand and holding spear.

14.95 gr
28 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
AugustusAE19Sardeis.jpg
702a, Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.37 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. AE 19mm (5.98 gm). Lydia, Sardeis. Diodoros Hermophilou. Obverse: head right. Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing facing holding scepter and eagle. RPC I, 489, 2986; SNG von Aulock 3142. aVF. Fine portrait. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia107 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
John_Comenus-Ducas_Sear_2208.jpg
75. John Comenus-Ducas, Kingdom of Thessalonica20 viewsKingdom of Thessalonica.
John Comenus-Ducas
AE 17mm small module trachy
1237-1244 AD.

O: IC-XC to left and right of Christ, bust facing

R: IW.., John, no beard, half length figure, standing, holding labarum-headed sceptre and akakia.

SB 2208; DOC 23.

ID'ed with help from FORVM member OrthdoxCoins. Thanks!
Sosius
domitian_domitia_drachme-unpubl.jpg
81-96 AD - DOMITIAN & DOMITIA AE19 of Adramyteion43 viewsobv: AYT DOMITIANOC KAI CEB GEPM[ANIKOC] (laureate head right)
rev: DOMITIA CEB ADR[A] (draped bust right)
ref: RPC 2910 (just two specimens cited)
mint: Adramyteion
4.08gms, 19mm, plated
Very rare

Domitia Longina or simply Domitia married to Domitian in 70 A.D. In 81, Domitian became the new Roman Emperor and Domitia became the new Roman Empress. In 83 she had an affair with an actor called Paris, who was executed for this, and Domitia exiled after the divorce. In 91 Domitian recalled her from exile to Rome as a Roman Empress. Years after Domitian's death, Domitia still referred to herself as an Emperor's wife. She died peacefully about 130 AD. Some coins of her were minted during Domitian's reign.
Adramyttium (Adramyteion) was an ancient city of Mysia at the head of the Gulf of Adramyttium facing the island of Lesbos, and at the base of Mt. Ida.
berserker
Sear_2451.jpg
82. Andronicus II and Michael IX, AE assarion, Constantinople.8 viewsAndronicus II and Michael IX
AE assarion, Constantinople.

O: AVTOKPATOPEC RWMAIWN, Andronicus, on left and Michael, on right, both standing facing, holding labarum between them

R: B and retrograde B to left and right of patriarchal cross.

SB 2451.

Thanks to FORVM member glebe for helping to ID!
Sosius
EA830A0F-E959-4991-BBC6-1E18F365FE51.jpeg
886-912 AD, Leo VI6 viewsLeo VI,
AE Follis;9.61g; 26-27mm
Constantinople

LEON bASILEVS ROM,
crowned bust facing with short beard, wearing chlamys, holding akakia

LEON EN QEO BA SILEVS R OMEON
legend in four lines

SB 1729, DOC 8
Robin Ayers
John_VIII_Palaeologus_DOC_1647.jpg
89. John VIII Palaeologus. 21 viewsJohn VIII Palaeologus.

1425-1448.
AR Stavraton (25mm, 4.78 g, 6h).
Constantinople mint.

O: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator; lis in right field

R: Crowned facing bust of John; pellets flanking.

DOC 1647-8; PCPC 348.9; LBC 1051-2; SB 2563. VF, area of weak strike, deposits.

Ex-CNG
1 commentsSosius
2550377.jpg
93. Manuel I Comnenus28 viewsEMPEROR OF TREBIZOND
Manuel I Comnenus.
1238-1263. AR Asper (20mm, 2.41 g, 7h).
O: Manuel st. facing, wearing crown and loros and holding labarum and akakia; (star) /M/И/ (star) to outer l., two stars to inner l., star to inner r., O/K/H to outer r; above to r., crowning manus Dei R: St. Eugenius standing facing, wearing nimbus crown and holding long cross; O/A/ΓI to outer left, star to inner left, (star)/ЄV/ΓЄ/(NH) to right.

Cf. Retowski 91-2; SB 2601.

Near EF, toned, a few light scratches.

Ex CNG
1 commentsSosius
Centenional Constantino II RIC VII Constantinople 138.jpg
A128-30 - Constantino II Como Cesar de Constantino I (316/7 - 337 D.C.)46 viewsAE3/4 Centenional 16 x 15 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: "CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C" - Busto laureado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS · " - Dos Soldados de pié enfrentados, sosteniendo un escudo y una lanza vertical invertida cada uno. Entre ellos UN estandarte. "CONSB" en exergo.

Acuñada 336/7 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.2da.)
Rareza: R4

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Constantinople) #150 Pag.590 - Cohen Vol.VII #114 Pag.377 - DVM #46 Pag.296 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8445.h. Pag.189 - Sear RCTV (1988)#3952
mdelvalle
Centenional Constante RIC VIII Thessalonica 101B.jpg
A129-35 - Constante (337 - 350 D.C.)42 viewsAE4 Centenional reducido 17 x 15 mm 1.7 gr.

Anv: "CONSTANS - P F AVG" - Busto con diadema rosetada, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VICTORIAE DD AVGG Q NN" - Dos Victorias de pié enfrentadas portando sendas coronas de laureles. "SMTSB" en exergo y " · " en campo centro.

Acuñada 347/8 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Thessalonica) #101 Pag.411 - Cohen Vol.VII #176 Pag.431 - DVM #57 Pag.297 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8591.g. Pag.206 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3971
mdelvalle
Centenional Constancio II RIC VII Thessalonica 158B.jpg
A130-20 - Constancio II Como Cesar de Constantino I (324 - 337 D.C.)31 viewsAE3 Centenional 18 mm 3.6 gr.

Anv: "FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C" - Busto laureado, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS" - Puerta de campamento, sin puertas ni ventanas, dos torres, " * " arriba, siete filas de piedras, la superior decorada con arcos y puntos. "SMTSB" en exergo.

Acuñada 326 - 328 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C3

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Thessalonica) #158 Pag.519 - Cohen Vol.VII #168 Pag.465 - DVM #70 Pag.299 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8473.f. Pag.192
mdelvalle
Nummus Valentiniano II RIC IX Constantinople 86aB2.jpg
A141-09 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)44 viewsAE4 Nummus 13 x 12 mm 1.3 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN VALENTINIANVS P [F AVG]" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-PVBLICAE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando trofeo apoyado en su hombro con mano derecha y arrastrando por los pelos a un cautivo con su mano izquierda. "CONSB" en exergo y " Chi-Ro " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 388 - 392 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Constantinople) #86a Pag.234 - Cohen Vol.VIII #30 Pag.143 - DVM #47 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9185.e. Pag.284 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4167
mdelvalle
Nummus Valentiniano II RIC IX Constantinople 86aB.jpg
A141-10 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)46 viewsAE4 Nummus 13 mm 1.2 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-PVBLICAE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando trofeo apoyado en su hombro con mano derecha y arrastrando por los pelos a un cautivo con su mano izquierda. "CONSB" en exergo y " Chi-Ro " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 388 - 392 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.2da.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Constantinople) #86a Pag.234 - Cohen Vol.VIII #30 Pag.143 - DVM #47 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9185.e. Pag.284 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4167
mdelvalle
4140657.jpg
Abbasid Al-Mamun Citing Ali Ibn Musa as heir47 viewsAl-Ma'mun AH 199-218 / AD 813-833. AR Dirham (27mm, 2.87 g, 3h). Citing 'Ali ibn Musa al-Rida as heir. Madinat Isbahan mint. Dated AH 202 (AD 817/8). Album 224; ICV 391

This coin is a very rare and historically important coin as it commemorates the significant event that Al-Mamun chose ali ibn musa (Known as Al-Rida) as his heir in order to control the shia rebellions and bring them under control as Al-Rida was leader of Shia muslims at the time. This was just a political move as he was only 2 years the heir . Al-mamun had him poisoned after 2 years in 203 AH . This coin cites the name of Ali Ibn Musa on it as the heir confessing Al-mamun to be Caliph of muslims and Al-Rida to be his heir.
arash p
Album-223_4.jpg
Abbasid Caliphate: al-Ma'mun (810-833 CE) AR dirham, Madinat Isbahan, AH199 (Album-223.4)19 viewsObverse Field:
لا اله الا الله وحده لا شرك له
There is no deity except (the one) God alone. He has no equal

Obverse Margin:
بسم الله ضرب هذا الدرهم بمدينة اصبهان سنة تسع و تسعين و مئة
In the name of God, This dirham was struck in Isbahan in the year ninety nine and one hundred

Reverse Field:
الله محمد رسول الله ذو الرياستين
Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; Dhu'l-Ri'asatayn
ح below

Reverse Margin:
محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون
He sent him with guidance and the true religion to reveal it to all religions even if the polytheists abhor it.
SpongeBob
sabinas.jpg
Abduction of the Sabine women.384 viewsAR denarius. 89 BC. 3,65 grs. Bare-headed, bearded head of King Tatius righ. TA (ligate) below chin. SABIN behind / Two Roman soldiers, each carrying off a sabine woman in his arms. L TITVRI in exergue.
Crawford 344/1a. RSC Tituria 1.

Livy. History of Rome. 1.9.
The Roman state had become strong enough to hold its own in war with all the peoples along its borders, but a shortage of women meant that its greatness was fated to last for a single generation, since there was no prospect of offspring at home nor any prospect of marriage with their neighbours. Then, in accordance with the decision of the senate, Romulus sent messengers to the neighbouring peoples to ask for alliance and the right of marriage for the new people: cities, like everything else, start small but later if their own excellence and the gods assist them, they grow in strength and in fame. It was certain that at the beginning of Rome the gods had been propitiated and that it would not lack in valour. Therefore, men should not disdain to join blood and family ties with other men.
But nowhere were the emissaries given a fair hearing. Some scorned, others feared the great power growing in their midst, both for themselves and for their descendants. In more than one place the emissaries were asked, even as they were being sent packing, why they hadn't offered asylum to women (criminals) too: that way they'd have had their marriage and with others of their own rank! The youth of Rome took this insult badly and began to think seriously about the use of force. Romulus, to gain time till he found the right occasion, hid his concern and prepared to celebrate the Consualia, the solemn games in honour of equestrian Neptune. He then ordered that the spectacle be announced to the neighbouring peoples. He gave the event great publicity by the most lavish means possible in those days. Many people came, some simply out of curiosity to see the new city, and especially the nearest neighbours, from Caenina, Crustuminum and Antemnae; the entire Sabine population came, wives and children included. Received with hospitality in the houses, after having seen the position of the city, its walls, and the large number of buildings, they marvelled that Rome had grown so fast. When it was time for the show, and everybody was concentrating on this, a prearranged signal was given and all the Roman youths began to grab the women. Many just snatched the nearest woman to hand, but the most beautiful had already been reserved for the senators and these were escorted to the senators' houses by plebeians who had been given this assignment. The story goes that one woman, far and away the most beautiful, was carried off by the gang of a certain Thalassius, and because many wanted to know where they were taking her, they repeatedly shouted that they were taking her to Thalassius, and that it how the nuptial cry came to be.

The party was over, and the grieving parents of the girls ran away, accusing the Romans of having violated the laws of hospitality and invoking the god who was supposed to have been honoured at that day's festival. Nor did the girls themselves hold much hope. But Romulus went among them in person to assure them that none of this would have happened if their fathers hadn't been so inflexible in not letting them marry their neighbours. But now they would have the status of wives with all the material rewards and civil rights of citizenship and they would have children, than which nothing is dearer. They should cool their anger and give their hearts to the men who had already taken their bodies. A good relationship often begins with an offence, he said. And their husbands would treat them with extra kindness in hope of making up for the parents and country they so missed. The men added their blandishments, saying that they'd been motivated by love and passion, entreaties which are very effective with women.

benito
Lincoln_Gettysburg_Address.jpg
Abraham Lincoln 1963 Gettysburg Address Centennial20 viewsObv: LINCOLN'S GETTYSBURG ADDRESS above, 1863 1963 in field, CENTENNIAL below; Abraham Lincoln standing on a platform delivering a speech, dignitaries seated behind.

Rev: "THE WORLD WILL LITTLE NOTE, NOR LONG REMEMBER WHAT WE SAY HERE, BUT IT CAN NEVER FORGET WHAT THEY DID HERE." ABRAHAM LINCOLN, A Union soldier giving a wounded Confederate solder a drink from his canteen.

Engraver: Philip Kraczkowski; Mint: Robbins, Attleboro Company

Bronze; 63 mm
Matt Inglima
corinthMarcusBellerophon2.jpg
Achaea. Corinthia, Corinth. Marcus Aurelius Æ 26mm. Bellerophon.83 views Obv: Laureate head right.
Rev: CLI COR Bellerophon riding Pegasos flying right, attacking a chimaera, facing right.
BCD 706; SNG Copenhagen -.

Bellerophon in Greek mythology was "the greatest hero and slayer of monsters, alongside Cadmus and Perseus, before the days of Heracles", whose greatest feat was killing the Chimera, a monster that Homer depicted with a lion's head, a goat's body, and a serpent's tail: "her breath came out in terrible blasts of burning flame.
The replacement of Bellerophon by the more familiar culture hero Perseus was a development of Classical times that was standardized during the Middle Ages and has been adopted by the European poets of the Renaissance and later.
ancientone
sb24715mm455g.jpg
AE 12 Nummi21 viewsO: Bust of Emperor r.
R: Large I+B AAE theta in exergue
Date: 527-565 CE
Mint: Alexandria
Sear 247
15mm, 4.55g
Ex Allen Berman
wileyc
s_860.jpg
AE 12 nummi Heraclius, SB 86037 viewsObverse: No legend, Heraclius in center, H. Constantine on r., Heraclonas on L., all stg, facing,each wearing chlamys and holding gl/ cr in r. hand. Heraclius and H. Constantine each wear crown with cross in field above head of Heraclonas
Reverse: Large IB; between , cross potent on triangle between the IB, AAEZ in exergue
Mint: Alexandria
Date: 632-41 CE
19mm 7.24gm
Sear 860 DO 196
wileyc
s_862.jpg
AE 6 nummi Heraclius, SB 86223 viewsObverse: Legand usually blundered sometimes dd M HERACLS, cross potents sometimes with pellets at ends of arms on base above two steps or one.
Mint: Alexandria
Date: 613-18 CE
Reverse: Large S
15mm 2.47gm
Sear 862 DO 198
wileyc
Clipboard01~0.jpg
AE Anonymous follis of Christ, cCass B, Romanus III or Michael IV.41 viewsEMMANOVHΛ, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC

Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)

SBCV 1823.
Will Hooton
sear_2440_2011-02-13.jpg
AE assaria Andronicus II and Michael IX SB 244025 viewsObverse: Three quarter length of Andronicus II bearded on l., and of Michael IX, beardless on r., wearing stema, div and panelled loros of simplified type, between them labarum on long shaft. Both emperors in r. and l. hand respectively hold sc. cr.
Reverse: In Legend in four lines AVTO/KPATO/PECPW/MAIW
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1295-1320 CE
Sear 2440
20mm/ gm

1 commentswileyc
sb_2436.jpg
AE assarion Andronicus II and Michael IX41 viewsObverse: Andronicus l., and Michael r., holding labarum between them.
Reverse: KVPIE CWCON TUCBCIAEIC around bust of Christ
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1295-1320 CE
Sear 2436
12/16mm 1.00 gm
1 commentswileyc
2010-12-8_SB_2428.jpg
AE assarion Andronicus II and Michael IX clipped20 viewsObverse: Andronicus l., and Michael r., holding patriarchal cross between them.
Reverse: KVPIE BOH"O"V TOVC BACI"A" around bust of Christ
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1295-1320 CE
Sear 2428
10/14 mm .83 gm
wileyc
SB2481.jpg
AE Assarion, Andronicus Palaeologus III, SB 248125 viewsObverse: Cross fleury
Reverse: Andronicus standing holding sceptre
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1328-1342 CE
Sear 2481
21mm, 1.16
wileyc
sb210128mm250.jpg
AE billion trachy John III SB 2101 type M 28 viewsObverse: IC XC barred, Full length figure of Christ, standing on dais?, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds Gospels in l. hand.
Reverse: IW OO, KW or IW barred O KW, full length figure of emperor on L., and of St Constantine nimbate, holding between them sword, half sheathed point downwards. Emperor and saint wear stemma, divitision, collar piece and jeweled loros of simplified type. Emperor and saint rest hand on shield, emperor r. hand, saint l. hand.
Mint: Magnesia
Date: 1221-54 CE
Sear 2101, DO IV pl XXXIII, 47.
28mm, 2.50 g
wileyc
sb2102.jpg
AE billion trachy John III SB 2102 type N108 viewsObverse: hP- theta V barred, Three quarter length figure of virgin nimbate, orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; star to lower left and right in field.
Reverse: IW, full-length figure of emperor on l., and St. Theodore bearded and nimbate, holding between them sheathed sword, point downward, resting on shield. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds labarum -headed scepter in r. hand. Saint wears short military tunic and breast plate, holds spear in l. hand.
Mint: Magnesia
Sear 2102, DOC
25mm, 3.02g
wileyc
Fibula_b.jpg
AE Crossbow Fibula with bulbous knobs103 viewscirca 4th century
from Moesia Superior
45.15 grams
Tibsi
s_367.jpg
AE Decanummium Justin II SB 36726 viewsObverse: Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large I, cross above, ANNO to l., regnal yr to r. (YI III) yr 9
Date: 573/74 CE
Mint: Thesslonica
Sear: 367, DO 86-90
wileyc
sear_383.jpg
AE Decanummium Justin II SB 38331 viewsObverse: Justin L., Sophia r. seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; they hold between them globe surmounted by a large cross and each holds long sceptre.
Reverse: Large I, surnounted by a cross, between ANNO regnal yr to rt (UII) in exergue THEYP
Date: 572/3 CE
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Sear: 383 DO 175-85 AD
17mm 2.33gm
1 commentswileyc
sear_383~0.jpg
AE Decanummium Justin II SB 38318 viewsObverse: Justin L., Sophia r. seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; they hold between them globe surmounted by a large cross and each holds long sceptre.
Reverse: Large I, surnounted by a cross, between ANNO regnal yr to rt (U, III) in exergue THEYP
Date: 573/4 CE
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Sear: 383 DO 175-85
18mm 2.64gm
wileyc
sear_383~1.jpg
AE Decanummium Justin II SB 38326 viewsObverse: Justin L., Sophia r. seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; they hold between them globe surmounted by a large cross and each holds long sceptre.
Reverse: Large I, surnounted by a cross, between ANNO regnal yr to rt (U, III) in exergue THEYP
Date: 574/5 CE
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Sear: 383 DO 175-85
20mm 3.16 gm
wileyc
sear_239.jpg
AE decanummium Justinian I SB 23938 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG or similar usually blundered, Helmeted and cuir. bust facing holding gl. cr. and sheild; to r., cross.
Reverse: Large I, cross above, ANNO to left, regnal yr XXXU or UI, THEUP in ex.
Mint: Antioch/Theoupolis
Date 561-563 CE
Sear 239 DO 264-7
19mm 3.91gm
wileyc
sear_498.jpg
AE decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 49830 viewsObverse: DN TIbER PP AV or similar, crowned, dr., and cuir bust facing.
Reverse: Large I, cross above; to l., star, to r., officina letter (E), CON in ex
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 582-602 CE
Sear 498 DO 64
18mm 3.09gm
wileyc
sear_536.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 53638 viewsObverse: Legend is normally a blundered form of Tiberius in this case a nATST - MAV, bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l. hand a eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: LArge X between ANNO and regnal yr (G) 6, cross above P or R below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 587/8 CE
Sear 536 DO 194-201
3.22gm
1 commentswileyc
sear_537.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 53716 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 591/2 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
17mm 2.46gm
wileyc
sear_537a.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 53717 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X IIII), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 595/6 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
16mm 2.66gm
wileyc
sear_580a.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 58012 viewsObverse: DN TIb MAVRIC PP AV or similar, crowned and cuir. bust facing holding gl. cr. and shield
Reverse: Large I between ANNO and regnal yr GII (8), CAT in ex
Mint: Catania
Date: 582-4 CE
Sear 580 DO 264
12mm 3047 gm
wileyc
sear_537~1.jpg
AE Decanummium Maurice Tiberius, SB 58018 viewsObverse: DN MAY CN P AY( or similar) Bust facing, wearing crown with trefoil ornament and consular robes, in r. hand, mappa; in l., eagle tipped sceptre.
Reverse: Large I between ANNP and regnal year (X, u), cross above THEUP in ex
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Date: 597/8 CE
Sear 537 DO 203-12
17mm 2.68gm
wileyc
sb1182_20_26_405g.jpg
AE Decanummium sbvc118210 viewsOBV:No legend, helmeted, cuirassed, unbearded bust facing, holding cross on globe
REV:Large I, cross to left, cross above, K to right
mint: Constantinople
20 by 26mm
4.05g
SB 1182; DOC 38
wileyc
sear_472.jpg
AE decanummiun Tiberius II Constantine, SB 47230 viewsObverse: DM TIb CONSTANT PP AVG or similar, Crowned, cuir bust facing holding gl. cr.
Reverse: LArge I between two crosses all within wreath
Mint: Sicily per Hahn, Ravenna per Sear
Date: 578-582 CE
Sear 472 DO 66
14mm 2.61gm
wileyc
sear_1900.jpg
AE follis Alexios I SB 190027 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing cross behind head, wearing pallium and colobium, raises r. hand in benediction
Reverse: Cross with globule and two pellets at each extremity, beneath , large crescent around, four globules each surrounded by pellets.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: Pre reform First Crusade, 1081-1092 CE
Sear 1900 H. 2.18-19 Class J anonymous folles
26mm 6.12gm
wileyc
sb1900_25mm7g.jpg
AE follis Alexios I SB 190013 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing cross behind head, wearing pallium and colobium, raises r. hand in benediction
Reverse: Cross with globule and two pellets at each extremity, beneath , large crescent around, four globules each surrounded by pellets.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: Pre reform First Crusade, 1081-1092 CE
Sear 1900 H. 2.18-19 Class J anonymous folles
25mm 6.99gm
wileyc
sear_1901.jpg
AE follis Alexios I SB 190114 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising r. hand in benediction, in l. hand book of Gospels to l., IC to r. XC, Border of large pellets
Reverse: Three quarter length of the Virgin orans facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium on either side of nimbus M-(theta) or MP-Theta V.,border of lg pellets
Mint: Constantinople
Date: pre reform 1081-1092 CE
Sear 1901 H pl.20-21 Class K Anonymous folles
21mm 4.07
wileyc
sb4731mm1718g.jpg
AE Follis Anastasius I SB 4752 viewsObverse: DN ANASTASIVS PP AVG Diad, dr. and cuir, bust r., cross above.
Reverse: Large M between crosses, Officina letter "gamma" below. Mintmark ANTX
Date: 491-518 CE
Mint: Antioch
SB 47 DO 45
31mm, 17.18g
wileyc
sb1059_18mm480g.jpg
AE follis Constans II8 viewsObv:CONSTANTN, crowned and mantled bust facing with short beard, (cross or trefoil on crown), holding mappa and cross on globe
Rev: C-T-X-X clockwise from top left around cross, star above, with pellets to right and left.
Mint: Carthage
Date: 641-668 CE
18mm, 4.80g
SB 1059
wileyc
sear_1000c.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100030 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANO and NEOG or similar, sometimes a cross or star above. In exergue a officina (blundered, possibly E) followed by numerals representing the regnal year IIII.
Mint: Constantinople
Year: 644/5 CE
Sear 1000 DO 59-60
19mm 2.83gm
wileyc
sear_1000b.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100037 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Constans, beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANO and NEOG or similar, sometimes a cross or star above. In exergue a officina (gamma) followed by numerals representing the regnal year III.
Mint: Constantinople
Year: 643/4 CE
Sear 1000 DO 59-60
19mm 4.76gm
wileyc
sear_1000a.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100027 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANO and NEOG or similar, sometimes a cross or star above. In exergue a officina followed by numerals representing the regnal year. Blundered on this coin.
Mint: Constantinople
Year: 641-645 CE
Sear 1000 DO 59-60
19mm 2.94gm
wileyc
SB_1000.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100026 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANO and NEOG or similar, sometimes a cross or star above. In exergue a officina (A) followed by numerals representing the regnal year (II)
Mint: Constantinople
Year: 642-643 CE
Sear 1000 DO 59-60
21mm 4.97gm
wileyc
sear_1001.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100119 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr., but sometimes holds long staff with Chi-rio on top.
Reverse: large M, between O/theta/O and NEOG, ANA above, in exergue officina letter (blundered) followed by regnal year II.
Mint: Constantinople
Year: 642/3 CE
Sear: 1001 DO 61
19mm 4.31gm
wileyc
sear_1002.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100222 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long staff with Chi-rio on top.
Reverse: Large M, ANA above, to L. regnal yr III, with crosses above and below. NEOG to r. in exergue officina letter E.
Mint: Constantinople
Year: 642/3 CE
Sear 1002 DO 62
18 mm 4.28gm
wileyc
sb1002_25_20mm_5_38g.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 10028 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long staff with Chi-rio on top.
Reverse: Large M, ANA above, to L. regnal yr III, with crosses above and below. NEOG to r. in exergue officina letter E.
Mint: Constantinople
Year: 642/3 CE
Sear 1002 DO 62
20/25 mm 5.38gm
wileyc
sear_1004a.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100421 viewsObverse: INPER CONST or similar Bust facing, beardless wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M, ANNA to L., NEOG in exergue, cross above to r. regnal year (II,I) officina letter E
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 642/3 CE
Sear 1004 DO under Heraclona 5
25mm 5.01gm
Solid green patina
1 commentswileyc
sear_1004.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100417 viewsObverse: INPER CONST or similar Bust facing, beardless wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M, ANNA to L., NEOG in exergue, cross above to r. regnal year (II,I) officina letter Delta
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 642/3 CE
Sear 1004 DO under Heraclona 5
22mm 6.28gm
wileyc
sb_1007.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100522 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, beardless (sometimes with slight beard as in this coin), stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANO and NEOG or similar, sometimes a cross or star above. In exergue numerals representing the regnal year Y(5) followed by officina A
Mint: constantinople
Date: 645/6 CE
Sear 1005 DO 64-8
20mm 4.14gm
wileyc
sear_1005.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100512 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, beardless (sometimes with slight beard as in this coin), stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANO and NEOG or similar, sometimes a cross or star above. In exergue numerals representing the regnal year GI followed by officina A
Mint: constantinople
Date: 647/8 CE
Sear 1005 DO 64-8
20mm 3.78gm
wileyc
sb_1007wmomo.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100722 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, long beard (noted on r side of face) stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANA and NEOG officina B below M, regnal yr X(?) below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date:650-6CE
Sear 1007 with countermark covering the rest of the regnal yrs after X.
14/19mm 2.85
wileyc
sear_1007.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100721 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, long beard (noted on r side of face) stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANA and NEOG officina Delta below M, regnal yr XII below.
Mint: Constantinople
Date:652/3 CE
Sear 1007 varient DO 70-73
20mm 2.93
wileyc
sear_1008.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100815 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, long beard stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between KWN and CTAN star above officina A below M, U in exergue as regnal yr.
Mint Constantinople
Date: 655/6 CE
Sear 1008 DO 75-6
wileyc
sear_1008~0.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100815 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, long beard stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between KWN and CTAN star above officina A below M, U in exergue as regnal yr.
Mint Constantinople
Date: 655/6 CE
Sear 1008 DO 75-6
17mm 2.51
wileyc
sb2008yr1520mm2_65g.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 10088 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Contans, long beard stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between KWN and CTAN star above officina A below M, U in exergue as regnal yr. (15)
Mint Constantinople
Date: 655/6 CE
Sear 1008 DO 75-6
20mm 2.9
wileyc
sear_1009.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100923 viewsObverse: ENTOTO NIKA Constans with longbeard and moustache stg, facing , wearing crown and chlamys, holding long cross and gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANNO and regnal yr (worn) K above. CON in exergue
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 655-8 CE
Sear 1009 DO 77-8
22mm 5.05gm
2 commentswileyc
sear_1010.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 101016 viewsObverse: no legend,Constans on l., Constantine IV on r, stg, facing the former with long beard and holding long cross
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr (worn) CON in exergue
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 646-8 CE
Sear 1010 DO 79-81
24/28mm 8.54gm
wileyc
sear_1010~0.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 101023 viewsObverse: no legend,Constans on l., Constantine IV on r, stg, facing the former with long beard and holding long cross
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr (worn) CON in exergue
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 646-8 CE
Sear 1010 DO 79-81
22/25mm 6.11 gm
wileyc
sear_1010~1.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 101014 viewsObverse: no legend,Constans on l., Constantine IV on r, stg, facing the former with long beard and holding long cross
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal yr (worn) CON in exergue
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 646-8 CE
Sear 1010 DO 79-81
18/21mm 2.92 gm
wileyc
2010-12-13__SB_1023-25.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 1023-5 18 viewsObverse: Bust of Constans facing with long beard earing plumed helmet possibly ornamented with cross not seen on this coin. Holding gl cr in field to rt K.
Reverse: Large M surmounted by facing bust of Constantine IV, to L., facing bust of Heraclius and that of Tiberius to r. each with crown and chlamys and gl cr . ex Theta
Mint: Thessalonica?
Date: 641-668 CE
SB 1023 or 1015 if Helmet of Contans has cross(1023) or without cross (1025)
13mm/18mm 4.95 gm
wileyc
sb_1110b.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 111012 viewsObverse: Constans on l., with long beard holds long cross, Constantine IV on r., beardless , stg. facing, each wearing crown; Constans wears military attire, hid son wears chlamys and holds gl.cr.
Reverse: Large M, above monogram 35; in ex. SCL; to l. Heraclius beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl, cr.; similar figure of Tiberius.
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 659-668
Sear 1110
15/19mm 1.82
wileyc
sb_1110a.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 111018 viewsObverse: Constans on l., with long beard holds long cross, Constantine IV on r., beardless , stg. facing, each wearing crown; Constans wears military attire, hid son wears chlamys and holds gl.cr.
Reverse: Large M, above monogram 35; in ex. SCL; to l. Heraclius beardless, stg. facing, wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl, cr.; similar figure of Tiberius.
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 659-668
Sear 1110
19mm 1.82
wileyc
sb_1569.jpg
AE follis Constantine V SB 1569 13 viewsObverse: Constantine V, bearded on l., and Leo IV beardless on r. stg facing each wearing crown and chlamys and holding akakia, between heads a cross
Reverse: Leo III bearded standing wearing crown and loros and holding crown and chlamys and holding cross potent to left.
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 741-775 CE
SB 1569 DO 19
15/20 mm 2.32gm
wileyc
sbvc1569_16mm2_06g.jpg
AE follis Constantine V SB 1569 4 viewsObverse: Constantine V, bearded on l., and Leo IV beardless on r. stg facing each wearing crown and chlamys and holding akakia, between heads a cross
Reverse: Leo III bearded standing wearing crown and loros and holding crown and chlamys and holding cross potent to left.
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 741-775 CE
SB 1569 DO 19
16 mm 2.06gm
wileyc
sbvc1569_17mm,2_91g.jpg
AE follis Constantine V SB 1569 6 viewsObverse: Constantine V, bearded on l., and Leo IV beardless on r. stg facing each wearing crown and chlamys and holding akakia, between heads a cross
Reverse: Leo III bearded standing wearing crown and loros and holding crown and chlamys and holding cross potent to left.
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 741-775 CE
SB 1569 DO 19
17mm 2.91gm
wileyc
sbvc156916_13mm1_64g.jpg
AE follis Constantine V SB 1569 9 viewsObverse: Constantine V, bearded on l., and Leo IV beardless on r. stg facing each wearing crown and chlamys and holding akakia, between heads a cross
Reverse: Leo III bearded standing wearing crown and loros and holding crown and chlamys and holding cross potent to left.
Mint: Syracuse
Date: 741-775 CE
SB 1569 DO 19
13 mm 1.64gm
wileyc
sb176123mm791g.jpg
AE follis Constantine VII SB 176129 viewsObverse: CONST bASIL ROM, crowned bust of Constantine facing, with short beard and wearing vertical loros, holding akakia and cross on globe.
Reverse: CONST / EN QEO BA / SILEVS R / OMEON, legend in four lines.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 913-959 CE
23mm, 7.91g
SB 1761, DOC 26
wileyc
sb176121mm445g.jpg
AE follis Constantine VII SB 176120 viewsObverse: CONST bASIL ROM, crowned bust of Constantine facing, with short beard and wearing vertical loros, holding akakia and cross on globe.
Reverse: CONST / EN QEO BA / SILEVS R / OMEON, legend in four lines.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 913-959 CE
21mm, 4.45g
SB 1761, DOC 26
wileyc
sb176125mm550g.jpg
AE follis Constantine VII SB 176131 viewsObverse: CONST bASIL ROM, crowned bust of Constantine facing, with short beard and wearing vertical loros, holding akakia and cross on globe.
Reverse: CONST / EN QEO BA / SILEVS R / OMEON, legend in four lines.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 913-959 CE
25mm, 5.50g
SB 1761, DOC 26
wileyc
sb176124mm502g.jpg
AE follis Constantine VII SB 176129 viewsObverse: CONST bASIL ROM, crowned bust of Constantine facing, with short beard and wearing vertical loros, holding akakia and cross on globe.
Reverse: CONST / EN QEO BA / SILEVS R / OMEON, legend in four lines.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 913-959 CE
24mm, 5.02g
SB 1761, DOC 26
1 commentswileyc
sb176126mm670g.jpg
AE follis Constantine VII SB 176127 viewsObverse: CONST bASIL ROM, crowned bust of Constantine facing, with short beard and wearing vertical loros, holding akakia and cross on globe.
Reverse: CONST / EN QEO BA / SILEVS R / OMEON, legend in four lines.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 913-959 CE
26mm, 6.70g
SB 1761, DOC 26
wileyc
sb1761_21mm501g.jpg
AE follis Constantine VII SB 176141 viewsObverse: CONST bASIL ROM, crowned bust of Constantine facing, with short beard and wearing vertical loros, holding akakia and cross on globe.
Reverse: CONST / EN QEO BA / SILEVS R / OMEON, legend in four lines.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 913-959 CE
21mm, 5.01g
SB 1761, DOC 26
1 commentswileyc
sb1854_26mm_914g.jpg
AE follis Constantine X SBVC 1854 15 viewsObverse: +EMMANOVHA Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, and raising r. hand in benediction; in l. hand, book of Gospels to l., IC ro r., XC
Reverse: +KWN RACIAEVC O (delta)OVK. or very similar. Bust facing bearded, wearing crown and loros, and holding cross and akakia.
Date: 1059-1067 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 1854 DO 9
26mm 9.14 gm
wileyc
sb80426mm1015gyr3Goff.jpg
AE follis Heraclius SB 80432 viewsObverse: DN hRACLIYS PERP AVD or similar Cuir. bust facing. bearded, wearing crown or sometime plumed helmet. Holding gl. cr. and shield.
Reverse: Cross above, Large M between ANNO and numerals representing the regnal yr. I/II yr 3, Officina yr below (gamma), con in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 612/3 CE
Sear 804
26mm, 10.15gm
wileyc
sb80534mm1106gyr3Doff.jpg
Ae follis Heraclius SB 80529 viewsObverse: dd NN hERACLIYS ET hERA> CONST PP A or similar often overstruck as in this coin though on reverse. Heraclius, bearded on l., and Heraclius Constantine on r. stg facing each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr. or occasionally long cross in rt hand; between their heads, cross.
Reverse: As last but sometimes with chi Rho rt facing as in this coin, sometimes with cross, Large M between ANNO and numerals representing the regnal yr. II/II yr 4, Officina yr below (gamma), con in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 613/4 CE
Sear 805
34mm, 11.06gm
wileyc
sb805yr532mm11_57g.jpg
AE follis Heraclius SB 80539 viewsObverse: dd NN hERACLIYS ET hERA> CONST PP A or similar often overstruck as in this coin though on reverse. Heraclius, bearded on l., and Heraclius Constantine on r. stg facing each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr. or occasionally long cross in rt hand; between their heads, cross.
Reverse: As last but sometimes with chi Rho rt facing as in this coin, sometimes with cross, Large M between ANNO and numerals representing the regnal yr. U yr %, Officina yr below (gamma), con in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 614/5 CE
Sear 805
32mm, 11.57gm
wileyc
sb805yr437mm12_40.jpg
AE follis Heraclius SB 80521 viewsObverse: dd NN hERACLIYS ET hERA> CONST PP A or similar often overstruck as in this coin though on reverse. Heraclius, bearded on l., and Heraclius Constantine on r. stg facing each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr. or occasionally long cross in rt hand; between their heads, cross.
Reverse: As last but sometimes with chi Rho rt facing as in this coin, sometimes with cross, Large M between ANNO and numerals representing the regnal yr. II (2), Officina yr below (A), con in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 613/4 CE
Sear 805
37mm, 12.40gm
wileyc
sbyr3805_34_30mm10_16g.jpg
AE follis Heraclius SB 80513 viewsObverse: dd NN hERACLIYS ET hERA> CONST PP A or similar often overstruck as in this coin though on reverse. Heraclius, bearded on l., and Heraclius Constantine on r. stg facing each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr. or occasionally long cross in rt hand; between their heads, cross.
Reverse: As last but sometimes with chi Rho rt facing as in this coin, sometimes with cross, Large M between ANNO and numerals representing the regnal yr. U yr %, Officina yr below (gamma), con in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 614/5 CE
Sear 805
34mm, 10.16gm
wileyc
sb805_yr4_25mm782g.jpg
AE follis Heraclius SB 80516 viewsObverse: dd NN hERACLIYS ET hERA> CONST PP A or similar often overstruck as in this coin though on reverse. Heraclius, bearded on l., and Heraclius Constantine on r. stg facing each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr. or occasionally long cross in rt hand; between their heads, cross.
Reverse: As last but sometimes with chi Rho rt facing as in this coin, sometimes with cross, Large M between ANNO and numerals representing the regnal yr. II/II yr 4, Officina yr below (gamma), con in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 613/4 CE
Sear 805
25mm, 7.82gm
wileyc
sb805yr4_delta_25mm1025g.jpg
AE follis Heraclius SB 80515 viewsObverse: dd NN hERACLIYS ET hERA> CONST PP A or similar often overstruck as in this coin though on reverse. Heraclius, bearded on l., and Heraclius Constantine on r. stg facing each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr. or occasionally long cross in rt hand; between their heads, cross.
Reverse: As last but sometimes with chi Rho rt facing as in this coin, sometimes with cross, Large M between ANNO and numerals representing the regnal yr. II/11 (4), Officina yr below (Delta), con in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 615/6 CE
Sear 805
25mm, 10.25
wileyc
sb806_yr9_22mm543g.jpg
AE follis Heraclius SB 80612 viewsObverse: No legend, Heraclius in centre, Heraclius Constantine on r., and Empress Martina on L. all standing each wearing a crown and chlamys, holding a gl. cr. in r. hand. Two crosses in field either side of Heraclius head.
Reverse: Cross above, Large M between ANNO and numerals representing the regnal yr. GII (8), Officina yr below (delta), con in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 616/7 CE
Sear 804
22mm, 5.43gm
wileyc
sear_806.jpg
AE follis Heraclius, SB 80629 viewsObverse: Heraclius in center, Heraclius Constantine on r., and the Empress MArtina on l, all stg facing; each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr. in r. hand two crosses in field either side of Heraclius head
Reverse: Large M between ANNO and regnal yr (x,II,I) cross above, CON in ex
Mint: Constantinople
Date:622/3 CE
Sear 806 DO 89-91
25mm 6.74gm
Sear notes that this type is normally overstruck on folles of Phocas or less frequently on those of earlier reigns
Mint
wileyc
sear_808.jpg
AE follis Heraclius, SB 80822 viewsObverse: Heraclius in center, Heraclius Constantine on r., and the Empress MArtina on l, all stg facing; each wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr. in r. hand two crosses in field either side of Heraclius head
Reverse: Large M, ANNO above, Monogram 23 or 24 to l., regnal yr to rt (X,GI,II)
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 628/9 CE
Sear 808 DO 99-103
28 mm 5.29 gm
Sear notes that this type is normally overstruck on coins of Maurice Tiberius or Phocas and often on half folles rather than folles due to the much reduced module of this issue. The weight of 5.29gm is indicative of this
wileyc
sear_810.jpg
AE follis Heraclius, SB 81023 viewsObverse: No legend, Heraclius on l., Heraclius Constantine on r. both stg. facing cross between heads, Heraclius wears a crown and military dress, holds long cross and has a moustache and long beard. his son on r. has short beard, wears a crown and chlamys, holding a gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal year XX, c surmounted by cross above, Officina letter A below, CON in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 629/30 CE
Sear 810 DO 105-16
25mm 7.76gm
wileyc
sear_810~0.jpg
AE follis Heraclius, SB 81022 viewsObverse: Heraclius on l., Heraclius Constantine on r., stg facing, cross above their heads; Heraclius wears crown and military dress, holds long cross, and has a moustache and long beard; his son with short beard, wears crown and chlamys and holds gl, cr.
Reverse: Large M between ANNO and regnal year (blundered) Monogram 25 above
Mint: Constantinople
Date 619-630 CE
Sear 810 DO 105-16
28mm 6.98 gm
wileyc
sb81024mm610g.jpg
AE follis Heraclius, SB 81029 viewsObverse: No legend, Heraclius on l., Heraclius Constantine on r. both stg. facing cross between heads, Heraclius wears a crown and military dress, holds long cross and has a moustache and long beard. his son on r. has short beard, wears a crown and chlamys, holding a gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal year XX, c surmounted by cross above, Officina letter A below, CON in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 629/30 CE
Sear 810 DO 105-16
24mm 6.10gm
wileyc
sb810_24_20mm_6_08G.jpg
AE follis Heraclius, SB 81018 viewsObverse: No legend, Heraclius on l., Heraclius Constantine on r. both stg. facing cross between heads, Heraclius wears a crown and military dress, holds long cross and has a moustache and long beard. his son on r. has short beard, wears a crown and chlamys, holding a gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M, between ANNO and regnal year XX, c surmounted by cross above, Officina letter A below, CON in ex.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: off flan
Sear 810 DO 105-16
20mm 6.08ggm
wileyc
sb834yr725mm745g.jpg
AE follis Heraclius, SB 834 26 viewsObverse: Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine, dd NN hERACLIVS ET hERA CON, Heraclius, on left and Heraclius Constantine on right, cross between their heads, each wearing crown and chlamys and each holding cross on globe
Reverse:Large M, ANNO to left, cross or chi-rho above, regnal year to right GI (7), officina letter below "delta" mintmark NIKO.
Mint: Nicomedia
Date: 616/7 CE
Sear 834
25mm, 7.45g
wileyc
s_849a.jpg
AE follis Heraclius, SB 84930 viewsObv: No legand. Heralius , H. Constantine and Empress MArtina all stg. facing wearing crown and chlamys, holding gl. cr. in rt hand.
Reverse: Large M between ANNO and regnal yr XUII officina below M gamma, KVIIP in exergue
Mint: Cyprus?
Date 626/7 CE
17/27mm 4.51gm
Sear 849 DO 184-5
wileyc
s_849.jpg
AE follis Heraclius, SB 84925 viewsOverstruck on unk coin
Obv: No legand. Heralius , H. Constantine and Empress MArtina all stg. facing wearing crown and chlamys, holding gl. cr. in rt hand.
Reverse: Lg M ANNO to l., unk regnal yr to rt
Mint: Cyprus?
Date:627-30 CE
16/26mm 4.37gm
Sear 849 DO 184-5
wileyc
sb6234mm1533gjpg.jpg
AE follis Justin I SB 6229 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large M between star star var pellets above and below each star, cross above, CON exergue.
Officina letter "E" below M
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 62
Date: 518-527 AG
34mm 15.33gm
wileyc
sb6237mm1812.jpg
AE follis Justin I SB 6240 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINIANVS PP AVG Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large M between star and star, cross above, CON exergue.
Officina letter "E" below M
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 62
Date: 518-527 AG
37mm 18.12gm
1 commentswileyc
sb8330mm1819g.jpg
AE follis Justin I SB 8326 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: Large M, star to left, cross above, star to right, officina letter A below, mintmark NIKM.
Date: 518-527 CE
SB 83 DOC 28
30mm, 18.19
DHC
wileyc
s_62.jpg
AE follis Justin I, SB 6231 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large M star r. and l., cross above, CON exergue.
Officina letter "A" below M
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 62 DO 8
Date: 518-527 AG
30mm 14.47gm
wileyc
s_62a.jpg
AE follis Justin I, SB 6227 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large M star r. and l., cross above, CON exergue.
Officina letter "B" below M
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 62 DO 8
Date: 518-527 AG
30mm 15.87gm
wileyc
s_63.jpg
AE follis Justin I, SB 6226 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large M between star and cross, cross above, CON exergue.
Officina letter "Gamma" below M
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 63 DO 9,10
Date: 518-527 AG
28 /31mm 15.88gm
wileyc
sb6231mm1803g.jpg
AE follis Justin I, SB 6223 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large M star r. and l., cross above, CON exergue.
Officina letter "E" below M
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 62 DO 8
Date: 518-527 AG
31mm 18.03gm
wileyc
s_64.jpg
AE follis Justin I, SB6415 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG Diad., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Reverse: Large M between two crosses, CON exergue.
Officina letter "E" below M
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 64, DO 11
Date: 518-527 AD
29mm 14.63 gm
wileyc
sb378_33mm1388gyr1~0.jpg
AE Follis Justin II 37823 viewsObv: Legend usually blundered, helmeted and cuir, bust facing holding globe with victory and shield., to right a cross.
Rev: LArge M, cross above, to left ANNO to right yr (I) 1.
Date: 565/6 CE
Mint Theoupolis (Antioch)
SB 378
33mm, 13.88g
wileyc
sear_360_Justin_II.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 36038 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on L., and Sophia, on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between heads.
Reverse: Large M between ANNP and regnal year (U) yr 5, cross above, officina letter "delta" below, In ex. CON.
Date: 569/70 CE
Mint: constantinople
Sear 360 DO 22-43
29mm 12.35 gm
wileyc
sear_360a_Justin_II.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 36029 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on L., and Sophia, on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between heads.
Reverse: Large M between ANNP and regnal year (GII) yr 8, Chi rho above, officina letter "A" below, In ex. CON.
Date: 572/3 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 360 DO 22-43
29mm 15.87 gm
wileyc
sear_360c.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 36034 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on L., and Sophia, on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between heads.
Reverse: Large M between ANNP and regnal year (I) yr 1, cross above, officina letter "E" below, In ex. CON.
Date: 565/6 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 360 DO 22-43
29mm 14.19 gm
wileyc
sear_360.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 36034 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on l., and Sophia on r. Both seated facing on double throne, nimbate, he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Reverse: Large M between ANNO and regnal yr (GI) 7, officina letter E below, CON in ex. cross above
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 571/2 CE
Sear 360 DO 22-43
29mm 13.86gm
wileyc
sb360yr3_30mm1519g.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 360 yr 335 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar), Justin on l., and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between their heads
Reverse: Large M, ANNO to l., cross above, regal yr III to rt, CON in exergue.
Date: 567/8 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 360
30mm 15.19gm
wileyc
sb360_yr6_25mm406g.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 360 yr 618 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar), Justin on l., and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between their heads
Reverse: Large M, ANNO to l., unusual chi rho above, regal yr G (6) to rt, CON in exergue.
Date: 570/1 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 360
25mm 14.06g
wileyc
sear_361.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 36127 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar), Justin on l., and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between thier heads.
Reverse: Large K, cross above ANNO to l., regnal year to rt (IIII), officina letter "delta" below.
Date: 568/9 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 361 DO 44-58
21mm 5.27gm
wileyc
sear_361~0.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 36130 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar), Justin on l., and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between thier heads.
Reverse: Large K, cross above ANNO to l., regnal year to rt (IIII), officina letter "delta" below.
Date: 568/9 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 361 DO 44-58
22mm 6.78 gm
wileyc
sb36123mm679gyr6.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 36129 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar), Justin on l., and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between thier heads.
Reverse: Large K, cross above ANNO to l., regnal year to rt, yr 6 (G), officina letter "delta" below.
Date: 570/1 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 361 DO 44-58
21mm 5.27gm
wileyc
sb361_yr123mm683g.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 36122 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar), Justin on l., and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between thier heads.
Reverse: Large K, cross above ANNO to l., regnal year to rt, yr 1 (I), officina letter "delta" below.
Date: 565/6 CE CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 361 DO 44-58
23mm 6.83g
wileyc
sb361_yr123mm8_41g.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 36128 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar), Justin on l., and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre; rarely with cross between thier heads.
Reverse: Large K, cross above ANNO to l., regnal year to rt, yr 1 (I), officina letter "B" below.
Date: 565/6 CE
Mint: Constantinople
Sear 361 DO 44-58
23mm 8.41gm
wileyc
sear_369.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 36949 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG ( or similar) Justin on L., Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre sometimes with a cross between thier heads.
Reverse: Large M between ANNO and regnal yr XI cross above in exergus NIKO
Mint: Nicomedia
Date: 574-575 CE
Sear; 369 DO 92-103
28mm 11.31 gm
2 commentswileyc
sb36930mm1313gyr6Aoff.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 369 A, yr 631 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on l., and Sophia on r. Both seated facing on double throne, nimbate, he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre.
Reverse: ANNO to l., cross above Lg. M, A officinae, yr 6 NIKO in ex.
Date: 570/1 CE
Sear 369, DO 92-103
30mm, 13.13 gm
wileyc
sb36930mm1269gyr64.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 369 A, yr 635 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on l., and Sophia on r. Both seated facing on double throne, nimbate, he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre.
Reverse: ANNO to l., cross above Lg. M, A officinae, yr 6 NIKO in ex.
Date: 570/1 CE
Sear 369, DO 92-103
30mm, 12.69 gm
wileyc
sb369yr109mm1255g.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 369 Off A, regnal yr 1026 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on l., and Sophia on r. Both seated facing on double throne, nimbate, he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre.
Reverse: ANNO to l., cross above Lg. M, A officinae, regnal yr X(10) NIKO in ex.
Date: 574/5 CE
Sear 369, DO 92-103
29mm, 12.55 gm
wileyc
sb369yr1130mm1353g.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 369 Off A, regnal yr 1121 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on l., and Sophia on r. Both seated facing on double throne, nimbate, he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre.
Reverse: ANNO to l., cross above Lg. M, A officinae, regnal yr XI (11) NIKO in ex.
Date: 575/6 CE
Sear 369, DO 92-103
30mm, 13.53 gm
wileyc
sb36929mm1300gdh.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 369 Off A, regnal yr 3 38 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on l., and Sophia on r. Both seated facing on double throne, nimbate, he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre.
Reverse: ANNO to l., cross above Lg. M, B officinae, yr 3 NIKO in ex.
Date: 567/8 CE
Sear 369, DO 92-103
29mm, 13.00 gm
wileyc
sb369yr930mm1247g.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 369 Off A, regnal yr 919 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on l., and Sophia on r. Both seated facing on double throne, nimbate, he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre.
Reverse: ANNO to l., cross above Lg. M, B officinae, regnal yr GIII (9) NIKO in ex.
Mint:Nicomedia
Date: 573/ CE
Sear 369, DO 92-103
30mm, 12.47 gm
wileyc
sb369.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 369 Off B,regnal yr 629 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on l., and Sophia on r. Both seated facing on double throne, nimbate, he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre.
Reverse: ANNO to l., cross above Lg. M, B officinae, yr 6 NIKO in ex.
Date: 570/1 CE
Sear 369, DO 92-103
30mm, 12.42 gm
wileyc
sb36928mmm1342gyr3Boff.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 369 yr 8 off B30 viewsObverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin, on l., and Sophia on r. Both seated facing on double throne, nimbate, he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre.
Reverse: ANNO to l., cross above Lg. M, A officinae, yr 8 NIKO in ex.
Date: 573/4 CE
Sear 369, DO 92-103
29mm, 13.00 gm
wileyc
sb366_yr5_569_70ce_20mm4_88.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 369, regnal yr 5 (H)20 viewsReverse: DN IVSTINVS PP AVG (or similar) Justin L, Sophia r. he holds gl. cr., she holds cruciform sceptre
Obverse: Large K., between ANNO and regnal yr 5 (delta) TES below, above cross
Date: 574/5 CE
Mint: Thessalonica
Sear 366 DO 65-85
20mm 4.88 gm
wileyc
sb372_28mm_158g.jpg
AE Follis Justin II SB 37215 viewsObverse:DN IVSTINVS PP AVG, Justin at left, Sophia at right, seated facing on double-throne, both nimbate, Justin holding cross on globe, Sophia holding sceptre topped with cross, sometimes with cross between their heads.
Reverse:Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, officina letter A below, regnal year to right (GIII) 13.
Mint: Cyzicus
Date: 573/4 CE
Sear 372
18mm, 10.60g
caw
wileyc
sb372yr935mm1385g.jpg
AE Follis Justin II SB 37221 viewsObverse:DN IVSTINVS PP AVG, Justin at left, Sophia at right, seated facing on double-throne, both nimbate, Justin holding cross on globe, Sophia holding sceptre topped with cross, sometimes with cross between their heads.
Reverse:Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, officina letter A below, regnal year to right (GIII) 13.
Mint: Cyzicus
Date: 573/4 CE
Sear 372
35mm, 13.85g
DHC
wileyc
sb378_33mm1388gyr1.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 378, regnal yr 122 viewsObverse: Legend usually blundered, Helmeted and cuir. bust facing, holding globe with victory on top, and shield to rt., cross above on rt.
Reverse:Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year to right I (1), star above and below , officina letter below Gamma Mint mark in exergue THEUP'
Date: 565/6 CE
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Sear 378
33mm, 13.88g
wileyc
sb379yr1130mm1500g.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 379, regnal yr 1135 viewsObverse: Legend usually blundered, Justin left and Sophia right, seated facing on double-throne, both nimbate, each holding a long sceptre (sometimes topped by a cross) and, between them, a cross on globe
Reverse:Large M, ANNO to left, cross above, regnal year to right XI (11) , officina letter below Gamma Mint mark in exergue THEUP'
Date: 575/6 CE
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Sear 379
30mm, 15.00g
1 commentswileyc
sb38125mm663g.jpg
AE follis Justin II SB 381, regnal yr 427 viewsObverse: Justin on L., and Sophia on r., seated facing on double throne, both nimbate; they hold between them globe surmounted by large cross, and each holds long sceptre. sometimes cruciform.
Reverse: Large K between ANNO , and regnal yr IIII=4, on r. broken R below
Date: 568/9 CE
Mint: Theoupolis (Antioch)
Sear 381
25mm, 6.63g

wileyc
sb379yr8_31mm_12_74g.png
AE follis Justin II SBC 379 regnal yr 8 (