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Search results - "S/R/--,"
VESPASR01D+R.jpg
21 viewsVespasianus - DenariusRugser
VESPASR02D+R.jpg
23 viewsVespasianus - DenariusRugser
VespasR03C00DaR.jpg
83 viewsVespasianus - DenariusRugser
VESPASR04denplaD+R.jpg
95 viewsVespasianus - Denarius plaqued1 commentsRugser
CONTIUS2-3.jpg
87 viewsConstantius II - Majorina - 351/361 - Mint of Sirmio
Ob.: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG; diademed, draped and cuirassed busrt right. Δ in left field
Rev.: FEL TEMP REPARATIO; soldier spearing fallen horseman. In ex ASIRM
gs. 4,4 mm. 24
Cohen 44
Maxentius
DECEN-1.jpg
20 viewsDECENTIVS - AE Centenionalis - Lugdunum mint - 351/353
Obv.:DN DECENTIVS NOB CAES, cuirassed bust right
Rev.: VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAE, two Victories standing facing holding shield inscribed VOT V MVLT X, *SV in central field. SRLG in ex.
Gs. 4,7 mm. 21,2
Cohen 43
Maxentius
Antoninusrev.jpg
180 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138-161
AE – Sestertius
Rome, 145-161 AD
Head, laureate, r.
ANTONINVS PIVS PP TR P
Pax standing l., setting fire with torch to heap of arms and holding cornucopiae
COS IIII, PAX AVG in field, SC in exergue
RIC 777
C
Ardatirion
faustina-sr_AE-As_11_0gr_obv_02.jpg
33 viewsAntoninus Pius
Empress Faustina Sr.(138-141 AD)
Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD)

Bronze Dupondius or As, Most Likely an As.
Rome Mint

obv: DIVA FAVSTINA - Draped bust right
rev: AETERNITAS - Aeternitas seated left on starry globe, right hand outstretched, left hand holding sceptre. SC in exergue.

11.0 Grams
rexesq
faustina-sr_AE-As_11_0gr_obv_08_rev_09_93%.JPG
32 viewsEmpress Faustina Sr.(138-141 AD)
Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD)

Bronze Dupondius or As, Most Likely an As.
Rome Mint

obv: DIVA FAVSTINA - Draped bust right
rev: AETERNITAS - Aeternitas seated left on starry globe, right hand outstretched, left hand holding sceptre. SC in exergue.

11.0 Grams
1 commentsrexesq
BRD_10_D-Mark_1972_J_Olympia_München_PP_Proof_Polierte_Platte.jpg
18 viewsBundesrepublik Deutschland

10 D-Mark 1972 (Silber)

Münzstätte Hamburg

Olympiade München 1972

Gewicht: 15,5g

Erhaltung: leicht angelaufen, Polierte Platte _1699
Antonivs Protti
IndoSassSriHa.jpg
33 viewsSpongeBob
Denarius_111-110.jpg
15 viewsDenarius
Appius Claudius Pulcher, T Manlius Mancinus & Q Urbinus
Mint: Rome
111-110 BCE

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, right; behind, mark (circle within a triangle); border of dots
Reverse: Victory in triga right, holding reins in both hands, one horse looking back; AP CL T MAL Q VR in exergue; border of dots

Crawford (RRC) 299/1a
Sydenham 570
RSC I Mallia 1
SRCV I 176
Shea B
Denarius_206-195.jpg
16 viewsDenarius
Anonymous
Mint: Rome
206-195 BCE

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, right; behind, denominational mark (X); border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri galloping, right; below, mark (eight-rayed star); Roma in exergue; line border

Crawford (RRC) 113/1
Sydenham 263
RSC I 20gg
BM 457
SRCV I 54
Shea B
Album-719_1.jpg
14 viewsFATIMID: al-Mustansir, 1036-1094, AV dinar (4.08g), Misr, AH429. A-719.1. Nicol-2104. Quant.Geek
4170540A.jpg
7 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 3rd century BC–1st century AD. Lot of two (2) terracotta tokens. All coins: circular terracotta pieces incised with four lines at 90 degree angles on either side. (20mm, 2.43 g) and (16.5mm, 1.88 g). Ruhana N.13. Quant.Geek
4170540B.jpg
10 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 3rd century BC–1st century AD. Lot of two (2) terracotta tokens. All coins: circular terracotta pieces incised with four lines at 90 degree angles on either side. (20mm, 2.43 g) and (16.5mm, 1.88 g). Ruhana N.13. Quant.Geek
4170542.jpg
10 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 2nd century BC–2nd century AD. Æ 'Lakshmi plaque' (9.5x14.5mm, 1.18 g). Goddess standing facing, holding lotus and two stalks / [Railed swastika]. Ruhuna H.48; cf. MACW 5048ffQuant.Geek
4170541.jpg
13 viewsSRI LANKA (CEYLON), Native coinages. Kingdom of Ruhuna. Circa 2nd century BC–2nd century AD. Æ 'Lakshmi plaque' (11x22mm, 2.84 g, 6h). Goddess standing facing, holding lotus and two stalks / Railed swastika. Ruhuna H.40; cf. MACW 5048ffQuant.Geek
Philip_I_antelope_right_VI_june_22_2018.jpg
25 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC IV 22 (R2), RSC IV 188, SRCV III 8959 var. (antelope left), Hunter III 48 var. (same), Choice aEF, excellent centering on a broad flan, excellent portrait, light toning, some luster, strike slightly soft/flat, some die wear, 6th officina, Rome mint, weight 4.402g, maximum diameter 23.8mm, die axis 0o, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SAECVLARES AVGG, antelope walking right, VI in exergue; very rare with antelope right (only two on Coin Archives and one sold for $700!; ex Beast Coins; Ex Forum coin and picture1 commentspaul1888
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c.jpg
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, 64 – 12 BCE27 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
Sold 5-2018
NORMAN K
Silver_drachm_of_King_Kumaragupta_I_(414_-_455_AD),_Gupta_Empire.jpg
Silver drachm of King Kumaragupta I (414 - 455 AD), Gupta Empire32 viewsBust of king, right / Formalized Garuda standing facing with spread wings. In Brahmi:'Parama-bhagavata rajahiraja Sri Kumaragupta Mahendraditya'. 14 mm, 2.2 grams. Mitchiner ACW 4845 - 4854.Antonio Protti
Julia_Soaemias_RIC_243~0.jpg
29.4 Julia Soaemias52 viewsJULIA SOAEMIAS,
AR denarius, Rome (2.8g)

IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus diademed seated left on throne, apple in right, scepter in left, child at her feet

SRCV II 7720, RIC IV 243, RSC III 14 EF
Ex Blanchard & Co. - Control # 72454
3 commentsSosius
Florian_RIC_116v_no_2.jpg
5 Florian25 viewsFLORIAN Jun-Aug 276 A.D.
AE Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint.
IMP FLORIANVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MILITVM, Victory presenting wreath to Florian standing left, V in ex.
Cohen 15. RIC 116v.; Sr 11853. VF+
Sosius
rjb_car535_01_07.jpg
53541 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
"Denarius"
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "ADVENTVS AVG"
Emperor on horseback left, captive at feet
London mint?
-/-/RSR
RIC 535
mauseus
rjb_2017_09_02.jpg
55417 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
"Denarius"
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "EXPECTATE VENI"
Carausius greeted by Britannia
London mint?
-/-/RSR
RIC 554
mauseus
554cf.jpg
554cf112 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
"Denarius"
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "EXPECTATE VENI"
Carausius greeted by Britannia
London mint?
-/-/RSR?
RIC 554 (figures reversed on reverse)
mauseus
rjb_car1_12_07.jpg
560cf53 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE laureate
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "FELICITAS AVG"?
Galley left
London mint?
-/-/RSR
RIC - (cf 560)
A possible trial strike on a thick, heavy flan (approx. 7 grammes). The small obverse die probably from a "denarius", the larger reverse from an antoninianus
mauseus
rjb_2012_10_24.jpg
560cf27 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Laureate
Obv "[.....] CARAVSI[.........]"
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "[FELICITAS A]VG"
Galley right
RSR mint?
RIC - (cf 560, 607)
mauseus
rjb_2012_10_26.jpg
571bis47 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
"Denarius"
Obv "[IM]P CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "[P]RINC IVVE[NT]"
Carausius standinding left holding two standards
London mint?
-/-/RSR
RIC -
mauseus
rjb_car_571cf_07_06.jpg
571cf49 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
"Denarius"
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "RENOVA ROM"
Wolf and twins right
London mint?
-/-/RSR
RIC - (cf 571)
mauseus
rjb_car_587cf_02_06.jpg
587cf80 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
"Denarius"
Obv "......AVSIVS PE A"
Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "VBERVTA ....."
Cow standing right being milked
London mint (?)
-/-/RSR
RIC - (cf 587-8)
mauseus
rjb_car_tetus_06_06.jpg
591cf57 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Antoninianus
Obv: "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "TETVS AVG"
Lion springing left
London mint (?)
-/-//RSR
RIC - (cf 591)
Overstruck on a Victorinus antoninianus, reverse VIRTVS AVG
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_car_603cf.jpg
603cf43 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv " IMP CARAVSIVS P AV"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "CONCOR MI"
Clasped hands
London Mint?
-/-//RSR
RIC - (cf 603)
mauseus
rjb_car_hands_06_06.jpg
604cf45 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS P AV"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "CONCORD MILIT"
Clasped Hands
London mint?
-/-//RSR
RIC - (cf 604)
mauseus
exp_ant1.jpg
605cf57 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS AVG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "EXPECTATE"
Carausius greeting Britannia
London mint?
-/-//RSR?
RIC - (cf 605)
mauseus
rjb_car_605.jpg
605cf45 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "(IMP CARAVSIVS P)F AV"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "EXPECTATE VENI"
Britannia and Carausius clasping hands
London mint?
[RSR]?
RIC - (cf 605)
mauseus
rjb_2019_05_02.jpg
606cf6 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "FELICITA AV"
Galley left
London mint?
-/-/SRS
RIC - (cf 606ff)
mauseus
rjb_2018_11_06.jpg
6107 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "MONETA AVG"
Moneta standing left holding scales and cornucopia
London mint?
RSR
RIC 610
mauseus
rjb_2018_11_02.jpg
610cf11 viewsCarausius 287-93 AD
AE antoninianus
Obv "[IMP (C?) CARAVSIV]S AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "MONETA AVG"
Moneta standing left holding scales and cornucopia
London mint?
RSR
RIC - (cf 610)
mauseus
rjb_car_opies_07_07.jpg
611cf27 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Antoninianus
Obv: "IMP CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "OPIES . X [.....]X"
Sol standing left raising arm and holding globe
London mint (?)
*/-//RSR
RIC - (cf 611)
mauseus
rjb_2015_07_s08.jpg
61221 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IM[P CARAVSIVS PF A]VG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "RENOVA [ROMANO]"
Wolf & twins right
London mint?
-/-//RSR
RIC 612
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_car_615cf_replace.jpg
615cf63 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev "ROMANO RENOVA"
Wolf & twins right
London mint?
-/-//RSR
RIC - (cf 615)
mauseus
rjb_car_584cf_07_05.jpg
617-8cf54 viewsCarausius 287-93
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVS....."
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VVEBTAS AVG"
Cow standing right being milked
London Mint (?)
-/-/RSR
RIC - (cf 617-8, also 581-8 for variant reverse spellings on the "denarius")
mauseus
620cf.jpg
620cf70 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Antoninianus
Obv: "IMP CARAVSIVS......."
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "VOTO PVBLICO MVLTIS XX IMP"
Flaming altar
London mint (?)
-/-//RSR
RIC - (cf620)
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2009_10_13.jpg
835cf25 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "VICTORIA CARAVSI A"
Radiate, cuirassed bust right with spear & shield
Rev "LITiTI AV"
Laetitia/Pax stg left with vertical sceptre
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 835ff, also see RIC 786 for similar obverse)

Obverse die duplicate of two coins in the British Museum, one from the Little Orme hoard (no mintmark in exergue) the other with RSR in the exergue
mauseus
39792q00.jpg
AHG 234 . The Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Gallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.23 viewsGallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.
Billon antoninianus . 2.927g, 19.7mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 254 - 255 A.D.
Obverse : IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse VICTORIAE AVGG, soldier standing right, vertical spear in right, resting left on shield
Göbl MIR 1566d (Antioch), SRCV III 10397 (Antioch), RIC V 300 (Viminacium), AHG 234 (this coin)
From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Ex Forum
Vladislav D
55535q00.jpg
AHG 272 . The Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Salonina, August 254 - c. September 268 A.D.21 viewsSalonina, August 254 - c. September 268 A.D.
Billon antoninianus . 2.763g, 20.1mm, 0o, Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.
Obverse : CORN SALONINA AVG, diademed and draped bust right, crescent behind
Reverse : CONCORDIA AVGG, emperor and empress standing confronted, clasping hands
Göbl MIR 1691p (Samosata), SRCV III 10630 (uncertain Syrian mint), RIC V 63 (Antioch), Cohen 31, AHG 272 (this coin)
From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Ex Forum
Vladislav D
DSC01462.JPG
DELHI-SULTAN-GANI-COIN-RARE-BILLON-COIN16 viewsINDIA - DELHI SULTAN - ALA UD DIN KHILJI - TWO GANI (AH 695-715) BILLON COIN

REF: D233, DENOMINATION: 2 GANI, COMPOSITION: BILLON, WEIGHT: 3.4 GRAM SIZE: 14.48 MM

OBVERSE: AL SULTAN AL A ZAM ALA AL DUNYA WA L DIN

REVERSE: MUHAMMAD SHAH IN CENTER SRI SULTAN ALAVADININ NAGARI AROUND

RULER: ALA AL DIN MUHAMMAD: AH 695-715 /1296-1316 AD
Antonivs Protti
45448q00.jpg
Gallic 3 Marius, May - August or September 269 A.D.22 viewsBronze antoninianus, Schulzki AGK 8a, Mairat 238, SRCV III 11123, RIC V 17, aEF, rev a bit weak, 2.822g, 19.5mm, 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, 2nd emission; obverse IMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICT-O-R-IA AVG, Victory standing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left; nice portrait, nice dark sea-green patina, slightly irregular flan; scarce

Purchased from FORVM
1 commentsSosius
1390_L_Senticius.jpg
L. Sentius C.f. - AR denarius6 views²96 BC
¹101 BC
Rome
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
(AR)G·PVB
Jupiter in quadriga right, holding scepter, thunderbolt and reins
D
L·SENTI·C·F
¹Crawford 325/1b, SRCV I203, Sydenham 600, RSC I Sentia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,00g
ex Gorny & Mosch

Moneyer held praetorship in 93-89 BC.
Johny SYSEL
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_910_Tumanbay_II.jpg
Mamluks (Bahri). `Ali II (al-Mansur `Ala al-Din Ali) (778-783 A.H. = 1377-1381 A.D.)10 viewsBalog 509 Plate XX 509a-b; SNAT Hamah 632-634; Album 963

AE fals, Hamah mint, undated; 1.63 g., 18.50 mm. max.

Obv.: Field divided by two horizontal lines of dots. الملك المنصور (al-Malik al-Manusr) / tentatively ضرب طرابلس (duriba Tripoli per Balog but Hamah mint per SNAT)

Rev. Six-petaled flower, resembling a lotus, petals forming a counter-clockwise whorl.

Ali was the son of Sha'ban II and the great-grandson of Muhammad I. He was installed as sultan at age nine upon the death of his father in a revolt. He died four years later.

Attribution courtesy of Mervin.
Stkp
maxmem.jpg
Maximianus, AE4 Memorial 22 views
Maximianus 317-318 CE.
Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO OPTIMO IMP, veiled & laureate, bust right.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIM-ORVM MERITORVM, Emperor sitting left on curule chair, raising right hand, holding scepter.
TSR ??? in ex. Uncertain mint, 16.4 mm., .8 g.
NORMAN K
OMKARA.jpg
Paramaras of Malwa, c. 1150 - 1300 CE (Omkara)16 viewsSilver drachm of the Paramaras of Malwa, c. 1150 - 1300 CE (12MM / 4.32 gr)
Mint- Omkara Mandhata Monastery, Malwa;
Obverse: Degenerated Indo-Sasanian style bust, Brahmi letter "ja" in left field, circle in front of bust .
Reverse: Crude fire altar with legend Sri Omkara on shaft.
MNI 436-440
Paul R3
FSr5.jpg
ΘΕΑ ΦΑΥΣΤΕΙΝΑ67 viewsAE 17mm 138-161AD
Obv - ΘΕΑ ΦΑΥΣΤΕΙΝΑ- Veiled and draped bust right
Rev - ΤΥΧΗ ΝΕΑΣ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΗ ΒΟΣΤΡΑ - turreted Tyche standing, facing, head, facing (or l. or r.), holding spear, resting l. hand on hip, (resting foot on swimming river-god)
Reference - Spijkerman 11(2),12 and 13, BMC 7-9
Mint - Bostra, Arabia
aragon6
DSC_0195.jpg
74 viewsINDONESIA, Kingdom of Srivijaya.
7th-13th centuries AD
Æ (17mm, 0.32 g).
Cirebon or Tegal area. Struck in the early 11th century
Xian Ping Yuan Bao in crude Hànzì
Blank
Zeno 124661


The kingdom of Srivijaya (San Fo Chi, in Chinese) apparently petitioned the Emperor Zhēnzōng of China, seeking protection from the Chola Kingdom and permission to strike coins. This type, known only from recent finds near Palembang, likely represents the earliest native coinage of that area.
1 commentsArdatirion
byzantine_tessera.jpg
32 viewsBYZANTINE. Simaias and Xenon. Circa 6th century AD
PB Tessera (20mm, 7.24 g, 12 h)
Block monogram: CIMAIAC
Block monogram: XENΩNOC
BLS -; DOCBS -

Found in Israel
Ardatirion
nerva.jpg
(0096) NERVA15 views96 - 98 AD
struck 97 AD
Copper as, 28.3 mm; 10.735 g RIC II 83, BMCRE III 130, Cohen II 68, BnF III 116, Hunter I -, SRCV II
O: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, laureate head right;
R: FORTVNA AVGVST (good fortune of the Emperor), Fortuna standing left, rudder held by tiller in right hand, cornucopia in left hand, S - C (senatus consulto) flanking across field;
Rome mint; RIC II 83, BMCRE III 130, Cohen II 68, BnF III 116, Hunter I -, SRCV II --from the Butte College Foundation, ex Lindgren
(ex Forum)
laney
faustina_sr_.jpg
(0138) FAUSTINA I22 views(wife of Antoninus Pius)
FAUSTINA I
Ca. 100 - 141 AD
AE SESTERTIUS 35 mm 18.36 g
O: DIAD DR BUST R
R: AETERNITAS SEATED LEFT, HOLDING SCEPTER AND PHOENIX ON GLOBE
laney
faustina_i_post.jpg
(0138) FAUSTINA I20 views(wife of Antoninus Pius)
FAUSTINA SR
ca. 100 - 141 AD
POSTHUMOUS ISSUE
AE 29.5 mm 10.02 g
OBBUST R
R: AETERNITAS SEATED L HOLDING SCEPTER AND PHOENIX ON GLOBE
laney
faustina_i_4_28.jpg
(0138) FAUSTINA I24 views(wife of Antoninus Pius)
FAUSTINA SR.
d. ca. 141 AD
AE 27 mm 12.43 g
O: DIVA FAVSTINA
DRAPED BUST RIGHT
R: AETER[NITAS] SC
JUNO STANDING FACINGM, HEAD LEFT, RAISING RIGHT HAND AND HOLDING SCEPTER
COHEN 29
laney
faustina_1_B_4_20.jpg
(0138) FAUSTINA I34 views(wife of Antoninus Pius)
FAUSTINA SR.
d.141 AD
AE As 25.5 mm 9.57 g
O: DIVA AVG FAVSTINA
R: AETERNITAS S C
AETERNITAS STANDING LEFT, ALTAR AT FEET

UNLISTED (Not in RIC with this obv. legend)
laney
pertinax_denarius.jpg
(0193) PERTINAX21 views193 AD
AR Denarius
16.9 mm max.; 3.10 g
O: IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right;
R: OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops (plenty) seated left on throne with ornamented back, two stalks of grain in right hand, leaning back on left hand resting on the edge of the seat behind; rare
Rome mint; RIC IV 8a (R2); RSC III 33; BMCRE V p. 4, 19; Hunter III 6; SRCV II 6045
(ex Forum)
laney
col_nem_resxy.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS84 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 26 mm, 12.91 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
1 commentslaney
col_nem_3.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS24 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 28 mm max, 11.87 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
laney
col_nem_aug_agr_res.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS38 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 10 - 14 AD
AE Dupondius 27 mm, 12.5 g
O: IMP DIVI F P P, laureate heads of Agrippa wearing rostral crown left, and Augustus right, back-to-back;
R: COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm tree, wreath with long ties above, two palms fronds below
Nemausus mint; cf. RIC I 159, RPC I 525, SRCV 1731
laney
max_thrax_denarius_x.jpg
(0235) MAXIMINUS I THRAX14 views235 - 238 AD
Struck 236 AD--2nd emission
Silver denarius, 20.0 mm; 2.909 g
O: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right (no cuirass?), from behind;
R: PAX AVGVSTI (to the peace of the emperor), Pax standing facing, head left, raising olive branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left
Rome mint; RSC III 31b (no cuirass), RIC IV 12 var. (cuirassed), BMCRE VI 70 var. (same), Hunter III 8 var. (same), SRCV III 8310 var. (same)
(ex FORUM)
laney
valerianb.jpg
(0253) VALERIAN40 views253 - 260 AD
struck 256-258 AD
Billon Antoninianus 20.5 X 23.5 mm, 3.31 g
O: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG - Radiate, draped bust right
R: PIETAS AVGG - Valerian and Gallienus facing each other sacrificing over altar between them, one holding an eagle tipped scepter, the other a parazonium
Uncertain Syrian Mint
Reference SR-9955, RIC V 285
laney
maxentius_temple.jpg
(0306) MAXENTIUS13 views306-312 AD
AE Follis 25 mm max., 6.43 g
O: IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right, bare right shoulder from behind.
R: CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing in ornate hexastyle temple holding globe and spear, shield at feet, wreath in pediment, RBQ in exergue.
Rome mint
laney
constantius_smha_blk.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II28 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
Struck 351 - 355 AD
Ae Centenionalis 22 mm, 5.09 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG - Diademed (pearl-diadem), draped and cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO - Soldier spearing fallen horseman left; SMHA in exergue with Γ in upper left field.
Heraclea mint; SR-4003v (4th ed), RIC VIII 82
laney
c_ii_ft_smtsres.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II29 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
AE 18.5 mm, 2.92 g
O: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG diademed draped cuirassed bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO SOLDIER SPEARING FALLEN HORSEMAN, G to left of spear; SMTS in exe.
Thessalonica mint
laney
modius_quadransres.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (QUADRANS)15 views41 - 54 AD
AE QUADRANS 17 mm; 3.43 g
O: Modius
R: SC within legend
laney
nero_alex_r_2res.jpg
(06) NERO27 views54 - 68 AD
Struck 65 - 66 AD
Billon tetracrachm 24 mm 11.78 g
O: NERWKLAYKAISSEBGER Radiatebust of Nero right, wearing aegis
R: AYIGO-KRA Bust of Alexandria right, wearing elephant head headdress, L IB (year 12) right
Alexandria, Provincial Egypt
Milne 238, SRCV I 2004, Emmett 109, Koln 172, Dattari 204, BMC 163, RPC 5289
(ex Forum)
laney
nero_alexandria_b.jpg
(06) NERO16 views54 - 68 AD
Struck 65 - 66 AD
Billon tetracrachm 24 mm 11.78 g
O: NERWKLAYKAISSEBGER Radiatebust of Nero right, wearing aegis
R: AYIGO-KRA Bust of Alexandria right, wearing elephant head headdress, L IB (year 12) right
Alexandria, Provincial Egypt
Milne 238, SRCV I 2004, Emmett 109, Koln 172, Dattari 204, BMC 163, RPC 5289
(ex Forum)
laney
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.68 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
LarryW1828.jpg
- SR 1395 Julius Caesar157 viewsGold aureus, 7.79g, VF
Struck 46 BC at Rome; Aulus Hirtius, Praetor
C CAESAR COS TER, veiled bust of Vesta (?) to right / A HIRTIVS PR, jug between lituus and axe.
Sear 1395; Craw 466/1
5 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
faustinasrceres.jpg
-Faustina Senior sestertius Ceres47 viewsFaustina Senior sestertius. facing right DIVA.FAVSTINA. Ceres standing left, holding corn ears and torch, AVGVSTA.SC. ancientone
Cato_NN_lot_560.jpg
005 M. Porcius Cato AR denarius45 viewsM. Porcius Cato.AR Denarius Africa 47-46 BCE
(18mm., 3.57g).
Obv: M CATO PRO PR Draped female bust r.
Rev: Victory seated r., holding patera.
Babelon Porcia 9. Sydenham 1052. Sear Imperators 46. RBW –. Crawford 462/1c. SRCV 1 (2000) 1381.
Ex: The E.E. Clain-Stefanelli Collection
Naville Numismatics 29 February 26 2017 Lot # 560
2 commentsorfew
coin49~0.JPG
005. Claudius23 viewsCopper as, RIC I 111, Cohen 14, SRCV I 1858, Rome mint, 50 - 54 A.D.; obverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left; reverse CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI S C, Constantia in military dress, standing left, raising hand and holding spear

Check

ecoli
NeroDECVRSIOSestertiusRome.JPG
005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm193 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
0081.jpg
0081 - Denarius Septimius Severus 201-10 AC35 viewsObv/SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head of Septimiusr.
Rev/INDULGENTIA AVGG, Dea Caelestis riding r. on a lion, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; below, waters gushing from rock.

Ag, 18.3mm, 3.25g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IVa/266 [C] - BMCRE V/335
ex-A.L.Romero Martín
dafnis
Personajes_Imperiales_1.jpg
01 - Personalities of the Empire82 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_180_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 04 - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 20 viewsAR denario 18 mm 3,27 gr.

Esta acuñación conmemora la famosa Victoria de Augusto sobre Marco Antonio y Cleopatra en la batalla de Actium, que indirectamente termina con la trágica muerte de estos dos últimos.

Anv: AVGVSTVS DIVI F - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: IMP / XII - ACT en exergo - Apolo Citharoedus de Actium, de pié de frente viendo a izq., vistiendo larga vestimenta y portando Plectrum/Plectro (Pequeña púa hecha de diferentes materiales que se usa para tocar instrumentos de cuerda, como un reemplazo o ayuda de los dedos) en mano der. y Lira en izq.

Acuñada: Entre el 11 y 10 A.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Lyon
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC I 180 Pag.53; Lyon #37; RSC I #165 Pag.142; BMCRE #478-9 = BMCRR Gaul #194-5; BN #1418-9; SRCTV I #1611var Pag.319
mdelvalle
12a.jpg
012a Aggrippna Sr. sestertius 27.8gm44 viewsobv: AGRIPPINA MF MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI drp. bust r.
rev: MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE SPQR above, capentum drawn l. by two mules
"wife of Germanicus, mother of gaius"
hill132
Antonius_Felix_procurator,_AE-16,_Prutah__Jerusalems_Israel_Palm_Hedin-652,_54_AD_Q-001_0h,_2,28_g_,_16_mm-s~0.jpg
012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,93 views012p Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), Judaea, Antonius Felix Procurator, under Claudius, (52-60 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 652, BRIT, Six branched palm tree,
avers:- NEPΩ KΛAV KAICP, Two crossed shields and spears.
revers:- BRIT, Six branched palm tree bearing two bunches of dates, L-IΔ, K-AI across field.
exerg: L/IΔ//K/AI, diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 2,28g, axes: 0h,
mint: Judaea, date: Dated Year of Claudius (Year 14 = 54 A.D.) ref: Hedin 652,
Q-001
quadrans
Karoly-Robert_(1307-1342_AD)_Denar_U-378_C2-008_H-479_lily-patriarchalcross_KAROLVS_REX_hVNGhARIE_Nicolaus-Szatmari1333-AD_Q-001_7h_15mm_1,08g-s.jpg
029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-378a, #0181 views029 Károly Róbert., (Charles Robert of Anjou, Angevin)., King of Hungary, (1307-1342 A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-378a, #01
avers: King enthroned, facing, holding sceptre and orb; Lily-Patriarchal Cross, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ KAROLVS:RЄX:hVnGARIЄ, Shield with Árpádian stripes and Anjevin lilies; line border.
exergue, mint mark: lily/Patriarchal Cross//-- were srucked by Nicolaus Szatmari (by Pohl), diameter: 15mm, weight: 1,08g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Esztergom, date: 1334 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-378a, CNH-2-008, Huszár-479, Pohl-36-02,
Q-001
quadrans
002~6.JPG
03 Constantius II60 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.
Bronze AE 3
obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing Horseman,hair in braids, bearded, clutching, ANB
Antioch 188

Found in Israel
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
34.jpg
034 Faustina Sr. AR Denarius 15 viewsobv: DIVA FAUSTINA drp. bust r.
rev: AVGVSTA Venus std. l. holding apple and resting l. hand on shield
"wife of Ant. Pius"
hill132
Janos-Hunyadi_(1446-1453_AD)_Den_U-485_e_C2-156_H-618_TEmPORE_IOhAnIS_m_REGnI_VnGARIE_h-cX_Q-001_7h_13-13,5mm_0,59g-s.jpg
037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-e., #01,86 views037 János (Johannes or John) Hunyadi., Gubernator of Hungary, (1446-1453 A.D.) AR-billon Denarius, U-485-e., #01,
avers: TEMPORE•IOhAnIS (legend variation), Patriarchal cross in circle, mint-mark on each side (h-c˟), border of dots.
reverse: ✠m•REGnI•VnGARIE, Hungarian shield with Árpadian stripes in circle; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: h/c˟//--, were srucked by Christophorus de Florentia, (by Pohl). diameter: 13-13,5mm, weight: 0,59g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Nagyszegben (Hermanstadt, today Romania: Sibiu, by Pohl), date: 1446 A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-485-e., CNH-2-156, Huszar-618, Pohl-175-05,
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina-fil_AR-Den_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_AVGV-S-TI-P-II-FIL_S-C_RIC-000_C-000_Q-001_16-18mm_3,11g-s.jpg
038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0495a (Ant.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, AVGVSTI P II FIL, Venus, 167 views038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0495a (Ant.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, AVGVSTI P II FIL, Venus,
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, with hair waved and coiled on back of head.
revers: AVGVS-TI-P-II-FIL, Venus standing left, holding Victory and shield on helmet.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 3,11g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 156-161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-495a (Antoninus Pius), p-93 , C-15,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Faustina-Filia-den_FAVSTINA-AVG-PII-AVG-FIL_CON-C-ORDIA_RIC-502a_C-54_Rome_154-156_Q-001_16-17mm_x,xxg-s.jpg
038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0502a (Ant.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, #185 views038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0502a (Ant.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA-AVG-PII-AVG-FIL, Draped bust right, with hair waved and coiled on back of head.
revers: - CON-C-ORDIA, Concordia seated left, holding flower in right hand and resting elbow on cornucopiae, which is by her chair, under chair, globe.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 156-161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-502a (Antoninus Pius), p-93, C-54,
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA-AVG-P-II-AVG-FIL_CONCO-RDIA_RIC-502a_RSC-54_BMC-1086_Rome-153-54_AD-Q-001_0-h_18mm_3,26g-s.jpg
038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0502a (Ant.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, #2131 views038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0502a (Ant.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, CONCORDIA, Concordia seated left, #2
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA-AVG-PII-AVG-FIL, Draped bust right, with hair waved and coiled on back of head.
revers: - CONCO-RDIA, Concordia seated left, holding flower in right hand and resting elbow on cornucopiae, which is by her chair, under chair, globe.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 153-154 A.D., ref: RIC-III-502a (Antoninus Pius), p-93, C-54, BMC-1086
Q-002
quadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA-AVG_P-II-AVG-FIL_VE-NVS_RIC-_Q-001_-h_mm_ga-s~0.jpg
038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0517c (Ant.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, VENVS, Venus standing left, Scarce!, #1115 views038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0517c (Ant.Pius), Rome, AR-Denarius, VENVS, Venus standing left, Scarce!, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA-AVG-P-II-AVG-FIL, Draped bust right, showing Strack's coiffure a, with band of pearls in hair.
revers: VE-NVS, Venus standing left, holding apple and rudder, dolphin coiled around rudder.
exerg:-/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 2,91g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-III-RIC 517c, p-95,(Ant.Pius), Strack 495. BMCRE 1067. Cohen 266.
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Faustina-fil_AE-Sest_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_AVGV-S-TI-P-II-FIL_S-C_RIC-000_C-000_Q-001_30mm_19,67g-s.jpg
038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 1367 (Ant.Pius), Rome, AE-Sestertius, AVGVSTI P II FIL, Venus,80 views038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 1367 (Ant.Pius), Rome, AE-Sestertius, AVGVSTI P II FIL, Venus,
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right.
revers: AVGVS-TI-P-II-FIL, Venus standing left, holding Victory and shield on helmet.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 30mm, weight: 19,67g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 156-161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-1367 (Antoninus Pius), p-191 , C-16,
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina-fil_AE-Sest-vers-AE-Dup-vers-AR-Den_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_AVGV-S-TI-P-II-FIL_S-C_RIC-000_C-000_Q-001_mm_g-s.jpg
038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 1367, RIC III 495a and RIC III 1389a (all under Ant.Pius), AE-Sestertius, AR-Denarius and AE-Dupondius, Rome, AVGVSTI P II FIL, Venus,80 views038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 1367, RIC III 495a and RIC III 1389a (all under Ant.Pius), AE-Sestertius, AR-Denarius and AE-Dupondius, Rome, AVGVSTI P II FIL, Venus,
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, with hair waved and coiled on back of head.
revers: AVGVS-TI-P-II-FIL, Venus standing left, holding Victory and shield on helmet.
Exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 30mm, 23-25mm, 16-17mm, weight: 19,67g, 10,46g, 3,11g, axis: h, h, h,
mint: Rome, date: 156-161 A.D., ref: RIC-1367, C-16; RIC-495a (all under Antoninus Pius), C-15; RIC-1389a, C-17;
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina-fil_AE-Dup_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_AVGV-S-TI-P-II-FIL_S-C_RIC-000_C-000_Q-001_23-25mm_10,46g-s.jpg
038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 1389a (Ant.Pius), Rome, AE-Dupondius, AVGVSTI P II FIL, Venus,104 views038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 1389a (Ant.Pius), Rome, AE-Dupondius, AVGVSTI P II FIL, Venus,
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, with hair waved and coiled on back of head.
revers: AVGVS-TI-P-II-FIL, Venus standing left, holding Victory and shield on helmet.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 23-25mm, weight: 10,46g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 156-161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-1389a (Antoninus Pius), p-193, C-17,
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina-fil_AE-Dup_FAVSTINA-AVG-P-II-AVG-FIL_S-C_RIC-1405b-A-Pius-_C-207_Rome_145-146-AD_Q-001_5h_27mm_13,86ga-s.jpg
038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 1405b (Ant.Pius), Rome, AE-Dupondius, No legend, S-C, Diana, Scarce!, #199 views038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 1405b (Ant.Pius), Rome, AE-Dupondius, No legend, S-C, Diana, Scarce!, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA-AVG-P-II-AVG-FIL, Draped bust right, with hair waved and coiled on back of head, band of pearls and necklace.
revers: No legend - Diana standing left, holding arrow and resting hand on bow, S-C across the field.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 27mm, weight: 13,86g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 145-146 A.D., ref: RIC-III-1405b (Antoninus Pius), p-194, C-207,209,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Faustina-fil_AE-Dup_FAVSTINA-AVG-P-II-AVG-FIL_S-C_RIC-1405b-A-Pius-_C-207_Rome_145-146-AD_Q-002_6h_25-26mm_13,01ga-s.jpg
038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 1405b (Ant.Pius), Rome, AE-Dupondius, No legend, S-C, Diana, Scarce!, #273 views038a Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 1405b (Ant.Pius), Rome, AE-Dupondius, No legend, S-C, Diana, Scarce!, #2
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA-AVG-P-II-AVG-FIL, Draped bust right, with hair waved and coiled on back of head, band of pearls and necklace.
revers: No legend - Diana standing left, holding arrow and resting hand on bow, S-C across the field.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 25-26mm, weight: 13,01g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 145-146 A.D., ref: RIC-III-1405b (Antoninus Pius), p-194, C-207,209,
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA_FECVN-DITAS_RIC-_Q-001_-h_mm_ga-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0677 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, #1208 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0677 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, chignon behind head, hair waved.
revers: FECVN-DITAS, Fecunditas standing right holding scepter in right and infant in left.
exerg:-/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-III-RIC 677, (Marcus Aurelius), Sear , RSC II 99, BMCRE IV 91
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA_FECVN-DITAS_RIC-_Q-001_-h_mm_ga-s~0.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0677 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, #167 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0677 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, chignon behind head, hair waved.
revers: FECVN-DITAS, Fecunditas standing right holding scepter in right and infant in left.
exerg:-/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-III-RIC 677, (Marcus Aurelius), Sear , RSC II 99, BMCRE IV 91
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_FECVN-DITAS_RIC-III-677_Q-002_0h_18,5-19,5mm_3,49g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0677 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, #2208 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0677 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, #2
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, chignon behind head, hair waved.
revers: FECVN-DITAS, Fecunditas standing right holding scepter in right and infant in left.
exerg:-/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,49g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-III-RIC 677, (Marcus Aurelius), Sear , RSC II 99, BMCRE IV 91
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_FECVN-DITAS_RIC-III-677_Q-003_0h_18,0-19,0mm_3,43ga-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0677 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, #3109 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0677 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, #3
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, chignon behind head, hair waved.
revers: FECVN-DITAS, Fecunditas standing right holding scepter in right and infant in left.
exerg:-/-//--, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,43g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-III-RIC 677, (Marcus Aurelius), Sear , RSC II 99, BMCRE IV 91
Q-003
quadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_FECVN-DITAS_RIC-III-677_Q-004_0h_18,0mm_2,97g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0677 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, #4116 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0677 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, FECVNDITAS, Fecunditas standing right, #4
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA, Draped bust right, chignon behind head, hair waved.
revers: FECVN-DITAS, Fecunditas standing right holding scepter in right and infant in left.
exerg:-/-//--, diameter: 18,0mm, weight: 2,97g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-III-RIC 677, (Marcus Aurelius), Sear , RSC II 99, BMCRE IV 91
Q-004
quadrans
038b_Faustina_(II)_Filia,_RIC_III_0711_(Marc_Aur_),_Rome,_AR-Den,_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA,_SAECVLI_FELICIT,_161_AD,_Q-002,_6h,_16,7-17mm,_3,35g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0711 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1138 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0711 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bare-headed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,7-17,0mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC III 711 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , RSC 191, BMC 139,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_SAECVLI-FELICIT_Q-002_axis-5h_17-17,5mm_3,28g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1107 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped diademed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17-17,5mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-712 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , C-191,
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA_SAECVLI-FELICIT_Q-001_axis-h_x,xxmm_2_70g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #286 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #2
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped diademed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC-III-712 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , C-191,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
038b_Faustina_(II)_Filia,_RIC_III_0712_(Marc_Aur_),_Rome,_AR-Den,_FAVSTINA_AVGVSTA,_SAECVLI_FELICIT,_161_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_17-18mm,_3,25g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #3156 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0712 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children, #3
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped diademed, bust right.
reverse: SAECVLI FELICIT, Throne with two children.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 3,25g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 161 A.D., ref: RIC III 712 (Marcus Aurelius), p-271 , RSC 191, BMC 139,
Q-003
quadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_VES-TA_RIC-_Q-001_axis-h_x,xxmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0737 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, VESTA, Vesta, veiled, seated left, #1107 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0737 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, VESTA, Vesta, veiled, seated left, #1
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed, draped bust right, chignon behind head, hair waved.
revers: VES-TA, Vesta, veiled, seated left, holding Palladium and sceptre.
exerg:-/-//--, diameter:16,5-17,5mm, weight: 3,45g, axis:7h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-III-RIC 737, (Marcus Aurelius), p- , C-, ; Sear 5270,
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina_jun_FAVSTINA-AVGVSTA_VESTA_Q-002_h_mm_3,10g-s.jpg
038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0737 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, VESTA, Vesta, veiled, seated left, #2114 views038b Faustina (II) Filia (128-175 A.D.), RIC III 0737 (Marc.Aur.), Rome, AR-Denarius, VESTA, Vesta, veiled, seated left, #2
"Daughter of Antoninus Pius and Faustina Sr. and wife of Marcus Aurelius. She was also the mother of Commodus and Lucilla, wife of Lucius Verus."
avers:- FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, bare-headed, draped bust right, chignon behind head, hair waved.
revers: VES-TA, Vesta, veiled, seated left, holding Palladium and sceptre.
exerg:-/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-III-RIC 737, (Marcus Aurelius), p- , C-, ; Sear 5270,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
GI_039a_img.jpg
039 - Trajan Billon tetradrachm - Milne 56613 viewsObv:- AVT KAIC NEP TRAIAN CEB ΓEPM, laureate head right
Rev:- eagle standing right, L - S across fields (year 6)
Minted in Alexandria 29 Aug 102 - 28 Aug 103 A.D.
Reference:- Milne 566, Dattari 707, SRCV II 3255 var (date)
maridvnvm
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.15 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
Faustina-Sr-RIC-394a.jpg
057. Faustina Senior.16 viewsDenarius, after 141 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: DIVA AVG FAVSTINA / Bust of Faustina.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG / Pietas veiled, standing, dropping incense on altar, and holding a box.
3.59 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #394a; Sear #4598.

Faustina died early on in the reign of her husband. Most of her coinage is from the extensive memorial coinage issued in the years after her death. The portrait on this particular coin is exceptionally elegant and dignified.

Visible on the reverse (lower right edge) of this coin is an inclusion of copper that did not get melted and mixed with the silver when the planchet was made. That this coin is probably not a fouree is evidenced by the fact that it weighs a bit more than other denarii of the period.
Callimachus
MaxentiusFollisRic258.jpg
058. Maxentius, 306-312. AE Follis.69 viewsObv. Laureate head right IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG
Rev. Roma seated left holding sceptre and globe, within hexastyle temple with wreath within pediment CONSEERV VRB SVAE, RES below.
Rome Mint, 310-11. 24.5mm, 5.98g.
RIC 258.
1 commentsLordBest
faustina-sr_den_veiled-bust-peacock_2_82gr_feb2012a.JPG
06 - Faustina I - 02 - AR Denarius - Peacock 'CONSECRATIO' - NGC Choice VF56 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Senior (138 - 141), Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (AD 138 - 161).
Silver Denarius, Struck at the Rome Mint by the Emperor Antoninus Pius to consecrate and commemorate his wife after her death.

(All Titles in Latin)
obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Veiled and Draped bust facing right.
rev: CONSECRATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

*Note how the two head feathers on the top of the Peacock's head seperate the 'R' and the 'A' in " CONSECR ATIO ' on the reverse.
***Less common type with Veiled bust obverse rather than her usual bust with hair wrapped on the top of her head, like on my other example of this type with the same reverse design and titles, and the same obverse titles.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Certified "Choice Very Fine" by NGC Ancients.
Strike: 4/5
Surface: 4/5
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
>^..^< CLICK PHOTO FOR FULLSIZE IMAGE >^..^
5 commentsrexesq
faustina-sr_den_veiled-bust-peacock_2_82gr_feb2012b.jpg
06 - Faustina I - 02 - AR Denarius - Peacock 'CONSECRATIO' - NGC Choice VF.15 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Senior (138 - 141), Wife of Emperor Antoninus Pius (AD 138 - 161).
Silver Denarius, Struck at the Rome Mint by the Emperor Antoninus Pius to consecrate and commemorate his wife after her death.

(All Titles in Latin)
obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Veiled and Draped bust facing right.
rev: CONSECRATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.
~~
*Note how the head feathers on the peacock's head seperate the 'R' and the 'A' in CONSECR ATIO

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Certified "Choice Very Fine" by NGC Ancients.
Strike: 4/5
Surface: 4/5
----------------------------------------------------------
----------------------------------------------------------
** Any scratches, smudges or marks are on the slab, not the coin itself. **
rexesq
faustina-I_AR-denarius_AD147-161_consecratio_peacock_2_62gr_rev_09.jpg
06 - Faustina I - AR Denarius - Peacock, 'CONSECRATIO' - VII11 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina (AD 138-141) Silver Denarius.
Rome mint, AD 147-161. Died 141 AD. Cohen 175, RIC 384.
Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius.

Obv: DIVA FAUSTINA - Draped bust right.
Rev: CONSECR ATIO - Peacock facing right, head left, standing on scepter with knobs on both ends.

Note the Peacock's headfeathers sticking up between the 'R' and 'A' of 'CONSECRATIO'.

2.62 grams.
rexesq
RI_062a_img.jpg
062 - Pescennius Niger denarius - RIC -. cf. RIC IV 70d24 viewsObv:– IMP CAE PESCEN NIGER IVST A, laureate head right
Rev:– ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma in military attire seated left on cuirass, no shield at side or feet, Victory offering wreath in right hand, long scepter vertical behind in left hand
Minted in Antioch. Apr 193 - May 194 A.D
Reference:– Unpublished in primary references, cf. RIC IV 70d, RSC III 62b, BMCRE V p. 80 note, SRCV II 6121, Hunter III -,

Scratches and scrapes, small edge test cut, hard edge bump on reverse resulting in crack on obverse, slightly off center cutting off parts of legends

2.690g, maximum diameter 17.1mm, die axis 15o

Numerous varieties of Pescennius Niger denarii with Roma Aeternae reverses are published in the standard references, but none describe Roma as seated on a cuirass. A few have been seen with dealers though.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 064cz img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus AS - RIC unlisted39 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP II, Laureate head right
Rev:– SAL AV[G TR P II] COS II S--C, Salus sanding left, holding sceptre and patera over alter
Minted in Rome. Early A.D. 194
Reference(s) – Cohen -. RIC - (see below)

The following information provided courtesy of Mr. Curtis Clay.
A specimen of this coin is apparently misreported in RIC, p. 182, note *. It's a rare coin, only two such included in Curtis' unpublished 1972 die study of early Severan bronze coins.
Curtis knows the same rev. type muled with both dupondius and As obv. dies of 193 (IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG). It's not impossible that a sestertius with the same type might turn up someday!
Cohen 640 exactly describes this type, though omitting the IMP II in obverse legend, and calling the coin a sestertius.
maridvnvm
RI_064sr_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Denarius - RIC 03920 viewsDenarius
Obv:– L SEP SEV PE-RT AVG IMP III. Laureate head right
Rev:– VIRT AVG TR P II COS II P P, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding Victory and reversed spear
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – RIC IV 39 (Rated Scarce); BMCRE 73A. RSC 755.
maridvnvm
RI_064kj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 412 corr19 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONETA .. AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 412 corr., RSC -

RIC 412 is noted as MONETA II AVG which is an odd legend. I have three examples of this reverse die (two of Severus and one of Domna) that show that this legend is in fact MONETA .. AVG where the two dots have been misread as II.
maridvnvm
RI_064ta_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 412 corr23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– MONETA .. AVG, Moneta seated left, holding scales and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 412 corr., RSC -

RIC 412 is noted as MONETA II AVG which is an odd legend. I have three examples of this reverse die (two of Severus and one of Domna) that show that this legend is in fact MONETA .. AVG where the two dots have been misread as II.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ge_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 467 corr.21 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– BON EVENT, Fides standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196 - 197
Reference:– BMCRE 437 Note corr. (VIII not VII). RIC 467 corr. (S) (467 is IMP VII). Cohen 63 (citing Paris).

Evidently no examples of this reverse legend variety were seen by the authors of RIC or BMCRE as they both note the coin but cite Cohen 63 which evidently cites a misread obverse legend of VII likely being VII-I from Paris.
maridvnvm
RI_064mo_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 467 corr.26 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– BON EVENT, Fides standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196 - 197
Reference:– BMCRE 437 Note corr. (VIII not VII). RIC 467 corr. (S) (467 is IMP VII). Cohen 63 (citing Paris).

Evidently no examples of this reverse legend variety were seen by the authors of RIC or BMCRE as they both note the coin but cite Cohen 63 which evidently cites a misread obverse legend of VII likely being VII-I from Paris.
maridvnvm
RI_064sa_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 467 corr.13 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– BON EVENT, Fides standing left holding basket of fruits in right hand, grain ears in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196 - 197
Reference:– BMCRE 437 Note corr. (VIII not VII). RIC 467 corr. (S) (467 is IMP VII). Cohen 63 (citing Paris).

Evidently no examples of this reverse legend variety were seen by the authors of RIC or BMCRE as they both note the coin but cite Cohen 63 which evidently cites a misread obverse legend of VII likely being VII-I from Paris.
maridvnvm
LarryW1912.jpg
0640v Focas, 602-61032 viewsÆ follis, 25mm, 8.69g, F
Srtuck 607-608 at Constantinople
DM FOCAS PP AVG (or similar), crowned bust facing wearing consular
robes, holding mappa and cross / XXXX, ANNO (NN retrograde) above, stigma right, CON A
in exg.
Sear 640v, DO 30a v; MIB 69a
Lawrence Woolslayer
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_08_rev_05.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
rexesq
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_01_rev_04.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES23 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
2 commentsrexesq
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_09_rev_06.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES17 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
rexesq
faustina-jr_AR-Denarius_CERES_00.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES25 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
2 commentsrexesq
Copy_of_faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_w-quarter_obv_01.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES - with US 25 Cent coin.8 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
--------------------------------
*US Quarter Dollar (25 cents) to right, for size comparison.
--------------------------------
rexesq
Copy_of_faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_w-quarter_obv_05.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES - with US 25 Cent coin.12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
--------------------------------
*US Quarter Dollar (25 cents) to right, for size comparison.
--------------------------------
rexesq
Gordianus-III__AE-Sest_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_LAETITIA-AVG-N_S-C_Roma-241-43-RIC-300a_Q-001_20_05ga-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 300a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, S/C//--, LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, #1174 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 300a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, S/C//--, LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, #1
avers: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reversre: LAETITIA AVG N, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath and anchor; S C across fields.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 28,5-32,0mm, weight: 20,05g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 241-243 A.D., ref: RIC IV-III 300a, C-122,
Q-001
quadrans
072_Gordianus-III__(238-244_A_D_),_RIC_IV_335a_AE-Sest,_IMP_GORDIANVS_PIVS_FEL_AVG,_SECVRIT_PERPET,_S-C,_Roma_243-44,_Q-001,_0h,_28-29mm,_19,28g-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 335a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, S/C//--, SECVRIT PERPET, Securitas standing facing, head left, #175 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 335a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, S/C//--, SECVRIT PERPET, Securitas standing facing, head left, #1
avers: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reversre: SECVRIT PERPET, Securitas standing facing, head left, leaning on short column and holding sceptre with the right hand, S C across the fields.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 28,0-29,0mm, weight: 19,28g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 243-244 A.D., ref: RIC IV-III 335a, C-329,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
RIC_102_Sestercio_Agripina_Sr_.jpg
08-01 - AGRIPPINA MADRE (14 A.C. - 33 D.C.)14 viewsAE Sestercio 35 mm 25.6 gr.
Hija de Agrippa y Julia, nieta de Augusto, mujer de Germánico y madre de Calígula. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su cuñado Claudio.

Anv: "AGRIPPINA M F GERMANICI [CAESARIS]" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[TI CL]AVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P" - Leyenda alrededor de gran "S C ".

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #102 Pag.128 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1906 Pag.376 - BMCRE #219 - Cohen Vol.1 #3 Pag.231 - DVM #2 Pag.78 - CBN (Claudius) #236 - Von Kaenel #78, pl.49, 2063
mdelvalle
Antíoco IV, Epiphanes.jpg
08-02 - Anti­oco IV, Epiphanes (175 - 164 A.C.)68 viewsAntíoco IV Epífanes (Αντίοχος Επιφανής en griego, 215 adC-163 adC) fue rey de Siria de la dinastía Seléucida desde c. 175 adC-164 adC.
Era hijo de Antíoco III Megas y hermano de Seleuco IV Filopator. Originalmente fue llamado Mitríades, pero adoptó el nombre de Antíoco tras su ascensión al trono (o quizás tras la muerte de su hermano mayor, también Antíoco).
Subió al trono tras la muerte de su hermano Seleuco IV Filopátor que gobernó durante poco tiempo antes que él, hasta que Heliodoro, tesorero suyo, lo mató por ambición. Había vivido en Roma según los términos de la paz de Apamea (188 adC), pero acababa de ser intercambiado por el hijo y legítimo heredero de Seleuco IV, el futuro (Demetrio I Sóter). Antíoco se aprovechó de la situación, y junto con su otro hermano Antíoco, se proclamó rey con el apoyo de Eumenes II de Pérgamo y el hermano de éste, Atalo I. Su hermano Antíoco sería asesinado pocos años después.
Por su enfrentamiento con Ptolomeo VI, que reclamaba Coele-Syria, atacó e invadió Egipto, conquistando casi todo el país, con la salvedad de la capital, Alejandría. Llegó a capturar al rey, pero para no alarmar a Roma, decicidió reponerlo en el trono, aunque como su marioneta. Sin embargo, los alejandrinos habían elegido al hermano de éste, Ptolomeo VII Euergetes como rey, y tras su marcha decidieron reinar conjuntamente. Esto le obligó a reinvadir el país, y así el 168 adC, repitiendo la invasión, con su flota conquistaba Chipre. Cerca de Alejandría se encontró con el cónsul romano Cayo Popilio Laenas, instó a abandonar Egipto y Chipre. Cuando Antíoco replicó que debía consultarlo con su consejo, Popilio trazó un círculo en la arena rodeándole y le dijo: "píensalo aquí". Viendo que abandonar el círculo sin haber ordenado la retirada era un desafío a Roma decidió ceder con el fin de evitar una guerra.
A su regreso, organizó una expedición contra Jerusalén, qué saqueo cruelmente. Según él Libro de los Macabeos, promulgó varias ordenanzas de tipo religioso: trató de suprimir el culto a Yahveh, prohibió el judaísmo suspendiendo toda clase de manifestación religiosa y trató de establecer el culto a los dioses griegos. Pero el sacerdote judío Matatías y sus dos hijos llamados Macabeos consiguieron levantar a la población en su contra y lo expulsaron. La fiesta judía de Jánuca conmemora este hecho.
Antíoco, en campaña contra el Imperio Parto, envió varios ejércitos sin éxito. Mientras organizaba una expedición punitiva para retomar Israel personalmente le sobrevino la muerte. Le sucedió su hijo Antíoco V Eupátor.
Su reinado fue la última época de fuerza y esplendor para el Imperio Seleúcida, que tras su muerte se vio envuelto en devastadoras guerras dinásticas. (Wikipedia)

AE (Canto aserrado) 15 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: Busto velado de Laodicea IV (Esposa de Seleuco IV y Hermana de Antíoco IV) viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Cabeza de elefante a izquierda, proa de galera a izquierda (El elefante simboliza las aspiraciones orientales de los reyes de Seleucia además de ser una de las grandes armas de su arsenal y la proa su importancia como ciudad puerto).

Ceca: Seleucia de Pieria (Costa N. de Siria - Puerto de Antioquía) o Akke Ptolomais

Referencias : B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #3 Pag.43 - SC#1477.2 - Houghton #113 - HGS #684-6 Pag.9 - SNG Spaer #1017-40 - SNG Cop #184 - Hoover #685
1 commentsmdelvalle
111_036.JPG
090 Vespasian86 viewsVespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.
Silver denarius, RIC II part 1, 362; SRCV I 2317, BMCRE II 74, F, 2.879g, 17.2mm, 195o, Rome mint, 72 - 73 A.D.; obverse IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right; reverse VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory advancing right, crowning legionary standard with wreath with right, palm across shoulder in left.

"This type likely refers to the victory in Judaea but does not specifically identify that victory."
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Rep_AE-Quadrans_Q-001_axis-h_xxmm_xxg-s.jpg
091 B.C., Republic, AE-Quadrans, SRCV 1194, ???100 views091 B.C., Republic, AE-Quadrans, SRCV 1194, ???
avers:- Head of Hercules right, wearing lion’s skin, behind, three pellets.
revers: - Prow right, and before, three pellets.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 91 B.C., ref: SRCV-1194,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
302Hadrian_RIC96.jpg
096 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-22 AD Pietas standing27 viewsReference.
Strack 120; RIC 96, SRCV II 3524 var; C 1115

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
laureate bare-chest bust right, drapery on left shoulder

Rev. P M TR P COS III
Pietas standing facing, head left, raising both hands

3.61 gr
18 mm
12h
okidoki
96h.jpg
096h Aurelian. billion antoinianus9 viewsobv: IMP C AVRELNVS AVG rad. cuir. bust r.
rev: ORI_E_NS AVG Sol. walking l. between two captivesr. hand raised. holding globe
ex: * / TXXT
hill132
IMGP0126Osr1brcombo.jpg
0sroes I., 109 - 129 AD44 viewsAE15, 3,50gr., 14,8mm;
Sellw. 80.12-15var., Shore 623;
mint: Seleukia, axis : 14h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem, loop, and 4 ribbons; hair in side bun w/concentric curls, top bun off flan, mustache, long pointed beard; 2-layer necklace; traces of letters in left field; dotted border 4-11:30h;
rev.: goddess, right, w/turreted crown; large tuft of hair in the back; dotted border 7 - 10h;

ex: Vienna Coin Show, VA.
Schatz
IMG_0134.JPG
1.0 Khusroe II69 viewsKhusroe II
Sassanian (Persian) Empire
Silver Dirhem
30 mm.

Khusroe II conquered Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire, but soon lost it in a counter offensive by Emperor Heraclius.
Zam
IMG_0136.JPG
1.01 Khusroe II39 viewsSassanian Empire (Persia)
Silver dirhem
fire altar with two attendants
Zam
VHC10-coin.jpg
10- CEYLON (SRI LANKA), 1/4 CENT, KM90.18 viewsSize: 14.3 mm. Composition: Copper. Mintage: 216,000.
Grade: NGC MS63 BN (Cert.# 4080257-004).
Comments: Purchased raw on eBay. The nice colors were a pleasan surprise. Tiny but beautiful, and undervalued, in my opinion.
lordmarcovan
100ReisRepublica.jpg
100 Réis12 viewsBrazil Republic

1889 AD

Obverse: REPÚBLICA DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRAZIL

Reverse: ORDEM E PROGRESSO 15 DE NOVEMBRO DE 1889
Pericles J2
3190414.jpg
102. Trajan32 viewsTrajan. AD 98-117. Æ Sestertius (29mm, 25.58 g, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 116-117. Laureate and draped bust right / [REX PARTHIS DATVS], Trajan seated left on platform, presenting Parthamaspates to kneeling Parthian; attendant standing behind emperor. RIC II 667; Woytek 594v-2; Banti 96. Fine, green patina.

Parthian interference in Armenia prompted Trajan to declare war against their king Osroes I in AD 114. He quickly reestablished Roman control of Armenia, forced the submission of Osrhoene, and in AD 116 took Mesopotamia by defeating Osroes I. Rather than pursuing the Parthians into Iran, Trajan set up a pro-Roman Parthian "buffer state" in Mesopotamia under a puppet-king Parthamaspates.
ecoli
coin2~0.jpg
104a. Faustina Sr21 viewsDiva Faustina Sr Denarius.

DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right, hair in bun
AVGVSTA, Ceres standing, head right, holding corn ears & long scepter.
RIC 360, RSC 78.

From the unclean pile
ecoli
coin322.JPG
104a. Faustina Sr 23 viewsIn Roman mythology, Pietas was the goddess of duty to one's state, gods and family.

Pietas was also one of the Roman virtues, along with gravitas and dignitas. Pietas is usually translated as "duty" or "devotion," and it simultaneously suggests duty to the gods and duty to family (which is expanded to duty to the community and duty to the state thanks to the analogy between the family and the state, conventional in the ancient world – see, for example, Plato's Crito). Vergil's hero Aeneas embodies this virtue, and is particularly emblematic of it in book II of the Aeneid when he flees burning Troy bearing his father on his back and carrying his household gods.

Faustina Sr Æ As. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AETERNITAS, SC in field, Pietas standing left, by altar, right hand raised, holding incense box in left hand.

RIC 1161, Cohen 43, BMC 1558

Check
ecoli
trajse18-2.jpg
106 AD: Trajan triumph in the second Dacian war217 viewsorichalcum sestertius (24.9g, 35mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 106-111.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V PP laureate bust of Trajan with aegis (note the detail of the Medusa head on Trajan's chest)
SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [/] S C [in field] Winged Victory standing right, holding shield insribed VIC DAC against a palm tree
RIC 528 [common]; C 454; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 101-31b
1 commentsCharles S
image~1.jpg
108. Didius Julianus57 views193 A.D. - The Year of Five Emperors. On 1 January, the Senate selected Pertinax, against his will, to succeed the late Commodus as Emperor. The Praetorian Guard assassinated him on 28 March and auctioned the throne to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, who offered 300 million sesterces. Outraged by the Praetorians, legions in Illyricum select Septimius Severus as emperor; in Britannia the legions select their governor Clodius Albinus, and in Syria the legions select their governor Pescennius Niger. On 1 June Septimius Severus entered the capital, put Julianus put to death and replaced the Praetorian Guard with his own troops. Clodius Albinus allied with Severus and accepted the title of Caesar. Pescennius Niger was defeated, killed and his head displayed in Rome.


SH67895. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC VI 14, BMCRE V 20, Cohen 3, Cayon III 1, SRCV II 6075, aF, weight 19.437 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, obverse IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONCORD MILIT, S - C, Concordia Militum standing half left, flanked by legionary eagle before in right and standard behind in left.

Ex-FORVM


1 commentsecoli
VHC11-coin.JPG
11- CEYLON (SRI LANKA), 1/2 CENT, KM91.21 viewsSize: 18.5 mm. Composition: Copper. Mintage: 2,020,000.
Grade: NGC MS63 RB (Cert.# 4080257-005).
Comments: Purchased raw from Stephen Album Rare Coins, 04/2010.
lordmarcovan
PhilippusRR.jpg
113/112 BC L. Marcius Philippus137 viewsL Marcius Philippus
ROMA monogram
Head of King Philip V of Macedon right, wearing helmet decorated with goat's horns, Φ below chin

L PHILIPPVS
Equestrian statue right on tablet with inscription. Horseman carrying laurel-branch flower at horses feet. (XVI monogram) below tablet.

Rome 113/112 BC

3.96g

Crawford 293/1. Sydenham 551. Marcia 12.

Ex Calgary-Coin

This is the first Roman coin to depict an historical person instead of a personification or deity. The money’s ancestor L. Marcius Q.f. Philippus negotiated a treaty between Rome and Philip V of Macedon.
5 commentsJay GT4
115.jpg
115 Severus II. AE follis 10.9gm22 viewsobv: FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES laur. head r.
rev: PERPET_VITES AVGG roma seated l. on shield holding victory on globe and scepter
ex: -VI//SISr
1 commentshill132
VHC12-coin.jpg
12- CEYLON (SRI LANKA), 1 CENT, KM92.19 viewsSize: 22.5 mm. Composition: Copper. Mintage: 1,014,000.
Grade: Raw F+ (borderline VF).
Comments: Just a cheap coin I picked up somewhere; probably eBay. It will do until I find a nice BU example.
lordmarcovan
RIC_92_Dupondio_Antonia.jpg
12-01 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)22 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
Demetrio II, Nicator.jpg
12-02 - Demetrio II, Nicator (1er.Reino 145 - 139 A.C.)56 viewsDemetrio II Nicátor de la dinastía Seléucida, fue rey de Siria en dos períodos: 146 - 139 A.C. y 129 - 126 A.C. Huyó a Creta tras la derrota y muerte de su padre, Demetrio I Sóter, pero regresó después, proclamándose rey. Fue puesto en fuga casi inmediatamente por el general Diodoto, que primero proclamó rey a un hijo de Alejandro Balas, Antíoco VI Dioniso, y luego a sí mismo con el nombre de Trifón. Demetrio marchó en guerra contra el rey de Partia, Mitrídates I, siendo derrotado y capturado en 139 A.C.
En 129 fue puesto en libertad, con la esperanza de provocar una guerra entre él y su hermano Antíoco VII Evergetes. Sin embargo, Antíoco murió antes de que estallara el conflicto, con lo que Demetrio II se proclamó rey de nuevo. Poco después fue derrotado y muerto por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII, que sostenía al usupador Alejandro Zabinas. Le sucedió su hijo Seleuco V Filométor, bajo la regencia de su viuda Cleopatra Tea. (Wikipedia)

AE 18 x 19 mm 4.9 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema de Demetrio II viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY – TYPIΩN (por Tiro)" - Popa de Galera (Simboliza el poderío naval de Tiro Fenicia bajo los Seléucidas).

Acuñación: 145/4 A.C.
Ceca: Seleucia en Tiro - Fenicia

Referencias: Houghton #753 – SNG Spaer #1722 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #20-22 Pag.60 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7070 Pag.661 - SNG Israel #1708.
mdelvalle
Dupondio ANTONIA RIC 92.jpg
12-1 - ANTONIA (36 A.C. - 37 D.C.)70 viewsAE Dupondio 27 mm 10.2 gr. (IMITACIÓN PROVINCIAL)
Hija de Marco Antonio y Octavia, nieta de Augusto, esposa de Nero Claudius Drusus y madre de Germánico y Claudio. Emisión póstuma acuñada por su hijo Claudio

Anv: "ANTONIA [AVG]VSTA" - Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM [TR P] IMP - S C" - Claudio de pié a izquierda, vistiendo toga y velo, portando Simpulum en mano derecha extendida y pergamino enrollado en izquierda.

Acuñada 41 - 42 D.C.
Ceca: Inicialmente acreditada por mí a Roma, pero finalmente corregida esta acreditación por el Sr. Curtis Clay como una imitación Provincial.

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #92 Pag.127 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 (Claudius) #1902 Pag.375 - BMCRE #166 - Cohen Vol.1 #6 Pag.223 - DVM #3 Pag.77 - CBN (Claudius) #143 - Von Kaenel Tipo 15 #292 (V216/R262)
mdelvalle
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
RI_132sr_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 111 - Bust Type C (Lugdunum) (IIII)15 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Soldier standing left, holding Victory and spear, left hand on shield
Minted in Lugdunum (IIII in exe) Emission 6 Officina 4. A.D. 278 to 279
Reference:– Cohen 819. Bastien 295 (citing 4 examples). RIC 111 Bust type C
maridvnvm
Urbs-Roma_AE-18_VRBS-ROMA_SMN-Gamma_three-dotsRIC-VII-195-p634_Q-005_axis-11h_17-18mm_2,57g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (330-335 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VII 195, AE-3, -/-//SMNΓ, She-wolf left, R1, #1,119 views137 Commemorative, (330-335 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VII 195, AE-3, -/-//SMNΓ, She-wolf left, R1, #1,
avers: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left.
reverse: She-wolf and twins, 2 stars above with three dots vertically placed between them.
exergue: -/-//SMNΓ, diameter: 17,0-18,0 mm, weight: 2,57 g, axis: 11 h,
mint: Nicomedia, date: 330-335 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-195, p634, R1!,
Q-001
quadrans
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
IMG_2422.JPG
142 Aelius47 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC II Hadrian 1059, SRCV II 3981, BMCRE III Hadrian 1921, Cohen II 26, aF, Rome mint, weight 25.725g, maximum diameter 31.3mm, die axis 180o, 137 A.D.; obverse L AELIVS CAESAR, bare head right; reverse TR POT COS II, PANNO-NIA and S - C across fields, Pannonia standing facing, head left, holding vexillum in right hand and gathering up drapery in left; scarce; ex forvm5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Siscia_RIC_VII_181,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_IVL-CRIS-PVS-NOB-C-5-B1_CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM-VOT-dot-X_DeltaSISradiatedcircle_p-446_321-AD_Q-001_6h_18,5mm_3,01g-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 181, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSIS radiated circle, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X,88 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 181, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSIS radiated circle, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/X,
avers:- IVL-CRIS-PVS-NOB-C, 5, B1, Laureate, head right.
revers:- CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM, Wreath VOT/•/X with in.
exergo: -/-//ΔSIS radiated circle, diameter:18,5mm, weight: 3,01g, axis:6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320-321 AD., ref: RIC-VII-181, p-446, 4th. off., C1,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_146dr_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Antioch 112c33 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMP-ERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch (_ | Theta / E //ANT Dot). Early to Later A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 112c (R) (Citing Oxford; Apparently a rare issue for Maximianus Herculius and only issued from this officina)
 
6.39 gms. 26.19 mm. 0 degrees. Better than the RIC plate coin (reverse only illustrated).
 
From RIC Notes "A very remarkable innovation, peculiar to this issue, is the reappearance of Herculius (with the long legend Imp C M Aur Val Maximianus P F Aug matching those of Galerius and Licinus, and with cuirassed bust) on rare coins with Genio Imperatoris; this is parallelled at the same time (see RIC VI page 656). Expelled from Italy c. April 308, and rejected at the Carnuntum conference in November 308, Herculius had received ample share in the coinage of Constantine's mints, and it seems that Maximinus (now antagonisitc to both Galerius and Licinius) may have been momentarily willing to demontsrate his hostility by including the name of the man who might still play and anti-Galerian part in the west."
2 commentsmaridvnvm
1902034_759583754078538_1739468933876111555_n.jpg
150 Antoninus Pius25 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.
Orichalcum sestertius, RIC III 767a, Cohen II 320, Banti 120, BMCRE IV 1669, Strack III 974, SRCV II 4168, aF, 23.252g, 31.4mm, 0o, Rome mint, 145 - 147 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P, laureate head right; reverse Antoninus in slow quadriga left, eagle-tipped scepter in left, reins in right, COS IIII / S C in two lines in exergue; scarce
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
12573751_1089383064429076_2679702676403238579_n.jpg
150 Faustina Sr.30 viewsROMAN EMPIRE, FAUSTINA SR D. 141, DENARIUS
3.09g

Head of Faustina Sr right "DIVA FAVSTINA"

Aeternitas standing left raising right hand and holding a scepter in her left "AETERNITAS"

RSC II 26
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
153_Julianus-II__Siscia,_RIC_VIII_371,_AE-16,_D_N_IVLIANVS_NOB_C,_FELTEMP_REPARATIO,_DeltaSISrevZ,_p-377,_361-67_AD,_S,Q-001,_0h,_16-17mm,_2,54g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 371, AE-3, -/-//ΔSIS(revers)Z, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, #169 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 371, AE-3, -/-//ΔSIS(revers)Z, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, #1
avers: D N IVLIANVS NOB C, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing a fallen horseman.
exergue: M/-//ΔSIS(revers)Z, diameter: 16,0-17,0mm, weight: 2,54g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 361-367 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 371, p-377, Scarce !,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
mikrd45.jpg
17-03 - VITELIO (02/01/69 D.C. - 20/12/69 D.C.)28 viewsAR Denario 20 mm 3.03 gr.

Anv: "A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PONT MAXIM" - Vesta velada y vestida, sentada a der. en un trono, portando patera en mano der. y cetro vertical en izq.

Acuñada: Julio a Dic. del 69 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: S
SRCV I #2200,p.442 - BMCRE I #34 - DVM #16,p.97 - RSC II #72,p.36 - CBN #71

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #107 Pag.273 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #2200 Pag.422 - BMCRE Vol.I #34 - Cohen Vol.1 #72 Pag.361 - DVM #16 Pag.97 - CBN #71 - RSC Vol. II #72 Pag.36
mdelvalle
rjb_com2_04_09.jpg
17733 viewsCommodus 177-92 AD
AR denarius
Obv "M ANTONINVS COMMODVS AVG"
Lausreate head right
Rev "TRP VI IMP IIII COS III PP"
Felicitas standing left holding caduceus and vertical sceptre
Rome mint
RIC 15
1 commentsmauseus
LouisXVIArrivalInParis1789.JPG
1789. Louis XVI Medal. French Revolution, The Arrival of the King in Paris.123 viewsObv. Draped bust right. LOUIS XVI ROI DES FRANCAIS VILLE DE PARIS
Rev. The King, Queen and Dauphin being welcomed by the personification of Paris, building and crowds in background JY FERAI DESORMAIS MA DEMESRE HABITUELLE ARIVEE DU ROI A PARIS LA 6 OCT 1789

Commemorates the arrival in Paris of the King.
1 commentsLordBest
1793_Leek_Halfpenny.JPG
1793 AE Halfpenny Token. Leek, Staffordshire.21 viewsObverse: ARTE FAVENTE NIL DESPERANDUM. Two clasped hands with olive branch behind and rosette below.
Reverse: LEEK COMMERCIAL HALFPENNY • 1793. Caduceus leaning against a large wool bale and a tea chest.
Edge: “PAYABLE AT LEEK • STAFFORDSHIRE + +".
Diameter: 29mm | Axis: 12
Dalton & Hamer: 11

This token was probably issued by Messrs Ford and Phillips, about whom little is known, it was manufactured by Peter Kempson and the dies were engraved by Allan Wyon. Allan Wyon was a member of the “Wyon” family of medallists and die engravers, and was the youngest of three brothers to succeed their father as chief engraver of the seals.
*Alex
1795_Petersfield_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny Token. Petersfield, Hampshire.32 viewsObverse: PETERSFIELD. Mounted dragoon presenting sword, on horse trotting to left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: PAYABLE IN LONDON, the rest engrailed.
Diameter: 28mm
Dalton & Hamer: 49
RARE

This halfpenny token is one of a series of mules manufactured by Peter Kempson at his works in Birmingham. In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Petersfield is a market town situated on the northern slopes of the South Downs, 17 miles north of Portsmouth, in Hampshire, England. The town is on the crossroads of well-used north–south and east–west routes and it grew in prosperity due to its position as a coach stop as well as it's local sheep farming, and cottage industries of leather and cloth.
The town was founded during the 12th century by William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, and confirmed by charter in 1198 by John, Count of Mortain, the later King John.
*Alex
RI_181f_img.jpg
181 - Gratian - AE3 - RIC IX Lyons 20c type xvi (b)14 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, Pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor advancing right holding labarum & dragging captive
Minted in Lugdunum (O | F II // LVGSR)
Reference(s) – RIC IX Lyons 20c type xvi (b)
maridvnvm
Norwich_halfpenny_1811.JPG
1811 AE HALFPENNY, Norwich, Norfolk.42 viewsObverse: NORWICH MDCCCXI. The arms of Norwich consisting of a heraldic shield containing a three towered castle above a lion passant.
Reverse: NEWTON SILVERSMTH AND JEWELLER. Britannia standing facing right, holding spear and shield, behind her, at her side, lion walking right.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 27mm
Davis 26 | Withers 923

Issued by Francis Newton, a silversmith and Jeweller in Norwich. This is possibly the same Francis Newton (or a close relative) who, in a circular to bankers, was declared bankrupt by solicitors Messrs Bignold, Pulley and Mawe of New Bridge Street, at a meeting in the Rampant Horse Inn, Norwich on 5th August, 1835.

Norwich is situated on the River Wensum and is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of the most populous county in the country and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
*Alex
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex17 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
1997-161-172_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17211 viewsRome, 3.43 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RCrescentB in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 185; Pink VI/1, pg 57, 4th emission, 279 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-173_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17322 viewsRome, 3.46 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RDotCrescentB in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 185; Pink VI/1, pg 57, 4th emission, 279 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-174_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17430 viewsRome, 4.01 g

Obverse: PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RThunderboltDelta in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 187; Pink VI/1, pg 58, 6th emission, 281 AD;
1 commentsgordian_guy
1997-161-185_ProbusRestitutOrbis-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18513 viewsSiscia 3.43 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORBIS; */XXIZ; Female figure, on left, standing right, presenting wreath to Emperor, on right, standing left, holding globe in extended right hand and scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 731; Alfoldi Type 57, no. 84, but without the dots in XXIZ;
gordian_guy
1997-161-186_ProbusRomaeAeternae-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18614 viewsSiscia, 3.62 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust right; in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIS in exergue; Roma seated left in temple; holds globe in extended right hand and scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 739; Alfoldi Type 60, no. 2;
gordian_guy
PompeyDenNeptune.jpg
1ac1 Pompey the Great28 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Crassus in 60 BC. Murdered in Egypt, 48 BC.

Denarius, minted by son Sextus Pompey

42-40 BC

Head of Pompey the Great right between jug and lituus
Neptune right foot on prow, flanked by the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, with their parents on their shoulders

Struck by Sextus Pompey after his victory over Salvidienus and relates to his acclamation as the Son of Neptune. Although Sextus Pompey was the supreme naval commander, Octavian had the Senate declare him a public enemy. He turned to piracy and came close to defeating Octavian. He was, however, defeated by Marcus Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus (3 September 36 B.C.). He was executed by order of Mark Antony in 35 B.C.

SRCV I 1392, RSC I Pompey the Great 17, Sydenham 1344, Crawford 511/3a, BM Sicily 93

Plutarch said of Pompey: In Pompey, there were many [causes] that helped to make him the object of [the Roman people's] love; his temperance, his skill and exercise in war, his eloquence of speech, integrity of mind, and affability in conversation and address; insomuch that no man ever asked a favour with less offence, or conferred one with a better grace. When he gave, it was without assumption; when he received, it was with dignity and honour.
1 commentsBlindado
VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
MaximianusFollisGenio.jpg
1dt Maximianus21 views286-305, 306-308, 310

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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MaxentiusFollisRoma.jpg
1dz Maxentius22 views306-312

Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Roma in temple, CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE

RIC 194a

Eutropius reports: But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. . . .

At this time LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy.
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ConsGallCentConcMil.jpg
1em Constantius Gallus23 viewsCaesar 351-354

Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right, A behind head, D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
Emperor, diademed and in military dress, standing facing, head left, holding standard with chi-rho banner in each hand. Star above. Left field: III. CONCORDIA MILITVM. Mintmark: star SIRM.

RIC 22

Zosimus noted: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia; either in order that he might oppose the Persians, or as seems more probable, that he might have an opportunity of taking him off. He and his brothers were the only remaining persons of the family whom Constantius had not put to death, as I have related. When he had clothed Gallus with the Caesarean robe, and appointed Lucilianus general in the Persian war, he marched towards Magnentius with his own troops and those of Vetranio in one body. Constantius II had him tried and put to death for misrule of the East as Caesar. . . . The state-informers, with which such men are usually surrounded, and which are designed for the ruin of those that are in prosperity, were augmented. These sycophants, when they attempted to effect the downfal of a noble in hopes of sharing his wealth or honours, contrived some false accusation against him. This was the practice in the time of Constantius. Spies of this description, who made the eunuchs of the court their accomplices, flocked about Constantius, and persuaded him that his cousin german Gallus, who was a Caesar, was not satisfied with that honour, but wished to be emperor. They so far convinced him of the truth of this charge, that they made him resolve upon the destruction of Gallus. The contrivers of this design were Dynamius and Picentius, men of obscure condition, who endeavoured to raise themselves by such evil practises. Lampadius also, the Prefect of the court, was in the conspiracy, being a person who wished to engross more of the emperor's favour than any other. Constantius listened to those false insinuations, and Gallus was sent for, knowing nothing of what was intended against him. As soon as he arrived, Constantius first degraded him from the dignity of Caesar, and, having reduced him to private station, delivered him to the public executioners to be put to death.
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ValentinianIIAE3UrbsRom.jpg
1et Valentinian II19 views373-392

AE3, Nicomedia

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust rightt, D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Roma seated on cuirass, holding spear and Victory on globe, VRBS ROMA

The SMN mintmark indicates that the coin was minted in Nicomedia, but RIC does not list this reverse type for that mint.

Sim to RIC 51

Zosimus reports: Valentinian being dead, the tribunes Merobaudes and Equitius, reflecting on the distance at which Valens and Gratian resided, the former being in the east, and the latter left by his father in the western part of Gaul, were apprehensive lest the Barbarians beyond the Ister should make an effort while the country was without a ruler. They therefore sent for the younger son of Valentinian, who was born of his wife the widow of Magnentius, who was not far from thence with the child. Having clothed him in purple, they brought him into the court, though scarcely five years old. The empire was afterwards divided between Gratian and the younger Valentinian, at the discretion of their guardians, they not being of age to manage their own affairs. The Celtic nations, Spain, and Britain were given to Gratian; and Italy, Illyricum, and Africa to Valentinian. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina, who, as I before mentioned, had been the wife of Magnentius, but after his decease was taken in marriage by the emperor Valentinian on account of her extraordinary beauty. She carried along with her her daughter Galla. After having passed many seas, and arriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. He was astonished at hearing of this, and began to forget his extravagance, and to lay some restraint on his wild inclination for pleasure. . . . Theodosius then delivered to Valentinian as much of the empire as his father had possessed; in which he only acted as he was enjoined by his duty to those who so merited his kindness. . . .

intelligence was brought that the emperor Valentianian was no more, and that his death happened in this manner: Arbogastes, a Frank, who was appointed by the emperor Gratian lieutenant to Baudo, at the death of Baudo, confiding in his own ability, assumed the command without the emperor's permission. Being thought proper for the station by all the soldiers under him, both for his valour and experience in military affairs, and for his disregard of riches, he attained great influence. He thus became so elevated, that he would speak without reserve to the emperor, and would blame any measure which he thought improper. This gave such umbrage to Valentinian. . . .

Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound.
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2 Copper Boat Nails109 viewsThese are nails found in a sunken ship from Caesarea, Israel. aarmale
BOTLAUREL_2013.JPG
201341 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
2014-051-3_ProbusRomaeAternaeRomaTemple-Forum.jpg
2014.051.341 viewsSiscia, 3.25 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing helmet, cuirassed bust right; holding spear in right over right shoulder; shield with Pegasus left and other decorations on left shoulder.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIP in exergue; Roma seated left in hexa-style temple; holding globe(?) in extended right; scepter in left; shield beneath seat; wreath in pediment.
Ref: RIC 739; Alfoldi Type 60, no 14, though type 14 does not show the same decorated shield, only Pegasus shown and not additional decorations.
gordian_guy
2014-051-4_ProbusRomaeAternaeRomaTemple-Forum.jpg
2014.051.428 viewsSiscia; 3.90 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Probus, radiated, helmet, cuirassed bust right; spear in right hand over right shoulder; shield decorated with Medusa head (Gorgon) on left shoulder, strap across chest;
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIS in exergue; Roma seated left in hexa-style temple; holding in extended right hand Victory standing left; scepter in left; shield beneath seat; wreath in pediment.
Ref: RIC 737; Alfoldi Type 61, no 27
gordian_guy
2014-054-8_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
2014.054.812 viewsRome; 3.74 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, right; holding eagle tipped scepter in right.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RThunderboldDelta in exergue; Roma seated in hexa-style temple; holding victory in left and scepter in right.
Ref: RIC 183; Pink V1/1 pg 46, 6th emission
gordian_guy
2014-060-11_ProbusRestitutOrbis-Forum.jpg
2014.060.1114 viewsAntioch, 3.70g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiated, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORBIS; E/XXI; Female on left, standing right, presenting wreath to Emperor, on right, standing left, holding globe in extended right and scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 925; Pink V1/1, pg 28, 2nd emission, 280 AD
gordian_guy
2014-060-3_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
2014.060.315 viewsRome, 4.01 g

Obverse: PROBVS PF AVG; Radiated, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RThunderboldDelta; Roma Seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 187; Pink V1/1 pg 57, 6th Emission, 280 AD
gordian_guy
2014-060-4_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
2014.060.441 viewsRome, 4.64 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiated, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RCrescentB; Roma Seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 185; Pink V1/1 pg 57, 4th Emission, 279 AD
gordian_guy
2014-060-6_ProbusRestitutOrbis-Forum.jpg
2014.060.615 viewsSiscia, 3.54 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORBIS; */XXIT; Emperor on right standing left, holding globe in extended right and scepter in left; on left, standing right, female presenting wreath.
Ref: RIC 733; Alfoldi Type 57, no. 50;
gordian_guy
2014-088-1_CarinusRomeAequitasAvg-Forum.jpg
2014.088.128 viewsRome, 3.28 g; 12h

Obverse: IMP CARINVS PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed, bust right.
Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG; -/-//KAZ; Aequitas, standing left, holding scales in right hand and cornucopia in left.
Ref: RIC V,2 236
gordian_guy
coin230.JPG
204. Elagabalus29 viewsElagabalus was and is one of the most controversial Roman emperors. During his reign he showed a disregard for Roman religious traditions and sexual taboos. Elagabalus' name is a Latinized form of the Semitic deity El-Gabal, a manifestation of the Semitic deity Ēl. He replaced Jupiter, head of the Roman pantheon, with a new god, Deus Sol Invictus, which in Latin means "the Sun, God Unconquered". Elagabalus forced leading members of Rome's government to participate in religious rites celebrating Sol invictus which he personally led.

He also took a Vestal Virgin as one of a succession of wives and openly boasted that his sexual interest in men was more than just a casual pastime, as it had been for previous emperors.

Elagabalus developed a reputation among his contemporaries for eccentricity, decadence, and zealotry which was likely exaggerated by his successors. This black propaganda was passed on and as such he was one of the most reviled Roman emperors to early Christian historians and later became a hero to the Decadent movement of the late 19th century.

Elagabalus Denarius. IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, horned, laureate, and draped bust right / PM TR P IIII COS III P P, Elagabalus standing left sacrificing out of patera over lighted altar & holding branch, star left. RIC 46, RSC 196
ecoli
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215 Philip I92 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8932, RIC IV 32b, RSC IV 55, VF, 3.820g, 23.3mm, 45o, Rome mint, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind; reverse FIDES MILIT, Fides standing half left, standard in each hand; well centered
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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216 Otacilia Severa94 viewsOtacilia Severa, Augusta February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9158, RIC IV 130, RSC IV 43, Choice gVF, 4.523g, 23.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 247 A.D.; obverse OTACIL SEVERA AVG, draped bust right set on crescent; reverse PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas, veiled, standing left, extending right, box of incense in left; full circles strike, bold portrait.

"Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to other people, gods and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others."
9 commentsRandygeki(h2)
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220 Trajan Decius37 viewsTrajan Decius, July 249 - First Half of June 251 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9364, RIC IV 10b, RSC IV 2, VF, 4.268g, 22.5mm, 180o, Rome mint, 250 - 251 A.D.; obverse IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse ABVNDANTIA AVG, Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopia held in both hands; scarce;


Abundantia, her Greek name is Euthenia, stands for abundance or plenty. Her attributes are heads of grain and the cornucopia. She can be seated or standing and is sometimes shown emptying a cornucopia.
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Antíoco XII, Dionysos - Nike.jpg
23-06 - Antíoco XII, Dionysos Epiphanes Philopator Kaliniko (87/6 - 84 A.C.)27 viewsAntíoco XII Dioniso fue un rey de Siria de la dinastía seleúcida, hermano de Demetrio III, al que sucedió tras ser éste capturado por los partos. Fue el ultimo rey seleúcida en el sur de Siria, debido a la decadencia irremediable de los reinos helenísticos, debido a que había problemas en todas partes, sus hermanos estaban enzarzados en guerras fraticidas o habían sido derrotados por Tigranes el Grande y se habían convertido en poco más que una dinastía de reyezuelos macedonios sin ningún poder efectivo. Debido a todo ello y al afán de controlar las rutas comerciales, los árabes nabateos se atrevieron a atacar uno a uno a los debilitados reinos seleúcidas, por lo que Antíoco XII se vio obligado a reclutar un ejército de grecomacedonios y mercenarios sirios que marcharon con la esperanza de expulsar a los árabes y ampliar los acosados dominios seleúcidas. En consecuencia, se dirigió al combate contra los nabateos con un ejército mal pertrechado, como si se dirigiera a una escaramuza insignificante contra una tribu sin poder en la época de los grandes seleúcidas. Al tercer día de marcha los ejercitos se encontraron: los grecosirios agotados de Antíoco XII y los bien pertrechados y descansados árabes. Como era de esperar, los seleúcidas fueron contundentemente derrotados en la batalla subsiguiente. Antíoco XII cayó en la batalla y poco después los nabateos tomaron igualmente Damasco con lo cual el territorio quedó en poder árabe, del que ya no llegaría a salir jamás. La poblacion griega se diluyó totalmente entre los invasores, aunque hubo intentos de reconquistar Damasco por parte del sobrino de Antíoco, Filipo II Filorromano, hijo del hermano de Antíoco Filipo I Filadelfo; pero poco después Filipo II fue asesinado por orden de los romanos, lo que significó el fin definitivo de los seleúcidas y el inicio de la provincia romana de Siria.(Wikipedia)

AE 16 mm 4.6 gr.

Anv: Busto barbado y diademado de Antíoco viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY EΠIΦANOYΣ ΦIΛOΠATOPOΣ KAΛΛINIKOY” ( de Rey / Antíoco / Dios Hacedor de manifiestos / Padre amante / Vencedor de finas batallas) - Nike (Victoria) avanzando a derecha, sosteniendo corona en mano derecha extendida y rama de palma en la izquierda.

Acuñación: 86 - 84 A.C.
Ceca: Damasco en Siria

Referencias: SNG Spaer (Israel) 2890 var – 2894 - Babelon E. Vol.1, pl.XXVIII, 14 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7201 Pag.675
mdelvalle
Trajano_denario.jpg
24-02 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.23 gr.

Anv: "IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha, leve ropaje en hombro trasero.
Rev: "COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC" - Dacia sedente a izquierda y acongojada sobre un escudo, a su alrededor una pila de armas. "DAC CAP "en exergo
Refiere a la conquista de Dacia

Acuñada 108 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #98 Pag.251 - SRCTV Vol. II #3136 var. Pag. 101 - RSC Vol.II #120 Pag. 87 - BMCRE Vol.III #390 - Cohen Vol.II #120 Pag.31 - DVM #9/2 Pag.119 - UCR #486 - St. #156
mdelvalle
RIC_98_Denario_trajano.jpg
24-02 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.)22 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.23 gr.

Anv: "IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha, leve ropaje en hombro trasero.
Rev: "COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC" - Dacia sedente a izquierda y acongojada sobre un escudo, a su alrededor una pila de armas. "DAC CAP "en exergo
Refiere a la conquista de Dacia

Acuñada 108 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #98 Pag.251 - SRCTV Vol. II #3136 var. Pag. 101 - RSC Vol.II #120 Pag. 87 - BMCRE Vol.III #390 - Cohen Vol.II #120 Pag.31 - DVM #9/2 Pag.119 - UCR #486 - St. #156
mdelvalle
24-Constans-Sis-226.jpg
24. Constans / Emperor and 2 captives.17 viewsMaiorina (?) (smaller AE 2), 348-350, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DN CONSTANS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constans, left, holding globe.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO / Emperor standing, in military dress, holding standard, resting left hand on shield. Two captives at left. Star in left field above left captive.
Mint mark: ASISR
3.93 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #226; LRBC #1119; Sear #18704.
Callimachus
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240 Valerian I40 viewsValerian I, October 253 - c. June 260 A.D.
Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1700l (Samosata), RIC V 287 (Antioch), SRCV III 9967 (uncertain Syrian mint), Fine or better, Syrian mint, 258 - 260 A.D.; obverse IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse RESTITVT ORIENTIS (restorer of the East), turreted female (the Orient) presenting wreath to the Emperor standing left holding spear, pellet in wreath above; Ex Forvm

"The false propaganda on the reverse is particularly ironic considering Valerian's fate. After years of war and great losses, Valerian arranged peace talks with the Sasanian Persian emperor Sapor. He set off with a small group to discuss terms and was never seen again. In Rome it was rumored that Sapor was using his stuffed body as a footstool."
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
J29-25 Mil.jpg
25 mils Israel's first coin, 1949124 views25 mil coin of aluminum, 3.5grams, 30 mm, Mintage: 650,000 (total: open link & closed link mintage).

Obverse: Grapes as in Bar-Kochba revolt coinage.
Reverse: Wreath as in Hasmonean dynasty coinage.

Reference: Israel KM8

Added to collection: June 20, 2005
Daniel Friedman
10603346_732337593469821_1075071389989188733_n.jpg
250 Gallienus27 viewsGallienus, August 253 - September 268 A.D
Silver antoninianus, Göbl MIR 872m, RSC IV 310 (Lugdunum), RIC V J18 (Lugdunum), SRCV III 10225, VF, weak reverse strike, 3.077g, 23.3mm, 0o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne, Germany) mint, 257 - 258 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust left, spear in right over shoulder, shield on left arm in left; reverse GERMANICVS MAX V, two captives seated back-to-back at the foot of a trophy, their arms tied behind their backs; scarce;

1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
GalVsr157.jpg
253-268 AD - Gallienus - RIC V (sole reign) 157 - ABVNDANTIA AVG44 viewsEmperor: Gallienus (r. 253-268 AD)
Date: 260-268 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG
Emperor Gallienus
Bust right; radiate

Reverse: ABVNDANTIA AVG
The Emperor provides abundance.
Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopiae.
"B" in left field

Rome mint
RIC V Gallienus (sole reign) 157; VM 5
2.06g; 18.1mm; 180°
Pep
GalVsr160.jpg
253-268 AD - Gallienus - RIC V (sole reign) 160 - AETERNITAS AVG29 viewsEmperor: Gallienus (r. 253-268 AD)
Date: 260-268 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG
Emperor Gallienus
Head right; radiate

Reverse: AETER-NITAS AVG
The Emperor provides stability.
Sol standing left, holding globe.
"Γ" in left field (Rome mint, third officina)

RIC V Gallienus (sole reign) 160
2.16g; 17.9mm; 60°
Pep
GalVsr227.jpg
253-268 AD - Gallienus - RIC V (sole reign) 227 - LIBERAL AVG35 viewsEmperor: Gallienus (r. 253-268 AD)
Date: 262 AD
Condition: VF/Fair
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG
Emperor Gallienus
Bust right; radiate

Reverse: LIBERAL AVG
The Emperor provides liberty.
Liberalitas standing left, holding tessera and cornucopiae.
"Q" in left field

Rome mint
RIC V Gallienus (sole reign) 227; VM 145
1.77g; 19.7mm; 150°
Pep
GalVsr287.jpg
253-268 AD - Gallienus - RIC V (sole reign) 287 var - VBERITAS AVG43 viewsEmperor: Gallienus (r. 253-268 AD)
Date: 260-268 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG
Emperor Gallienus
Head right; radiate

Reverse: VBERITAS AVG
The Emperor is fruitful.
Uberitas standing left holding purse and cornucopiae.
"E" in right field

Rome mint, fifth officina
RIC V Gallienus (sole reign) 287 var.; VM 278
2.50g; 18.1mm; 15°
Pep
GalVsr305.jpg
253-268 AD - Gallienus - RIC V (sole reign) 305 - VICTORIA AVG III29 viewsEmperor: Gallienus (r. 253-268 AD)
Date: 260-268 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG
Emperor Gallienus
Bust right; radiate and cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIA AVG III
The Emperor's Third Victory (refers to the defeat of Regalianus, in 260AD, under the revised numbering system for victories)
Victory walking left, holding wreath and palm.
"T" in left field (Rome mint, third officina)

RIC V Gallienus (sole reign) 305; VM 300
2.24g; 21.1mm; 30°
Pep
SalaVsr24.jpg
254-268 AD - Salonina - RIC V (sole reign of Gallienus) 24 - PVDICITIA29 viewsEmpress: Salonina (r. 254-268 AD)
Date: 260-268 AD
Condition: Fair/Fine
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: SALONINA AVG
Empress Salonina
Diademed, draped bust right, on crescent

Reverse: PVDICITIA
The Empress is of modest virtue.
Pudicitia standing left, raising veil and holding scepter.
"Q" in right field

Rome mint
RIC V Salonina 24 (sole reign); VM 36
2.03g; 20.6mm; 195°
Pep
1779766_745860845450829_7800872537179818972_n.jpg
260 Claudius II20 viewsClaudius II
Æ Antoninianus
Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint

IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse PAX AVG, Pax walking left, extending olive-branch in right hand, long transverse scepter in left, T in ex

RIC V 157, SRCV 3215, Cohen 202
Randygeki(h2)
320_P_Hadrian.jpg
2608 PHRYGIA, Acmoneia Hadrian, Kybele19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2608; BMC PHRYGIA, 54 (pag. 12); Sr GIC 1190

Obv. AΔPIANOC KAICAP
Laureate bust right, aegis tied at shoulder.

Rev. AKMO NEΩN
Cybele wearing polos chitos and peplos, enthroned right, holding in left tympanum, and in right sceptre; beside her, Lion right.

4.29 gr
20 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1334_P_Hadrian_RPC2608.jpg
2608 PHRYGIA, Acmoneia Hadrian, Kybele3 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2608; BMC PHRYGIA, 54 (pag. 12); Sr GIC 1190

Obv. AΔPIANOC KAICAP
Laureate bust right, aegis tied at shoulder.

Rev. AKMO NEΩN
Cybele wearing polos chitos and peplos, enthroned right, holding in left tympanum, and in right sceptre; beside her, Lion right.

4.52 gr
22 mm
6h
okidoki
thessalonica5.jpg
280 onstantine I14 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: -dot//SMTSr
hill132
thessalonica8.jpg
283 Constantine I16 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: -dot//SMTSr
hill132
IMG_2353.JPG
3 Constantius II35 viewsConstantius II
Billon centenionalis
Siscia, officina 3; 348-350 CE
22mm x 23mm, 4.74g
D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left, globe in right hand.
Reverse: FEL•TEMP•REPA-RATIO
Helmeted soldier, spear in left hand, advancing right, head left; with his right hand he leads a small bare-headed figure from a hut beneath a tree. The spear points upwards and to the right.
Exergue: ΓSISR•

Ref: RIC VIII, similar to Siscia 221 but (a) different emperor; (b) the officina is unlisted and (c) this spear position is not listed for any mintmark ending in a dot.
BW Ref: 073 040 137

Ex Moonmoth
forumancientcoins.com/moonmoth/coins/constantius_ii_073.html
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
thessalonica29.jpg
304 Constantine I15 viewsobv: CONSTAN_TINVS AVG laur. head r.
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with two turrents star above
ex: - dot/SMTSr
hill132
coin239.JPG
305. Trajan Decius32 viewsTrajan Decius

Decius' reign was not well-suited to the demands of a rapidly changing empire.[[45]] Conservatism may have been popular among a certain portion of the Roman elite, but the old aristocracy's power and influence all but disappeared in the third century. Decius clearly had a broader vision of what he wanted to accomplish in his reign than many of his contemporaries, and certainly he was vigorous, but he was also a man who was not sufficiently flexible when the moment called for it. His religious policy caused major disruptions in Rome and; in contrast to some of the other barracks emperors, Decius proved himself less than apt when dealing with Rome's Germanic foes. His death may have been heroic, but it was unnecessary and unsuccessful.

AR Antoninianus. IMP CMQ TRAIANUS DECIUS AUG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right /PANNONIAE, the two Pannoniae standing front with standards. RIC 21b, RSC 86
ecoli
roman_republic,_L__Appuleius_Saturninus.jpg
317/3b L. Appuleius Saturninus. 30 viewsRoman Republic. L. Appuleius Saturninus. 104 B.C. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. SRCV I 193, Crawford 317/3b. 18.4mm, 3.32 g. Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma left. Reverse: Saturn in a quadriga right, K below, L SATVRN in exergue. Ex Forvm.Lucas H
Denario_MARCO_AURELIO_RIC_206.jpg
33 - 02 - MARCO AURELIO (161 - 180 D.C.)56 viewsAR Denario 18/19 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIII" - Cabeza laureada a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERAL AVG V COS III" - Liberalitas estante a izq., portando Ábaco en mano der. Y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada: 169 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.III #206 Pag.229 – SRCV Vol.II #4914 Pag.306 - BMCRE Vol. #492 - Cohen Vol.III #412 Pag.42/43 - RSC Vol. II #412 Pag.208 - DVM #25 Pag.144
mdelvalle
RIC_221_Denario_Marco_Aurelio.jpg
33 - 02 - MARCO AURELIO (161 - 180 D.C.)11 viewsAR Denario 18-19 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIIII" - Cabeza laureada a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERAL AVG V COS III" - Liberalitas estante a izq., portando Ábaco en mano der. Y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada: 169 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.III #221 Pag.230 – SRCV Vol.II #4914var. Pag.306 - BMCRE IV #524 Pag.459 (Plate 63 #9) - Cohen Vol.III #413 Pag.43 - RSC Vol. II #413 Pag.208 - DVM #25 Pag.144
mdelvalle
claud quadr01.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE quadrans - struck 41 AD23 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around hand holding pair of scales above PNR
rev: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around S C
ref: RIC85, Cohen71, BMC174, SRC1864
mint: Rome
3.44gms, 15mm

PNR = Pondus Numni Restitutum. It refers to some kind of monetary rectification.
berserker
claud quadr02.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE quadrans - struck 41 AD26 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around hand holding pair of scales above PNR
rev: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around S C
ref: RIC I 85, Cohen71, BMC174, SRC1864
mint: Rome
3.13gms, 15mm
berserker
claud quadr03.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE quadrans - struck 41 AD21 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around three-legged modius
rev: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around large SC
ref: RIC I 84, Cohen70, SRC1863
mint: Rome
3.41gms, 15mm
berserker
claud quadr04.jpg
41-54 AD - CLAUDIUS I AE quadrans - struck 41 AD16 viewsobv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG around three-legged modius
rev: PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT around large SC
ref: RIC I 84, Cohen70, SRC1863
mint: Rome
3.05gms, 15mm
berserker
233_P_Hadrian__Spijkerman_3.JPG
4100 ARABIA, Petra. Hadrian Tyche26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 4100; Spijkerman 3; SNG ANS 1360-3 var. (bust type)

Issue Petra metropolis

Obv. ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤΩΡ ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟϹ СƐΒΑϹΤΟС
Laureate and draped bust of Hadrian (seen from rear), r.

Rev. ΠƐΤΡΑ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΙС
Turreted and veiled Tyche seated l. on rock, l., her r. hand extended, holding trophy in l.

13.35 gr
26 mm
6h

Note.
The Decapolis ("Ten Cities"; Greek: deka, ten; polis, city) was a group of ten cities on the eastern frontier of the Roman Empire in Jordan, Israel and Syria. The ten cities were not an official league or political unit, but they were grouped together because of their language, culture, location, and political status, with each possessing a certain degree of autonomy and self-rule. The Decapolis cities were centers of Greek and Roman culture in a region that was otherwise Semitic (Nabatean, Aramean, and Jewish). With the exception of Damascus, Hippos and Scythopolis, the "Region of the Decapolis" was located in modern-day Jordan.

Petra (GreekΠέτρα, Petra, meaning "stone";
okidoki
Denario_Clodio_Albino_RIC_2_a.jpg
45 - 02 - Clodio Albino (195 - 197 D.C.)49 views "Como Cesar de Septimio Severo"
AR Denario 18 x 17 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES" - Busto a Cabeza desnuda, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COS II" - Asclepio de pié a izq., su mano der. sobre la cabeza de una serpiente enrollada en un bastón.

Acuñada: 194 - 195 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #2 Pag.44 – SRCV Vol.II #6140 - Cohen Vol.III #9 Pag.416
mdelvalle
Denario_Clodio_Albino_RIC_4_1.jpg
45 - 04 - Clodio Albino (195-197 D.C.)54 views "Como Cesar de Septimio Severo"
AR Denario 19 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES" - Busto a Cabeza desnuda, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FELICITAS COS II" - Felicitas de Pié a izquierda, portando caduceo en mano derecha y largo cetro vertical en izquierda..

Acuñada: 194 - 195 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #4 Pag.44 – SRCV Vol.II #6141 - Cohen Vol.III #15 Pag.417 - DVM #8 Pag. 177
1 commentsmdelvalle
roman_republic,_Mn__Cordius_Rufus.jpg
463/1b Mn. Cordius Rufus35 viewsMn. Cordius Rufus. 46 B.C. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. SRCV I 440, Sydenham 976c. 19.2mm, 3.85 g., Obverse: RVFVS III-VIR, Conjoined heads of the Dioscuri r., wearing pilei surmounted by stars. Reverse: MN-CORDIVS (MN in monogram) on right, Venus Verticordia standing left, scales in right, transverse scepter in left, cupid on her left shoulder. Ex Forvm.1 commentsLucas H
Bruti.jpg
48 BC D. Junius Brutus Albinus118 viewsPIETAS
Head of Pietas right

ALBINVS BRVTI F
Clasped hands holding winged caduceus

3.1g

Rome
48 BC

Sear 427,

Decimus Junius Brutus was a distant relative of Marcus Brutus. He was known as one of Caesar's "most intamate associates" and a friend of Mark Antony. Albinus had served under Caesar in both the Gallic Wars and the Civil War. He participated in the siege of Massilia (Marseilles) that held out against Caesar for months. He also commanded a Caesarian fleet.

Plutarch considered Albinus "of no great courage," but Albinus was a faithful and loyal supporter of Caesar. He was to be Consul in 42 BC along with Lucius Plancus. While awaiting the consulship Albinus was to become Governor of Cisalpine Gaul when the post became available in the spring of 44BC

Albinus was approached by Cassius and Labeo to involve him in the conspiracy to murder Caesar. Albinus wanted to make sure Marcus Brutus was involved before agreeing to the plot. After meeting with Brutus he agreed. Both Brutus and Albinus received notification of a meeting of the Senate on March 15th and Albinus agreed to use an exhibition of his Gladiators after the meeting as protection in case things got out of hand after the murder had taken place. Caesar's retired legionaries were all around the city and none of the conspirators knew how they would react at Caesar's death.

At a dinner at the house of Marcus Lepidus on the night of March 14, 44BC Caesar was in attendence along with Decimus Brutus. Towards the end of the night Caesar's secretary approached for him to sign some letters. As he was signing Albinus posed a philosophical question to him: "What sort of death is best?" Caesar answered "A sudden one"

The next morning the Senate awaited Caesar to arrive. Caesr's wife Calpurnia and the auspeces warned Caesar not to attend the meeting. When Caesar delayed the conspirator's sent Albinus to Caesar's house. Albinus convinced Caesar to at least postpone the meeting in person. Antony was against this idea. Caesar was then murered by the conspirators in the Theater of Pompey in the Campus Martius, Albinus being a key player in the conspiracy.
3 commentsJay GT4
J31-Palestine.jpg
50 mils Palestine, 193947 views72% silver and 28% copper, 23.5 mm, 5.83 grams (90 grains), reeded (milled) edge, dated 1939, 3,000,000 minted.

Obverse: “50 Mils” in English, Hebrew and Arabic.
Reverse: “Palestine” in English, Hebrew and Arabic and “Israel” in Hebrew around, palm branch with date – 1939 – in English and Arabic numerals.

Reference: Israel KM 6

Added to collection: July 15, 2005
Daniel Friedman
coin448.JPG
501. Constantine I Lyons Sol14 viewsLyons

Originally, the important city in this area was that of Vienne, at a crossroads of Celtic trails, and port for the Greek trade. They had been largly Hellanised during the 2nd - 1st centuries BCE, then caught up in the conflicts involving Rome and Athens. Roman traders had settled there and competition started a revolt, driving the Romans to the north. At the present site of Lyons, they sought and received refuge from the Gallic tribe called Segusiavi. At that time, Lyons was just a tribe of Celts occupying the top of a hill, later to be called Fourviere. A Roman settlement was begun, and then later used by Julius Caesar to launch his campaigns against the Helvetii in 58 BCE.

The site of Lyons, being on a crossroads as well as a connection to the Mediterranean, was early recognised as being strategically important. In 43 BCE, the city of Lugdunum became an official Roman colony recognised by the Roman senate, founded by the governor of Gallia Comata (province of Comata), Lucius Munatius Plancus. Later, in 27 BCE, then Emperor Augustus divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, and Lugdunum became the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis. [The third province was Gallia Aquitania.]

Lyons became the financial center for taxation purposes of Aquitania and Lugdunum provinces, and an official mint was established there. Also, the state cult honoring Augustus [or the present Emperor] was established at Lyons, drawing many pilgrims and supplicants. Drusus, the father of Claudius, (born 10 BCE) was stationed at Lyons, being in charge of Gallia Comata. Also, a cohort of Roman policemen were stationed at lyons, to protect the mint. A bronze inscription found at Lyons records the speech given to the Roman Senate in 48 CE by Emperor Claudius, arguing for the acceptance of admission of senators from Gallia Comata.

Through Lyons [and Vienne] passed the great roads leading to the different regions of Gaul and towards Italy. Trade with Gaul, Britain and Germany passed through Lyons, mostly supplying Roman colonies on the the frontier. Later, these routes were paved by the Romans to facilitate trade and troop movement. Lyons became an important trade and military center. However, intercity rivalry with Vienne to the south never died, and indeed Vienne became jealous over time.

Lyons was burnt to the ground in 65 CE but quickly rebuilt. It prospered until 197 when it was sacked in a civil war. The city of Lyons had backed the unfortunate loser in a battle between two Roman generals. Cities to the south [Arles, Vienne, and to the north, Trier] took over the economic functions of Lyons; and the city of Lyons was again plundered 269. Lyons fought back, and the trade wars raged on, until early in the 4th century when the aqueducts of Lyons were destroyed. Without water, the hillsite of Lyons [the Fourviere Hill] became untenable. The merchants moved down to the city below, or out of the city entirely. The protection of Lyons was thus much more difficult. And the decline of the Roman Empire also spelled the decline of many of its cities.

RIC VII Lyons 34 C3

ecoli
coins171.JPG
504. Constantius II Campgate Nicomedia18 viewsNicomedia

Titular see of Bithynia Prima, founded by King Zipoetes. About 264 B.C. his son Nicodemes I dedicated the city anew, gave it his name, made it his capital, and adorned it with magnificent monuments. At his court the vanquished Hannibal sought refuge. When Bithynia became a Roman province Nicomedia remained its capital. Pliny the Younger mentions, in his letters to Trajan, several public edifices of the city — a senate house, an aqueduct which he had built, a forum, the temple of Cybele, etc. He also proposed to join the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmora by a canal which should follow the river Sangarius and empty the waters of the Lake of Sabandja into the Gulf of Astacus. A fire then almost destroyed the town. From Nicomedia perhaps, he wrote to Trajan his famous letter concerning the Christians. Under Marcus Aurelius, Dionysius, Bishop of Corinth, addressed a letter to his community warning them against the Marcionites (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", IV, xxiii). Bishop Evander, who opposed the sect of the Ophites (P.L., LIII, 592), seems to have lived at the same time. Nicomedia was the favorite residence of Diocletian, who built there a palace, a hippodrome, a mint, and an arsenal. In 303 the edict of the tenth persecution caused rivers of blood to flow through the empire, especially in Nicomedia, where the Bishop Anthimus and a great many Christians were martyred. The city was then half Christian, the palace itself being filled with them. In 303, in the vast plain east of Nicomedia, Diocletian renounced the empire in favour of Galerius. In 311 Lucian, a priest of Antioch, delivered a discourse in the presence of the judge before he was executed. Other martyrs of the city are numbered by hundreds. Nicomedia suffered greatly during the fourth century from an invasion of the Goths and from an earthquake (24 Aug., 354), which overthrew all the public and private monuments; fire completed the catastrophe. The city was rebuilt, on a smaller scale. In the reign of Justinian new public buildings were erected, which were destroyed in the following century by the Shah Chosroes. Pope Constantine I visited the city in 711. In 1073 John Comnenus was there proclaimed emperor and shortly afterwards was compelled to abdicate. In 1328 it was captured by the Sultan Orkhan, who restored its ramparts, parts of which are still preserved.

RIC VII Nicomedia 158 R2

ecoli
coin233~0.JPG
504. CONSTANTIUS II GLORIA EXERCITVS Antioch18 viewsAntioch

Under the empire we chiefly hear of the earthquakes which shook Antioch. One, in AD 37, caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city. Another followed in the next reign; and in 115, during Trajan's sojourn in the place with his army of Parthia, the whole site was convulsed, the landscape altered, and the emperor himself forced to take shelter in the circus for several days. He and his successor restored the city; but in 526, after minor shocks, the calamity returned in a terrible form; the octagonal cathedral which had been erected by the emperor Constantius II suffered and thousands of lives were lost, largely those of Christians gathered to a great church assembly. We hear also of especially terrific earthquakes on November 29, 528 and October 31, 588.

At Antioch Germanicus died in AD 19, and his body was burnt in the forum. Titus set up the Cherubim, captured from the Jewish temple, over one of the gates. Commodus had Olympic games celebrated at Antioch, and in 266 the town was suddenly raided by the Persians, who slew many in the theatre. In 387 there was a great sedition caused by a new tax levied by order of Theodosius, and the city was punished by the loss of its metropolitan status. Zeno, who renamed it Theopolis, restored many of its public buildings just before the great earthquake of 526, whose destructive work was completed by the Persian Chosroes twelve years later. Justinian I made an effort to revive it, and Procopius describes his repairing of the walls; but its glory was past.

The chief interest of Antioch under the empire lies in its relation to Christianity. Evangelized perhaps by Peter, according to the tradition upon which the Antiochene patriarchate still rests its claim for primacy (cf. Acts xi.), and certainly by Barnabas and Paul, who here preached his first Christian sermon in a synagogue, its converts were the first to be called Christians

004. CONSTANTIUS II Antioch

RIC VII Antioch 88 C3

From Uncleaned Lot

ecoli
Sass4.jpg
531-579 Khosrow I - dirham from Eran-asan-kar-Kavad (Hulwan, Iran)46 viewsPahlavi legend , crowned bust right
Pahlavi legend , fire-altar with two attendants, wearing turbans.
3 commentsGinolerhino
1183Hadrian_RIC552.jpg
552 Hadrian Orichalcum Sestertius, Roma 118 AD Hadrian and Liberalitas 54 viewsReference.
RIC 552; Strack 516; Hunter II 324, BMCRE III 1137, Cohen II 914, SRCV II 3606 var. (band over shoulder, S - C at sides); Banti 488

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II / S C LIBERALITAS AVG
Hadrian seated left on raised platform, before him sits an attendant distributing coins to a togate citizen climbing steps of platform, Liberalitas standing left on far side of attendant, holding coin counter, LIBERALITAS AVG / S C (senatus consulto) in exergue

25.81 gr
35 mm
6h

Note.
The generosity and munificent largesses of Hadrian, after having been recorded many times on various coins and in diverse ways, are on the reverse of a first brass medal of great rarity, glorified altogether by the above splendid title, "The Benefactor of the World," a superlative the more remarkable, inasmuch as, neither before nor afterward, is it found conferred on any other emperor. -- Dictionary| of Roman| Coins|
FORVM coin
5 commentsokidoki
Sass1.jpg
590-628 Khosrow II - dirham from Hormizd-Ardashir (Iran)50 viewsPahlavi legend , crowned bust right
Pahlavi legend , fire-altar with two attendants.
2 commentsGinolerhino
Sass2.jpg
590-628 Khosrow II - dirham from Kerman (?)52 viewsPahlavi legend , crowned bust right
Pahlavi legend , fire-altar with two attendants.
2 commentsGinolerhino
01644p00.jpg
6. Faustina Sr. silver Denarius, Rome Mint201 viewsChoice gVF, 3.48g., 12.1 mm, 0º, Rome Mint 147-161 AD
O: DIVA FAVSTINA, minted by husband Antoninus Pius after her death
R: CERES, Ceres holding heads of grain and a torch
5 commentsZam
Sestercio_Maximino_I_RIC_33.jpg
62 - 10 - MAXIMINO I (235-238 D.C.)52 viewsÆ Sestercio (27mm - 17.39 g)

Anv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG - Busto laureado con coraza y paludamentum (capote militar) a derecha, visto por detrás
Rev: P M TR P II COS P P, S-C - Emperador estante a izq. levantando su mano der., portando cetro en izquierda. Dos estandartes militares delante y uno detrás.

Acuñada: 236 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: Comun

Referencias: RIC IVb #33 Pag.143 - BMCRE #80 - Cohen IV #58 Pag.511 - SRCV III #8336 var. Pag.82 -

mdelvalle
RIC_33_Sestercio_Maximino_I.jpg
62-10 - MAXIMINO I (235-238 D.C.)18 viewsÆ Sestercio (27mm - 17.39 g)

Anv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG - Busto laureado con coraza y paludamentum (capote militar) a derecha, visto por detrás
Rev: P M TR P II COS P P, S-C - Emperador estante a izq. levantando su mano der., portando cetro en izquierda. Dos estandartes militares delante y uno detrás.

Acuñada: 236 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: Comun

Referencias: RIC IVb #33 Pag.143 - BMCRE #80 - Cohen IV #58 Pag.511 - SRCV III #8336 var. Pag.82
mdelvalle
Commodvsrevden.jpg
65.5 Commodus denarius57 viewsCommodus
AR Denarius
Rome Mint (192)

rev. PM TRP XVII IMP VIII COS VII PP
Pietas with child
Zam
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2146 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.100 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
Antoniniano_HOSTILIANO_RIC_177b_1.jpg
76-02 - HOSTILIANO Como Cesar de Trajano Decio (250 - 251 D.C.) 38 viewsAR Antoniniano 23 x 21 mm 3.7 gr.
Hijo de Trajano Decio

Anv: "C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C" - Busto radiado y vestido viendo a derecha
Rev: "MARTI PROPVGNATORI" - Marte avanzando a derecha, portando una jabalina en mano der. y escudo en izq.

Acuñada 6ta. y 7ma. Emisión del 251 D.C.
Ceca: 5to.Taller Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #177b Pag.144 - Cohen Vol.V #15 Pag.226 - RSC Vol. IV #15 Pag.32 - SRCV III #9556 Pag.222 - Sear '88 #2755 - DVM #7 Pag.234 - Hunter #3
mdelvalle
RIC_177b_Antoniniano_Hostiliano.jpg
76-02 - HOSTILIANO Como Cesar de Trajano Decio (250 - 251 D.C.) 12 viewsAR Antoniniano 23 x 21 mm 3.7 gr.
Hijo de Trajano Decio

Anv: "C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C" - Busto radiado y vestido viendo a derecha
Rev: "MARTI PROPVGNATORI" - Marte avanzando a derecha, portando una jabalina en mano der. y escudo en izq.

Acuñada 6ta. y 7ma. Emisión del 251 D.C.
Ceca: 5to.Taller Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #177b Pag.144 - Cohen Vol.V #15 Pag.226 - RSC Vol. IV #15 Pag.32 - SRCV III #9556 Pag.222 - Sear '88 #2755 - DVM #7 Pag.234 - Hunter #3
mdelvalle
Mariniana.jpg
81 - 02 - DIVA MARINIANA56 viewsAR Antoniniano 23/22 mm 1.63 g.
Mariniana era la esposa de Valeriano I y madre de Galieno. La ausencia del título de Augusta, sugiere que ella murió antes de ser ascendida a Augusta, muerta antes del 253 D.C., aún antes de que su esposo fuera Emperador.

Anv: DIVAE MARINIANAE - Busto vestido y velado, viendo a der., descansando sobre una medialuna.
Rev: CONSECRATIO - Pavo real volando a der., llevando a Mariniana velada hacia el Edén, con su mano der. levantada y portando un cetro en la izq..

Acuñada entre 253 y 254 D.C.
Ceca: Roma y/o Viminacium.
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Va #6 Pag.64 - Cohen V #15 Pag. 342/343 - SRCV III #10070 Pag.276 - Göbl #220b - Hunter #1 - RSC IV #16 Pag.59 - DVM #1/2 Pag.242
mdelvalle
204~2.JPG
81 - Casres, Tarn, France.11 viewsAu Printemps, Ch. Desplats, Castres, Tarn
Laiton, 24 mm
A/ AU PRINTEMPS / CH. DESPLATS / CASTRES
R/ 5 c
Réfs : Elie 20.1
Gabalor
RIC_6_Antoniniano_Mariniana.jpg
81-02 - DIVA MARINIANA14 viewsAR Antoniniano 23/22 mm 1.63 g.

Mariniana era la esposa de Valeriano I y madre de Galieno. La ausencia del título de Augusta, sugiere que ella murió antes de ser ascendida a Augusta, muerta antes del 253 D.C., aún antes de que su esposo fuera Emperador.

Anv: DIVAE MARINIANAE - Busto vestido y velado, viendo a der., descansando sobre una medialuna.
Rev: CONSECRATIO - Pavo real volando a der., llevando a Mariniana velada hacia el Edén, con su mano der. levantada y portando un cetro en la izq..

Acuñada entre 253 y 254 D.C.
Ceca: Roma y/o Viminacium.
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Va #6 Pag.64 - Cohen V #15 Pag. 342/343 - SRCV III #10070 Pag.276 - Göbl #220b - Hunter #1 - RSC IV #16 Pag.59 - DVM #1/2 Pag.242
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Salonina RIC 24 Göbl 490s.jpg
83-02 - SALONINA (254 - 268 D.C.)35 viewsBillon Antoniniano 18 x 20 mm 2.6 gr.
Esposa de Galieno y madre de Valeriano II y Salonino

Anv: "SALONINA [AVG]" - Busto diademado y vestido, viendo a derecha y descansando sobre una media luna.
Rev: "PVDICITIA" - Pudicitia (El Pudor) velada de pié a izquierda, levantando su velo con mano derecha y portando cetro transversal largo en izquierda.

Acuñada 260 - 262 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias:
Göbl #490s - RIC Vol.Va #24 Pag.193 - SRCV Vol.III #10648 Pag.327 - Sear (1988) #3044 - Cohen Vol.V #92 Pag.506 - DVM #36 Pag.251 - RSC Vol.IV #92 Pag.114
mdelvalle
DTOGETHER.jpg
91..Diddarani 980-1003 AD (Yashaskara dynasty)16 viewsDiddarani 980-1003 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.62gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Sri to left 'didda' to right
Reverse- Queen standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Diva' bottom right
Paul R3
ddnew.jpg
911..Diddarani 980-1003 AD (Yashaskara dynasty)14 viewsDiddarani 980-1003 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.90gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Sri to left 'didda' to right
Reverse- Queen standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Diva' bottom right
Paul R3
brandnewjaya.jpg
982..Jayasimha ( legend variant ) 1128-1154/518 viewsJayasimha ( legend variant ) 1128-1154/5
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (6.34gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated 'Sri Ja' (above) 'ya' (below) 'Sim' (ha) right
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
ajay1.jpg
985...Jayasimha ( legend variant ) 1128-1154/514 viewsJayasimha ( legend variant ) 1128-1154/5
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (6.13gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated 'Sri Ja' (above) 'ya' (below) 'Sim' (ha) right
Reverse- King facing
Paul R3
ajay2.jpg
986...Jayasimha ( legend variant ) 1128-1154/511 viewsJayasimha ( legend variant ) 1128-1154/5
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (6.06gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated 'Sri ma t'(honourable) left and 'Jaya' to the right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at an altar with his left hand....
Interestingly this is the only reverse type where the king is holding the trident in his right hand.
'Sim ha' bottom left and Deva bottom right.
Script reads 'Srimat Jayasimhadeva'
Paul R3
A__Licinius_Nerva.JPG
A. Licinius Nerva – Licinia-24a106 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC A Licinius Nerva AR Denarius. 47 BC. Rome. NERVA behind, FIDES before, laureate head of Fides right / A. LICINIVS below, III VIR across field, one-armed horseman galloping right, dragging captive, holding shield and sword, by the hair. Cr454/1; Sydenham 955; SRVC 430; Licinia 24a2 commentsBud Stewart
A_Postumius_Albinus~0.jpg
A. Postumius A.f. S.n. Albinus - AR serratus denarius8 views²Sardinia
¹Rome
¹²81 BC
draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder, bucranium above
togate figure standing left before flaming altar, holding sprinkler over sacrificial bull, all on stone platform
A·POST_·A·F__S·N·(AL)BIN
¹Crawford 372/1, SRCV I 296, Sydenham 745, RSC I Postumia 7
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,7g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

According story described by Livy: in Sabina a cattle of admirable size and beauty was born. Animal was sacrificed and his skull (bucranium) was placed in temple of Diana where it commemorate this wonder. The event was considered to be a prophetic sign that town whose citizen sacrifice the animal will rule. Before battle at Regillius Lake Roman citizen (Postumius' ancestor) took the cattle and sacrificed it in the temple of Diana on Aventine.
Johny SYSEL
A_Postumius_Albinus_Hispan.jpg
A. Postumius A.f. S.n. Albinus - AR serratus denarius9 views²Sardinia
¹Rome
¹²81 BC
veiled head of Hispania right
HISPAN
togate figure standing left, extending hand toward legionary eagle right; fasces with axe right
A· // (AL)BIN // N·S·
POST·A·F
¹Crawford 372/2, Sydenham 746, RSC I Postumia 8, BMCRR I Rome 2839, SRCV I 297
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Solidus

Refers to the praetorship of L. Postumius Albinus over Spain and his successful expeditions against the Vaccaei and Lusitani, and the levying of troops for this campaign.
Johny SYSEL
L__Postumia_Albinus~0.JPG
A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. – Postumia-763 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus. 81 BC. AR Serrate Denarius (19mm, 3.38 g, 11h). Rome mint. Draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder; bucranium above / Togate figure standing left on rock, holding aspergillum over head of ox, standing right; lighted altar between them. Crawford 372/1; Sydenham 745; SRCV 296; Postumia 7. From the Richard Weigel Collection1 commentsBud Stewart
A_Spuri.jpg
A. Spurilius - AR denarius7 viewsRome
²142 BC
¹139 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
X
Luna in biga right holding goad and reins
A·SP(VR)I
ROMA
¹Crawford 230/1, SRCV I 107, Sydenham 448, RSC I Spurilia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,4g
ex Aurea

*moneyer's name also could be Spurius or Spurinna
Johny SYSEL
Medio Centenional Valentiniano II RIC IX Cyzicus 21b.jpg
A141-02 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)37 viewsAE4 Medio Centenional 14 mm 1.0 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VOT X MVLT XX" - Leyenda en 4 renglones dentro de una corona de laureles. "SMKB" en exergo.

Acuñada 378 - 383 D.C.
Ceca: Cízico (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Cyzicus) #21b Pag.244 - Cohen Vol.VIII #73 Pag.148 - DVM #53 var. Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9179.n. Pag.284
mdelvalle
Nummus Valentiniano II RIC IX Constantinople 86aB2.jpg
A141-09 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)44 viewsAE4 Nummus 13 x 12 mm 1.3 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN VALENTINIANVS P [F AVG]" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-PVBLICAE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando trofeo apoyado en su hombro con mano derecha y arrastrando por los pelos a un cautivo con su mano izquierda. "CONSB" en exergo y " Chi-Ro " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 388 - 392 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Constantinople) #86a Pag.234 - Cohen Vol.VIII #30 Pag.143 - DVM #47 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9185.e. Pag.284 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4167
mdelvalle
Nummus Valentiniano II RIC IX Constantinople 86aB.jpg
A141-10 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)46 viewsAE4 Nummus 13 mm 1.2 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-PVBLICAE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando trofeo apoyado en su hombro con mano derecha y arrastrando por los pelos a un cautivo con su mano izquierda. "CONSB" en exergo y " Chi-Ro " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 388 - 392 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.2da.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Constantinople) #86a Pag.234 - Cohen Vol.VIII #30 Pag.143 - DVM #47 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9185.e. Pag.284 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4167
mdelvalle
Nummus Valentiniano II RIC IX Constantinople 86aG.jpg
A141-11 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)58 viewsAE4 Nummus 13 x 12 mm 0.8 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "[DN VALENTINIA]NVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-[PV]BLICAE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando trofeo apoyado en su hombro con mano derecha y arrastrando por los pelos a un cautivo con su mano izquierda. "CONSΓ" en exergo y " Chi-Ro " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 388 - 392 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Constantinople) #86a Pag.234 - Cohen Vol.VIII #30 Pag.143 - DVM #47 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9185.e. Pag.284 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4167
mdelvalle
Nummus Valentiniano II RIC IX Nicomedia 45a.jpg
A141-14 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)40 viewsAE4 Nummus 12 x 11 mm 0.8 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "[D]N VAL[ENTINIANVS P F AVG]" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[SALVS REI-PVB]LICAE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando trofeo apoyado en su hombro con mano derecha y arrastrando por los pelos a un cautivo con su mano izquierda. "SMNA" en exergo.

Acuñada 388 - 392 D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Nicomedia) #45a Pag.262 - Cohen Vol.VIII #30 Pag.143 - DVM #47 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9185.g.var Pag.284 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4167
mdelvalle
Nummus Valentiniano II RIC IX Nicomedia 45aB.jpg
A141-15 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)40 viewsAE4 Nummus 13 mm 0.9 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-PVBLICAE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando trofeo apoyado en su hombro con mano derecha y arrastrando por los pelos a un cautivo con su mano izquierda. "SMNB" en exergo.

Acuñada 388 - 392 D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.2da.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Nicomedia) #45a Pag.262 - Cohen Vol.VIII #30 Pag.143 - DVM #47 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9185.g.var Pag.284 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4167
mdelvalle
Nummus Valentiniano II RIC IX Siscia 39aA.jpg
A141-25 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)53 viewsAE4 Nummus 13 mm 1.0 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN VALENTINI - ANVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VICTOR – IA AVGGG" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando una corona/guirnalda en mano derecha y hoja de palma en mano izquierda que apoya sobre su hombro izquierdo. "ASIS" en exergo.

Acuñada 388 - 392 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Siscia) #39a Pag.155 - Cohen Vol.VIII #45 Pag.144 - DVM #49 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9184.f. Pag.284
1 commentsmdelvalle
Nummus Valentiniano II RIC IX Siscia 39aB.jpg
A141-26 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)40 viewsAE4 Nummus 14x13 mm 1.1 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN VALENTINI - ANVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VICTOR – IA AVGGG" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando una corona/guirnalda en mano derecha y hoja de palma en mano izquierda que apoya sobre su hombro izquierdo. "BSIS" en exergo.

Acuñada 388 - 392 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.2da.)
Rareza: C

Lamentablemente esta moneda tiene un punto de corrosión activa (Enfermedad del Bronce) en el reverso.

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Siscia) #39a Pag.155 - Cohen Vol.VIII #45 Pag.144 - DVM #49 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9184.f. Pag.284
mdelvalle
Nummus Valentiniano II Dos Victorias.jpg
A141-30 - Valentiniano II (375 - 392 D.C.)58 viewsAE4 Nummus 12 mm 1.2 gr.
Hijo de Valentiniano I, Augusto jr. de Occidente con su Padre y Graciano su medio hermano hasta 383 D.C. y luego Augusto Sr. hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN V[ALENTINI – AN]VS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[V]ICTORIA AV[G]GG" – Dos Victorias de pié enfrentadas portando sendas coronas de laureles. "[SMAQP o S]" en exergo.

Acuñada 388 - 392 D.C.
Ceca: Aquileia (Off.Incierta)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Aquileia) #47a Pag.104 - Cohen Vol.VIII No Listada - DVM #50 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9184.g. Pag.284
mdelvalle
Centenional Teodosio I RIC IX Constantinopolis 57d.jpg
A142-02 - Teodosio I (375 - 392 D.C.)48 viewsAE3 Centenional 17 mm 2.6 gr.
Augusto Sr. de Oriente desde 379 D.C., con Graciano Sr. de Occidente hasta 383 D.C. y con Valentiniano II hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN THEODO-SIVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONCOR-DIA AVGGG" - Constantinopolis con yelmo, sentada de frente, viendo a izquierda, su pié derecho sobre una proa, portando Orbe/Globo en mano izquierda y lanza en derecha. "CONSA" en exergo y "o" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 379 - 383 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Constantinople) #57d Pag.228 Tipo 2 - Cohen Vol.VIII #5 Pag.153 - DVM #30/1 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9222.q. Pag.287 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4185
mdelvalle
Centenional Teodosio I RIC IX Siscia 27d.jpg
A142-04 - Teodosio I (375 - 392 D.C.)52 viewsAE3 Centenional 18 mm 2.7 gr.
Augusto Sr. de Oriente desde 379 D.C., con Graciano Sr. de Occidente hasta 383 D.C. y con Valentiniano II hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN THEODO-SIVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONCOR-DIA AVGGG" - Roma con yelmo, sentada de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando Orbe/Globo en mano derecha y lanza invertida en izquierda. "BSISC" en exergo.

Acuñada 378 - 383 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.2da.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Siscia) #27d Pag.151 Tipo 2 - Cohen Vol.VIII #14 Pag.155 - DVM #31 Pag.313 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9222.e. Pag.287 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4185
mdelvalle
Centenional_Teodosio_I_RIC_IX_Antioch_47c.jpg
A142-06 - Teodosio I (375 - 392 D.C.)50 viewsAE3 Centenional 18 mm 2.0 gr.
Augusto Sr. de Oriente desde 379 D.C., con Graciano Sr. de Occidente hasta 383 D.C. y con Valentiniano II hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN THEODO-SIVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONCOR-DIA AVGGG" - Constantinopolis con yelmo, sentada de frente, viendo a su izquierda, su pié derecho sobre una pequeña proa, portando Orbe/Globo en mano izquierda y lanza en derecha. "ANTΓ" en exergo, ”Θ” en campo izquierdo y ”Φ / K” en campo derecho.

Acuñada 378 - 383 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía – Hoy Antakya -Turquía (Off. 3ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Antiochia) #47c Pag.287 Tipo 4 - Cohen Vol.VIII #5 Pag.153 - DVM #30/1 Pag.312 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9222.s. Pag.287 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4185
1 commentsmdelvalle
Nummus Teodosio I RIC IX Nicomedia 48a.jpg
A142-10 - Teodosio I (375 - 392 D.C.)52 viewsAE4 Nummus 12 mm 1.2 gr.
Augusto Sr. de Oriente desde 379 D.C., con Graciano Sr. de Occidente hasta 383 D.C. y con Valentiniano II hasta 392 D.C.

Anv: "DN THEODO-SIVS P F AVG" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SALVS REI-[PVBLIC]AE" - Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando trofeo apoyado en su hombro con mano derecha y arrastrando por los pelos a un cautivo con su mano izquierda. "SMNA" en exergo y " + " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 388 - 394 D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Nicomedia) #45b Pag.262 ó #48a Pag.263 - Cohen Vol.VIII #30 Pag.158 - DVM #40 Pag.313 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9231.g.var Pag.288 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4188
mdelvalle
ABASSID_AL_MANSUR_DIRHAM_AH137_AL_BASRA.jpg
ABASSIDS - Al-Mansur45 viewsABASSIDS - Al-Mansur (754-775 AD) AR Dirham, al-Basra mint, dated AH 137. (754 AD). Reference: Album #213.1.dpaul7
abbas.jpg
Abbasid AR Dirham.28 views Kalima and below: "Abu'l 'Abbas ibn amir al-muminin"

inner edge:"bismillah duriba hadhà ad-dirham bi'l-Basrat sanah arba' 'ashrat wa thelath [mi'at]"; outer edge: Sura 30 vv 3 & 4.

"li-'llah mohammed rasul allah [al-mu]qtadir billah"
GaiusCaligula
Album-310.jpg
Abbasid Caliphate: Harun al-Rashid (AH 170-193/ AD 786-809) AE Fals, al-Rafiqa (Shamma p. 156, 11; SICA-2, 1456-1458; BMC I, p. 210, 128; Album-310)23 viewsObv: At center, la ilah illa / Allah wahdahu / la sherikh lahu (“There is no god but Allah alone. There are no others with Him”); in margin, bism Allah zarb haza al-fils bi’l-Ramla sanat tis’ wa themanin wa mi’at (“In the name of Allah was struck this fals of al-Ramla [in the] year nine and eighty and [one] hundred”); border of five annulets between two inner and on outer linear circles.
Rev: Within pointillate circle, Muhammad / rassul / Allah (“Muhammad is the apostle of Allah”); above, three pellets forming triangle; below, ‘adl (“just”); in margin, bism Allah mimma amara bihi ‘abd Allah Harun amir al-mu’minin ‘azz Allah nasrahu (“In the name of Allah, from that ordered by the servant of Allah, Harun, commander of the faithful, may Allah make him victorious”); outer linear circle.
SpongeBob
Album-303.jpg
Abbasid Governors: Anonymous (753-754 AD) AE Fals, al-Basra (Album-303; Nützel-2069 )31 viewsObv: Within triple margin, annulet pattern ◎ ◎◎◎ repeated three times, لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له (There is no god but Allah alone. There are no others with Him)
Rev: Within circle, محمد رسول الله (Muhammad is the apostle of Allah); in margin, بسم الله ضرب هذا الفلس بالبصرة سنة ست و ثلثين و مئة (In the name of Allah was struck this fals of al-Basra [in the] year six and thirty and [one] hundred); double outer circle with five ◎ annulets
SpongeBob
Album-243_1.jpg
Abbasid: al-Muktafi (289-295 AH) AV Dinar, Misr, 292 AH (Album-243.1)19 viewsObv: لا اله الا الله وحده لا شريك له
Obv Outer Margin: لله الامـر من قبل ومن بعــد ويومئذ يفرح المؤمنون بنصر الله
Obv Inner Margin: بسم الله ضرب هذا الدينر مصر سنة اثنين و تسعين و مائتين
Rev: لله محمد رسول الله / المكتفي بالله‎‎
Rev Margin: محمد رسول الله ارسله بالهدى و دين الحق ليظهره على الدين كله ولو كره المشركون
Quant.Geek
2RkDzeS47BmjnrE86isWbFj39rdLGN.jpg
Abd-Al-Malik ibn Marwan mint of Basrah 81 AH8 viewsarash p
AE_1__2_unit_(1__2_kakini_of_10-ratti)_of_Ganapati_Naga,_ca_340_AD,_Nagas_of_Narwar,_Ancient_India.jpg
AE 1/2 unit (1/2 kakini of 10-ratti) of Ganapati Naga, ca.340 AD, Nagas of Narwar, Ancient India112 viewsHumped bull standing left / Maharaja Sri Ganendra in a circle in Brahmi. Struck very weakly. 5-ratti - 9mm, 0.9grams. Mitchiner 4739-4753.
The Naga (snake or serpent) worshippers in Narwar were indiginous Indian people of whom little is known. They produced many small bronze coins bearing the names of their Kings.


Antonio Protti
Dagger_1.jpg
AE Dagger #0124 viewsCanaanite
early to mid 2nd Millennium BC
17cm (6.7”)

Ex- Shlomo Zeitsov Collection

Description:
This dagger blade is from the Shlomo Zeitsov collection. It was sold by the collector’s nephew, who reports that it was found in Israel. It is tang-less and has three rivet holes, of which only one remains fully encircled by bronze.
Robert L3
AE_drachm_of_Apurva_Chandra_Deva_(ca_1340-1351_(AD),_Kangra_Kingdom.jpg
AE drachm of Apurva Chandra Deva (ca.1340-1351 (?) AD), Kangra Kingdom86 views0600
Stylized horseman right / Stylized bull, inscriptions above ("Sri Apurva Chandra"). Scarce. Much nicer than these usually are. 14mm, 3.6 grams. "The Catalogue of Katoch rulers of Kangra"#148.
Kangra is a district is in the western part of Himachal Pradesh, in the low foothills of the Himalayas. It was the place of an ancient Hindu Kangra Kingdom. The kings of Kangra are almost unknown in history, their existence was shadowy and the dating of their reigns is tentative.Their coins are fairly scarce, not well-studied and difficult to find
Antonio Protti
AE_drachm_of_Rupa_Chandra_II_(second_half_of_the_14th_century),_Kangra_Kingdom.jpg
AE drachm of Rupa Chandra II (second half of the 14th century), Kangra Kingdom 88 views1295 Stylized horseman right, Sri above (not visible) / Stylized bull, inscriptions above ("Sri Rupa"), only partially visible, as always. Scarce. Much nicer than these usually are. 14mm, 3.6 grams. "The Catalogue of Katoch rulers of Kangra"#335 or similar.

Rupa Chandra II is known to have been a contemporary of the Sultan of Delhi Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351-1388 AD). The exact dates of the reign of Rupa Chandra II are not known.
Kangra is a district is in the western part of Himachal Pradesh, in the low foothills of the Himalayas. It was the place of an ancient Hindu Kangra Kingdom. The kings of Kangra are almost unknown in history, their existence was shadowy and the dating of their reigns is tentative.Their coins are fairly scarce, not well-studied and difficult to find.
Antonio Protti
Broken Coin with Man Holding Globe Obverse and Reverse.jpg
AE4 of Constantius II28 viewsThe obverse inscription id DNCONSTANTIVSPFAVG and a draped, cuirassed right facing bust of Constantius II. The reverse is od Constantius facing left and holding a globe and a spear. The reverse inscription reads SPESREIPVBLICAE.cwonsidler
Eudoxia_101.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia - AE 422 viewsCyzicus
401-403 AD
diademed, draped bust right, being crowned by Hand of God
AEL EVDO_XIA AVG
Victory seated right, holding shield with (XP) inside on column
SALVS REI_PVBLICAE
SMKA?
RIC X 103, SRCV 4241?
1,78 g 15-14 mm
Johny SYSEL
aeliia_ae2.JPG
Aelia Flaccilla12 viewsRIC 62 (Antiochia), LRBC 2760 AE2 Obv: AELFLACCILLAAVG - Diademed, draped bust right.
Rev: SALVSREIPVBLICAE Exe: ANTE - Aelia Flaccilla standing facing, holding scroll with both hands. 383-388 (Antioch).
James b4
1298_Aelia_Flaccilla_SMKG.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla - AE 25 viewsCyzicus
25 Aug 383 - 386 AD
diademed and draped bust right
AEL FLAC_CILLA AVG
Aelia Fllaccila facing, head right, draped, arms folded on breast
SALVS REI_PVBLICAE
SMKΓ
RIC IX Cyzicus 24 (R), LRBC II 2567, SRCV V 20620, Cohen VIII 6
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
1299_Aelia_Flaccilla_CONG.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla - AE 43 viewsConstantinople
25 Aug 383 - 386 AD
diademed and draped bust right
AEL FLAC_CILLA AVG
Victory seated right, inscribing christogram on shield set on cippus
SALVS REI_PVBLICAE
CONΓ
RIC IX Constantinople 61.2, LRBC II 2162, SRCV V 20626, Cohen VIII 5
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
salvsreipvblicaeORweb.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla Æ, Constantinople mint20 viewsO: AEL FLACCILLA AVG, mantled bust right in elaborate headdress & necklace
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing a christogram on shield resting on small column
CONSE in ex.
15mm .83g
casata137ec
aelius.jpg
Aelius (136 - 138 A.D.)58 viewsAR Denarius
O: L AELIVS CAESAR, bare head right.
R: TR POT COS II, Felicitas standing left, caduceus in left, cornucopia in right.
Rome Mint, 137 A.D.
3.16g
18mm
SRCV II 3973, RIC II Hadrian 430, RSC II 50, BMCRE III Hadrian 969
6 commentsMat
aelius_(hadrian)430.jpg
Aelius, RIC II, (Hadrian) 43024 viewsAelius, Caesar 136-138
AR - denarius, 3.36g, 18.6mm, 180°
Rome, AD 137
obv. L AELIVS - CAESAR
Bare head r.
rev. TR POT - COS III
Felicitas, in long garment and mantle, stg. l., holding cornucopiae in l. arm and in raised r. hand caduceus
ref. RIC II, (Hadrian) 430; C. 50; BMRC II, 969; SRCV II, 3973
scarce, VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
Jochen
aemilian_6.jpg
Aemilian RIC IV, 6 134 viewsAemilian, July or August - October 253
AR - Antoninianus, 3.8g
Rome, group I, AD 253
obv. IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate,r.
rev. MARTI PR - OPVGT
Mars, in short military cloak, helmeted and wearing boots, chlamys over shoulders, stg. facing, head l., resting with raised l. hand
on reverted spear and holding with r. hand shield set on ground
ref. RIC IV/III, 6, pl. 15, 8; C.25; SRCV 9837
R1!, about VF
Jochen
aes_rude_SRCV505.jpg
Aes rude, SRCV 50522 viewsRoman Republic, 5th - 4th century BC
Aes rude, length 32.5mm, 14.23g
ref. SRCV I, 505; Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Aes Rude is the earliest type of money used by the population of central Italy. They are actually irtregular pieces of bronze with no marks or designs. More advanced types were used later: Aes Signatum or Aes Grave, and in the end, normal struck coins (FAC).
Jochen
41914_Gallienus_antoninianus,_RIC_V_160.jpg
AETERNITAS AVG, RIC V 16019 viewsGallienus, August 253 - 24 March 268 A.D. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V 160, SRCV 10169 var, EF, flat centers strike, Rome mint, 2.648g, 22.1mm, 0o, 260 - 268 A.D.; obverse GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right; reverse AETERNITAS AVG, Sol standing half-left, raising right and holding globe in left, “Γ” left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
FAUSTSR-11.jpg
Aeternitas, Personification of eternity and stability384 viewsFaustina Senior, wife of Antoninus Pius, Augusta 138-141 C.E.
AR Denarius, Rome mint, 147-161 C.E.
Obv: DIVA FAVSTINA, Draped bust, r.
Rev: AETERNITAS, Aeternitas standing l., holding phoenix and lifting fold of skirt.
RIC-347; Sear-4576; BMC-354; Cohen-11.

Aeternitas personifies eternity and stability. She is depicted with a variety of attributes which may include a torch, globe, phoenix, cornucopiae, scepter or the heads of Sol and Luna; she is often shown leaning against a column or seated on a globe.
EmpressCollector
agrippina_II.jpg
Aezanis, Phrygia, AE 17.9; Head of Persephone r.18 viewsAgrippina II. Augusta 50-59 A.D. Daughter of Agrippina Sr. and Germanicus, sister of Caligula, wife of Claudius and mother of Nero, was born in 16 A.D. Aezanis, Phrygia, Bronze 2.50g. 17.9mm Obv: AGRIPPINAN SEBASTHN, Head of Agrippina II. r. Rev: AIZANITWN, Head of Persephone r. RPC 3102. Ex Gerhard RohdePodiceps
agrippa_01_29_res.jpg
AGRIPPA23 viewsStruck 38 AD, under Caligula
AE As 27 mm; 9.92 g
O: M AGRIPPA L F COS III, head left wearing a rostral crown
R: Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields
Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 58, BMC II 161; SRCV I 556
laney
agrippa_06_14_res.jpg
AGRIPPA21 views(b. 63 BC - d. 12 BC)
Struck posthumously 38 AD, under Caligula
AE As 30 mm; 8.7 g
O: Head left wearing a rostral crown
R: Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields
Rome mint
RIC I Caligula 58, BMC II 161; SRCV I 556
laney
422_Agrippa.jpg
Agrippa - AE as6 viewsstruck by Caligula
Rome
38 AD
head wearing rostrate crown left
M•AGRIPPA•L_•F • COS III
Neptune standing left, holding dolphin and trident
S C
RIC I Gaius 58; BMCRE II Tiberius 161 - 168; Cohen I 3, BnF II Caligula 77 - 97, SRCV I 1812
10,51g
Johny SYSEL
60245p00.jpg
Agrippa Copper As32 viewsFrom Forum:RIC I Caligula 58, BMC II 161; SRCV I 556, aVF, corrosion, 11.123g, 29.7mm, 180o, Rome mint, struck under Caligula 38 A.D.; obverse M AGRIPPA L F COS III, bare head right; reverse Neptune standing half left, dolphin in right, trident in left, S - C across fields;

This is the coin that convinced me that I'd rather pay more for quality rather than less for quantity.
1 commentsMagisterRiggs
00722.jpg
Agrippina Sr. (RIC 55, #722)11 viewsRIC 55 (Common), AE Sestertius, Rome, 37-41 AD.
OBV: AGRIPPINA M F MAT CAESARIS AVGVSTI; Draped bust right.
REV: S P Q R MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE; Carpentum drawn left by two mules.
SIZE: 35.6mm, 24.56g
MaynardGee
39713q00.jpg
AHG 562 . The Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Claudius II Gothicus , September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.22 viewsClaudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.
Silvered antoninianus . 3.630g, 21.1mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 268 - 269 A.D
Obverse : IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind
Reverse : IVVENTVS AVG, Hercules standing slightly right, head left, nude, resting right on grounded club, lion skin in right, “D” in ex
RIC V 213, Cohen 137, SRCV III 11344 var, AHG 562 (this coin)
From the Antioch Hoard of Gallienus . Ex Forum
Vladislav D
AL-Muqtadir.jpg
AL-Muqtadir Dirham / SAMANID / Rare.68 viewsSAMANID
*Ahmad bin ( son of ) Sahl ( name is on left photo ), rebel, 915-920, AR Dirham , Andaraba mint , 303 H , Album B1453, this rebel in Khorasan maintained formal recognition of the Samanid ruler Nasr II bin ( son of ) Ahmad (name is on right photo ) on all his coins, aVF
3.1 gr .Rare.

Here is an English translation from Arabic ;



Left side
From outter in order ;
1- Rum verses: 4-5

2- In the name of Allah this Dirham was struck in Andaraba  year 303

3- There is no
God but Allah alone with
no partner
Ahmed bin Sahel



Right side ;

From outter in order

1- Repentance: Verse 33
2-Allah
3-Mohammed 
4-Messenger of Allah
5-AL-Muqtadir  bi Allah
6-Nasr bin ( son of ) Ahmad 
7- Sinn ( the letter S in Arabic )
Sam
jMZ86PnEe7JEjAb2Yc423QwGKN5fSr.jpg
Al-Walid I Mint Mahayy 96 AH8 viewsarash p
Seleucid_Alexander_I_SNG_1489~0.JPG
Alexander I, Balas, 152 - 145 BC28 viewsObv: No legend, diademed head of Alexander I facing right.

Rev: AΠAMEΩN on right, Zeus standing left holding Corinthian helmet (detail missing) and a scepter, ΓΞP in field before him, ΩA in monogram. Branch counterstamp.

Æ 21, Apameia mint, 150 - 145 BC

6.2 grams, 21.5 mm, 0°

SNG Israel 1489
SPQR Matt
hendin478.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 4788 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 478, overstruck on an earlier prutot, aF, Jerusalem mint, 1.92g, 14.6mm, 180o, obverse Hebrew inscription, Yonatan the High Priest and the Council of the Jews, within wreath; reverse, double cornucopia with pomegranate between horns. This type has been reattributed from Hyrcanus II to Alexander Jannaeus by Hendin and Shachar in 'The Identity of YNTN on Hasmonean Overstruck Coins and the Chronology of the Alexander Jannaeus Types,' Israel Numismatic Research 3, 2008: 87-94. It appears this type was overstruck on earlier coins of Alexander Jannaeus that had never been released from the mint. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Jannaeus_4.jpg
Alexander Jannaeus - AE prutah5 viewsJerusalem
103-76 BC
Hebrew inscription: "Yehonatan High Priest Council Jews" within wreath
double cornucopia adorned with ribbons, pomegranate between horns.
Hendin 1145

From this failed srike it looks like several coins were struck at the same time.
Johny SYSEL
73678q00.jpg
Alexander Severus5 viewsSilver denarius, RIC IV 188, RSC III 29a, BMCRE IV 674, SRCV II 7859, Hunter III -, aEF, both sides slightly off-center but broad flan so only the tops of a few letters off flan, some die wear, die break below bust, 3.168g, 19.3mm, 180o, Rome mint, 231 A.D.; obverse IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right, with neatly trimmed beard; reverse ANNONA AVG, Annona standing left, two heads of grain downward in right hand over modius overflowing with grain at feet left, grounded anchor in left hand;

ex Forum (2004)
arash p
116_Alexander_Secerus_Providentia.JPG
Alexander Severus - AE sestertius9 viewsRome
231-235 AD
laureate head right
IMP ALEXAN_DER PIVS AVG
Providentia or Annona standing front, head left, holding anchor and grain ears over modius
PROVIDENTIA AVG
S C
RIC IV 645, BMCRE V 815, Cohen 509, SRCV 8013
18,56g
Johny SYSEL
Alexander_254.jpg
Alexander Severus - AR denarius24 viewsRome
232 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG
Spes advancing left, holding flower and raising skirt
SPES PVBLICA
BMCRE VI 897, RSC III 546, RIC IV 254, SRCV II 7927
3,09 g 20-19 mm
Johny SYSEL
Alexander_120.jpg
Alexander Severus - AR denarius19 viewsRome
233 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG
Sol advancing left, raising hand and holding whip
P M TR P__XII COS III P P
RIC IV 120, RSC III 440, BMCRE VI 930, SRCV II 7915
2,01 g 20-18,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
Screen_Shot_2014-06-22_at_10_07_00_PM.png
Alexander Severus Silver Denarius 39 views59850. Silver denarius, SRCV II 7923, RIC IV 252, RSC III 508a, BMCRE VI 813, VF, scratches, 3.143g, 19.8mm, 0o, Rome mint, 231 - 235 A.D.;

obverse IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder;

reverse PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia (or Annona) standing left, stalks of grain in right over modius, anchor in left

Annona with a modius and anchor suggests the arrival of grain by sea from the provinces, especially from Africa, and its distribution to the people. When Severus Alexander was away on his Persian and German campaigns (231-235) he continuously struck Annona types. With the legend PROVIDENTIA AVG, "The Foresight of the Emperor," he assured that, though he was away, he would be carefully monitoring Rome's grain supply!
1 commentsColby S
Alexandre 4dr Akè.jpg
Alexander the Great - tetradrachm of Ake (St John of Acre, Israel) of 323-322 BC18 viewsHead of young Heracles right
AΛEΞANΔPOY , Zeus seated left holding eagle , in field -Io (phoenician letters) above IIII'' (date = 323-322 BC)

I did not clean it, it is as found.
Ginolerhino
SMALA with SR in field.jpg
ALEXANDRIA 4 A S/R//SMALA39 viewsRIC 1450.
One of the reduced weight issues of the period 337-341, distinctive on account of the S and R in the field. This pretty example still has much silvering remaining. The S/R issues are relatively common. Weight 1.61g.
adrianus
DOC41.jpg
ALEXIUS I AE Tetarteron SR- Unlisted DOC 41311 viewsMonogram of Alexius. Rev Bust of Emperor wearing stemma divitision and jewelled loros of traditional type holds in r. hand jewlled sceptre and in l. gl. cr. 15/17mm

VERY RARE!- Only one known in a major collection located in Istanbul Turkey. DOC mentions and includes the type in the catalog but does not have one in inventory. A key piece for this collection.
1 commentsSimon
1318~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 073 / - UNLISTED WITH PEGASUS ON SHIELD !!! new photo12 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: SOLI INVICTO (Spread qudariga)
BUST TYPE: E1 = Radiate, cuirassed and helmeted bust left, hodling spear and shield (decorated with Pegasus)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/Γ//XXI
WEIGHT 3.63 / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 21-22 mm
RIC 779
ALFOLDI 073 / - (UNLISTED)
COLLECTION NO. 1318
NOTE: PEGASUS ON SHIELD

only specimen of this type known to me ! (This coin is desribed on probuscoins.fr as Alföldi 73/71 but in my opinion this attribution is incorrect; Alfoldi 73/71 does not have a pegasus on shield but a horseman with soldiers in the field; also the position of the gamma mintmark is more to the right intead of central as shown on coin no. 73/71)

Same obverse die as my coin no. 817 (Adventvs Probi Avg with gamma//XXI in exergue) and coin. no. 767 (Adventvs Probi Avg with KA in exergue).

Ex Ph. Gysen collection
Barnaba6
mithridatesviamastris2.jpg
Amastris, Paphlagonia26 viewsAncient Greek City Issue
Amastris, Paphlaognia
(Under Reign of Mithridates VI 'the Great' of Pontus)

Obverse: Aegis with facing head of gorgon in middle


Reverse: Nike advancing right, palm across shoulders, AMAΣ-TPEΩΣ in fields

Bronze Unit (20mm, 7.1g)
Minted in Amastris 85-65BC

Reference: SNG Copenhagen 246


Translations and explanations:

Amastris was founded circa 300BC by a Persian princess of the same name, niece of King Darius III and is now Amasra in modern day Turkey.

Mithridates VI was a thorn in Rome's side for 40 years until finally being defeated by Pompey the Great.

An aegis is the shield or breastplate of Zeus or Athena.

Nike is the Greek god of victory.

AMAΣTPEΩΣ means 'of the Amastrians'.






Sphinx357
Copy_(1)_of_ag2c~0.jpg
AN countermark in rectangle punch.75 viewsCopper as, RIC Caligula 58, BMC II 161, SRCV I 556, Rome mint, 10.2 g, 27.6 mm diam.
Obverse - M AGRIPPA L F COS II. Head left wearing a rostral crown.
Reverse - S - C . Neptune standing left, dolphin in right, trident vertical behind in left. A N in rectangle Counter mark above left.
Military commander, Friend of Augustus, Grandfather of Caligula, Great-grandfather of Nero.
NORMAN K
DSC01924.JPG
ANCIENT INDIA - SATAVAHANA Empire - 177AD - Elephant - RARE COIN - 2.64gm15 viewsDeccan Post-Mauryan; Satavahanas (Andhras), 'Sri Satakanisa' Circa 1st Century B.C.-1st Century A.D. Karshapana Satavahana (Andhra) empire

Bi karshapana (22 mm, 2.77 g)

Obverse: Elephant with raised trunk standing right, with Brahmi legend (Siri) Sataka(nisa) above
Reverse: 4-orbed 'Ujjain' symbol
Ref: MACW 4941-4952

Nicely struck on a broad flan with lovely Glossy black patina with some earthen in devices. Boldly struck.

CHOICE.
Antonivs Protti
roman_lion.jpg
Anonymous Bronze double litra; Female head r./ Lion walking r.16 viewsRoman Republic, 275 - 270 B.C. Bronze double litra, Crawford 16/1a, Sydenham 5, BMCRR Romano-Campanian 23; SRCV I 590, South Italy mint, 7.580g, 20.7mm, 90o, obverse diademed female head right; reverse , lion walking right, head facing, broken spear in mouth and resting on forepaw, ROMANO in ex; scarce. ex FORVMPodiceps
anonamous.jpg
Anonymous Denarius 86bc77 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV 266, RSC I 226, Sydenham 723, VF, Rome mint, 86 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Apollo right, thunderbolt below; reverse Jupiter in quadriga right, brandishing thunderbolt.
1 commentsAdrian S
d6f1_10~0.jpg
Anonymous Republican denarius 157-155 B.C.113 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV I 76, RSC I 6, Sydenham 376, gVF, Rome mint, obverse head of Roma right wearing winged helmet, X behind; reverse Victory in biga right, whip in right, ROMA in ex. Gorgeous dark toning.4 commentsAdrian S
Philip_I_Antelope~0.JPG
Antelope - Philip I Antoninianus. A.D.248.196 viewsObverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip I facing right, seen from behind.
Reverse: SAECVLARES AVGG. Antelope walking left; in exergue, VI (officina 6).
RIC IV iii : 21 | RSC IV : 189 | SRCV III : 8959

This coin is one of a series of coins struck by Philip I and Philip II in A.D.248 to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of Rome. Many of these coins depict the various animals, brought from all over the Empire, which were displayed in the arena during the games celebrating this event.
*Alex
volusian-antioch-pisidia-provincial.jpg
Antioch Pisidia, Volusian (251-253 AD) AE236 viewsRoman Provincial, Antioch Pisidia, Volusian (251-253 AD) AE23

Obverse: IMP C V IMP CA LVSSIANO AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from the back.

Reverse: ANTIOC-HIO CLA, Vexilium surmounted by eagle, between two standards. SR in exergue.

Reference: Lindgren 1250,; BMC 133

Ex: VCoins - Sphinx Numismatics - Youssef Mishriki
Gil-galad
AvsR.jpg
Antioch vs. Rome1178 viewsOne way to distinguish Gordian's Antioch products from Rome is by letter shape, in particular, the letter M; on Antioch coins it is formed with a V in the middle thus IVI, whereas the Rome M is two lambdas thus Λ Λ. Joe Sermarini
Ant_IV_Zeus_k.jpg
Antiochos IV, 175-164 BC 13 viewsÆ16, 4.1g, 12h; Antioch mint.
Obv.: King's radiate head right.
Rev.: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY; Zeus standing left, scepter in right hand; monogram in left field.
Reference: SNG Israel 1192 / 16-394-55
John Anthony
Seleucid_Antiochos_VI_GCV_7081.JPG
Antiochos VI, Dionysos, 145 - 142 BC 20 viewsObv: No legend, radiate head of Antiochos VI, wreathed in ivy, facing right.

Rev: BAΣIAEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY / (ΣEB) / EΠIΦANOYΣ / (ΔIONYΣOY), an elephant advancing left holding a torch in its trunk.

Serrated Æ 23, Antioch mint, c. 145 - 142 BC

7.6 grams, 23 mm, 0°

GCV II 7081, SNG Israel 1777
SPQR Matt
Antiochos_VI_Dionysos.JPG
Antiochos VI, Dionysos, 145 - 142 BC155 viewsObv: No legend, diademed, radiate head of Antiochos VI facing right.

BAΣIAEΩΣ / ANTIOXOY / EΠIΦANOYΣ / ΔIONYΣOY, Apollo seated left on an omphalos holding an arrow in his right hand and resting his left hand on a bow placed on the ground; A/Π between his legs; OP ΣTA (Year 170) in exergue.

Silver Drachm, Antioch mint, 143 - 142 BC

4.3 grams, 17.5 mm, 0°

GCV II 7073, Newell SMA 250, SNG Isreal 1766
6 commentsSPQR Coins
AntiochosVII H451.jpg
Antiochos VII AE15 Hendin 45157 viewsAe15, 15mm, 2.70g.

Obverse: BASILEWS ANTIOXOS EUERGETOI, Upside-down anchot.

Reverse: Lily in dotted circle.

BPR (131-130 BC)

Hendin 451.

Despite being struck in Antiochos' name, this is dated to the time when Hyrcanus I had actually gained control of Jerusalem, where they seem to have been struck. There is thus a good case for the claim that they were minted by Hyrcanus, and in a very real sense, constitute the first clearly 'Jewish' coins, since they inaugurate the tradition of coins without images. The earlier Yehud coins are probably better seen as 'Israelite' rather than 'Jewish'; they use images, and it's uncertain how far the term 'Judaioi' was in use at the time, or to whom it applied.
Robert_Brenchley
Antiochus_XII.jpg
Antiochos XII 87-84 BC21 viewsAntiochus XII 87–86/5 BC, Damascus mint Ae 22mm, Weight 7.1g. Obv: Beardless diademed bust of Antiochus XII right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟΥ – Tyche standing left with palm branch in right hand and cornucopia in left, dotted border. Reference: SC 2, 2476; SNG Israel I, Nos. 2900–2902. SPAER 2897

Antiochus XII Dionysus (Epiphanes/Philopator/Callinicus), a ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom who reigned 87–84 BC, was the fifth son of Antiochus VIII Grypus and Tryphaena to take up the diadem. He succeeded his brother Demetrius III Eucaerus as separatist ruler of the southern parts of the last remaining Seleucid realms, basically Damascus and its surroundings.

Antiochus initially gained support from Ptolemaic forces and was the last Seleucid ruler of any military reputation, even if it was on a local scale. He made several raids into the territories of the Jewish Hasmonean kings, and tried to check the rise of the Nabataean Arabs. A battle against the latter turned out to be initially successful, until the young king was caught in a melee and killed by an Arab soldier. Upon his death the Syrian army fled and mostly perished in the desert. Soon after, the Nabateans conquered Damascus.

Antiochus' titles - apart from Dionysos - mean respectively (God) Manifest, Father-loving and Beautiful Victor. The last Seleucid kings often used several epithets on their coins.
ddwau
Antiochus_II~0.jpg
Antiochus II, Theos 261 - 246 B.C.21 viewsAntiochus II, Theos 261 - 246 B.C. Ae16.0~16.7mm. 4.28g. Sardes mint. Obv: Laureate head of Apollo r. with curly hair falling down back of neck. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY, tripod-lebes; ΙΔΙ monogram to left, HXP monogram to right, in ex., anchor r. Ref: SNG Israel 351ff, Newell WSM 1410. SC 525•1c ddwau
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Antiochus III12 viewsAntiochus III, AE 6, Sardeis. Obv: Antiochus III facing right; Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ above elephant advancing left, anchor before.
SNG Israel 615 var.; Hoover HGC 9, 560 (R1).
Molinari
Selukid.jpg
Antiochus IV24 viewsFrom my uncleaned batch I got back in November. I love this little guy, though I am mildly embarrassed at how far into the cleaning process I got before I realized that was a head!

SC 1479. Struck circa 173/172 - 168 BC. Series 2 from the mint of Ake, known as Antioch in Ptolemais at the time, now known as Acre, Israel.
EvaJupiterSkies
Antiochus_IV~0.jpg
Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 B.C.13 viewsAntiochus IV Epiphanes Ae 19, 5.28g. Akko, Galilee, Ake Ptolemais mint. Obv: Radiate head of Antiochos IV right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, Nike in galloping biga left, monogram below horses. Ptolemais is today Acre, Israel. SNG Spaer 1141v, SC 1484.2, SNG Israel I, Nos. 1141–43. ddwau
Antiochus_IV~4.jpg
Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 B.C.16 viewsAntiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 B.C. Ae 18.0~20.0mm. 6.07g. Akko, Galilee, Ake Ptolemais mint. Obv: Radiate head of Antiochus IV right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, Nike in galloping biga left. SNG Spaer 1141v, SC 1484.2, SNG Israel I, Nos. 1141–43, HGC 9, 669.1 commentsddwau
Antiochus_IV~3.jpg
Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 B.C.12 viewsAntiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 B.C. Ae 20.2~20.6mm. 5.35g. Akko, Galilee, Ake Ptolemais mint. Obv: Radiate head of Antiochus IV right. Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOΥ, Nike in galloping biga left, monogram below horses. SNG Spaer 1141v, SC 1484.2, SNG Israel I, Nos. 1141–43, HGC 9, 669.ddwau
antiochus_IX_Nike.jpg
Antiochus IX, Nike, AE1915 viewsAntiochus IX 114-95 B.C. 19mm, 5.7g. Obverse: Winged bust of Eros right. Reverse: Nike advancing left, holding wreath. Sear GCV II 7173. SNG Israel 2743.Podiceps
coin653~0.jpg
Antiochus VII 139-128 BC16 viewsAntiochus VII 139-128 BC, bronze / ISIS Headdress
SNG Israel 1961 It is an Eros. Coin #653
cars100
J06-Antiochus VII.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes, "Sidetes" (Seleucid King) / Hyrcanus I, (Hasmonean King) 131-130 BCE, Jerusalem53 viewsBronze prutah of Hyrcanus I under Antiochus VII (131 – 130 BCE), 14.9 mm, 2.41 grams. This is first Jewish bronze coin struck in Jerusalem, as a transitional issue, dated 131/130 BCE.

Obverse: Jerusalem Lily
Reverse: Anchor, upside down, flanked by Greek ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΨ (on right) ΕΨΕΠΓΕΤΟΨ (on left) (of King Antiochus, Benefactor), date AΠP (Year 181) or BΠP (Year 182) below anchor.

References: Hendin 451, BMC 69, SNG. Isr. 2139, AJC-I Supplement II, #2, Sear 7101, Houghton CSE 831.

Added to collection: April 12, 2005
Daniel Friedman
Antiochos_VII.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes-Sidetes, 138 - 129 B.C.13 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 B.C. Ae 13.1~15.5mm. 2.94g. Antioch mint. Obv: Lion's head right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ - EYEPΓETOY, club. SC 2068. SNG Israel 1938. Houghton 281-282.ddwau
Antiochus_VII~1.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes-Sidetes, 138 - 129 B.C.10 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 B.C. Ae 13.0~13.6mm. 2.93g. Antioch mint. Obv: Lion's head right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ - EYEPΓETOY, club. SC 2068. SNG Israel 1938. Houghton 281-282.ddwau
Antiochus_VII_Sidetes.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes-Sidetes, 138 - 129 B.C.14 viewsAntiochus VII, 138-129 BC, Ae 11, weight 1.23g. Obv: Prow of galley ship's ram right. Rev: ΑΝΤΙΟΞΟΥ, Caps of Dioscouroi. SNG Israel 1973ff.

ddwau
Antiochus_VII~0.jpg
Antiochus VII Euergetes-Sidetes, 138 - 129 B.C.10 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Antiochus VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 B.C. Ae 14.3~16.7mm. 3.31g. Antioch mint. Dated (177 SE = 136/135 B.C.) Obv: Lion's head right. Rev: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ - EYEPΓETOY, club, ∆ left, IOP below. SC 2068. SNG Israel 1938. Houghton 281-282.ddwau
Antiochus_XII~0.jpg
Antiochus XII 87/6–84/3 B.C.9 viewsAntiochus XII 87/6–84/3 B.C. Damascus mint 2nd issue Ae 20.7~21.1mm. 7.92g. Obv: Beardless diademed bust of Antiochus XII r., dotted border. Rev: ΒΑCΙΛΕΩC ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟV ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟVC ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟC ΚΑΛΛΙΝΙΚΟV – Tyche standing l. with palm branch in right hand and cornucopia in left, dotted border. Reference: SC 2, 2476; SNG Israel I, Nos. 2900–2902. SPAER 2897 ddwau
gsr1.JPG
ANTIQUITIES, Roman, Bronze applique of female head, c.150 A.D.24 viewsSolid cast, heavy applique, in the form of a female head.
It was said to have been found outside Piercebridge Roman Fort.
Height: 2 1/9 inches.
Piercebridge Roman Fort (possibly originally known as Morbium or Vinovium) is a scheduled ancient monument situated in the village of Piercebridge on the banks of the River Tees in County Durham, England.
superflex
Scarab.jpg
Antiquity New Kingdom Scarab of Tuthmosis III53 viewsNew Kingdom. 18th Dynasty. Tuthmosis III (circa 1504-1450 BC). Steatite scarab (14x10mm). Base engraved with the cartouche of Tuthmosis III; on the left, a Maat father and the crown of Lower Egypt. Intact, once glazed, pierced for mounting. Ex David Hendin collection. CNG Auction 93.

Scarabs were used as lucky and magical charms in ancient Egypt. Scarabs, such as this one, with the names of pharos, were particularly powerful, and were produced as protective amulets for the public. Hendin’s collection of scarabs were collected by him in Israel in the 1970s and 1980s.
2 commentsLucas H
41788_Philip_I_ant_SRCV_III_8918,_RIC_IV_27b.jpg
Antoninianus; AEQVITAS AVGG, RIC IV 27b16 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, first half of 244 - end of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8918, RIC IV 27b, RSC IV 9, VF, Rome mint, 2.976g, 23.1mm, 0o, 245 - 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse AEQVITAS AVGG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, cornucopia in left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41704_Gordian_III_antoninianus,_SRCV_III_8603,_RIC_IV_83.jpg
Antoninianus; AETERNITATI AVG, RIC IV 83 Rome9 viewsGordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8603, RIC IV 83, RSC IV 41, aVF, Rome mint, 4.220g, 21.9mm, 0o, 1 Jan 241 - Jul 243 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust from behind; reverse AETERNITATI AVG, Sol standing front, head left, raising right hand, holding globe in left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41684_Philip_I_antoninianus,_SRCV_III_8922,_RIC_IV_28c_ANNONA_AVGG.jpg
Antoninianus; ANNONA AVGG, RIC 28c Rome11 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8922, RIC IV 28c, RSC IV 25, VF, Rome mint, 3.823g, 22.5mm, 0o, 244 - 247 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANNONA AVGG, Annona standing left holding stalks of grain over modius and cornucopia; struck with a worn reverse die. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41796_Philip_I_ant_SRCV_III_8933,_RIC_IV_63b.jpg
Antoninianus; FORTVNA REDVX, RIC IV 63b8 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8933, RIC IV 63b, RSC IV 65, Choice aVF, Rome mint, 4.015g, 23.5mm, 225o, 249 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on wheel, rudder in right, cornucopia in left; full circles centering. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41806_Philip_I_ant_SRCV_III_8937,_RIC_IV_38b.jpg
Antoninianus; LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas l. holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 38b52 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8937, RIC IV 38b, RSC IV 87, aVF, Rome mint, 3.790g, 23.6mm, 0o, 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas standing left, counting board in right, cornucopia in left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41696_Philip_I_ant_ric_2b.jpg
Antoninianus; P M TR P II COS P P; Philip seated left on curule chair, RIC IV 2(b)10 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8943, RIC IV 2(b), Cohen 120, VF, grainy, Rome mint, 3.943g, 22.1mm, 30o, 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse P M TR P II COS P P, Philip, togate, seated left on curule chair, globe in right, short scepter in left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41671_Philip_II_SRCV_III_9266,_RIC_IV_231(c).jpg
Antoninianus; PAX AETERNA, RIC IV 231(c)9 viewsPhilippus II, July or August 247 - late 249 A.D.
 Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9266, RIC IV 231(c), RSC IV 23, aVF, 247 - 249 A.D. mint, 4.320g, 21.4mm, 0o, obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse PAX AETERNA, Pax standing half left, raising branch in right, long transverse scepter in left; pitting. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41747_Philip_I_ant_RIC_65_ROMAE_AETERNAE.jpg
Antoninianus; ROMAE AETERNAE, RIC IV 657 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8955, RIC IV 65, RSC IV 171, VF/F, Rome mint, 3.226g, 22.1mm, 180o, 247 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, Victory in right, long vertical scepter in left, altar before. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
83151q00_Gordian_ant_ric_70.jpg
Antoninianus; ROMAE AETERNAE, RIC IV 70 Rome7 viewsGordian III, 29 July 238 - 25 February 244 A.D. Silver antoninianus, RIC IV 70, RSC III 314, SRCV III 8658, Rome mint, 5.290g, 22.0mm, 180o, 240 A.D.; obverse IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust from behind; reverse ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated left on shield, Victory in right, spear in left; Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
philip_I_48b.jpg
Antoninianus; SECVRIT ORBIS, RIC IV 48b11 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, first half of 244 - end of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8966, RIC IV 48b, RSC IV 215, gVF, Rome mint, 2.957g, 23.6mm, 0o, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SECVRIT ORBIS, Securitas seated left, scepter in right, propping head on left hand; sharp portrait, tone. Ex FORVMPodiceps
41825_Philip_I_antoninianus,_RSC_IV_243,_RIC_IV_71_aVF.jpg
Antoninianus; VIRTVS EXERCITVS, RIC IV 712 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, RSC IV 243, RIC IV 71, SRCV III 8977, aVF, Antioch mint, 4.104g, 25.8mm, 0o, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS P F AVG P M, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Virtus standing right, spear in right, left resting on shield, left foot on helmet; scarce. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
41833_Philip_I_antoninianus,_RSC_IV_243,_RIC_IV_71,_SRCV_III_8977,_VF_F,.jpg
Antoninianus; VIRTVS EXERCITVS, RIC IV 711 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, RSC IV 243, RIC IV 71, SRCV III 8977, VF/F, Antioch mint, 4.186g, 22.4mm, 45o, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS P F AVG P M, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Virtus standing right, spear in right, left resting on grounded shield, left foot on helmet; scarce. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Antoninus_Pius___Marcus_Aurelius_RIC_III_415b.jpg
Antoninus Pius & Marcus Aurelius RIC III 415b20 viewsAntoninus Pius & Marcus Aurelius, Silver denarius, RIC III 415b, RSC II 21, Hunter II 6, BMCRE IV 148 var (...CAES AVG..., noted), SRCV II 4523 var (same), gF, nice style, light corrosion, small spots of encrustation, Rome mint, weight 3.032g, maximum diameter 17.9mm, die axis 0o, 140 A.D.; OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, bare of Antoninus Pius right;
REV: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS, draped young bare-headed and beardless bust of Marcus Aurelius Caesar right;

EX: Forum Ancient Coins

In 140, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius Caesar were the two Roman Consuls. Marcus Aurelius was married to Antoninus Pius' daughter Faustina the Younger and was made Caesar in 139. This was the third consulship for Antoninus Pius and the first consulship for Marcus Aurelius.
SRukke
RIC_Antoninus_Pius_SRCV__cos_iiii_annona.jpg
Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV ___, RIC III 244, Van Meter 18/15.
AR Denarius, 2.84 g., 18.20 mm. max., 180°
Rome mint, 155-156 A.D.

Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PI-VS P P TR P XIX, laureate head right.

Rev: COS IIII (=Consul Quartum/consul for the fourth time), Annona standing facing, head left, grain ears in right hand, left hand on modius at right on half-seen ship.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Antoninus_Pius_SRCV_5190_eqgle.jpg
Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.)5 viewsSRCV 5190, RIC III, 431 (Marcus Aurelius), Van Meter 136/3.
AR Denarius, 3.09 g., 19.14 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, struck under Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, 161 A.D.

Obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right.

Rev: CONSECRATIO, eagle standing right, head left, on altar decorated with garlands.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB2.
Stkp
Antoninus_219.jpg
Antoninus Pius - AR denarius21 viewsRome
152-153 AD
Laureate head right
ANTONINVS AVG P_IVS P P TR P XVII
Vesta standing left, holding simpulum and Palladium
COS__IIII
RIC III 219, RSC II 197, BMCRE IV 782, SRCV II 4065
3,11g 17-16 mm
Johny SYSEL
858_Antoninus_Pius_Victory.jpg
Antoninus Pius - AR denarius5 viewsRome
143-144 AD
laureate head right
ANTONINVS AVG PI_VS P P TR P COS III
Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm
IMPE_RA_TO_R II
RIC III 111, RSC II 437, SRCV II 4087
ex Gitbud and Naumann
Johny SYSEL
pius~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius Denarius 26 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV II 4079, RIC III 137, RSC II 345, BMCRE IV 536, EF, Rome mint, 146 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right; reverse COS IIII, thunderbolt on throne;Adrian S
80307aTN.jpg
Antoninus Pius Denarius 28 viewsSilver denarius, RIC III 111, SRCV II 4087, gVF, Rome mint, 155 - 156 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right; reverse IMPERATOR II, Victory standing left holding wreath and palm; 1 commentsAdrian S
Antoninus_Pius_Mount_Argaeus.JPG
Antoninus Pius Mount Argaeus81 viewsAntoninus Pius, Caesarea, Cappadocia, 138 - 161 AD, 21mm, 7.7g, BMC p. 64, 160, Struck 150 - 151 AD
OBV: ANTWNEINOC CEBAC, laureate head right;
REV: KAICAPEΩN TΡAΓAIΩ, Mount Argaeus, with tall peak and conical top, ET KΔ in ex.
Caesarea in Cappadocia should not be confused with Caesarea Philippi or Caesarea Maritima, both in modern Israel
1 commentsRomanorvm
Antpius2.jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius34 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC III 929, SRCV II 4192, Cohen 543, Fine, Rome mint, 154 - 155 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate head right; reverse LIBERTAS COS IIII S C, Libertas standing half left, pileus in right, scepter in left;Philoromaos
kush1.jpg
Anushirwan (Khusru I) (531-579AD)25 viewsAR Drachm
O: Crowned bust right.
R: Fire altar flanked by attendants; star and crescent flanking flames.
4.04g
30mm
BYSh mint(Bishapur in Iran), dated year 42 (572 A.D.)
Gobl SN II/2
1 commentsMat
republican.jpg
Appius Claudius Pulcher, T. Manlius Mancinus and Q. Urbinius denarius38 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV I 176, RSC I Mallia 2, BMC 1293, Sydenham 570a, Crawford 299/1b, VF, dark toning, Rome mint, obverse head of Rome right, circle in square behind; reverse Victory in triga, T MAL AP CL Q VR in exergue.Adrian S
3c61a50d.jpeg
AR Antoninianus, Philip the Arab 244-249 A.D., obverse22 viewsAR Silver Antoninianus, Philip the Arab 244-249 A.D.
Obverse : IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

RIC 29
RSC 32
SR 8923
2 commentsLarry M2
2d26e9ec.jpeg
AR Antoninianus, Philip the Arab 244-249 A.D., reverse21 viewsPhilip I AR Silver Antoninianus. Rome, 244-249 AD.
Reverse: ANNONA AVGG, Annona standing left, holding corn-ear over galley at feet, & cornucopia.

RIC 29
RSC 32
SR 8923

The coin seems to be AU-UNC but has this weakly struck reverse, perhaps struck with a worn reverse die?
1 commentsLarry M2
khusro.jpg
AR Drachm of Khusro II, 618 AD28 viewsOBVERSE: Right facing crowned bust of Khusro II whose name appears in Pahlavi script to his right and honorifics to the left. Astral symbols (star and crescent at 3,6 and 9 o'clock. Two rings surrounding.
REVERSE: Fire Altar with two attendants with hands resting on swords. To the right is mintmark SW (Khuzistan) and to the left is the regnal year 28 which dates the coin to 618 AD. Three rings surrounding

Weight 3.0 grams. The coin has been severely clipped since these usually weigh about 4 grams.
The Sassanid were succesors to the Parthian (Arsacid) dynasty which they conquered in the third century AD. The Sassanids were Zoroastrians who followed the teachings of their prophet Zoroaster (Zarathustra) and their God was Ahura-Mazda - the God of light (or fire) and hence the reverse theme on Sassanid coins. Their rule was centered in what is Iraq and Iran and extended eastward. It lasted until the coming of Islam in the later 7th century. The ancient cultural heritage of Persia is quite distinct from that of their Semitic neighbors to the west and has repercussions in the religous and political conflicts of today.

daverino
afghan.JPG
AR Drachma of the Shahi, ca 900 AD52 views"Bull and Horseman" silver drachm of the Shahi dynasty and Kings of Kabul. OBV; Seated Humped bull with the Sanskrit legend "Sri Semanta Deva" meaning "military commander" above, a trident on the bull's rump.
REV: Horseman with lance.

The Shahi were a Buddhist/Hindu dynasty that ruled from Kabul in the 9th and 10th centuries AD. The Bull (a Hindu symbol) and Horseman drachmas were an enduring type minted in good silver that was mined in the Panjshir Valley of Afghanistan. The Shahi were gradually pushed eastward to Kashmir by Islam until they disappeared as a political group in the 12th century.
2 commentsdaverino
Arab_governors_of_Tabaristan_(ca__775_CE)_half_dirham_(AR).jpg
Arab governors of Tabaristan (ca. 775 CE) half dirham (AR)20 viewsObv.: Arabic-Kufic legend (Crowned bust of Khosrau II right) Rev.: Fire altar flanked by attendants, date and mint Weight: 1.97 g. Diameter: 24.12 mm.Nick.vdw
Tabaristan-Afzut-type,_PYE137~0.jpg
Arab-Sasanian, Abbassid Governors of Tabaristan, AR Hemidrachm, 136 PYE (Post Yazdgard Era = AH 170 = 786/787 AD)30 viewsIslamic, Arab-Sasanian, Abbassid Governors of Tabaristan, AR Hemidrachm, 136 PYE (Post Yazdgard Era = AH 170 = 786/787 AD)

Obverse: APZ-WT, APD, BAHB, Right facing bust imitating Khusru II, wearing winged crown surmounted by star and crescent, inside single-dotted border, crescents with stars at 3, 6 and 9 o'clock.

Reverse: TPWLSTAN, Sasanian style fire altar with two attendants standing facing, crescents on their heads, both hands on sword hilt, inside triple dotted-border, crescents with stars at 3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock, three pellets at the diagonals. Pahlavi date and mintmark in lower left and right margins.

Reference: Album 73, Malek 175

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics +photo

---------------------------------------------------

Obverse Legend: Segoe UI Historic, etc.

𐭠𐭯𐭦𐭥𐭲 ← APZ-WT

𐭠𐭯𐭣 ← APD

𐭡𐭠𐭧𐭡 ← BAHB

Reverse Legend:

𐭲𐭯𐭥𐭫𐭱𐭲𐭠𐭭 ← TPWLSTAN

Gil-galad
BostraFaustina.jpg
Arabia Petraea, Bostra. Faustina Sr. AE16 34 viewsObv: ThEA FAV [CTEINA]. Draped and veiled bust r.
Rev: City-goddess stg. facing, hd. l., holding scepter and resting hand on hip.
ancientone
esbus_elagabal_Spijkerman3.jpg
Arabia, Esbus, Elagabal, Spijkerman 325 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 22, 9.49g, 22.34mm, 210°
mint of Esbus
obv. AVT M AVR ANTONINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. tetrastyle temple with central arch and side-wings with flat roofs; in the center Tyche as City-Goddes with short chiton and turreted, stg. half left, r. foot set on unknown object (head of bull?), holding in raised l. hand long sceptre and in extended r. hand unknown object (bust of emperor?)
l. and r. on the flat roofs A - V (Aurelia)
in ex. ECBOVC
ref. Spijkerman 3; Rosenberger IV, 3; Sofaer Collection 4; BMC Arabia p.29, 3
very rare, F+, dark green patina with sand incrustations which strengthen the contour
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Note: The obv. legend is a mix of Greek and Latin expressions: After AVT (Greek for Imperator) follows the name of the emperor in Latin.

Aurelia Esbus was situated near today's Amman/Jordan and is mentioned several times in the Bible under the name Heshbon. Originally it was a city of the Moabites which was conquered by the Israelites. During the Roman Empire it was known for its excellent springs.

Esbus has minted only under Elagabal. There are known only 6 types with no more than 3 obv. dies (Catalog of the BM).
1 commentsJochen
Mitchiner-LW_334.jpg
Arakan: Min Khamaung (1612-1622) AR Tanka (Mitchiner-LW.334; G&G-RA4; KM#7)35 viewsObv: Inscription in Arakanese; ၉၇၄ ဆင်ဖြူ သခင် ၀ရဓမ္မ ရာဇာ ဥသှေင် သှာ (hsin byu shin waradhamma raza ushaung shah; Lord of the White Elephant Waradhamma Raja Husain Shah)
Rev: Bilingual inscription in Arabic and Bengali; صاحب الفيل الابيض الملك العادل حسين شاه سلطان (sahib al-fil al-abyad al-malik al-adil husain shah sultan; Lord of the White Elephant the just king Husain Shah sultan); ধাভালা গাজেস্ভারা শ্রী শ্রী ধামা রাজা হুচনা সহ (dhavala gajesvara sri sri dhama raja huchana saha; Lord of the White Elephant the most exhalted Dhama Raja (King of Righteousness) Husain Shah)
SpongeBob
arcadiusricix39c.JPG
Arcadius21 viewsBSIS
RIC IX Siscia 39c
JRoME
015BArcadius.jpg
Arcadius4 viewsBronze Half Centenionalis
Roman Imperial - The Eastern Empire

Arcadius

2nd officina, Heraclea Mint. 19 Jan 383 - 25 Aug 383.
Fine, well centered, green patina, scrape on obverse, light corrosion
15.0mm / 1.196 g / 180°

Obverse: "DN ARCADIVS PF AVG", pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: "VOT V" in two lines within wreath, SMHB in exergue.

Ex Forvm Ancient Coins 2015 (72470)
Old Note "BB6204" with coin description, "4/02/2012"
Ex WCNCOnline (circa 2012?)
Old Note "34578/579", with description


RIC IX Heraclea 18(b)2, LRBC II 1964, SRCV V 20867

MyID: 015B

Image Credit: Forvm Ancient Coins
TenthGen
Arcadius Obverse and Reverse.jpg
Arcadius 383-408 A.D.24 viewsThe obverse bust is of a diademed, cuirassed Arcadius facing right with the inscription reading DNARCADIVSPFAVG. The reverse is of Victory holding a trophy and dragging a captive while advancing left. The reverse inscription reads SALVSREIPVBLICAE.cwonsidler
ARCADIUS-4.jpg
Arcadius RIC IX 88b37 viewsObv: DN ARCADIVS P F AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev: GLORIA-ROMANORVM
emperor standing facing holding labarum in right hand and globe in left.
CONSr in ex.
22mm 5.1 gm
OWL365
Arcadius- Virtus Exerciti.jpg
Arcadius- VIRTVS EXERCITI113 viewsArcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.

Obverse:
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

D N ARCADI-VS P F AVG

DN: Dominus Noster, our lord
ARCADIVS: Arcadius
PF: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
VIRTVS EXERCITI, Victory of the army. Referring to the courage of the army

VIRTVS: Victory
EXERCITI: Army

Emperor standing left, head right, holding spear and shield, Victory left crowns him

Domination: Bronze AE 3, size 17mm.

Mint: SMNA, Nicomedia, Officina A (Alpha, 1 st.), struck 395-401 A.D

Comment:
This type was struck AD 395-401 for Arcadius and Honorius in Heraclea, Constantinopolis, Nicomedia, Cyzicus, Antiochia and Alexandria. With the mintmark I have problems. It could be Heraclea or Nikomedia. If it is Heraclea then it would be RIC X, 58. But that type has the dot on the right(!) field, what one can see on the pic pl.4 too! For Nicomedia I found the following footnote: SMNA, dot on right field (L.2440, Sardis 1981, 183 no.829) also cited; perhaps Heraclea misread, confirmation required.
Important for my coin is only the dot in the left rev. field. The other dots belong to the shield and the drapery of Victoria I think. So your type belongs to the series of AD 395-401, but with the dot in the left field it is not listed in RIC!
The ex. On my coin looks like SMNA . But the type of Nicomedia mentioned in the footnote of RIC has the dot in the right field too and RIC supposed that it is a misread SMHA. All other types listed for Nicomedia have no dots at all. So there are some mysteries around my coin!
1 commentsJohn Schou
islamic2.jpg
Artuqids, Nasir al-Din Artuq Arslan bin Il-Ghazi46 viewsArtuqids, Nasir al-Din Artuq Arslan bin Il-Ghazi ("Nasreddin Artuk Arslan bin İlgazi" 597-637 AH, 1201-1239 AD), (no mint, Mardin?), 611 AH / 1214-1215 AD.,
copper dirham (23-25 mm / 4,80 g),
Obv.:("Nasıreddünya veddin Artuk Arslan Melik-i Diyarbekir") , male head with Turkish features, facing.
Rev.: ("Ebu'l Abbas Ahmed el-Nasır lidinillah emir'ül müminin el-Melik el-Adil Ebu Bekir bin Eyub. 611") , five line Kufic legend.
ME-275 ; S/S (Spengler/Sayles) 40
Tanit
claudius_As_cf_ric100.jpg
As (struck in Hispania or Gaul; possibly unofficial); Minerva; cf. RIC I 10014 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D. Copper as, cf. RIC I 100, SRCV I 1861 and BMCRE I 149 (Rome mint), VF, green patina, western provincial mint, 9.744g, 29.3mm, 180o, 41 - 42 A.D.; obverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left; reverse S C, Minerva advancing right brandishing javelin in right, shield in left; double-struck, old cut on obverse, possibly an unofficial imitative. Many Claudius sestertii and asses, such as this coin, were clearly not products of the Rome mint. They appear to have been struck in Hispania or Gaul. The coins may have been official or perhaps unofficial imitations. Ex FORVMPodiceps
faustina_I_As.jpg
As; AETERNITAS S C, RIC 115620 viewsFaustina Sr., Commemorative. Æ As. 10.8g, 25mm. Rev. AETERNITAS S C, Aeternitas seated left holding phoenix on globe and sceptre. RIC 1156 var. (reads DIVA AVG FAVSTINA)Podiceps
Caligula~0.jpg
As; VESTA S C, RIC I 384 viewsCaligula; 16 March 37- 24 January 41 A.D. Copper as, RIC I 38, Cohen 27, BMCRE I 46, SRCV I 1803, Fair, dark patina, Rome mint, 8.511g, 27.0mm, 180o, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left; reverse VESTA S C, Vesta enthroned left, patera extended in right, long scepter transverse in left. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Ascalon Trajan.jpg
Ascalon (Ashkelon, Israel) - Trajan56 viewsCEBAC[TOC] , laureate bust of Trajan right.
ACLAΛΩ , female deity standing left holding standard and aphlaston (WTF ?) ; to the left, an altar ; to the right, a dove, and ΔIC : year 214 = 110-111 AD.
23 mm.

The dove is the sacred bird of the godess Derketo. The deity standing on this reverse may be a tyche, but may be Derketo too.
Ginolerhino
dagon.jpg
Ashdod; Lion/ Dagon27 viewsPhilistia; Gaza, Ashdod (in modern Israel), late 5th - early 4th century BC, Stater, 10,0 g, 21 mm, Lion walking right on ground / Fish god Dagon left with trident and wreath (Traité 1028, pl.CXXIII, 7, Phoenicia; BMC Phoenicia (uncertain), pl.XLV, 1; SNG Paris 421, Myriandros).2 commentsPodiceps
G_278_Hierocaesarea_fac.jpg
Asia Minor, Lydia, Hierocaesarea, Artemis, humped bull (Zebu)9 viewsLydia, Hierokaisareia
Pseudo-autonomous issue
1st century AD
Obv: ΠΕΡCΙΚΗ , draped bust of Artemis Persica right, quiver at shoulder, holding bow and arrow at breasr.,
Rev.: IEPOKAI-CAP-EΩN, humped bull (Zebu) standing right
AE, 2.72g, 15mm
Ref.: RPC III 1861
shanxi
G_354_Pergamon.jpg
Asia Minor, Mysia, Pergamon, Asklepios, snake, omphalos, c/m owl20 viewsMysia, Pergamon
AE 21, 200-133 BC
Obv.: laureate head of bearded Asklepios
Rev.: ΑΣΚΛΗΠΙΟΥ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, snake coiled around omphalos, without monogram, countermark owl

AE, 10.6g, 20.5mm
Ref.: SNG France 1815 (with countermark)
1 commentsshanxi
Athlit_Ram_Haifa.jpg
Athlit Bronze War Galley Ram57 viewsThe Athlit ram, found in 1980 off the coast of Israel near at Athlit Bay (just south of Haifa), is the one of a few surviving ancient war galley rams. Carbon 14 dating of timber remnants date it to between 530 BC and 270 BC. It was once fit on the prow of an ancient oared warship. This would be driven into the hull of an enemy ship in order to puncture it and thus sink, or at least disable, the ship. It is made of a single casting of bronze weighing 465kg and measures about 2.10m long. The ram is thus one of the largest bronze objects to survive from the ancient world and is currently on display in the National Maritime Museum, Haifa, Israel. Captured rams were once used to ornament Octavian's battle monument at Actium, Greece. Only the sockets that held them remain. The valuable bronze was melted long ago.

Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_ram
http://www.learningsites.com/Athlit/AthlitRam_home.php

For other recovered galley rams see:
https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2013/04/rare-bronze-rams-found-at-site-of-final.html
https://www.historytoday.com/ann-natanson/roman-naval-power-raising-ram
1 commentsJoe Sermarini
ric_126_augustus.jpg
Augustus RIC 0126 75 viewsAugustus (27 BC-AD 14), Denarius, Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 17-16 BC, (19 mm 3.73 g).
Obv: Bare head right
Rev: Augustus, Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder between front hooves; cornucopia above its back.
RIC I 126; RSC 21 SRCV (2000) 1592.
Purchased October 28, 2016 from vcoins store London Coin Galleries Ltd.




Although Augustus was the second Caesar covered by Suetonius, he really was the first ruler of the new Roman empire. Originally known by the name Octavian, he became Augustus as the new ruler of the empire.

The coin below is special to me for two reasons. First, I love the
anepigraphic (no legend) obverse. I feel this gives an elegant look to the portrait and make the portrait the focus of the coin. Many emperors were very particular as to how their images appeared on their coins and Augustus was no exception. It is difficult to tell when a coin of Augustus was issued by the portrait alone because his portraits did not age very much from his beginnings as emperor until his death.

Another reason I like this coin is the reverse. It depicts a Capricorn with globe and rudder. These devices appear on other coins of Augustus, and other emperors used them as well. Augustus would be associated with the image of the Capricorn for much of his rule.

Although this is not a perfect coin because of its imperfect flan shape, the combination of a great portrait and the Capricorn meant I had to have it.
4 commentsorfew
AugustusRIC212.jpg
Augustus RIC 21258 views27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius. Lugdunum mint. Struck 2 BC-AD 4.
O: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE Head, laureate, to right
R: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT; C L CAESARES in ex; Gaius and Lucius Caesar standing facing, each resting a hand on a shield. Crossed spears behind the shields. Lituus on l. and Simpulum on r., X below.
- RIC 212 (R)

"The brothers, Caius and Lucius, were the sons of Agrippa and Julia, daughter of Augustus. They were due to succeed Augustus but predeceased him in 4 and 2 A.D. respectively. Gaius, the elder of the two brothers has his shield placed in front of that of his younger brother and the ladle above him marking him as Pontifex. Lucius has lituus above marking him as augur. Gaius should have the more prestigious position on the left but this variety has him on the right." - Forum
2 commentsNemonater
Augustus_Secular_games_17_BC.jpg
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.99 views Silver denarius, RIC I 340 (R2), RSC I Julius Caesar 6, BnF I 273, BMCRE I 70, SRCV I 1622, VF, scratch on cheek, pitting, 3.572g, 19.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, moneyer M. Sanquinius, 17 B.C.; obverse AVGVST DIVI F LVDOS SAE (Augustus son of the divine [Julius Caesar], [has made the] secular games), Herald standing left, wearing helmet with two feathers and long robe, winged caduceus in right hand, round shield decorated with six-pointed star on his left arm; reverse M SANQVINIVS III VIR, youthful laureate head (the deified Julius Caesar or Genius Saeculari Novi?) right, above, four-rayed comet (sidus Iulium) with tail; ex CNG auction 145 (9 Aug 2006), lot 254. Very rare.

This type was struck to commemorate the Ludi Saeculares, the Secular Games held by Augustus in 17 B.C. to mark the commencement of a new age inaugurated by the divine Julius Caesar and led by his heir Augustus. The reverse portrait is traditionally identified as the head of a youthful divine Julius Caesar, however, it actually resembles Augustus and may be Genius Saeculari Novi, the personification of the new age.

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins.

*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Per FORVM ; an EF example of this type recently sold on 26 May 2014 for 20,000 CHF (approximately $25,575) plus fees.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
4 commentsSam
AugustusRIC325~0.jpg
Augustus, RIC 325, sestertius of 18 BC36 viewsÆ Sestertius, 25,72g, 37mm, 10h; Rome, 18 BC
Coinage of C. Marcius Censorinus.
Obv.: C MARCI L F CENSORIN AVG III VIR AAA F F around large S C, large S C
Rev.: OB above, CIVIS within, SERVATOS below oak wreath flanked by two laurel branches.
RIC 325 [R2]; BMCRE 178; Cohen 454; Sear (Roman Coins & their Values) 1647
1 commentsCharles S
faustina_I.jpg
AVGV-STA, Ceres or Aeternitas standing left, raising hand & holding torch. RIC 36110 viewsFaustina Sr. AR Denarius. Aeternitas standing left. RSC 101. VF. Faustina Sr AR Denarius. DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right / AVGV-STA, Ceres or Aeternitas standing left, raising hand & holding torch. RIC 361, RSC 101a, BMC 417, Sear RCV II: 4583. Ex Vauctions.Podiceps
faustina_vanhempi.jpg
AVGVSTA (Ceres)13 viewsFaustina I AR Denarius. Silver denarius, RIC III 362, BMCRE IV 421, RSC II 104, SRCV II 4584, Rome mint, 3.277g, 17.1mm, 0o, posthumous, 147 - 161 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right; reverse AVGVSTA, Ceres standing half left, holding long torch in right and raising drapery with left. ex FORVM

kaitsuburi
faustina_I_362.jpg
AVGVSTA, Ceres (2)5 viewsFaustina I AR Denarius, Silver denarius, RIC III 362, BMCRE IV 421, RSC II 104, SRCV II 4584, Rome mint, posthumous, 147 - 161 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAVSTINA, draped bust right; reverse AVGVSTA, Ceres standing half left, holding long torch in right and raising drapery with left. Ex FORVMPodiceps
faustinaI.jpg
AVGVSTA, Pietas9 viewsFaustina Sr. Silver denarius, RIC III 374, RSC II 124a, BMCRE IV 452, VF, Rome mint, 2.836 g, 17.5 mm, 180o, posthumous, 147 - 161 A.D.; obverse DIVA FAV-STINA, draped bust right; reverse AVGVSTA, Pietas standing half left, raising right hand, left hand at side, lit altar left; tight, slightly irregular flan. ex FORVMPodiceps
urbs.jpg
‘Urbs Roma’ commemorative issue16 views‘Urbs Roma’ commemorative issue, AE3/4 Constantinople (?) AD 330
VRBSROMA; Helmeted bust of Roma l.GLORIA EXERCITVS; In ex: CONS…; Two soldiers, one standard in between. Cf. RIC31; 1.67g; 14.3g; F/VF. ex Gert Boersema

Podiceps
Tiberius_37.jpg
B265 views Tiberius AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV I 1763, Lugdunum
Date: 19 August, AD 14 – 16 March, AD 37
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head r.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated r., holding olive branch & long scepter; ornate legs to chair
Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.6 grams
* NOTE: chipped piece & metal adhesions from prior mounting of coin as jewelry
(Image of Tiberius courtesy of Bill Storage: Ara Pacis Museum, Rome)

"He was large and strong of frame, and of a stature above the average... He strode along with his neck stiff and bent forward, usually with a stern countenance and for the most part in silence, never or very rarely conversing with his companions... All of these mannerisms of his, which were disagreeable and signs of arrogance, were remarked by Augustus, who often tried to excuse them to the senate and people by declaring that they were natural failings, and not intentional." - Suetonius Life of Tiberius LXVIII

When Augustus died on August 19, AD 14, Tiberius was considered to be the logical successor. The issue, however, was that there had never been a transfer of power by succession, only through seizure of leadership by force. Although Tiberius superficially sought to preserve the idea of the emperor being “First Citizen” to appease the senate, it was abundantly clear who was in control of the empire. Tiberius made a clever move to sequester the support of the legions through a pay increase. The reverse of this coin depicts Livia seated. Being Tiberius’ mother, she campaigned relentlessly to place her son as the natural heir to the position of emperor. Once in control, Tiberius allowed her to keep the title of Augusta, granted to her by Augustus in his will, but refused her the honor of being recognized as “Mother of her Country” or that of lictor. This was an astute political move to limit Livia’s influence. In the long run Tiberius was unable to maintain the demeanor or tact that Augustus possessed, and was seen as a stiff and arrogant tyrant by many. Tiberius spent much of the latter part of his reign at his private retreat on the island of Capri. He fell ill in AD 37 and died March 16 at the age of 77 in his seaside villa at Misenum.
The denarius of Tiberius with Livia as Pax on the reverse is commonly known as the 'Tribute Penny,' the coin to which Jesus referred to when he was discussing paying taxes to the Romans, and said "render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mark 12:17 & Matthew 22:20-21). Although there are two other reverse types on denarii of Tiberius, they were only issued during the first two years of his reign, while the Pax reverse was employed throughout the remainder, making it the more likely coin referred to. The term 'penny' is from the AD 1611 King James translation of the Bible, and was adopted since the penny was the standard denomination of the time.
6 commentsNoah
Baktria_AntiochosI_SNGANS68.jpg
Baktria, Antiochos I 10 viewsAntiochos I, 280-261 BC. AE Dichalkoi (5.77 gm) or Denomination C. Head of Athena to r., wearing crested Corinthian helmet. / Winged Nike stdg l., holding out wreath in r. hand ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ. VF / F. SNG ANS 68. HGC (Syria) 190 R2-3. SNG Israel I 245-256. Sold as Diodotus I as Satrap and MIG 79a var (helmet). Christian T
Baktria_Hippostratos_SNG-ANS1628.jpg
Baktria, Hippostratos10 viewsBaktria, Hippostratos. 65-55 BC. AR Tetradrachm (9.5 gm). Diademed and draped bust of Hippostratos r. / Armored & helmeted king on horseback r.; Kharosthi legend Maharajasa tratarasa Hipusratasa (of Great King Hippostratos the Savior); monogram r & in ex. nEF. Deeply toned. SNG ANS 1628; Bopearachchi Série 7D; HGC 451 R2 (this coin).
Christian T
Baktria_Hippostratos_HGC456.jpg
Baktria, Hippostratos8 viewsBaktria, Hippostratos Soter. 65-55 BC. AE Octuple Unit (19.88 gm) . Triton stdg, facing, holding dolphin and rudder over l. shoulder ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ IΠΠOΣTPATOY / Tyche stdg l., holding lotus in r. hand and palm frond in l. Kharosthi legend Maharajasa tratarasa Hipusratasa (of Great King Hippostratos the Savior [and] Conquerer). Monogram to field a l., letter to r. gVF. SNG ANS 1643; Bopearachchi Série 12a; HGC 456 R2. Deeply toned. Rare.Christian T
BalbanShah.jpg
Balban Shah Delhi Sultan15 viewsGhiyas Ud Din Balban Shah

1266 - 1287 CE (AH 664 -686)

Obverse: Al - Sultan Al - Azam Ghiyath Al - Dunya Wa'ldin

Reverse: Balban In Center : Sri Sultan Gayasadan In Nagari

Weight : 3.55 g
Length : 16 mm
Pericles J2
Balbinus-sestertius.jpg
Balbinus (238 AD) AE Sestertius17 viewsRoman Imperial, Balbinus (238 AD) AE Sestertius

Obverse: IMP CAES D CAE L BALBINVS AVG, Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: PROVIDENTIA DEORVM, Providentia standing left with cornucopia & wand pointed at globe at feet.

Reference: RIC 19, Cohen 24, SRCV 8499
Gil-galad
Baltic_Amber_Cicada_Nymph.jpg
Baltic Amber with Cicada Nymph106 viewsLocation: Baltic Russia
Date: circa 50 million years old
Size: amber is 4.39 cm long (maximum),
cicada nymph is 9 mm long (rare inclusion)

This is a piece of pre-historic Baltic amber containing a beautifully presented cicada nymph inclusion. This piece of amber was collected from the Primorkoje Mine in Yantarnvi, Kaliningrad, Russia near the Baltic Sea. The territory, the northern part of the former East Prussia, borders on NATO and EU members Poland and Lithuania. The site now occupied by Kaliningrad was previously the site of the German city of Königsberg, founded in 1255. During World War II the city was largely destroyed. Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad in 1946 after the death of Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Mikhail Kalinin, one of the original Bolsheviks. The German population was expelled and the city was repopulated with Soviet citizens. German was replaced by Russian as the language of everyday life. The city was rebuilt, and went through industrialization and modernization. As the westernmost territory of the USSR, the Kaliningrad Oblast became a strategically important area during the Cold War. Kaliningrad is the only Russian Baltic Sea port that is ice-free all year round and hence plays an important role in maintenance of the Baltic Fleet. Due to the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Kaliningrad Oblast became an exclave, geographically separated from the rest of Russia.
3 commentsNoah
Bar_Kokhba_Revolt_(AD_132-135)__Æ_middle_bronze_(24mm,_12_52_gm,_11h).jpg
Bar Kokhba Revolt AE Middle Bronze20 viewsBar Kokhba Revolt (AD 132-135). AE middle bronze (24mm, 12.52 g, 11h). year 1 (AD 132/3). 'Simon, Prince of Israel', palm branch within wreath / 'Year One of the Redemption of Israel', wide lyre of five strings. EFOctopus Grabus
julian_II_the_barbarian.jpg
Barbaric Counterfeit: Apis bull9 viewsJulian II 'the Apostate,' February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D., Barbaric Counterfeit. 21530. Bronze AE 1, ancient counterfeit imitative of SRCV 4074, Fair, unofficial mint, 6.622g, 24.5mm, 90o, after 361 A.D.; obverse [D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG], diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB, Apis bull right, two stars above horns. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Basiliscus_MarcusRIC1034.jpg
Basiliscus and Marcus, RIC 103415 viewsDiademed head right, DN[ bASL ET MAR P] AV
Monogram of Basiliscus and Marcus
AE4, 13.5mm, 2.12g
Constantinople Mint

Light encrustations on the obverse. Circular scratch in field to right on monogram.
Found in a lot of uncleaned byzantine coins!
novacystis
Abdul_Hamid_Egypt.png
BCC 2934 viewsOttoman Empire
Sultan Abdul Hamid I
1774-1789 CE Egypt
Obv:Tughra (Sultan’ s Monogram)
Rev:ZURIBA FI
MISR SANAT 1187 (minted in
Egypt year) 1187 HA (1774 CE)
AR or Billon 15mm. approx.0.20g
Axis:60
This is an incredibly thin coin. The images show
through on both sides. I am not sure if this is
because it is so thin or if there was a striking error
involved. This coin was reportedly found at Caesarea
Maritima along the beach, in 1972.
v-drome
Khusro_BCC_B7.jpg
BCC B7x19 viewsHeraclius 610-641CE
Sasanian occupation of Egypt
Khusro II, ca. 618-628CE
AE 12 nummia, Alexandria Mint.
Obv:Facing bust of Khusro II, cuirassed,
wearing crown with simple cross. Star and
crescent to left and right.
Rev: I B, in between, cross on globe,
In exergue, ΑΛΕΞ
18mm. 10.46gm. Axis:0
SB 855
v-drome
roman_lead_seal.png
BCC LSR1 (BCC L2)36 viewsLead seal
Roman 2nd-3rd cent CE
Obv: Radiate bust right
Rev: Bust to right with crescent below.
possible letter in field to left and right.
13x10mm 2.46gm. Axis:0
v-drome
_BCC_Ls21.jpg
BCC LSR227 viewsLead seal
Roman 1st -3rd cent CE?
Obv: Turreted? bust? to right.
Possibly Tyche or Astarte.
Rev: Lion walking to right, traces of
inscription above.
10x9mm. 1.96gm. Axis:90 (3h)
This is the smallest Roman seal I have seen.
v-drome
BCC_Lsr3_gorgon.jpg
BCC LSR326 viewsLead seal
Roman 1st -4th cent CE?
Obv: Gorgonian face? or Lion ?
Rev: Branched object, tree or
menorah?
11.5mm. 3.31gm. Axis:0
v-drome
victory_BCC_LSR4.jpg
BCC LSR420 viewsLead seal
Roman 1st -4th cent CE?
Obv: Winged figure advancing left,
holding shield? or wreath?.
Traces of inscription to left.
Rev: Blank
11x13mm. 2.80gm.
v-drome
BCC_LSR5_.jpg
BCC LSR522 viewsLead Seal
Uncertain Date
1st -4th Century CE?
Small lead seal with Greek inscription.
Obverse: [...]ΑΝΓΙΠ
Rev: [...]ΑΤΡΟΥ
13X10mm. 2.43 gm. Axis:0
v-drome
anguipede_BCC_LSR6_.jpg
BCC LSR630 viewsLead Seal
Roman 1st-3rd Cent CE?
Obv: Anguipede, stylized Persian influenced
snake-legged figure, usually with
head of rooster, carrying flail and shield.
Rev: Blank.
16 x 13mm. 5.55gm.
v-drome
Lyre_snake_BCC_Lt42.jpg
BCC LT4232 viewsLead Tessera BCC LT42
Roman, 1st-4th cent CE?
Obv: Lyre or other stringed instrument.
Rev: Serpent to right. To left: "A"
Pb 14 x 13 x 2mm. Wt: 1.68gm.
cf. Anit Hamburger #66-71.
Hamburger suggests that this type, found 6
times in her corpus, was used in relation
to private marriage festivities. The stringed
instrument, perhaps a lyre, was used in the
procession to the house of the newlyweds.
"The single serpent might then be understood
as the house snake, Agathodaimon, bringer of
fortune to the house of the newlyweds".
Ref: Anit Hamburger, Surface-Finds From
Caesarea Maritima - Tesserae, In : Excavations
at Caesarea Maritima 1975, 1976, 1979 - Final
Report Lee Levine / Ehud Netzer. Israel -
Jerusalem : The Institute of Archaeology,
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
1986. - p.187-204
v-drome
GeorgeIIICentenary1814.JPG
BHM 0780. Centenerary of the Accession of the House of Brunswick, 1814.130 viewsObv. Head right THE ILLUST* HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK ASC* THE THRONE OF THE BRITISH AUG 1ST 1714
Rev. Text within wreath THE CENTENARY OF THE ACC* OF THE HOSUE OF BRUNSWICK TO THE THRONE OF GREAT BRITAIN WAS CELEBRATED IN THE CITY OF CORK ON THE 1ST 2ND AND 3RD OF AUG* 1814 IN THE 54TH YR OF THE REIGN OF GEORGE THE 3D SR DAVID PERRIER MAYOR.
AE 50mm
LordBest
BONEW_TOGETHER.jpg
Bhuvanaika Bahu I AD 1273-128410 viewsSeated king, SRI BHU VA NI KA BA HU in Brahmi in two vertical lines in the left field / King standing, small altar in the left field, various dots and decorations in fields. Mitchiner NIS 850-852. Paul R3
ValerianI.jpg
Billion Antoninianus of Valerian I11 viewsA Roman billion antoninianus of Valerian I, minted in Syria between 258-260 AD. 20.1 mm, 3.272 g.

Obverse: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: RESTITVT ORIENTIS, turreted female (the Orient) presenting wreath to the Emperor standing left holding spear, pellet in wreath above

Attribution: Göbl MIR 1700l (Samosata), RIC V 287 (Antioch), SRCV III 9967
chuy1530
CarthageBillion.jpg
Billion Tridrachm from Carthage82 viewsA Billion tridrachm from Carthage, minted during the second Punic war. 9.589g, 26.2mm, Carthage mint, c. 215 - 205 B.C.

Obverse: Head of Tanit left, wearing barley wreath, pellet on leaf, triple-pendant earing, and necklace with many pendants

Reverse: Unbridled horse standing right, palm tree in background, pellet below horse's belly forward of the palm trunk; scarce;

Attribution: Alexandropoulos 44a; Müller Afrique 104; SNG Cop 190 var (no pellet); SRCV II 6494 var (same)
3 commentschuy1530
nikaia_elagabal_RecGen420.jpg
Bithynia, Nikaia, Elagabal, Rec. Gen. 42013 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE 22, 5.2g
obv. M.AVR.ANTWNEINOC.AVG
Laureate head r.
rev. NIKAI - EWN
Torch of Demeter with grain-easrs and poppy, entwined by snake, head upwards
ref. Rec. Gen. 420 (?)
F+, stripped

This type is not known for Elagabal. But the coin for Caracalla in Rec. Gen. has the same rev. and the same obv. legend. caracalla in error?
Jochen
BosporusRhomMed.jpg
BOSPORAN KINGDOM, Sauromates I30 viewsAD 93/4-123/4
AE 48 units (29mm, 10.84 gm, 12h)
Obv: diademed, draped bust of Sauromates left
Rev: nike advancing left, holding wreath, flanked by mark of value M-H, all within wreath
Ref: MacDonald 397/2.



2 commentsTIF
Bramsen unknown.JPG
Bramsen ????. Mariage a Paris avec Marie-Louise, 1810. 232 viewsObv. Confronting busts of Napoleon I and Marie Louise. NAPOLEON GALL IMP ITALIIAE REX M LVDOVICIA FRANC AUST IMP FIL AA. HARNISCH
Rev. Turreted goddess insribing on shield supported by cupid, torches either side. FELICIBVS NVPTIIS. VOTA PVBLICA. VINDOB X1 MARTII MDCCCX
Silvered white metal 48mm

A beautiful medal struck to commemorate the marriage of Napoleon and Marie Louise of Austria in 1810. Struck at Vienna.
My very first Napoleonic medal. ex-HJB it was sold as a restrike but is in fact an original strike as the Vienna mint did not restrike these medals.
LordBest
asrepblican.jpg
Bronze Republican As 180-80 BC27 viewsObverse : Heads of Janus
Reverse : Prow of Galley, ROMA below, PT or TP above

Weight 29.83 gms,
Crawford 177/1. Sydenham -353 (r4)
ex Harlan Berk, inventory # cc19828
daverino
MISC_Bulgaria_Stratsimir.jpg
Bulgaria, Second Empire, Vidin Kingdom. Ivan Stratsimir (1356-1396)12 viewsDimnik & Dobrinić 11/10.1.3; Raduchev & Zhekov 1.14.6; cf. Youroukova & Penchev 107; Ljubić III, 2; cf. Moushmov 7542.

AR Groši/grosh (described in older references as a half groši/grosh); Third Chronological Group, variant B; Vidin mint; struck circa 1380-1385; .74 g., 17.52 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Nimbate bust of Christ with cross within halo, raising right hand in benediction and holding Gospel book in left hand, IC - XC (= Jesus Christ) across field, all within beaded circle, abbreviated legend +IW СRАЦИМИР ЦРББ (= Ivan Stratsimir Tsar of the Bulgars).

Rev.: Nimbate Ivan Stratsimir wearing domed crown seated facing, holding scepter decorated with a lily forming a trefoil (with the lily depicted in heraldic manner; i.e., the central petal stands upright but the side petals bend downward) in his right hand and an akakia in his left, axe between his feet, abbreviated legend +IW СRАЦИМИР ЦРББ (= Ivan Stratsimir Tsar of the Bulgars).

Ivan Alexander divided his kingdom between his two sons. Ivan Stratsimir received Vidin. In 1365, the Hungarian King Louis I of Anjou captured Vidin. Sratsimir and his family were held captive in Croatia for four years but in 1369 Sratsimir was restored to his throne under Hungarian overlordship. After the Ottoman invasion in 1388, he was forced to acknowledge Ottoman overlordship and garrisons. In 1396 Sratsimir and his subjects aligned themselves with the anti-Ottoman Crusade led by the Hungarian king Sigismund of Luxemburg. The crusade ended in disaster at the battle of Nikopol on September 25, 1396. By the end of 1397 Sultan Bayezid I approached Vidin and, assured by the promise of his safety, Ivan Stratsimir came out to meet him. On the order of Bayezid I, Ivan Stratsimir was arrested and conveyed to Bursa, while the Sultan confiscated the contents of the Vidin treasury. Sratsimir's fate is unknown. Vidin was likely annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1397, but at least part of the realm remained under the control of Sratsimir's son and heir Constantine II.
Stkp
ivan_sratsimir.jpg
Bulgaria: Ivan Sracimir (1352/5–1396) AR Groš11 viewsBritanikus
RZ-1_14_1.jpg
Bulgaria: Ivan Sracimir (1352/5–1396) AR Groš (Raduchev & Zhekov Type 1.14.1; Youroukova & Penchev-107)54 viewsObv: Half-length facing bust of Christ standing facing before seat, raising hands in benediction, IC XC across field
Rev: Ivan Sracimir enthroned facing, holding lis-tipped scepter and mace; axe under throne
SpongeBob
RZ-1_14_2.jpg
Bulgaria: Ivan Sracimir (1352/5–1396) AR Groš (Raduchev & Zhekov Type 1.14.2)16 viewsObv: Half-length facing bust of Christ standing facing before seat, raising hands in benediction, IC XC across field
Rev: Ivan Sracimir enthroned facing, holding lis-tipped scepter and mace; right-facing head under throne
SpongeBob
RZ-1_14_6.jpg
Bulgaria: Ivan Sracimir (1352/5–1396) AR Groš (Youroukova & Penchev-107)42 viewsObv: Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator, set on palm frond; IC XC across field
Rev: Ivan Sracimir enthroned facing, holding lis-tipped scepter and mace
SpongeBob
102907LG.jpg
Bulgaria: Ivan Sracimir (1356-1397) Æ Trachy (Dochev-5350)35 viewsObv: Ivan Sracimir monogram
Rev: Nimbate figure of Christ Pantokrator, holding Gospels; IC-XC across field
SpongeBob
YP-119.jpg
Bulgaria: Ivan Sracimir (1356-1397) Æ Trachy, Vidin (Youroukova & Penchev-119; Raduchev & Zhekov Type 1.14.14-15)12 viewsObv: Half-length bust of Christ facing, orans.
Rev: Monograms across field.
SpongeBob
173.jpg
Bull standing right191 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Nicopolis Seleucidis. Philip Sr. Æ 29. A.D. 244-249. Obv: AVTKMIOV-ΛIΦIΛIΠΠO(CC)E. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Countermark before face. Rev: NEIKO(ΠOΛEI)-TWNCEΛEVKI(ΔO?) or sim., IO(?) in ex. Nemesis standing left within distyle temple, left hand raised to her head; lit altar to right, crossed cornucopiae and wheel to left. Ref: BMC - (only 3 coins of this city); Lindgren 2110a (?). Axis: 360°. Weight: 13.23 g. CM: Bull standing right, in oval punch, 8 x 5.5 mm. Howgego 296 (2 pcs). Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
Buvanaka_BahuOR.jpg
Buvanaka Bahu (one “massa”), Ceylon Coins and Currency: H. W. Codrington, Colombo, 1924.43 viewsCeylon, Buvanaka Bahu (one “massa”), 1273-1284 AD struck copper, 19mm 4.43g
Obverse : Traditional Lankan mass-a design of standing king.
The head consists of an irregular oblong, the right side being a vertical line, from which projects three horizontal stokes representing the nose, mouth and chin. The crown bulging outwards at the back. The two curved lines on either side of the legs slightly turned upwards at the end indicate a person wearing a dhoti, and standing on a lotus stalk with flower to the right. The forearm is bent sharply down; the hand grasps the hanging lamp. The right side elbow is curved down with the arm turned upwards holds a flower presumed to be a jasmine blossom. To the right are five dots or spheres. A rim of 40 to 43 beads.
Reverse : Traditional Lankan massa design of seated king.
Head and crown as on obverse. Arm is raised upwards and the hand holds a conch shell. On right Devanagari legend Sri Bhu va nai ka Ba hu
* Ceylon Coins and Currency: H. W. Codrington, Colombo, 1924.
Chapter VI Mediaeval Lanka - Sinhala of 12th & 13th Century - Series II, Page 70
* Culavamsa II Chapter LXXXI: Translation by Wilhelm Geiger. Pali Text Society 1930
casata137ec
RPC793.jpg
Byzacene Thapsus Augustus As - RPC 79328 viewsByzacene, Thapsus Time of Augustus.
Æ As (22.6 mm, 9.25 g.)
Obv: IMP AVG PP ; Bare head of Augustus left
Rev: Punic legend STPSR. Diademed and draped female head right with a scepter on the shoulder

RPC 793
Tanit
RPC794.jpg
Byzacene Thapsus Semis RPC 79419 viewsByzacene, Thapsus, Semis, 10-8 BC
Obv: Female head veiled and diad. to right.
Rev: Punic inscription STPSR; Lyre.

RPC 794
Tanit
nicephorus ii phocas.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - NICEPHORUS II PHOCAS95 viewsSear #1782 Nicephorus II Phocas (963-969) AE 28mm Follis. Double/Overstrike. Bust, NichfB/asilRom / +Nichf/EnQewBa/sileusRw/maiwn. 1 commentsdpaul7
Sear-1721.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Basil I the Macedonian (867-886) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear 1721; DOC III 8b)20 viewsObv: + ЬASILIOSSCOҺST' AЧGG; Two busts facing, Basil to left, bearded, Constantine to right, smaller, beardless, each wearing chlamys and crown with cross, holding between them by their right hands a labarum ornamented with ⁛ and streamers
Rev: + ЬASIL / SCOҺSTAҺ / TIҺOSЄҺΘO / ЬASILSЄISR / OMAOҺ in five lines
Quant.Geek
Sear-1728.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Leo VI the Wise (886-912) Æ Follis, Constantinople (Sear-1728; DOC 5)27 viewsObv: Leo VI, with short beard, seated facing on lyre-backed throne, wearing modified loros and crown with cross. In right hand, labarum, left resets on lap; +LЄOҺЬA S ILЄVSR OM' ✶ around
Rev: +LЄOҺ / ЄҺΘЄOЬA / SILЄVSR / OMЄOҺ in four lines
SpongeBob
sealID2.jpg
Byzantine Seal of John 7th Century18 viewsObverse: Cruciform monogram IWANNOV [Seal of] John four dots below
Reverse: Block monogram IWANNOV [Seal of] John between palms with cross above
Found in Israel
pogh_poor
LeoVI-moeda1.jpg
BYZANTINE, Leo VI (the wise) 886-912 AC.172 viewsAE Follis of Leo VI (the wise) 886-912 AC.

Weight: 4.94 gr
Ø:26mm

Obv: +LEOnbA S ILEVSROm - Leo facing.

Rev: +LEOn/EnOEObA/SILEVSR/OmEOn.

Minted in Constantinople

Condition: VF/gVF

Ref: Sear 1729 - Berk 918.
Jorge C
4088LG.jpg
C Coelius Caldus Denarius 104 bc29 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV I 196, Crawford 318/1a, Sydenham 582, RSC I Coelia 2, VF, nicely toned, Rome mint, 104 B.C.; obverse head of Roma left in winged helmet; reverse Victory in a biga left holding reins in both hands, K•: (control letter) above, C•COIL below, CALD in exAdrian S
hostid.jpg
C Hosidius CF Geta Denarius 68bc139 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV I 346, RSC I Hosidia 1, Crawford 407/2, VF, Rome mint, 68 B.C.; obverse III VIR GETA, diademed head of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder; reverse wild boar right, pierced by spear and attacked by hound, C HOSIDI C F in ex;6 commentsAdrian S
C_Aburius_Gem.jpg
C. Aburius Geminus - AR denarius4 viewsRome
¹²134 BC
helmeted head of Roma right
GEM
(XVI)
Mars in quadriga right holding trophy and reins, shield, spear
C·(AB)(VR)I
ROMA
¹Crawford 244/1, Sydenham 490, BMCRR I Rome 999, RSC I Aburia 1, SRCV I 121
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,92g
ex CNG
ex Aurea numismatika
Johny SYSEL
803_Annius_Luscus_and_Fabius_Hispaniensis.jpg
C. Annius T.f. T.n. Luscus and L. Fabius L.f. Hispaniensis - AR denarius7 views²Transalpine Gaul
¹north Italy
¹²82-81 BC
diademed draped bust of Anna Parenna right; caduceus left, scales right, dagger below
C·ANNI·T·F·T·N_·_PRO·COS·EX·S·C·
Victory in quadriga right, holding palm branch and reins
Q .
L·FABI·L·F·HISP
¹Crawford 366/1a, SRCV I 289, Sydenham 748, RSC I Annia 2
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,7g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

Moneyer apparently used Anna Parenna as a pun to his name Annius. It is the only known depiction of Anna Parenna whose identity is very complicated.

"An older myth tells that Anna Perenna was an old woman from the city of Bollivae in Latium. The myth tells that Anna Perenna brought bread and cakes to the Plebeians who wanted to separate from Rome because of their unequal status as Plebeians in 494 BC and so she saved them from starving. This is why she was popular on the common people and considered as goddes after her death.

A later tradition from the time of the myth of Aeneas made Anna the sister of Dido. After Dido has committed suicide and Carthage was conquered she had to fly. A heavy storm throw her to the coast of Latium at Laurentum where Aeneas was the ruler. Aeneas and his companion went to the beach and he recognized her and took her to his palace. In a dream Anna was warned to be alarmed at the traps that Lavinia, Aeneas' wife, would set for her so she fled from the palace. While she was wandering she met Numicius, the god of a nearby stream who carried her off to his bed. The servants of Aeneas searched for Anna and followed her tracks to the river bank a shape rose from the water and revealed to them that Anna had become a water nymph, whose new name, Perenna, signified eternity. Aeneas' servants in their joy scattered among the fields and passed the day in feasting and festivities, which became established as an annual celebration of the festival of Anna Perenna. There is another opinion too that she committed suicide by drowning in the river Numicius because of her desperation.

In another myth she was an old woman again. Mars was fallen in love to Minerva, sworn virgin. Mars asked Anna Perenna for interceding on his behalf. But instead of this - knowing about the impossibility of his wishes - she dressed herself like Minerva and came to Mars veiled. When he tried to kiss her she lifted her veil, break out in laughter and mocked Mars. Minerva's main festival, the Quinquatrus, was celebrated 4 days after the festival of Anna Perenna so this could be reason of this story." from Jochen's coins of mythological interest.
Johny SYSEL
C__Caecilius_Metellus_Jupitor_in_Biga_of_Elephants.jpg
C. Caecilius Metellus Jupitor in Biga of Elephants40 viewsC. Caecilius Metellus, Denarius, Rome, 125 BC,3.833g, 17.5mm, die axis 90o, SRCV I 145, Crawford 269/1, Sydenham 485, RSC I Caecilia 14,
OBV: Head of Roma right in winged Phrygian helmet, ROMA behind, X (XVI monogram) below chin
REV: Jupiter in biga of elephants left, holding thunderbolt, crowned by Victory flying right above, C METELLVS (ME in monogram) in ex;

EX: Forum Ancient Coins

The reverse refers to the victory of L. Caecilius Metellus over the Carthaginian Hasdrubal
at Panormus in 250 B.C. and the capture of Hasdrubal's elephants.
The elephants were paraded at his triumph in Rome.
1 commentsRomanorvm
C_Piso_Frugi.jpg
C. Calpurnius Piso Frugi - AR denarius18 viewsRome
²64 BC
¹c. 61 BC
laureate head of Apollo right
=
naked horseman galloping right, holding palm branch and reins
dagger? in exergue
C·PISO FRVGI
Crawford 408/1b, RSC I Calpurnia 24, Sydenham 851, SRCV I 348
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
¹Forum Ancient coins
3,9g
ex Lanz

Gaius was married to Cicero's daughter, Tullia, in 63 B.C. and he was quaestor in 58 B.C. This type copies an issue of his father, Lucius Piso Frugi, c. 90 B.C. Crawford dates this type to 67 B.C. Sydenham and Grueber date it 64 B.C. Sear notes that hoard evidence indicates a date closer to 60 B.C
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
1335_266_C__Cassius.jpg
C. Cassius - AR denarius4 viewsRome
²130 BC
¹126 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet, urn behind
(XVI)
Libertas in quadriga right, holding pileus and scepter
C·CASSI
ROMA
¹Crawford 266/1, Sydenham 502, BMCRR Rome 1032, RSC I Cassia 1, SRCV I 142
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Künker

Depiction of Libertas, as well as voting urn, refer to the lex Cassia tabellaria from 137 BC. This law legalized secret ballot for court decisionmaking. Vindicta and pileus held by Libertas are symbols of liberty.
Johny SYSEL
C_Saxula.jpg
C. Cluvius Saxula - AE as10 viewsRome
170-158 BC
laureate head of Janus
I
prow of galley right
C·S(AX)
I
ROMA
Crawford 173/1, Sydenham 360, BMCRR Rome 642, SRCV I 698
26,9g
ex Amphora coins

Moneyer's father was probably praetor in 175 BC and praetor peregrinus in 173.
Johny SYSEL
Cloelius_Caldus.jpg
C. Coelius Caldus - AR denarius7 viewsRome
²52 BC
¹51 BC
head of Coelius Caldus (moneyer's grandfather) right; standard inscribed HIS (Hispania) behind, standard in the form of a boar (emblem of of Clunia, Hispania) before
C·COEL·CALDVS
COS
statue of god seated left between two trophies of arms, all on a high lectisternium with front inscribed L·CALDVS / VII·(VIR)·EP(VL) (Lucius Caldus Septemvir Epulo)
C/·/C/A/L/D/V/S on left
I/MP/·/(AV)/·/X (Imperator, Augur, Decemvir) on right
C(ALD)VS III VIR below
¹Crawford 437/2a, Sydenham 894, RSC I Coelia 7, BMCRR II 3837, SRCV I 404
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Aurea

scarce

Coin commemorates three moneyer's ancestors.

The first, moneyer's grandfather C. Coelius Caldus, was consul in 94 BC. In 107 BC, he was elected tribune of the plebs and passed a lex tabellaria, requiring a secret ballot to determine the verdict in cases of high treason. He was a praetor in 100 or 99 BC, and proconsul of Hispania Citerior the following year. This is represented by standard on the obverse along with emblem of the conquered town Clunia. He was also moneyer in 104 BC.

The second, L. Coelius Caldus, was member of septemviri epulones who prepared lectisternium - propitiatory ceremony, consisting of a meal offered to gods and goddesses (depicted on the reverse). He was responsible for sacrificial feast (epulare sacrificium) during Plebeian games (Ludi Plebeii) in Rome.

The third, C. Coelius Caldus, was augur, member of decemviri sacris faciundis, and governor who gained the title Imperator. The trophies on the reverse commemorates his military campains.
Johny SYSEL
Caldus.jpg
C. Coelius Caldus - AR denarius3 viewsRome
²101 BC
¹104 BC
helmet head of Roma left
Victory in biga left
CALD
G
¹Crawford 318/1b, RSC I Coelia 3, Sydenham 582a, SRCV I 196 var.
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Naumann

Moneyer was consul in 94 BC. In 107 BC, he was elected tribune of the plebs and passed a lex tabellaria, which ordained that in the courts of justice the votes should be given by means of tables in cases of high treason. He was a praetor in 100 or 99 BC, and proconsul of Hispania Citerior the following year. This is represented by standard on the obverse along with emblem of the conquered town Clunia.
Johny SYSEL
Fabius~0.jpg
C. Fabius C. f. Hadrianus - AR denarius6 viewsRome
²97 BC
¹102 BC
veiled turreted bust of Cybele right
·
Λ
Victory in biga right, holding goad and reins; heron right
C·FABI·C·F
¹Crawford 322/1a, RSC I Fabia 15, Sydenham 589, SRCV I 200 var.; RR1 1585, p.222; Ghey, Leins & Crawford 2010 322.1.7
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Naumann

Heron on the reverse refers to the foundation of colonia Ardea in 442 BC when M. Fabius Vibulianus was consul. This is supported by turreted Cybele on the obverse. Moneyer was praetor in 84 BC.
Johny SYSEL
C_Fonteius.jpg
C. Fonteius struck - AR Denarius9 viewsRome
²112 BC
¹114-113 BC
laureate Janiform heads of Dioscuri
T _ (XVI)
war galley left, acrostolium, ram and deck house at prow, three sailors and five oars amidships; deck house, gubernator, rudder, and apluster at stern
C·FO(NT)
ROMA
¹Crawford 290/1, SRCV I 167, RSC I Fonteia 1, Sydenham 555
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Aureo and Calico

"The janiform head has been identified as the Dioscuri, because the Fonteia gens came from Tusculum, the religious center of the cult of Castor and Pollux. The reverse depicts the arrival by sea of Telegonus' the son of Odysseus and Circe, and the mythological founder of Tusculum." ForumAncientCoins note Moneyer probably served as legate in 91 BC at the beginning of Civil war and was killed by rebels in Asculum
Johny SYSEL
C_Fundanius.jpg
C. Fundanius - AR denarius12 viewsRome
²98 BC
¹101 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
· C
Gaius Marius with his son as rider riding in triumphal quadriga right. Gaius Marius holds staff and laurel branch, rider holds laurel branch and reins.
Q
C·FVNDAN
¹Crawford 326/1, SRCV I 204, Sydenham 583, RSC I Fundania 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Aureo & Calicó

Moneyer depicts triumph of Gaius Marius after the victory over Cimbri, Ambrones and Teutons in the battle of Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC and in the battle of Vercelli in 101 BC. This is the first Roman issue depicting living person. Moneyer struck these coins as Questor.
Johny SYSEL
Hosidius_Geta~0.jpg
C. Hosidius C. f. Geta - AR denarius9 viewsRome
²65 BC
¹68 BC
diademed and draped bust of Diana, bow and quiver over shoulder
III VIR / GETA
attacked boar right, spear in shoulder, hound below
C HOSIDI C F
¹Crawford 407/2; Sydenham 903; Kestner 3317; BMCRR I Rome 3389; RSC I Hosidia 1, SRCV I 346
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,6g
ex Marc Walter

"Oineus, king of Kalydon in Aitolia, once had feasted the gods at an harvest festival but forgotten to butcher an animal for Artemis. The goddess was enraged and sent a big boar who wasted the fertile fields of the king. Oineus called for help and from all parts of Greece the heroes came to help him. There were the Curetes from Pleuron, the brothers of Althaia, the wife of Oineus. There were the Dioscurs Kastor and Polydeikes and their Messenian cousins Idas and Lynkeus. Theseus came from Athens, Iphikles, half-brother of Herakles, came from Thebens, Iason, Admetos, Peirithos, Peleus and Eurytion came from Thessalia, Telamon from Salamis, Amphiaraos from Argos, Ankaios and Atalante from Arcadia and much more. Herakles was prevented by his labours. On top of the heroes stood Meleagros, the son of Oineus and Althaia.
The hunt for the Calydonean boar ended very disastrous. Many heroes lost their lifes. Ankaios was the first killed by the boar. Peleus accidentally hit his father-in-law Eurytion with his spear. A second hunter too was killed by the boar.
The big catastrophe happened at the 6th day of the hunt. On this day Atalanta hit the boar with her arrow and Meleagros gave him the deathblow. Then he awarded head and skin of the boar to Atalante. But his uncles, brother of his mother Althaia, didn't tolerate that. They insisted on the rights of their clan. A dispute occured, they snatched the trophies from Atalante and then a fight began in which Meleagros slew his uncles. When Meleagros was born the fates predicted that he will live only as long as the log in the oven. Althaia pulled it out of the fire and hid it in a secret place. When she heard of the death of her brothers she enraged, got the log and threw it in the fire. When it was burnt Meleagros break down dead when he was dissecting the boar." - Jochen's Coins of mythological interest
Johny SYSEL
749_467_Caesar.JPG
C. Julius Caesar - AR denarius5 viewsmoving mint (Africa or Sicily)
I - IV 46 BC
head of Ceres right, grain wreath
DICT·ITER__COS·TERT
sacrificial implements: simpulum, aspergillum, capis (jug), lituus
AVGVR / PONT·MAX
M
SRCV I 1403, Crawford 467/1, RSC I 4
3,7g
ex Aurea

Ceres symbolizes Africa as granary of Rome. M on reverse means munus - payment for soldier's service. These coins probably served to pay Caesar's veterans after battle of Thapsus.
Johny SYSEL
Licinius_Macer.jpg
C. Licinius L.f. Macer - AR denarius21 viewsRome
¹²84 BC
diademed bust of Vejovis left, from behind, hurling thunderbolt
Minerva in quadriga right holding javelin and reins, shield
C·LICINIUS·L·F / MACER
¹Crawford 354/1, SRCV I 274, RSC I Licinia 16, Sydenham 732
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,66g

Moneyer was an official and annalist of ancient Rome. He became tribune in 73 BC and praetor in 68, but in 66 Cicero succeeded in convicting him of bribery and extortion, upon which Macer committed suicide.
He wrote a history of Rome, in 16 books which is now lost. Livy casts doubt on Macer's reliability, suggesting that he misrepresented events in order to glorify the Licinii, but notes that he quotes original sources, such as the Linen Rolls. (wikipedia)
Johny SYSEL
C__Licinius_Lf_Macer.jpg
C. Licinius Lf Macer Republican Denarius38 viewsC. Licinius Lf Macer, Silver denarius, Rome, 84 BC, 3.891g, 20.8mm, die axis 180o, SRCV I 274, RSC I Licinia 16, Crawford 354/1, Sydenham 732
OBV: diademed and cloaked bust of Apollo (or Vejovis) left, from behind, brandishing thunderbolt in right
REV: Minerva in quadriga right, spear in right, shield and reigns in left, C•LICINIVS•L•F / MACER in ex

EX: Forum Ancient coins

This moneyer wrote a history of Rome in sixteen volumes, of which only fragments exist today.
He served as praetor in 68 B.C. but committed suicide several years later after he was accused of extortion.
Romanorvm
Maianus~0.jpg
C. Maianius - AR denarius9 viewsRome
153 BC
helmeted head of Roma right
X
Victory in biga right holding whip and reins
C. (MA)I(AN)I
ROMA
SRCV I 82, RSC I Maiania 1, Crawford 203/1a, Banti Maiania 2
3,39 g 18 mm
Johny SYSEL
1312_346_Censorinus.JPG
C. Marcius Censorinus - AR denarius6 viewsRome
88 BC
jugate heads of bearded Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius right
Desultor right riding two horses, wearing conical cap, holding whip
XXXIII
C·CENSO
Crawford 346/1b, SRCV I 256, Sydenham 713b, RSC I Marcia 18
ex Savoca

Marcia family claimed their descent from legendary kings Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius.
Desultor commemorates ludi Apollinares which were held for the first time in 212 BC as memento of Marcius' prophecy of Roman victory over Hannibal in the battle of Cannae 216 BC.
Johny SYSEL
Marius_Capito.jpg
C. Marius C.f. Capito - AR denarius serratus5 views²Praeneste
¹Rome
²82 BC
¹81 BC
draped bust of Ceres with corn wreath right
controlmark to the right: running horse
CAPIT.CXXXV
ploughman conducting yoke of two oxen
CXXXV
C·MARI·C·F / S·C
¹Crawford 378/1c, SRCV I 300, Sydenham 744b, RSC I Maria 9
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,06g
ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
776_C__Minucius_Augurinus.jpg
C. Minucius C.f. Augurinus - AR denarius6 viewsRome
²134 BC
¹135 BC
helmeted head of Roma right
ROMA
X
Ionic column surmounted by statue; at base, two stalks of grain; on left, L. Minucius Augurinus standing right,
holding patera, foot on modius; on right, M. Minucius Faesus standing left, holding lituus.
C·A_VG
¹Crawford 242/1, SRCV I 119, Sydenham 463, RSC I Minucia 3,
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,7g
ex Aurea Numismatika

Reverse depicts a commemorative bronze column - Columna Minucia which was erected in front of the gate, Porta Trigemina, in memory of L. Minucius Augurinus who as Praefectus Annonae supplied Rome with grain during famine in 439 BC. On the right there is Marcus Minucius Faestus who was elected Augur as the first plebeian in 300 BC.
Johny SYSEL
1301_382_Naevius.JPG
C. Naevius Balbus - AR serrate denarius11 views²Sardinia
¹Rome
¹²79 BC
diademed head of Venus right
S·C
Victory right in triga holding reins
XXXIII
C·N(AE)·B(AL)B
¹Crawford 382/1b, SRCV I 309, RSC I Naevia 6, Sydenham 769b, BMCRR Rome 2937 var. (XXXIIII)
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Naumann
ex Forum Ancient Coins
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
C_Norbanus~0.jpg
C. Norbanus - AR denarius9 views²Sicily or Bruttium
¹Rome
²84 BC
¹83 BC
diademed head of Venus right, wearing single drop earring and pearl necklace
CLIII
C·NORBANVS
grain ear, fasces and caduceus
¹Crawford 357/1b, RSC I Norbana 2, Sydenham 739, BMCRR I Rome 2810, SRCV I 278
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Aurea

Moneyer's family came from Volscian town Norba.
Reverse commemorates activity of elder C. Norbanus, moneyer's father, during the Social War, when he raised troops, organized a fleet, and provisioned the town of Rhegium. He, as a consul, led popular forces and was defeated by Sulla in 83 BC.
Johny SYSEL
C__Plutius.jpg
C. Plautius C.f. - AR denarius7 views²Sardinia
¹Rome
²124 BC
¹121 BC
helmet head of Roma right
X
Dioscuri riding on horses right, holding spear
C·PLVTI
ROMA
¹Crawford 278/1, SRCV I 153, Sydenham 410, RSC I Plautia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
1373_380-1_Poblicius.jpg
C. Poblicius Q.f. - AR serrate denarius19 views²Praeneste
¹Rome
¹²80 BC
draped bust of Roma right wearing Phrygian helmet with side feathers
ROMA
P
naked Hercules left strangling Nemean lion; bow with arrows in quiver left, club below
C·POBLICI·Q·F
P
¹Crawford 380/1, SRCV I 308, Sydenham 768, RSC I Poblicia 9
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Künker
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
1443_C_Postumius.jpg
C. Postumius - AR denarius3 viewsRome
²73 BC
¹74 BC
draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder
hound bounding right, hunting spear below
C·POSTVMI / (TA)
¹Crawford 394/1a, RSC I Postumia 9, Sydenham 785, SRCV I 330
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Jesus Vico
Johny SYSEL
C_Renius~0.jpg
C. Renius - AR denarius11 viewsRome
²144 BC
¹138 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
X
Juno Caprotina in biga of goats right holding whip, scepter and reins
C·RENI
ROMA
¹Crawford 231/1, SRCV I 108, Sydenham 432, RSC I Renia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex London Coin Galleries

Reverse refers to Lanuvium where moneyer's family came from and where the sanctuary of Juno was situated.
Johny SYSEL
1460_C_Servilius.jpg
C. Servilius - AR denarius8 viewsRome
¹²126 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet; lituus left
(XVI)
ROMA
Marcus Servilius Pulex Geminus, consul 202 BC, left fighting a duel on horse, holding spear and shield inscribed with M. Other horseman riding left holding sword and shield
C·SER(VE)IL
Crawford 264/1, SRCV I I 140, Sydenham 483a, RSC I Servilia 6
¹²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Martí Hervera / Soler y Llach
Johny SYSEL
1441_C_Servilius_Mf.jpg
C. Servilius M.f. - AR denarius4 viewsRome
²137 BC
¹136 BC
helmet head of Roma right
wreath left
(XVI) ROMA
the Dioscuri riding in opposite directions, heads turned confronting, each with star above his head and holding a spear
C·SERVEILI·M·F
¹Crawford 239/1, Sydenham 525, RSC I Servilia 1, BMCRR Italy 540, SRCV I 116
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Jesus Vico

It's the first issue with ROMA on obverse also Dioscuri are riding unconventionally from each other.
Johny SYSEL
C__Servilius_M_f_.jpg
C. Servilius M.f. - fouré denarius8 viewsRome - unofficial mint
²137 BC (date of official issue)
¹136 BC (date of official issue)
helmet head of Roma right
wreath left
(XVI) ROMA
the Dioscuri riding in opposite directions, heads turned confronting, each with star above his head and holding a spear
C·SERVEILI·M·F
official issue - ¹Crawford 239/1, Sydenham 525, RSC I Servilia 1, BMCRR Italy 540, SRCV I 116
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
2,6g

It's the first issue with ROMA on obverse also Dioscuri are riding unconventionally from each other.
Johny SYSEL
C__Servilius_M_f_.png
C. Servilius M.f. – Servilia-121 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Servilius M.f. 136 BC. AR Denarius (20mm, 3.82 g, 5h). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; to left, wreath above mark of value / The Dioscuri on horseback rearing in opposing directions, heads facing one another. Crawford 239/1; Sydenham 525; Servilia 1; SRVC 116Bud Stewart
Sulpicius~0.jpg
C. Sulpicius C.f. (Galba) - AR denarius serratus10 views³moneyer probably not belonged to the patrician Galba family but to a Plebeian branch
³Sardinia or Massalia region
¹Rome
²103 BC
¹106 BC
2 jugate laureate heads of Dii Penates Publici left
D · P · P
Two soldiers (or Dii Penas Publici) standing facing each other, holding spears and pointing at sow which lies between them
C
C·SV(LP)ICI·C·F
¹Crawford 312/1, RSC I Sulpicia 1, SRCV I 189, Sydenham 572
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
³Mark Passehl
3,96g
ex Aurea numismatika

The Sulpicii came from Lavinium and both sides of coin are related to it.

Di Penates Publici were taken from Troy together with Palladium by Aeneas. When Aeneas fled from Troy Helenus, a son of Priamos, has predicted Aeneas, that he would built a new city where a white sow would cast 30 piglets. Aeneas prepared to sacrifice a pregnant white sow he has brought in his ship for this purpose, but the sow escaped and fled 24 stadiums in the inland, layed down under an oak-tree (or ilex-tree) and casted 30 white piglets. Because of that Aeneas knew that this prophecy too became true and he should built a city here. He sacrificed the 30 piglets and erected a shrine at this place. The new city he called Lavinium referring to Lavinia, daughter of king Latinus. The 30 piglets represented 30 years only after which his successors became the real owners of the new land.

At the same time story of white sow predicts foundation of another town:
River god Tiber speak to Aeneas in a dream:
"....
A sow beneath an oak shall lie along,
All white herself, and white her thirty young.
When thirty rolling years have run their race,
Thy son Ascanius, on this empty space,
Shall build a royal town, of lasting fame,
Which from this omen shall receive the name.
..."
Alba Longa was founded just 30 years after Lavinium and so the prophecy was fulfilled here too. The name Alba Longa is said to be derived from the white sow (meaning the long white). So Lavinium was the mothertown of Alba Longa and finely of Rome itself. On the Forum of Lavinium stood a bronze statue of the sow, its body was conserved by the priests in pickle.
(Jochen's coins of mythological interests)
Johny SYSEL
C__Valerius_C_f__Flaccus.jpg
C. Valerius C.f. Flaccus - AR Denarius10 viewsRome
²144 BC
¹140 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
X
Victory in biga right, holding whip and reins
FLAC
C·(VAL)·C·F
ROMA
¹Crawford 228/2, SRCV I 104, Sydenham 440, RSC I Valeria 7
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Aureo and Calico

Moneyer struck coins both with XVI (Cr. 228/1) and X (Cr. 228/2). He was probably grandson of C. Valerius Flaccus praetor in 183 BC and father of C. Valerius Flaccus consul in 93 BC.
Johny SYSEL
C__Vibius_Pansa_C_f.jpg
C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus - AR denarius14 viewsRome
48 BC
mask of Pan right
PANSA
radiate Jupiter Axurus seated left, holding patera and long scepter
IOVIS·AXVR·_C·VIBIVS·C·F·C·N
Crawford 449/1a; SRCV I 420; Sydenham 947; RSC I Vibia 18; Sear CRI 20
3,9g
ex Roma Numismatics

Coin depicts radiated beardless Jupiter Axurus who seems to be simmilar to the Apollo, Sol or Syrian Jupiter Heliopolitanus. His temple complex from the first century BC stood on the cliff above town Terracina which gave to the world the word terrace.

Moneyer was adoptive son of C Vibius C.f. Pansa. He became tribune in 51 BC and supported Caesar. In 43 BC he and Aulus Hirtius were sent with two senate armies to attack Marc Antony. Their armies won the battle of Forum Gallorum near Mutina but Hirtius died in the battle and Pansa was mortally wounded so Octavian Caesar became commander of the whole army.
Johny SYSEL
C__Vibius_C_f__C_n__Pansa_Caetronianus.png
C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus – Vibia-1666 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus. 48 B.C. AR denarius (19 mm, 3.99 g, 6 h). Rome. Head of youthful Bacchus (or Liber) right, wreathed with ivy / C • VIBIVS • C • F • C • N, Ceres advancing right, holding torch in each hand; in right field, plow. Crawford 449/2; HCRI 21; Sydenham 946; Vibia 16; SRVC 421Bud Stewart
DSC02140x-horz.jpg
C. Vibius C.f. Pansa. 89-88 BC. AR Denarius.46 viewsLaureate head of Apollo right; PANSA behind, star under chin. / Minerva driving quadriga right; C • VIBIVS • C • F in exergue. Crawford 342/3; Sydenham 684; SR 242; RSC/Babelon Vibia 22 commentsPedja R
Vibius_Pansa~0.jpg
C. Vibius Pansa - AR denarius5 viewsRome
²89 BC
¹90 BC
laureate head of Apollo right
PANSA
Minerva in quadriga right holding trophy and reins, spear
C·VIBIVS·C·F
¹Crawford 342/5b, RSC I Vibia 2d, Sydenham 684, SRCV I 242
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,96g

Issue probably celebrates the first victory in Social war.
Johny SYSEL
00antiusrestio.jpg
C.ANTIUS C.f. RESTIO 37 viewsAR denarius. 47 BC. 3,69 grs. Jugate heads of the Dei Penates diademed,right. DEI PENATES behind. / Naked Hercules advancing right,brandishing club and holding trophy. C ANTIVS C F, before.
Craw 455/2. RSC Antia 2. CNR Antia 3. (R8).

benito
Césarée.jpg
Caesarea (Caesarea, Israel) - ?19 views(description later)Ginolerhino
Césarée SévAlex.jpg
Caesarea (Caesarea, Israel) - Severus Alexander22 views(description later)Ginolerhino
Césarée Trébonien Galle.jpg
Caesarea (Caesarea, Israel) - Trebonianus Gallus24 views(description later)Ginolerhino
Caesarea Paneas Marc Aurèle.jpg
Caesarea Paneas (Baniyas, Israel) - Marcus Aurelius20 views[...] AN TωNE[INOC] , laureate bust right
[...] / KAICAP / ΠANIA / ΔOC in wreath
15 mm
Ginolerhino
Caligula_Three_Siste.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 14 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.
Gary W2
Caligula_Three_Siste~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius61 viewsC CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT - Laureate head left
AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA - AGRIPPINA DRVSILLA IVLIA, the three sisters of Caligula standing, in the guises of Securitas, Concordia, and Fortuna, S C (senatus consulto) in exergue
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (37-38AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.88g / 35.6mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 33
BMCRE p. 152, 36
BnF II 47
Cohen I 4
SRCV I 1800
Provenances:
Forvm Ancient Coins
Acquisition/Sale: Forvm Ancient Coins Internet

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

From Numismatica Ars Classica:
Many aspects of Caligula's reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula's sisters.
Caligula's incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of scepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior, as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla, Caligula's favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess, providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace worsened after Drusilla's death and Caligula's affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula's lover. After Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of 'three sisters' sestertii, the production of which Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having plotted against his life.

From Wikisource:
It is easy to understand why the peace and harmony which had been reestablished for a moment in the troubled imperial family by the advent of Caligula should have been of brief duration. His grandmother and his sisters were Romans, educated in Roman ideals, and this exotic madness of his could inspire in them only an irresistible horror. This brought confusion into the imperial family, and after having suffered the persecutions of Sejanus and his party, the unhappy daughters of Germanicus found themselves in the toils of the exacting caprices of their brother. In fact, in 38, Caligula had already broken with his grandmother, whom the year before he had had proclaimed Augusta; and between the years 38 and 39, catastrophes followed one another in the family with frightful rapidity. His sister Drusilla, whom, as Suetonius tells us, he already treated as a lawful wife, died suddenly of some unknown malady while still very young. It is not improbable that her health may have been ruined by the horror of the wild adventure, which was neither human nor Roman, into which her brother sought to drag her by marriage. Caligula suddenly declared her a goddess, to whom all the cities must pay honors. He had a temple built for her, and appointed a body of twenty priests, ten men and ten women, to celebrate her worship; he decreed that her birthday should be a holiday, and he wished the statue of Venus in the Forum to be carved in her likeness.

But in proportion as Caligula became more and more fervid in this adoration of his dead sister, the disagreement between himself and his other two sisters became more embittered. Julia Livilla was exiled in 38; Agrippina, the wife of Domitius Enobarbus°, in 39, and about this same time the venerable Antonia died. It was noised about that Caligula had forced her to commit suicide, and that Agrippina and Livilla had taken part in a conspiracy against the life of the emperor. How much truth there may be in these reports it is difficult to say, but the reason for all these catastrophes may be affirmed with certainty. Life in the imperial palace was no longer possible, especially for women, with this madman who was transforming Rome into Alexandria and who wished to marry a sister. Even Tiberius, the son of Drusus and co-heir to the empire with Caligula, was at about this time defeated in some obscure suit and disappeared.

Many aspects of Caligula’s reign have captured the imagination of historians, but the sexual relationships he is said to
have pursued with his sisters is perhaps most shocking of all. It is on par with the exploits of Elagabalus or the alleged
seduction of young Nero by his deranged mother Agrippina Jr., who, by no mere coincidence, was one of Caligula’s
sisters.
Caligula’s incestuous relationships with his sisters are alleged by the relatively contemporary historians Suetonius and
Josephus. Much later, in the fourth and fifth centuries, these original claims were echoed by various writers, including
Eutropius, Aurelius Victor, St. Jerome, Orosius and the anonymous compiler of the Epitome de caesaribus. The truth of
the claims, of course, is impossible to confirm, and there is a healthy dose of skepticism among modern scholars.
Whatever personal or sexual affection Caligula may have felt toward his sisters, this coinage is purely political and
dynastic in flavour. His sisters are each named and are shown in the guise of personifications: the eldest, Agrippina Junior,
as Securitas, the middle-sister, Drusilla, as Concordia, and the youngest, Julia Livilla, as Fortuna.
This remarkable type was produced on two occasions, his initial coinage of 37-38, and again in 39-40. The example
offered here belongs to the first coinage, which was issued when all three of the imperial women were alive. Drusilla,
Caligula’s favourite sister (and the one with whom he is said to have had an enduring incestuous relationship), died
tragically on June 10, 38, nearly three months after the last coins of the initial issue were struck.
By the time the last issue was produced (beginning March 18, 39), Drusilla had been accorded the status of a goddess,
providing the curious circumstance of a goddess being portrayed in the guise of a personification. Life in the palace
worsened after Drusilla’s death and Caligula’s affection for his remaining two sisters declined.
The circumstances reported by the ancient sources are nothing short of bizarre: Drusilla had been married to Marcus
Aemilius Lepidus, who had also been Caligula’s lover. At least after Drusilla died, Lepidus extended his sexual liaisons to
include Agrippina and Julia Livilla, his former sisters-in-law. By late in 39 this web of relationships seems to have evolved
into a failed plot by Lepidus against Caligula, who executed Lepidus and sent his two sisters into exile out of their
suspected complicity.
All of this palace intrigue occurred in the midst of the second issue of ‘three sisters’ sestertii, the production of which
Caligula probably halted immediately since of the three sisters shown, one was dead and two were in exile for having
plotted against his life.

Per RIC-Rare
3 commentsGary W2
Caligula_Sestertius_29_13g,_35mm,_6h.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius58 viewsC•CAESAR•AVG•GERMANICVS•PON•M•TR•POT - Laureate head left
S•P•Q•R / P•P / OB•CIVES / SERVATOS - Legend within wreath
Mint: Rome (37-38 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 29.13g / 35mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 37
BMCRE 38
Cohen 24
BN 50
Provenances:
Roma Numismatics
Ex L. Rose Collection.
Acquisition/Sale: Roma Numismatics Internet E-Sale 61 #631 $0.00 08/19
Notes: Aug 22, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.

DAMNATIO MEMORIAE: This coin seems to have suffered a 'Damnatio Memoriae'. It looks as if the portrait has been gouged on the jaw and a cut applied from Caligula's left cheek and across his lips. In addition, the two "C"s in the obverse legend have been erased. The firsr stood for Caligula's name, Gaius and the second for Caesar. Interestingly, the ancient writers said that on his assassination, the first strike to Caligula was to his jaw or neck/shoulder areas. Damnatio memoriae is a modern Latin phrase meaning "condemnation of memory", i.e., that a person is to be excluded from official accounts.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-8hDqgyvl4MzVjv-Agrippina.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (Agrippina I)9 viewsAGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI - Bust of Agrippina the Elder, right, her hair falling in queue down her neck
SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE - Carpentum, with ornamented cover and sides, drawn right by two mules
Mint: Rome (37-41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.00g / 34mm / 180
Rarity: Common
References:
RIC 1-Gaius 55
Trillmich Group II; BMCRE 81-5 (Caligula)
BN 128 (Caligula)
BMCRE 86-7 (Caligula)
Cohen 1
Acquisition/Sale: sesterc1975 Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Caligula's mother.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

Agrippina Sr.,one of the most tragically unfortunate women of Roman history. Agrippina was destined to achieve the highest possible status that did not happen. In 29AD she was deprived of her freedom, and in 33AD of life itself. This sestertii dedicated to Agrippina was produced by her son Caligula, The inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory of Agrippina.

Of this coin, minted at Rome, in gold and silver, Agrippina occupies the most distinguished place, namely the obverse side. She styles herself (by implication) the wife of Claudius, and, in direct terms, the mother of Nero; as though the government of the empire had been in her hands, and her son only Caesar. It is on this account that Tacitus (Ann. 23), asks -- What help is there in him, who is governed by a woman? It is not to be wondered at therefore, adds Vaillant, if the oaken garland was decreed to this woman and to her son, as it had already been to Caligula and to Claudius, ob cives servatos, by the Senate, whom she assembled in the palace, where she sat discreetly veiled. Praest. Num. Impp. ii. 60.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar.” On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

Three issues of sestertii were struck in honour of Agrippina Senior, one of the most tragically unfortunate women of
Roman history. She began life as a favoured member of the Julio-Claudian family during the reign of her grandfather
Augustus, and upon her marriage to Livia’s grandson Germanicus, she seemed destined to achieve the highest possible
status.
However, upon the death of Augustus and the accession of Tiberius, her life took a turn for the worse: supreme power had
shifted from the bloodlines of the Julii to the Claudii. Though her marriage represented and ideal union of Julian and
Claudian, it was not destined to survive Tiberius’ reign. Germanicus died late in 19 under suspicious circumstances, after
which Agrippina devoted the next decade of her life to openly opposing Tiberius until in 29 he deprived her of freedom,
and in 33 of life itself.
The sestertii dedicated to Agrippina are easily segregated. The first, produced by her son Caligula, shows on its reverse a
carpentum; the second, issued by her brother Claudius, shows SC surrounded by a Claudian inscription, and the third is
simply a restoration of the Claudian type by Titus, on which the reverse inscription is instead dedicated to that emperor.
Though both Caligula and Claudius portrayed Agrippina, each did so from their own perspective, based upon the nature of
their relationship with her. The inscription on Caligula’s coin, AGRIPPINA M F MAT C CAESARIS AVGVSTI, describes
her as the daughter of Marcus (Agrippa) and the mother of Gaius (Caligula). While Claudius also identifies her as
Agrippa’s daughter, his inscription ends GERMANICI CAESARIS, thus stressing her role as the wife of his brother
Germanicus. It is also worth noting that on the issue of Caligula Agrippina has a slender profile like that of her son,
whereas on Claudius’ sestertii her face is more robust, in accordance with his appearance.
The carpentum reverse is not only a superbly executed type, but has a foundation in the recorded events of the day.
Suetonius (Gaius 15) describes the measures taken by Caligula to honour his family at the outset of his reign, which
included gathering the ashes of his mother and brothers, all victims of persecution during the reign of Tiberius. Upon
returning to Rome, Caligula, with his own hands, transferred to an urn his mother’s ashes “with the utmost reverence”; he
then instituted Circus games in her honour, at which “…her image would be paraded in a covered carriage.”
There can be little doubt that the carpentum on this sestertius relates to the special practice initiated by Caligula. The
inscription, SPQR MEMORIAE AGRIPPINAE, is itself dedicatory from the Senate and the Roman people to the memory
of Agrippina.
Gary W2
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree6 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chærea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prætorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chærea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chærea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chærea. Chærea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chærea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chærea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chærea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chærea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chærea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chærea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chærea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of having spoken injurious words against the emperor. Propedius denied that he had ever spoken such words. The accuser, whose name was Timidius, cited a certain Quintilia, an actress, as his witness. Propedius was accordingly brought to trial, and Quintilia was called upon before the judges to give her testimony. She denied that she had ever heard Propedius utter any such sentiment as Timidius attributed to him. Timidius then said that Quintilia was testifying falsely: he declared that she had heard Propedius utter such words, and demanded that she should be put to the torture to compel her to acknowledge it. The emperor acceded to this demand, and commanded Chærea to put the actress to the torture.

It is, of course, always difficult to ascertain the precise truth in respect to such transactions as those that are connected with plots and conspiracies against tyrants, since every possible precaution is, of course, taken by all concerned to conceal what is done. It is probable, however, in this case, that Propedius had cherished some hostile designs against Caligula, if he had not uttered injurious words, and that Quintilia was in some measure in his confidence. It is even possible that Chærea may have been connected with them in some secret design, for it is said that when he received the orders of Caligula to put Quintilia to the torture he was greatly agitated and alarmed. If he should apply the torture severely, he feared that the unhappy sufferer might be induced to make confessions or statements at least, which would bring destruction on the men whom he most relied upon for the overthrow of Caligula. On the other hand, if he should attempt to spare her, the effect would be only to provoke the anger of Caligula against himself, without at all shielding or saving her. As, however, he was proceeding to the place of torture, in charge of his victim, with hi