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Search results - "Romulus"
philip_I_wolf.jpg
37 viewsPHILIP I THE ARAB (244–249). Antoninianus. Rome.
Obv: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SAECVLARES AVGG / II. She-wolf standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus.
RIC 15.
Ex Numismatik Lanz auction 40 (1987) Lot 783.
Weight: 5.5 g.
Diameter: 23 mm.
paul1888
roma__comemmoreative_she_woof.jpg
85 viewsROMA Commermorative 33.3-334 ap.J-C
Obv. VRBS ROMA, buste casqué et cuirassé à gauche.
Rev: louve allaitant Romulus and Remus, au-dessus de deux étoiles.
Marque d'atelier:
18mm.,1,85g .,patine foncee
Heraclea
RIC VII 143 Urbs Roma Commemorative AE Reduced Follis. VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust left / She-wolf standing left, suckling twins, two stars above. Mintmark SMH officina letter and star. _1318

Antonivs Protti
urbs_roma_1.jpg
9 viewsCommemorative Series 330-354 Follis URBS ROMA She-wolf Romulus RemusBritanikus
RI_161ae_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC VII Siscia 22269 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Siscia (//Gamma SIS).
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 222
2 commentsmaridvnvm
vrbs1s.jpg
City Commemorative, RIC VII 187 Thessalonica, AE 324 viewsObverse:VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak. Plume on front of helmet.
Reverse:She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, O on wolf's shoulder, 2 stars above.
Mintmark SMTS epsilon, 16.1 mm., 2.5 g.
Ref: RIC VII Thessalonica 187

Notes: This variation with O on wolf's shoulder
NORMAN K
cc249.jpg
City Commemorative, RIC VII 249 Siscia18 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA: helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak, plume on front of helmet.
Reverse: no legend. She wolf standing left suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. 2 stars above.
Mintmark SIS Siscia, 18.55 mm., 2.0 g.
Ref: RIC VII 249
NORMAN K
rjb_2009_09_07.jpg
Romulus8 viewsRomulus
Ostia mint
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//MOSTT
RIC (VI) Ostia 59
mauseus
00017x00~0.jpg
27 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.81 g, 6 h)
Roma seated left, holding Victory and spear
She-wolf standing left, head right, suckling the twins Remus and Romulus
Rostowzew 1661, pl. VII 71; Turcan 573
Ardatirion
a_pius_shewolf_2.jpg
(0138) ANTONINUS PIUS31 views138 - 161 AD
Struck 140 - 144 AD
AE Sestertius 31/32 mm, 27.79 g
O: Laureate head right
R: --COS III" She-wolf in cave standing right with head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, S-C in ex
(struck to commemorate 900th year of founding of Rome)
Rome mint ;, RIC III 603b Banti 86. (scarce)
1 commentslaney
commodus_phillip_b_res.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--PHILIPPOPOLIS55 views177 - 192 AD
AE 20 mm 4.7 g
O: Laureate, draped bust right
R: She-wolf, right, suckling twins Romulus and Remus
Philippopolis
laney
normal_commodus_phillip_b_res~0.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--PHILIPPOPOLIS27 views177 - 192 AD
AE 20 mm 4.7 g
O: Laureate, draped bust right
R: She-wolf, right, suckling twins Romulus and Remus
Philippopolis
laney
commodus_phil_shewolf_B.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--PHILIPPOPOLIS26 views177 - 192 AD
AE 20 mm 4.7 g
O: Laureate, draped bust right
R: She-wolf, right, suckling twins Romulus and Remus
Philippopolis
laney
sept_sev_shewolf_res.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS30 views193-211 AD
Æ 17 mm; 2.57 g
O: Laureate head of Septimius Severus right
R: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus.
Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum.
laney
septimius_shewolf.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS31 views193-211 AD
Æ 17 mm; 2.57 g
O: Laureate head of Septimius Severus right
R: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus.
Moesia Inferior, Nicopolis ad Istrum; Varbanov 2539 var. (she-wolf right)
laney
tranq_deult_wolf_-_Copyb.jpg
(0241) TRANQUILLINA25 views(wife of Gordian III)
241-244 AD
AE 7.108g, 23.7mm max.
O: SAB TRANQVILLINA AVG, draped bust right, wearing stephane, elaborate hairstyle with hair in ridges, and in plait looped below her ear and then up the back of her head;
R: COL FL PA-C, DEVLT (starting above, ending in exergue), she-wolf standing right, head turned back left, suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus
Thrace, Deultum (Debelt, Bulgaria) mint
Jurukova Deultum 414; SNG Deultum 1526 (O148/R67); Draganov Deultum 1527a (O148/R67);
Varbanov II 2957 (R4); Moushmov 3744; MPR II-4 2083um
(ex Forum)
laney
urbs_roma.jpg
*SOLD*41 viewsConstantine the Great
City Commemorative (VRBS ROMA)

Attribution: RIC VI 561, Trier
Date: AD 333-335
Obverse: VRBS ROMA; helmeted and cuirassed bust l.
Reverse: She-wolf stg. l. suckling Romulus and Remus; above palm between two stars, TRP in exergue
Size: 18.6 mm
Weight: 2,03 grams
Noah
Roma-Heraclea-1.jpg
..SMHε.87 viewsAE3/4 Follis, 2.42 g, 17 mm, 11 h

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic

She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 2 stars above

Exergue: ..SMHε.

Heraclea mint

RIC VII 134
drjbca
UR .SMHE.jpg
.SMHε59 viewsAE3/4 Follis, 2.48 g, 17 mm, 6 h, 330-333 AD

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic
She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 2 stars above

Exergue: .SMHε

Heraclea mint

RIC VII 119
drjbca
0010-010np_noir.jpg
0030 - Republic, Didrachm198 viewsRome mint c. 269-266 BC
No legend, Diademed head of young Hercules right, with club and lion's skin over shoulder
ROMANO, She wolf right, suckling Romulus and Remus
7.29 gr
Ref : RCV # 24, RSC # 8
6 commentsPotator II
0187.jpg
0187 - Denarius Pompeia 137 BC67 viewsObv/Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, jug; before, X.
Rev/She-wolf suckling twins Romulus and Remus; behind, ficus Ruminalis with birds and to the l. Faustulus; around, SEX PO FOSTLVS; in ex., ROMA.

Ag, 20.6mm, 3.74g
Moneyer: Sextus Pompeius Fostlus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 235/1c [dies o/r: 127/159 (all var.)] - BMCRR Rome 927 - Pompeia 1 - Syd. 461a
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction e6, lot 80
1 commentsdafnis
072_Gordianus-III_AE-22_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_COL-FL-PAC-DEVLT_Deultum-Thrace-_AD_Q-001_7h_22,0-22,5mm_6,62g-s.jpg
072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Thrace, Deultum, Jurukova 294, AE-22, COL FL PA C DEVLT, She wolf,157 views072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Thrace, Deultum, Jurukova 294, AE-22, COL FL PA C DEVLT, She wolf,
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian-III right.
revers:- COL-FL-PA-C-DEVLT, Lupa Romana standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus.
exe: -/-//DEVLT, diameter: 22,0-22,5mm, weight: 6,62g, axis:7h,
mint: Thrace, Deultum, date: A.D., ref:Draganov 1390-2 (O97/R64); Jurukova 294.
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Philippus-I__IMP-PHILIPPVS-AVG_SAECVLARES--AVGG_II_RIC-015_C-178_Q-001_21-23mm_0_00g-s.jpg
074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0015, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, -/-//II, SAECVLARES AVG G, She-wolf, Romulus and Remus, #179 views074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0015, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, -/-//II, SAECVLARES AVG G, She-wolf, Romulus and Remus, #1
avers:- IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SAECVLARES AVG G, She-wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus.
exergo: -/-//II, diameter: 21.5-24,5 mm, weight: 4,21g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 248 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-015, p-70, RSC-178, Sear 2570,
Q-001
This was minted to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of the founding of Rome, which was celebrated on April 21st, A.D. 248.
quadrans
RI 077v img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 08546 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, Severus Alexander, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P VII COS II P P, Romulus advancing right with spear & trophy
References:– RIC 85, RSC 351
maridvnvm
RI_077au_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander, Sestertius - RIC 62623 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG, laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder
Rev:– VIRTVS AVGVSTI S-C, Romulus advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Rome. 228 A.D.
Reference:– Cohen 590. RIC 626.

26.72g, 32.15mm, 0o
1 commentsmaridvnvm
0010-053.jpg
0899 - S. Pompeius Fostlus, Denarius70 viewsRome mint, 137 BC
Helmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, jug behind head
SEX PO [FOSTLVS] She wolf suckling Remus and Romulus, fig tree in background, the shepherd Faustulus behind. ROMA at exergue
3,73 gr
Ref : RCV # 112 var, RSC Pompeia # 1a, Crawford # 235/1c
2 commentsPotator II
Tituria1DenSabines.jpg
0a Abduction of the Sabines21 viewsL Titurius Sabinus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Head of Tativs, right, SABIN behind
Two Roman soldiers bearing women

Seaby, Tituria 1

When the hour for the games had come, and their eyes and minds were alike riveted on the spectacle before them, the preconcerted signal was given and the Roman youth dashed in all directions to carry off the [Sabine] maidens who were present. The larger part were carried off indiscriminately, but some particularly beautiful girls who had been marked out for the leading patricians were carried to their houses by plebeians told off for the task. One, conspicuous amongst them all for grace and beauty, is reported to have been carried off by a group led by a certain Talassius, and to the many inquiries as to whom she was intended for, the invariable answer was given, "For Talassius." Hence the use of this word in the marriage rites. Alarm and consternation broke up the games, and the parents of the maidens fled, distracted with grief, uttering bitter reproaches on the violators of the laws of hospitality and appealing to the god to whose solemn games they had come, only to be the victims of impious perfidy. The abducted maidens were quite as despondent and indignant. Romulus, however, went round in person, and pointed out to them that it was all owing to the pride of their parents in denying right of intermarriage to their neighbours. They would live in honourable wedlock, and share all their property and civil rights, and - dearest of all to human nature - would be the mothers of freemen. He begged them to lay aside their feelings of resentment and give their affections to those whom fortune had made masters of their persons. An injury had often led to reconciliation and love; they would find their husbands all the more affectionate, because each would do his utmost, so far as in him lay, to make up for the loss of parents and country. These arguments were reinforced by the endearments of their husbands, who excused their conduct by pleading the irresistible force of their passion - a plea effective beyond all others in appealing to a woman's nature.

The feelings of the abducted maidens were now pretty completely appeased, but not so those of their parents.

Livy, History of Rome 1.9-1.10
1 commentsBlindado
ANTOSE86a.jpg
1. Aeneas travels from Troy to Italy 47 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Sestertius (24.15g, Ø 33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev.: S C [left and right in field], Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloac, advancing right, carrying Anchises on left shoulder and holding Ascanius by right hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum in left hand. RIC 627[R2], BMCRE 1292, Cohen 761; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali) 373 (4 specimens); Foss 57b.

This sestertius was issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in A.D.147.
The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Ilium, as the Romans called Troy, with Ascanius and Anchises. According to Vergil (Aeneid, Book 2), Aeneas, the son of the goddess Venus and the Trojan Anchises, fled with some remnants of the inhabitants of Troy as it fell to the Greeks, taking with him his son, Ascanius, his elderly father, Anchises, and the Palladium, the ancient sacred statue of Athena. The Trojans eventually made their way west to resettle in Italy. There they intermarried with the local inhabitants and founded the town of Lavinium, and thereby became the nucleus of the future Roman people. One of the descendants of Aeneas' son Ascanius (known now as Iulus) was Rhea Silvia, mother of Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome. The mythological depictions on this coin reinforce the importance of Ilium, not only as the seedbed of the future Roman people, but also as the mother city of the future caput mundi.
Charles S
Personajes_Imperiales_10.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire46 viewsSeverus II, Maxentius, Romulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Alexander, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Valerius Valens, Licinius II, Crispus and Martinianusmdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_10~0.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire43 viewsRomulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Licinius II, Crispus, Constantine II, Delmatius, Hanibalianus, Constans and Constantius II.

mdelvalle
rjb_2009_12_05.jpg
11711 viewsHadrian 117-38 AD
AR denarius
Obv "HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP"
Laureate bust right
Rev "ROMVLO CONDITORI"
Romulus walking right holding spear and trophy
Rome mint
RIC 266
mauseus
118.jpg
118 Romulus. AE follis 6.1gm31 viewsobv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS LAUR HEAD R.
rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE domed shrine with r. dor ajar, surmounted by eagle
ex: RBP
1 commentshill132
122c.jpg
122c Urbs roma. AE follis 2.4gm20 viewsobv: VRBS ROMA helm an mantled bust of Roma l.
rev: she wolf std. l. head r. suckling twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above
ex: *PLG
"City commerative struck in honor of Rome, alluding to the founding with the emagery of the she-wolf and twins"
hill132
122d.jpg
122d Urbs Roma. AE follis 3.0gm25 viewsobv: VRBS ROMA helm. mantled bust of Roma l.
rev: she-wolf std. l. head straight, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above
ex: TR.S
"City commemorative"
hill132
122e.jpg
122e Urbs Roma. AE follis 2.9gm22 viewsobv: VRBS ROMA helm and mantled bust of Roma l.
rev: she-wolf std. l. head r. suckling the twins Romulus and Remus
ex: PLG
"city commemorative"
hill132
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.68 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Rep_AR-Den_Sex_Pompeius_Helm-head-of-Roma_r_behind-jug-before-X_She-wolf-r__SEX-PO_ex-ROMA_Crawford-235-1_Syd-461a_Rome_137-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_17-19,5mm_3,73g-s.jpg
137 B.C., Sextus Pompeius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 235/1, Rome, Wolf standing right, #179 views137 B.C., Sextus Pompeius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 235/1, Rome, Wolf standing right, #1
avers: Head of Roma, X below the chin, jug behind.
reverse: SEX POMP FOSTLVS, Wolf standing right, head turned, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, shepherd to left, birds on fig tree behind, ROMA in ex.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 17-19,5mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 137 B.C., ref: Crawford 235-1, Syd-461a, Pompeia 1.,
Q-001
quadrans
Faust.jpg
137 BC Sextus Pompeius59 viewsHelmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, jug behind

FOSTLVS SEX POM
ROMA in Ex.
She-wolf standing rightsuckling the twins Romulus and Remus, fig tree in background with three birds, the shepherd Faustulus standing right behind

Rome 137 BC
Sear 112
CRR 461

ex-ANE

This moneyer was the husband of Lucilia (sister of the poet C. Lucilius) and father to Cn. Pompeius Sex. f Strabo, and grandfather of Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great). He may also have been praetor in 119 BC.
2 commentsJay GT4
antpius_RIC143d.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 158-159 AD64 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST COS IIII (octastyle temple [8 columns] in which the statues of Augustus and Livia reside)
ref: RIC III 143D (R), Cohen 809 (8frcs)
3.01 gms, 18mm,
Rare

History: The Temple of Divus Augustus was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design (see my Caligula sestertius). During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus.
It was restored again in the late 150s by Antoninus Pius, who was perhaps motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple was an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's origin-myth. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
1 commentsberserker
RI_153a_img.jpg
153 - Romulus - Follis - RIC VI Ostia 33 15 viewsFollis
Obv:- IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLO N V FILIO, bare headed bust of Romulus right
Rev:- AETERNA MEMORIA, eagle with spread winfs standing right on domed hexastyle temple, its’ right door ajar
Struck in Ostia. //MOSTP. ca. late 309 – 312 A.D.
References:- RIC VI Ostia 33 (Rated C)

24.13mm. 6.21 gms. 180 degrees,
maridvnvm
RI_161ay_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 24226 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. PLG in exe.
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 242 (R2).
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 161g img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 247 21 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. • PLG in exe. A.D. 332
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 247 (R1).
maridvnvm
RI 161e img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 24714 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. • SLG in exe. A.D. 332
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 247 (R1). Bastien XIII 237 (23)
maridvnvm
RI_161r_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 24743 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. • PLG in exe. A.D. 332
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 247 (R1).
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_161q_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 24726 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum (•SLG). A.D. 332
Reference(s) – Bastien XIII 237 (23). RIC VII Lyons 247 (R3).
maridvnvm
RI_161ak_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 24722 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum (•SLG). A.D. 332
Reference(s) – Bastien XIII 237 (23). RIC VII Lyons 247 (R3).
maridvnvm
RI 161m img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 25736 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. • in crescent PLG in exe. A.D. 331
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 257 (R2). Bastien XIII 221 (62 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 161c img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 26734 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. *PLG in exe
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 267 (R3). Bastien Vol. XIII 253.
maridvnvm
RI 161f img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 26727 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum. *SLG in exe. A.D. 334-335
Reference:– RIC Lugdunum 267 (R3). Bastien XIII 259 (17 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_161s_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lugdunum 26718 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum (*PLG). A.D. 333-334
Reference(s) – Bastien XIII 253 (36). RIC 267 (R3).
maridvnvm
RI_161ao_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Lyons 267 19 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– None, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Lugdunum (*SLG). A.D. 334-335
Reference:– Bastien XIII 259. RIC VII Lyons 267 (R3)
maridvnvm
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161 - Commemorative - RIC Thessalonica 18745 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Thessalonica. SMTSE in exe
Reference:– RIC Thessalonica 187
maridvnvm
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161 - Commemorative - RIC Trier 547 13 viewsObv: Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev: She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Trier (//TRP*).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 547
maridvnvm
RI_161aq_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC Trier 54714 viewsObv: Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev: She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Trier (//TR dot P).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 547
maridvnvm
RI_161af_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC VII Constantinople 7822 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Constantinople (//CONSE•).
Reference:– RIC VII Constantinople 78 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI_161ai_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC VII Rome 35427 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Rome (//R Wreath Q).
Reference:– RIC VII Rome 354 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_161av_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC VII Siscia 22238 viewsAE3
Obv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Siscia (//Gamma SIS).
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 222
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_161ag_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative - RIC VII Trier 54715 viewsObv:– VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev:– –, She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Trier (//TRP*).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 547
maridvnvm
RI_161aj_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative Issues - AE3 - RIC VII Arles 36816 viewsObv: Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev: She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Arles (Three armed Palm Branch //SCONST).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 368 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI_161ah_img.jpg
161 - Commemorative Issues - AE3 - RIC VII Arles 39218 viewsObv: Helmeted bust of Roma left
Rev: She wolf feeding Romulus and Remus, two stars above
Minted in Arles (Pine Tree //PCONST).
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 392 (R4)
maridvnvm
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1er Emission - VIRTVS . AEQVIT15 viewsIMP POSTVMVS AVG
VIRTVS . AEQVIT
Cunetio ...
RIC ...
Elmer ...
AGK 108
PYL
coins127.JPG
201a. Julia Domna11 viewsVesta

Vesta was introduced in Rome by King Numa Pompilius. She was a native Roman deity (some authors suggest received from the Sabine cults), sister of Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera and Demeter, and presumably the daughter of Saturn and Ops (or Rea). However, the similarity with the cult of Greek Hestia is notable. Vesta too protected familial harmony and the res publica. Apollo and Neptune had asked for her in marriage, but she refused both, preferring to preserve her virginity, whose symbol was the perpetually lit fire in her circular fane next to the Forum which the Romans always distinguished from a temple by calling it her "house".

As Goddess of the Hearth she was the symbol of the home, around which a newborn child must be carried before it could be received into the family. Every meal began and ended with an offering to her:

Vesta, in all dwellings of men and immortals
Yours is the highest honor, the sweet wine offered
First and last at the feast, poured out to you duly.
Never without you can gods or mortals hold banquet.

Landscape with Vesta temple in Tivoli, Italy, c. 1600.Each city too had a public hearth sacred to Vesta, where the fire was never allowed to go out. If a colony was to be founded, the colonists carried with them coals from the hearth of the mother-city with which to kindle the fire on the new city's hearth.

The fire was guarded by her priestesses, the Vestales. Every March 1 the fire was renewed. It burned until 391, when the Emperor Theodosius I forbade public pagan worship. One of the Vestales was Rea Silvia, who with Mars conceived Romulus and Remus (see founding of Rome).

3070. Silver denarius, RIC 538, RSC 221, VF, 2.30g, 17.5mm, 0o, Rome mint, 193-196 A.D.; obverse IVLIA DOMNA AVG, draped bust right; reverse VESTA, Vesta seated left, holding palladium and scepter. Ex Forum
ecoli
22040.jpg
22040 Constantine 1/VRBS Roma19 viewsConstantine I/VRBS ROMA
Obv:VRBS ROMA
Helmeted with Plume facing left
REV:
She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus.
Two stars above
Mint:Trier 16.4mm and 2.1g
330-331 AD
RIC VII Trier 529; Sear 16487

Thanks to djmacdo for helping identify the mint.
Blayne W
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22052 Gallienus Wolf41 viewsGallienus/Shewolf
Obv: IMP LICIN GALLIENV
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev COL AVG-TRO
She-wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus.

Alexandreia, Troas 20.2 mm 4.62 g
Bellinger 459; SNG Cop 200-201; BMC 184; Lindgren I A343A
4 commentsBlayne W
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266 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Romulus31 viewsReference
RIC 266d; c. 1316

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P.
Laureate head right.

Rev. ROMVLO CONDITORI
Romulus advancing right, holding spear and trophy.

3.45 gr
18 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
Anto3Rhea_Mars.jpg
3. Mars descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia48 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. As. Rome mint. Struck 140-144 AD. Obv.: [ANTO]NINVS - AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right. Rev.: TR POT COS [III around] S C [in field], Mars holding spear and shield descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia.

This coin was struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in 147 AD. According to Titus Livius (59BC to AD17) account of the legend, Rhea Silva was the daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa and descendant of Aeneas. Numitor's younger brother Amulius seized the throne and killed Numitor's son. Amulius forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, a priestess to the goddess Vesta, so that the line of Numitor would have no heirs; Vestal Virgins were sworn to celibacy for a period of thirty years. Rhea Silvia claimed that the god Mars, however, came upon her and seduced her in the forest, thereby conceiving the twins Romulus and Remus. When Amulius learned of this, he imprisoned Rhea Silvia. (In another version of the story, he ordered her to be thrown into the Tiber, where she fell into the arms of the river god who married her.) Legend continued on "Wolf suckling twins"...
Charles S
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30915 viewsRomulus d. 309 AD
AE Follis
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//RBS
Rome Mint
RIC (VI) Rome 207
mauseus
rjb_fol11_01_09.jpg
30914 viewsRomulus d. 309 AD
AE Quarter Follis
Obv: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Head right
Rev: AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Domed temple with open doors, eagle on roof
-/-//MOSTT
Ostia Mint
RIC (VI) Ostia 59
mauseus
30k-Roma-Ant-091.jpg
30k. Roma commemorative: Antioch.37 viewsAE3, 330 - 335, Antioch mint.
Obverse: VRBS ROMA / Helmeted bust of Roma, facing left.
Reverse: Wolf with Romulus and Remus, two stars above. Unidentified shoulder mark on wolf.
Mint mark: SMANΘ
3.14 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #91; LRBC #1359; Sear #16526.
1 commentsCallimachus
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30m. Roma commemorative: Arelate.24 viewsAE3, 335, Arelate (Constantina) mint.
Obverse: VRBS ROMA / Helmeted bust of Roma, facing left.
Reverse: She-wolf with Romulus and Remus.
Mint mark: PCONST, two stars above with "pine tree" between.
2.56 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #392; LRBC #396; Sear #16500.
Callimachus
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319. Probus23 viewsProbus AE Antoninianus. Siscia, 280 AD. IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right / ORIGINI AVG, she-Wolf standing right, feeding Romulus and Remus, XXIT in ex. Cohen 394. Ric 703

Very uncleaned.
ecoli
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33. Severus Alexander year VII.9 viewsDenarius, 228 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P VII COS II P P / Romulus, bareheaded, walking, holding a spear and trophy.
2.52 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #85; Sear #7906.

Romulus is not a common reverse type. The identification of a bareheaded man walking, and holding a spear and trophy as Romulus, apparently comes from a sestertius of Antoninus Pius also inscribed ROMVLO AVGVSTO. Mars is often portrayed this way, but he is always helmeted.
Callimachus
City-comm-heraclea_RIC_129.jpg
330-334 AD - City Commemorative - Heraclea mint226 viewsUrbs Roma commemorative AE3. 330-334 AD. VRBS ROMA, helmeted cuirassed bust of Roma left / she-wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus, *(3 vertical dots)* above, SMHe in ex.

RIC 129 rated R4
1 commentsjimwho523
35m-Roma-Ant-113.jpg
35m. Roma commemorative: Antioch.27 viewsAE 3/4, 335-37, Antioch mint.
Obverse: VRBS ROMA / Helmeted bust of Roma, facing left.
Reverse: She-wolf with Romulus and Remus.
Mint mark: SMANΘ, two stars above. Paw-print shoulder mark.
1.68 gm., 14.5 mm.
RIC #113; LRBC #1368; Sear #16526 note.
Callimachus
Anto4wolf.jpg
4. Wolf suckling twins42 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Sestertius (23.3g, 30-32mm, 12h) Rome mint. Struck 140-144 AD. Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P , laureate head right. Rev.: TR POT COS III [around edge] S C [in ex], wolf in a cave suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. RIC 650; BMC 1318-1321; Cohen 917; Sear (II) 1274.

Coin issued in preparation of the celebration of the 900th anniversary of Rome in the year 147 AD. Ancient Roman legend continued from "Mars descends on Rhea Silvia"... He ordered a servant to kill the twins. The servant however decided to set them adrift in the river Tiber. The Tiber, which had overflown, left the infants in a pool by the bank, where a female wolf, who had just lost her own cubs, suckled them. Subsequently, Tiberinus (or Faustulus) rescued the boys and they were raised by his wife Larentia. Romulus and Remus went on to overthrow Amulius, reinstating Numitor as King of Alba Longa. Legend to be continued...
Charles S
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408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Maxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.
ecoli
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408a. Romulus 30 viewsDivus Romulus, Quarter Follis. Struck late 309-312 AD. DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS C, bare head right / AETERNAE MEMORIAE, Eagle with wings spread standing right on domed shrine, MOSTQ in ex.1 commentsecoli
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42 BC L. Mussidius Longus132 viewsCONCORDIA
Veiled and diad. head of Concordia right star below chin

L. MVSSIDIVS LONGVS
Shrine of Venus Cloacina consisting of circular platform, inscribed CLOACIN, surmounted by two statues of the goddess

Rome
42 BC

3.42g
Sear 494, RRC 494/42

ex-Canadian Coin

In Roman mythology, Cloacina (Latin, cloaca: "sewer" or "drain") was the goddess who presided over the Cloaca Maxima the main sewer drain in Rome. The Cloaca Maxima is traditionally said to have beeen started by one of Rome's Etruscan kings, Tarquinius Priscus. Despite her Etruscan origins, she later became identified with Venus.

Titus Tatius, who reigned with Romulus, erected a statue to Cloacina as the spirit of the "Great Drain". As well as controlling sewers, she was also a protector of sexual intercourse in marriage. The Romans believed that a good sewage system was important for the success of Rome, as a good sewer system was necessary for the physical health of Roman citizens. Additionally, Romans worshipped Cloacina as the goddess of purity. Cloacina was worshipped as an aspect of Venus at the small Shrine of Venus Cloacina, located in front of the Basilica Aemilia in the Roman Forum and directly above the Cloaca Maxima. The depiction on the reverse of this coin is that shrine.

The image of Concordia could be interpreted to convey the thought of Unity between the triumvirs to defeat Brutus and Cassius. Venus Cloacina on the reverse conveys the thought of purification for the treacherous murder of the dictator Julius Caesar by men who claimed to be his friends.
4 commentsJay GT4
Anto5Tiber.jpg
5. Tiber, the river god62 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Sestertius (24.8g, 32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck 140-144 AD. Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PI - VS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right. Rev.: River god the Tiber reclining left, resting right hand on prow and holding reed in left.

Struck in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome celebrated in 147.
The Tiber plays a crucial role in ancient Roman legends: While sailing on the Tiber, Aeneas found the place where Rome should eventualy be built: A white sow with thirty piglets on the river bank; Rhea Silvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus, was thrown into the river to be drowned, and fell into the arms of the River god himself who married her; Romulus and Remus were saved by the Tiber who safely left the twins in a pool where they were rescued by a wolf.
2 commentsCharles S
Anto6Romulus.jpg
6. Romulus, founder of Rome49 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Sestertius (25.6g, 32-33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck 140-144. Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS - P P TR P COS III, laureate head right. Rev.: ROMVLO - AVGVSTO [around] S C [in field]. Rare. RIC 624; BMC 1286-1287; Cohen 704.

Issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome celebrated in 147 AD. This type refers to Romulus, the founder of Rome. He is depicted much like his father, the god Mars.

Legend continued from "Wolf suckling twins"... After reinstating their grandfather Numitor, Romulus and Remus decided to found their own town. Romulus started to build city walls on the Palatine Hill, but Remus made fun of him because they were so low. He jumped over them to make his point, which angered Romulus so much that he killed his brother. Romulus continued alone building the new city and named it ROMA, after his onw name.
1 commentsCharles S
AntoSeRIC644.jpg
8. Janus, first king of Italy, and inventor of civilisation65 viewsSestertius minted AD 140, Rome. 24.70g, Ø 32mm, 12h. RIC 644, Cohen 881, Foss 55
Obv.: ANTONINVS - AVG PIVS PP, laurate head right.
Rev.: TR POT COS III round edge SC in field, Janus standing facing, holding sceptre.
ex CNG eAuction 233 lot 335 (June 2010); ex the John Bitner Collection of Secular Games Coinage; ex Astarte XV (27 November 2004), lot 234.

Sestertius issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome, celebrated on 21 April 147.
Janus was believed to be first king of Italy, serving as both leader and teacher to all within his lands. In honor of his deeds, he was elevated to the status of a deity by the Romans, with Romulus himself, one of the mythical founders of Rome, building and dedicating the Temple of Janus.
2 commentsCharles S
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99 Romulus: Ostia follis.18 viewsFollis, 309 - 312 AD, Ostia mint.
Obverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLO N V FILIO / Bust of Romulus.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA / Domed hexastyle shrine, doors ajar, eagle on top.
Mint mark: MOSTP
5.87 gm., 25.5 mm.
RIC #33; PBCC #605; Sear #15045.
Callimachus
RIC_34_Follis_ROMULO_FORUM.jpg
A118-01 - ROMULO (309 - 312 D.C.)21 viewsAE Follis 16 mm 6,47 gr.
Hijo de Majencio y nieto de Galerio, muere a la edad de 14 años. A su muerte, fue deificado y su padre le dedicó el Templo del divo Rómulo en el Foro romano.

Anv: "DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS" – Cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "AETERNAE - MEMORIAE” – Águila estante a derecha, viendo a izquierda, sobre el domo de un templo con la puerta derecha abierta. "MOSTP" en exergo.

Acuñada 309 – 312 D.C.
Ceca: Ostia – (Ostia Antica, viejo puerto de Roma) -Italia

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Ostia) 34 Pag.404 - DVM #1 Pag.285 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7801.b Pag.93 – Cohen Vol.VII #6 Pag.183 - Sear RCTV IV #15050 Pag.356 - DROST #72 - Bauten S.26 f - Hill Monuments S.13 ff
mdelvalle
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A135-30 - Juliano II (360 - 363 D.C.)54 viewsAE1 Doble maiorina 27x29 mm 7.6 gr.

Anv: "DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS P F AVG" - Busto diademado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECVRITAS REI PVB" – Toro a la derecha, viendo al frente, arriba de la cabeza dos estrellas. "•HERACL•B" en exergo.

Este reverso puede representar al toro Ápis (Dios solar, de la fertilidad, y posteriormente de los muertos, en la mitología egipcia) una imagen de culto perdida que se redescubrió durante el reinado de Juliano II. Éste es el último tipo pagano en la acuñación romana.

Acuñada: 3 Nov. 361 – 26 Jun. 363 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Heraclea) #103B Pag.438 - Cohen Vol.VIII #38 Pag.48 - DVM #25 Pag.304 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8914.g.2 Pag.235 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4072 – G.Elmer “Die kupfergeldreform unter Julianus Philosophus” #83 – O.Voetter “Die münzen der romischen Kaiser vsw, von Diocletianus bis zum Romulus. Katalog der Sammlung Gerin” (Vienna, 1921) #4
mdelvalle
Doble_Maiorina_Juliano_II_RIC_224_1.jpg
A135-32 - Juliano II (360 - 363 D.C.)56 viewsAE1 Doble maiorina 28x27 mm 7.4 gr.

Anv: "DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS P F AVG" - Busto diademado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECVRITAS REI PVB" – Toro a la derecha, viendo al frente, arriba de la cabeza dos estrellas. "(Palma)TES Γ•" en exergo.

Este reverso puede representar al toro Ápis (Dios solar, de la fertilidad, y posteriormente de los muertos, en la mitología egipcia) una imagen de culto perdida que se redescubrió durante el reinado de Juliano II. Éste es el último tipo pagano en la acuñación romana.

Acuñada: 3 Nov. 361 – 26 Jun. 363 D.C.
Ceca: Thesalonica (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Thessalonica) #224 Pag.423 - Cohen Vol.VIII #38 Pag.48 - DVM #25 Pag.304 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8914.f Pag.234 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4072 – LRBC #1695 – O.Voetter “Die münzen der romischen Kaiser vsw, von Diocletianus bis zum Romulus. Katalog der Sammlung Gerin” (Vienna, 1921) #4
mdelvalle
sabinas.jpg
Abduction of the Sabine women.384 viewsAR denarius. 89 BC. 3,65 grs. Bare-headed, bearded head of King Tatius righ. TA (ligate) below chin. SABIN behind / Two Roman soldiers, each carrying off a sabine woman in his arms. L TITVRI in exergue.
Crawford 344/1a. RSC Tituria 1.

Livy. History of Rome. 1.9.
The Roman state had become strong enough to hold its own in war with all the peoples along its borders, but a shortage of women meant that its greatness was fated to last for a single generation, since there was no prospect of offspring at home nor any prospect of marriage with their neighbours. Then, in accordance with the decision of the senate, Romulus sent messengers to the neighbouring peoples to ask for alliance and the right of marriage for the new people: cities, like everything else, start small but later if their own excellence and the gods assist them, they grow in strength and in fame. It was certain that at the beginning of Rome the gods had been propitiated and that it would not lack in valour. Therefore, men should not disdain to join blood and family ties with other men.
But nowhere were the emissaries given a fair hearing. Some scorned, others feared the great power growing in their midst, both for themselves and for their descendants. In more than one place the emissaries were asked, even as they were being sent packing, why they hadn't offered asylum to women (criminals) too: that way they'd have had their marriage and with others of their own rank! The youth of Rome took this insult badly and began to think seriously about the use of force. Romulus, to gain time till he found the right occasion, hid his concern and prepared to celebrate the Consualia, the solemn games in honour of equestrian Neptune. He then ordered that the spectacle be announced to the neighbouring peoples. He gave the event great publicity by the most lavish means possible in those days. Many people came, some simply out of curiosity to see the new city, and especially the nearest neighbours, from Caenina, Crustuminum and Antemnae; the entire Sabine population came, wives and children included. Received with hospitality in the houses, after having seen the position of the city, its walls, and the large number of buildings, they marvelled that Rome had grown so fast. When it was time for the show, and everybody was concentrating on this, a prearranged signal was given and all the Roman youths began to grab the women. Many just snatched the nearest woman to hand, but the most beautiful had already been reserved for the senators and these were escorted to the senators' houses by plebeians who had been given this assignment. The story goes that one woman, far and away the most beautiful, was carried off by the gang of a certain Thalassius, and because many wanted to know where they were taking her, they repeatedly shouted that they were taking her to Thalassius, and that it how the nuptial cry came to be.

The party was over, and the grieving parents of the girls ran away, accusing the Romans of having violated the laws of hospitality and invoking the god who was supposed to have been honoured at that day's festival. Nor did the girls themselves hold much hope. But Romulus went among them in person to assure them that none of this would have happened if their fathers hadn't been so inflexible in not letting them marry their neighbours. But now they would have the status of wives with all the material rewards and civil rights of citizenship and they would have children, than which nothing is dearer. They should cool their anger and give their hearts to the men who had already taken their bodies. A good relationship often begins with an offence, he said. And their husbands would treat them with extra kindness in hope of making up for the parents and country they so missed. The men added their blandishments, saying that they'd been motivated by love and passion, entreaties which are very effective with women.

benito
479c.jpg
aelia106-14 viewsElagabalus
Aelia Capitolina, Judaea

Obv: IMP C M AVR ANTONINVS. Laureate draped bust right.
Rev: COL AEL C COM, → P F. She-wolf standing right, head forward, suckling Romulus and Remus.
24 mm, 10.00 gms

Sofaer 106
Charles M
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Aeneas210 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (25.15,33mm, 12h) Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
S C Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloac, advancing right, carrying Anchises on his left shoulder and holding Ascanius by the hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum in left hand.
RIC 627[R2], BMCRE 1292, Cohen 761; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali) 373 (4 specimens); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 128:57b

This issue is one of a series issued by Antoninus Pius in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome, figuring scenes from ancient Roman legends. The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Troy with Ascanius and Anchises. One of the descendants of Aeneas' son Ascanius (known now as Iulus) was Rhea Silvia, who, impregnated by the god Mars, gave birth to the twins, Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome.

ex John Jencek (2009)
Charles S
RPC_Alexander_Troas_Gallienus.jpg
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul). Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsBellinger A459; SNG Copenhagen 200-201; SNG München 138; SNG von Aulock 7576;
BMC Troas p. 132, 184.

AE unit, 5.29 g., 19.70 mm. max., 180°

Obv: IMP LICI GALLIENVS, laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.

Rev: COL AVG / TROA (in exergue), she-wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus.

Colonia Augusta Troas = The August Colony of Troas
2 commentsStkp
GRK_Troas_Alexandria_Caracalla.jpg
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul). Caracalla (Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus) (198 to 217 A.D.)23 viewsBellinger A306

AE, 8.16 g, 24.49 mm. max, 180°

Obv:__ M AV ANTONIN, laureate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: COL ALEXA, wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, AVG in exergue.
1 commentsStkp
Anonymous_176.JPG
Anonymous88 viewsObv: Head of Roma facing right, wearing a winged and crested Corinthian helmet, X behind, ROMA below.

Rev: Roma seated right on a pile of shields, holding a spear, two birds flying in field on the left and right, she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus at Roma's feet.

Note: Anonymously issued denarii were an unusual occurrence at this time. Many years later, the reverse design was reused on an aureus of Titus during the Flavian era.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 115 - 114 BC

3.9 grams, 20.5 mm, 270°

RSC Anonymous 176, S164
SPQR Coins
vrbs_roma.jpg
Anonymous Issue during the reign of Constantine I, AE3, 334-335369 viewsAnonymous Issue during the reign of Constantine I, AE3, 334-335, Siscia, Officina 3
VRBS-ROMA
Helmeted with plume, bust left in imperial mantle
(Anepigraphic)
She-wolf standing left, head right, suckling Remus and Romulus
17mm x 18mm, 2.67g
RIC VII, 240
8 commentsb70
Anonymous_1a_img.jpg
Anonymous, Denarius31 viewsObv:- Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left
Rev:- Roma seated right on pile of shields, holding spear set on ground; birds in flight to left and right; to right, she-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus
Minted in Rome. 110-108 BC.
Reference:- Crawford 287/1; Sydenham 530; RSC (Anonymous) 176.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
0102.jpg
Anonymus Denarius7 viewsAnonymous Deanrius

RRC 287/1
115 bc

Av: Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, X;
Rv: Roma, wearing Corinthian helmet, seated r. on pile of shields, holding spear; at feet, helmet; before, she-wolf suckling twins; on either side, two birds flying.

Surprising to have an anonymous denarius as late as 115. The reverse design portrays the Roman foundation myth in a new manner – showing the goddess Roma watching over the twins Romulus and Remus as they are suckled by the she-wolf, waiting for the day that Rome will be built.

Ex Bertolami Fine arts, Auction 24, Numismatics, London, 23.06.2016, #102
Norbert
AntoSe08-2~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 612, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Ops)63 viewsÆ sestertius (24.0g, 33mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144
ANTONINVS AVG PI VS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
OPI AVG ()around S C [in ex.] Ops seated left, holding sceptre, left hand drawing back drapery.
RIC 612 (Scarce); Cohen 569 (fr.8); BMC 1258-62; Strack 842; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 245 (17 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 130:67; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4197
ex D.Ruskin (said to have been found near Abingdon, Oxfordshire, UK, 1994)

Ops stands for plenty, properity, power, fertility... Her cult goes back to the earliest times, supposedly founded by Romulus. She is the wife of Saturn, sometimes equated with Cybele. Appears on Roman coins only twice (second appearance on issues of Pertinax). The issue under A. Pius is probably associated with the 900th anniversary of Rome.
Charles S
AntoSee1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 615a, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Aeneas) 114 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.15g, Ø33mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-44.
Obv/ ANTONINVS · AVGVSTVS PIVS, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right, aegis on left shoulder.
Rev/ P P TR P COS III (in field) [S C (in ex.)], Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloak, advancing right, looking back, carrying Anchises on his shoulder and holding Ascanius by the hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum (shepherd's crook) in left hand.
RIC 615a (R2), BMCRE 1264, Cohen 655 (80 Fr.), Strack 904 (3 specimens found); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 309 (same obv. and rev. dies, 3 specimens found).
ex Numphil (Paris, june 2014 auction)

This type is part of a series figuring scenes from ancient Roman legends. The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Troy with his son Ascanius and his father Anchises. According to the legend, Aeneas, son of Venus and the Trojan Anchises, fled by boat with some inhabitants of Troy as it fell to the Greeks, taking the Palladium - the ancient sacred statue of Athena - and eventually made their way west to resettle in Italy. They intermarried with the local inhabitants and founded the town of Lavinium, and became the nucleus of the future Roman people. One of the descendants of Aeneas'son Ascianus was Rhea Silvia, the mother of the twins Romulus and Remus.

Numismatic note: This issue has been struck from a single obverse die with the unique obverse legend "ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS" found nowhere else in the coinage of Antoninus Pius. This obverse die was used exclusively with two reverse dies with slightly different legends: the one in the photo above, and a similar one with the legend "P P TR POT COS III". The use of the aegis on the bust is not exclusive for this issue, but very rare for Antoninus Pius.
2 commentsCharles S
AntoSe19a.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 624, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Romulus)55 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.6g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: ROMVLO AVGVSTO (around) S C (in field), Romulus, in military dress, advancing right, carrying a spear and trophy.
RIC 624 (R); BMCRE 1286-1287; Cohen 704; Strack 850; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 337 (3 specimens); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4213
ex David Ruskin (1995, Oxford, UK, "from old collection")

Issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome celebrated in 147 AD. This type refers to Romulus, the founder of Rome. He is depicted much like his father, the god Mars.
Charles S
ANTOSE86a~1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 627, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Aeneas) 40 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.15g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-44.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: S C (in field), Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloac, advancing right, carrying Anchises on his shoulder and holding Ascanius by the hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum (sheperd's crook) in left hand.
RIC 627[R2], BMCRE 1292, Cohen 761; Strack 868; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 373 (4 specimens); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 128:57b; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4224
ex J.Jencek (Jan. 2009)

This issue is part of a series of coins struck in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome, figuring scenes from Ancient Roman legends. The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Troy with his son Ascanius and his father Anchises. One of the descendants Ascanius was Rhea Silvia, mother of Romulus and Remus.
Charles S
ANTOSEb4~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 642a, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Tiber)64 viewsorichalcum sestertius (22,9g). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
TIBERIS (around) S C (in field below), River god the Tiber, draped about waist, reclining to left, leaning with elbow on urn which pours out water, resting right hand on ship's prow and holding reed in the left.
RIC 642a, Cohen 819 (20 fr.); BMC 1313-15, Strack 863; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 414 (25 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values II) 4237; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 129:60.
ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. Auction 401; Ex NAC AG, Auction 54; ex Busso-Peus Nachf sale 351 (1997).

Struck in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome celebrated in AD 147.
The river god Tiber plays a very important role in ancient Roman legends such as Rhea Silvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus, who was thrown into the river to be drowned. She fell into the arms of the River god who married her; Romulus and Remus were saved by the river god Tiber who safely left the twins in a pool where they were rescued by a wolf.
Charles S
AntoSe47a~0.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 650, Sestertius of AD 140-144 (Romulus and Remus)35 viewsÆ Sestertius (23.3g, Ø 32mm, 12h), Rome mint. Struck 140-144 AD.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev.: TR POT COS III (around) S C (in ex), wolf in grotto suckling the twins Romulus and Remus.
RIC 650; BMC 1321; Cohen 917 var. (no grotto); Strack 897; Banti 442 (5 spec.); RCV 4241.
ex D. Ruskin (Oxford, 1998)

Coin belonging to a series depicting scenes from ancient Roman legends issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome in the year 147 AD.
Charles S
antoas23-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 694a, As of AD 140-144 (Mars descending on Rhea Silvia)43 viewsÆ As (7.9g, Ø29mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: (ANTO)NINVS - AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: TR POT COS (III around) S C (in field), Mars holding spear and shield descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia.
RIC 694a
ex Nomisma (SanMarino, 2001 auction)

This coin is part of a series that was struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome in AD 147 and which depict scenes from anctient Roman legends. This type depicts the story where Rhea Silva, the daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa and descendant of Aeneas, who had been forced to become a Vestal Virgin, was seduced in the forest by the god Mars. She conceived twins Romulus and Remus who would become the founders of Rome.
Charles S
AntoSe65-2~1.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)47 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Divus Augustus and Livia in the centre.
RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti 406.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second temple of Divus Augustus was restored under Antoninus Pius in 158. The reliefs on the pediment cannot be identified with certainty, but the statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the left and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the right.
Charles S
AntoSe65-4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 1004, Sestertius of AD 159 (Temple of Divus Augustus)25 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.23g, Ø30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST (around) COS IIII (in ex.) S C (in field), Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia. The temple stands on a podium of three steps. Both statues in the centre, standing on a base, have the right arms raised. There are statues to the left near the foot of the steps and other statues of soldiers on pedestals at each side of the top step. The statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the right and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the left. Unidentified statuary in the pediment.

RIC 1004 (S); BMCRE 2063; Cohen 805; Strack 1167; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 406; Sear (Roman Coins and their Values II) 4235.
ex Triton VI (2003)

The second Temple of Divus Augustus, commenced under Tiberius and dedicated by Caligula in August AD 37, suffered during the great fire of 80 which began on the Capitoline Hill and spread into the Forum and onto the Palatine. It was possibly restored or rebuilt under Domitian, although it is not mentioned in the Chronographia, and it certainly received further restoration under Antoninus Pius in 158. The temple under Antoninus was Corinthian octastyle and contained the seated figures of Divus Augustus and Livia within, generally drawn on the coinage at an elevated level to suggest perspective.
Charles S
Dio_Maddonna!!!_093.JPG
AR Troas, Alexandria Tiche/She woof and twins.41 viewsAlexander Troas, 230-268, AE21, 4.9g
Tyche right "AV CO TRO"
She wolf suckling the twins: Romulus and Remus "COL AVG TRO"
SNG Cop 104v

Antonio Protti
coin44.jpg
Arles RIC 351 Roma Commemorative AE3. 41 viewsArles RIC 351 Roma Commemorative AE3.
Urbs Roma VRBS ROMA, head of Roma left,
wearing plumed helmet and imperial cloak /
she-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus,
two stars above, SCONST* in ex. Coin #44
cars100
wolftwins090608a.jpg
Arles, Wolf and Twins59 viewsCity Commemorative, under Constantine I

VRBS ROMA
helmeted and cuirassed bust left

She wolf suckling Romulus and Remes, 2 stars above, palm frond between stars

PCONS
Arles

RIC VII Arles 368
1 commentsarizonarobin
Invicta_Roma.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 20 nummi176 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). Æ 20 Nummi (22 mm, 6.15 g), Rome. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, INVIC-TA ROMA. Reverse: lupa left, Romulus and Remus, star I star above, XX in exergue. Metlich 84a; MIB 71b.jbc
Invicta_Roma_40_nummi_ab.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 40 nummi71 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). Æ 40 Nummi (25 mm, 19.30 g), Rome, prima officina. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, INVICT-A ROMA. Reverse: lupa left, Romulus and Remus, XL above, dot P dot in exergue. Metlich 82a.

Ex Bruun Rasmussen 1237, lot 5031, 2012.
Jan (jbc)
shrimp_tess.jpg
BCC Lt1443 viewsLead Tessera
Obv: Romulus and Remus with she-wolf.
Rev: Shrimp (or) Grasshopper?
11x9mm. 1.12gm. Axis:270
cf. Hamburger, Tesserae,
Suface Finds from Caesarea #5
possible die or mold match.
v-drome
Caligula_Divo.jpg
Caligula AE Sestertius, Pietas / Divo Avg RIC 3698 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS P M TR POT, PIETAS in exergue, Pietas seated left on stool, holding patera in extended left hand and resting right forearm on small draped figure standing facing on basis
Rev: DIVO AVG above S C across field, Gaius, toga draped over his head, standing left, holding patera over garlanded altar; victimarius standing facing, holding bull for sacrifice; second attendant standing behind Gaius, holding a patera on either side; garlanded hexastyle temple of Divus Augustus in background, pediment decorated with sacrificial scene; triumphal quadriga and Victories as acroteria, statues of Romulus and Aeneas along roof line.
RIC I 36; BMCRE 41; BN 51; Cohen 9. aF/aVF, dark brown patina, with brassy highlights. Numerous light scratches and bumps on obverse, some pitting, reverse near VF with great details. RARE and important architectural type.
This coin commemorates the dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus, completed in 37 AD, with a remarkable scene of Gaius Caligula in his role of pontifex maximus leading the sacrificial ceremonies.
2 commentsmattpat
claudiopolis_maximiusI_SNGfrance791.jpg
Cilicia, Ninica-Claudiopolis, Maximinus I, SNG Levante Supp. 170 (plate coin)142 viewsMaximinus I AD 235-236
AE 30 mm, 14.59 g
obv. IMP.CAES.SA.IVL.VER.MAXI / MINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
behind bust c/m Howgego 338 eagle r., head l.
rev. NINIC COL CLA / VDIOPO / L
She-wolf standing right under Ruminal fig tree, head l., suckling the twins
Remus and Romulus
SNG Levante 618 (same dies); SNG Levante Supp. 170 (this coin); SNG Paris 791 (same dies); SNG von Aulock 5775 (same dies)
Choice EF, nice olive-brown patina, rare this nice.
published on www.wildwinds.com

The fig tree was sanctified to the goddess Rumina. Later the twins were found by the shepherd Faustulus. The rest is well-known!
The legend is in Latin because the city was a Roman colonia. The she-wolf looks a bit like a horse!
6 commentsJochen
urbsroma19.jpg
CITY COMMEMORATIVE41 viewsAE follis. Thessalonica. 330-333 AD. 2.56 grs. Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Roma left. URBS ROMA / She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; two stars above. SMTSE in exergue.
RIC 187.
1 commentsbenito
00123.jpg
City Commemorative (RIC 187, Coin #123)23 viewsRIC 187, AE3, Thessalonica, 330-333 AD.
Obv: VRBS ROMA Helmeted, cuirassed bust of Roma left.
Rev: (SMTS epsilon) Wolf standing left, suckling twins Romulus & Remus, 2 stars above.
Size: 18.5mm 2.40gm
MaynardGee
00041.jpg
City Commemorative (RIC 240, Coin #41)11 viewsRIC 240, AE3, Siscia, 330-333 AD.
Obv: VRBS ROMA Helmeted, cuirassed bust left.
Rev: (•gamma SIS•) She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above.
Size: 19.1mm 2.54gm
MaynardGee
Roma_90.jpg
City Commemorative - AE 336 viewsCyzicus
330-333 AD
Roma helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust left
VRBS__ROMA
she-wolf and twins Romulus and Remus, ** above
SMKΔ
RIC 90 (VII, Cyzicus)
1,77 g 19-17 mm
Johny SYSEL
Roma_-_SMTSE.jpg
City Commemorative - AE 317 viewsThessalonica
330-333 AD
helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust of Roma left
VRBS_ROMA
she-wolf and twins Romulus and Remus, ** above
crescent on shoulder
SMTSE
RIC VII Thessalonica 187
2,15g
Johny SYSEL
22_Urbs_Roma_SMHE.jpg
City Commemorative - AE 36 viewsHeraclea
330-333 AD
helmeted, bust of Roma left wearing imperial cloak
VRBS__ROMA
she-wolf and twins Romulus and Remus, ** above
•SMHE
RIC VII Heraclea 119
2,71
Johny SYSEL
308_Urbs_Roma__GSIS_.jpg
City Commemorative - AE 33 viewsSiscia
334-335 AD
Roma helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust left
VRBS__ROMA
she-wolf and twins Romulus and Remus, ** above
·ΓSIS·
RIC VII Siscia 240
2,09g
Johny SYSEL
423_Urbs_Roma_SMK.jpg
City Commemorative - AE 35 viewsCyzicus
330-336 AD
helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial cloak
VRBS_ROMA
she-wolf and twins Romulus and Remus, ** above
?SMK?
RIC 72/91/106/119 (VII, Cyzicus)
2,16g
Johny SYSEL
urbsromaAE3-.jpg
City Commemorative AE3 AD330-33333 viewsobv: VRBS ROMA (helmeted bust of Roma left)
rev: She-wolf suckling Romulus & Remus, 2 stars above, ΓSIS in ex.
ref: RIC VIII-Siscia240
2.07g, 18mm
berserker
cc379.jpg
City Commemorative, RIC 379 var Arles22 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA, helmeted and mantled bust of Roma left.
Reverse: no legend, she wolf standing left, head right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. Two stars above with dot in wreath between them.
Mintmark PCONST, Arles mint. 17.65mm., 2.6 g.
RIC VII Arles 379 var; Rivera p. 10. Very rare (R4)
sold 4-2018
NORMAN K
cc187.jpg
City Commemorative, RIC VII 187, Thessalonica14 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA: helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak, plume on front of helmet.
Reverse: no legend. She wolf standing left suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. O on wolfs shoulder, 2 stars above.
Mintmark SMTS epsilon, 16.1 mm., 2.5 g.
Ref: RIC VII Thessalonica 187
NORMAN K
cc240.jpg
City Commemorative, RIC VII 240 Siscia12 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA: helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak, plume on front of helmet.
Reverse: no legend. She wolf standing left suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. 2 stars above.
Mintmark rSIS Siscia, 17.9 mm., 2.4 g.
Ref: RIC VII 240
NORMAN K
cc356.jpg
City Commemorative, RIC VII 356 Arelate, 331 CE9 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA: helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak, plume on front of helmet.
Reverse: no legend. She wolf standing left suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. 2 stars and crescent above.
Mintmark SCONST Arelatum, 14.03 mm., 1.4 g.
Ref: RIC VII 356
NORMAN K
VRBS_ROMA.jpg
city commemorative, VRBS ROMA, Antioch90 views335-337 AD, Antioch mint

obv: VRBS ROMA, bust of Roma left, helmeted with plume, wearing imperial mantle and ornamental necklace
rev: she-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; 2 stars above, flower-like symbol on wolf's shoulder above, SMANΘ in exergue.

RIC VII Antioch 91 var (shoulder mark)

3 commentsareich
FullSizeRender_(2).jpg
City Commemorative. Alexandria 335-337 AD. AE15mm.13 viewsCity Commemorative. Alexandria 335-337 AD.
Obv. VRBS ROMA, crested and helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle
Rev. She-wolf standing left, head reverted, suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above. Mintmark SMALB "Gamma"
Ref. RIC VIII Alexandria 26.
Lee S
rome.jpg
City of Rome Commemorative37 views330-333 A.D.
AE 3, helmeted bust of Roma left with plume, wearing imperial mantle
3.18 g, 18.0 mm
VRBS ROMA
Reverse with Romulus and Remus suckling from she-wolf, two stars above
SMKA in ex.
RIC VII 91Cyzicus mint
Jaimelai
Capture_00099.JPG
City of Rome Commemorative36 views330-335 A.D.
AE 3, helmeted bust of Roma left with plume, wearing imperial mantle
2.81 gm, 17 mm
VRBS ROMA
Reverse with Romulus and Remus suckling from she-wolf, two stars above
SMANΘ in exe.
RIC VII 91/113 Antioch mint
330-335 A.D.
Jaimelai
TC-06-1.jpg
City of Rome Commemorative28 viewsAE Follis AE3, A.D. 330-333, Heraclea, 18.2mm, 2.10g, 180°, RIC VII 124; scarce.
Obv: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted bust of Roma left.
Rev: Romulus and Remus suckling from she-wolf, two stars above; SMHE● in ex.
Joseph D5
vrbs_trsdot_k.jpg
City of Rome Commemorative8 viewsÆ reduced centenionalis, 16mm, 2.5g, 12h; Trier mint, AD 330-331
Obv.: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle.
Rev.: She-wolf standing left, head turned back right, suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above // TRS•
Reference: RIC VII Trier 529, p. 215
From the YOC Collection / 16-422-45
John Anthony
AAAJb_small.png
City of Rome Commemorative7 viewsConstantine I ("the Great"). 307 - 337 AD.

Alexandria.

18mm., 2.67g

VRBS ROMA, crested and helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle

She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above. SMALΓ in exergue.

References:

AAAJ
RL
City_of_Rome_Commemorative_AE18_Treveri_330-331_AD.jpg
City of Rome Commemorative AE18 Treveri 330-331 AD32 viewsBillon reduced centenionalis, RIC VII Trier 529, LRBC I 58, SRCV IV 16487, Cohen VII 17, Hunter V -, gVF, well centered, ragged flan, a few light scratches, 2nd officina, Treveri (Trier, Germany) mint, 2.249 grams, 17.5 mm, die axis 0o, 330 - 331 A.D.; obverse VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle; reverse she-wolf standing left, head turned back right, suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above, TRS⚫ in exergue.

FORVM Ancient Coins. / From The Sam Mansourati Collection.


On 11 May 330, Constantine I refounded Byzantium, renamed it Constantinopolis after himself, and moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to his new city. The new capital was Christian, old gods and traditions were either replaced or assimilated into a framework of Christian symbolism. Constantine built the new Church of the Holy Apostles on the site of a temple to Aphrodite. Generations later there was the story that a divine vision led Constantine to this spot. The capital would often be compared to the `old` Rome as Nova Roma Constantinopolitana, the "New Rome of Constantinople." Special commemorative coins were issued with types for both Rome and Constantinople to advertise the importance of the new capital.
Sam
City of Rome Commemorative, 330-346 AD.jpg
City of Rome Commemorative,330-346A.D.26 viewsCity of Rome Commemorative, 330 - 346 A.D.
Constantine the Great and his sons issued small bronze coins commemorating the old capitol, Rome, and the new capitol, Constantinople, to symbolize the equality of the two cities and the new importance of Constantinople to the empire.
Bronze AE 3, RIC 91, VF, Cyzicus mint, 2.935g, 18.2mm, 0o, 331 - 334 A.D.; obverse VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle; reverse Romulus and Remus suckling from wolf, two stars above, SMKG in exergue;
Dumanyu2
City_of_Rome_Commemorative.png
City of Rome Commemorative. 330 - 333 A.D.24 viewsBillon reduced centenionalis (2.58 Gr)
VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle /She-wolf standing left, head turned back right, suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus ,two stars above. SMTSE (Epsilon) in exergue.
Thessalonica (Salonika, Greece) mint /330 - 333 A.D.
Ch VF.
1 commentsSam
urbs_roma.jpg
Commemorative 23 viewsObv. VRBS ROMA helmeted bust of Roma left in imperial mantle
Rev. She-wolf standing left suckling Romulus & Remus, 2 stars above
1 commentsSkyler
Roma_RIC_561.JPG
Commemorative Issue, 330 - 346 AD (Roma)27 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma, wearing imperial mantle, facing left.

Rev: No legend, She-wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus, palm branch between two stars in upper field; TRS in exergue.

Billon Reduced Centenionalis, Trier mint, 2nd Officina, 333 - 334 AD

2.1 grams, 17 mm, 0°

RIC VII Trier 561, S16489, VM 2
SPQR Coins
Roma_RIC_114.JPG
Commemorative Issue, 330 - 346 AD (Roma)23 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted head of Roma, wearing imperial mantle, facing left.

Rev: No legend, She-wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above.

Billon Reduced Centenionalis, Heraclea mint (5th Officina), 330 - 333 AD

2 grams, 17.8 mm, 315°

RIC VII Heraclea 114, S16517, VM 2
SPQR Coins
Urbs_Roma_Thessalonika_187.jpg
Commemorative RIC VII, Thessalonica 187122 viewsConstantine I AD 307 - 337
AE - Follis, 2.6g, 18mm
Thessalonica, 5th officina AD 330-333
obv. VRBS - ROMA
bust of Roma, with Attic helmet, cuirassed, l.
rev. (without legend)
She-wolf standing l., head backwards, the twins Remus and Romulus suckling, below.
On her shoulder Theta(?), two stars above.
in ex: SMTS Epsilon
RIC VII, Thessalonica 187
about EF
2 commentsJochen
lrb_copy.jpg
Commemorative Series29 viewsCommemorative Series. AD 330-354. Æ Follis 16mm. Arelate (Arles) mint, 2nd officina. Struck under Constantine I, AD 330. VRBS ROMA, helmeted and mantled bust of Roma left / She-wolf suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; two stars above; SCONST(star). RIC VII 351; LRBC 355. (?)1 commentsMolinari
Treveri_(Trier)_mint.jpg
Commemorative Series73 viewsCommemorative Series. AD 330-354. Æ Follis (17mm, 2.61 g, 6h).
Treveri (Trier) mint, 2nd officina. Struck under Constantine I, AD 332-333. Helmeted and mantled bust of Roma left / She-wolf standing left, head right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; two stars above; TR•S. RIC VII 542; LRBC 65. EF, gray-brown patina.

From the collection of the MoneyMuseum, Zurich. Ex Münz Zentrum Köln 104 (6 September 2000), lot 613.
1 commentsLeo
035.JPG
Commemoratives - Urbs Roma117 viewsCentenionalis (AE3) 331-334
O/ URBS - ROMA Roma helmeted, draped and cuirassed left
R/ Unepigraphic Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; two stars above
Ex/ SMKS
C 17 - RIC 90d
Mint: Cyzicus (2nd off.)
1 commentsseptimus
ID0060_MERGED.jpg
Constantine31 viewsObverse:- VRBS ROMA helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle
Reverse:- Romulus and Remus suckling from she-wolf, two stars above
Exergue:- T•RP* Trier mint
1 commentsnogoodnicksleft
ID0027_VBRS_MERGED.jpg
Constantine15 viewsObverse:- VRBS ROMA helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle
Reverse:- Romulus and Remus suckling from she-wolf, two stars above
Exergue:- PLC Lyons mint
nogoodnicksleft
Roma.jpg
Constantine64 viewsRoma AE Commemorative

VRBS ROMA
Bust of Roma left, wearing helmet with plume, and imperial mantle

She-wold standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above;
CONSe. in exergue.

2.38g

Arles mint; 2nd officina, 330-333 AD

RIC VII 62

Ex-Calgary Coin

Better in Hand
1 commentsJay GT4
CollageMaker_20180706_135503071.jpg
Constantine I15 viewsAE3, Rome Commemorative, 335-337 AD
Obverse: VRBS ROMA, helmeted head of Roma left, wearing imperial mantle and ornamental necklace.
Reverse: She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above.
Exergue: SMANΘ
Reference: RIC VII Antioch 91/113
Justin L
index~0.png
CONSTANTINE I THE GREAT (307-337). Commemorative series. Follis. Kyzikos.16 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and mantled bust left.
Rev: SMKS. Lupa Romana standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus; above, two stars.
References: RIC 90. R2
16mm and 2.47 grams.
Canaan
Urbs_Roma_wolf.jpg
Constantine Roma234 viewsRoma AE Commemorative
VRBS ROMA
bust of Roma left, wearing helmet with plume, and imperial mantle

She-wold standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus, mintmark gamma SIS in ex.
RIC VII Siscia 222.
Siscia mint
330-333 AD
3 commentsJay GT4
Constantine The Great Romulus and Remus.jpg
Constantine The Great- Romulus and Remus80 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Obverse:
Helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle
VRBS ROMA: VRBS City, ROMA Rome, City of Rome
City of Rome Commemorative, 334 - 335 A.D.


Reverse:
Romulus and Remus suckling from wolf, two stars above

Domination: Bronze AE 3, 17 mm

Mint: exergue is • Γ SIS• Sisicia 3.rd Officina (Γ Gamma). RIC VII Siscia 222, C3, very common.

Coin rated: Very Fine
1 commentsJohn Schou
collage~5.jpg
Constantinople, Wolf & Twins41 viewsCity Commemorative, under Constantine I

VRBS ROMA
Helmeted cuirassed bust left

She wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remes, two stars above
CONSε

RIC VII Constantinople 62
AE3; 2.39g; 17mm
arizonarobin
5686_5687.jpg
Constantinopolis City Commemorative, AE3, NO LEGEND; Wolf Standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus9 viewsAE3
Constantine I/Anonymous
Constantinopolis City Commemorative
Issued: 333 - 335AD
19.0mm
O: VRBS ROMA; Roma helmeted, draped bust, left.
R: NO LEGEND: Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; two stars above wolf.
Exergue: (Dot)CONSε(Dot)
Constantinopolis Mint
Aorta: 242: B4, O5, R9, T74, M5.
andy-coins 121056682188
1/30/13 1/30/17
Nicholas Z
4804_4805.jpg
Constantinopolis City Commemorative, AE3, NO LEGEND; Wolf Standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus11 viewsAE3
Constantinopolis City Commemorative
Issued: 331 - 334AD
18.5mm
O: VRBS ROMA; Roma helmeted, draped bust left.
R: NO LEGEND; Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above.
Exergue: SMKA
Cyzicus Mint
Aorta: 267: B4, O5, R9, T14, M6.
RIC VII Cyzicus 90; Sear 16523.
aitorazpietia 321138550723
6/12/13 2/19/17
Nicholas Z
08009AB.jpg
CONSTANTINOPOLIS COMMEMORATIVE, 330-346 AD, 18.9mm , 2.87g24 viewsCOMMEMORATING Constantinopolis , 330-346 AD, BRONZE AE3 COIN

O - CUIRASSED and  HELMETED BUST OF ROMA, facing left wearing imperial mantle. VRBS ROMA  ,   
R - SHE WOLF standing left, suckling  the twins, Romulus and Remus. TWO STARS ABOVE. SIS in exergue. 
robertpe
IMG_20180917_074819.jpg
Constantinus I8 views330 - 333 CE

City Commemorative AE3

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Bust of Roma left wearing visored, plumed and crested helmet and ornamental mantle.

Reverse: She wolf left and twins.

Mintmark: SMH Epsilon. Ric VII Heraclea
Pericles J2
605BF564.jpg
Cr 183/1 Æ As Anonymous [wolf/twins]5 views169-158 b.c.e. (31mm, 26.29g, 7h).
o:Laureate head of bearded Janus
r: Prow of galley r.; above, she-wolf standing r., suckling Romulus and Remus
This reverse is rather unusual, in that it depicts the foundation story of Rome with bare minimum lines, which is depicted on later denarii in considerable detail, if not particular artistry. I have only one coin of this type, which seems to have suffered in striking due to the rather shallow twins and almost smudged prow.
PMah
A18-082.jpg
crw 183/1 . Roman Republic, Anonymous Æ As. 169-158 BC.77 viewsRoman Republic, Anonymous Æ As. 169-158 BC.
31mm, 29.31g. Rome mint.
Obverse:Laureate head of bearded Janus; I (mark of value) above .
Reverse:Prow of galley right; above, she-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; I (mark of value) to right.
Crawford 183/1.
Ex UBS 59, lot 6123 (January 2004) . Ex RBW Collection. Ex JHE .
1 commentsVladislav D
Romulus_mausoleum.jpg
Divus Romulo Mausoleum176 viewsThe ruin of the sepulcher of Divus Romulus (died 209 A.D.), the son of Emperor Maxentius, is situated in a large quadrilateral enclosure forming part of the villa of Maxentius, on the Appian way, about one mile from the gate of S. Sebastian. The building is sometimes erroneously called the stables of the Circus of Caracalla.Joe Sermarini
Romulus.jpg
Divus Romulus.26 viewsDivus Romulus. Died AD 309. Æ Quarter Follis (17mm, 2.01 g, 12h). Rome mint, 3rd officina. Struck under Maxentius, circa AD 310. Bare head right / Domed shine with doors ajar, surmounted by eagle; RT. RIC VI 239. VF, dark green patina, flan flaws on obverse.1 commentsAncient Aussie
284957_l.jpg
Divus Romulus.12 viewsDIVUS ROMULUS (Died 309). Follis. Ostia.
Obv: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLON V FILIO.
Bare head right.
Rev: AETERNA MEMORIA / MOSTT.
Domed hexastyle temple; on roof, eagle standing right, head left.
Weight: 6.0 g. Diameter: 25 mm.
RIC 33.
1 commentsAncient Aussie
Domitian_RIC_V241.JPG
Domitian (as Caesar), 69 - 81 AD30 viewsObv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head of Domitian facing right.

Rev: COS V, She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, boat in exergue.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 77 - 78 AD

3.3 grams, 17.5 mm, 135°

RIC II Vespasian 241, RSC 51, S2639, VM 10/2
1 commentsCaesar's Ghost
Domitian_COS_V.jpg
Domitian - AR denarius5 viewsstruck by Vespasian
Rome
78 AD
laureate head right
CAESAR AVG F__DOMITIANVS
She-wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus
COS V
ship in exergue
RIC II, part 1,Vespasian 961; RSC II 51; BMCRE II Vespasian 240
3,57g
Johny SYSEL
Domitian_RIC_961.jpg
Domitian(us)54 viewsDomitian, denarius.
RIC 961, RSC 51.
Rome Mint, 77-78 A.D.
3,08 g, 18 mm
Obv. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, right.
Rev. COS V, She-wolf and twins left, boat below.

According to a legend, the city of Rome was founded by twins, Romulus and Remus. A female wolf found the twins when they were abandoned and fed them her own milk.
Marsman
EB0782_scaled.JPG
EB0782 Roma / Wolf and Twins11 viewsCommemorative Series, AE Follis, Antiochia, circa 330-335.
Obverse: VRBS ROMA Helmeted and mantled bust of Roma to left.
Reverse: She-wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, SMANΘ.
References: RIC VII 91.
Diameter: 15mm, Weight: 1.581g.
EB
EB0785_scaled.JPG
EB0785 Roma / Wolf and Twins11 viewsCommemorative Series, AE Follis, Thessalonica, 330-333.
Obverse: VRBS ROMA Helmeted and mantled bust of Roma to left.
Reverse: Wolf and twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above. Mintmark SMTSE.
References: RIC VII Thessalonica 187.
Diameter: 19mm, Weight: 2.399g.
EB
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10171_var__wolf-twins_palm.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)34 viewsSRCV 10171 var, RIC V S-628, Göbl 1628c, Van Meter 13/3.

BI Antoninianus (fully silvered), 3.80 g., 22.20 mm. max., 180°

Antioch mint, struck during sole reign (260-268 A.D.), in 268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed draped bust right.

Rev: AETERNITAS AVG, She-wolf standing right, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), palm branch in exurgue.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
03_GallienAeternitas.jpg
Gallienus AETERNITAS AVG30 viewsGALLIENVS AVG
Radiate head left

R/ AETERNITAS AVG // palm
She-wolf right, suckling Romulus and Remus

Antoninianus struck 260-268

RIC. Cohen.47

well centred
gb29400
Comb30032017104224.jpg
Gallienus BI Antoninianus. Antioch, AD 264-265.12 viewsObv. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev. AETERNITAS AVG, she-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; below, grain ear.
References: RIC V 628; MIR 36, 1628d; RSC 46c.
2.55g, 22mm, 10h.
Canaan
0440-228.jpg
Gallienus, Antoninianus78 viewsAntioch mint, AD 265-266
GALLIENVS AVG radiate head left
AETERNITAS AVG she wolf standing right, suckling twins Romulus and Remus. Branch at exergue
3,9 gr, 20 mm
Ref : RIC V-1 # 628, Göbl # 1628a
2 commentsPotator II
GALLIEN-58-ROMAN.jpg
Gallienus, RIC V(1)-628.C Asian (Antioch)22 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Antioch mint, 260-268 A.D.
23mm, 4.15g
RIC V(1)-628, RSCv.4-46a

Obverse:
GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
AETERNITAS AVG
branch in exergue
She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus.
1 commentsrubadub
collage6~1.jpg
Gallienus, Wolf & Twins81 viewsO: GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: AETERNITAS AVG
She wolf suckling Romulus and Remes

RIC V-1 Sole Reign, Asian Mint 628; Gobl 1628a
Ant; 4.18g; 22mm

1 commentsarizonarobin
hadrian_266.jpg
Hadrian RIC II, 26643 viewsHadrian, AD 117-138
AR - denarius, 20mm, 3.33g
Rome, AD 134-138
obv. HADRIANVS - AVG COS III PP
Head, laureate, r.
rev. ROMVLO - CONDITORI
Romulus, bare-headed, in military cloak, walking r., holding transverse spear in
r. hand and with l. hand trophy over l. shoulder
RIC II, 266; C.1316; BMC 711
nice VF

The depiction shows Romulus with the spolia opima, he has won from the Sabine king Acro whom he has killed when he conquered the city of Caenina.

For more informations please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'!
2 commentsJochen
1695__nomos_3.jpg
hierapolis0002a1 viewsSemi-autonomous AD 218-222 (Time of Elagabalus)
Hierapolis, Phrygia

Obv: ΛΑΙΡ-ΒΗΝΟϹ, Radiate and draped bust of Apollo Lairbenos to right.
Rev: . ΙEΡΑΠΟΛEΙΤΩΝ →ΝEΩΚΟΡ/ΩΝ, She-wolf to left, looking back and feeding twins Romulus and Remus.
24 mm, 6.01 gms

RPC VI online, 5472; SNG von Aulock 3628; Nomos, Obolos Web Auction 13, Lot 549 (this coin).
Charles M
Hadrianus-Denar-ROMCOND-RIC266.jpg
III-HADRIANUS -a- Denar RIC II/26644 viewsAv) HADRIANVS AVG COS III PP
Laureate head right

Rv) ROMVLO CONDITORI
Romulus in nimbus walking right, holding spear and trophaion

Weight: 3,2g; Ø: 19mm; Reference: RIC II/ 266; ROME mint
sulcipius
LINK_romdoors.JPG
Italy, Rome, Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano, Roman bronze doors40 viewsThe original bronze doors of the Temple of Divus Romulus still survive and are pictured above. They are set between two porphyry columns that support a reused marble architrave and open into a rotunda fifty Roman feet in diameter covered by a cupola which is accessible from the rear through the Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano. The temple was converted into a vestibule for the church early in the 6th century.*Alex
IMG_1084q.JPG
Italy, Rome, Forum from Palatino160 viewsTemple of Antoninus and Faustina
Temple of Romulus

This temple Maxentius built for his son Romulus who died 309 AD. Maybe the temple is built over earlier temple.
In 527 the temle with library on Vespasian's forum was rebuild to church of St. Cosma and Damian.
Johny SYSEL
Italy- Forum Romanum- The basilica of Majencius front and back.jpg
Italy- Forum Romanum- The basilica of Majencius front and back100 viewsThe Basilica of Maxentius (Basilica Maxentii) or the Basilica of Constantine (Basilica Constantini) was the last of the great civilian basilicas on the Roman Forum. The ruins of the basilica is located between the Temple of Amor and Roma and the Temple of Romulus, on the Via Sacra.

The construction of the basilica was initiated by Maxentius in 308 CE, and finished by Constantine after he had defeated Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. As other similar buildings, it was destined for commercial and administrative activities. It is likely that the basilica housed the offices of the Prefect of the City, the highest imperial official in late antiquity.

The site chosen for the basilica was on the Velia, a low ridge connecting the Esquiline Hill and the Palatine Hill. Large parts of the Velia was levelled in preparation for the construction of the basilica. Literary sources tell that earlier the site was occupied by the Horrea Piperatica, the central market and storage facility for pepper and spices, built in the time of Domitian. Also on the site was a sanctuary of the penates publici which had to be moved.

The Basilica of Maxentius is built with arches, which is very atypical. All the other public basilicas had flat ceilings supported by wooden beams. The construction techniques used borrowed more from the great imperial baths than from the traditional basilica.
The basilica is one of the most impressive buildings on the Forum Romanum. The ground plan is rectangular, oriented E.-W., covering an area of 100×65m divided into a central nave and to lateral aisles and an atrium on the E. side where the original entrance was.

The central nave measured 80×25m and was covered by three groin vaults with a maximum height of 35m, supported by eight monolithic Corinthian columns of 14.5m. Each of the two aisles was made up of three interconnected coffered vaults, 20.5m wide and 24m high, communicating with the central nave by three huge openings.

Light was provided by two rows of three large windows in five of the six lateral vaults, and by windows in the sides of the now collapsed cross vaults over the central nave. The windows in two of the vaults in the surviving N. side of the building give a good idea of the amount of light inside the building.

The floor in both the central and the lateral spaces were a geometric pattern of squares with circles and lozenges of multi-coloured marble, similar to the floor in the Pantheon.

The walls were in opus latericium, originally with a marble veneer. The vaults were in opus caementicium with a gilded stucco finish. The roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles.

The entrance of the original project of Maxentius was to the east, from a branch of the old Via Sacra behind the Temple of Amor and Roma. It lead into an elongated atrium, connected to the central nave and the lateral aisles by five gateways.

In the W. end was a huge apse, 20m in diameter, where a colossal seated statue of Maxentius stood. This statue was later changed to look like Constantine. The statue was an acrolith (the head, hands and feet were of marble, while the rest was of other materials), and the remains of the statue were found in 1486 in the apse.

Constantine changed the plan when he took over the unfinished basilica. He had a another entrance added on the S. side, on the Via Sacra, where a monumental stairway led to a porch of four porphyry columns and via three double doorways into the central part of the S. aisle. In front of this new entrance, in the central vault of the N. aisle, another apse was added, smaller than the apse in the W. end. In back of this apse a niche held a standing statue of Constantine, and smaller, square-headed niches, two rows of four niches on each side, which might have housed a gallery of Constantine's relatives and lieutenants. This room could be closed by wooden doors, and it is likely the central part of the office of the Prefect of the City was there.

Of the original building only the three vaults of the N. aisle remain, devoid of all decorations. The vaults of the S. and central nave probably collapsed under an earthquake in c. 847. The floor plan is clearly visible, however, and the remaining structures give a vivid impression of the grandeur of the original edifice.

The remains of the Colossal Statue of Constantine I are in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio, and one of the columns from the central nave was moved to the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in 1614. The remaining columns have disappeared. The bronze tiles from the roof were reused for the first Basilica of Saint Peter.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino34 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the Basilica of Majencio.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the Basilica of Majencio38 viewsThe Basilica of Maxentius (Basilica Maxentii) or the Basilica of Constantine (Basilica Constantini) was the last of the great civilian basilicas on the Roman Forum. The ruins of the basilica is located between the Temple of Amor and Roma and the Temple of Romulus, on the Via Sacra.

The construction of the basilica was initiated by Maxentius in 308 CE, and finished by Constantine after he had defeated Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. As other similar buildings, it was destined for commercial and administrative activities. It is likely that the basilica housed the offices of the Prefect of the City, the highest imperial official in late antiquity.

The site chosen for the basilica was on the Velia, a low ridge connecting the Esquiline Hill and the Palatine Hill. Large parts of the Velia was levelled in preparation for the construction of the basilica. Literary sources tell that earlier the site was occupied by the Horrea Piperatica, the central market and storage facility for pepper and spices, built in the time of Domitian. Also on the site was a sanctuary of the penates publici which had to be moved.

The Basilica of Maxentius is built with arches, which is very atypical. All the other public basilicas had flat ceilings supported by wooden beams. The construction techniques used borrowed more from the great imperial baths than from the traditional basilica.
The basilica is one of the most impressive buildings on the Forum Romanum. The ground plan is rectangular, oriented E.-W., covering an area of 100×65m divided into a central nave and to lateral aisles and an atrium on the E. side where the original entrance was.

The central nave measured 80×25m and was covered by three groin vaults with a maximum height of 35m, supported by eight monolithic Corinthian columns of 14.5m. Each of the two aisles was made up of three interconnected coffered vaults, 20.5m wide and 24m high, communicating with the central nave by three huge openings.

Light was provided by two rows of three large windows in five of the six lateral vaults, and by windows in the sides of the now collapsed cross vaults over the central nave. The windows in two of the vaults in the surviving N. side of the building give a good idea of the amount of light inside the building.

The floor in both the central and the lateral spaces were a geometric pattern of squares with circles and lozenges of multi-coloured marble, similar to the floor in the Pantheon.

The walls were in opus latericium, originally with a marble veneer. The vaults were in opus caementicium with a gilded stucco finish. The roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles.

The entrance of the original project of Maxentius was to the east, from a branch of the old Via Sacra behind the Temple of Amor and Roma. It lead into an elongated atrium, connected to the central nave and the lateral aisles by five gateways.

In the W. end was a huge apse, 20m in diameter, where a colossal seated statue of Maxentius stood. This statue was later changed to look like Constantine. The statue was an acrolith (the head, hands and feet were of marble, while the rest was of other materials), and the remains of the statue were found in 1486 in the apse.

Constantine changed the plan when he took over the unfinished basilica. He had a another entrance added on the S. side, on the Via Sacra, where a monumental stairway led to a porch of four porphyry columns and via three double doorways into the central part of the S. aisle. In front of this new entrance, in the central vault of the N. aisle, another apse was added, smaller than the apse in the W. end. In back of this apse a niche held a standing statue of Constantine, and smaller, square-headed niches, two rows of four niches on each side, which might have housed a gallery of Constantine's relatives and lieutenants. This room could be closed by wooden doors, and it is likely the central part of the office of the Prefect of the City was there.

Of the original building only the three vaults of the N. aisle remain, devoid of all decorations. The vaults of the S. and central nave probably collapsed under an earthquake in c. 847. The floor plan is clearly visible, however, and the remaining structures give a vivid impression of the grandeur of the original edifice.

The remains of the Colossal Statue of Constantine I are in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio, and one of the columns from the central nave was moved to the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in 1614. The remaining columns have disappeared. The bronze tiles from the roof were reused for the first Basilica of Saint Peter.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and the temple of Vesta and the Basilica of Majencio.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum The Basilica of Majencio and the temple of Castors46 viewsThe Basilica of Maxentius (Basilica Maxentii) or the Basilica of Constantine (Basilica Constantini) was the last of the great civilian basilicas on the Roman Forum. The ruins of the basilica is located between the Temple of Amor and Roma and the Temple of Romulus, on the Via Sacra.

The construction of the basilica was initiated by Maxentius in 308 CE, and finished by Constantine after he had defeated Maxentius in the battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312 CE. As other similar buildings, it was destined for commercial and administrative activities. It is likely that the basilica housed the offices of the Prefect of the City, the highest imperial official in late antiquity.

The site chosen for the basilica was on the Velia, a low ridge connecting the Esquiline Hill and the Palatine Hill. Large parts of the Velia was levelled in preparation for the construction of the basilica. Literary sources tell that earlier the site was occupied by the Horrea Piperatica, the central market and storage facility for pepper and spices, built in the time of Domitian. Also on the site was a sanctuary of the penates publici which had to be moved.

The Basilica of Maxentius is built with arches, which is very atypical. All the other public basilicas had flat ceilings supported by wooden beams. The construction techniques used borrowed more from the great imperial baths than from the traditional basilica.
The basilica is one of the most impressive buildings on the Forum Romanum. The ground plan is rectangular, oriented E.-W., covering an area of 100×65m divided into a central nave and to lateral aisles and an atrium on the E. side where the original entrance was.

The central nave measured 80×25m and was covered by three groin vaults with a maximum height of 35m, supported by eight monolithic Corinthian columns of 14.5m. Each of the two aisles was made up of three interconnected coffered vaults, 20.5m wide and 24m high, communicating with the central nave by three huge openings.

Light was provided by two rows of three large windows in five of the six lateral vaults, and by windows in the sides of the now collapsed cross vaults over the central nave. The windows in two of the vaults in the surviving N. side of the building give a good idea of the amount of light inside the building.

The floor in both the central and the lateral spaces were a geometric pattern of squares with circles and lozenges of multi-coloured marble, similar to the floor in the Pantheon.

The walls were in opus latericium, originally with a marble veneer. The vaults were in opus caementicium with a gilded stucco finish. The roof was covered with gilded bronze tiles.

The entrance of the original project of Maxentius was to the east, from a branch of the old Via Sacra behind the Temple of Amor and Roma. It lead into an elongated atrium, connected to the central nave and the lateral aisles by five gateways.

In the W. end was a huge apse, 20m in diameter, where a colossal seated statue of Maxentius stood. This statue was later changed to look like Constantine. The statue was an acrolith (the head, hands and feet were of marble, while the rest was of other materials), and the remains of the statue were found in 1486 in the apse.

Constantine changed the plan when he took over the unfinished basilica. He had a another entrance added on the S. side, on the Via Sacra, where a monumental stairway led to a porch of four porphyry columns and via three double doorways into the central part of the S. aisle. In front of this new entrance, in the central vault of the N. aisle, another apse was added, smaller than the apse in the W. end. In back of this apse a niche held a standing statue of Constantine, and smaller, square-headed niches, two rows of four niches on each side, which might have housed a gallery of Constantine's relatives and lieutenants. This room could be closed by wooden doors, and it is likely the central part of the office of the Prefect of the City was there.

Of the original building only the three vaults of the N. aisle remain, devoid of all decorations. The vaults of the S. and central nave probably collapsed under an earthquake in c. 847. The floor plan is clearly visible, however, and the remaining structures give a vivid impression of the grandeur of the original edifice.

The remains of the Colossal Statue of Constantine I are in the courtyard of the Palazzo dei Conservatori on the Campidoglio, and one of the columns from the central nave was moved to the Piazza Santa Maria Maggiore in 1614. The remaining columns have disappeared. The bronze tiles from the roof were reused for the first Basilica of Saint Peter.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall.jpg
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall38 viewsRome is the city in the world with the longest set of ancient walls still partly standing.
This unique relic of roman history, though, is somewhat neglected by the thousands of tourist who visit the city every day: very few of them pay attention to these massive structures, as their interest is mainly caught by famous buildings and sites such as the Roman Forum, the Pantheon, or the Colosseum.
Certainly less beautiful than these gems, the walls proved more useful to the city than any other well-known monument or building. And still today they stand as an important memory of the city's ancient boundaries.

The several restoration works carried out through the ages, in order to keep them strong and steady, give reason for the good state of preservation of the set of walls built in the 3rd century AD: unlike other ancient buildings, they mantained their original function until the end of the 1800s. Many of the original gates are still in place, as well, and some of them have witnessed important historical facts.
Besides their importance during wartime, the city walls enabled the local authorities to keep under control the many people who every day entered or left Rome, as the only way in or out was through the gates: the doors were usually kept under sentry during daylight, and closed after dusk. And since a tax was usually imposed on people and goods entering the city, the gates yielded also a considerable income for the municipality.
Since its foundation, Rome has always adopted defensive means, to prevent the several populations surrounding the original nucleus from invading the city.
They are not one single structure, but several walls belonging to many periods. They were built with different techniques, according to the different weapons they had to face, from early enemies' stones, to catapults, to more powerful cannon balls.
Each of them will be therefore dealt with separately, as individual structures.
All of them are conventionally named after the ruler (king, emperor or pope) who had them built.
ROMULUS' WALLS
We know little about the very first defensive structures that protected Rome's original nucleus, over 2700 years ago; the top of two adjoining hills, the Capitolium and the Palatine, was enclosed by two separate walls; the one on the Palatine was probably rebuilt over a pre-roman structure, and protected Romulus's House, claimed to be the dwelling site of the mythical founder and first king of Rome.
Only few visible traces, both of the Palatine's and of the Capitolium's wall, now survive (the latter is shown on the left). Therefore, these are the only walls not dealt with by the following pages.
SERVIAN WALLS
(or REPUBLICAN WALLS)
They are named after Rome's sixth king Servius Tullius: by tradition, he was the first ruler to order the construction of an early defensive structure around the city. Also in this case it is impossible to state a precise date. According to reliable sources, by the 6th century BC the city of Rome could indeed rely on some sort of protection; nevertheless, there is enough proof that an actual wall was not built until the late 4th century BC (during Rome's republic, whence the other name). And a further extension, beyond the left banks of the river Tiber up to the top of the Janiculum hill, was built two centuries later.
Therefore, the evolution of this set of walls must have been rather complicated.The older defensive technique probably consisted of a sort of mound dug in the ground; the earth coming from the latter was simply used to make a long heap on the inside, as a further protection.
Later in time, a real set of walls was built in place of this primitive boundary. But along the north-eastern part of its perimeter, a deep mound with earth and stones piled by the inner base of the wall was still in use: this structure was called an agger (from the Latin ad gerere, "to bring, move towards").
The actual wall was built according to the dry-stone technique, i.e. without any mortar, large blocks were piled one on top of the other, in multiple rows. The porous stone is tufa (which in Rome was used for the making of buildings up to the early 1930s!).
Unfortunately, of these walls no more than a few fragments scattered in various parts of the city is now left.
Further data based on historical sources and archaeological excavations have enabled to define more or less precisely their full perimeter: by the end of the 4th century BC, the city boundaries enclosed the famous seven hills, or Septimontium, over which the city was originally built: the Capitolium and the Palatine (i.e. the early nucleus), the Aventine, the Esquiline, the Quirinal, the Viminal and the Coelian.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall 2.jpg
Italy- Rome- Part of the city wall 261 viewsRome is the city in the world with the longest set of ancient walls still partly standing.
This unique relic of roman history, though, is somewhat neglected by the thousands of tourist who visit the city every day: very few of them pay attention to these massive structures, as their interest is mainly caught by famous buildings and sites such as the Roman Forum, the Pantheon, or the Colosseum.
Certainly less beautiful than these gems, the walls proved more useful to the city than any other well-known monument or building. And still today they stand as an important memory of the city's ancient boundaries.

The several restoration works carried out through the ages, in order to keep them strong and steady, give reason for the good state of preservation of the set of walls built in the 3rd century AD: unlike other ancient buildings, they mantained their original function until the end of the 1800s. Many of the original gates are still in place, as well, and some of them have witnessed important historical facts.
Besides their importance during wartime, the city walls enabled the local authorities to keep under control the many people who every day entered or left Rome, as the only way in or out was through the gates: the doors were usually kept under sentry during daylight, and closed after dusk. And since a tax was usually imposed on people and goods entering the city, the gates yielded also a considerable income for the municipality.
Since its foundation, Rome has always adopted defensive means, to prevent the several populations surrounding the original nucleus from invading the city.
They are not one single structure, but several walls belonging to many periods. They were built with different techniques, according to the different weapons they had to face, from early enemies' stones, to catapults, to more powerful cannon balls.
Each of them will be therefore dealt with separately, as individual structures.
All of them are conventionally named after the ruler (king, emperor or pope) who had them built.
ROMULUS' WALLS
We know little about the very first defensive structures that protected Rome's original nucleus, over 2700 years ago; the top of two adjoining hills, the Capitolium and the Palatine, was enclosed by two separate walls; the one on the Palatine was probably rebuilt over a pre-roman structure, and protected Romulus's House, claimed to be the dwelling site of the mythical founder and first king of Rome.
Only few visible traces, both of the Palatine's and of the Capitolium's wall, now survive (the latter is shown on the left). Therefore, these are the only walls not dealt with by the following pages.
SERVIAN WALLS
(or REPUBLICAN WALLS)
They are named after Rome's sixth king Servius Tullius: by tradition, he was the first ruler to order the construction of an early defensive structure around the city. Also in this case it is impossible to state a precise date. According to reliable sources, by the 6th century BC the city of Rome could indeed rely on some sort of protection; nevertheless, there is enough proof that an actual wall was not built until the late 4th century BC (during Rome's republic, whence the other name). And a further extension, beyond the left banks of the river Tiber up to the top of the Janiculum hill, was built two centuries later.
Therefore, the evolution of this set of walls must have been rather complicated.The older defensive technique probably consisted of a sort of mound dug in the ground; the earth coming from the latter was simply used to make a long heap on the inside, as a further protection.
Later in time, a real set of walls was built in place of this primitive boundary. But along the north-eastern part of its perimeter, a deep mound with earth and stones piled by the inner base of the wall was still in use: this structure was called an agger (from the Latin ad gerere, "to bring, move towards").
The actual wall was built according to the dry-stone technique, i.e. without any mortar, large blocks were piled one on top of the other, in multiple rows. The porous stone is tufa (which in Rome was used for the making of buildings up to the early 1930s!).
Unfortunately, of these walls no more than a few fragments scattered in various parts of the city is now left.
Further data based on historical sources and archaeological excavations have enabled to define more or less precisely their full perimeter: by the end of the 4th century BC, the city boundaries enclosed the famous seven hills, or Septimontium, over which the city was originally built: the Capitolium and the Palatine (i.e. the early nucleus), the Aventine, the Esquiline, the Quirinal, the Viminal and the Coelian.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino27 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores27 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn51 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum24 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
1000-17-171.jpg
L. Titurius20 viewsL. Titurius L.f. Sabinus, 89 BC. AR Denarius (4.27 gm). Head of the Sabine king Tatius / Two soldiers, each carrying a Sabine woman. Tituria.2. Cr.344/1b. Toned aVF.

The Rape is supposed to have occurred in the early history of Rome, shortly after its founding by Romulus and his mostly male followers. Seeking wives in order to found families, the Romans negotiated unsuccessfully with the Sabines, who populated the area. Fearing the emergence of a rival society, the Sabines refused to allow their women to marry the Romans. Consequently, the Romans planned to abduct Sabine women, during a festival of Neptune Equester and proclaimed the festival among Rome's neighbours. According to Livy, many people from Rome's neighbours including folk from the Caeninenses, Crustumini, and Antemnates, and many of the Sabines attended. At the festival Romulus gave a signal, at which the Romans grabbed the Sabine women and fought off the Sabine men. The indignant abductees were soon implored by Romulus to accept Roman husbands.
ecoli
Sabin.jpg
L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus150 viewsSABIN
Bare head of King Tatius right, bearded. Palm branch before

L TITVRI
Tarpeia facing, buried to her waist in shields, trying to ward off two soldiers who are about to cast their shields on her, star within crescent moon above

Rome, 89 BC

3.84g

Sear 251, RRC 344/2a

Ex-ANE from an old collection

Jet black toning.

One of the great legends of Rome commemorated on a coin. It tells the story of Rome being besieged by the Sabine king Titus Tatius after the "Rape" of the Sabine women. Tarpeia, daughter of the Roman commander Spurius Tarpeius, went out to the Sabine camp and offered them entry to the city in exchange for "what they bore on their left arms". She had meant their gold bracelets worn on their arms. Once inside the citadel the Sabines threw their shields—carried on the left arm—upon her, crushing her to death. Her body was then thrown from a steep cliff of the southern summit of the Capitoline Hill. The cliff was named the Tarpeian Rock after Tarpeia and would become the place of execution for Rome's most notorious traitors. King Tatius and Romulus soon were reconciled through the efforts of the abducted Sabine women who had come to love their Roman abductors. They jointly ruled over Rome for the next 5 years until Tatius death.
9 commentsJay GT4
Titurius_Sabinus~0.jpg
L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus - AR denarius9 viewsRome
¹²89 BC
head of king Titus Tatius right, palm branch right
A·PV / SABIN
two Roman soldiers running left, each bearing a Sabine woman in his arms
L·TITVRI
¹Crawford 344/1c; Sydenham 698b; Tituria 3; RR1 2324, p.297
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,2g
ex Solidus

The reverse shows the famous rape of the Sabine women.

"The Sabines were ancient people of central Italy ... From the earliest days there was a Sabine element in Rome. After foundation of the double kingdom of Romulus and Titus Tatius the Romans were called Quirites too (populus Romanus Quiritium), referring to Cures, the capital of the Sabinians, where Numa Pompilius was originated too. The story of the rape of the Sabine women to supply wives for the womanless followers of Romulus is a legend explaining this fact. Many Roman religious practices are said to have Sabine origins. Rome was involved in numerous wars with the inland Sabines; Horatius is supposed to have defeated them in the 5th cent. BC, and Marcus Curius Dentatus conquered them in 290 BC. The Sabines became Roman citizens 268 BC. The Samnites were possibly a branch of the Sabines. Anyway often the Samnites were confused by the Romans with the Sabinians." - Jochen's Coins of mythological interest
Johny SYSEL
Screen_Shot_2014-06-22_at_10_08_09_PM.png
Licinus Bronze Follis24 views68338. Bronze follis, RIC VII 8, aVF, 2.742g, 20.2mm, 180o, Siscia (Sisak, Croatia) mint, 313 - 315 A.D.;

obverse IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right;

reverse IOVI CON-SERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, "G" right, SIS in ex

Jupiter or Jove, Zeus to the Greeks, was the king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder, and of laws and social order. As the patron deity of ancient Rome, he was the chief god of the Capitoline Triad, with his sister and wife Juno. The father of Mars, he is therefore the grandfather of Romulus and Remus, the legendary founders of Rome.
Colby S
collage4~5.jpg
Lyons, Wolf & Twins45 viewsVRBS ROMA

She wolf suckling Romulus and Remes, two stars above

dot in crescent PLG

RIC VII Lyons 257
1 commentsarizonarobin
macrino.jpg
MACRINUS18 viewsAE 30. Laodicea ad Mare. 217 - 218 AD. 20,14 grs. Laureate head right. IMP C M OP SEVE MACRINOS AVG / She-wolf standing right suckling the twins Romulus and Remus . ROMAE above. FEL in exergue.
BMC Galatia pg. 261, 97 var (no P before AVG).
Pecunem 17 , lot 133.
benito
3350497.jpg
Marcus Aurelius29 viewsMarcus Aurelius. AD 161-180. Æ As (26mm, 9.49 g, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 175. Laureate head right / Tiber reclining left, resting hand on boat. RIC III 1142; MIR 18, 290-9/30. VF, dark brown patina.

The chief river in central Italy, the Tiber rises as a small southwestern flow in the Apennines near Arretium, separating Etruria from Umbria and Latium. It flows 250 miles to the Mediterranean Sea at Ostia, joined by the Nar river after 110 miles, where its swift current is navigable but dangerous, and by the Teverone river 70 miles further on, where it becomes truly navigable, three miles north of Rome. Inside Rome, 22 miles from the coast, the Tiber is about 300 feet wide, 12-18 feet deep, and swift-moving, regularly overflowing its banks with heavy rains. Augustus created the office of curatores riparum et alvei Tiberis to deal with this recurring problem (Suetonius, Vita Divi Augusti 37). Muddy from the silt it carried (the Roman poets called it flavus tiberis), it formed Tiber Island at one bend in Rome and Insula Sacra, an island sacred to Venus 4 miles from the coast at Ostia,which was the ancient source of salt deposits.

The Tiber River is the symbolic father of Rome, guiding Aeneas in a dream to the future site of Rome (Vergil, AEN. VIII. 31-67), bearing the infant twins Romulus and Remus to safety, and serving as a safe and profitable pathway for early Roman commerce.
ecoli
0621-310.jpg
MAUSOLEUM or SHRINE, Romulus, Posthumous follis256 viewsFollis struck in Ostia, 1st officina
DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS, Bare head of Romulus right
AETERNAE MEMORIAE, Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, M OST P at exergue
7.35 gr
RC #3786 var, Cohen #4

The Temple of Divus Romulus is a circular building with a concave facade preceded by columns on the Via Sacra. It was probably a temple for Romulus, the son of emperor Maxentius, but it has also been identified as the Temple of Jupiter Stator and as the sanctuary of the penates publici. The building is located between the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the Basilica of Maxentius.

When emperor Maxentius' son Romulus died in 307 CE, he was deified and hence a temple was built in his honour. Coins commemorating Romulus often depict a round building with a varying number columns in front. Some of them probably show the round mausoleum of Romulus on the Appian Way, others might portray the temple, which has led to the identification of the rotunda on the Via Sacra with the Temple of Divus Romulus. The location would be likely, given Maxentius' building activities nearby.
Explanations are copied from : http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/176_Temple_of_Romulus.html
5 commentsPotator II
Untitled.jpg
Maxentius25 viewsMaxentius, castor, pollux, romulus, remus and the she wolfChance Vandal
Maxentius_rev.jpg
Maxentius 306-31222 viewsMaxentius - Valerius Romulus 306-326
Maxentius 306-312
ca. 310/311 Rom (ABP/H) Av.: IMP C MAXENTIVS, belorb. Kopf r. Rv.: CONSERV VRB SVAE, sechssäuliger Romatempel; im Giebel Kranz. RIC: 258 vzgl.

http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=5127
1 commentsZeeuwsepiep
Maxentius_RIC_113.jpg
Maxentius RIC 11351 viewsObv IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head of Maxentius right
Rev: CONSERV VRB SVAE, tetrastyle temple with she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus within pediment and Victories as acroteria; within, Roma seated left on round shield, holding scepter, presenting globe to emperor standing right, foot resting on bound captive seated right, and holding scepter, AQr in ex
Mint: Aquileia 306-312 AD
Size:24 mm, 6.94 g, 6 h
Ids: RIC 113
2 commentsickster
0620-310np_noir.jpg
Maxentius, Follis122 viewsAquilea mint, 1st officina, AD 309-310
IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head of Maxentius right
CONSERV VRBS SVAE, Tetrastyle temple, Roma seated left, a foot on captive, giving a globe to Maxentius standing right. She wolf suckling Romulus and Remus in pediment. AQP at exergue
6.55 gr
Ref : RCV # 14992 (100), Cohen #42
2 commentsPotator II
0620-320.jpg
Maxentius, Follis102 viewsOstia mint, 3rd officina AD 309
IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head of Maxentius right
AET ERNITAS AVGN, Dioscuri facing each other, holding their horse by bridle. Between them she wolf suckling Remus and Romulus. MOSTΓ at exergue
7.43 gr
Ref : Cohen # 10, RCV # 14976 (100), RIC VI # 16
3 commentsPotator II
0620-320~0.jpg
Maxentius, Follis34 viewsOstia mint, 3rd officina AD 309
IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head of Maxentius right
AET ERNITAS AVGN, Dioscuri facing each other, holding their horse by bridle. Between them she wolf suckling Remus and Romulus. MOSTΓ at exergue
7.43 gr
Ref : Cohen # 10, RCV # 14976 (100), RIC VI # 16
Potator II
0620-310.jpg
Maxentius, Follis44 viewsAquilea mint, 1st officina, AD 309-310
IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate head of Maxentius right
CONSERV VRBS SVAE, Tetrastyle temple, Roma seated left, a foot on captive, giving a globe to Maxentius standing right. She wolf suckling Romulus and Remus in pediment. AQP at exergue
6.55 gr
Ref : RCV # 14992 (100), Cohen #42
1 commentsPotator II
0620-321.jpg
Maxentius, Follis87 viewsOstia mint, 1st officina AD 309-312
IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, Laureate head of Maxentius right
SAECVLI FELICITAS AVG N, She wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus, MOSTP at exergue

Ref : RIC VI # 52, RCV # 15024, Cohen # 101 (12)
4 commentsPotator II
Romulus_Momilus.jpg
Modern intaglio23 viewsThis intaglio represents Romulus Augustulus, the last western emperor. The legend is ROMVLVS MOMILVS.
I do not know where and when such an intaglio was made, but it is certainly modern. The real nam of this emperor was Romulus Augustus. Because of the inaccurate reading of one of his solidi's legend, some XVIth to XIXth c. authors believed he had been called "Momilus".
Ginolerhino
nikopolis_commodus_HrJ8_10_33_1corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.33.02 (plate coin)36 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE - AE 18, 2.91g, 18.48mm, 195°
obv. AVT KA - I AVR KOMOD - OC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLITWN / PROC I
Roman she-wolf stg. r., head l., suckling the twins Remus and Romulus
ref. a) AMNG I/1, [1248] var. (#1248 has AVT KAI M AVR. The square brackets mean that Pick haven't had this coin in his own hands! The
description seems to be from Tacchella.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2205 var. (= AMNG 1248, but the legend on his coin is illegible!
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.33.2 (plate coin)
F+, deep-green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_commodus_HrHJ(2018)8_10_33_3corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 10. Commodus, HrHJ (2018) 8.10.33.03 corr.6 viewsCommodus, AD 177-192
AE 17, 2.87g, 16.73, 180°
obv. AVT KAI - AVR KOMOD - OC
Laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLI PROC / ICTRO
Roman she-wolf stg. r., suckling Remus and Romulus
ref. a) not in AMNG:
cf. AMNG I/1, 1248 (for the type only)
b) not in Varbanov:
cf. #2205 (= AMNG 1248)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.10.33.3 corr. (same dies, but writes AVT
KA - I AVR)
F/F-
Jochen
nikopolis_severus_HrHJ(2015)8_14_33_1var.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.33.01 var.3 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 16, 2.60g, 16.18mm, 180°
obv. AV L - CEVHROC
Laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLI [PROC I] / CTRW
Roman she-wolf stg. r., looking l., suckling Remus and Romulus
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1408 var. (has PROC / ICTR)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2310 var. (has PROC / ICTO)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.33.1 var. (has PROC / ICTW)
F+, dark green patina
Jochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_Moushmov922.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.33.02 (plate coin)49 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 17, 3.22g, 17.08mm, 0°
obv. AV L - CEVHROC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLI PROC / ICTW
She-wolf stg. r., head l., suckling the twins Remus and Romulus
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1408 var. (has ICTR)
Usually AV KAI - CEVHROC, but ex. from Bukarest has AV L (like AMNG 1389)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2333
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.33.2 (plate coin)
rare, about VF
Jochen
nikopolis_sept_severus_HrJ8_14_33_3corr.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 14. Septimius Severus, HrHJ (2018) 8.14.33.03 (plate coin)18 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE - AE 19, 3.06g, 17.78-19.42mm, 45°
obv. [AV] KAI CE. - CEVHROC
laureate head r.
rev. NIKOPOLITWN / PROC IC / TRON
Roman she-wolf stg. l., head r., suckling the twins Remus and Romulus
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1409, pl. XX, 6 (3 ex., Löbbecke, Mionnet, Hoffmann)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2539 corr. (without TRON)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.14.33.3 (plate coin)
F+/F-, dark green patina

Pick writes: It is possible that there are in the ex. under PROC IC some more letters. On my coin you can clearly read TRON!
Jochen
AntoSe08-2.jpg
Ops139 viewsorichalcum sestertius (24.0g, 33mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144
ANTONINVS AVG PI[-]VS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
OPI AVG / S C [in ex.] Ops seated left, holding sceptre, left hand drawing back drapery.
RIC 612 (Scarce); Cohen 569 (fr.8); BMC 1258-62; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 130:67

Ops stands for plenty, properity, power, fertility... Her cult goes back to the earliest times, supposedly founded by Romulus. She is the wife of Saturn, sometimes equated with Cybele. Appears on Roman coins only twice (also on issues of Pertinax). The issue under A. Pius is most probably associated with the 900th anniversary of Rome.
1 commentsCharles S
octawhole.png
Otacilia Severa21 viewsTHRACE. Deultum. Otacilia Severa, wife of Philip I (AD 244-249). Æ 23mm (6.58 gm).
Diademed and draped bust of Otacilia right / She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus.
Varbanov 3082.
Chance Vandal
P_Satrienus.jpg
P. Satrienus - AR denarius11 viewsRome
²76 BC
¹77 BC
helmeted head of young Mars right
XVI
she-wolf prowling left
ROMA
P. SATRIE / NVS
¹Crawford 388/1b, SRCV I 319, Sydenham 781a, RSC I Satriena 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,7g
ex Aureo & Calicó

The she-wolf, symbolic of Rome, depicted on this coin is not directly connected to the she-wolf that nursed Romulus and Remus. It was perhaps adopted as a symbol of Rome after the defeat of the rebel Italians who likened Rome to a predatory wolf. (Michael H. Crawford)
Johny SYSEL
1797_Agora_Sale_90,_Sept_3,_2019,_#2.jpg
parium003a1 viewsElagabalus
Parium, Mysia

Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS FEL AV, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear.
Rev: C G I H P , Capitoline she-wolf right, looking back at twins, Romulus and Remus suckling.
22 mm, 6.46 gms

RPC Online 3864; CNG EA 387, 30 Nov. 2016, lot 300; ); Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger, Auction 332, lot 2574 , 20.09.2017; Agora E-Sale 90, Lot 034 (this coin)
Charles M
philuploba.jpg
PHILIP I39 viewsAR antoninianus. 248 AD. 4,59 grs. Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right. IMP. PHILIPPVS AVG / She-wolf left, suckling the twins, Romulus & Remus. SAECVLARES AVGG.
RIC 15. Cohen 178.


benito
philuploba~0.jpg
PHILIP I23 viewsAR antoninianus. 248 AD. 4,59 grs. Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right. IMP. PHILIPPVS AVG / She-wolf left, suckling the twins, Romulus & Remus. SAECVLARES AVGG.
RIC 15. Cohen 178.

benito
PhilWolf.JPG
Philip I - Wolf and twins47 viewsIMP PHILIPPVS AVG
SAECVLARES AVGG
Wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus, II ex.
RIC 14, C 178
Rome, 248 AD
whitetd49
philip_RIC19.jpg
PHILIP I AR antoninianus AD24824 viewsobv: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG (radiate head right)
rev: SAECVLARES AVGG (stag walking right), V (or U) in ex.
ref: RIC IViii 19 (C), RSC 182 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
3.35gms, 22mm
Scarcer

In April 248, Philip had the honour of leading the celebrations of the one thousandth birthday of Rome, which according to tradition was founded in 753 BC by Romulus. He combined the anniversary with the celebration of Rome's alleged tenth saeculum. According to contemporary accounts, the festivities were magnificent and included spectacular games, ludi saeculares, and theatrical presentations throughout the city. In the coliseum, more than 1,000 gladiators were killed along with hundreds of exotic animals including hippos, leopards, lions, giraffes, and one rhinoceros.
1 commentsberserker
Philip_I_AR_Antoninianus__Commemorating_1000th_Anniversary_of_Rome.jpg
Philip I. AD 244-249. AR Antoninianus (22mm, 4.12 g, 6h). Commemorating the Secular Games/1000th Anniversary of Rome. 61 viewsRome mint, 2nd officina. 9th emission, AD 248. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / She-wolf left, suckling twins Remus and Romulus; II in exergue. RIC IV 15; RSC 178. gVF, toned, some verdigris. 4 commentsSam
0310-220.jpg
Philippus I, Antoninianus46 viewsRome mint, AD 248, 2nd officina
IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
SAECVLARES AVGG, She wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus, II at exergue
3.7 gr
Ref : RCV # 8957, RIC # 15, Cohen # 178
Potator II
0310-220~1.jpg
Philippus I, Antoninianus32 viewsRome mint, AD 248, 2nd officina
IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
SAECVLARES AVGG, She wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus, II at exergue
3.7 gr
Ref : RCV # 8957, RIC # 15, Cohen # 178
Potator II
hierapolis_phrygia_BMC95var.jpg
Phrygia, Hierapolis, pseudo-autonomous BMC 95 var.40 viewsQuasi-autonomous, 2nd-3rd century AD
AE 24, 7.34g
obv. LAIR - BHNOC
Bust of Apollo Lairbenos, draped and radiate, r.
rev. IERAPOLEITWN / NEWKORW / N
She-wolf suckling the twins Remus and Romulus; star above
BMC 95 var.
about VF, dark green patina

Lairbenos is an ungreek name of Apollo from Asia Minor. Some put it to 'labrys' = double axe, others to Hetitian 'labarnas' = master. But more possibly it is a toponymikon or ethnikon. There are several sanctuaries of Lairbenos in Phrygia with numerous votiv inscriptions especially in Dionysopolis and Motela.
Jochen
PMTRP_VII_Cld_spear_and_trophy_RIC_472.jpg
PMTRP VII Sev Alex trophy and spear Cld25 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped
Reverse: PMTRPVII_COSIIPP, SC left and right in field
Severus Alexander as Romulus, bareheaded in military dress, advancing right, holding spear pointing transversely upward in right hand and trophy over left shoulder in left.
BMC 512 obverse variant, pl. 17 (slightly draped)
Weight, 18.285g; die axis, 12h.
mix_val
PMTRP_VII_Dlsd_sev_alex_trophy_and_spear.jpg
PMTRP VII Sev Alex trophy and spear Dlsd51 viewsObverse: IMPSEVALE_XANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, slightly draped left shoulder (Aegis?)
Reverse: PMTRPVII_COSIIPP, SC left and right in field
Severus Alexander as Romulus, bareheaded in military dress, advancing right, holding spear pointing transversely upward in right hand and trophy over left shoulder in left.
BMC 512 (plate 17), RIC 482
Weight, 19.644g; die axis, 12h
3 commentsmix_val
00550q00.jpg
Probus11 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP C PROBVS P F AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
ORIGINI AVG; She wolf right, feeding Romulus and Remus.
Ex: XXIT
Siscia
RIC 703
Julianus of Pannonia
she_wolf.JPG
Remus and Romulus with the she-wolf542 viewsThe symbol of Rome this is an Etruscan bronze currently on display at the Musei Capitolini in Rome.Titus Pullo
0010-010.jpg
Republic, Didrachm67 viewsRome mint c. 269-266 BC
No legend, Diademed head of young Hercules right, with club and lion's skin over shoulder
ROMANO, She wolf right, suckling Romulus and Remus
7.29 gr
Ref : RCV # 24, RSC # 8
2 commentsPotator II
LarryW8021.jpg
RGA, Severus Alexander, AD 222-235153 viewsGold aureus, 20.55mm, 5.92g, FDC
Struck AD 230 at Rome
IMP SEV ALE–XANDER AVG, laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder / P M TR P VIIII COS III P P, emperor as Romulus advancing right, holding spear and trophy. COA
Ex: Gemini III, lot 430
RIC 103; BMCRE 620
4 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
Marcus_Aurelius_RIC1247_As.jpg
RIC III Marcus Aurelius Type 1247 As33 viewsObverse: M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG. Laureate head of Marcus Aurelius facing right.
Reverse: TRP XXXIIII IMP X COS III S.C. She-wolf standing right in a cave suckling Romulus and Remus.
9.53gr, 21mm.
Rome, struck between December 172 and December 173 A.D.
2 commentsfnord123
RIC_Urbs_RIC_VII_Siscia_222.jpg
RIC VII Siscia 22214 viewsRome mint, third officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-333 A.D.
AE3/4, 2.37 g., 18.73 mm., 0°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, ΓSIS in exergue.

RIC rarity C3
Stkp
RIC_Urbs_RIC_VII_Siscia_240.jpg
RIC VII Siscia 24011 viewsRome mint, third officina, struck under Constantine I, 334-335 A.D.
AE3/4, 2.75 g., 18.26 mm., 0°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, ⁕ΓSIS⁕ in exergue.

RIC rarity C3
Stkp
_(KGrHqJ,!g4E7P9OcI2TBPEY3)uJsg~~60_12.jpg
ROMA Commermorative 33.3-334 ap.J-C33 viewsObv. VRBS ROMA, buste casqué et cuirassé à gauche.
Rev: louve allaitant Romulus and Remus, au-dessus de deux étoiles.
Marque d'atelier: SMHG
18mm.,2,62g .,patine vert foncee,Superbe SOLD

Heraclea
RIC VII 129 Urbs Roma commemorative AE3. 330-334 AD. VRBS ROMA, helmeted cuirassed bust of Roma left / she-wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus, star-three vertical dots-star above, SMHe in ex.
_3205
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
roma-city-comm-25-euro.jpg
Roma City Commemorative (330-337 AD) AE3, Antioch mint27 viewsRoman Imperial, Roma City Commemorative (330-337 AD) AE3, Antioch mint

Obverse: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted head of Roma left, in imperial mantle, and ornamental necklace.

Reverse: No legend. She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, circle of dots on wolf's shoulder, two stars above. Mintmark SMANΘ.

Reference: RIC VII Antioch 91/113

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics +photo
1 commentsGil-galad
roma-city-comm-06-24-2018.jpg
Roma City Commemorative AE3, (330-333 AD)13 viewsRoman Imperial, Roma City Commemorative AE3, (330-333 AD)

Obverse: VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle.

Reverse: Wolf standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above, wreath on wolf's shoulder. Mintmark: SMTSƐ

Reference: RIC VII Thessalonica 187; Sear 16516; RIC R4 wreath on shoulder var

Ex: Lazar Lazo Trivunović
Gil-galad
VRBS_Roma_3a.jpg
Roma | She-wolf with Legendary twins * VRBS ROMA * Thessalonica, Æ3 Follis - 4th C. AD.174 views
Roma | She-wolf & Twins * Thessalonica, Bronze Follis

Obv: Roma helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust, left: VRBS ROMA
Rev: She-wolf standing left, head lowered, looking back & downwards to the twins, Romulus and Remus
suckling below, two stars above.

Exergue: SMTS Ε

Mint: Thessalonica
Struck: 4th C. AD

Size: 17.94 mm.
Weight: 1.57 grm.
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Quite fine. As shown in photo which is quite faithful to the coin in hand.

Refs:*
RIC VII 229
(VII 229, Thessalonica)
1 commentsTiathena
quadran_1.jpg
Roman Anonymous quadrans71 viewsAnonymous Quadrans. AE.
Bearded head of Tiber r., crowned with reed.
Rev. SC The Roman she-wolf standing r., suckling the Twins Romulus and Remus.
RIC II, 217, 17. C. VIII, 269, 22.
Rare.
1 commentsTanit
Philip_I_,_The_Syrian_1000th_anniversary_of_Rome_(248_A_D_).jpg
Roman Empire , Emperor Philip I (AD 244 - 249) , the Syrian. AR Antoninianus struck for the 1000th anniversary of Rome (248 A.D.)45 viewsSilver Antoninianus (Max Dia 24.5 mm, 3.75 gm.)
Struck in Rome in A.D. 248
Reference: RSC 178.RIC 15.
IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed.
SAECVLARES AVGG, she-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Remus and Romulus, II in ex.
Fantastic reverse.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Philip_I.jpg
Roman Empire , Emperor Philip I , The Syrian ( 244 - 249 A.D. ) . Silver Antoninianus , Commemorating the 1000th Anniversary of Rome.109 viewsObverse : IMP PHILIPPVS AVG Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse : SAECVLARES AVGG She wolf left, suckling the twins Remus and Romulus, II in exergue .
Rome mint . Year 248 A.D.,
Ref ; RIC 15. (The Roman Imperial Coinage, Volume IV, Part III, #15)
Very Fine . 3.07 Gr., Max Dia., 22 mm.

*This coin is from the issue celebrating the 1000th anniversary of the founding of Rome.

*Philip I , was the first Roman emperor believed in Christianity.
While Roman emperor Constantine the Great or the first was the first Roman emperor
believed in Christianity and announced it as the religion of the Roman empire.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection./ NO. RI 20332
Sam
ROME_-_CITY_COMMEM_ROME_RBQ.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - City Commemorative - Rome18 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - City Commemorative - Rome. AE Follis, minted 330-331 AD. Obv.: Bust left, wearing helmet with plume, wearing imperial mantle. VRBS ROMA Rev.: She-wolf standing left, head turned right, suckling twins Romulus and Remus. 2 stars above. Flower on wolf's shoulder formed by circle of 6 dots with one dot in the centre. Mintmark: RBQ = Rome. Reference: RIC VII Rome 338 var (shoulder mark).dpaul7
ninica_claudiopolis_maximinusI_SNGlevsupp170+.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Cilicia, Ninica-Claudiopolis, Maximinus I, SNG Levante Supp. 170 (plate coin)102 viewsMaximinus I AD 235-236
AE 30 mm, 14.59 g
obv. IMP.CAES.SA.IVL.VER.MAXI / MINVS
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. NINIC COL CLA / VDIOPO / L
She-wolf standing right under Ruminal fig tree, head l., suckling the twins
Remus and Romulus
ref. SNG Levante 618 (same dies); SNG Levante Supp. 170 (this coin); SNG Paris 791 (same dies); SNG von
Aulock 5775 (same dies)
Choice EF, nice olive-brown patina, rare this nice.
published on www.wildwinds.com

The fig tree was sanctified to the goddess Rumina. Later the twins were found by the shepherd Faustulus. The rest is well-known!
The legend is in Latin because the city was a Roman colonia. The she-wolf looks a bit like a horse!
2 commentsJochen
IM-BFDW.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Gordian III, Pisidia, Antioch20 viewsAE 33 Gordianus 236-244AD Pisidia, Antiochia. Revers : Wolf with Romulus and Remus
BMC 104
1 commentsKarsten K
octawhole.png
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Otacilia Severa, AE23, A.D.244-249, Deultum41 viewsTHRACE. Deultum. Otacilia Severa, wife of Philip I (AD 244-249). Æ 23mm (6.58 gm).
Diademed and draped bust of Otacilia right / She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus.
Varbanov 3082. Pleasing light brown patina.
chance v
ANTOSEb4~0~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Antoninus Pius, Sestertius, RIC 642a198 viewsorichalcum sestertius (33mm, 22,9g, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: TIBERIS / S C (in ex.) River god the Tiber, draped about waist, reclining to left, leaning with elbow on urn which pours out water, resting right hand on ship's prow and holding reed in the left.
RIC 642a (rare), Cohen 819 (fr.20), BMC 1313-15, Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 129:60
ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. Auction 401; Ex NAC AG, Auction 54; ex Busso-Peus Nachf sale 351 (1997).

Struck in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome celebrated in AD 147.
The river god Tiber plays an important role in ancient Roman legends such as Rhea Silvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus, who was thrown into the river to be drowned. She fell into the arms of the River god who married her; Romulus and Remus were saved by the river god Tiber who safely left the twins in a pool where they were rescued by a wolf.
4 commentsCharles S
AntoSe65-2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Antoninus Pius, sestertius, RIC 100467 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (22.23g,30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
ANTONINVS AVG [-] PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head right
TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST [around] COS IIII [in ex.] S C [in field] Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia
ex Triton VI (2003)
The second temple of Divus Augustus, was restored under Antoninus Pius in 158. The reliefs on the pediment cannot be identifed with certainty, but the statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the left and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the right.
2 commentsCharles S
4YjDLz6WiNC9Ry7G5qSq4f2Ag3JPZb.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, City Commemorative, URBS ROMA, 330-333 AD.51 viewsConstantine I commemorative issue
VRBS ROMA A.D. 330-333
17x18mm 2.1gm
Obv. VRBS-ROMA [City of Rome] Roma, helmeted, wearing imperial cloak.
Rev. She-wolf left with twins (Romulus and Remus); above, two stars.
RIC VII (Siscia) 240
chance v
17__Bronze_à_la_louve.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, City Commemorative, URBS ROMA, AD 306-337153 views- Petit bronze, Constantin I, Trèves, 306-337 (Bronze) 20
Avers : Buste casqué et cuirassé de Rome à gauche. VRBS - ROMA.
Revers : La Louve à gauche allaitant Rémus et Romulus. Au-dessus, les deux étoiles des Dioscures (les Gémeaux, Castor et Pollux). TRS.
Roger D2
bpC1E1Barbarous.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, CITY COMMEMORATIVE, URBS ROMA, Barbarous125 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted and cuiirassed bust, left
Rev: Anepigraphic
She-wolf standing, left, suckling Romulus and Remus. Two stars above.
1.4 gm 14.5 mm Mark: • in crescent PLG•
RIC: N/A
Comment: Attributed by Adrian Marsden to a production site suspected to be somewhere in Britian and known for it's high quality imitations. Mimics the style of the reduced weight issues of Arles while carryind a fabricated mintmark of Lugdunum (Lyons).
Massanutten
Roman_Imperial_RIC240.jpg
Roman Empire, City Commemorative, Urbs Roma, Follis, Siscia (RIC-240)313 viewsObv: Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Roma facing left. Legend around - VRBS ROMA
Rev: Lupa Romana standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus; two stars above. Legend below - • ASIS •

From the Nether Compton hoard

4 commentsSpongeBob
Treveri_(Trier)_mint~0.jpg
Roman Empire, City Commemorative, Urbs Roma, Follis, Trier152 viewsCommemorative Series. AD 330-354. Æ Follis (17mm, 2.61 g, 6h).
Treveri (Trier) mint, 2nd officina. Struck under Constantine I, AD 332-333. Helmeted and mantled bust of Roma left / She-wolf standing left, head right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; two stars above; TR•S. RIC VII 542; LRBC 65. EF, gray-brown patina.

From the collection of the MoneyMuseum, Zurich. Ex Münz Zentrum Köln 104 (6 September 2000), lot 613.
1 commentsLeo
Constantine__________The_Great__or_______Constantine_I.jpg
Roman Empire, City Commemorative, Urbs Roma, Issued 330-346 AD, bronze122 viewsObverse: Helmeted bust of Roma to left.
Reverse: She Wolf suckles Romulus and Remus,•SMKB in exergue.
17.4 mm, 2.52 grs
Cyzicus mint, 335 - 337 A.D
References : RIC VII 105
Sam Mansourati Collection
Sam
VRBS-ROMA.jpg
Roman Empire, City Commemorative, Urbs Roma, VRBS ROMA108 viewsAnonymous AE Follis
VRBS ROMA - Roma helmeted, wearing imperial mantle
No reverse legend - She wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, wolf right
SMAN Theta mint mark, Antioch mint (330-335 AD)
RIC VII Antioch 91/113

Stunning EF coin, nicest I have ever seen. Bust is sharp, reverse has incredible details on the wolf, and wonderful facial details on Romulus and Remus. Flan is problem free with no flan cracks.
2 commentsHolding_History
VRBS_ROMA_Trier_mint~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, City Commemorative, Urbs Roma, VRBS ROMA Trier mint 424 viewsTR•S

2.32 g, 16.5 x 17.4 mm.
RIC VII:542 for Trier. Minted 332-333 AD.
OBv.: Roma left, VRBS ROMA.
REV.: Wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, TR•S in exergue.
2 commentsXLi
normal_rjb_wolf2_01_05~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, City Commemorative, Urbs Roma, VRBS ROMA Wolf and Twins AE3679 viewsObverse: VRBS-ROMA Helmeted hear of Roma left
Reverse: Wolf and Twins left, branch between two stars above
Exergue: TRP
Mint: Trier
Attribution: RIC VII Trier 561
Rarity: C3
A common coin but one that I'm fond of.
Mauseus
5 commentsmauseus
bpC1A1UrbsRoma.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, CITY COMMEMORATIVE, URBS ROMA. 95 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted and cuirassed bust, left.
Rev: Anepigraphic
She-wolf standing, left, suckling Romulus and Remus. Two stars above.
2.4 gm 17.8 mm Mark: TR•S
RIC VII Treveri, 542 C3
Massanutten
bpC1A5UrbsRoma.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, CITY COMMEMORATIVE, URBS ROMA. 52 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted and cuirassed bust, left.
Rev: Anepigraphic
She-wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus. Two stars above.
2.2 gm, 18.4 mm, Mark: •••/ /SMNΓ
RIC VII Nicomedia 195, R1.
Massanutten
bpC1A3UrbsRoma.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, CITY COMMEMORATIVE, URBS ROMA. 59 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted and cuirassed bust left.
Rev: Anepigraphic
She-wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus. Two stars above.
2.5 gm, 17 mm, Mark: TRS•
RIC VII Treveri 529, C3
Comment: Restored from uncleaned lot.
Massanutten
URBS.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, CITY COMMEMORATIVE, URBS ROMA. 26 viewsFollis VRBS ROMA. Atelier de Trêves, 2ème officine. RIC 561.
Avers: VRBS ROMA. Buste casqué et cuirassé de Rome à gauche
Revers: TRS. La louve à gauche, allaitant Romulus et Rémus ; au-dessus, les deux étoiles des Dioscures, palme penchée à droite
1 commentsKenobi O
const1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, CITY COMMEMORATIVE, URBS ROMA. Mint: Siscia24 viewsType: Follis
Date: 281
Metal: Billon
Mint: Siscia
Weight: 2,41 g
Diameter: 17,5 mm
RIC VII 240
Obverse: VRBS ROMA
helmeted bust of Roma left
Reverse: SIS
She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus
Hadrian63
City_of_Rome_Commemorative_335_-_337.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, City Commemorative, VRBS ROMA, AD 335 - 337, Arles mint. 54 viewsCity of Rome Commemorative, 335 - 337. Arles mint. Bronze AE 3, 2.343g, 17,7 mm. VF. Obv: helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle, VRBS ROMA. Rev: Romulus and Remus suckling from she-wolf. Two stars above. Ex: PCONST. Ref: RIC 368. RARE1 commentsBard Gram O
rma.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, City Commemorative, VRBS ROMA, c.335 AD, helmeted Roma - Suckling Wolf71 viewsCity Commemorative, AE18. Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted head of Roma left, in imperial cloak, and ornamental necklace.
Rev: She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above, circle on wolf's shoulder. Mintmark: SMANS
1 commentssuperflex
moneta 229c.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, City Commerative, Urbs Roma, Arles - RIC VII 373167 viewsCity Commerative AE3
obv: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.
rev: She-wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above, wreath between them. Wreath above.
exergue: SCONST
Struck 333-334 A.D. at Arles
RIC VII 373 (R3)
Van Meter 2
Jericho
urbs_roma_pikku.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Commemorative Urbs Roma43 viewsAes, folles, 334-335 AD
obv. VRBS-ROMA,
l. helmeted, wearing imperial cloak
rev. -
She-wolf left with Romulus and Remus and two stars
exe: dot gamma SIS dot (Siscia)
Ref.: RIC VII 240 SISCIA
Rarity: C3 (common)
4 commentsJaniO
vrbsgammaSIS.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Commemorative VRBS ROMA - gamma SIS40 viewsRIC VII Siscia 222black-prophet
smtse2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Commemorative VRBS ROMA - SMTSepsilon48 views1 commentsblack-prophet
vrbssis.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Commemorative VRBS ROMA - •ΓSIS•60 viewsRIC VII Siscia 2402 commentsblack-prophet
vrbsdotASISdot.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Commemorative VRBS ROMA - •ASIS•29 viewsRIC VII Siscia 240black-prophet
vrbssmano.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Commemorative VRBS ROMA -SMAN (theta)35 viewsRIC VII Antioch 113black-prophet
Constantine I City Commemorative RIC Lyons 252 obv and rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantine I, RIC Lyon 25282 viewsConstantine I
AE3
Lugdunum Mint. 330-337.
Obv: VRBS ROMA - Helmeted bust of Roma left.
Rev: [anepigraphic] - She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus.
Exergue: (crescent)PLG
Ref: RIC Lyons 252
seraphic
Constantine I City Commemorative RIC Trier 542 obv and rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantine I, RIC Trier 54265 viewsConstantine I
AE3
Trier Mint. 330-341 A.D.
Obv: VRBS ROMA - Helmeted bust of Roma left.
Rev: [anepigraphic] - She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus.Two stars above.
Exergue: TR(dot)S
Ref: RIC Trier 542. VM 2.
1 commentsseraphic
0670-220~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantius II, Light Miliarense, FERRANDO, L'atelier monétaire d'Arles de Constantin à Romulus 313-476 - # 1026110 viewsArles mint (Arelate), 3d officina
DN CONSTAN TIVS PF AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius right
VIRTVS EXERCITVS, Constantius (soldier) facing holding spear and shield. TCON at exergue
4,54 gr ; 22,6 mm
Ref : RIC VII # 252, Ferrando II # 1026 (this coin), Cohen #326, RC #3993v
Potator II
domitian_wolf.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 77-78.70 viewsDomitian, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 77-78. CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS, laureate head right / She-wolf suckling twins, COS V above, boat in exergue.
RIC 961. 3.12g, 19mm, 5h.
2 commentschance v
gallineus_1628a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, AE Antoninianus, 264-265 AD25 viewsGALLIENUS (253-268). Antoninianus. Antioch.
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG.Radiate head left.
Rev: AETERNITAS AVG. Wolf standing right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, palm branch in exergue.
MIR 1628a.
2.5 g. 22 mm. Pecunem 10 lot 659
chance v
gallienus_wolf.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, AE Antoninianus, 264-265 AD39 viewsGallienus BI Antoninianus. Antioch, AD 264-265.
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: AETERNITAS AVG, she-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; below, grain ear.
RIC V 628; MIR 36, 1628d; RSC 46c. 3.80g, 22mm, 10h.
Roma Numismatics esale 3 lot 722
1 commentschance v
Divo-Galerius_Temple~0.JPG
Roman Empire, MAXIMIANUS. Commemorative Follis of Ostia. Struck A.D.310 - 312 under Maxentius20 viewsObverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI. Veiled head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Weight: 5.2gms
RIC VI : 26
RARE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312.
*Alex
philip_I_wolf~0.jpg
Roman Empire, PHILIP I THE ARAB (244–249). Antoninianus. Rome. 261 viewsPHILIP I THE ARAB (244–249). Antoninianus. Rome.
Obv: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG.
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SAECVLARES AVGG / II.
She-wolf standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus.
RIC 15.
Ex Numismatik Lanz auction 40 (1987) Lot 783.
Weight: 5.5 g.
Diameter: 23 mm.
3 commentspaul1888
0310-220~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, PHILIP I, antoninianus, RIC 15174 viewsRome mint, AD 248, 2nd officina
IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
SAECVLARES AVGG, She wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus, II at exergue
3.7 gr
Ref : RCV # 8957, RIC # 15, Cohen # 178
1 commentsPotator II
philip1wolf.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Philip I, AR Antoninianus, 248 AD28 viewsPhilip I, AR Antoninianus. Commemorating the 1000th anniversary of Rome. Rome, AD 248.
Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / SAECVLARES AVGG, she-wolf standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus; II in exergue.
RIC IV 15; RSC 178. 4.03g, 23mm, 7h.
Roma Numismatics esale 2 lot 664
chance v
m29RWf358WQoBn3PbFp6y4Ts7Cz4Hj.jpg
Roman Empire, Romulus Died 309, Follis20 views5.92g
"IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO ROMVLO NV FILIO" Bust of Romulus right
"AETERNA MEMORIA" eagle with wings spread, standing on a domed hexastyle shrine, right door open "MOST[?]"
RIC VI 33
Ostia mint
Antonivs Protti
SevAlexDen.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Severus Alexander denarius17 viewsAR Denarius 18.5x18.8mm
Obv. IMP SEV ALE_XAND AVG
Head right, laureate
Rev. PM TRP VII COSII PP
Romulus striding right holding spear and trophy

This coin has a very nice portrait in high relief,
and the figure of Romulus is exceptionally lively.
The portrayal of the striding motion is not at all stiff,
unlike so many less successful figures.
gparch
roman-republic_115-4BC_AR-Denarius_3_35gr_Roma_01_cut.JPG
Roman Republic - Anonymous Issue of 115 - 114 BC - Roma seated on sheilds and helmet, she wolf before.17 viewsRoman Republic
Anonymous Issue Silver Denarius.
Rome Mint, 115 - 114 BC.

obv: Head of Roma right wearing Corinthian Helmet with crest pushed up.

rev: Roma seated on a pile of shields holding spear, helmet below. She-wolf and twins before. Flying birds in both fields.

Weight: 3.35g - 20.59mm

Syd. 530.
rexesq
roman-republic_115-4BC_AR-Denarius_3_35gr_Roma_00.jpg
Roman Republic - Anonymous Issue of 115 - 114 BC - Roma seated on sheilds and helmet, she wolf before.109 viewsRoman Republic
Anonymous Issue Silver Denarius.
Rome Mint, 115 - 114 BC.

obv: Head of Roma right wearing Corinthian Helmet pushed up.

rev: Roma seated on a pile of shields holding spear, helmet below. She-wolf and twins before. Flying birds in both fields.

Weight: 3.35g - 20.59mm

Syd. 530.
6 commentsrexesq
1521986941692724409721.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - AR Didrachm - Crawford 20/150 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous, 269-266 BCE.
AR Didrachm (7.28g; 21mm).
Uncertain mint.

Obv: Diademed head of youthful Hercules facing right, with lion skin and club over shoulder.

Rev: She-Wolf suckling the twins, Romulus & Remus; ROMANO in exergue.

References: Crawford 20/1; Sydenham 6; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 28-33.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Walter F. Stoeklin Collection [Nomos AG eSale 9 (25 Mar 2018) Lot 2]; Adolph Hess Auction (19 Dec 1933), Lot 3.

The earliest Roman Didrachm coinage commenced in the late fourth century BCE. While earliest didrachms bore the inscription ROMANO, they were not struck in Rome and didn’t really circulate in Rome! The earliest didrachms were likely produced in Naples or some other nearby mint. Kenneth Harl, in "Coinage in the Roman Economy" theorizes that Roman didrachms were likely valued at 10 asses and were possibly called “denarii” in their day.

This coin is from the large, third issue of didrachms produced around the time of the Pyrrhic War, circa 269 BCE. In "Natural History", Pliny wrote that the Romans first struck silver coins “in the 485th year of the city, when Q. Ogulnius and C. Fabius were consuls, five years before the First Punic War [=269 BC].” (NH 33.42-44) Some surmise that Pliny’s now infamous text refers to the above coin type. Pliny’s text confounded for generations the determination by Roman numismatists of the introduction date for the denarius, with many scholars interpreting his statement as evidence for an early introduction; that “literal” theory having been disproven by Thomsen’s analysis in “Early Roman Coinage” and the indisputable evidence of the destruction level finds at Morgantina.

In "Roman Republican Coinage", Michael Crawford assigned this type to the Rome mint, but Crawford turned non-committal regarding the mint in his later book, Coinage and Money Under the Roman Republic. Previous scholars (Babelon, Grueber, Sydenham) had attributed this series to Campania. The reverse bears the first depiction of the she-wolf and suckling twins on a Roman coin, representing the mythical founding of Rome. The emblematic nature of this scene likely influenced the mint assignment by some researchers. Indeed, subsequent coins bearing this scene have similarly been assigned to Rome by some authors, perhaps without justification, based on the “Roman” character of the scene – notably the Eagle/Wolf and Twins AE Sextans (Crawford 39/3) of the semi-libral reduction in 217-215 BCE, which I believe is likely a Campanian product. There would be countless more such depictions of the wolf and twins on Roman coins during the ensuing centuries [Crawford 183; Crawford 235/1; Antoninus Pius; Maxentius; Constantine “commemoratives”, etc.]. According to Pliny, Q. Ogulnius was a consul when this coin was likely first produced, and the reverse may allude to the wolf and twins statue erected in Rome by Ogulnius’ grandfather and great uncle, the brothers Quintus and Gnaeus Ogulnius, in 296 BCE.
2 commentsCarausius
RREPDE08~0.JPG
Roman Republic, 77 BC, Satriena35 viewsAR denarius (4.0g, 18mm, 4h) Rome mint, struck 77 BC.
IIIXXXT behind, helmeted head of Mars right.
ROMA above, P.SATRIE-NVS in ex. below, She-wolf standing left
BMC 3209-37, Seaby (RSC): Satriena 1, RCV 283:125

Monneyer: P.Satrienus. Type refers to the foundation of Rome by Romulus and Remus with Mars, the father, and the she-wolf who suckled them.
1 commentsCharles S
rome115bc.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Anonymous denarius, 115-114 B.C.43 viewsAnonymous AR Denarius. Rome, 115-114 BC.
Head of Roma right, wearing winged and crested helmet, hair falling in two locks down neck, X behind, ROMA below / Roma, helmeted, seated right on two shields, holding spear before her; wolf standing right at her feet, head turned back, suckling Romulus and Remus, in left and right fields, two birds flying towards her.
Crawford 287/1; Sydenham 530; Kestner 2478-81; BMC Italy 562-5; RSC (Anonymous) 176.
3.90g, 18mm, 8h.
1 commentschance v
39sextanscombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Collateral Semilibral Struck AE Sextans - Crawford 399 viewsRome. The Republic.
Semilibral Reduction, 217-215 BCE.
Æ Sextans (24.15 grams; 30 mm).
Uncertain Italian Mint.

She-wolf facing right, head turned left, suckling the twins, Romulus & Remus; ●● (mark-of-value) below.

Reverse: Eagle facing right with flower in beak; ROMA to right; ●● (mark-of-value) behind.

References: Crawford 39/3; Sydenham 95; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 120-124.

Provenance: Ex Goldberg 87 (15 Sep 2015), Lot 2084; Sternberg XXII (20-21 Nov 1989), Lot 173.

Crawford attributes the 39 series to the Rome Mint, circa 217-215 BCE. While I agree with the dating, I question the mint attribution. They are among the earliest Roman struck bronze coins intended for use in central Italy. Previously, Roman struck bronzes were generally intended for use in Magna Graecia, while the cast bronze Aes Grave were used in Rome and central Italy.

The types in this series are beautiful, bold and unusual, and, excluding the Hercules/bull Quadrans type, were never wholly repeated in subsequent Roman Republican bronze series. The types are entirely pro-Roman, at a time that the Republic was in dire straits under threat of Hannibal’s invasion. This Sextans depicts the favorable founding of Rome, with the She-wolf suckling the City’s mythical founders, Romulus and Remus, on one side, and a powerful eagle bringing them additional nourishment or good omen on the other. This is the first depiction of the Wolf and Twins on a Roman bronze coin, the scene previously being depicted on a silver didrachm circa 269 BCE (Crawford 20/1).
Carausius
m54723.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Collateral Semilibral Struck AE Sextans - Crawford 3914 viewsRome, The Republic.
Anonymous (Semilibral) Series, 217-215 BCE.
AE Sextans (25.91g; 29mm).
Uncertain Italian Mint.

Obverse: She-wolf facing right, head turned left, suckling the twins, Romulus & Remus; ●● (mark-of-value) below.

Reverse: Eagle facing right with flower in beak; ROMA to right; ●● (mark-of-value) behind.

References: Crawford 39/3; Sydenham 95; BMCRR (Romano-Campanian) 120-124; RBW 107.

Provenance: Ex Reinhold Faelton Collection [Stack's (20-2 Jan 1938) Lot 923]; Otto Helbing Auction (24 Oct 1927) Lot 3267.

The economic hardship imposed by Hannibal’s invasion led to a rapid decline in the weight of Roman bronze coins, resulting in the adoption of a semi-libral bronze standard (AE As of ½ Roman pound) and eventual elimination of cast coins. From 217-215, Rome produced two, contemporaneous series of struck bronzes on this new, semi-libral weight standard. From hoard evidence, we know the first of the two series was Crawford 38, consisting of “prow” types derived from the libral and semi-libral prow Aes Grave (Crawford 35 and 36) that preceded it. These "prow" coins were almost certainly produced in Rome and likely also in satellite military mints as needed. The second series of struck semi-libral bronzes was the enigmatic Crawford 39 series, with its unusual types, production of which commenced after the start of the 38 Series prow-types (hoards containing 39s almost always include 38s) and produced in much smaller numbers than the huge 38 Series.

The types on the Crawford 39 series are entirely pro-Roman, at a time that the Republic was in dire straits under threat of Hannibal’s invasion. This Sextans depicts the favorable founding of Rome, with the She-wolf suckling the City’s mythical founders, Romulus and Remus, on one side, and a powerful eagle bringing them additional nourishment or good omen on the other. This is the first depiction of the Wolf and Twins on a Roman bronze coin, the scene previously being depicted on a silver didrachm circa 269 BCE (Crawford 20/1).

Reinhold Faelton (1856 - 1949) was a musician, composer, the Dean and founder in 1897 of the Faelton Pianoforte School of Boston, Massachusetts, and a coin collector for over 50 years. His collection of ancient coins was sold by Stacks in January 1938. This Stack's catalogue was one of the earliest to feature photographs of actual ancient coins in the plates, rather than photos of plaster casts of the coins (which was the standard at the time). The resulting plates were mixed-quality but mostly poor, making it an arduous task to use this catalogue for provenance matching.
1 commentsCarausius
0010-010a.JPG
Roman republic, Didrachm704 viewsDidrachm struck in Rome, circa 269-266 BC
Obv : diademed head of Hercules right, wearing lion's skin and with club on shoulder
Rev : ROMANO at exergue. She-wolf suckling Remus and Romulus
7.29 gr
Ref : RCV # 24

This silver didrachm is supposed to be the first silver coinage struck under the authority of the roman republic. Mr Crawford found 136 ex of this coin, with 18 different dies for the obverse and 24 for reverse
2 commentsPotator II
coin.JPG
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Fostlus, AR denarius, 137 B.C.52 viewsAR Denarius, 137 BC, Rome, Sextus Pompey Fostlus; 3.69 vs.
Roma head r., Behind amphora.
She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, behind Faustulus in the background Fig tree (ficus ruminalis).
Bab. 1; BMC 927; Crawf. 235/1 c; Syd. 461
chance v
1509654743357358228591.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Wolf and Twins Series, AE As - Crawford 183/114 viewsRome. The Republic
Wolf and Twins Series, 169-158 BCE.
AE As (26.42g; 35mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Janus; I (mark of value), above.

Reverse: Galley prow facing right; she-wolf suckling the twins, Romulus and Remus, above; I (mark of value) to right; ROMA below.

References: Crawford 183/1; Sydenham 297; BMCRR 514-6; RBW 775.

Provenance: Ex SteveX6 Collection; ex CNG eSale 307, Lot 269; ex RBW duplicates (not in prior sales); purchased from Bank Leu (Jan 1985).

Apparently RBW purchased more than one Wolf and Twins As from Bank Leu in January 1985, as the specimen in the NAC auction shares the same Bank Leu origin and date. I have the original RBW ticket for this coin and so I’m confident that the provenance information is correct.
Carausius
Romulus.jpg
Roman Romulus Follis103 viewsDivus Romulus, Son of Maxentius, AE Follis. 309-312 AD. DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS, bare head right / AETERNAE MEMORIA, domed shrine without columns, eagle on roof, RES in ex.

RIC 257
1 commentsTanit
vrbsroma.jpg
Rome Commemorative16 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 90
Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted bust left, wearing imperial cloak.
Reverse: She-wolf suckling twins Romulus & Remus. Two stars above.
Exergue: SMKS
b70
VRBS_ROMA3.jpg
Rome Commemorative "Wolf & Twins"13 viewsOBV: VRBS ROMA
Mantled bust of Roma, left, wearing plumed helmet.
REV: She Wolf suckling twins, Romulus and Remus.
Two stars above.
Dot ASIS Dot in exergue.

RIC VII (Siscia) 240
A.D. 309-313
2.48gm 16.5mm
Rare (R4)
goldenancients
VRBS_ROMA4.jpg
Rome Commemorative "Wolf & Twins"17 viewsOBV: VRBS ROMA
Mantled bust of Roma, left, wearing plumed helmet.
REV: She Wolf suckling twins, Romulus and Remus.
Two stars above.
Dot Delta SIS Dot in exergue.

RIC VII (Siscia) 240
A.D. 309-313
1.73gm 18mm
goldenancients
VRBS_ROMA5.jpg
Rome Commemorative "Wolf & Twins"10 viewsOBV: VRBS ROMA
Mantled bust of Roma, left, wearing plumed helmet.
REV: She Wolf suckling twins, Romulus and Remus.
Unlisted one star variation.
Dot Gamma SIS DOT in exergue.

RIC VII (Siscia) 240
A.D. 309-313
1.04gm 18mm
goldenancients
VRBS_ROMA1.jpg
Rome Commemorative "Wolf & Twins"13 viewsOBV: VRBS ROMA
Mantled bust of Roma, left, wearing plumed helmet.
REV: She Wolf suckling twins, Romulus and Remus.
Unlisted one star variation.
Dot Gamma SIS DOT in exergue.

RIC VII (Siscia) 240
A.D. 309-313
2.15gm 18.5mm
goldenancients
VRBS_ROMA2~0.jpg
Rome Commemorative "Wolf & Twins"28 viewsOBV: VRBS ROMA
Mantled bust of Roma, left, wearing plumed helmet.
REV: She Wolf suckling twins, Romulus and Remus.
Three-armed palm branch between two stars above.
SCONST in exergue.

RIC VII (Arles) 368
A.D. 309-313
2.17gm 18mm
goldenancients
urbs_roma_01_t.jpg
Rome Commemorative AE Follis55 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA - Roma, helmeted, wearing imperial cloak.
Rev: She-wolf left with twins (Romulus and Remus); above, two stars.
Mint: Siscia (·BSIS·)
Ref: RIC VII 240
Notes: R4
2 commentsoa
Vrbs Roma 93.jpg
Rome Commemorative, RIC VII 62/78, Constantinople27 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA
Bust: Helmeted and cuirassed, bust left
Rev: She-wolf standing left being suckled by twins Romulus and Remus. 2 stars above.
Exe: CONSIA
Date: 330-355 AD
Denom: Follis
Rated "R1"
Bluefish
Vrbs Roma 136.jpg
Rome Commemorative, RIC VII 91, Cyzicus33 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA
Bust: Helmeted with plume, imperial mantle bust left.
Rev: She-wolf standing left being suckled by twins Romulus and Remus. 2 stars above.
Exe: SMK epsilon
Date: 331-334 AD
Denom: Follis
Rated "R3"
1 commentsBluefish
RI 077v img~0.jpg
Romulus266 viewsSeverus Alexander Denarius
Obv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P VII COS II P P, Romulus advancing right with spear & trophy
Minted in Rome
Reference:– RIC 85. RSC 351

Romulus, founder of the city, shares the attributes of Mars but not helmeted.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
00384q00.jpg
Romulus21 viewsQuarter Follis
DIVO ROMVLO NVBIS CONS; Bare head to right
AETERNAE MEMORIAE; Mausoleum of Romulus with bronze gates and eagle on top.
EX: M OST P
Ostia
RIC 58
Julianus of Pannonia
romulus.jpg
ROMULUS27 viewsAE follis. 310 AD . 6,55 grs. Bare head right. DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS / Eagle,with wings spread,standing right on domed shrine with no pillars. Right door ajar. AETERNAE MEMORIAE. In exergue AES
RIV VI 257.
2 commentsbenito
romulus~0.jpg
ROMULUS42 viewsAE follis. 310 AD . 6,55 grs. Bare head right. DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS / Eagle,with wings spread,standing right on domed shrine with no pillars. Right door ajar. AETERNAE MEMORIAE. In exergue AES
RIV VI 257.
2 commentsbenito
00383q00.jpg
Romulus20 viewsAE-Follis
DIVO ROMVLO NVBIS CONS; Bare head to right
AETERNAE MEMORIAE; Mausoleum of Romulus with bronze gates and eagle on top
EX: M OST P
Ostia
RIC 34
Julianus of Pannonia
Urbs Roma 2~0.jpg
Romulus and Remus 383 viewsRomulus and Remus - Suckling on a wolf after their uncle Amulius, fearing that the boys would grow up to overthrow him, had them placed in a trough and thrown into the River Tiber.

Urbs Roma - Constantinople Commemorative Coin



Noah
100_0667.JPG
Romulus and Remus59 views2 commentssimmurray
VRBS_ROMA.jpg
Romulus and Remus 50 viewsObverse : VRBS ROMA, helmeted, cuirassed bust of Roma left.
Reverse : wolf & twins Romulus & Remus, two stars above, SMTSE in ex. Thessalonica Mint. Struck 330-333 AD. Ref: RIC VII Thessalonica #187. 17mm.


From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Romulus and Remus Statue.JPG
Romulus and Remus Statue26 viewsJerome Holderman
0621-310np_noir.jpg
Romulus, Posthumous follis - *132 viewsPosthumous issue under the reign of his father Maxentius
Ostia mint, 1st officina, AD 309-310
DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS, Bare head of Romulus right
AETERNAE MEMORIAE, Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, M OST P at exergue
7.35 gr
RCV # 15050 (550), Cohen #6, RIC VI # 34
3 commentsPotator II
romulus_rom_239.jpg
Romulus, RIC VI, Rome 23936 viewsRomulus, AD 306-312, son of Maxentius
AE - denarius, 1.70g, 17.3mm
Rome, 1st officina
obv. DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS
Bare head, r.
rev. AETERNAE MEMORIAE
Doomed shrine, r. door opened, on roof eagle with open wings stg. r., head turned l.
in ex. RS
RIC VI, 239
about EF, nice green patina
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
2 commentsJochen
romulus-merged.jpg
Romulus, son of Maxentius, AE Follis. Rome mint, ca 309-310 AD.24 viewsRoman Imperial, Romulus, son of Maxentius, AE Follis. Rome mint, ca (309-310 AD)

Obverse: DIVO ROMVLO N V BIS CONS, Bare head right.

Reverse: AETERNAE MEMORIAE, Domed shrine without columns, RBP in ex. "Eternal Memory"

Reference: RIC 207 Rome, Cohen 6.

Ex: Holding History Coins
Gil-galad
sextus_pompeius_fostlus_CR235.1c.jpg
S. Pompeius Fostlus, Crawford 235/1c153 viewsSextus Pompeius Fostlus, gens Pompeia
AR - denarius, 20mm, 3.88g
Rome, 137 BC
obv. Head of Roma, wearing winged helmet, r.
X before, jug behind
rev. SEX.PO - F - OSTLV - S
She-wolfe, stg. r., head turned back, suckling the twins Remus und Romulus; behind tree with three woodpeckers, at left herdsman Faustulus, wearing short cloak and pointed hat, stg. with crossed legs bended r., with l. hand resting on staff, r. hand raised.
in ex. ROMA
Crawford 235/1c; Sydenham 461a; Pompeia 1a; BMC 927
attractive VF
Pedigree:
ex Kagin's Long Beach Sale, Feb. 1987, lot 4474

This family was of plebian origin and it would appear that they claimed descent from Faustulus, the royal shepherd of Amulius, who found the twins suckled by the wolf at the foot of the Palatine, the cradle in which they had been borne down the Tiber having overturned under a fig tree (Seaby)

Fore more informations please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'!
Jochen
series-z-a.jpg
S.782 Anglo-Saxon sceat33 viewsPrimary (?) phase Anglo-Saxon sceat
Series Z
Type 66
S.782
N.145
Abramson 102-60
O: Haunted-appearing (almost ghostly) face (?Christ)
R: Hound or wolf standing with curled tail

This unusual sceatta was probably produced in Kent or East Anglia, and the bearded face is probably Christ. The reverse is a skinny quadriped, with a curled tail circling through its legs.

The origin of this design seems to have heavy Roman and Byzantine influences. The obverse bust parallels similar images of Christ found on contemporary Byzantine coins and Christian tokens that pilgrims would have brought back from the Holy Land. The face has a fairly haunted appearance, and is expressionless.

The reverse is a little more tricky. Anna Gannon (Coins, Images, and Tales from the Holy Land, in Studies in Early Medieval Coinage vol 2) suggests that it represents a stag, which would have had a religious meaning. In my opinion, however, even with the primitive art of the time, it's hard to call that a stag, as the small linear "horns" really look more like ears. Other scholars call the creature a hound or wolf, with origins in Celtic imagery (such as the "Norfolk wolf", which is also of East Anglian origin). Alternatively it has been suggested (Charles Wood, private correspondence) that the creature might be a crude copy of the Roman wolf, nursing Romulus and Remus, as appears on many earlier Roman coins. This imagery occurs on a later East Anglian coin, that of Aethelberht II. The East Anglian ruling dynasty in the 7th century was the Wuffingas, a name that probably means "kin of wolves", and the wolf may have been a representation of the dynasty.

This coin probably dates from the early 8th century. The legends are illegible, and could be erroneous copies of Greek, of which the Anglo-Saxons would have presumably known little.

Ex- Charles Wood
Nap
series-v-1a.jpg
S.817 Anglo-Saxon sceat14 viewsSceatta of uncertain origin, secondary phase
Series V
S.817
O: Standing bird, holding branches
R: She-wolf nursing Romulus and Remus

Many sceats have imagery that is reminiscent of the style of Roman coins. Series V however is overtly copying Roman design, with a wolf nursing the twins Romulus and Remus.

Ex- eBay
Nap
RRromuloyremo~0.jpg
S.POMPEIUS FOSTULUS33 viewsAR denarius. 137 BC. 3,73 grs. Helmeted head of Roma right ,capis behind, X (mark of value) below chin / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. Behind, birds on fig tree; on left, shepherd standing right. SEX•PO F around. In exergue ROMA.
Crawford 235/1. RSC Pompeia 1.
benito
RRromuloyremo.jpg
S.POMPEIUS FOSTULUS19 viewsAR denarius. 137 BC. 3,73 grs. Helmeted head of Roma right ,capis behind, X (mark of value) below chin / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. Behind, birds on fig tree; on left, shepherd standing right. SEX•PO F around. In exergue ROMA.
Crawford 235/1. RSC Pompeia 1.
benito
Septimius_Severus_Philadelphia.jpg
Septimius Severus - Philadelphia, Lydia11 views193-211 AD
laureate head right
AY·K_AI·CЄOYHP_OC
she-wolf right, head turned left, suckling Romulus and Remus
ΦIΛAΔEΛ
ΦEΩN
BMC 200.77.
5,7g
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
S_Alexander_2_opt.jpg
SEVERUS ALEXANDER Denarius RIC IV 224, Romulus9 viewsOBV: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right
REV: VIRTVS AVG, Romulus walking right, transverse spear in right, trophy over shoulder in left
2.069 grams; 17.6mm

Minted at Rome, 228-31 AD
ex Forum
Legatus
Alexander -2.jpg
Severus Alexander Sestertius8 viewsSeverus Alexander. 222-235 AD. Æ Sestertius (19.48 gm). Laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder / VIRTVS AVGVSTI S C, Romulus walking right, holding trophy and spear.

RIC IV 626; Cohen 591 var
Tanit
Severus_Alexander_She_Wolf.JPG
Severus Alexander She Wolf27 viewsSeverus Alexander, She Wolf, Alexandria Troas, Legend in Latin because it was a colony
OBV: ALEX ANDER?, Cuirassed bust right
REV: COL ALEX, TROA in exergue, She-wolf standing right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus.
22.36mm, 5.9g
Per Curtis Clay:
Could be the same obverse die as Bellinger, Troy, pl. 21, A330, there with a different rev. type.
Bust laureate, cuirassed right, seen from front, legend before face is ANDRVS. ALEXANDRVS is a frequent misspelling of Alexander's name
on his coins at Alexandria Troas, as Bellinger points out on p. 126: "The barbarism ALEXANDRVS is very common...."
Your coin is, generally, Bellinger A344, Sev. Alex. with rev. "Wolf r. with twins". I can't say whether Bellinger knew a coin exactly like yours,
since he did not bother to record the particular varieties of bust type and legends on both sides on Alexander's coins at Alexandria Troas.

RARE
Romanorvm
Severus_Alexander_RIC_225~0.JPG
Severus Alexander, 222 - 235 AD 22 viewsObv: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head of Severus Alexander facing right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVG, Alexander as Romulus, laureate and dressed in military attire, walking right, carrying a traverse spear and a trophy over his shoulder.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 228 AD

2.8 grams, 19 mm, 0°

RIC IVii 225, RSC 585, S7933 (var.), VM 61/5
SPQR Coins
Sex__Pompeius_Fostlus_.png
Sex. Pompeius Fostlus18 viewsRoman Republic, Sex. Pompeius Fostlus, Denarius, Rome, 137 BC, 3.76g, 17mm. Helmeted head of Roma r.; capis to l. R/ She-wolf standing r., head l., suckling the twins (Remus and Romulus); to l., shepherd Faustulus standing r.; in background, birds on fig tree. Cr. 235/1c; RBW 972; RSC Pompeia 1a1 commentsAjax
00756.jpg
Sex. Pompeius Fostlus (RSC I Pompeia 1a, Coin #756)2 viewsRSC I Pompeia 1a, AR Denarius, Rome, 137 BC
OBV: X; Helmeted head of Roma right, jug behind.
REV: FOSTLVS / SEX PO ROMA; She-wolf right suckling Romulus and Remus, fig tree behind with three birds in the branches, the shepherd Faustulus standing right behind.
SIZE: 18.9mm, 2.84g
MaynardGee
pompeia.jpg
Sex. Pompeius Fostlus 137 BC.101 viewsSex. Pompeius Fostlus, 137 BC, silver denarius.
Obverse- Helmeted head of Roma right; jug behind.
Reverse- The shepard Faustulus discovering the she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus; three birds in branches of fig tree behind.
Crawford 235/1c; Sydenham 461a; Pompeia 1a.
19 mm, 3.71 g
1 commentsb70
Sex__Pompeius_Fostlus.JPG
Sex. Pompeius Fostlus – Pompeia-167 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC AR Denarius Sex. Pompeius Fostlus. 137 BC. (18mm, 3.96 g, 6h). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; capis to left, X (mark of value) below chin / She-wolf standing right, head left, suckling the twins Remus and Romulus; to left, shepherd Faustulus standing right; in background, birds on fig tree. Crawford 235/1a; Sydenham 461; RCV 112; Pompeia 1. From the Dr. Robert A. Kilmarx Collection2 commentsBud Stewart
sex.jpg
Sex. Pompeius Fostlus. (137 B.C.)86 viewsAR Denarius
O: Helmeted head of Roma right; jug behind.
R: The shepard Faustulus discovering the she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus; three birds in branches of fig tree behind.
Rome
19mm
3.6g
Sear 112; Crawford 235/1c; Sydenham 461a; Pompeia 1a.
5 commentsMat
Pompeia_1a.JPG
Sextus Pompeius Fostlus 30 viewsObv: Helmeted head of Roma facing right, jug behind, X below chin.

Rev: [FOSTLVS] left, SEX PO on right; She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, fig tree behind with three birds in the branches, the shepherd Faustulus standing right; (ROM)A in exergue.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, c. 137 BC

3.8 grams, 20 mm, 225°

RSC Pompeia 1, S112

Ex: FORVM
SPQR Coins
SEXTUS_POMPEIUS_FOSTLUS.jpg
SEXTUS POMPEIUS FOSTLUS AR Denarius Cr235/1a, She-wolf 21 viewsOBV: Head of "Minerva or Pallas" (personification of Rome) with winged helmet, earrings and necklace, looking to the right. Below the chin, it is the "X" (although its value then was 16 aces) and behind the bust is a small jar.
REV: FOSTuLVS left and Sextus. Pompeius. to the right of the field. She-wolf suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. Behind Ruminal fig tree is represented with three birds in their branches. On the left, the pastor Faustulus figure in an attitude of admiration for the wonder he sees. ROMA in ex.
3.63g, 19.5mm

Struck at Rome, 137 BC
Legatus
RREPDE08.JPG
She wolf193 viewsAR denarius (4.0g, 18mm, 4h) Rome mint, struck 77 BC.
IIIXXXT gehind, helmeted head of Mars right.
ROMA above, P.SATRIE-NVS in ex. below, She-wolf standing left
BMC 3209-37, RSCV Satriena 1, RCV 283:125
Monneyer: P.Satrienus. Type refers to the foundation of Rome by Romulus and Remus with Mars, the father, and the she-wolf who suckled them.
2 commentsCharles S
collage1~5.jpg
Siscia, Wolf & Twins44 viewsAnonymous Issue

O: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted cuirassed bust left
R: No legend
She wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remes, two stars above
E: rSIS

RIC VII Siscia 222
Ae3; 17-18mm; 2.21g
1 commentsarizonarobin
Roma-Heraclea-2.jpg
SMHε55 viewsAE3 Follis, 1.92 g, 18 mm, 5 h

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic
She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 2 stars above

Exergue: SMHε

Heraclea mint

RIC VII 114
1 commentsdrjbca
Urbs Roma - SMHe - 3 dots.jpg
SMHε - 3 Dots64 viewsAE3 Follis, 3.10 g, 18 mm, 6 h, 330-333 AD

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic
She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 3 vertical dots between 2 stars above

Exergue: SMHε

Heraclea mint

RIC VII 129
1 commentsdrjbca
UR SMHE star.jpg
SMHε*44 viewsAE3 Follis, 2.70 g, 19 mm, 11 h

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic
She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 2 stars above

Exergue: SMHε*

Heralcea mint

RIC VII 143
drjbca
Antoninus_Pius_Templum.JPG
Struck A.D.158 - 159. ANTONINUS PIUS. AR Denarius of Rome12 viewsObverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXII. Laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST. Octastyle temple with standing statues of Victory before the two outer columns and seated figures of Divus Augustus and Diva Livia within; in exergue, COS IIII.
RIC III : 290a | C: 804 | BMC: 939
Rough surfaces

The Temple of Divus Augustus was originally built to commemorate the deified first emperor, Augustus. It was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia, on the site of the house that Augustus had lived in before he entered public life.
The temple's construction took place during the 1st century AD, having been vowed by the Roman Senate shortly after the death of Augustus in A.D.14. It was not, however, finally completed until after the death of Tiberius in A.D.37 and was dedicated by Tiberius' successor, Caligula at the end of August that year.
During the reign of Domitian the temple was destroyed by fire but it was rebuilt and rededicated in A.D.89-90 as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus. It also incorporated a shrine to Domitian's favourite deity, Minerva.
The temple was restored again by Antonius Pius, who was possibly motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple is shown on coins of A.D.158 onwards, like the one above.
The temple is depicted as an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's mythical origins. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
The last known reference to the temple was in A.D.248, at some point after that it was completely destroyed and its stones were presumably quarried for later buildings. Today it's remains are no longer visible and the area in which it sat has never been excavated.
*Alex
Divo-Galerius_Temple.JPG
Struck A.D.310 - 312 under Maxentius. DIVUS MAXIMIANUS. Commemorative Follis of Ostia7 viewsObverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO PATRI. Veiled head of Maximianus facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Shrine or temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 5.2gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 26
RARE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312. The original bronze doors of the Temple of Divus Romulus still survive and are pictured below. They are set between two porphyry columns that support a reused marble architrave and open into a rotunda fifty Roman feet in diameter covered by a cupola which is accessible from the rear through the Basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano. The temple was converted into a vestibule for the church early in the 6th century.
*Alex
URBSROMA_PLG.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 331 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Lugdunum5 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, crescent or plate in perspective symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, •PLG.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.04gms
RIC VII : 247
RARE
*Alex
URBS_ROMA_Rome_RFQ.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 331 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Rome2 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left, two dots on helmet.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; flower symbol on wolf's shoulder; above, two stars; in exergue, RFQ.
RIC VII : 338 (var)
SCARCE
1 comments*Alex
URBSROMA_SMHE.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Heraclea14 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma, wearing earring, facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, •SMHE.
RIC VII : 119
RARE
1 comments*Alex
URBSROMA_SMTSE.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Thessalonika5 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, spear head and dot symbols on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, SMTSΕ (Epsilon = fifth officina).
RIC VII : 187
*Alex
Urbs_Roma_SMNE~0.JPG
Struck A.D.330 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Nicomedia3 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left, one dot on helmet.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars, three vertical dots between them; in exergue, SMNε.
RIC VII : 195.
RARE
1 comments*Alex
URBS_ROMA__Arelate_CONSA.JPG
Struck A.D.331 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Arelate2 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars, crescent between them; in exergue, SCONST.
RIC VII : 356
EXTREMELY RARE
*Alex
URBS_ROMA_Cyzicus_SMKDelta.JPG
Struck A.D.331 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Cyzicus2 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, unclear symbol on shoulder, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, SMKΔ.
RIC VII : 91
VERY RARE
*Alex
URBSROMA_TRS.JPG
Struck A.D.332 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Treveri (Trier)4 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, double crescent or plate in perspective symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, TR•S.
RIC VII : 542

This coin is from the Grassmoor Hoard, Derbyshire, England. This hoard, consisting of some 1375 coins, was deposited about A.D.340. It was found by a metal detectorist near Chesterfield on 7th January 2001. The find site at Grassmoor lies close to the route of a Roman Road, the modern-day A61, running south from Rotherham to Derby. However, there is no evidence of any Roman settlement in the immediate area so it is thought that the hoard was either buried by a traveller along the road or by someone living close to the nearby Chesterfield fort, which seems to have been abandoned by this date. All the coins were professionally conserved and identified by the British museum. Some of the coins from the hoard were retained by the British Museum to be displayed both there and at the Chesterfield Museum, the remainder were put up for auction and this is one of those.
*Alex
URBSROMA_CONSE.JPG
Struck A.D.333 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Constantinople13 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, CONSΕ•.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 2.35gms | Die Axis: 12h
RIC VII : 78 | LRBC: 1013
RARE
1 comments*Alex
URBS_ROMA_AQP_Flower.JPG
Struck A.D.334 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Aquileia6 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left. Two dots on helmet.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, flower symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; dot in field to right; in exergue, AQP.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 2.1gms.
RIC VII : 128 | Sear : 16504
VERY RARE
*Alex
URBS_ROMA_Siscia.JPG
Struck A.D.334 - 335 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Siscia0 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left, two dots on helmet.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, •ΓSIS•.
RIC VII : 240
*Alex
URBS_ROMA_SMANTHETA.JPG
Struck A.D.335 - 337 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Antioch0 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, flower symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, SMANΘ.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 1.98gms
RIC VII : 113
*Alex
URBSROMA_SMALB.JPG
Struck A.D.337 - 340 under Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Alexandria0 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, two dots above it's head, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, S - R either side of two stars; in exergue, SMALB.
Diameter: 15.7mm | Weight: 1.88gms
RIC VIII : 8
*Alex
unprov.jpg
Syria, Seleucis & Pieria, Laodicea ad Mare. Caracalla, AE34. 31 viewsSyria, Seleucis & Pieria, Laodicea ad Mare. Caracalla, AE34. SNG Cop. 365v. (laureate) Radiate head r./Lupa Romana r. suckling Romulus and Remus, RO_MAE FEL.

Thanks to George S. for attribution.
1 commentsancientone
AntoSe65-2~0.jpg
TEMPLE, ANTONINUS PIUS, Temple of Divus Augustus143 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (22.23,30mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 159.
ANTONINVS AVG [-] PIVS P P TR P XXII laureate head right
TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST [/] COS IIII [in ex.] [/] S C Octastyle temple of Divus Augustus with statues of Augustus and Livia
ex Triton VI (2003)
The second temple of Divus Augustus, was restored under Antoninus Pius in 158. The reliefs on the pediment cannot be identifed with certainty, but the statuary on the roof can be identified as Augustus in quadriga flanked by Romulus on the left and Aeneas carrying Anchises on the right.
Charles S
GALERIUS_SHRINE_1.JPG
TEMPLE, GALERIUS77 viewsCommemorative Follis of Ostia, struck A.D.311 under Maxentius.
Obverse: IMP MAXENTIVS DIVO MAXIMIANO SOCERO. Veiled head of Galerius facing right.
Reverse: AETERNA MEMORIA. Temple with domed roof surmounted by eagle, right door ajar; in exergue, MOSTS.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 5.2gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC VI : 31
SCARCE

The temple depicted on the reverse of this coin is in all probability the Temple of Divus Romulus begun by Maxentius around A.D.311 but left unfinished on his death in A.D.312.
*Alex
R2745.jpg
The Dioscuri43 viewsIn Greek mythology, Castor (or Kastor) and Pollux (sometimes called Polydeuces) were the twin sons of Leda and the brothers of Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra. They are known as the Gemini, Latin for twins. According to Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, kastor is Greek for "beaver", and poludeukeis means "very sweet".

Polydeuces was a powerful boxer, and Castor a great horseman.

In Roman mythology, Castor was venerated much more often than Polydeuces. He was known as Castore.

When Theseus and Pirithous kidnapped their sister Helen and carried her off to Aphidnae, the twins rescued her and counter-abducted Theseus' mother, Aethra. They also accompanied Jason on the Argo; during the voyage, Polydeuces killed King Amycus in a boxing match.

When Astydameia, queen of Iolcus, offended Peleus, the twins assisted him in ravaging her country.

Castor and Polydeuces abducted and married Phoebe and Hilaeira, the daughters of Leucippus. In return, Idas and Lynceus, nephews of Leucippus (or rival suitors), killed Castor. Polydeuces was granted immortality by Zeus, and further persuaded Zeus to share his gift with Castor. (In some accounts, only Polydeuces was fathered by Zeus, while Leda and her husband Tyndareus conceived Castor. This explains why only Polydeuces was granted immortality.) Accordingly, the two spend alternate days as gods on Olympus and as deceased mortals in Hades.

Their festival was on July 15. They had their own temple in the Roman Forum: see Temple of Castor and Pollux.

Compare with Amphion and Zethus of Thebes, with Romulus and Remus of Rome, the Alcis of Germanic Mythology and with the Asvins of Vedic Mythology. Some have supposed a general Indo-European origin for the myth of the divine twins.

The constellation Gemini is said to represent these twins, and its brightest stars Castor and Pollux (α and β Geminorum) are named for them. There are also ancient sources which identify them with the morning and evening stars
ecoli
1336670268_ef89303ac7_b.jpg
The Temple of Divus Romulus on the Via Sacra Adjoining the Basilica Maxentius131 viewsLeft unfinished at the time of the usurper Maxentius' downfall in AD 312, both structures were completed under Constantine, the temple presumably was dedicated to the founder of the city rather than to Maxentius' son. Joe Sermarini
AF6384A5-07CB-4CAE-8CC9-B1853105316D.jpeg
Thessalonica, wolf & twins18 viewsCity Commemorative
AE follis; 1.59g; 17-18mm
Thessalonica 330-333 AD

VRBS ROMA,
helmeted, cuirassed bust of Roma left

she-wolf standing left, suckling twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above,

Mintmark SMTS epsilon

RIC VII Thessalonica 187; Sear 16516.
2 commentsRobin Ayers
urbs_roma~0.jpg
This wolf is allowed in a zoo, see... she is good with kids!166 viewsShe wolf suckling Romulus and Remus2 commentsSkyler
072_Gordianus-III_AE-22_IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_COL-FL-PAC-DEVLT_Deultum-Thrace-_AD_Q-001_7h_22,0-22,5mm_6,62g-s~0.jpg
Thrace, Deultum, 072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Jurukova 294, AE-22, COL FL PA C DEVLT, She wolf,143 viewsThrace, Deultum, 072p Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), Jurukova 294, AE-22, COL FL PA C DEVLT, She wolf,
avers:- IMP-GORDIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian-III right.
revers:- COL-FL-PA-C-DEVLT, Lupa Romana standing right, head left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus.
exe: -/-//DEVLT, diameter: 22,0-22,5mm, weight: 6,62g, axis:7h,
mint: Thrace, Deultum, date: A.D., ref:Draganov 1390-2 (O97/R64); Jurukova 294.
Q-001
quadrans
Ti_Veturius.jpg
Ti. Veturius - AR denarius14 viewsRome
²139 BC
¹137 BC
head of Mars right wearing winged and crested helmet
TI·(VET)
X
Oath-taking scene*, two standing warriors holding spears and facing attendant kneeling in center, holding sacrificial pig.
ROMA
¹SRCV 111, Crawford 234/1, Sydenham 527, RSC I Veturia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Aurea

This type revived the reverse of gold coinage issued in 217 - 216 B.C. and broke the 75-year tradition of Roma obverses with Dioscuri or chariot reverses on denarii.

*Oath-taking scene most probably refer to the peace treaty between Romans and Campanians, concluded by T. Veturius Calvinus in 334 BC, which granted Campanians citizenship. Other interpretations are truce with Samnites made by moneyer's ancestor, consul T. Veturius Calvinus after the battle of the Caudine Forks in the second Samnite war where Romans were ingloriously defeated; mythical conclusion of the agreement between king Latinus and Aeneas or Titus Tatis and Romulus, oath-taking of representatives of Alba Longa and Romans before the battle between Horatii and Curatii.
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
ANTOSEb4.jpg
Tiber river god147 viewsorichalcum sestertius (22,9g). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
ANTONINVS AVG [-] PIVS P P TR P COS III laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
TIBERIS S C River god the Tiber, draped about waist, reclining to left, leaning with elbow on urn which pours out water, resting right hand on ship's prow and holding reed in the left.
RIC 642a (rare), Cohen 819 (fr.20), BMC 1313-15, Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 129:60
ex Dr. Busso Peus Nachf. Auction 401; Ex NAC AG, Auction 54; ex Busso-Peus Nachf sale 351 (1997).

Struck in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome celebrated in AD 147.
The river god Tiber plays a very important role in ancient Roman legends such as Rhea Silvia, the mother of Romulus and Remus, who was thrown into the river to be drowned. She fell into the arms of the River god who married her; Romulus and Remus were saved by the river god Tiber who safely left the twins in a pool where they were rescued by a wolf.
1 commentsCharles S
VRBS_TRPdot_k.jpg
Time of Constantine and Sons4 viewsÆ reduced centenionalis, 16mm, 2.8g, 6h; Trier mint, AD 330-331
Obv.: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle.
Rev.: She-wolf standing left, head turned back right, suckling the infant twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above // TRP•
Reference: RIC VII Trier 529, p. 215
From the YOC Collection, 17-005-40
John Anthony
vrbs_k.jpg
Time of Constantine I and Sons3 viewsAE16, 2.1g, 5h; Trier mint, 332-3
Obv.: VRBS ROMA; Roma left, helmeted, wearing imperial cloak.
Rev.: Wolf to left, suckling Remus and Romulus, two stars above // TRS star
Reference: RIC VII Trier 547, p. 217.
John Anthony
vrbs_k~0.jpg
Time of Constantine I and Sons9 viewsAE Follis, 17mm, 2.5g, 12h; Trier mint, AD 332-333
Obv.: VRBS ROMA; Helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial mantle left.
Rev.: She-wolf standing left, with Romulus and Remus suckling beneath, two stars above // TR∙P
Reference: RIC VII 542, p. 217 16-196-38
John Anthony
vrbs_trdots_k.jpg
Time of Constantine I and Sons2 viewsÆ Follis, 17mm, 2.6g, 6h; Trier mint, AD 332-333
Obv.: VRBS ROMA; Helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial mantle left.
Rev.: She-wolf standing left, with Romulus and Remus suckling beneath, two stars above, wreath between // TR•S
Reference: RIC VII Trier 542, p. 217
From the YOC Collection
John Anthony
vrbs_trs_wreath_k.jpg
Time of Constantine I and Sons5 viewsÆ Follis, 17mm, 2.2g, 6h; Trier mint, AD 333-334
Obv.: VRBS ROMA; Helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial mantle left.
Rev.: She-wolf standing left, with Romulus and Remus suckling beneath, two stars above, wreath between // TRS
Reference: RIC VII Trier 553, p.218
From the YOC Collection, 16-251-39
John Anthony
vrbs_k~1.jpg
Time of Constantine I and Sons4 viewsTime of Constantine and Sons
AE Follis, 17mm, 2.3g, 12h; Lyons mint, AD 330-331
Obv.: VRBS ROMA; Helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial mantle left.
Rev.: She-wolf standing left, with Romulus and Remus suckling beneath, two stars above // SLG
Reference: RIC VII Lyons 242, r2, p. 138
From the YOC Collection, 16-251-39
John Anthony
vrbs_k~2.jpg
Time of Constantine I and Sons5 viewsÆ Follis, 17mm, 2.0g, 6h; Alexandria mint, AD 330-3
Obv.: VRBS ROMA; Helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial mantle l.
Rev.: She-wolf standing left, with Romulus and Remus suckling beneath, two stars above, wreath between // SMALB
Reference: RIC VII 70, r2, p. 712
John Anthony
vrbs_dotplg_k.jpg
Time of Constantine I and Sons 9 viewsÆ Reduced Follis, 15mm, 2.8g, 6h; Lugdunum, AD 330-331.
Obv.: VRBS ROMA; Helmeted and mantled bust of Roma to left.
Rev.: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; above, two stars // •PLG
Reference: RIC VII 247, r1, p.138
From the YOC Collection, 17-10-35
John Anthony
vrbs_trpdot_k~0.jpg
Time of Constantine I and Sons15 viewsAE Reduced Follis, 17mm, 2.7g, 6h; Trier mint, AD 330-331
Obv.: VRBS ROMA; Helmeted head of Roma left.
Rev.: She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above // TRP•
Reference: RIC VII 529, p. 215
From the YOC Collection, 17-17-35
1 commentsJohn Anthony
VRBS_k~3.jpg
Time of Constantine I and Sons14 viewsÆ Reduced Follis, 17mm, 2.0g, 6h; Trier mint, AD 332-333.
Obv.: VRBS ROMA; Helmeted head of Roma left.
Rev.: She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above // TR•P
Reference: RIC VII 542, p. 217
From the YOC Collection
1 commentsJohn Anthony
VRBS_trs_star_k.jpg
Time of Constantine I and Sons9 viewsÆ Follis, 17mm, 2.3g, 6h; Trier mint, AD 332-333.
Obv.: VRBS ROMA, helmeted and mantled bust of Roma left,
Rev.: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; two stars above // TRS star.
Reference: RIC VII 547, p. 217
From the YOC Collection / 17-88-45
John Anthony
Clipboard~43.jpg
Tiny Roma She Wolf Unofficial imitation - Found Yorkshire, England.15 viewsThis is a tiny little coin weighing 0.5g and less than 10mm across.
It's a metal detecting find not far from a well known roman settlement in Yorkshire, England.
An unofficial imitation of the much larger copper-alloy AE 3 of She-wolf and twins reverse type.
Possibly copying the type minted in Trier (some of the Lyon types are similar too).
These were minted to possibly alleviate a shortage of small change and were at least condoned by officials.
The detail of the fur is astounding, considering someone had to manufacture a Die, with out the aid of magnification. The eyes, fur and teats can be seen quite clearly. Romulus and Remus can be seen reaching up to the she wolf. Two stars can be seen above the Wolf.
My photography, though improving does not do this wonderful little coin Justis.
lorry66
collage5~4.jpg
Trier, Wolf & Twins54 viewsAnonomous Issue

O: VRBS ROMA
Roma helmeted, draped and cuirassed bust left
R: No legend
Wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; two stars above
E: TR (dot) P

RIC 542, Sear 3894
Ae3; 2.47g; 17mm
arizonarobin
TROAS_ALEXANDRIA.jpg
TROAS ALEXANDRIA Time of Gallienus45 viewsObverse : CO ALEX TR, Turreted head of Tyche right, standard behind CO / AV .
Reverse : COL AVG, She-wolf standing and suckling Romulus and Remus, TROA in ex.,.
Ch gVF . Rare.
SNG Copenhagen 106
Sam
alexandreia_troas_BellingerA495var.jpg
Troas, Alexandreia, civic issue, Belllinger A495 var.28 viewsAE - AE 21, 6.40g, 21.46mm, 15°
struck 3rd cenrury AD
obv. AL - EX TRO
Bust of City-Goddess (Tyche), draped and wearing mural crown, r.; behind r. shoulder vexillum with
inscription CO/AV(?)
rev. COL AVG / TRO
Roman she-wolf stg. r., head l., suckling the twins Remus and Romulus
ref. Bellinger A495 var., Type 56; SNG von Aulock 1466
about VF, stripped?
1 commentsJochen
alexandreia_troas_elagabal_A312.jpg
Troas, Alexandreia, Elagabal, Bellinger A31215 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE - AE 23, 7.71g, 23.08mm, 225°
struck after AD 214 (Bellinger)
obv. SE ANTONI - NVS PIVS
Bust, cuirassed with scale armour, laureate, r.
rev. COL ALEXAN / AVG
Roman she-wolf stg. l., head r., suckling twins Remus and Romulus
ref. Bellinger A 312, pl.12, (same dies), Type 55
about VF, nearly black patina

Bellinger: The first asses for Elagabal. SE is an error most likely to have been committed at the beginning of the reign. The as is now restored to normal size. The portrait is like that of the young Caracalla. The inscription is generally ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, so that without the help of the reverse legend it would be impossible to be sure of the attribution.

Jochen
alexandreia_troas_elagabal_BellingerA316(rev).jpg
Troas, Alexandreia, Elagabal, Bellinger A316 (rev. only)67 viewsElagabal, AD 218-222
AE - AE 24, 8.01g, 24.10mm, 150°
obv. AV M AV ANT - ONINVC PIV
Bust, unbearded, draped and cuirassed, seen from front, laureate, r.; Gorgoneion on breast plate
rev. COL AVG T / [R]O ALEX
Roman she-wolf stg. r., head l., suckling the twins Remus and Romulus
ref. not in Bellinger:
rev. A316, Type 56 (depiction)
A317 var. (legend, has COL AVG - TROAD CEX)
obv. not listed:
A317 has AV M AV ANT - ONINVS AVG
A318 has M AV ANT - ONINVS PIV
about VF

Coins for Elagabal from Alexandreia seem to be rare at all. Bellinger: Coins of Elagabal are difficult to differentiate from those of Caracalla. The Copenhagen Sylloge attributes to him a considerable number of coins, 147-156. We have seen reason to transfer most of these to Caracalla, but there remains a group which must belong to the younger emperor: those with a youthful portrait and the reverse inscription COL ALEX AVG, which cannot be dated before 214.
My coin shows the typical portrait of Elagabal with his sensual lips. It is remarkable that in 3 cases (of 4) the reverse inscription is faulty. ...and CEX of A314 is presumably the garbled abbreviation of ALEX. My coin shows a clear LEX!
Jochen
5B2A9570-6C44-4854-AE77-B3FD1DC18172.jpeg
Troas, Alexandria8 viewsTroas, Alexandria Troas. Septimius Severus. A.D. 193-211. Æ 25 (24.5 mm, 7.52 g, 5 h). Rare. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / COL AVG TROA, she-wolf standing right, suckling twins Romulus and Remus. SNG Cop 140;ecoli
Troas,_She_woof_and_Twins.JPG
Troas, Alexandria Tiche/She woof and twins.17 viewsAlexander Troas, 230-268, AE21, 4.9g
Tyche right "AV CO TRO"
She wolf suckling the twins: Romulus and Remus "COL AVG TRO"
SNG Cop 104v
Antonivs Protti
alexandriatroas.jpg
TROAS, ALEXANDRIA TROAS68 views198 - 268 AD
AE 22.44 mm 6.9 g
O: CO-L TRO
TURRETED HEAD OF ALEXANDRIA TROAS RIGHT
R: COL AVG/TRO
SHE-WOLF RIGHT, SUCKLING ROMULUS AND REMUS
(ex W. Peters)
BMC 60
1 commentslaney
alex_troas_shewolf_tyche_c.jpg
TROAS, ALEXANDRIA TROAS26 views198 - 268 AD
AE 22.44 mm 6.9 g
O: CO-L TRO
TURRETED HEAD OF ALEXANDRIA TROAS RIGHT; VEXILLUM BEHIND
R: COL AVG/TRO SHE-WOLF RIGHT, SUCKLING ROMULUS AND REMUS
BMC 60
laney
1000-15-090.jpg
Troas, Alexandria Troas; Septimius Severus21 viewsTroas, Alexandria Troas. Septimius Severus. A.D. 193-211. Æ 25 (24.5 mm, 7.52 g, 5 h). Rare. SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / COL AVG TROA, she-wolf standing right, suckling twins Romulus and Remus. SNG Cop 140; SNG von Aulock -; BMC -. Fine, blue-green patina.ecoli
Urbs Roma.jpg
Urbs Roma51 viewsAE3/4
Obv: URBS ROMA; helmeted bust of Roma l.
Rev: No legend; she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus
Tanit
urbs_roma.jpg
URBS ROMA73 viewsROME CITY COMMEMORATIVE
STRUCK FROM 330 - 346 AD BY CONSTANTINE THE GREAT AND HIS SONS TO CELEBRATE THE TRADITION POSITION OF ROME AS THE CULTURAL CENTER OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE.
OBVERSE: VRBS ROMA (City of Rome); HELMETED BUST OF ROMA FACING LEFT
REVERSE: SHE-WOLF, FACING LEFT, SUCKLING THE TWINS ROMULUS AND REMUS
laney
RomaUrbs.jpg
Urbs Roma54 viewsAE3/4
Obv: URBS ROMA; helmeted bust of Roma l.
Rev: No legend; she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus
Tanit
pcon_wreath.jpg
URBS ROMA (ARLES)74 views330 - 340 AD
AE 17 mm 2.45 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS STAR-WREATH-STAR ABOVE
PCONS IN EXE
ARLES
RIC 373 (R4)
(ex G.Clark)
1 commentslaney
URBS_SCONS.jpg
URBS ROMA (ARLES)57 views330 - 340 AD
AE 18 mm 2.89 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS STAR-CRESCENT-STAR ABOVE
SCONST IN EXE
ARLES
RIC VII 356 (R4)
laney
Urbs_Roma_(commemorative_issue_under_Constantine)_follis_(AE3).png
Urbs Roma (commemorative, struck under Constantine) follis (AE3)14 viewsObv.: VRBS ROMA (Helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak) Rev.: She-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above Exergue: dot GSIS dot Diameter 18.1 mm Weight: 2,87 RIC VII 240,G

Rome, la città eterna, has had a profound cultural impact on Western culture, felt even today in the Roman Catholic Church. It is not strange then that the idea of 'Eternal Rome' was transplanted first to Constantinople, then to Moscow. Still, when one visits Rome, one cannot shake the feeling that nothing really compares.
Nick.vdw
ur_dot_smke.jpg
URBS ROMA (CYZICUS)65 views330 - 340 AD
AE 18 mm 2.89 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS 2 STARS ABOVE
• SMK EPSILON IN EXE
CYZICUS
RIC VII 106 (R4)
(ex G.Clark)
laney
ur_smke_2.jpg
URBS ROMA (CYZICUS)59 views330 - 340 AD
AE 17.5 mm 2.06 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS 2 STARS ABOVE
SMK EPISILON IN EXE
CYZICUS RIC VII 9O (R4)
laney
UR_3.jpg
URBS ROMA (CYZICUS)31 viewsca. 330 - 340 AD
AE 18.5 mm 1.79 g
o: VRBS ROMA
HELMETED, DR, CUIR BUST OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS AND REMUS, 2 STARS ABOVE
Dot SMKE IN EXE
CYZICUS MINT
laney
UR_2.jpg
URBS ROMA (CYZICUS?)33 viewsca. 330 - 340 AD
AE 17 mm 2.03 g
O: VRBS ROMA
HELMETED DR CUIR BUST OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS AND REMUS
CYZICUS MINT (?)
laney
ur_3_dots_in_exe.jpg
URBS ROMA (HERACLEA)47 views330 - 340 AD
AE 19 mm 1.61 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS 2 STARS ABOVE
DOT DOT SMH EPSILON DOT IN EXE
HERACLEA
RIC VII 134 (R1)
laney
ur_plg_3r.jpg
URBS ROMA (LUGDUNUM)57 views330 - 340 AD
AE 17 mm 2.31 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS 2 STARS ABOVE
PLG IN EXE
LUGDUNUM
RIC 242 (R2)
(ex G. Clark)
laney
ur_plg_2.jpg
URBS ROMA (LUGDUNUM)44 views330 - 340 AD
AE 17.5 mm 2.5 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS 2 STARS ABOVE
PLG IN EXE
LUGDUNUM
laney
ur_plg_1.jpg
URBS ROMA (LUGDUNUM)39 views330 - 340 AD
AE 14.5 mm 1.60 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS 2 STARS ABOVE
PLG IN EXE
LUGDUNUM
laney
ur_crescent_dot_exe.jpg
URBS ROMA (LUGDUNUM)30 views330 - 340 AD
AE 16.5 mm 2.35 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS 2 STARS ABOVE
DOT IN CRESCENT [ ] IN EXE
LUGDUNUM
laney
urbs_roma_lugdunum.jpg
URBS ROMA (LUGDUNUM)23 views330 - 340 AD
AE 17 mm 2.31 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS 2 STARS ABOVE
PLG IN EXE
LUGDUNUM
RIC 242 (R2)
1 commentslaney
UR_1B.jpg
URBS ROMA (ROME)32 viewsca. 330 - 340 AD
AE 16 mm 2.14 g
O: VRBS ROMA
HELMETED, DR, CUIR BUST OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS AND REMUS
RFC IN EXE
ROME
laney
ur_rome.jpg
URBS ROMA (ROME, POSSIBLY IMITATIVE)48 views330 - 340 AD
AE 15 mm 1.41 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS STAR-WREATH-STAR ABOVE
[?])-STAR-[?] IN EXE
ROME, POSSIBLY IMITATIVE OR UNOFFICIAL
laney
URsmtse.jpg
URBS ROMA (THESSALONICA)42 views330 - 340 AD
AE 16.5 mm 1.36 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS 2 STARS ABOVE
SMTS EPSILON IN EXE
THESSALONICA
laney
urbs_roma_treveri.jpg
URBS ROMA (TREVERI)16 views330 - 340 AD
AE 17 mm 2.01 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS, STAR-WREATH-STAR ABOVE
TRS IN EXE
TREVERI
laney
urbs_roma_9_25_10b.jpg
URBS ROMA (TREVERI)44 views330 - 340 AD
AE 17 mm 2.01 g
O: HELMETED HEAD OF ROMA L
R: SHE-WOLF SUCKLING TWINS ROMULUS & REMUS, STAR-WREATH-STAR ABOVE
TRS IN EXE
TREVERI
laney
Urbs_Roma.jpg
URBS ROMA - AE 16 - Cyzicus34 viewsObv: URBS ROMA - helmeted bust of Roma left, with plumed helmet, wearing imperial cloak
Rev.: Wolf standing left, head turned right, suckling twins Romulus and Remus, two stars above
SMKS in exergue

Mint of Cyzicus, sixth officina, struck between 331 - 333/334 AD
References: RIC VII Cyzicus 91 (R3)
Weight: 2.23 g
Dimensions: 16 mm
krazy
RIC_Urbs_Alexandria_RIC_VIII_Alexandria_8.JPG
Urbs Roma Alexandria248 viewsRIC VIII Alexandria 8

Alexandria mint, first officina, struck under Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans, 337-April 340 A.D.

AE4, 16 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, S-R to sides, SMALA in exergue.

RIC rarity c2
Stkp
RIC_Urbs_RIC_VII_Alexandria_63.jpg
Urbs Roma Alexandria 14 viewsRIC VII Alexandria 63

Alexandria mint, second officina, struck under Constantine I, 333-335 A.D.

AE3, 2.26 g., 18.25 mm. max., 180°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMALB in exergue.

RIC rarity S
Stkp
urbs_roma~0.jpg
URBS ROMA Anonymous City Commemorative. AD 330-354. Æ Follis 27 viewsAnonymous City Commemorative. AD 330-354. Æ Follis (15mm, 1.97g). Antioch mint. Struck under Constantine I, AD 335-337. VRBS ROMA, helmeted and mantled bust of Roma left / She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus); two stars above, flower on shoulder. RIC 91 var (shoulder mark).

Ex Holding History
09.15.2018
1 commentsBritanikus
RIC_Urbs_Roma_Antioch_RIC_VII_91_SMANTheta_var.JPG
Urbs Roma Antioch180 viewsRIC VII Antioch 91 and/or 113

Antioch mint, ninth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-335 and/or 335-337 A.D.

AE4, 16 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (plumed) bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left (circle of pellets around central pellet on shoulder), suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMANθ in exergue.

RIC rarity c and/or c1
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Urbs_Roma_Antioch_RIC_VII_91_SMANTheta.JPG
Urbs Roma Antioch187 viewsRIC VII Antioch 91 and/or 113

Antioch mint, ninth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-335 and/or 335-337 A.D.

AE4, 16 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (plumed) bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMANθ in exergue.

RIC rarity c and/or c1
Stkp
RIC_Urbs_Antioch_RIC_VII_Antioch_91_SMANS.JPG
Urbs Roma Antioch160 viewsRIC VII Antioch 91

Antioch mint, second officina, struck under Constantine I, 335 A.D.

AE3, 18 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMANS in exergue.

RIC rarity r5
Stkp
RIC_Urbs_RIC_VII_Antioch_91_var.jpg
Urbs Roma Antioch11 viewsRIC VII Antioch 91 var. (obverse type and officina)

Thessalonica mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 335-337 A.D.

AE3, 2.64 g., 17.06 mm. max., 180°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMANΔ in exergue.

RIC rarity R3
Stkp
RIC_Urbs_Roma_Arles_368_var.JPG
Urbs Roma Arles (Constantiniana)193 viewsRIC VII Arles 368 var. (simple palm branch)

Arles mint, second officina, struck under Constantine I, 332-333 A.D.

AE3, 18 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, simple palm branch at center between them, SCONST in exergue

RIC rarity r2

Note: RIC VII Arles 368 is a three armed palm branch. This coin is a variation with a simple palm branch. Attribution assistance of the variety, relative to RIC, courtesy of Dane Kurth.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Urbs_Arles_RIC_VII_373.JPG
Urbs Roma Arles (Constantiniana)175 viewsRIC VII Arles 373

Arles mint, first officina, struck under Constantine I, 333 A.D.

AE3, 19 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (plumed) bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left (annulet on shoulder), suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, wreath at center between them, PCONST in exergue.

RIC rarity r4
Stkp
ricvii85ORweb.jpg
Urbs Roma Commemorative AE361 viewsO: VRBS ROMA, helmeted, mantled bust of Roma left
R: She-wolf standing left suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above
dot CONS Epsilon dot in ex.
19mm 2.18g 333-335 AD City Commemoratives, Constantinople RIC 85 (r3)
casata137ec
RIC_Urbs_RIC_VII_Constantinople_78.jpg
Urbs Roma Constantinople25 viewsRIC VII Constantinople 78

Constantinople mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 333-335 A.D.

AE3, 1.95 g., 18.50 mm. max, 180°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, CONSE• in exergue.

RIC rarity r1
Stkp
RIC_Urbs_Constantinople_VII_85_dotCONSEdot.JPG
Urbs Roma Constantinople136 viewsRIC VII Constantinople 85

Constantinople mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 333-335 A.D.

AE3, 19 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (plumed) bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left (circle of pellets [?] and tuft [?] on shoulder), suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, •CONSE• in exergue.

RIC rarity r3
Stkp
RIC_Urbs_Constantinople_VII_62_CONSE.JPG
Urbs Roma Constantinople145 viewsRIC VII Constantinople 62

Constantinople mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-331 A.D.

AE3, 19 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (plumed) bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left (tuft on shoulder), suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, CONSE in exergue.

RIC rarity c1
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Urbs Roma Constantinople41 viewsRIC VII Constantinople 62

Constantinople mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-333 A.D.

AE3, 2.79 g., 17.27 mm., 180°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, CONSE in exergue, leaf on stem between C and O.

RIC rarity C
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RIC_Urbs_Roma_Cyzicus_91.JPG
Urbs Roma Cyzicus187 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 91

Cyzicus mint, fourth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-333 A.D.

AE3, 17 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (plumed) bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMKΔ in exergue.

RIC rarity r3
Stkp
RIC_Urbs_Cyzicus_90_SMKE_D3.JPG
Urbs Roma Cyzicus146 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 90

Cyzicus mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-333 A.D.

AE3, 18 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left (___ on shoulder), suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMKE in exergue.

RIC rarity r4
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RIC_Urbs_Cyzicus_106_dotSMKgamma_D4.JPG
Urbs Roma Cyzicus112 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 106

Cyzicus mint, third officina, struck under Constantine I, 332-335 A.D.

AE3, 18 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (plumed) bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, •SMKΓ in exergue.

RIC rarity r4
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RIC_Urbs_Cyzicus_118_starSMKdelta.JPG
Urbs Roma Cyzicus122 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 118

Cyzicus mint, fourth officina, struck under Constantine I, 335-336 A.D.

AE3, 18 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, *SMKΔ in exergue.

RIC rarity r5
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RIC_Urbs_RIC_VII_Cyzicus_71.jpg
Urbs Roma Cyzicus33 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 71

Cyzicus mint, fourth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-334 A.D.

AE3, 2.24 g., 18.02 mm. max, 180°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMKΔ• in exergue.

RIC rarity r4
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RIC_Urbs_RIC_VII_Cyzicus_106.png
Urbs Roma Cyzicus16 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 106

Cyzicus mint, second officina, struck under Constantine I, 332-335 A.D.

AE3, 1.68 g., 18.90 mm., 180°

Obv: VRBS [R]OMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, •SMKS in exergue.

RIC rarity r5
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Urbs Roma Cyzicus12 viewsRIC VII Cyzicus 90

Cyzicus mint, third officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-333 A.D.

AE3, 2.31 g., 18.56 mm. max., 180°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMKΓ in exergue.

RIC rarity R5
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RIC_Urbs_Heraclea_RIC_VII_Heraclea_143_SMHE.JPG
Urbs Roma Heraclea106 viewsRIC VII Heraclea 143

Heraclea mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 333-336 A.D.

AE3, 18.5 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMHΕ* in exergue.

RIC rarity r3
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RIC_Urbs_Roma_Nicomedia_195.JPG
Urbs Roma Nicomedia147 viewsRIC VII Nicomedia 195

Nicomedia mint, second officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-335 A.D.

AE3, 18 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left (___ on shoulder), suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, three vertical pellets at center between them, SMNS in exergue

RIC rarity r1
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RIC_Urbs_Nicomedia_RIC_VII_Nicomedia_195_SMNE.JPG
Urbs Roma Nicomedia85 viewsRIC VII Nicomedia 195

Nicomedia mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-335 A.D.

AE3, 17.5 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, three vertical dots between, pellets on wolf’s shoulder, SMNΕ in exergue.

RIC rarity r1
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RIC_Urbs_RIC_VII_Nicomedia_195_gamma.jpg
Urbs Roma Nicomedia27 viewsRIC VII Nicomedia 195

Nicomedia mint, third officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-335 A.D.

AE3, 2.05 g., 18.80 mm., 180°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, three vertical dots between, SMNΓ in exergue.

RIC rarity r1.
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Urbs Roma Rome14 viewsRIC VII Rome 338 var. (star)

Rome mint, fourth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-331 A.D.

AE3, 2.01 g., 19.85 mm., 180°

Obv: VRBS RO[M]A, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, RBQ in exergue, flower on wolf's shoulder formed by circle of six dots with dot in center.

RIC rarity S
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Urbs Roma Rome10 viewsRIC VII Rome 331 var. (flower)

Rome mint, fourth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330 A.D.

AE3, 2.52 g., 18.64 mm., 180°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, RFQ in exergue, flower on wolf's shoulder formed by circle of six dots with dot in center.

RIC rarity C1
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RIC_Urbs_RIC_VII_Rome_331.jpg
Urbs Roma Rome10 viewsRIC VII Rome 331

Rome mint, fourth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330 A.D.

AE3, 2.53 g., 17.29 mm. max., 180°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, RFQ in exergue.

RIC rarity C1
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RIC_Urbs_Roma_Siscia_dot_DSIS_dot.JPG
Urbs Roma Siscia163 viewsRIC VII Siscia 240

Siscia mint, fourth officina, struck under Constantine I, 334-335 A.D.

AE3, 18 mm.

Obv: VRBS--ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, •ΔSIS• in exergue

RIC rarity c2

Note: The first letter in the officina may be an alpha or a delta. Based on the style of the alpha on other emissions of Constantine I from the first officina of Siscia (which look either like an A or an H), this would appear to be a delta, but this is far from certain.
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RIC_Urbs_Thessalonica_187_O.JPG
Urbs Roma Thessalonica136 viewsRIC VII Thessalonica 187

Antioch mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-333 A.D.

AE3, 18 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (plumed) bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left (θ on shoulder), suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars [right star missing], SMTSE in exergue.

RIC rarity c3
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RIC_Urbs_Thessalonica_229.JPG
Urbs Roma Thessalonica145 viewsRIC VII Thessalonica 187

Antioch mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-333 A.D.

AE4, 15 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (plumed) bust or Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left (wreath on shoulder), suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars [right star missing], SMTSE in exergue.

RIC rarity r1
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RIC_Urbs_RIC_VII_Thessalonika_187_var_.jpg
Urbs Roma Thessalonika12 viewsRIC VII Thessalonika 187 var. (shoulder mark)

Thessalonica mint, fifth officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-333 A.D.

AE4, 1.44 g., 16.82 mm. max., 180°

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted plumed bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak.

Rev: She-wolf standing left, wreath on shoulder, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, SMTSE in exergue.

RIC rarity R4
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RIC_URBS_Trier_RIC_VII_Trier_529.JPG
Urbs Roma Trier145 viewsRIC VII Trier 529

Trier mint, second officina, struck under Constantine I, 330-331 A.D.

AE3, 18 mm.

Obv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (plumed) bust of Roma left, wearing imperial cloak

Rev: She-wolf standing left (double crescent on shoulder), suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), two stars above, TRS• in exergue.

RIC rarity c3
Stkp
0649-320np_noir.jpg
Urbs Roma, AE 3110 viewsAE 3 struck in Siscia, 3rd officina, ca. AD 330-333
VRBS ROMA, Helmeted Roma left
Anepigraph, She wolf suckling twins Remus and Romulus, two stars in field, gamma SIS at exergue
2.34 gr
Ref : RC #3894, Cohen #17, RIC # 222
Potator II
0649-330n.jpg
Urbs Roma, AE 3 33 viewsMinted in Lyon
VRBS ROMA, Helmeted Roma left
Anepigraph, She wolf suckling twins Remus and Romulus, two stars in field, cressent PLG at exergue
2,5 gr
Potator II
0649-320.jpg
Urbs Roma, AE 347 viewsSiscia mint, 3rd officina, ca. AD 330-333
VRBS ROMA, Helmeted Roma left
Anepigraph, She wolf suckling twins Remus and Romulus, two stars in field, gamma SIS at exergue
2.34 gr
Ref : RC #3894, Cohen #17, RIC # 222
1 commentsPotator II
0649-321.jpg
Urbs Roma, AE 371 viewsLyon mint, 1st officina, ca. AD 332
VRBS ROMA, Helmeted Roma left
Anepigraph, She wolf suckling twins Remus and Romulus, two stars in field, Crescent dot PLG at exergue
2.86 gr
Ref : Bastien # 221, RIC # 257

Note :Die clash on the reverse, the remains of ROMA backwards and the rear of Roma's helmet being visible
4 commentsPotator II
Urbs_Roma,_wolf_and_twins,_Arles,_rare.JPG
Urbs Roma, Wolf and twins, Arles38 viewsUrbs Roma, wolf and twins, Arles, 16mm, 1.6g. Obverse: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle. Reverse: Romulus and Remus suckling from wolf, two stars and Chi-Rho above. Arles, r3 or r4, depending on mintmark (off-flan). ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
83309q00__Rome_Commemorative,_siscia.jpg
Urbs Roma, Wolf and twins, RIC VII 240 Siscia 24 viewsCity of Rome Commemorative, 334 - 335 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC VII 240, Siscia mint, 2.302g, 18.8mm, 180o, 334 - 335 A.D.; obverse VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle; reverse , Romulus and Remus suckling from wolf, two stars above, •“Γ”SIS• in exergue. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Urbs_Roma,_wolf_and_twins,_Thessalonica.JPG
Urbs Roma, Wolf and twins, Thessalonica31 viewsUrbs Roma, wolf and twins, Thessalonica. 15mm, 1.7g. Obverse: VRBS ROMA, helmeted bust of Roma left wearing imperial mantle. Reverse: Romulus and Remus suckling from wolf, two stars above, X on wolf's shoulder, SMTSE in exergue; RIC VII Thessalonica 187. ex areich, photo credit areich1 commentsPodiceps
URBS_ROMA_SMK_(Cyzicus).JPG
URBS ROMA. Mint: Cyzicus95 viewsStruck A.D.331 under Constantine I.
Obverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, SMKΔ.
RIC VII : 91
VERY RARE
*Alex
URBS_ROMA_SMTS_(Thessalonika).JPG
URBS ROMA. Mint: Thessalonika101 viewsStruck A.D.330 - 333 under Constantine I.
Obverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, SMTSA.
RIC VII : 187.
*Alex
URBS_ROMA_TRS_(Treveri).JPG
URBS ROMA. Mint: Treveri113 viewsStruck A.D.332 - 333 under Constantine I.
Obverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, crescent symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, TR•S.
RIC VII : 542

This coin is from the Grassmoor Hoard, Nottinghamshire, England.
*Alex
Valerian_She_Wolf~0.jpg
Valerian She Wolf15 viewsValerian I, Alexandria Troas, 253-260 AD, Æ 19mm, 4.78g,
OBV: IMP LICINI VALERIANV, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: COLAVG, TRO in Exergue, She-wolf standing right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus
Bellinger A-442 (type 56), SNG Copenhagen 187
Romanorvm
vbrsromaOR~0.jpg
VBRS ROMA city commemorative, RIC VII Siscia 24065 viewsSiscia mint, VBRS ROMA city commemorative, 331-334 A.D. AE, mm g, RIC VII Siscia 240
O: VRBS-ROMA, helmeted, wearing imperial cloak, left
R: Wolf to left suckling twins Romulus and Remus
Ex: dot BSIS dot
casata137ec
Virtus_Dlsd_tropy_and_spear.jpg
Virtvs Dlsd trophy and spear125 viewsObverse: IMPSEVALE_XANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, slightly draped on left shoulder
Reverse: VIRTVSAVGVSTI, SC left and right, in field
Severus Alexander as Romulus, bareheaded, in military dress, advancing right, holding spear pointing transversely upward in right hand and trophy over left shoulder in left
BMC 524-6, RIC 625
Weight, 20.915g; die axis, 12h.
1 commentsmix_val
red_virtus_aegis.jpg
Virtvs Dlsd Trophy and spear Aegis31 viewsObverse: IMP SEV ALE_XANDER AVG
Bust laureate right, draped with aegis on left shoulder
Reverse: VIRTVS AVGVSTI, S C left and right, in field
Severus Alexander as Romulus, bareheaded, in military dress, advancing right, holding spear pointing transversely upward in right hand and trophy over left shoulder in left
Unlisted bust variant of BMC 524-6, RIC 625 (slightly draped)
Weight, 24.104g; die axis, 12h.
mix_val
vrbs_roma_2.jpg
Vrbs Roma126 viewsAnonymous Issue during the reign of Constantine I.
Obverse- VRBS-ROMA, helmeted bust left.
Reverse- She-wolf standing left, head right, suckling Remus and Romulus.
Alexandria mint, 17mm.
6 commentsb70
IMG_3554~0.jpg
VRBS Roma (330-335 A.D.)68 viewsAv.: VRBS ROMA
Rv.: She-wolf with Romulus and Remus
Ex.: TRP

AE Follis Ø17-19 / 2.7g
RIC VII 561 Trier
Juancho
VRBS_ROMA_A-SIS_1a.jpg
VRBS ROMA Æ3 Follis * Commemorative260 viewsVRBS ROMA * Commemorative - Founding of the City of Rome

Obv: VRBS ROMA - Roma wearing plumed & crested helmet with visor, draped in Imperial robe and cuirassed bust left.
Rev: No legend: She-wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; two stars above.

Exergue: . Δ SIS .

Mint: Siscia
Struck: 330-346 AD.

Size: 17.88 x 16.55 mm.
Weight: c. 2.5 gms.
Die axis: 350°

Condition: In fine condition, nicely struck, well-centered and a lovely deep copper-gold patina overall.

Note: Coin not in my private collection. Birthday gift to my niece, February 2006.

Ref: RIC 240 D
2 commentsTiathena
VRBS_ROMA_X_1a.jpg
VRBS ROMA Æ3 Follis * Commemorative283 views
VRBS ROMA * Commemorative - Founding of the City of Rome

Obv: VRBS ROMA - Roma wearing plumed & crested helmet with visor, draped in Imperial robe and cuirassed bust left.
Rev: No legend: She-wolf standing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; two stars above.

Exergue: R (Wreath) Q

Mint: Rome
Struck: 333-335 AD.

Size: 16.12 mm.
Weight: c. 2.5 gms.
Die axis: 180°

Condition: In good condition, well struck, nicely-centered and a rather pretty dark-olive green patina overall.

Note: Coin not in my private collection. Birthday gift to my niece, February 2006.

Ref: RIC VII Rome 354
2 commentsTiathena
City_commemerative_-_Grassmore.jpg
VRBS ROMA City Commemerative19 viewsObv: VRBS ROMA, helmeted, cuirassed bust left
Rev: she-wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus, two stars above, TR (dot) P in ex.
Size: 16 mm, 2.15 gm
ID#: RIC VII Trier 542
Mint: Trier, AD 332-333
Notes: 1. Ex Grassmoor hoard; Nottinghamshire, 7th January 2001
ickster
urbs~0.jpg
VRBS ROMA Commemorative21 viewsAE3, 2.1g, 17.6mm, 12h; Siscia mint: AD 334-5
Obv.: VRBS ROMA; helmeted bust of Roma left, wearing imperial mantle.
Rev.: Romulus and Remus suckling from she-wolf, two stars above // dot ΓSIS dot
Reference: RIC VII Siscia 240 (p. 456)
Notes: ex-Zuzim, electronic sale, 2/13/13, 79.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
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Vrbs Roma commemorative from reign of Constantine the Great 34 viewsAE3
Mint: THESSALONICA, Date: 330-333 AD
Obv: VRBS ROMA -helmeted, cuirassed bust of Roma left.
Rev: She wolf standing left, suckling twins Romulus & Remus, two stars above.
Exergue:Delta SMTS
Size: 18-19mm; 2.41gms
Ref: RIC VII, 187
brian l
com.jpg
Vrbs Roma RIC VII Cyzicus 1061 viewsAE 18.7 mm 2.4g 332-335 AD
OBV :: VRBS ROMA : Plumed helmet, draped and cuirassed bust left
REV :: no legend : Wolf standing left, suckling twins Romulus & Remus, two stars above
EX :: dot SMK gamma ( Cyzicus )
REF :: RIC VII Cyzicus 106; Sear 16524
from uncleaned lot 04/2019
Johnny
VRBS_ROMA_Trier_mint.jpg
VRBS ROMA Trier mint137 viewsTR•S

2.32 g, 16.5 x 17.4 mm.
RIC VII:542 for Trier. Minted 332-333 AD.
OBv.: Roma left, VRBS ROMA.
REV.: Wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, TR•S in exergue.
3 commentsXLi
urbs~0.jpg
VRBS ROMA, wolf and twins, Cyzicus28 viewsUrbs Roma commemorative. AD 330-354 AD, VRBS ROMA, wolf and twins, 19 mm, 2.4 g, Obverse: VRBS ROMA, helmeted (with plume) and mantled bust of Roma left, Reverse: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus); two stars above, SMKS in exergue. Attribution: RIC VII Cyzicus 91, r3 (rare), ex areich

Podiceps
Urbs_Roma,_wolf_and_twins,_Heraclea.JPG
VRBS ROMA, wolf and twins, Heraclea34 viewsUrbs Roma, wolf and twins, Heraclea. 19 mm, 2.05 g. Obverse: VRBS ROMA, helmeted and mantled bust of Roma left. Reverse: She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus); two stars above, dot SMHE dot in exergue. RIC VII Heraclea 124, r1 (scarce). ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
gallienus aeteritas~0.jpg
WOLF330 viewsGallienus AD 253-268 Asian mint Ant
S 2942, Van Meter 13/3, RIC 628, Cohen 46, 3.43 grams 21.70 mm
Radiate draped bust right with legend GALLIENUS AVG
She-wolf standing right looking back suckling Romulus and Remus with legend AETERNITAS AVG
Palm-branch in exergue
WCNC April 05 £47
2 commentsmickdale
AntoSe47a.jpg
Wolf with Romulus and Remus447 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Sestertius (23.3g, 30-32mm, 12h) Rome mint. Struck 140-144 AD. Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P , laureate head right. Rev.: TR POT COS III [around edge] S C [in ex], wolf in a cave suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. RIC 650; BMC 1318-1321; Cohen 917; Sear (II) 1274.

Coin belonging to a series depicting scenes from ancient Roman legends, issued in preparation of the celebration of the 900th anniversary of Rome in the year 147 AD.
Charles S
Urbs_Roma_37.jpg
Z26 viewsConstantine the Great
City Commemorative (VRBS ROMA)

Attribution: RIC VII 62, Constantinople
Date: AD 333-335
Obverse: VRBS ROMA; helmeted and cuirassed bust l.
Reverse: She-wolf stg. l. suckling Romulus and Remus; two stars above; CONSIA in exergue
Size: 19.1 mm
(Etruscan bronze Capitoline Wolf statue: In front of City Hall, Rome)
My very first Roman coin ever!!!

Romulus and Remus are the twin brothers and central characters of Rome's foundation myth. Their mother is Rhea Silvia, daughter to Numitor, king of Alba Longa. Before their conception, Numitor's brother Amulius seizes power, kills Numitor's male heirs and forces Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, sworn to chastity. Rhea Silvia conceives the twins by the god Mars, or by the demi-god Hercules; once the twins were born, Amulius has them abandoned to die in the river Tiber. They are saved by a series of miraculous interventions: the river carries them to safety, a she-wolf finds and suckles them, and a woodpecker feeds them. A shepherd and his wife find them and foster them to manhood, as simple shepherds. The twins, still ignorant of their true origins, prove to be natural leaders. Each acquires many followers. When they discover the truth of their birth, they kill Amulius and restore Numitor to his throne. Rather than wait to inherit Alba Longa they choose to found a new city. Romulus wants to found the new city on the Palatine Hill; Remus prefers the Aventine Hill. They agree to determine the site through augury but when each claims the results in his own favor, they quarrel and Remus is killed. Romulus founds the new city, names it Rome, after himself, and creates its first legions and senate.
Noah
PontiusPilate29BCHendin648.jpg
[18H648] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 29 BC48 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, "SIMPULUM;" Hendin 648, AVF/VF, 15.3mm, 2.20 grams, struck 29 C.E. Nice round, good weight Pontius Pilate Prutah.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate30BCHendin649.jpg
[18H649] Pontius Pilate Prefect under Tiberius Prutah, "LIZ", 30 BC70 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, 'LIZ;' Hendin 649, VF, 15.5mm, 1.90 grams. Struck 30 C.E. Nice historic coin.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
PontiusPilate31BCHendin650.jpg
[18H650] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 31 BC68 viewsPONTIUS PILATUS PRUTAH. Hendin 650, aVF, 14.3mm, 1.94 grams. Minted 31 C.E. FULL "LIH" Date, (H partially hidden behind pretty patina can be revealed.)

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cæsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
AntoninusPiusAequitasSear4053.jpg
[904a] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.127 viewsAntoninus Pius, AD 138 to 161. Silver denarius. Sear-4053; gVF; Rome;16.4 x 17.9 mm, 3.61 g; issue of AD 138; Obverse : Head of Antoninus Pius right, with IMP T AEL CAES HADRI ANTONINVS around; Reverse : Aequitas standing left, holding scales and a cornucopiae, with AVG PIVS P M TR P COS DES II around. This is an interesting part of the Antoninus Pius series, struck in the first year of his reign, using his adoptive name of Hadrianus, and with the reverse inscription a continuation from the obverse.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
AntoPiusDenar.jpg
[904z] Antoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D.143 viewsAntoninus Pius, August 138 - 7 March 161 A.D. Silver denarius, RIC 232, RSC 271, F, Rome, 1.699g, 17.3mm, 0o, 153 - 154 A.D. Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right; Reverse: COS IIII, Fortuna standing right, cornucopia in left, long rudder on globe in right.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Antoninus Pius (A.D. 138-161)

Richard D. Weigel
Western Kentucky University

Introduction
The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects.

Early Life
The future emperor was born T. Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus on September 19, A.D. 86 at Lanuvium, an old Latin city southeast of Rome. His father's family had originally migrated to Rome from Nemausus (Nîmes) in Narbonese Gaul, but his paternal grandfather, T. Aurelius Fulvus, had served twice as Roman consul and also as city prefect and his father, Aurelius Fulvus, also held the consulship. The future emperor's mother was Arria Fadilla and her father, Arrius Antoninus, had also been consul twice. Young Antoninus was raised at Lorium, on the via Aurelia, where he later built a palace.

Career Under Hadrian
Very little is known about Antoninus' life before he became emperor. The brief biography in the Scriptores Historiae Augustae credited to Julius Capitolinus refers to his services as quaestor, praetor, and consul and P. von Rohden's entry in Pauly-Wissowa dates his tenure of these offices to A.D. 112, 117, and 120 respectively. At some point between A.D. 110 and 115, Antoninus married Annia Galeria Faustina, the daughter of M. Annius Verus. Hadrian later appointed Antoninus as one of his consular administrators of Italy and between A.D. 130 and 135 Antoninus served as proconsul of Asia.
Antoninus had achieved a distinguished career under Hadrian. and could have retired from imperial service with great pride, but events in A.D. 138 changed Antoninus' future quite radically. Early in the year, the death of Aelius Verus, whom Hadrian had previously adopted and named Caesar, opened a new path. Hadrian met with the Senate and announced his decision to adopt Antoninus as his son and heir and to share both proconsular and tribunician power with him. After giving this offer careful thought, Antoninus accepted and agreed in return to adopt as his heirs his wife's nephew, M. Antoninus, the future Marcus Aurelius, and L. Verus, the son of Aelius Verus.

Imperial Reign
When Hadrian died in the following summer, Antoninus oversaw the conveyance of his body from Baiae to Rome for interment in the new imperial tomb (now Castel Sant' Angelo). To honor his adoptive father, Antoninus set up a magnificent shield, established a priesthood, and, against serious opposition in the Senate, requested and bargained for senatorial confirmation of Hadrian's deification. Antoninus' devotion to Hadrian's memory is one of the reasons cited for the Senate's bestowal upon the new emperor of the name "pius". After initially refusing the Senate's recognition of Antoninus as "pater patriae", the new emperor accepted the honor with thanks. He declined, however, the Senate's decree authorizing the renaming of the months of September and October after the new emperor and empress. The Senate did honor the new empress with the title of "Augusta". On her death only a few years later in A.D. 141, the Senate deified Faustina and voted her a temple and priestesses. In memory of his wife, Antoninus also instituted an alimentary program, similar to those of his immediate predecessors, which combined loans to Italian farmers with funds, generated by interest on those loans, set aside for the care of orphaned girls. On coins these orphans are designated as puellae Faustinianae.

Antoninus returned all of Italy's share of the aurum coronarium, the money raised in honor of his accession, and one-half of that contributed from the provinces. His economic policy in general was relatively conservative and avoided luxurious waste while supporting public works of practical application. His procurators were told to keep provincial tribute reasonable and they were held accountable for exceeding fixed bounds. The provinces in general prospered under his administration and the use of informers was ended. Julius Capitolinus summarizes the excellence of Antoninus' administration when he says: "With such care did he govern all peoples under him that he looked after all things and all men as if they were his own." In spite of his caution in raising imperial revenues, however, Antoninus provided regular gifts of money to the people and to the soldiers and produced spectacular public games with a great variety of animals on display. The emperor also used his own funds to distribute oil, grain, and wine free in a time of famine and helped relieve the devastation caused in Rome by fire, flood, and a collapse of stands in the Circus Maximus and by fires and earthquakes in the provinces.

Although the reigns of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian, had seen prolific building activity in Rome and throughout the empire, Antoninus chose to be less lavish in his public works projects. He felt an obligation to complete work begun or promised by Hadrian. Antoninus completed the Mausoleum of Hadrian along the Tiber and built the temples of the Divine Hadrian in the Campus Martius and of Faustina in the Forum. He also restored the oldest bridge in Rome, the Pons Sublicius, the Graecostadium, and the Colosseum. He may even have put some finishing touches on the Pantheon because Julius Capitolinus mentions restoration of a templum Agrippae, but the text may be corrupt and the temple of the Divine Augustus, the restoration of which is recorded on some of Antoninus' coins, may be the intended reference here. Outside Rome, Antoninus repaired several roads and renovated ports in Alexandria, Caieta, and Terracina, a bath at Ostia, an aqueduct at Antium, and the temples in his birthplace, Lanuvium.

Although some sources suggest that Antoninus went in person to Egypt and Syria to put down a revolt of peoples along the Red Sea, Julius Capitolinus says that Antoninus made his home in Rome where he could receive messages from all parts of the empire equally quickly . He also states that to avoid burdening the provinces with the expenses of housing an emperor and his associates Antoninus took expeditions out of Rome only to his estates in Campania. If correct, these actions marked a decided break with the visibility of his two predecessors in the provinces and recreated a more Rome- and Italy-centered empire. Wilhelm Weber commented on this policy: "As if, perhaps, in criticism of Hadrian's conception of his task, he sat like a beneficent spider at the centre of his web, power radiating steadily from him to the farthest bounds of the empire and as steadily returning to him again. For the last time in Imperial history the Emperor was wholly one with Rome and its centralization."

During his third consulship (A.D. 140-144), Antoninus issued a series of unusual coins and medallions which featured entirely new or modified religious/mythological images. Jocelyn Toynbee correctly pointed out that these types were issued to prepare for the celebration of Rome's nine hundredth birthday in A.D. 147/148 and she also discussed two images which represent the emperor's reaction against Hadrian's "cosmopolitanism" and his attempt to restore Rome and Italy to a superior position over the provinces. This unusual series, issued especially in bronze, commemorated Rome's connection to her distant roots from Trojans, Latins, and Sabines and honored gods who had protected the city in the past. Themes associated with Aeneas, Romulus, Numa Pompilius, and Augustus by implication tied in Antoninus as successor to these four model Roman leaders. Although the death of Faustina may have motivated Antoninus' display of public piety to some degree on these coins and medallions, the series also set the tone for the games and rituals of the birthday celebration in 147/148, renewed religious values, and restored Rome's proper relationship with protective gods who had brought the city past success both in war and in peace. Another series of coins, the "anonymous quadrantes", combines a portrait of a god or goddess on the obverse with a reverse symbol of an animal associated with the same deity. The absence of an imperial portrait or any inscription aside from the S.C. authorization of the Senate makes it especially difficult to date this series. However, the similarity of the Jupiter and Venus portraits to images of Antoninus and Faustina and other links to Antoninus' coin-types make it probable that several of these types were issued in Antoninus' reign, perhaps again in connection with Rome's birthday celebration in A.D. 147/148.

Although Antoninus' reign was generally peaceful, Capitolinus says that he fought wars, through legates, against the Britons, Moors, Germans, Dacians, and the Alans and suppressed revolts in Achaea, in Egypt, and among the Jews. The war in Britain was fought around A.D. 142 against the Brigantes and led to the construction of the Antonine Wall across the island as a second line of defense north of Hadrian's Wall. In foreign relations, the emperor's authority was respected among peoples bordering on the empire. Antoninus approved the appointment of kings for the Armenians, for the Lazi, and for the Quadi and he successfully prevented a Parthian attack on Armenia by sending the Parthian king a letter of warning.

Antoninus did continue his predecessor's interest in law and his imperial legislation is cited frequently in Justinian's Digest. Several lawyers served in the emperor's consilium and presumably advised him on legal matters. Antoninus' legislation included protections for slaves, freedmen, and for illegitimate children and further defined family and inheritance law, including consideration of a daughter's wishes in marriage arrangements.

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. Antoninus made sure that he would leave the Empire secure and in sound financial condition and his adopted sons inherited a large surplus (reportedly 675 million denarii) in the Treasury .

Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate. His adopted sons and successors, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, erected a column of red granite in his honor in the Campus Martius. The marble base for this column, which is preserved in the Vatican, includes a sculpted image of the apotheosis of Antoninus and Faustina. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs." In many ways Antoninus Pius was a model emperor who justifiably earned comparison with his own model, Numa Pompilius, and provided the Empire with a period of fortune, religious piety, and security perhaps unmatched in imperial annals.

Copyright (C) 1998, Richard D. Weigel.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
CommodusRSC190.jpg
[906a]Commodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.168 viewsCOMMODUS AR silver denarius. RSC 190. RCV 5644. 16.5mm, 2.3g. F. Obverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, bust of Commodus wearing lion skin in imitation of Hercules and Alexander the Great, facing right; Reverse: HER-CVL RO-MAN AV-GV either side of club of Hercules, all in wreath. RARE. Ex Incitatus.

This coin refers to Commodus' belief that he was Hercules reincarnated. According to the historian Herodian, "he issued orders that he was to be called not Commodus, son of Marcus, but Hercules, son of Jupiter. Abandoning the Roman and imperial mode of dress, he donned the lion-skin, and carried the club of Hercules..." (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Commodus (A.D. 180-192)

Dennis Quinn

Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus, the son of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius and his wife-cousin Faustina, was born in Lanuvium in 161 AD. Commodus was named Caesar at the age of 5, and co-Augustus at the age of 17, spending most of his early life accompanying his father on his campaigns against the Quadi and the Marcomanni along the Danubian frontier. His father died, possibly of the plague, at a military encampment at Bononia on the Danube on 17 March 180, leaving the Roman Empire to his nineteen-year-old son.[[1]] Upon hearing of his father's death, Commodus made preparations for Marcus' funeral, made concessions to the northern tribes, and made haste to return back to Rome in order to enjoy peace after nearly two decades of war. Commodus, and much of the Roman army behind him, entered the capital on 22 October, 180 in a triumphal procession, receiving a hero's welcome. Indeed, the youthful Commodus must have appeared in the parade as an icon of new, happier days to come; his arrival sparked the highest hopes in the Roman people, who believed he would rule as his father had ruled.[[2]]

The coins issued in his first year all display the triumphant general, a warrior in action who brought the spoils of victory to the citizens of Rome.[[3]] There is a great deal of evidence to support the fact that Commodus was popular among many of the people, at least for a majority of his reign. He seems to have been quite generous.[[4]]. Coin types from around 183 onward often contain the legend, Munificentia Augusta[[5]], indicating that generosity was indeed a part of his imperial program. Coins show nine occasions on which Commodus gave largesses, seven when he was sole emperor.[[6]] According to Dio, the emperor obtained some of this funding by taxing members of the senatorial class.[[7]] This policy of munificence certainly caused tensions between Commodus and the Senate. In 191 it was noted in the official Actus Urbis that the gods had given Commodus to Populus Senatusque Romanus. Normally the phrase Senatus Populusque Romanus was used. [[8]] While the Senate hated Commodus, the army and the lower classes loved him.[[9]] Because of the bad relationship between the Senate and Commodus as well as a senatorial conspiracy,[[10]] Rome "...was virtually governed by the praetorian prefects Perennis (182-185) and Cleander (186-9)."[[11]]

Commodus began to dress like the god Hercules, wearing lion skins and carrying a club.[[12]] Thus he appropriated the Antonines' traditional identification with Hercules, but even more aggressively. Commodus' complete identification with Hercules can be seen as an attempt to solidify his claim as new founder of Rome, which he now called the Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana. This was legitimized by his direct link to Hercules, son of Father Jupiter.[[13]] He probably took the title of Hercules officially some time before mid-September 192.[[14]]

While the literary sources, especially Dio, Herodian, and the Historia Augusta, all ridicule the antics of his later career, they also give important insight into Commodus' relationship to the people.[[15]] His most important maneuver to solidify his claims as Hercules Romanus was to show himself as the god to the Roman people by taking part in spectacles in the amphitheater. Not only would Commodus fight and defeat the most skilled gladiators, he would also test his talents by encountering the most ferocious of the beasts.[[16]]

Commodus won all of his bouts against the gladiators.[[17]] The slayer of wild beasts, Hercules, was the mythical symbol of Commodus' rule, as protector of the Empire.[[18]]

During his final years he declared that his age should be called the "Golden Age."[[19]] He wanted all to revel in peace and happiness in his age of glory, praise the felicitas Commodi, the glorious libertas, his pietas, providential, his victoria and virtus aeterna.[[20]] Commodus wanted there to be no doubt that this "Golden Age" had been achieved through his munificence as Nobilissimus Princeps. He had declared a brand new day in Rome, founding it anew in 190, declaring himself the new Romulus.[[21]] Rome was now to be called Colonia Lucia Annia Commodiana, as noted above, and deemed "the Immortal," "the Fortunate," "the Universal Colony of the Earth."[[22]] Coins represent the archaic rituals of city-[re]foundation, identifying Commodus as a new founder and his age as new days.[[23]]

Also in 190 he renamed all the months to correspond exactly with his titles. From January, they run as follows: Lucius, Aelius, Aurelius, Commodus, Augustus, Herculeus, Romanus, Exsuperatorius, Amazonius, Invictus, Felix, Pius.[[24]] According to Dio Cassius, the changing of the names of the months was all part of Commodus' megalomania.[[25]] Commodus was the first and last in the Antonine dynasty to change the names of the months.


The legions were renamed Commodianae, the fleet which imported grain from Africa was called Alexandria Commodiana Togata, the Senate was deemed the Commodian Fortunate Senate, his palace and the Roman people were all given the name Commodianus.[[26]] The day that these new names were announced was also given a new title: Dies Commodianus.[[27]] Indeed, the emperor presented himself with growing vigor as the center of Roman life and the fountainhead of religion. New expressions of old religious thought and new cults previously restricted to private worship invade the highest level of imperial power.[[28]]

If Eusebius of Caesarea [[29]] is to be believed, the reign of Commodus inaugurated a period of numerous conversions to Christianity. Commodus did not pursue his father's prohibitions against the Christians, although he did not actually change their legal position. Rather, he relaxed persecutions, after minor efforts early in his reign.[[30]] Tradition credits Commodus's policy to the influence of his concubine Marcia; she was probably his favorite,[[31]] but it is not clear that she was a Christian.[[32]] More likely, Commodus preferred to neglect the sect, so that persecutions would not detract from his claims to be leading the Empire through a "Golden Age."[[33]]

During his reign several attempts were made on Commodus' life.[[34]] After a few botched efforts, an orchestrated plot was carried out early in December 192, apparently including his mistress Marcia. On 31 December an athlete named Narcissus strangled him in his bath,[[35]] and the emperor's memory was cursed. This brought an end to the Antonine Dynasty.


SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY
Alföldy, G. "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.

Aymard, J. "Commode-Hercule foundateur de Rome," Revue des études latines 14 (1936): 340-64.

Birley, A. R. The African Emperor: Septimius Severus. -- rev. ed.-- London, 1988.
________. Marcus Aurelius: A Biography. London, 1987.

Breckenridge, J. D. "Roman Imperial Portraiture from Augustus to Gallienus," ANRW 2.17. 1 (1981): 477-512.

Chantraine, H. "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quartalschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975): 1-31.

Ferguson, J. The Religions of the Roman Empire. Ithaca, 1970.

Fishwick, D. The Imperial Cult in the Latin West. Leiden, 1987.

Gagé, J. "La mystique imperiale et l'épreuve des jeux. Commode-Hercule et l'anthropologie hercaléenne," ANRW 2.17.2 (1981), 663-83.

Garzetti, A. From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192. London, 1974.

Grosso F. La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo. Turin, 1964.

Hammond, M. The Antonine Monarchy. Rome, 1956.

Helgeland, J. "Roman Army Religion," ANRW II.16.2 (1978): 1470-1505.

Howe, L. L. The Praetorian Prefect from Commodus to Diocletian (A. D. 180-305). Chicago, 1942.

Keresztes, P. "A Favorable Aspect of Commodus' Rule," in Hommages à Marcel Renard 2. Bruxelles, 1969.

Mattingly, R. The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus. London, 1930.

Nock, A. D. "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947): 102-116.

Parker, H. M. D. A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337. London, 1935.
________. and B.H. Warmington. "Commodus." OCD2, col. 276.

Raubitschek, A. E. "Commodus and Athens." Studies in Honor of Theodore Leslie Shear. Hesperia, Supp. 8, 1948.

Rostovtzeff, M. I. "Commodus-Hercules in Britain," Journal of Roman Studies 13 (1923): 91-105.

Sordi, M. "Un senatore cristano dell'éta di Commodo." Epigraphica 17 (1959): 104-112.

Speidel, M. P. "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993): 109-114.

Stanton, G. R. "Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, and Commodus: 1962-1972." ANRW II.2 (1975): 478-549.

Notes
[[1]] For a discussion of the circumstances surrounding the death of Marcus Aurelius, see A. R. Birley, Marcus Aurelius: A Biography -- rev. ed. -- (London, 1987), 210.
Aurelius Victor, De Caes. 16.4, writing around the year 360, claimed Aurelius died at Vindobona, modern Vienna. However, Tertullian, Apol. 25, who wrote some seventeen years after Marcus' death, fixed his place of death at Sirmium, twenty miles south of Bononia. A. R. Birley (Marcus Aurelius, 209-10) cogently argues Tertullian is much more accurate in his general description of where Marcus was campaigning during his last days.
For the dating of Marcus Aurelius' death and the accession of Commodus, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy (Rome, 1956), 179-80.

[[2]] For the army's attitude toward peace, the attitude of the city toward the peace, and the reception of the emperor and his forces into Rome, see Herodian, 1.7.1-4; for Commodus' subsequent political policies concerning the northern tribes, see G. Alföldy, "Der Friedesschluss des Kaisers Commodus mit den Germanen," Historia 20 (1971): 84-109.
For a commentary on the early years of Commodus in the public perception as days of optimism, see A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines. A History of the Roman Empire A. D. 14-192 (London, 1974), 530. For a more critical, and much more negative portrayal, see the first chapter of F. Grosso, La lotta politica al tempo di Commodo (Turin, 1964).

[[3]]The gods Minerva and Jupiter Victor are invoked on the currency as harbingers of victory; Jupiter Conservator on his coins watches over Commodus and his Empire, and thanks is given to divine Providence (H. Mattingly, The Roman Imperial Coinage. Volume III: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [London, 1930] 356-7, 366-7). In 181, new coin types appear defining the new reign of Commodus. Victory and peace are stressed. Coins extol Securitas Publica, Felicitas, Libertas, Annona, and Aequitas (ibid., 357).
By 186 Commodus is depicted as the victorious princes, the most noble of all born to the purple. Herodian (1.5.5) describes how Commodus boasted to his soldiers that he was born to be emperor. See also H. Chantraine, "Zur Religionspolitik des Commodus im Spiegel seiner Münzen," Römische Quatralschrift für christliche Altertumskunde und für Kirchengeschichte 70 (1975), 26. He is called Triumphator and Rector Orbis, and associated with the Nobilitas of Trojan descent (Mattingly, RIC III.359; idem, Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum. Volume IV: Antoninus Pius to Commodus, [Oxford, 1940], clxii).

[[4]] Dio tells us that Commodus liked giving gifts and often gave members of the populace 140 denarii apiece (Cass. Dio, 73.16), whereas the Historia Augusta reports that he gave each man 725 denarii (SHA, Comm., 16.3).

[[5]]Mattingly, RIC, III.358.

[[6]] Idem., CBM, IV.clxxiv.

[[7]]Cass. Dio, 73.16.

[[8]]M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 113.

[[9]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.xii. Commodus was also popular amongst the northern divisions of the army because he allowed them to wield axes in battle, a practice banned by all preceding emperors. See, Speidel, JRS 83 (1993), 114.

[[10]]Infra, n. 34.

[[11]] H. Parker and B.H. Warmington, OCD2, s.v. "Commodus," col. 276; after 189, he was influenced by his mistress Marcia, Eclectus his chamberlain, and Laetus (who became praetorian prefect in 191 (Idem.).

[[12]]Herodian, 1.14.8. Hadrian appears on medallions in lion skins; but as far as the sources tell us, he never appeared in public in them. See J. Toynbee, Roman Medallions,(New York, 1986), 208.
He would often appear at public festivals and shows dressed in purple robes embroidered with gold. He would wear a crown made of gold, inlaid with the finest gems of India. He often carried a herald's staff as if imitating the god Mercury. According to Dio Cassius, Commodus' lion's skin and club were carried before him in the procession, and at the theaters these vestiges of Hercules were placed on a gilded chair for all to see (Cass. Dio, 73.17). For the implications of the golden chair carried in procession in relation to the imperial cult, see D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West, (Leiden, 1987-91 ), 555.

[[13]] H. M. D. Parker, A History of the Roman World from A. D. 138 to 337, (London, 1935), 34; For medallions that express the relationship between Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, and Lucius Verus extolling Hercules as a symbol of civic virtue, see Toynbee, Roman Medallions, 208. For a general statement on the symbolism of Hercules in the Antonine age, see M. Hammond, The Antonine Monarchy, 238.
For a discussion of Commodus' association with Hercules, see
Rostovtzeff, "Commodus-Hercules," 104-6.
Herodian spells out the emperor's metamorphosis in detail (1.14.8).

[[14]]See Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor," 114. He argues this general date because a papyrus from Egypt's Fayum records Hercules in Commodus' title on 11 October 192.

[[15]]For a preliminary example, Herodian writes (1.13.8), "people in general responded well to him."

[[16]]As Dio reports, Commodus, with his own hands, gave the finishing stroke to five hippopotami at one time. Commodus also killed two elephants, several rhinoceroses, and a giraffe with the greatest of ease. (Cass. Dio, 73.10), and with his left hand (ibid., 73.19). Herodian maintains that from his specially constructed terrace which encircled the arena (enabling Commodus to avoid risking his life by fighting these animals at close quarters), the emperor also killed deer, roebuck, various horned animals, lions, and leopards, always killing them painlessly with a single blow. He purportedly killed one hundred leopards with one hundred javelins, and he cleanly shot the heads off countless ostriches with crescent-headed arrows. The crowd cheered as these headless birds continued to run around the amphitheater (1.15-4-6; for Commodus' popularity at these brutal spectacles, see Birley, The African Emperor, 86) (and Dio tells his readers that in public Commodus was less brutal than he was in private [73.17ff]).

[[17]] According to Herodian (1.15-17), "In his gladiatorial combats, he defeated his opponents with ease, and he did no more than wound them, since they all submitted to him, but only because they knew he was the emperor, not because he was truly a gladiator."

[[18]]Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.360.

[[19]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[20]] Mattingly, RIC, III.361. For Commodus' propaganda of peace, see W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392.

[[21]] W. Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.392-3. In 189 a coin type was issued with the legend Romulus Conditor, perhaps indicating he began the official renaming process during that year. For a discussion on Commodus as Romulus, see A. D. Nock, "The Emperor's Divine Comes," Journal of Roman Studies 37 (1947), 103.

[[22]] HA, Comm. 7.1; Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[23]]Mattingly, RIC, III.361. See also, Webber, "The Antonines," CAH, XI.386.

[[24]]The title Felix is first used by the emperor Commodus, and is used in the titles of almost all successive emperors to the fifth century. See, D. Fishwick, The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987-91), 473.
HA, Comm., 12.315; Cass. Dio, 73.15; Herodian, I.14.9. These new names for the months seem to have actually been used, at least by the army, as confirmed by Tittianus' Altar. See M. P. Speidel, "Commodus the God-Emperor and the Army," Journal of Roman Studies 83 (1993), 112.

[[25]] Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[26]]Legions:Idem.; the Grain fleet: SHA, Comm., 12.7. For a further discussion of Commodus' newly named fleet, see, A. Garzetti, From Tiberius to the Antonines, 547. For coins issued extolling the fleet, see Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxix; RIC, III.359; the Senate: Cass. Dio, 73.15; the Imperial Palace: SHA, Comm., 12.7; the Roman People: Ibid., 15.5.

[[27]]Cass. Dio, 73.15.

[[28]]Mattingly, CBM, IV.clxxxiv.

[[29]]Eusebius, Hist.Ecc., 5.21.1.

[[30]]For a discussion of the treatment of Christianity during the reigns of Marcus Aurelius and Commodus as well as persecutions during the reign of Commodus, see Keresztes, "A Favorable Aspect," 374, 376-377.

[[31]]Herodian, 1.16.4; Dio, 73.4. A Medallion from early 192 shows Commodus juxtaposed with the goddess Roma, which some scholars have argued incorporates the features of Marcia. See, Roman Medallions, "Introduction." Commodus was married, however, to a woman named Crispina. He commissioned several coins early in his rule to honor her.

[[32]]The Christian apologist Hippolytus tells that she was a Christian (Philos. 9.2.12), Dio tells that she simply favored the Christians (73.4). Herodian does not take a stand on the matter either way (1.16.4).

[[33]]Cass. Dio, 73.15. He pronounces Commodus' edict that his rule should be henceforth called the "Golden Age."

[[34]]H. Parker and B.H. Warmington note that Commodus..."resorted to government by means of favorites...which was exacerbated by an abortive conspiracy promoted by Lucilla and Ummidius Quadratus (182)." (OCD2, col. 276).

[[35]]Herodian, 1.17.2-11; Dio Cass., 73.22; SHA, Comm.,17.1-2.

Copyright (C) 1998, Dennis Quinn. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Used by Permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
usrbroma1s.jpg
“URSB ROMA”, COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE OF ROME22 viewsObverse: URBS ROMA, helmeted cuirassed bust of Roma left.
Reverse: She wolf left, suckling Romulus and Remus with 3 vertical dots between stars.
SMNB in ex. Nicomedia mint, 16.6 mm, 2.2 g.
NORMAN K
     
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