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Vindex_denarius.jpg
6.75 Revolt of Vindex49 viewsRevolt Against Nero, Gaius Iulius Vindex, Governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, c. Late 67 - May 68 A.D.

Struck by Gaius Iulius Vindex, the Roman governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, who rebelled against Nero's tax policy and declared allegiance to Galba, the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as the new emperor. Vindex was defeated and killed in battle near Vesontio (modern Besançon), but the military continued to support Galba. On 9 June 68, deserted by the Praetorian Guard, Nero stabbed himself in the throat.

Silver denarius, Unpublished, civil war restitution of Augustus, gF, porosity, marks, uncertain (Lugdunum?) mint, weight 3.167g, maximum diameter 19.0mm, die axis 180o, c. late 67 - May 68 A.D.; obverse CAESAR, bare head of Augustus right; reverse AVGVSTVS, young bull walking right, head turned facing; ex Roma Numismatics e-auction 6, lot 321; only two examples known to Forum

Purchased from FORVM
2 commentsSosius
63430q00.jpg
10 Vespasian and Titus29 viewsVespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Antioch, Syria

Silver tetradrachm, Prieur 113, McAlee 336, RPC II 1947, Wruck 86, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.89g, maximum diameter 24.3mm, die axis 0o, 70 - 71 A.D.; obverse ΑΥΤΟΚΡΑΤ ΚΑΙΣΑ ΟΥΕΣΠΑΣΙΑΝΟΥ, laureate bust right; reverse ETOYC Γ IEPOY (Holy Year 3), eagle standing left on club, wings spread, palm frond left; ex CNG auction 149, lot 286; ex Garth R. Drewry Collection, ex Harmer Rooke (26-28 March 1973), lot 488 (part of).

Struck to pay Titus' legions during and after the First Jewish Revolt. RPC notes c. 320 different dies indicate 6,500,000 Syrian tetradrachms might have been minted. This was the quantity Titus would have needed to pay his four legions. Hoard evidence finds many of these types in Judaea confirming they were used to pay the legions.

Purchased from FORVM!
RI0002
Sosius
001590_l.jpg
32 Gordian I Africanus29 viewsGORDIAN I AFRICANUS
AE Sestertius, Rome Mint
27-29 mm, 17.75 g
March 19 to April 9, 238 A.D.
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / VICTORIA AVGG, S-C, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
RIC IV, 2, p. 161, 12. Very rare. Good portrait and fully readable name. Very fine.
Ex-Auctiones

Gordian I, an 80-year-old senator, was proclaimed as emperor during a revolt in Africa but commited suicide after his son and co-ruler Gordianus II was defeated by Maximinus' legate. Their rule only lasted for 20 days, hence the rarity of their coins.
Sosius
VESPSE06-2.jpg
70 AD: Vespasian - Defeat of the Jewish revolt and fall of Jerusalem337 viewsSestertius (28.6g, 37mm, 6h). Roman mint. Struck AD 71.
IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM TR P P COS III laureate head right
IVDAEA CAPTA / S C [in ex.] Judaea seated, in attidue of sorrow, at the foot of a palm tree; behind Vespasian standing in military dress holding spear and parazonium; left foot on a helmet.
RIC 427 (scarce); BMC 543; Cohen 239
1 commentsCharles S
Comb27022017021206.jpg
First Revolt AE Prutah (2,76 g) - Jewish War 68/9 AD year 3. 34 viewsObv. Amphora with broad rim, two handles, and decorated conical cover.
Rev. inscription (the freedom of Zion), vine leaf on small branch with tendril
Refernces: (Hendin 1363, AJC II 261,20) .
17mm, 2.8 grams.
2 commentsCanaan
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_910_Tumanbay_II.jpg
Mamluks (Bahri). `Ali II (al-Mansur `Ala al-Din Ali) (778-783 A.H. = 1377-1381 A.D.)9 viewsBalog 509 Plate XX 509a-b; SNAT Hamah 632-634; Album 963

AE fals, Hamah mint, undated; 1.63 g., 18.50 mm. max.

Obv.: Field divided by two horizontal lines of dots. الملك المنصور (al-Malik al-Manusr) / tentatively ضرب طرابلس (duriba Tripoli per Balog but Hamah mint per SNAT)

Rev. Six-petaled flower, resembling a lotus, petals forming a counter-clockwise whorl.

Ali was the son of Sha'ban II and the great-grandson of Muhammad I. He was installed as sultan at age nine upon the death of his father in a revolt. He died four years later.

Attribution courtesy of Mervin.
Stkp
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.155 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
Bar_Kochba.jpg
*SOLD*37 viewsBar Kokhba Revolt

Attribution: TJC 292., Hendin 1437 (prev. 736). Mildenberg 125; Palestina
Date: assumed AD 134-135
Obv: 7-branched palm tree, two clusters of fruit beneath; (ŠM'WN) beneath in 2 lines
Rev: Trifoliate vine leaf;(RWT YRWŠLM) around; Undated, assumed year 3 = AD 134-135
Size: 22.8 mm
Weight: 9.3 grams
Noah
image~20.jpg
000a. L. Sulla and L. Manlius Toruatus31 viewsL. Sulla and L. Manlius Torquatus. 82 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.89 g, 7h). Military mint moving with Sulla. Helmeted head of Roma right / Sulla driving triumphal quadriga right, holding branch and reins, being crowned by Victory flying left. Crawford 367/5; Sydenham 757 or 757a; Manlia 4 or 5. Near VF, toned, a few light scratches on the obverse.

From the Elwood Rafn Collection.

As consul for the year 88 BC, Sulla was awarded the coveted assignment of suppressing the revolt of Mithradates VI of Pontus, but political maneuvers resulted in this assignment being transferred to Marius. In response, Sulla turned his army on Rome, captured it, and reclaimed his command against Mithradates. His prosecution of the first Mithradatic War was successful, but he spared the Pontic king for personal gain. In 83 BC, Sulla returned to Italy as an outlaw, but he was able to win the support of many of the leading Romans. Within a year, he fought his way to Rome, where he was elected dictator. It was during this campaign to Rome that this denarius was struck. The obverse type represents Sulla's claim to be acting in Rome's best interest. The reverse shows Sulla enjoying the highest honor to which a Roman could aspire: the celebration of a triumph at Rome.
ecoli
coin191.JPG
006. Nero (54 AD - 68 AD) 47 viewsNero, last of the Julio-Claudians, had been placed in the difficult position of absolute authority at a young age coupled with the often-contradictory efforts of those in a position to manipulate him. Augustus, however, had not been much older when he began his bid for power, and so a great deal of the responsibility for Nero's conduct must also rest with the man himself. Nero's reign was not without military operations (e.g., the campaigns of Corbulo against the Parthians, the suppression of the revolt of Boudicca in Britain), but his neglect of the armies was a critical error.

Nero As, 26x27 mm, 10.0 g. Obverse: Nero laureate right, NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP. Reverse: Temple of Janus, with latticed window to left and closed double doors to right, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, SC.

Check
1 commentsecoli
new_titus_combined.jpg
011 Titus AR Denarius31 viewsTitus. AR Denarius as Caesar, AD 69-79. Rome, under Vespasian, Struck AD 77/8.
(19.04 mm, 3.25 g),
Obv: T CAESAR IMP VESPASIANVS, laureate head of Titus right.
Rev: COS VI, prow of galley right, sides ornameted with intricate cross-hatch and maeander patterns; above, star with sixteen rays. RIC 950 (R); BN 202; BMC 226; RSC 68.
Ex: Incitatus Coins




Titus was very much involved in the suppression of the Jewish revolt in Judea. His other claim to fame was that he completed the construction of the Flavian Amphitheater after the death of his father Vespasian.

Titus had something else in common with his father. Like his father, Titus used coin types that were throwbacks to earlier times. One such example is the coin below. On the reverse you will see a ship's prow and a star overhead. This image hearkens back to the Imperatorial period on coins of Marcus Antonius and Ahenobarbus. However, it goes back even further to the republic when it was used on many bronze coins. On the issue of these coins copying earlier designs, a friend who is also an expert in Flavian coinage has this to say:

"I believe that many of these antiquarian reverse types of Vespasian and Titus were struck because the mint was recycling the finer republican and early imperial denarii. The older denarii were struck at nearly 100% silver fineness, the Flavian denarii at 80% fineness. Thus the mint was able to turn over a tidy profit."

This was not an easy coin to find. I had been looking for unusual reverse of Titus and this one popped up at an opportune time. This coin was minted when Titus was Caesar, or next in line to be emperor.
1 commentsorfew
2-Gordian-I-RIC-1.jpg
02. Gordian I / RIC 1.78 viewsDenarius, March - April 238, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian I.
Reverse: P M TR P COS P P / Gordian I standing, togate, holding branch, and wearing parzonium.
2.88 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #1; Sear #8446.

The third century saw numerous usurpers in various parts of the Empire. However, the local revolt in Africa which brought Gordian I and his son to power was the first and only time the cause of a usurper was taken up by the Senate before a current emperor was dead. Thus the Gordiani became legitimate Roman emperors, and their coinage, all minted at the imperial mint in Rome, became legitimate coinage of the Empire.

Provenance:
ex Gillardi Collection.
Tinchant sale (1962).
3 commentsCallimachus
Vespasian-RIC-15.jpg
035. Vespasian.39 viewsDenarius, 69-71 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG / Laureate bust of Vespasian.
Reverse: IVDAEA / Jewish woman captive seated on ground, mourning; trophy behind her.
3.44 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #15; Sear #2296.

When the Jewish Revolt began in 66 AD, Nero appointed Vespasian supreme commander in the East to put down the uprising. In 69 AD Vespasian made his own bid for the throne and left his son Titus to finish up the Jewish War -- which he did in 70 AD by capturing Jerusalem and destroying the Temple. This victory of Vespasian and Titus was the major military event of the reign, and numerous coins were issued to commemorate it.
2 commentsCallimachus
ciibh1.jpg
05 Constantius II65 viewsBGN353 - Constantius II (A.D. 337-361), Pre-Magnentian Revolt, AE Centenionalis, 21mm, 5.14g., Arles mint, first officina, A.D. 348-350, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of the Emperor right, A behind head, rev., FEL TEMP REPARATIO, PARL in exergue, helmeted soldier spearing fallen horseman, A in field, (RIC 119/121-22; Bridgnorth Report #79), very fine. RIC Arles 118

Ex Bridgnorth Hoard, Shropshire, England, buried circa A.D. 355, discovered 2007.

"On October 10th, 2007 a metal detectorist discovered a large scattered hoard of late Roman coins that had been disturbed by deep plowing in a potato field near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. His subsequent actions are praised in the UK government 2007 Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report, where local finds officer Peter Reavill states: “The finder is to be congratulated on the careful plotting and speedy reporting of this hoard as it enabled the excavation to take place and vital depositional information recorded. In turn, this minimised the impact to the landowner and his farming activity.” The majority of hoards that come to light are found outside of planned archaeological excavations, the original owner having selected a secluded spot to conceal his or her wealth away from human habitation, leading to loss of information on the archaeological context of the hoard. In this instance, swift action and close cooperation by the finder and the local Finds Liaison Officer led to an excavation of the findspot. The results of which showed that the hoard had been contained in a large pottery vessel (broken by the plow), most probably previously used as a cooking pot as evidenced by burns marks on the outer edges. The pot had been buried in a U-shaped gulley or ditch that formed part of an otherwise unknown late Roman site.

The hoard consisted of 2892 coins, ranging in date from a Reform Antoninianus of Probus to post Magnentian issues of Constantius II up to A.D. 355. The majority of the hoard was issues of Magnentius and Decentius (75%), followed by pre-Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Constans (18%) and closing with post Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Gallus (7%)."
Better Photo
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Bar-Kochba-Hendin-734.jpg
053. 2'nd Jewish (bar Kokhba) Revolt.15 viewsZuz (denarius), attributed to Year 3 (134-35 AD).
Obverse: (Shim'on) / Bunch of Grapes.
Reverse: (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) / Lyre with three strings.
3.19 gm., 18.5 mm.
Mildenberg #205.19 (this coin); Hendin #734.

This coin likely started out as a denarius of one of the Roman emperors between Vespasian and Hadrian. Many coins of the Second Jewish Revolt show traces of the earlier Roman coin. This coin is no exception, and traces of the previous coin can be seen on the obverse in and around the bunch of grapes.

The bunch of grapes on the obverse is an ancient symbol of blessing and fertility. As such it occasionally appears on ancient coins of other areas besides this series. Given the messianic nature of the Bar Kokhba revolt, the bunch of grapes takes on added significance because in Jewish prophetic literature, grapes (and the vine or vineyard) are often symbolic of the restoration of Israel, or even symbolic of Israel itself.

The lyre on the reverse is associated with temple worship, as are trumpets, which are also found on coins of the Bar Kokhba Revolt. King David is mentioned as playing a lyre, and there are numerous Biblical references to praising the Lord with the lyre and trumpets. (The word "kinnor," sometimes translated as "harp," is really a type of lyre.) Even today the lyre is an important Jewish symbol and the state of Israel has chosen to portray it on the half New Israeli Sheqel coin.
Callimachus
Galba,_RIC_I_211.jpg
07 02 Galba, RIC I 21130 viewsGalba. AD 68-69. AR Denarius. Rome mint. (18mm, 2.88 g, 6h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, laureate head right. Rev: SALVS GEN HVMANI, Salus advancing left, foot on globe, holding patera over altar and carrying rudder. RIC I 211; RSC 238. CNG 264, lot 391.

According to the Roman Dictionary of Coins, this type alludes to Galba’s taking over revolt during Vindex’s revolt due to his high birth and political connections. The reverse inscription invokes the safety, health, and wellbeing of the human race.
Lucas H
Otho_RIC_I_12~0.jpg
08 02 Otho RIC I 1221 viewsOtho. 15 Jan. to April 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 69 A.D. (3.23, 18.5mm, 6h). Obv: IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head left. SECVRITAS P R, Securitas standing left, wreath in right, scepter in left. RIC I 12, RSC 19. Ex Forum.

While coins of Otho are fairly rare given the short length of his reign, this issue is perhaps more so with the left facing bust. (RIC 3). Otho supported Galba’s revolt, and then turned on Galba when he wasn't named Galba's heir. He committed suicide after his forces were defeated by those of Vitellius during the Year of the Four Emperors. A nicely centered and well toned coin.
Lucas H
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107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
ecoli
hadrian_RIC282.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 134-138 AD38 viewsobv: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P (laureate head right)
rev: VICTORIA AVG (Victory advancing right, pulling fold on upper part of dress and pointing branch downwards)
ref: RIC II 282 (C), C.1454 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
3.43gms, 19mm

This coin is probably commemorate the victory of Romans in Bar Kokhba revolt.
berserker
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.46 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.48 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
antpius as-concordia.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 140-143 AD62 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III (laureate head right)
rev: CONCORDIA EXERCITVM / S.C. (Concordia standing left, holding Victory and aquila)
ref: RIC III 678, C.140 (2frcs)
10.26gms, 26mm

This reverse symbolises the concord between the emperor and the army. The reign of Antoninus Pius was the most peaceful in the entire history of the Principate; while there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time, the Moors in Mauretania (AD150), the Jews in Iudaea (for seventeen years the Romans didn't allow the Jews to bury their dead in Betar, after the Bar Kokhba revolt), the Brigantes in Britannia (AD 140-145, the Antonine Wall being built ca. 40 miles further north), the different Germanic tribes at the Germania limes, the Alans in Dacia (AD158), and had to put down rebellions in the provinces of Achaia and Egypt (AD154).
berserker
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)38 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)54 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )37 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
12957p00.jpg
1503a, Gratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D.52 viewsGratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D. Bronze AE 3, F, 2.352g, 19.13mm, 0o. Obverse: emperor's diadmed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor draging captive, * in left field.

Gratian, son of Valentinian I, became the sole ruler of the Western empire in 375 A.D., and after the catastrophic defeat of the Roman forces at Hadrianopolis the Eastern empire also came under his rule. To better cope with the empire, he elevated general Theodosius to the Eastern throne. Because of a shortage of coinage to meet the payroll, Gratian was abandoned by his troops during the revolt of Magnus Maximus. He was overtaken and killed while fleeing to the Alps.
Cleisthenes
1794_III_Grossi_s.jpg
1794 - III Grossi524 viewsGalicia & Lodomeria - Galician Poland
Obv: MONET AER EXERCIT CAES REG - Crowned double headed Russian eagle,
small shield on breast, above crossed flags.
Rev: III GROSSI POL - Value, Date above sprigs.
Size: 26mm; 9.97gms
This coin was minted in 1794 during the 2nd partition of Poland,
it seems that General Kosciusko, of Poland,(Later of the Kosciusko Bridge fame),
after assisting the Continental army during the American revolution,
went back to Poland and became a nationalist and didn't like the terms of 2nd partition.
He led a revolt of the Polish army and peasants in 1794, known as the "Kosciusko uprising",
against the Austrians, who were taking over Galicia, as per terms of the 2nd partition.
This coin was minted, by Austria, for the Austrian army,
for purchases what was still Polish Galicia. Later to become Austrian Galicia.
It was made specifically for Galicia in 1794,
the year Galicia stopped being Polish and was acquired by Austria.
To me this coin represents the beginning of Austrian Galicia
and the reason I am Austrian and not Polish.

Please advise of corrections to this brief history.
Brian L
GalbaDenVictory.jpg
1at Galba31 views68-69

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P
Victory standing on globe, VICTORIA PR

RIC 111

Suetonius recorded: Servius Galba, the future emperor was born on the 24th of December, 3BC, in the consulship of Marcus Valerius Messala and Gnaeus Lentulus, at a hillside mansion near Terracina, on the left of the road to Fundi (Fondi). He was formally adopted by his stepmother Livia Ocellina, and took the name Livius and the surname Ocella, also changing his forename to Lucius, until he became Emperor.

It is common knowledge that when calling on Augustus to pay his respects, with other boys of his age, the Emperor pinched his cheek, and said in Greek: ‘You too will have a taste of power, my child.’ And when Tiberius heard the prophecy that Galba would be emperor in old age, he commented: ‘Well let him be, it’s no concern of mine.’

Galba achieved office before the usual age and as praetor (in 20AD), controlling the games at the Floralia, he was the first to introduce a display of tightrope-walking elephants. He next governed Aquitania, for almost a year, and not long afterwards held the consulship for six months (in 33AD). When Caligula was assassinated (in 41AD), Galba chose neutrality though many urged him to seize the opportunity for power. Claudius expressed his gratitude by including him among his intimate friends, and Galba was shown such consideration that the expedition to Britain was delayed to allow him to recover from a sudden but minor indisposition. Later he was proconsul in Africa for two years (44/45AD), being singled out, and so avoiding the usual lottery, to restore order in the province, which was riven by internecine rivalry and an indigenous revolt. He re-established peace, by the exercise of ruthless discipline, and the display of justice even in the most trifling matters. . . .

But when word from the City arrived that Nero was dead and that the people had sworn allegiance to him, he set aside the title of governor and assumed that of Caesar. He then began his march to Rome in a general’s cloak, with a dagger, hanging from his neck, at his chest, and did not resume the toga until his main rivals had been eliminated, namely the commander of the Praetorian Guard in Rome, Nymphidius Sabinus, and the commanders in Germany and Africa, Fonteius Capito and Clodius Macer. . . . His prestige and popularity were greater while winning power than wielding it, though he showed evidence of being a more than capable ruler, loved less, unfortunately, for his good qualities than he was hated for his bad ones.

He was even warned of the danger of imminent assassination, the day before his death, by a soothsayer, as he offered the morning sacrifice. Shortly afterwards he learnt that Otho had secured the Guards camp, and when his staff advised him to carry the day by his presence and prestige, by going there immediately, he opted instead to stay put, but gather a strong bodyguard of legionaries from their billets around the City. He did however don a linen corselet, though saying that frankly it would serve little against so many weapons. False reports, put about by the conspirators to lure him into appearing in public, deceived a few of his close supporters, who rashly told him the rebellion was over, the plotters overthrown, and that the rest of the troops were on their way to congratulate him and carry out his orders. So he went to meet them, with such confidence, that when a soldier boasted of killing Otho, he snapped out: ‘On whose authority?’ before hastening on to the Forum. The cavalrymen who had been ordered to find and kill him, who were spurring through the streets scattering the crowds of civilians, now caught sight of him in the distance and halted an instant before galloping towards him and cutting him down, while his staff ran for their lives.
Blindado
PertinaxDenOps.jpg
1bp Pertinax18 views193

Denarius

Bearded laureate head, right, IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG
Ops std, OPI DIVIN TR P COS II

RIC 8

The Historia Augusta has this to say: Publius Helvius Pertinax was the son of a freedman, Helvius Successus by name, who confessed that he gave this name to his son because of his own long-standing connection with the timber-trade. . . . Pertinax himself was born in the Apennines on an estate which belonged to his mother. . . . Winning promotion because of the energy he showed in the Parthian war, he was transferred to Britain and there retained. Later he led a squadron in Moesia. . . . Next, he commanded the German fleet. . . . From this command he was transferred to Dacia. . . . After Cassius' revolt had been suppressed, Pertinax set out from Syria to protect the bank of the Danube, and presently he was appointed to govern both the Moesias and, soon thereafter, Dacia. And by reason of his success in these provinces, he won the appointment to Syria. . . .

Pertinax was made consul for the second time. And while in this position, Pertinax did not avoid complicity in the murder of Commodus, when a share in this plot was offered him by the other conspirators. After Commodus was slain, aetus, the prefect of the guard, and Eclectus, the chamberlain, came to Pertinax and reassured him, and then led him to the camp. There he harangued the soldiers, promised a donative, and said that the imperial power had been thrust upon him by Laetus and Eclectus. . . .

He reduced the imperial banquets from something absolutely unlimited to a fixed standard, and, indeed, cut down all expenses from what they had been under Commodus. And from the example set by the emperor, who lived rather simply, there resulted a general economy and a consequent reduction in the cost of living. . . . [H]e restored to everyone the property of which Commodus had despoiled him. . . . He always attended the stated meetings of the senate and always made some proposal. . . .

A conspiracy l was organized against Pertinax by Laetus, the prefect of the guard, and sundry others who were displeased by his integrity. . . . [T]hree hundred soldiers, formed into a wedge, marched under arms from the camp to the imperial residence. . . . After they had burst into the inner portion of the Palace, however, Pertinax advanced to meet them and sought to appease them with a long and serious speech. In spite of this, one Tausius, a Tungrian, after haranguing the soldiers into a state of fury and fear, hurled his spear at Pertinax' breast. And he, after a prayer to Jupiter the Avenger, veiled his head with his toga and was stabbed by the rest.
Blindado
DidJulSestConMil.jpg
1bq Didius Julianus91 views193

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG
Concorde w/ standard, CONCORDIA MILIT SC

RIC 14

According to the Historia Augusta: Didius Julianus. . . was reared at the home of Domitia Lucilla, the mother of the Emperor Marcus. . . . [T]hrough the support of Marcus he attained to the office of aedile [and] praetor. After his praetorship he commanded the XXII Legion, the Primigenia, in Germany, and following that he ruled Belgium long and well. Here, with auxiliaries hastily levied from the provinces, he held out against the Chauci as they attempted to burst through the border; and for these services, on the recommendation of the Emperor, he was deemed worthy of the consulship. He also gained a crushing victory over the Chatti. Next he took charge of Dalmatia and cleared it of the hostile tribes on its borders. Then he governed Lower Germany. . . .

His consulship he served with Pertinax; in the proconsulship of Africa, moreover, he succeeded him. Pertinax always spoke of him as his colleague and successor. After [Pertinax'] death, when Sulpicianus was making plans to be hailed emperor in the camp, Julianus, together with his son-in-law, . . . discovered two tribunes, Publius Florianus and Vectius Aper, who immediately began urging him to seize the throne; and. . . conducted him to the praetorian camp. When they arrived at the camp, however, Sulpicianus, the prefect of the city and the father-in-law of Pertinax, was holding an assembly and claiming the empire himself, and no one would let Julianus inside, despite the huge promises he made from outside the wall. Julianus then . . . wrote on placards that he would restore the good name of Commodus; so he was admitted and proclaimed emperor. . . .

Julianus had no fear of either the British or the Illyrian army; but being chiefly afraid of the Syrian army, he despatched a centurion of the first rank with orders to murder Niger. Consequently Pescennius Niger in Syria and Septimius Severus in Illyricum, together with the armies which they commanded, revolted from Julianus. But when he received the news of the revolt of Severus, whom he had not suspected, then he was greatly troubled and came to the senate and prevailed upon them to declare Severus a public enemy. . . . Severus was approaching the city with a hostile army. . . and the populace hated and laughed at him more and more every day.

In a short time Julianus was deserted by all and left alone in the Palace with one of his prefects, Genialis, and with Repentinus, his son-in-law. Finally, it was propose'd that the imperial power be taken away from Julianus by order of the senate. This was done, and Severus was forthwith acclaimed emperor, while it was given out that Julianus had taken poison. Nevertheless, the senate despatched a delegation and through their efforts Julianus was slain in the Palace by a common soldier. . . .
Blindado
ClodAlbDenRoma.jpg
1br Clodius Albinus38 views195-197

Denarius

Bare head, right, D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES
Roma seated on shield holding Palladium and scepter, ROMAE AETERNAE

RIC 11

According to the Historia Augusta, which in the case of Albinus is thought to be of dubious veracity: After the death of Pertinax, who was slain at Albinus' advice, various men were hailed emperor at about one and the same time by the senate Julianus at Rome, and by the armies, Septimius Severus in Illyricum, Pescennius Niger in the East, and Clodius Albinus in Gaul. According to Herodian, Clodius had been named Caesar by Severus. But as time went on, each chafed at the other's rule, and the armies of Gaul and Germany demanded an emperor of their own naming, and so all parts of the empire were thrown into an uproar. . . .

It is an undeniable fact, moreover, and Marius Maximus also relates it, that Severus at first intended to name Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus as his successors, in case aught befell him. Later, as it happened, in the interest of his growing sons, and through envy of the affection in which Albinus was held, and most of all becau-e of his wires entreaties, he changed his purpose and crushed both of them in war. But he did name Albinus consul, and this he never would have done had not Aibinus been a worthy man, since he was ever most careful in his choice of magistrate. . . .

As soon as he came of age he entered military service, and by the aid of Lollius Serenus, Baebius Maecianus and Ceionius Postumianus, all his kinsmen, he gained the notice of the Antonines. In the capacity of a tribune he commanded a troop of Dalmatian horse: he also commanded soldiers of the I and the IV legions. At the time of Avidius' revolt he loyally held the Bithynian army to its allegiance. Next, Commodus transferred him to Gaul; and here he routed the tribes from over the Rhine and made his name illustrious among both Romans and barbarians. This aroused Commodus' interest, and he offered Albinus the name of Caesar and the privilege, too, of giving the soldiers a present and wearing the scarlet cloak. But all these offers Albinus wisely refused, for Commodus, he said, was only looking for a man who would perish with him, or whom he could reasonably put to death. . . .

[A]fter a decisive engagement, where countless of his soldiers fell, and very many fled, and many, too, surrendered, Albinus also fled away and, according to some, stabbed himself, according to others, was stabbed by a slave. At any rate, he was brought to Severus only half alive. . . . Albinus' head was cut off and paraded on a pike, and finally sent to Rome.
Blindado
MacrinDenProvid.jpg
1bx Macrinus38 views217-218

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG
Providentia stg, PROVIDENTIA DEORVM

RIC 80

According to the Historia Augusta, which concedes that almost nothing was known about Macrinus: Though of humble origin and shameless in spirit as well as in countenance, and though hated by all, both civilians and soldiers, he nevertheless proclaimed himself now Severus and now Antoninus. Then he set out at once for the Parthian war and thus gave no opportunity either for the soldiers to form an opinion of him, or for the gossip by which he was beset to gain its full strength. The senators, however, out of hatred for Antoninus Bassianus, received him as emperor gladly. . . . Now to his son, previously called Diadumenianus, he gave the name Antoninus (after he had himself assumed the appellation Felix) in order to avert the suspicion of having slain Antoninus. This same name was afterwards taken by Varius Elagabalus also, who claimed to be the son of Bassianus, a most filthy creature and the son of a harlot. . . .

And so, having been acclaimed emperor, Macrinus assumed the imperial power and set out against the Parthians with a great array, eager to blot out the lowliness of his family and the infamy of his early life by a magnificent victory. But after fighting a battle with the Parthians he was killed in a revolt of the legions, which had deserted to Varius Elagabalus. He reigned, however, for more than a year.

Macrinus, then, was arrogant and bloodthirsty and desirous of ruling in military fashion. He found fault even with the discipline of former times and lauded Severus alone above all others. For he even crucified soldiers and always used the punishments meted out to slaves, and when he had to deal with a mutiny among the troops, he usually decimated the soldiers but sometimes he only centimated them. This last was an expression of his own, for he used to say that he was merciful in putting to death only one in a hundred. . . .

This is one of my favorite pieces because I bought it completely covered with crud and set about cleaning it. Boy was I surprised!
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1ch Maximinus51 views235-238

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Pax stg, PAX AVGVSTI

RIC 12

Herodian recorded: There was in the Roman army a man named Maximinus whose half-barbarian family lived in a village in the most remote section of Thrace. They say that as a boy he was a shepherd, but that in his youthful prime he was drafted into the cavalry because of his size and strength. After a short time, favored by Fortune, he advanced through all the military ranks, rising eventually to the command of armies and the governing of provinces.

Because of his military experience, which I have noted above, Alexander put Maximinus in charge of training recruits for the entire army; his task was to instruct them in military duties and prepare them for service in war. By carrying out his assignments thoroughly and diligently, Maximinus won the affection of the soldiers. He not only taught them their duties; he also demonstrated personally to each man what he was to do. . . .

He won their devotion by giving them all kinds of gifts and rewards. Consequently, the recruits, who included an especially large number of Pannonians, praised the masculinity of Maximinus and despised Alexander as a mother's boy. . . . The soldiers were therefore ready for a change of emperors. . . . They therefore assembled on the drill field for their regular training; when Maximinus took his position before them, either unaware of what was happening or having secretly made prior preparations for the event, the soldiers robed him in the imperial purple and proclaimed him emperor. . . .

When he assumed control of the empire, Maximinus reversed the situation, using his power savagely to inspire great fear. He undertook to substitute for a mild and moderate rule an autocracy in every way barbarous, well aware of the hostility directed toward him because he was the first man to rise from a lowly station to the post of highest honor. His character was naturally barbaric, as his race was barbarian. He had inherited the brutal disposition of his countrymen, and he intended to make his imperial position secure by acts of cruelty, fearing that he would become an object of contempt to the Senate and the people, who might be more conscious of his lowly origin than impressed by the honor he had won. . . .

[A]fter Maximinus had completed three years as emperor, the people of Africa first took up arms and touched off a serious revolt for one of those trivial reasons which often prove fatal to a tyrant. . . . The entire populace of the city quickly assembled when the news was known, and the youths proclaimed Gordian Augustus. He begged to be excused, protesting that he was too old. . . .

[In Rome], the senators met before they received accurate information concerning Maximinus and, placing their trust for the future in the present situation, proclaimed Gordian Augustus, together with his son, and destroyed Maximinus' emblems of honor. . . . Embassies composed of senators and distinguished equestrians were sent to all the governors with letters which clearly revealed the attitude of the Senate and the Roman people. . . . The majority of the governors welcomed the embassies and had no difficulty in arousing the provinces to revolt because of the general hatred of Maximinus. . . .


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Son of Gallienus

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Sacrificial implements, PIETAS AVG

RIC 9

Zosimus recorded Saloninus' fate: After this, Posthumus, who commanded the Celtic army, was also inclined towards innovation, and accompanied some soldiers that revolted at the same time to Agrippina, which is the principal city on the Rhine, in which he besieged Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, threatening to remain before the walls until he was given up to him. On this account the soldiers found it necessary to surrender both him and Silvanus, whom his father had appointed his guardian, both of whom Posthumus put to death, and made himself sovereign of the Celtae.
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1es Gratian37 views367-383

AE3

Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Gratian standing right, holding labarum with Chi-rho on banner, and holding captive by hair, GLORIA ROMANORVM; Q to left, K over P to right, DSISCR in ex.

RIC 14c

Zosimus reports: [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death.
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1ew Magnus Maximus45 views383-388

AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
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1st Jewish revolt year 251 viewsPrutah year 2 (67-68 AD), AE 16-17 mm 2.2 grams
OBV :: Year 2 in Paleo-Hebrew characters Two-handled amphora with broad rim.
REV :: The Freedom of Zion in Paleo-Hebrew characters Wine leaf with tendril.
Hendin 661. Meshorer II, 12. SNG ANS 427.
Johnny
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201b. Clodius Albinus231 viewsBy the time Severus made it back from the east in 196, the breach with Albinus was beyond repair. The emperor's son Caracalla had been displayed to the army as Caesar and heir. Albinus had been proclaimed emperor and gone into open revolt, crossed the English Channel and gained the support of many aristocrats from Gaul and Spain. Lyon became Albinus' headquarters, from which he minted coins that wishfully hinted at reconciliation. Albinus had taken the title of Augustus, but he still kept the name Septimius.

Albinus was unable to expand his control eastward despite achieving a victory against the governor of Lower Germany. By the middle of the year 196, his momentum had stalled. Gaul was drenched in the blood of Roman soldiers as the two sides repeatedly engaged in indecisive battles.[[8]] The ever increasing chaos in the region even allowed an opportunist to raise his own army to harass Albinus' troops.[[9]]

Time was running out for Albinus. His troops were defeated early in 197 at Tournus, on the river Saône 65 miles north of Lyon.[[10]] Severus could now sweep his armies into Gaul. Albinus retreated to Lyon, where he prepared for one final stand. The battle, one of the fiercest in Roman history, took place 19 February 197 and involved more than 100,000 men.[[11]] In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. But Albinus' success was shortlived. The Severan cavalry appeared, and Albinus' army was routed. The battlefield was strewn with bodies, and Severus' victorious troops were allowed to vent their anger by sacking Lyon. Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Heis wife and children were be ordered killed by Severus, who also had Albinus' head cut off and sent to Rome for display.

Clodius Albinus had the breeding and upbringing to have been a popular emperor among the senatorial aristocracy, but he lacked the cunning and daring of his erstwhile ally and eventual rival Severus. Albinus would never be included among the canonical list of emperors, and his defeat finally ended the period of instability and civil war that originated with the death of Commodus.

CLODIUS ALBINUS, as Caesar. 193-195 AD. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.14 gm). Rome mint. Bare head right / Roma seated left on shield, holding Victory and reversed spear. RIC IV 11b; RSC 61a. VF. Ex - CNG
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201c. Pescennius Niger125 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Æ 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
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203. MACRINUS189 viewsMACRINUS. 217-218 AD.

Caracalla's mother, Julia Domna, had toyed with the idea of raising a rebellion against Macrinus shortly after her son's murder, but the empress was uncertain of success and already suffering from breast cancer. She chose to starve herself to death instead.

The grandchildren of her sister, Julia Maesa, would become the focus of the successful uprising that began on 15 May 218. Her 14-year-old grandson Avitus (known to history as Elagabalus) was proclaimed emperor by one the legions camped near the family's hometown of Emesa. Other troops quickly joined the rebellion, but Macrinus marshalled loyal soldiers to crush the revolt. Macrinus also promoted his son to the rank of emperor.

The forces met in a village outside Antioch on 8 June 218. Despite the inexperience of the leaders of the rebel army, Macrinus was defeated. He sent his son, Diadumenianus, with an ambassador to the Parthian king, while Macrinus himself prepared to flee to Rome. Macrinus traveled across Asia Minor disguised as a courier and nearly made it to Europe, but he was captured in Chalcedon. Macrinus was transported to Cappadocia, where he was executed. Diadumenianus had also been captured (at Zeugma) and was similarly put to death.

Contemporaries tended to portray Macrinus as a fear-driven parvenu who was able to make himself emperor but was incapable of the leadership required by the job. An able administrator, Macrinus lacked the aristocratic connections and personal bravado that might have won him legitimacy. His short reign represented a brief interlude of Parthian success during what would prove the final decade of the Parthian empire.

AR Denarius (18mm 3.55 gm). IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust with short beard right / SALVS PVBLICA, Salus seated left, feeding snake rising up from altar, holding sceptre in left. RIC IV 86; Good VF; Ex-CNG
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203a. Diadumenian62 viewsMarcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus or Diadumenian (d. 218) was the son of Roman Emperor Macrinus, who served his father briefly as Caesar from May, 217 to 218, and as Augustus in 218.

Diadumenian had little time to enjoy his position or to learn anything from its opportunities because the legions of Syria revolted and declared Elagabalus ruler of the Roman Empire. When Macrinus was defeated on June 8, 218, at Antioch, Diadumenian followed his father's death. According to the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, Diadumenian emulated Macrinus in tyranny. He called upon his father not to spare any who might oppose them or who made plots. His head was cut off and presented to Elagabalus as a trophy.

Diadumenian, A.D. 218 Nicopolis ad Istrum, Hera
OBVERSE: Draped bust right
REVERSE: Hera standing left holding patera.
25 mm - 10 grams

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217-218 AD - DIADUMENIAN AE As36 viewsobv: M OPEL DIADVMENIANVS CAES (bare-headed, draped bust right)
rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS (Diadumenian standing left, holding wand and scepter; two standards to right), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC IVii 216 (R), Cohen 13 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
10.31gms, 24mm (Better in hand than the picture allows.)

Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus or Diadumenian was the son of Roman Emperor Macrinus, who served his father briefly as Caesar from May, 217 to 218, and as Augustus in 218. He had little time to enjoy his position or to learn anything from its opportunities because the legions of Syria revolted and declared Elagabalus ruler of the Roman Empire. When Macrinus was defeated on June 8, 218, at Antioch, Diadumenian followed his father's death at the end of June.
This coin was found near a little village on plough-land where probably missed a fugitive citizen who fed up with the succession Sarmatian attacks.
berserker
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25 mils Israel's first coin, 1949124 views25 mil coin of aluminum, 3.5grams, 30 mm, Mintage: 650,000 (total: open link & closed link mintage).

Obverse: Grapes as in Bar-Kochba revolt coinage.
Reverse: Wreath as in Hasmonean dynasty coinage.

Reference: Israel KM8

Added to collection: June 20, 2005
Daniel Friedman
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3.0 Bar Kokhba small bronze, year 3 (134-135 CE)172 viewsBar Kokhba rebellion (second Jewish Revolt against Rome)
Year 3 (134-135 CE)
small bronze (19.5 mm)
VF+/VF
Hendin 739

obv. seven branched palm tree, symbolizing Judaea (like Menorah?)
SHIMON (Simon [Bar Kokhba]) in field below tree
rev. Bunch of grapes L'CHAROT YERUSHALAYIM (For the Freedom of Jerusalem) around
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3.3 Vespasian IUDAEA denarius122 views69 - 70 AD
Rome Mint
rev. IVDAEA, captive Jew seated below a trophy
commemorates the reconquest of Judaea by Vespasian and Titus, after the four year revolt against Rome.
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305b. Herennius Etruscus24 viewsQuintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius (c. 227 - July 1, 251), was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Trajan Decius. Emperor Hostilian was his younger brother.

Herennius was born in Pannonia, during one of his father's military postings. His mother was Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, a Roman lady of an important senatorial family. Herennius was very close to his father and accompanied him in 248, as a military tribune, when Decius was appointed by Philip the Arab to deal with the revolt of Pacatianus in the Danube frontier. Decius was successful on defeating this usurper and felt confident to begin a rebellion of his own in the following year. Acclaimed emperor by his own troops, Decius marched into Italy and defeated Philip near modern Verona. In Rome, Herennius was declared heir to the throne and received the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth).

From the beginning of Herennius' accession, Gothic tribes raided across the Danube frontier and the provinces of Moesia and Dacia. At the beginning of 251, Decius elevated Herennius to the title of Augustus making him his co-emperor. Moreover, Herennius was chosen to be one of the year's consuls. The father and son, now joint rulers, then embarked in an expedition against king Cniva of the Goths to punish the invaders for the raids. Hostilian remained in Rome and the empress Herennia Etruscilla was named regent. Cniva and his men were returning to their lands with the booty, when the Roman army encountered them. Showing a very sophisticated military tactic, Cniva divided his army in smaller, more manageable groups and started to push back the Romans into a marshy swamp. On July 1, both armies engaged in the battle of Abrittus. Herennius died in battle, struck by an enemy arrow. Decius survived the initial confrontation, only to be slain with the rest of the army before the end of the day. Herennius and Decius were the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle.

With the news of the death of the emperors, the army proclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but in Rome they were succeeded by Hostilian, who would die shortly afterwards in an outbreak of plague.

Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, radiate draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 138, RSC 4
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311a. Aureolus7 viewsAureolus. Romano-Gallic Usurper, AD 267-268. Antoninianus (19mm, 2.17 g, 7h). Struck in the name of Postumus. Mediolanum (Milan) mint, 2nd officina. 3rd emission, mid AD 268. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Postumus right / Concordia standing left, holding patera and rudder; prow of galley to left; S. RIC V (Postumus) 373; Mairat 215-21; AGK (Postumus) 6b; RSC (Postumus) 19. Near VF, dark brown patina.

Aureolus was an extraordinarily capable general who served under Valerian and Gallienus. Around AD 258, Gallienus stationed a new cavalry unit at Mediolanum that was to serve as a quick reaction force against any new invasions along the frontier of the central empire. Aureolus was given command of this unit. In AD 260-261 his forces defeated the armies of the usurpers Ingenuus and Macrianus, and recovered the province of Raetia. Following these victories, Gallienus and Aureolus led a Roman army against the breakaway Gallic provinces under Postumus. Gallienus was forced to leave the field after being injured in battle, and left the campaign in the hands of Aureolus. Aureolus ended the campaign shortly thereafter, and while the reason is uncertain, the historical record suggests it was due to either his incompetence or else treachery (he had come to a secret agreement with Postumus). While the former seems unlikely, given Aureolus’ record, the latter is possible, as there are indications that he had been preparing for a revolt as early as AD 262. Regardless, at some point in AD 267, Aureolus revolted and established his base at Mediolanum, where Gallienus besieged him in AD 268. The details of the revolt are unclear, but it appears that Aureolus first appealed to Postumus for aid, and, failing to gain the Gallic Emperor’s support, declared himself emperor. About the same time, Gallienus was murdered, and was succeeded by Claudius II Gothicus, who continued to beseige Mediolanum. Soon, though, it appeared that an agreement was reached, and Aureolus emerged from the city to meet Claudius. Any such concord, however, was simply a ruse, as Aureolus was taken into custody and executed.
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316. Aurelian21 views316. Aurelian

In 275, Aurelian marched towards Asia Minor, preparing another campaign against the Sassanids: the close deaths of Kings Shapur I (272) and Hormizd I (273), and the rise to power of a weakened ruler (Bahram I), set the possibility to attack the Sassanid Empire.

On on his way, the emperor suppressed a revolt in Gaul — possibly against Faustinus, an officer or usurper of Tetricus — and defeated barbarian marauders at Vindelicia (Germany).

However, Aurelian never reached Persia, since he was killed on his way. As an administrator, Aurelian had been very strict and handed out severe punishments to corrupt officials or soldiers. A secretary of Aurelian (called Eros by Zosimus) had told a lie on a minor issue. Scared of what the emperor might do, he told high ranking officials that the emperor wanted their life, showing a forged document. The notarius Mucapor and other high-ranking officiers of the Praetorian Guard, fearing punishment from the Emperor, murdered him in September of 275, in Caenophrurium, Thracia (modern Turkey).

Aurelian's enemies in the Senate briefly succeeded in passing damnatio memoriae on the emperor, but this was reversed before the end of the year and Aurelian, like his predecessor Claudius, was deified as Divus Aurelianus.

Ulpia Severina, wife of Aurelian and Augusta since 274, is said to have held the imperial role during the short interregnum before the election of Marcus Claudius Tacitus to the purple.

Siscia mint. IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate & cuirassed bust right / ORIENS AVG, Sol advancing left between two seated captives, holding up raised hand & whip, XXIT in ex. Cohen 158. RIC 255
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35374 viewsRevolt of Poemenius, 353 AD
AE Maiorina
DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG
Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
SALVS AVG NOSTRI
Christogram between alpha and omega
[TRP *]
Trier mint
RIC VIII Trier 332/5
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367/5 L. Manlius Torquatus.25 viewsL. Manlius Torquatus. AR Denarius. 82 BC. Military mint moving with Sulla. Obv: L·MANLI -I – PRO Q. Helmeted head of Roma right. Rev: Sulla driving triumphal quadriga right, crowned by Victory flying left; in exergue, L·SVLLA·IMP.
Syd 757; Manlia 4;Crawford 367/5

I had no idea that this was related to Sulla when I bought it. I do now. Military mint!

As consul for the year 88 BC, Sulla was awarded the coveted assignment of suppressing the revolt of Mithradates VI of Pontus, but political maneuvers resulted in this assignment being transferred to Marius. In response, Sulla turned his army on Rome, captured it, and reclaimed his command against Mithradates. His prosecution of the first Mithradatic War was successful, but he spared the Pontic king for personal gain. In 83 BC, Sulla returned to Italy as an outlaw, but he was able to win the support of many of the leading Romans. Within a year he fought his way to Rome, where he was elected dictator. It was during this campaign to Rome that this (....) was struck. The obverse type represents Sulla's claim to be acting in Rome's best interest. The reverse shows Sulla enjoying the highest honor to which a Roman could aspire, the celebration of a triumph at Rome.






Paddy
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403. Carausius35 viewsMarcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (d. 293) was a Roman usurper in Britain and northern Gaul (286–293, Carausian Revolt).

Carausius was a man of humble origin, a Menapian from Belgic Gaul who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul in 286. As a result, he was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coast. However, he was suspected of keeping captured treasure for himself, and even of allowing the pirates to carry out raids and enrich themselves before taking action against them, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul.

He could count on the alliegance of the three legions based in Britain, as well as one in northern Gaul. How he was able to win support from the army when his command had been sea-based is uncertain. The emperor briefly assumed the title Britannicus Maximus in 285, and the British towns of Wroxeter and Caistor by Norwich towns show signs of destruction around this time, so it is possible Carausius won the army's support during military action in Britain shortly before his rebellion. Alternatively, if the accusations of larceny are true, he could perhaps afford to buy their loyalty. He also appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule: he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae (Restorer of Britain) and Genius Britanniae (Spirit of Britain).

Maximian, busy with wars on the Rhine, was unable to challenge him immediately, but in the Autumn of 288 he began massing troops and ships for an invasion. In 289 an invasion of Britain intended to dislodge him failed badly due to storms, although a naval defeat is also possible. An uneasy peace continued until 293, during which Rome prepared for a second effort to retake the province, while Carausius began to entertain visions of legitimacy and official recognition. He minted his own coins and brought their value in to line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and then Diocletian. Coinage is the main source of information about the rogue emperor; his issues were initially crude but soon became more elaborate and were issued from mints in Londinium, Rotomagnus and a third site, possibly Colonia Claudia Victricensis. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.

It has been speculated (namely, by the historian Sheppard Frere) that the rebellion of Carausius endangered Diocletian's vision of a strong, centralized government based on his tetrarchy. In any case, by early 293 Constantius Chlorus had gained control of northern Gaul, including the rebel's stronghold and port of Bononia, on which Carausius was heavily dependent. Constantius built a mole across the harbour mouth to ensure it did not receive maritime aid.

Constantius also regained the allegiance of the rebellious Gallic legion and defeated the Franks of the Rhine mouth who seem to have been working in league with Carausius. Weakened by these setbacks, Carausius was assassinated, possibly at York, by his treasurer, Allectus.

aVF/aVF Carausius Antoninianus / Pax / Green Patina and Nice Style

Attribution: RIC 895
Date: 287-293 AD
Obverse: IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.
Size: 20.91 mm
Weight: 3 grams
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405. CONSTANTIUS I, as Caesar53 viewsBorn March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son at his side.


CONSTANTIUS I, as Caesar. 293-305 AD. Æ Follis (9.24 gm). Lugdunum mint. Struck 301-303 AD. CONSTANTIVS NO[B CAE]S, laureate and draped bust right, holding spear over right shoulder and shield at left / [GENIO POPV]LI ROMANI; altar-B/PLC. RIC VI 136a. VF, brown patina, some silvering. Ex CNG
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407. Severus II35 viewsFlavius Valerius Severus was of humble origin and from Illyricum. Early in his career he had held a military command. When Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple (Milan) on 1 May 305, they appointed Constantius I and Galerius as Augusti in their place, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. Both Caesars were Galerius' creatures and received their appointment at his hands. Constantius I and Severus ruled the west, while Galerius and Daia controlled the east.

When Galerius learned of the death of Constantius I in August 306 and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, he raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace the dead Augustus. Matters went from bad to worse for Galerius when Maxentius, the son of Maximianus Herculius, was proclaimed emperor at Rome on 28 October 306. Galerius was disturbed when he heard the news of Maxentius' revolt because the usurper seized Rome, then part of Severus' realm. Galerius sent Severus from Mediolanum (Milan) to fight the enemy. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome.

When Maxentius learned about the advance of Severus, he sent his own father the purple and offered to make him Augustus again to win Severus' army to his side; Maximianus accepted his offer. Meanwhile, Severus and his army reached Rome and began to besiege the city; Maxentius, however, bribed Severus' soldiers and, at a set signal, the Augustus' forces joined the usurper. Severus fled ro Ravenna with a few remaining soldiers. Maximianus went to Ravenna and, with false promises of safety, convinced Severus to surrender. He took this action because he realized that Severus' position was impregnable. Under house arrest Severus was brought to Rome and imprisoned at Tres Tabernae. Severus was put to death in 307 under clouded circumstances, when Galerius invaded Italy

Severus II AD 305-306 AE Follis "Genius Serdica" "The genius of the people of Rome." Obv: FL VAL SEVERVS NOB C - Laureate head right Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI - Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. Exe: SIS Siscia mint: AD 305-306 = RIC VI, p. 475, 170a Rare (r)
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408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Maxentius Follis. Ostia mint. IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / AETE-RNITAS A-VGN, Castor and Pollux standing facing each other, each leaning on sceptre and holding bridled horse.
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501. Constantine I Lyons Sol14 viewsLyons

Originally, the important city in this area was that of Vienne, at a crossroads of Celtic trails, and port for the Greek trade. They had been largly Hellanised during the 2nd - 1st centuries BCE, then caught up in the conflicts involving Rome and Athens. Roman traders had settled there and competition started a revolt, driving the Romans to the north. At the present site of Lyons, they sought and received refuge from the Gallic tribe called Segusiavi. At that time, Lyons was just a tribe of Celts occupying the top of a hill, later to be called Fourviere. A Roman settlement was begun, and then later used by Julius Caesar to launch his campaigns against the Helvetii in 58 BCE.

The site of Lyons, being on a crossroads as well as a connection to the Mediterranean, was early recognised as being strategically important. In 43 BCE, the city of Lugdunum became an official Roman colony recognised by the Roman senate, founded by the governor of Gallia Comata (province of Comata), Lucius Munatius Plancus. Later, in 27 BCE, then Emperor Augustus divided Gallia Comata into three provinces, and Lugdunum became the capital of Gallia Lugdunensis. [The third province was Gallia Aquitania.]

Lyons became the financial center for taxation purposes of Aquitania and Lugdunum provinces, and an official mint was established there. Also, the state cult honoring Augustus [or the present Emperor] was established at Lyons, drawing many pilgrims and supplicants. Drusus, the father of Claudius, (born 10 BCE) was stationed at Lyons, being in charge of Gallia Comata. Also, a cohort of Roman policemen were stationed at lyons, to protect the mint. A bronze inscription found at Lyons records the speech given to the Roman Senate in 48 CE by Emperor Claudius, arguing for the acceptance of admission of senators from Gallia Comata.

Through Lyons [and Vienne] passed the great roads leading to the different regions of Gaul and towards Italy. Trade with Gaul, Britain and Germany passed through Lyons, mostly supplying Roman colonies on the the frontier. Later, these routes were paved by the Romans to facilitate trade and troop movement. Lyons became an important trade and military center. However, intercity rivalry with Vienne to the south never died, and indeed Vienne became jealous over time.

Lyons was burnt to the ground in 65 CE but quickly rebuilt. It prospered until 197 when it was sacked in a civil war. The city of Lyons had backed the unfortunate loser in a battle between two Roman generals. Cities to the south [Arles, Vienne, and to the north, Trier] took over the economic functions of Lyons; and the city of Lyons was again plundered 269. Lyons fought back, and the trade wars raged on, until early in the 4th century when the aqueducts of Lyons were destroyed. Without water, the hillsite of Lyons [the Fourviere Hill] became untenable. The merchants moved down to the city below, or out of the city entirely. The protection of Lyons was thus much more difficult. And the decline of the Roman Empire also spelled the decline of many of its cities.

RIC VII Lyons 34 C3

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510. Valentinian I51 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
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513. Gratian27 viewsFlavius Gratianus Augustus (April 18/May 23, 359 - August 25, 383), known as Gratian, was a Western Roman Emperor from 375 to 383. He was the son of Valentinian I by Marina Severa and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia.

On August 4, 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus. On the death of Valentinian (November 17, 375), the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son (by a second wife Justina) emperor under the title of Valentinian II.

Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Milan. The division, however, was merely nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian.

The Eastern Roman Empire was under the rule of his uncle Valens. In May, 378 Gratian completely defeated the Lentienses, the southernmost branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria, near the site of the modern Colmar. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9.

In the same year, the government of the Eastern Empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he promoted Theodosius I on January 19, 379 to govern that portion of the empire. Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Balkans of barbarians in the Gothic War (377–382).

For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success but gradually sank into indolence, occupying himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose of Milan.

By taking into his personal service a body of Alani, and appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, he aroused the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops. A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army. Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on August 25, 383.

RIC IX Antioch 46b S

DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG
CONCOR-DIA AVGGG
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69-79 AD - VESPASIAN - AE dupondius - struck 71 AD44 viewsobv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG C[OS ?] (radiate head right)
rev: [IVDEA.CAPTA] / S.C. (mourning Jew captive seated right under palm tree)
ref: RIC - , C.-
12.22gms, 25mm
Rare, not in RIC
The Judea Capta coin testifies to the great importance the Romans attached to quelling the revolt in Judea and capturing Jerusalem. This image was designed and circulated to send a message of Judea's defeated revolt to all the provinces of the Roman Empire and served as constant reminder of the fate of rebellious provinces.
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706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
roman_emperor_otho.jpg
708a, Otho62 viewsOtho (69 A.D.)
John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction
In January 69 Otho led a successful coup to overthrow the emperor Galba. Upon advancing to the throne, he hoped to conciliate his adversaries and restore political stability to the Empire. These ambitions were never to be realized. Instead, our sources portray a leader never fully able to win political confidence at Rome or to overcome military anarchy abroad. As a result, he was defeated in battle by the forces of Vitellius, his successor, and took his own life at the conclusion of the conflict. His principate lasted only eight weeks.
Early Life and Career
Marcus Salvius Otho was born at Ferentium on 28 April 32 A. D. His grandfather, also named Marcus Salvius Otho, was a senator who did not advance beyond the rank of praetor. Lucius Otho, his father, was consul in 33 and a trusted administrator under the emperors Tiberius, Gaius and Claudius. His mother, Albia Terentia, was likely to have been nobly born as well. The cognomen "Otho" was Etruscan in origin, and the fact that it can be traced to three successive generations of this family perhaps reflects a desire to maintain a part of the Etruscan tradition that formed the family's background.
Otho is recorded as being extravagant and wild as a youth - a favorite pastime involved roving about at night to snare drunkards in a blanket. Such behavior earned floggings from his father, whose frequent absences from home on imperial business suggest little in the way of a stabilizing parental influence in Otho's formative years. These traits apparently persisted: Suetonius records that Otho and Nero became close friends because of the similarity of their characters; and Plutarch relates that the young man was so extravagant that he sometimes chided Nero about his meanness, and even outdid the emperor in reckless spending.
Most intriguing in this context is Otho's involvement with Nero's mistress, Poppaea Sabina, the greatest beauty of her day. A relationship between the two is widely cited in the ancient sources, but the story differs in essential details from one account to the next. As a result, it is impossible to establish who seduced whom, whether Otho ever married Poppaea, and whether his posting to Lusitania by Nero should be understood as a "banishment" for his part in this affair. About the only reliable detail to emerge is that Otho did indeed become governor of Lusitania in 59, and that he assumed the post as a quaestor, a rank below that of praetor or consul, the minimum usually required for the office. From here he would launch his initial thrust towards the imperial throne.
Overthrow of Galba
Nero's suicide in June 68 marked the end of the Julio-Claudian dynasty and opened up the principate to the prerogatives of the military beyond Rome. First to emerge was Servius Sulpicius Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who had been encouraged to revolt by the praetorians and especially by Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt and scheming praetorian prefect at Rome. By this time Otho had been in Spain for close to ten years. His record seems to have been a good one, marked by capable administration and an unwillingness to enrich himself at the expense of the province. At the same time, perhaps seeing this as his best chance to improve his own circumstances, he supported the insurrection as vigorously as possible, even sending Galba all of his gold and his best table servants. At the same time, he made it a point to win the favor of every soldier he came in contact with, most notably the members of the praetorian guard who had come to Spain to accompany Galba to Rome. Galba set out from Spain in July, formally assuming the emperorship shortly thereafter. Otho accompanied him on the journey.
Galba had been in Rome little more than two months when on 1 January 69 the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. To show that he was still in charge Galba adopted his own successor, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus, an aristocrat completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate and particularly angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered. On that same evening a powerless senate awarded Otho the imperial titles.
Otho's Principate in Rome
It is not possible to reconstruct a detailed chronology of Otho's brief eight and a half weeks as princeps in Rome (15 January-15 March). Even so, Galba's quick demise had surely impressed upon Otho the need to conciliate various groups. As a result, he continued his indulgence of the praetorian guard but he also tried to win over the senate by following a strict constitutionalist line and by generally keeping the designations for the consulship made by Nero and Galba. In the provinces, despite limited evidence, there are some indications that he tried to compensate for Galba's stinginess by being more generous with grants of citizenship. In short, Otho was eager not to offend anyone.
Problems remained, however. The praetorians had to be continually placated and they were always suspicious of the senate. On the other hand, the senate itself, along with the people, remained deeply disturbed at the manner of Otho's coming to power and his willingness to be associated with Nero. These suspicions and fears were most evident in the praetorian outbreak at Rome. Briefly, Otho had decided to move from Ostia to Rome a cohort of Roman citizens in order to replace some of Rome's garrison, much of which was to be utilized for the showdown with Vitellius. He ordered that weapons be moved from the praetorian camp in Rome by ship to Ostia at night so that the garrison replacements would be properly armed and made to look as soldierly as possible when they marched into the city. Thinking that a senatorial counter-coup against Otho was underway, the praetorians stormed the imperial palace to confirm the emperor's safety, with the result that they terrified Otho and his senatorial dinner guests. Although the praetorians' fears were eventually calmed and they were given a substantial cash payment, the incident dramatically underscored the unease at Rome in the early months of 69.
Otho's Offensive against Vitellius
Meanwhile, in the Rhineland, preparations for a march on Rome by the military legions that had declared for Vitellius were far advanced. Hampered by poor intelligence gathering in Gaul and Germany and having failed to negotiate a settlement with Vitellius in early 69, Otho finally summoned to Italy his forces for a counterattack against the invading Vitellian army. His support consisted of the four legions of Pannonia and Dalmatia, the three legions of Moesia and his own imperial retinue of about 9,000. Vitellius' own troops numbered some 30,000, while those of his two marshals, Aulus Caecina Alienus and Fabius Valens, were between 15,000 and 20,000 each.
Otho's strategy was to make a quick diversionary strike in order to allow time for his own forces to assemble in Italy before engaging the enemy. The strategy worked, as the diversionary army, comprised of urban cohorts, praetorians and marines all from Rome or nearby, was successful in Narbonese Gaul in latter March. An advance guard sent to hold the line on the Po River until the Danubian legions arrived also enjoyed initial success. Otho himself arrived at Bedriacum in northern Italy about 10 April for a strategy session with his commanders. The main concern was that the Vitellians were building a bridge across the Po in order to drive southward towards the Apennines and eventually to Rome. Otho decided to counter by ordering a substantial part of his main force to advance from Bedriacum and establish a new base close enough to the new Vitellian bridge to interrupt its completion. While en route, the Othonian forces, strung out along the via Postumia amid baggage and supply trains, were attacked by Caecina and Valens near Cremona on 14 April. The clash, know as the Battle of Bedriacum, resulted in the defeat of the Othonian forces, their retreat cut off by the river behind them. Otho himself, meanwhile, was not present, but had gone to Brixellum with a considerable force of infantry and cavalry in order to impede any Vitellian units that had managed to cross the Po.
The plan had backfired. Otho's strategy of obtaining victory while avoiding any major battles had proven too risky. Realizing perhaps that a new round of fighting would have involved not only a significant re-grouping of his existing troops but also a potentially bloody civil war at Rome, if Vitellius' troops reached the capital, Otho decided that enough blood had been shed. Two weeks shy of his thirty-seventh birthday, on 16 April 69, he took his own life.
Assessment
To be sure, Otho remains an enigma - part profligate Neronian wastrel and part conscientious military commander willing to give his life for the good of the state. Our sources are at a loss to explain the paradox. Perhaps, like Petronius, he saw it was safer to appear a profligate in Nero's court? In the final analysis, Otho proved to be an organized and efficient military commander, who appealed more to the soldier than to the civilian. He also seems to have been a capable governor, with administrative talents that recalled those of his father. Nevertheless, his violent overthrow of Galba, the lingering doubts that it raised about his character, and his unsuccessful offensive against Vitellius are all vivid reminders of the turbulence that plagued the Roman world between the reigns of Nero and Vespasian. Regrettably, the scenario would play itself out one more time before peace and stability returned to the empire.
Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.42 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.133 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





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711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. 106 viewsTITUS AUGUSTUS AR silver denarius. Struck at Rome, 80 AD. IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Reverse - TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends, about Very Fine, nice golden toning. Commemmorates the completion and dedication of the Colosseum and the opening of games. SCARCE. RCV 2512, valued at $544 in EF. 17mm, 3.1g. Ex Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Titus_Colosseum_Commem_AR_denarius.jpg
711a, Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.133 viewsTitus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D. AR denarius, RCV 2512, aVF, struck at Rome, 80 A.D., 17.5mm, 3.4g. Obverse: IMP TITVS CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right; Reverse: TRP IX IMP XV COS VIII PP, elephant walking left. Fully legible legends; nice golden toning. This coin was struck in order to commemorate the completion and dedication of the Flavian Amphitheatre (the Colosseum) and its opening games. Very scarce. Ex Incitatus; photo courtesy Incitatus.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 79-81)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born on December 30, 39 A.D. He was the oldest of the three children of the founder of the Flavian Dynasty, Vespasian. Beginning in the year 70 Titus was named Cæsar and coregent; he was highly educated and a brilliant poet and orator in both Latin and Greek. He won military fame during the Jewish Revolt of 69-70. In April, 70, he appeared before the walls of Jerusalem, and conquered and destroyed the city after a siege of five months. He wished to preserve the Temple, but in the struggle with the Jews who rushed out of it a soldier threw a brand into the building. The siege and taking of the city were accompanied by barbarous cruelties. The next year Titus celebrated his victory by a triumph; to increase the fame of the Flavian dynasty the inscription on the triumphal arch represented the overthrow of the helpless people as a heroic achievement. Titus succeeded his father as Emperor in 79.

Before becoming emperor, tradition records that Titus was feared as the next Nero, a perception that may have developed from his association with Berenice, his alleged heavy-handedness as praetorian prefect, and tales of sexual debauchery. Once in office, however, both emperor and his reign were portrayed in universally positive terms. The suddenness of this transformation raises immediate suspicions, yet it is difficult to know whether the historical tradition is suspect or if Titus was in fact adept at taking off one mask for another. What is clear, however, is that Titus sought to present the Flavians as the legitimate successors of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Proof came through the issuing of a series of restoration coins of previous emperors, the most popular being Augustus and Claudius. In A.D. 80 Titus also set out to establish an imperial cult in honor of Vespasian. The temple, in which cult (the first that was not connected with the Julio-Claudians) was housed, was completed by Domitian and was known as the Temple of Vespasian and Domitian.
Legitimacy was also sought through various economic measures, which Titus enthusiastically funded. Vast amounts of capital poured into extensive building schemes in Rome, especially the Flavian Amphitheater, popularly known as the Colosseum. In celebration of additions made to the structure, Titus provided a grand 100-day festival, with sea fights staged on an artificial lake, infantry battles, wild beast hunts, and similar activities. He also constructed new imperial baths to the south-east of the Amphitheater and began work on the celebrated Arch of Titus, a memorial to his Jewish victories. Large sums were directed to Italy and the provinces as well, especially for road building. In response to the eruption of Vesuvius in A.D. 79, Titus spent large sums to relieve distress in that area; likewise, the imperial purse contributed heavily to rebuilding Rome after a devastating fire destroyed large sections of the city in A.D. 80. As a result of these actions, Titus earned a reputation for generosity and geniality. For these reasons he gained the honourable title of "amor et deliciæ generis humani" (the darling and admiration of the human race). Even so, his financial acumen must not be under-estimated. He left the treasury with a surplus, as he had found it, and dealt promptly and efficiently with costly natural disasters. The Greek historian of the third-century A.D., Cassius Dio, perhaps offered the most accurate and succinct assessment of Titus' economic policy: "In money matters, Titus was frugal and made no unnecessary expenditure." In other areas, the brevity of Titus' reign limits our ability to detect major emphases or trends in policy. As far as can be discerned from the limited evidence, senior officials and amici were well chosen, and his legislative activity tended to focus on popular social measures, with the army as a particular beneficiary in the areas of land ownership, marriage, and testamentary freedom. In the provinces, Titus continued his father's policies by strengthening roads and forts in the East and along the Danube.

Titus died in September, A.D. 81 after only 26 months in office. Suetonius recorded that Titus died on his way to the Sabine country of his ancestors in the same villa as his father. A competing tradition persistently implicated his brother and successor, Domitian, as having had a hand in the emperor's demise, but the evidence is highly contradictory and any wrongdoing is difficult to prove. Domitian himself delivered the funeral eulogy and had Titus deified. He also built several monuments in honor of Titus and completed the Temple of Vespasian and Titus, changing the name of the structure to include his brother's and setting up his cult statue in the Temple itself.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian Dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well. Titus was used as a model by later emperors, especially those known as the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius).

Copyright (C) 1997, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Catholic Encyclopedia, http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14746b.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
3 commentsCleisthenes
Valens_33.jpg
A123 viewsValens AE3

Attribution: RIC IX, 12b, Antioch
Date: AD 364-378
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm, ANTH in exergue
Size: 18 mm

Approximately one month after his ascension, Valentinian I appointed his younger brother, Valens, joint Augustus and placed him in charge of the eastern provinces including the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. As a dedicated Christian and anti-intellectual, Valens chose those close to him as his officers and ministers. He did not follow the traditional aristocratic ways. The Visigoths along the Danube frontier were being pushed towards the borders of the empire by the Huns. They requested asylum, which was not entirely granted by the emperor. Valens left a small group of riparian commanders to oversee the entry of a small group of Visigoths, but the barbarians crossed into the empire by the tens of thousands. When the riparian commanders began abusing the Visigoths under their charge, they revolted in early AD 377 and defeated the Roman units in Thrace outside of Marcianople. Interestingly, but AD 378, the Visigoths were actually joined by the Ostrogoths, Alans, and Huns, to form a formidable force which the Romans now had to contend with. The emperor of the West, Gratian, pleaded with his uncle, emperor Valens, to wait for his reinforcements to arrive prior to engaging the barbarians. In an act of superciliousness, Valens decided to take care of the problem himself due to his jealousy of his nephew’s successes. Valens sallied forth to the confrontation which would later be called the Battle of Adrianople. Here the hasty emperor met his fate. There are two accounts of his death given by Ammianus. The first states that he was mortally wounded by an arrow and died on the battlefield. The second account tells of how the wounded Valens fled to a wooden hut which was then burned down by Gothic troops who were unaware of his presence inside. Still a third account of his death was specified by the church historian Socrates (see quote below). The Romans never recovered from this debacle; this marked the beginning of the end for the empire. Gratian, only 19 at the time, chose a Spanish officer named Theodosius to take the position vacated by his uncle Valens.

“Some have asserted that he was burnt to death in a village whither he had retired, which the barbarians assaulted and set on fire. But others affirm that having put off his imperial robe he ran into the midst of the main body of infantry; and that when the cavalry revolted and refused to engage, the infantry were surrounded by the barbarians, and completely destroyed in a body. Among these it is said the emperor fell, but could not be distinguished, in consequence of his not having on his imperial habit.” – Church Historian Socrates The Ecclesiastical History VI.38
1 commentsNoah
ppsectetORweb.jpg
Antioch, Revised Posthumous Philip, RPC 413653 viewsAntioch Mint, revised posthumous Philip, year = 19 (31/30 B.C.) AR, 26mm 14.39g, RPC 4136, Newell, no. 23
O: Diademed head of Philip Philadelphus, r.
R: BAEILEWE FILIPPOY EPIFANOYE FILADELFOY, Zeus, seated l., holding Nike and scepter
EX: THI
* "In the early fifties, the Romans revived the coinage of King Philip Philadelphus to be their coinage of Syria, copying his types (portrait of Philip/Zeus seated l.), though in a debased style. The coinage lasted from then until the reign of Augustus, and was discussed most recently by H.R. Baldus (in CRWLR, pp. 127-30, with earlier references for H. Scying, E. T. Newell, A. R. Bellinger and C. M. Kraay). The first issues were made with the monogram of Gabinius (57-55 BC), Crassus (54/53 BC) and Cassius (52/51 BC). There after the establishment of a Caesarian era at Antioch in 44/48 BC, their monogram was replaced by one standing for Antioch )or ‘autonomous’: see Wr. 21) and the coins were dated in the exergue by the years of this era. Year 3-12 and, then with a new style (see E. T. Newell, NC, 1919, pp. 69ff.; Baldus, p. 150, n. 14) 19-33 are known.
It may seem odd that the Romans chose the Tetradrachm of Philip (92-83 BC) to revive, rather than those of the last king, Antiochus XII; it is true that the last substantial issue of Seleucid tetradrachms was made by Philip, so that his would have comprised a most important proportion of the currency (so Newell, pp 80-4; M. J. Price ap. Baldus, op. cit., p. 127), but it is hard to see that this provides a sufficient reason, and it is possible that some other consideration might be relevant. While Antiochus (c. 69-65 BC) was away campaigning against the Arabs, the people of Antioch revolted and put forward, as king, Philip, the son of Philip Philadelphus. As the claims of Antiochus were rejected by Pompey when he formed the province, the Roman view may have been that Philip was the last legitimate Seleucid king, and, if so, his coins would naturally have been chosen as the prototype of the Roman coinage in Syria.
The Philips were interrupted from year 12 until year 19, and it seems that in this gap the tetradrachms of Cleopatra and Antony were produced. The evidence for their production at Antioch, however, does not seem sufficient, and they have been catalogued elsewhere, under ‘Uncertain of Syria’ (4094-6). It is certain, however, that a unique drachm portraying Antony was produced at Antioch during this period, as it bears the ethnic ANTIOXEWN MHTPOPOLEWS. See also addenda 4131A.
After the defeat of Antony, the coinage of posthumous Philip was revived in 31/30 BC, though it is not clear whether this represents a conscious decision to avoid putting Octavian’s portrait on the coinage, as happened in Asia and Egypt (similarly, the portrait does not appear on city bronzes of Syria before the last decade BC) or whether it is just the simple reinstatement of the previous type, after the new type of Antony and Cleopatra became unacceptable. At any rate the coinage continued until at least year 33 (= 17/16 BC). Current evidence does not permit us to be sure that it continued any later, to the year 36 (= 14/13 BC), as Newell thought, though this is not impossible."

RPC I, pp. 606-607
casata137ec
PIUS_BI__TETRA.png
ANTONINUS PIUS / SERAPIS , Alexandria BILLION TETRADRACHM39 viewsMINTED IN ALEXANDRIA , EGYPT FROM 138 - 161 AD
OBVERSE : ANTwNINO C CEBEUC CEB Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
REVERSE : Draped bust of Serapis right,modius on head. L K
References : SNG Cop 426 ( No, L K ?)

22.2 MM AND 13.15 GRAMS.

Alexandria ( of Egypt ) issued billon tetradrachms in large numbers between the reign of Augustus and the closing of the Alexandrian mint during the reign of Diocletian. These coins were no doubt mainly intended to pay the salaries of government officials, of the permanent garrison, and of the temporary troops stationed in Alexandria for purposes of war. They were probably also the form in which taxes in money were received, and were used for trade among the people within the city of Alexandria and other Graeco-Roman cities in Egypt. They also served the purpose of providing a subsidiary coinage with Greek legends which formed the vehicle for Roman imperial propaganda throughout Egypt. On the reverse of these coins were placed the Egyptian Hellenized deities, as an indication of the goodwill of the Roman emperors towards Egypt.
The greater part of the agricultural population of Egypt had scarcely any need for coins except to pay their taxes. The real currency and measure of value in the agricultural settlements was grain, wine or oil. The chief export of Egypt was grain, and this did not bring much money to the cultivators, for most of the grain was collected as tribute, not in trade, and they got nothing in return. Consequently, there is reason to suppose that considerably fewer coins circulated in Egypt generally than the region of Alexandria.
From the reign of Nero onwards, Egypt enjoyed an era of prosperity which lasted a century. Much trouble was caused by religious conflicts between the Greeks and the Jews, particularly in Alexandria, which after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD become the world centre of Jewish religion and culture. Under Trajan a Jewish revolt occurred, resulting in the suppression of the Jews of Alexandria and the loss of all their privileges, although they soon returned. Hadrian, who twice visited Egypt, founded Antinoöpolis in memory of his drowned lover Antinous. From his reign onwards buildings in the Greco-Roman style were erected throughout the country. Under Marcus Aurelius, however, oppressive taxation led to a revolt (139 AD) of the native Egyptians, which was suppressed only after several years of fighting.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
RRC544_(2).jpg
Antonius - Legionary Coinage, Legio V Alaudae51 viewsObv. [ANT AVG] IIIVIR RPC, galley right, mast with banners at prow;
Rev. LEG V, legionary eagle between two standards;
18mm, 3,40 gr.
Patrae, military mint of Antony, 31 B.C.
References: RRC544, RSC 32, Sear 1479

Legio V Alaudae was the first legion to be raised from non-Romans. These men were transalpine Gauls, enrolled by Caesar in 52 B.C, and took to wearing lark's feathers on their helmets - hence their epithet, Alaudae, "the Larks". The Fifth was long believed to have been destroyed in, or dissolved after the Batavian Revolt of 69/70 AD, where they participated with the rest of the Rhine legions and the Treveri and Lingones in the uprising. However, epigraphic material now indicates the presence of the Fifth on the Danube in Flavian times. Records disappear again soon afterward, and it may have been lost in the Dacian Wars under Domitian.
Syltorian
Siglos_king_dagger_bow.jpg
Artaxerxes II - Darius III180 viewsPersian Empire, Lydia, Anatolia, Artaxerxes II - Darius III, c. 375 - 340 B.C., Silver siglos, 5.490 g, maximum diameter 15.1 mm, die axis 0, Carradice Type IV (late) C, 46 ff.; BMC Arabia 172 ff.; SNG Kayhan 1031; SGCV II 4683; Rosen 674; Klein 763; Carradice Price p. 77 and pl. 20, 387 ff.

Following Darius II came Artaxerxes II (called Mnemon), during whose reign Egypt revolted and relations with Greece deteriorated. His reign (dated as from 404 to 359 B.C.E.) was followed by that of his son Artaxerxes III (also called Ochus), who is credited with some 21 years of rule (358-338 B.C.E.) and is said to have been the most bloodthirsty of all the Persian rulers. His major feat was the reconquest of Egypt.
This was followed by a two-year rule for Arses and a five-year rule for Darius III (Codomannus), during whose reign Philip of Macedonia was murdered (336 B.C.E.) and was succeeded by his son Alexander. In 334 B.C.E. Alexander began his attack on the Persian Empire.

Siglos was the Greek transliteration of the Semitic denomination ""shekel"" which became a standard weight unit for silver in the Achaemenid Persian Empire after the conquest of Babylonia by Cyrus the Great in 539 B.C. Ironically, silver sigloi seem to have been struck primarily in the western part of the empire and the standard went on to influence several Greek civic and royal coinages in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C. There is endless debate about whether the figure on the obverse represents the Persian Great King or an anonymous royal hero, but since the Greeks regularly referred to the parallel gold denomination as the ""daric"" it seems clear that at least some contemporaries considered it a depiction of the king. Of course, whether this is what the Persian authorities intended or an example of interpretatio Graeca must remain an open question.
4 commentsNemonater
FotorCreated~106.jpg
Asia Minor Ionia Miletos AR Diobol 12th Stater late 6th early 5th century BC 8.35mm 1.16g68 viewsForepart of lion left.Rev stellate design within square incuse.
Belongs to the period of the Ionian revolt.
Grant H
0521175.jpg
Augustus silver denarius RIC 4324 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 43; RSC II 43; BMCRE II 50;
BnF III 36; Hunter I 21, weight 3.3 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm,
Rome mint, Jul - Dec 71 CE.
Obverse: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M, laureate head right.
Reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus, AVGVR above, TRI POT below
Roman emperor Vespasian was most famous for building the Flavian
Amphitheater, also known as the Colosseum. Like many Roman emperors,
Vespasian rose in prominence because of his military skills and work ethics.
Following his ten year rule, he left behind a record of restored order,
stability and good government. He was succeeded by his son Titus in 79 CE,
who had been sent to quell the Jewish revolt of 66-70 CE.
2 commentsNORMAN K
Screen_Shot_2014-11-24_at_12_05_00_AM.png
Aurelian Antoninianus Coin118 viewsThis type refers to Aurelian's defeat of Zenobia's Palmyrene Empire in the east. The captives wear Parthian caps and are typically attributed as Persians. The real captives were more likely Palmyreans. Typical of Roman propaganda, Zenobia's Sasanian supporters are depicted to glorify Aurelian's victory and mask that this was an internal revolt and civil war.

RS52117. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V 151, gVF, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, weight 4.178g, maximum diameter 24.1mm, die axis 180o, 270 - 275 A.D.; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ORIENS AVG, Sol advancing left, raising right hand, globe in left, two bound captives at feet, TXXT in exergue; near full circles strike, extensive silvering remaining
Colby S
aurelian_64.jpg
Aurelian, Estiot 19682 viewsAurelian, AD 270 - 2375
AR - Antoninianus, 3.52g, 22mm, 180°
Rome, 11th emission, begin - September 275, 4. officina
obv. IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
bust, cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. ORIE - N - S AVG
Sol, radiate, walking r., holding laurel-branch and bow,
treading down an enemy
in l. field: Delta
in ex. XXIR
RIC V, 64; C.159; Estiot no.196, pl.6
about VF, some silvering

ORIENS AVG, after the victory over Palmyra AD 272 the East was Roman again
XXI, after the coinage reform of Aurelian AS 274 the new ratio 20:1 between Asses and Antoniniani. This reform caused a revolt of the mint-workers in Rome, 7000 were killed!
Jochen
leBon.jpg
Auxonne in France, 1424-1427 AD., Duchy of Burgundy, Philippe le Bon, Blanc aux écus, Poey d'Avant # 5735.95 viewsFrance, Duchy of Burgundy, Auxonne mint (?), Philip the Good (Philippe le Bon, 1419-1467), struck 1424-1427 AD.,
AR blanc aux écus (26-28 mm / 3,27 g),
Obv.: + DVX : ET : COMES : BVRGVDIE , Ecus accolés de Bourgogne nouveau et Bourgogne ancien sous PhILIPVS.
Rev.: + SIT : NOMEN : DNI : BENEDICTVM , Croix longue entre un lis et un lion, au-dessus de PhILIPVS.
B., 1230 ; Dumas, 15-7-1 ; Poey d'Avant # 5735.

"PotatorII": "This coin is atributed to Auxonne mint because of the presence of a "secret dot" under the first letter (S) on reverse."

Rare

Imitation du blanc aux écus d'Henri VI d'Angleterre, frappé en France à partir de novembre 1422.

Philip the Good (French: Philippe le Bon), also Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (July 31, 1396 – June 15, 1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. He was a member of a cadet line of the Valois dynasty (the then Royal family of France). During his reign Burgundy reached the height of its prosperity and prestige and became a leading center of the arts. Philip is known in history for his administrative reforms, patronage of Flemish artists such as Jan van Eyck, and the capture of Joan of Arc. During his reign he alternated between English and French alliances in an attempt to improve his dynasty's position.
Born in Dijon, he was the son of John the Fearless and Margaret of Bavaria-Straubing. On the 28 January 1405, he was named Count of Charolais in appanage of his father and probably on the same day he was engaged to Michele of Valois (1395–1422), daughter of Charles VI of France and Isabeau of Bavaria. They were married in June of 1409.
Philip subsequently married Bonne of Artois (1393–1425), daughter of Philip of Artois, Count of Eu, and also the widow of his uncle, Philip II, Count of Nevers, in Moulins-les-Engelbert on November 30, 1424. The latter is sometimes confused with Philip's biological aunt, also named Bonne (sister of John the Fearless, lived 1379 - 1399), in part due to the Papal Dispensation required for the marriage which made no distinction between a marital aunt and a biological aunt.
His third marriage, in Bruges on January 7, 1430 with Isabella of Portugal (1397 - December 17, 1471), daughter of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, produced three sons:
* Antoine (September 30, 1430, Brussels – February 5, 1432, Brussels), Count of Charolais
* Joseph (April 24, 1432 – aft. May 6, 1432), Count of Charolais
* Charles (1433–1477), Count of Charolais and Philip's successor as Duke, called "Charles the Bold" or "Charles the Rash"
Philip also had some eighteen illegitimate children, including Antoine, bastard of Burgundy, by twenty four documented mistresses [1]. Another, Philip of Burgundy (1464-1524), bishop of Utrecht, was a fine amateur artist, and the subject of a biography in 1529.
Philip became duke of Burgundy, count of Flanders, Artois and Franche Comté when his father was assassinated in 1419. Philip accused Charles, the Dauphin of France and Philip's brother-in-law of planning the murder of his father which had taken place during a meeting between the two at Montereau, and so he continued to prosecute the civil war between the Burgundians and Armagnacs. In 1420 Philip allied himself with Henry V of England under the Treaty of Troyes. In 1423 the alliance was strengthened by the marriage of his sister Anne to John, Duke of Bedford, regent for Henry VI of England.
In 1430 Philip's troops captured Joan of Arc at Compiègne and later handed her over to the English who orchestrated a heresy trial against her, conducted by pro-Burgundian clerics. Despite this action against Joan of Arc, Philip's alliance with England was broken in 1435 when Philip signed the Treaty of Arras (which completely revoked the Treaty of Troyes) and thus recognised Charles VII as king of France. Philip signed for a variety of reasons, one of which may have been a desire to be recognised as the Premier Duke in France. Philip then attacked Calais, but this alliance with Charles was broken in 1439, with Philip supporting the revolt of the French nobles the following year (an event known as the Praguerie) and sheltering the Dauphin Louis.
Philip generally was preoccupied with matters in his own territories and seldom was directly involved in the Hundred Years' War, although he did play a role during a number of periods such as the campaign against Compiegne during which his troops captured Joan of Arc. He incorporated Namur into Burgundian territory in 1429 (March 1, by purchase from John III, Marquis of Namur), Hainault and Holland, Frisia and Zealand in 1432 (with the defeat of Countess Jacqueline in the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars); inherited the duchy of Brabant and Limburg and the margrave of Antwerp in 1430 (on the death of his cousin Philip of Saint-Pol); and purchased Luxembourg in 1443 from Elisabeth of Bohemia, Duchess of Luxembourg. Philip also managed to ensure his illegitimate son, David, was elected Bishop of Utrecht in 1456. It is not surprising that in 1435, Philip began to style himself "Grand Duke of the West". In 1463 Philip returned some of his territory to Louis XI. That year he also created an Estates-General based on the French model. The first meeting of the Estates-General was to obtain a loan for a war against France and to ensure support for the succession of his son, Charles I, to his dominions. Philip died in Bruges in 1467.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
73000535.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I, ca. 171-145 BC, AR Tetradrachm 30 viewsDiademed bust of a youthful Eukratides right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYKPATIΔOY (of King Eukratides) Dioskouroi on horseback charging right, carrying spears and palm branches, PK monogram to lower right.

Bopearachchi Series1B; SNG ANS 9, 431; Mitchiner 168(f); Qunduz 108-114; HGC 12, 130; Sear GCV 7568.

(32 mm, 16.75 g, 12h).
From LWHT Col.; CNG 73, 13 Sep. 2006, 535.

Eukratides I came to power in a revolt against the Euthydemid dynasty commencing around 171 BC and continuing for a decade. He extended his dominion to include all of Baktria and its realms both north and south of the Hindu Kush. Around 145 BC, Eukratides was murdered by his one of his own sons, probably Plato. By this time Baktria was weakened by the protracted struggle for power. The demise of Eukratides provided a catalyst for Scythian nomads to cross the Oxus, eventually to overrun Baktria. The city of Ai Khanoum appears to have been amongst the first to fall to invaders. This is evidenced by the fact that no coins later than those of Eukratides have been found in the excavations at Ai Khanoum. Within a decade Baktria had fragmented, overrun by Scythian nomads from the north, with the possible exception of a small Greek enclave in the eastern foothills of the Hindu Kush and the associated valley passes that led to the south and the Kabul Valley. A small remnant Greek civilization remained for another century to the south of the Hindu Kush before being overrun.
2 commentsn.igma
Bar_Kokhba_Revolt_(AD_132-135)__Æ_middle_bronze_(24mm,_12_52_gm,_11h).jpg
Bar Kokhba Revolt AE Middle Bronze17 viewsBar Kokhba Revolt (AD 132-135). AE middle bronze (24mm, 12.52 g, 11h). year 1 (AD 132/3). 'Simon, Prince of Israel', palm branch within wreath / 'Year One of the Redemption of Israel', wide lyre of five strings. EFOctopus Grabus
10291.jpg
Bardas Parsakoutenos, magistros and doux of Anatolikon. Lead seal c. AD 970-990 238 views10291|Bardas Parsakoutenos, magistros and doux of Anatolikon. Lead seal c. AD 970-990
Star with six rays ending in something resembling arrows; circular invocational legend + KE ROHΘEI TW CW ΔUΛW
+RAPΔ|MAΓICTP,|S ΔUΞ TWN| ANATOΛ’K|TWN OΠAT|O ΠAPCK’ in six lines
30mm; 16.24gram.

Before turning to the identification of the seal’s owner, there are a number of issues to be addressed about the reverse legend. Up to the fourth line, all is clear. A nominative legend listing Bardas’ dignity of magistros and his office of doux ton Anatolikon. The last line has his family name Pars(a)k(outenos). The fifth line, however, does not make sense. It might be an engraver’s error, repeating TWN of the third line and O ΠAP of the last line. This explanation, even though unelegant, has to do for now, unless an otherwise unknown office or command is meant.
The seal’s owner is probably the person named in Leon Diakonos (VII.1) as one of three brothers Parsakoutenos, who backed Bardas Phokas the younger during his rebellion of AD 970 against John I Tzimiskes. These brothers, Theodore, Bardas and Nikephoros took their name, according to Leon, “after the city of their birth, Parsakouta”, which is a village on the road between Nymphaion and Sardis in the Thrakesian theme (p. 162, n.4 of the English edition). Leon adds that the Parsakoutenoi were cousins of Bardas Phokas and that they held the rank of patrikios and adds that they ‘mustered troops with great zeal’. Skylitzes (291.13-14) adds that Theodore and Nikephoros were the sons of the patrikios Theodoulos Parsakoutenos, and were exarchs in Cappadocia (p. 162, n.3). The rebellion, however, was extinguished by the skilled general Bardas Skleros, and Bardas Phokas was temporarily imprisoned.
Leon Diakonos once again mentions Bardas Parsakoutenos in book X, chapter 7, during the revolt of Bardas Skleros. He is now called magistros, a higher rank than patrikios, which implies that his earlier allegience to a usurper had not frustrated his political career. In the late 970’s, Skleros conquered large parts of Asia and was threatening to blockade the Dardanelles, hindering merchants and grain transports to the capital. In the end, he was defeated by Bardas Phokas on 24th of March 979 and fled to Muslim territory. But before his final defeat on the battleground, according to Leon Diakonos, his fortress at Abydos was seized, his army destroyed, and fire was set to his fleet of triremes by an imperial fleet of fireships dispatched from the capital under the command of Bardas Parsakoutenos. The seal, listing Bardas’ dignity as magistros, not patrikios as attested in AD 970, might well be from this period.
1 commentsGert
bcc_j11_revolt.jpg
BCC j1126 viewsJudaea AE Prutah
1st Revolt 67/68CE
Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Sha Na T Sh Ti I M (Year Two)
Amphora with broad rim and two handles.
Rev: He R U T Z I O N (Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf .
17mm. 3.23gm. Axis:150
Hendin 661
v-drome
revolt_BCC_j12.jpg
BCC j1229 viewsJudaean
1st Revolt 67/68CE
AE Prutah-Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Sha Na T Sh Ti I M (Year Two)
Amphora w/ broad rim and two handles.
Rev: He R * T Z I O N (Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf .
17mm. 2.49gm. Axis:150
Hendin 661
v-drome
BCC_j13_revolt.jpg
BCC j1326 viewsJudaea
1st Revolt 68/69CE
AE Prutah-Jerusalem Mint
Obv: [Sha Na T] Sha L O Sh (Year Three)
Amphora w/ broad rim, two handles and cover.
Rev: He R U T [Z I O N ](Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf.
15x16mm. 1.63gm. Axis:180
Hendin 664
v-drome
revolt_BCC_j14.jpg
BCC j1431 viewsJudaean
1st Revolt 68/69CE
AE Prutah-Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Sha Na T Sha [L O Sh] (Year Three)
Amphora w/ broad rim, two handles and cover.
Rev: He R U T [Z I O N ](Freedom of Zion)
Grape vine leaf.
15x17mm. 2.60gm. Axis:150
Hendin 664
v-drome
Revolt_BCC_j15.jpg
BCC j1556 viewsJudaean
1st Revolt 69/70CE
AE 1/8 Shekel - Jerusalem Mint
Obv: Le G A La T Tz I O N (to the
redemption of Zion) Chalice with pearled rim.
Rev:Sha Na T A R Ba H (Year 4)
Lulav flanked by etrog on either side.
18x19mm. 4.11gm. Axis:330
Hendin 670
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_m50.jpg
BCC m5041 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m50
Revolt Imitation of
Year Three Prutah
Obv: Traces of Hebrew inscr.
sh-na-t sha-lo-sh
(year three 68-69 CE)
Amphora with lid
Rev: Vine leaf? traces of insc?
AE12.5mm. 0.90g. Axis:?
v-drome
BCC_m51.jpg
BCC m5151 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m51
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
minima Prutah
Obv: Pomegranate? or grain stalk?
Rev: Grape vine leaf
AE12mm.0.84g.Axis:270?
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_m52.jpg
BCC m5234 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m52
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima.
Obv: Amphora with two
handles, no lid? in wreath
Rev:Grape vine leaf. Scratched in antiquity.
AE11.5mm.0.77g.Axis:0
v-drome
BCC_m53.jpg
BCC m5345 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m53
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima
Obv:Uncertain object with-in border of dots.
Rev:Grape vine leaf with-in border of dots.
AE12mm.0.92g.Axis:?
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_m54.jpg
BCC m5446 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m54
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima.
Obv:Three ears of wheat
Rev:Grape vine leaf.
AE11.5mm.0.82g.Axis:0
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_m55.jpg
BCC m5547 viewsCaesarea Minima BCC m55
Mint: unknown. Possibly
Jerusalem or Caesarea?
Revolt Imitation or
Jewish Prutah minima
Obv: Pomegranate?
Rev:Three ears of wheat
AE12.5mm.1.22g.Axis:270
v-drome
105034.jpg
BOEOTIA, Thebes171 viewsIn the late 6th century BC the Thebans were brought for the first time into hostile contact with the Athenians, who helped the small village of Plataea to maintain its independence against them, and in 506 repelled an inroad into Attica. The aversion to Athens best serves to explain the unpatriotic attitude which Thebes displayed during the Persian invasion of Greece (480–479 BC). Though a contingent of 700 was sent to Thermopylae and remained there with Leonidas until just before the last stand when they surrendered to the Persians[1], the governing aristocracy soon after joined King Xerxes I of Persia with great readiness and fought zealously on his behalf at the battle of Plataea in 479 BC. The victorious Greeks subsequently punished Thebes by depriving it of the presidency of the Boeotian League, and an attempt by the Spartans to expel it from the Delphic amphictyony was only frustrated by the intercession of Athens.

In 457 Sparta, needing a counterpoise against Athens in central Greece, reversed her policy and reinstated Thebes as the dominant power in Boeotia. The great citadel of Cadmea served this purpose well by holding out as a base of resistance when the Athenians overran and occupied the rest of the country (457–447). In the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, embittered by the support which Athens gave to the smaller Boeotian towns, and especially to Plataea, which they vainly attempted to reduce in 431, were firm allies of Sparta, which in turn helped them to besiege Plataea and allowed them to destroy the town after its capture in 427 BC. In 424 at the head of the Boeotian levy they inflicted a severe defeat upon an invading force of Athenians at the Battle of Delium, and for the first time displayed the effects of that firm military organization which eventually raised them to predominant power in Greece.

After the downfall of Athens at the end of the Peloponnesian War the Thebans, finding that Sparta intended to protect the states which they desired to annex, broke off the alliance. In 404 they had urged the complete destruction of Athens, yet in 403 they secretly supported the restoration of its democracy in order to find in it a counterpoise against Sparta. A few years later, influenced perhaps in part by Persian gold, they formed the nucleus of the league against Sparta. At the battles of Haliartus (395) and Coronea (394) they again proved their rising military capacity by standing their ground against the Spartans. The result of the war was especially disastrous to Thebes, as the general settlement of 387 stipulated the complete autonomy of all Greek towns and so withdrew the other Boeotians from its political control. Its power was further curtailed in 382, when a Spartan force occupied the citadel by a treacherous coup-de-main. Three years later the Spartan garrison was expelled, and a democratic constitution definitely set up in place of the traditional oligarchy. In the consequent wars with Sparta the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself the best in Greece. Some years of desultory fighting, in which Thebes established its control over all Boeotia, culminated in 371 in a remarkable victory over the pick of the Spartans at Leuctra. The winners were hailed throughout Greece as champions of the oppressed. They carried their arms into Peloponnesus and at the head of a large coalition permanently crippled the power of Sparta. Similar expeditions were sent to Thessaly and Macedon to regulate the affairs of those regions.

However the predominance of Thebes was short-lived; the states which she protected refused to subject themselves permanently to her control, and the renewed rivalry of Athens, which had joined with Thebes in 395 in a common fear of Sparta, but since 387 had endeavoured to maintain the balance of power against her ally, prevented the formation of a Theban empire. With the death of Epaminondas at Mantinea in 362 the city sank again to the position of a secondary power. In a war with the neighbouring state of Phocis (356–346) it could not even maintain its predominance in central Greece, and by inviting Philip II of Macedon to crush the Phocians it extended that monarch's power within dangerous proximity to its frontiers. A revulsion of feeling was completed in 338 by the orator Demosthenes, who persuaded Thebes to join Athens in a final attempt to bar Philip's advance upon Attica. The Theban contingent lost the decisive battle of Chaeronea and along with it every hope of reassuming control over Greece. Philip was content to deprive Thebes of her dominion over Boeotia; but an unsuccessful revolt in 335 against his son Alexander was punished by Macedon and other Greek states by the severe sacking of the city, except, according to tradition, the house of the poet Pindar.

BOEOTIA, Thebes. Circa 395-338 BC. AR Stater (21mm, 11.98 gm). Boeotian shield / Amphora; magistrate AM-FI. Hepworth, "The 4th Century BC Magistrate Coinage of the Boiotian Confederacy," in Nomismatika Xronika (1998), 2; BMC Central Greece -. Fine.

Ex-Cng eAuction 105, Lot: 34 225/200

2 commentsecoli
00017Q00.JPG
Bruttium, The Brettii (Circa 211-208 BC)25 viewsÆ Double Unit (Didrachm)

26 mm, 16.19 g

Obverse: Head of Ares left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet decorated with griffin

Reverse: BRET-TIWN, Hera Hoplosima (or Athena) advancing right, holding spear and shield; racing torch right.

Scheu 72; SNG ANS 82; HN Italy 1987

The Brettii were an indigenous Italian people who emerged in southern Italy in the mid-fourth century BC. Ancient authors describe them as a group of revolted slaves and miscellaneous fugitives who came together after seeking refuge in the rugged mountains of the area. Nonetheless, it is more likely that most of these people were native Oenotrians or Pelasgians who had escaped from domination by the Greek cities and other native groups to the north. By the mid-third century BC, this disparate congregation of people, now known as the Brettii, had become the predominant power over most of Italy south of the river Laos, including the important mints of Consentia, Medma, Hipponium, Terina, and Thurium (Diod. XVI.15; Strabo VI). Their rising power, however, was eventually checked by the expansion of Roman authority in their region. In the 280s BC, they united with their neighbors, the Lucanians, against Rome, an adventure that proved inconclusive. Soon thereafter, they aided Pyrrhos in his war against Rome, an unsuccessful endeavor that resulted in the Romans carrying on the conflict against the Brettians after defeating the Epiran leader. The Brettians submitted to the Romans, but in the face of Hannibal's successes against Rome, they again allied themselves with Rome's enemy during the Second Punic War (Livy XXII. 61). In this conflict, the Brettians were completely invested in the alliance with Carthage, such that the entire region of Bruttium became a veritable Punic fortress, and it was during this war that the entire series of Brettian coinage was struck. Once again, though, the Brettii had supported the losing side, and this time the Romans were determined to squash any further ability of the Brettians to threaten them. In the aftermath of Hannibal's defeat, the Romans subjugated Bruttium through annual military deployments and the establishment of three colonies, at Tempsa, Kroton, and Vibo Valentia (Livy XXXIV. 45 and XXXV. 40). Unlike other Italian populations that had been conquered by the Romans, the Brettii were also not admitted as Roman allies and could not serve in the Roman military (Appian, Annib. 61). Little is known of the Brettii thereafter.
1 commentsNathan P
Burnt_Hoard_01_obv.jpg
Burnt Hoard Coin 1 obverse78 viewsIMP( )C GALL( )VS AVG. Their appears to be another letter between the L and V but I am not sure if it is enough to stretch the name into GALLIENVS. There are also a lot of letters between the IMP and the GA. So I am unsure if it is a Trebonianus Gallus or a Gallienus from his joint reign.

All 16 of these coins comprise a small hoard of antoninianii which have abviously been in a fire at high temperature. I have christened them "Burnt Hoard". The hoard is reportedly from the Viminacium area. Much of the area in and around Viminacium was reportedly burned and ravaged circa 260 AD after the revolt of Ingenuus was supressed. Other sources give 258 or 255/256 for the revolt of Ingenuus. It is unclear if the conflagration which engulfed this hoard was related.
otlichnik
BYZANTINE_MAURICE_TIB_CHERSON_MINT.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - MAURICE TIBERIAS 30 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - MAURICE TIBERIAS (582-602 CE) Bronze Pentanummia (Half-Follis). Cherson mint. Obv.: ΧΕΡCONOC Maurice on left; Empress Constantina on right, both standing facing & nimbate, Emperor holds globus cruciger; Empress holds long cruciform sceptre. Rev.: Large Δ to left, cross above it; to right - Theodosius, son of Maurice, stands facing, nimbate, holding long staff surmounted by XI-RHO symbol. Reference: Sear #610.

*NOTE: There is a controversy in the attribution: Anokhin (and other Russian experts) assign the varieties with XEPCWNOC to Justin II, instead of the older attribution to Maurice used by Sear. Anokhin assigns only those with DNMAVRIC PP AVG to Maurice. Grierson does not outright deny it, but has his doubts. Very similar coins were issued in the name of Maurice, so older attributions of the "XEPCONOC" types were also to Maurice, but now some scholars have argued that they were originally issued by Justin II. Under the old attribution the obverse figures are Maurice and his wife and the reverse figure is his son Theodosius. Grierson (p. 73) says, "If the coins all belong together it would seem reasonable to regard them as an insurrectionary coinage struck at Cherson in 602, the intention of the rebels having been initially to depose Maurice in favor of his son Theodosius and not the upstart adventurer Phocas." According to this theory, the revolt prompted a new coin with a neutral legend, which was replaced by the emperor's name when the outcome favored Maurice. This attribution is accepted by Sear.

Anokhin (1980) and Hahn (1978) concur in attributing them to Justin II (and the following period). Anokhin argues the two-figure type resembles the regular type introduced by Justin II and Sophia. However, a type can resemble one of Justin II and be issued a few years later. Anokhin says (p. 92) "if the striking commenced from the moment Theodosius was named Augustus, i.e. in 590, all three series with differing types would have had to be issued within limits between 590-602, which is unlikely." Hahn also argues that there are several minor varieties which would probably take a number of years to mint. However, the varieties are clearly very similar and not numerous. I think there is no need to postulate more than ten years to mint three very similar types, all of which are scarce.

Anokhin (p. 92) argues "if we assign the coins described to Maurice we expose their failure to correspond with empire-wide coins, which have on the obverse a portrait of Maurice alone." But that argument is feeble -- we know Maurice minted such coins that fail to correspond with empire-wide coins -- some of the coins we are attributing have his name on them!

Anokhin (p. 93) thinks the reverse figure, if a real person, could "be Tiberius, the future emperor, who was proclaimed Caesar in December 574 and who reigned as co-regent jointly with Sophia during the last four years of the life of Justin II who was mentally ill." However, he does not accept that it is a real person and says "it most likely represents some symbolic figure or a saint."

Hahn notes that the reverse figure seems to be a Caesar (because the pendillia are lacking) and says in the later 6th century the only appropriate Caesar is Tiberius II under Justin II. However, the older attribution already had an acceptable Caesar, just in the early 7th instead of the late 6th century. Hahn notes the first issue, with the "M" and "K" has a capital omega in "XERCWNOC", rather than the later "O", as do some of the "H" and delta pieces. Clearly, the "M" and "K" are the first of the series. However, that does not make them issued by Justin II.

Hahn admits, as noted by Grierson, that the two-figure type is very similar to some coins of Focas, showing a continuum of types could equally well be at either end of the potential attribution period. Hahn gives the attribution to Justin II and calls it "secure." It may well be that the "M" and "K" types began under Justin II, but the Hahn paper presents no convincing evidence.

If we postulate this type began under Justin II, it is hard to explain why it pops up again under Maurice with a 12-year gap from the end of Justin II (578) until Maurice (582-602) promotes Theodosius to Caesar (May 26, 590). Unless, of course, it was minted throughout the period as a type immobilise. (Thanks for ancients.info for the argument text). My own research of my Russian resources vs. Sear and others confirm all of the above!
dpaul7
Mauricius Tiberius.jpg
BYZANTINE, Mauricius Tiberius55 viewsMauricius Tiberius, 582 - 602 AD
Solidus, Constantinopel, 4,29g, VF

obv: O.N.MAVRC.TIb.PP.AVG (Dr. and cuir. bust facing, wearing plumed helmet and holding gl. cr.)
rev: VICTORIA AVGGI (officinae I), (angel stg. facing, holding staff surmounted by P and gl.cr.; in ex., CONOB)

"Maurice Tiberius
August 13, 582 through November 22, 602.
Maurice Tiberius was an excellant military officer and was responsible for the curbing the Persians during the end of Justin II's reign. And during his reign he used diplomatic means to bring peace with the Persians. The western part of the empire saw a reuniting of control over much of Italy, Sicily and North Africa, but the Balkans proved to be his downfall. Due to losses of territory and prestige in the Balkan peninsula, a military revolt occurred with Phocas taking over as emperor. Maurice Tiberius and his two sons fled Constantinople, only to be slain a month or so later"
Nico
Caesar_Lf.jpg
Caesar: Grandfather of Mark Antony 130 viewsCAESAR
Head of young Mars left wearing a crested helmet

Rev.
L IVLI L F
Venus Genetrix in Biga left drawn by two cupids, before them a lyre

Rome 103 BC

Sear 198

ex-Harlan J. Berk

Lucius Julius Caesar was Mark Antony's grandfather and Gaius Julius Caesar's cousin. He was moneyer in 103 BC and tried in vain to obtain the quaestorship. However he was praetor in 94 and then became the proconsul of Macedonia. Finally he gained the Consulship in 90 BC the same year his younger brother Gaius was aedile.

In 90 BC Lucius Julius Caesar as consul defeated the Samnites and proposed the Lex Julia which offered citizenship to all communities in Italy that were not in revolt. In the following year 89, the Lex Plautia Papiria extended citizenship to those who gave up the fight by a certain date. Lucius Julius Caesar was now made censor along with Publius Licinius Crassus (father of the triumvir). But it was a time of unrest.

In 87 Marius returned to Rome with Cinna and captured the city. Lucius and Gaius were killed during the fighting and according to Livy their heads were exposed on the speakers platform.
1 commentsTitus Pullo
Caligula_and_Agripin.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Fourre Denarius Fourree3 viewsC CAESAR AVG PON M TR POT III COS III - Laureate head right
AGRIPPINA MAT C CAES AVG GERM - Draped bust of Agrippina right
Mint: Rome (40AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.85g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I 22 (official)
Lyon 179 (official)
RSC 6 (official)
Acquisition/Sale: numismaticaprados Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The reverse legend translates: 'Agrippina mother of Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus'

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The accession of Gaius (Caligula) to the imperial throne on the death of his great-uncle Tiberius signalled a kind of "golden age" in that for the first time, not only did a direct biological descendant of Augustus become emperor, but one who could also claim a direct link with several important Republican figures. Through his mother, Agrippina Sr., Gaius was descended from Augustus, and also Agrippa, the victor of Actium. Gaius' father Germanaicus was the son of Nero Claudius Drusus and nephew of Tiberius, sons of Augustus' widow, Livia. Through his mother Antonia, Germanicus was the grandson of Mark Antony and Octavia, the sister of Augustus. Accordingly, many of his coins recall his dynastic connections to both the Julians and the Claudians as well as his own family, and included in their designs his mother and his three sisters.

“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

THE ASSASSINATION OF CALIGULA
THE emperor Caligula came to his death in the following manner:

Of course his wanton and remorseless tyranny often awakened very deep feelings of resentment, and very earnest desires for revenge in the hearts of those who suffered by it; but yet so absolute and terrible was his power, that none dared to murmur or complain. The resentment, however, which the cruelty of the emperor awakened, burned the more fiercely for being thus restrained and suppressed, and many covert threats were made, and many secret plots were formed, from time to time, against the tyrant's life.

Among others who cherished such designs, there was a man named Cassius Chærea, an officer of the army, who, though not of high rank, was nevertheless a man of considerable distinction. He was a captain, or, as it was styled in those days, a centurion. His command, therefore, was small, but it was in the prætorian cohort, as it was called, a sort of body-guard of the commander-in-chief, and consequently a very honorable corps. Chærea was thus a man of considerable distinction on account of the post which he occupied, and his duties, as captain in the life guards, brought him very frequently into communication with the emperor. He was a man of great personal bravery, too, and was on this account held in high consideration by the army. He had performed an exploit at one time, some years before, in Germany, which, had gained him great fame. It was at the time of the death of Augustus, the first emperor. Some of the German legions, and among them one in which Chærea was serving, had seized upon the occasion to revolt. They alledged many and grievous acts of oppression as the grounds of their revolt, and demanded redress for what they had suffered, and security for the future. One of the first measures which they resorted to in the frenzy of the first outbreak of the rebellion, was to seize all the centurions in the camp, and to beat them almost to death. They gave them sixty blows each, one for each of their number, and then turned them, bruised, wounded, and dying, out of the camp. Some they threw into the Rhine. They revenged themselves thus on all the centurions but one. That one was Chærea. Chærea would not suffer himself to be taken by them, but seizing his sword he fought his way through the midst of them, slaying some and driving others before him, and thus made his escape from the camp. This feat gained him great renown.

One might imagine from this account that Chærea was a man of great personal superiority in respect to size and strength, inasmuch as extraordinary muscular power, as well as undaunted courage, would seem to be required to enable a man to make his way against so many enemies. But this was not the fact. Chærea was of small stature and of a slender and delicate form. He was modest and unassuming in his manners, too, and of a very kind and gentle spirit. He was thus not only honored and admired for his courage, but he was generally beloved for the amiable and excellent qualities of his heart.

The possession of such qualities, however, could not be expected to recommend him particularly to the favor of the emperor. In fact, in one instance it had the contrary effect. Caligula assigned to the centurions of his guard, at one period, some duties connected with the collection of taxes. Chærea, instead of practicing the extortion and cruelty common on such occasions, was merciful and considerate, and governed himself strictly by the rules of law and of justice in his collections. The consequence necessarily was that the amount of money received was somewhat diminished, and the emperor was displeased. The occasion was, however, not one of sufficient importance to awaken in the monarch's mind any very serious anger, and so, instead of inflicting any heavy punishment upon the offender, he contented himself with attempting to tease and torment him with sundry vexatious indignities and annoyances.

It is the custom sometimes, in camps, and at other military stations, for the commander to give every evening, what is called the parole or password, which consists usually of some word or phrase that is to be communicated to all the officers, and as occasion may require to all the soldiers, whom for any reason it may be necessary to send to and fro [38] about the precincts of the camp during the night. The sentinels, also, all have the password, and accordingly, whenever any man approaches the post of a sentinel, he is stopped and the parole is demanded. If the stranger gives it correctly, it is presumed that all is right, and he is allowed to pass on,—since an enemy or a spy would have no means of knowing it.

Now, whenever it came to Chærea's turn to communicate the parole, the emperor was accustomed to give him some ridiculous or indecent phrase, intended not only to be offensive to the purity of Chærea's mind, but designed, also, to exhibit him in a ridiculous light to the subordinate officers and soldiers to whom he would have to communicate it. Sometimes the password thus given was some word or phrase wholly unfit to be spoken, and sometimes it was the name of some notorious and infamous woman; but whatever it was, Chærea was compelled by his duty as a soldier to deliver it to all the corps, and patiently to submit to the laughter and derision which his communication awakened among the vile and wicked soldiery.

If there was any dreadful punishment to be inflicted, or cruel deed of any kind to be performed, Caligula took great pleasure in assigning the duty to Chærea, knowing how abhorrent to his nature it must be. At one time a senator of great distinction named Propedius, was accused of treason by one of his enemies. His treason consisted, as the accuser alledged, of having spoken injurious words against the emperor. Propedius denied that he had ever spoken such words. The accuser, whose name was Timidius, cited a certain Quintilia, an actress, as his witness. Propedius was accordingly brought to trial, and Quintilia was called upon before the judges to give her testimony. She denied that she had ever heard Propedius utter any such sentiment as Timidius attributed to him. Timidius then said that Quintilia was testifying falsely: he declared that she had heard Propedius utter such words, and demanded that she should be put to the torture to compel her to acknowledge it. The emperor acceded to this demand, and commanded Chærea to put the actress to the torture.

It is, of course, always difficult to ascertain the precise truth in respect to such transactions as those that are connected with plots and conspiracies against tyrants, since every possible precaution is, of course, taken by all concerned to conceal what is done. It is probable, however, in this case, that Propedius had cherished some hostile designs against Caligula, if he had not uttered injurious words, and that Quintilia was in some measure in his confidence. It is even possible that Chærea may have been connected with them in some secret design, for it is said that when he received the orders of Caligula to put Quintilia to the torture he was greatly agitated and alarmed. If he should apply the torture severely, he feared that the unhappy sufferer might be induced to make confessions or statements at least, which would bring destruction on the men whom he most relied upon for the overthrow of Caligula. On the other hand, if he should attempt to spare her, the effect would be only to provoke the anger of Caligula against himself, without at all shielding or saving her. As, however, he was proceeding to the place of torture, in charge of his victim, with his mind in this state of anxiety and indecision, his fears were somewhat relieved by a private signal given to him by Quintilia, by which she intimated to him that he need feel no concern,—that she would be faithful and true, and would reveal nothing, whatever might be done to her.

This assurance, while it allayed in some degree Chærea's anxieties and fears, must have greatly increased the mental distress which he endured at the idea of leading such a woman to the awful suffering which awaited her. He could not, however, do otherwise than to proceed. Having arrived at the place of execution, the wretched Quintilia was put to the rack. She bore the agony which she endured while her limbs were stretched on the torturing engine, and her bones broken, with patient submission, to the end. She was then carried, fainting, helpless, and almost dead, to Caligula, who seemed now satisfied. He ordered the unhappy victim of the torture to be taken away, and directed that Propedius should be acquitted and discharged.

Of course while passing through this scene the mind of Chærea was in a tumult of agitation and excitement,—the anguish of mind which he must have felt in his compassion for the sufferer, mingling and contending with the desperate indignation which burned in his bosom against the author of all these miseries. He was wrought up, in fact, to such a state of frenzy by this transaction, that as soon as it was over he determined immediately to take measures to put Caligula to death. This was a very bold and desperate resolution. Caligula was the greatest and most powerful potentate on earth. Chærea was only a captain of his guard, without any political influence or power, and with no means whatever of screening himself from the terrible consequences which might be expected to follow from his attempt, whether it should succeed or fail.

So thoroughly, however, was he now aroused, that he determined to brave every danger in the attainment of his end. He immediately began to seek out among the officers of the army such men as he supposed would be most likely to join him,—men of courage, resolution, and faithfulness, and those who, from their general character or from the wrongs which they had individually endured from the government, were to be supposed specially hostile to Caligula's dominion. From among these men he selected a few, and to them he cautiously unfolded his designs. All approved of them. Some, it is true, declined taking any active part in the conspiracy, but they assured Chærea of their good wishes, and promised solemnly not to betray him.

The number of the conspirators daily increased. There was, however, at their meetings for consultation, some difference of opinion in respect to the course to be pursued. Some were in favor of acting promptly and at once. The greatest danger which was to be apprehended, they thought, was in delay. As the conspiracy became extended, some one would at length come to the knowledge of it, they said, who would betray them. Others, on the other hand, were for proceeding cautiously and slowly. What they most feared was rash and inconsiderate action. It would be ruinous to the enterprise, as they maintained, for them to attempt to act before their plans were fully matured.

Chærea was of the former opinion. He was very impatient to have the deed performed. He was ready himself, he said, to perform it, at any time; his personal duties as an officer of the guard, gave him frequent occasions of access to the emperor, and he was ready to avail himself of any of them to kill the monster. The emperor went often, he said, to the capitol, to offer sacrifices, and he could easily kill him there. Or, if they thought that that was too public an occasion, he could have an opportunity in the palace, at certain religious ceremonies which the emperor was accustomed to perform there, and at which Chærea himself was usually present. Or, he was ready to throw him down from a tower where he was accustomed to go sometimes for the purpose of scattering money among the populace below. Chærea said that he could easily come up behind him on such an occasion, and hurl him suddenly over the parapet down to the pavement below. All these plans, however, seemed to the conspirators too uncertain and dangerous, and Chærea's proposals were accordingly not agreed to.

At length, the time drew near when Caligula was to leave Rome to proceed to Alexandria in Egypt, and the conspirators perceived that they must prepare to act, or else abandon their design altogether. It had been arranged that there was to he a grand celebration at Rome previous to the emperor's departure. This celebration, which was to consist of games, and sports, and dramatic performances of various kinds, was to continue for three days, and the conspirators determined, after much consultation and debate, that Caligula should be assassinated on one of those days.

After coming to this conclusion, however, in general, their hearts seemed to fail them in fixing the precise time for the perpetration of the deed, and two of the three days passed away accordingly without any attempt being made. At length, on the morning of the third day, Chærea called the chief conspirators together, and urged them very earnestly not to let the present opportunity pass away. He represented to them how greatly they increased the danger of their attempts by such delays, and he seemed himself so full of determination and courage, and addressed them with so much eloquence and power, that he inspired them with his own resolution, and they decided unanimously to proceed.

The emperor came to the theater that day at an unusually early hour, and seemed to be in excellent spirits and in an excellent humor. He was very complaisant to all around him, and very lively, affable, and gay. After performing certain ceremonies, by which it devolved upon him to open the festivities of the day, he proceeded to his place, with his friends and favorites about him, and Chærea, with the other officers that day on guard, at a little distance behind him.

The performances were commenced, and every thing went on as usual until toward noon. The conspirators kept their plans profoundly secret, except that one of them, when he had taken his seat by the side of a distinguished senator, asked him whether he had heard any thing new. The senator replied that he had not. "I can then tell you something," said he, "which perhaps you have not heard, and that is, that in the piece which is to be acted to-day, there is to be represented the death of a tyrant." "Hush!" said the senator, and he quoted a verse from Homer, which meant, "Be silent, lest some Greek should overhear."

It had been the usual custom of the emperor, at such entertainments, to take a little recess about noon, for rest and refreshments. It devolved upon Chærea to wait upon him at this time, and to conduct him from his place in the theater to an adjoining apartment in his palace which was connected with the theater, where there was provided a bath and various refreshments. When the time arrived, and Chærea perceived, as he thought, that the emperor was about to go, he himself went out, and stationed himself in a passage-way leading to the bath, intending to intercept and assassinate the emperor when he should come along. The emperor, however, delayed his departure, having fallen into conversation with his courtiers and friends, and finally he said that, on the whole, as it was the last day of the festival, he would not go out to the bath, but would remain in the theater; and then ordering refreshments to be brought to him there, he proceeded to distribute them with great urbanity to the officers around him.

In the mean time, Chærea was patiently waiting in the passage-way, with his sword by his side, all ready for striking the blow the moment that his victim should appear. Of course the conspirators who remained behind were in a state of great suspense and anxiety, and one of them, named Minucianus, determined to go out and inform Chærea of the change in Caligula's plans. He accordingly attempted to rise, but Caligula put his hand upon his robe, saying, "Sit still, my friend. You shall go with me presently." Minucianus accordingly dissembled his anxiety and agitation of mind still a little longer, but presently, watching an opportunity when the emperor's attention was otherwise engaged, he rose, and, assuming an unconcerned and careless air, he walked out of the theater.

He found Chærea in his ambuscade in the passage-way, and he immediately informed him that the emperor had concluded not to come out. Chærea and Minucianus were then greatly at a loss what to do. Some of the other conspirators, who had followed Minucianus out, now joined them, and a brief but very earnest and solemn consultation ensued. After a moment's hesitation, Chærea declared that they must now go through with their work at all hazards, and he professed himself ready, if his comrades would sustain him in it, to go back to the theater, and stab the tyrant there in his seat, in the midst of his friends. Minucianus and the others concurred in this design, and it was resolved immediately to execute it.

The execution of the plan, however, in the precise form in which it had been resolved upon was prevented by a new turn which affairs had taken in the theater. For while Minucianus and the two or three conspirators who had accompanied him were debating in the passage-way, the others who remained, knowing that Chærea was expecting Caligula to go out, conceived the idea of attempting to persuade him to go, and thus to lead him into the snare which had been set for him. They accordingly gathered around, and without any appearance of concert or of eagerness, began to recommend him to go and take his bath as usual. He seemed at length disposed to yield to these persuasions, and rose from his seat; and then, the whole company attending and following him, he proceeded toward the doors which conducted to the palace. The conspirators went before him, and under pretense of clearing the way for him they contrived to remove to a little distance all whom they thought would be most disposed to render him any assistance. The consultations of Chærea and those who were with him in the inner passage-way were interrupted by the coming of this company.

Among those who walked with the emperor at this time were his uncle Claudius and other distinguished relatives. Caligula advanced along the passage, walking in company with these friends, and wholly unconscious of the fate that awaited him, but instead of going immediately toward the bath he turned aside first into a gallery or corridor which led into another apartment, where there were assembled a company of boys and girls, that had been sent to him from Asia to act and dance upon the stage, and who had just arrived. The emperor took great interest in looking at these performers, and seemed desirous of having them go immediately into the theater and let him see them perform. While talking on this subject Chærea and the other conspirators came into the apartment, determined now to strike the blow.

Chærea advanced to the emperor, and asked him in the usual manner what should be the parole for that night. The emperor gave him in reply such an one as he had often chosen before, to insult and degrade him. Chærea instead of receiving the insult meekly and patiently in his usual manner, uttered words of anger and defiance in reply; and drawing his sword at the same instant he struck the emperor across the neck and felled him to the floor. Caligula filled the apartment with his cries of pain and terror; the other conspirators rushed in and attacked him on all sides; his friends,—so far as the adherents of such a man can be called friends,—fled in dismay. As for Caligula's uncle Claudius, it was not to have been expected that he would have rendered his nephew any aid, for he was a man of such extraordinary mental imbecility that he was usually considered as not possessed even of common sense; and all the others who might have been expected to defend him, either fled from the scene, or stood by in consternation and amazement, leaving the conspirators to wreak their vengeance on their wretched victim, to the full.

In fact though while a despot lives and retains his power, thousands are ready to defend him and to execute his will, however much in heart they may hate and detest him, yet when he is dead, or when it is once certain that he is about to die, an instantaneous change takes place and every one turns against him. The multitudes in and around the theater and the palace who had an hour before trembled before this mighty potentate, and seemed to live only to do his bidding, were filled with joy to see him brought to the dust. The conspirators, when the success of their plans and the death of their oppressor was once certain, abandoned themselves to the most extravagant joy. They cut and stabbed the fallen body again and again, as if they could never enough wreak their vengeance upon it. They cut off pieces of the body and bit them with their teeth in their savage exultation and triumph. At length they left the body where it lay, and went forth into the city where all was now of course tumult and confusion.

The body remained where it had fallen until late at night. Then some attendants of the palace came and conveyed it away. They were sent, it was said, by Cæsonia, the wife of the murdered man. Cæsonia had an infant daughter at this time, and she remained herself with the child, in a retired apartment of the palace while these things were transpiring. Distracted with grief and terror at the tidings that she heard, she clung to her babe, and made the arrangements for the interment of the body of her husband without leaving its cradle. She imagined perhaps that there was no reason for supposing that she or the child were in any immediate danger, and accordingly she took no measures toward effecting an escape. If so, she did not understand the terrible frenzy to which the conspirators had been aroused, and for which the long series of cruelties and indignities which they had endured from her husband had prepared them. For at midnight one of them broke into her apartment, stabbed the mother in her chair, and taking the innocent infant from its cradle, killed it by beating its head against the wall.
Atrocious as this deed may seem, it was not altogether wanton and malignant cruelty which prompted it. The conspirators intended by the assassination of Caligula not merely to wreak their vengeance on a single man, but to bring to an end a hated race of tyrants; and they justified the murder of the wife and child by the plea that stern political necessity required them to exterminate the line, in order that no successor might subsequently arise to re-establish the power and renew the tyranny which they had brought to an end. The history of monarchies is continually presenting us with instances of innocent and helpless children sacrificed to such a supposed necessity as this.
Gary W2
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Carthage, Punic Spain, SNG BM Spain 6737 viewsMobile military mint, Punic Spain, C. 237-209 B.C. AE, 13mm 1.46g, MHC 114; CNH 42; SNG BM Spain 67
O: Wreathed head of Tanit l.
R: Helmet l.


After putting down the mercenary revolt, Hamilcar Barca and other Carthaginians went to Spain to “start over” in the only remaining significant Carthaginian possession outside of North Africa. They extended Carthaginian influence beyond the Punic cities of southeastern Spain and utilized the local mineral resources to help re-establish the Carthaginian empire. Hamilcar drowned in 231 BC and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, who founded Carthago Nova in 229 BC. Hasbrudal was assassinated in 221 BC. Hannibal Barca succeeded his brother-in-law. In 219 BC, Hannibal took Saguntum. Rome responded by declaring war and Hannibal made preparations to invade Italy. After Hannibal was in southern Italy during the Second Punic War, Spain continued to support his efforts until P. Cornelius Scipio (later Africanus) captured Carthago Nova in 209 BC. Carthaginian forces were driven out of Spain by 206 BC and Rome maintained control after the Second Punic War.
casata137ec
Wu_Sangui.jpg
China - Wu Sangui, 1674-1678 AD34 viewsCHINA, The Revolt of the Three Feudatories - Sān Fān Rebellion. Wú Sānguì. AD 1644-1678.
Æ Wen. (25mm; 3.98g). Uncertain mint in Yunnan.
Li Yong Tong Bao in Hánzi.
Blank.
Hartill 21.85; Hartill Qing 3.01
Ardatirion
Cilicia,_Tarsos,_Syennesis_III_AR_stater.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos, Syennesis III, ca. 425-400 BC, AR Stater 17 viewsSyennesis on horseback right, wearing Persian headdress and cloak.
Nude hoplite kneeling left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, holding spear and shield.

SNG Paris-226, SNG Levante-61.

(20 mm, 8.3 g, 1h).
Harlan J. Berk 181, November 2012, 393.

The depiction of the hoplite in a defensive posture on the reverse of this coin is most evocative of its time, notwithstanding the miserable corroded state of the coin itself, which is a type of some rarity. The initial reaction to the typology of this coin might be one of surprise at the apparently incongruous pairing of the image of a Persian dynast on horseback on the obverse with that of a Greek hoplite on the reverse. The explanation is to be found in the written historical record. The coin dates to the period of Xenophon's anabasis. Xenophon refers to the role of Syennesis (III) and his wife Epyaxa in the revolt of Cyrus the Younger, in whose employ as a mercenary Xenophon found himself. In view of the historical record left by Xenophon, the pairing of the motifs of a Persian dynast, or tributary king, on one side of this coin with a Greek hoplite on the other now seems particularly poignant, rather than incongruous. During the fifth and fourth centuries BC, the Persian dynasts routinely employed Greek hoplite mercenaries in their armies, so that the reverse typology may simply be a reflection of this reality on coinage destined perhaps for mercenary pay.

All the hereditary kings of Cilicia were termed Syennesis, a royal title more than an actual name. As described in Xenophon’s Anabasis, Syennesis (III) under the influence of his wife and queen, Epyaxa, supported the unsuccessful revolt of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes II in 401 BC. As much as anything this action appears to have been motivated by the desire to prevent Cryrus’ army pillaging and looting during its passage through Cilicia. Syennesis’ support included a body of troops commanded by one of his sons. However, he sent another son, accompanied by a report on Cyrus plans and army to Artaxerxes, so that whatever the outcome he might be aligned with the winning side. Syennesis' actions, however, did little to save Cilicia's autonomy. After 400 BC it became an ordinary satrapy of the Persian Empire, rather than an independent tributary or vassal state, and the role of the hereditary king of Cilicia ceased, replaced by a satrap who was appointed by the Persian king, most frequently a relative of the latter.
n.igma
Tarsos.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos. Tarkumuwa (Datames), Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. (Circa 378-372 BC)55 viewsAR Stater

23 mm, 10.28 g

Obverse: Diademed female head facing slightly to left, wearing pendant earrings and necklace.

Reverse: 𐡕𐡓𐡃𐡌𐡅 ('trkmw' in Aramaic) Bearded head of Ares (?) to left, wearing crested Attic helmet.

Casabonne type 1. SNG Levante 80. SNG Paris 276-277.

Datames (407-362 BC) served as a member of the Persian king's (Artaxerxes II - 405-359 BC) bodyguard before he became satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia upon his father's death in battle in 384 BC. After many successes, the Persian king placed him in charge of the second war against Egypt, along with Pharnabazos and Tithraustes, satrap of Caria.

To pay their armies for these expeditions, both satraps minted near-identical coins, distinguished only by their inscriptions. The reverse of these coins may show a representation of Ares, the Greek god of war. The facing head of an unidentifiable female deity (Aphrodite, the wife of Ares?) on the obverse is clearly influenced by the famous representations of the nymph Arethusa created by the artist Kimon for the coins of Syracuse. Both designs were probably meant to appeal to the thousands of Greek mercenaries that each Persian satrap hired for their Egyptian campaigns.

Datames was first, however, detained by a local revolt in Kataonia, a territory within his satrapy. This time, his success incurred the king's jealousy, and he was removed both from his command of the Egyptian expedition as well as the rule of his satrapy. Refusing to relinquish his authority, Datames himself revolted and became a virtually independent ruler. His initial success in this endeavor prompted the revolt of other satraps across the empire. Datames' success, however, was short-lived. Distrust among the satraps rendered them unable to cooperate, their rebellion disintegrated, and Datames himself was assassinated in 362 BC.
2 commentsNathan P
Cilicia_Satraps_Datames_SNGvAulock5948.jpg
Cilician Satraps, Datames4 viewsDatames. 379-374 BC. AR Stater (10.64 gm) of Tarsos. Struck during the Satraps' Revolt, c. 369/8-361/0 BC..  Baaltars seated r., torso facing; holding grapes, grain ear in r. hand, eagle-tipped scepter in l.; thymiterion r.  BLTRZ in Aramaic l. / Sun god Ana facing and pointing towards Datames l, thymiaterion b/w. Aramiac ANA to l., TRKMW (Tarkumuwa = Datames) in center. VF.  CNG 60 #874. Casabonne Type 3; Moysey issue 5; Pozzi 2852; SNG Levante 83 var. (inscr.); SNG France 2, 298 var. (eagle under throne); SNG von Aulock 5948-9; SNG Cop 301-302. Christian T
CivilWarRIC12.jpg
Civil Wars RIC 12167 viewsCivil Wars 68-69 CE. AR Denarius (17.50 mm, 3.39 g). Spanish mint, April-June 68 CE.
O: BONI EVENTVS, Female bust right, wearing fillet; hair rolled and looped above neck
R: VICTORIA P R, Victory standing left on globe, holding wreath in right hand and palm in left
- BMCRE I 292 Note + Taf 50.2; P.-H. Martin, the anonymous coins of the year 68 AD (1974) 82 # 99 PL 9; E. P. Nicolas, De Néron à Vespasien (1979) 1308 No. 31; 1435 f 1456 # 107 Taf 14.107 B; RIC I² Nr. 12 (Spain, 68 n. Chr.) R5 (Group I). Evidently the second known. The above references are all to one example found in Münzkabinett Berlin.

Likely struck by Galba in Spain between April 6 and early June, 68 AD, that is, between the dates of his acceptance of the offer from Vindex and of his receiving news of his recognition by the Senate.

The civil wars at the end of Nero’s reign began with the revolt of the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, Gaius Julius Vindex, probably around the beginning of March of AD 68. Vindex had claimed that he had a force of 100,000 men, and a substantial coinage was certainly needed to pay them.

Vindex offered the leadership of the revolt to Servius Sulpicius Galba, then governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, who was hailed imperator by the Spanish legions at Carthago Nova in April of the same year. The title was cautiously refused, but Galba did declare himself the legatus of the senate and people of Rome. Just a month later, Galba’s confidence would be shaken by the crushing defeat of Vindex near Besançon by the general Lucius Verginius Rufus, governor of Germania Superior. By 9 June Nero was dead, having taken his own life. Galba began his march to Rome, and his brief reign was underway.

Without an emperor to strike in the name of (save for that in honor of the “model emperor” of Roman history, Augustus) the coinage was struck with messages suiting the political climate. The coinage under Vindex possesses a more aggressive air that underscores the militant nature of his revolt, while Galba’s tends to be more constitutional and optimistic in tone. Originally struck in large numbers, as indicated by the number of types employed, the coins of the civil wars are all rare today, having been recalled after the final victory of Vespasian in 69 AD.
5 commentsNemonater
Nero_Claudius_Drusus_AE_sestertius_-_37mm_188.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius (for Nero Claudius Drusus)3 viewsNERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP - Bare head of Nero Claudius Drusus left
TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Claudius seated left on curule chair, holding branch, arms around.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (41-43 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.90g / 37mm / 6h
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 109 (Claudius)
BMCRE 208 (Claudius)
CBN 198
Cohen 8
von Kaenel Type 72
Provenances:
Marti Classical Numismatics
Acquisition/Sale: Marti Classical Numismatics VCoins $0.00 01/19
The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Nero Claudius Drusus, commonly called Drusus senior, brother of Tiberius, second son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and of Livia, was born in the year of Rome 716, three months after his father had yielded up Livia to Augustus.
Realizing the anticipations of that Emperor, he became the most accomplished hero of his time. Sent at the age of twenty-three into Rhaetia (the Tyrol) to quell a revolt, he conquered the insurgents at Trent in a pitched battle. Afterwards named General of the armies in Germany, his successes were so great that he extended the dominion of the Romans to the banks of the Elbe. This fine character conceived the design of re-establishing the Republic, and entrusted his secret to his brother Tiberius, who it is said betrayed him to Augustus. -- He died in the year 745 (A.D. 9), before he had repassed the Rhine, in the 30th year of his age, deeply regretted by the whole empire for the great and virtuous qualities with which his name was so gloriously associated. After his death the Senate surnamed him GERMANICVS, which was transmitted to his children. Statues and triumphal arches were also erected to his honour and figured on his medals. This Prince had married Antonia, by whom he had Germanicus and Livilla. On his coins which, in each metal, are all more or less rare, he is styled DRVSVS - NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANicus IMP.

Obverse translation:
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMPerator=commander

Reverse translation:
TIberius CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGvstvs Pontifex Maximvs TRibvnitiae Potestatis IMPerator=Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus, Sovereign Pontiff, invested with the tribunitian power.
Gary W2
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CONSTANS PF AVG / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE4 follis (337-350 A.D.)28 viewsCONSTANS - PF AVG, (laurel and?) rosette-diademed, draped (and cuirassed?) bust right / GLORI - A EXER - CITVS, two soldiers facing each other, holding spears and shields, with one standard between them, the device on banner difficult to discern, maybe a little dot or O. Mintmark: SMTSA or SMTSΔ in exergue.

AE4, 16mm, 1.37g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor. Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", SMTSA/Δ= Sacra Moneta Thessalonica, officina A or Δ (i. e. workshop #1 or #4).

CONSTANS - PF AVG legend and Thessalonica mint for a one standard design point at just a single type: RIC VIII Thessalonica 57, with both SMTSA and SMTSΔ mintmarks possible. Minting date listed for this type is late, 346-348 A.D.

Flavius Julius Constans Augustus. Born c. 323. The third and youngest son of Constantine the Great and his second wife Fausta. Caesar since Dec 333 (to his father, who was the only Augustus before his death in 337 -- and together with his brothers Costantine II (eldest) and Constantius II (middle), who were elevated to caesars earlier).

Augustus since Sept 337, also joint with his brothers (Constantius got the East while the other brothers shared the West). At first he was under guardianship of Constantine II, but that relationship was very quarrelsome. In 340 Constantine II was killed in an ambush during military operations against Constans' troops in Italy, and Constans inherited his portion (i.e. the whole West) of the Empire.

As an emperor Constans led a few successful military campaigns and was also known for his activity regarding religions: was tolerant to Judaism, promulgated an edict banning pagan sacrifices, suppressed Donatism in Africa and championed Nicene Orthodoxy against Arianism (which was supported by Constantius, this led to open warfare between the brothers). He was openly homosexual, which ultimately led to his downfall: the army was tired of the rule of Constans' favorites and barbarian bodyguards, of whom he was very fond of. Assassinated by usurper Magnentius, who led the army revolt, in Feb 350. His only remaining brother, Constantius later defeated Magnentius and consolidated the whole empire under himself.
Yurii P
003~1.JPG
Constantius II69 viewsBGN353 - Constantius II (A.D. 337-361), Pre-Magnentian Revolt, AE Centenionalis, 21mm, 5.14g., Arles mint, first officina, A.D. 348-350, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of the Emperor right, A behind head, rev., FEL TEMP REPARATIO, PARL in exergue, helmeted soldier spearing fallen horseman, A in field, (RIC 119/121-22; Bridgnorth Report #79), very fine. RIC Arles 118

Ex Bridgnorth Hoard, Shropshire, England, buried circa A.D. 355, discovered 2007.

"On October 10th, 2007 a metal detectorist discovered a large scattered hoard of late Roman coins that had been disturbed by deep plowing in a potato field near Bridgnorth, Shropshire. His subsequent actions are praised in the UK government 2007 Portable Antiquities and Treasure Annual Report, where local finds officer Peter Reavill states: “The finder is to be congratulated on the careful plotting and speedy reporting of this hoard as it enabled the excavation to take place and vital depositional information recorded. In turn, this minimised the impact to the landowner and his farming activity.” The majority of hoards that come to light are found outside of planned archaeological excavations, the original owner having selected a secluded spot to conceal his or her wealth away from human habitation, leading to loss of information on the archaeological context of the hoard. In this instance, swift action and close cooperation by the finder and the local Finds Liaison Officer led to an excavation of the findspot. The results of which showed that the hoard had been contained in a large pottery vessel (broken by the plow), most probably previously used as a cooking pot as evidenced by burns marks on the outer edges. The pot had been buried in a U-shaped gulley or ditch that formed part of an otherwise unknown late Roman site.

The hoard consisted of 2892 coins, ranging in date from a Reform Antoninianus of Probus to post Magnentian issues of Constantius II up to A.D. 355. The majority of the hoard was issues of Magnentius and Decentius (75%), followed by pre-Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Constans (18%) and closing with post Magnentian issues of Constantius II and Gallus (7%)."
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
constantiusII_trier_332_1.jpg
Constantius II, RIC VIII, Trier 33215 viewsConstantius II, AD 337-361
AE - double centenionalis, 4.73g, 22.71mm
Trier, 1. officina (time of the revolt of Poemenius)
obv. DN CONSTAN - TI[VS PF AVG]
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
rev. SALVS A[VG NOSTRI]
Big Chi-Rho, flanked by Alpha and Omega
in ex. TRP star
ref. RIC VIII, Trier 332; LRBC 67
Scarce, about VF, flan break at 2 o'clock

Because this type joins the portrait of Constantius with a rev. of Magnentius it's usually put to the revolt of Poemenius in Trier AD 353. But this is still disputed. Please take a look at the article at the board 'History and Archaeology'.
Jochen
image00066Nomos.jpg
Cr 401/1 AR Denarius Mn. Aquillius Mn.f. Mn.n30 viewso: VIRTVS - III VIR Helmeted and draped bust of Virtus to right, with large head
r: MN F MN N / MN AQVIL / SICIL. Mn. Aquilius (Cos. 101) raising fallen Sicily
65 BCE  Denarius Serratus (19 mm, 3.82 g, 6 h), Rome.
Babelon (Aquilia) 2. Crawford 401/1. Sydenham 798. Toned and struck on a broad flan.
This coin is somewhat unintentionally ironic. The moneyer's honored grandfather was accused of fleecing the people of Sicily, when he was governor of the province after the slave revolts. He later managed to antagonize Mithridates VI of Pontus, leading to widespread slaughter of Romans in Asia.
As Wikipedia summarizes the aftermath: "Mithridates defeated Aquillius in 88 near Protostachium. Aquillius was attempting to make his way back to Italy and managed to make it to Lesbos, where he was delivered to Mithridates by the inhabitants of Mytilene. After being taken to the mainland, he was then placed on a donkey and paraded back to Pergamon. On the trip, he was forced to confess his supposed crimes against the peoples of Anatolia. Aquillius's father, the elder Manius Aquillius, was a former Roman governor of Pergamon and was hated for the egregious taxes that he imposed. It was generally thought that Manius Aquillius the younger would follow in the footsteps of his father as a tax profiteer and was hated by some of the local peoples."
Grandpa was thereafter killed by Mithridates by having molten gold poured down his throat.
2 commentsPMah
MAntDeL14.jpg
Crawford 544/29, Marc Antony, for Legio XIV, Denarius, 32-31 BC.82 viewsMarc Antony, for Legio XIV (Gemina Martia Victrix), Patras mint (?), 32-31 BC.,
Denarius (16-17 mm / 3,63 g),
Obv.: above: [AN]T AVG , below: [III VI]R R P C , under oar right, filleted scepter or mast with fluttering banners on prow.
Rev.: LEG - XIV , Aquila (legionary eagle) between two military standards.
Crawf. 544/29 ; Bab. (Antonia) 123 ; BMC 208 ; Sear 369 ; Syd. 1234 .

Die Legio XIV wurde 41 v. Chr. von Augustus aufgestellt. Sie war seit 9 n. Chr. in Moguntiacum (Mainz) stationiert und kämpfte später unter Claudius in Britannien, wo sie 60 oder 61 n. Chr. half, Boudicca niederzuwerfen. Später war die Legion u. a. in Vindobona (Wien) und Carnuntum stationiert. Sie war an den Usurpationen des Saturninus und Regalianus beteiligt.

Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire, levied by Octavian after 41 BC. The cognomen Gemina (twin in Latin) suggests that the legion resulted from fusion of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the Fourteenth legion that fought in the Battle of Alesia. Martia Victrix (martial victory) were cognomens added by Nero following the victory over Boudica. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn, as with many of the legions levied by Augustus.
Invasion of Britain
Stationed in Moguntiacum, Germania Superior, since AD 9, XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix was one of four legions used by Aulus Plautius and Claudius in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and took part in the defeat of Boudicca in 60 or 61. In 68 it was stationed in Gallia Narbonensis.
Rebellion on the Rhine
In 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, rebelled against Domitian, with the support of the XIVth and of the XXI Rapax, but the revolt was suppressed.
Pannonian defense
When the XXIst legion was lost, in 92, XIIII Gemina was sent in Pannonia to substitute it, camping in Vindobona (Vienna). After a war with the Sarmatians and Trajan's Dacian Wars (101-106), the legion was moved to Carnuntum, where it stayed for three centuries. Some subunits of Fourteenth fought in the wars against the Mauri, under Antoninus Pius, and the legion participated to the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus. During his war against the Marcomanni, Emperor Marcus Aurelius based his headquarters in Carnuntum.
In support of Septimius Severus
In 193, after the death of Pertinax, the commander of the Fourteenth, Septimius Severus, was acclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions, and above all by his own. XIIII Gemina fought for its emperor in his march to Rome to attack usurper Didius Julianus (193), contributed to the defeat of the usurper Pescennius Niger (194), and probably fought in the Parthian campaign that ended with the sack of the capital of the empire, Ctesiphon (198).
In support of imperial candidates
In the turmoil following the defeat of Valerian, tXIIII Gemina supported usurper Regalianus against Emperor Gallienus (260), then Gallienus against Postumus of the Gallic empire (earning the title VI Pia VI Fidelis — "six times faithful, six times loyal"), and, after Gallienus death, Gallic Emperor Victorinus (269-271).
5th century
At the beginning of the 5th century, XIIII Gemina still stayed at Carnuntum. It probably dissolved with the collapse of the Danube frontier in 430s. The Notitia Dignitatum lists a Quartodecimani comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Thracias; it is possible that this unit is XIV Gemina.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
DatamesStater.jpg
Datames, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia, Stater37 viewsCILICIA, Tarsos. Datames, Satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia. 384-362 BC. AR Stater (21.3 x 25.6mm, 9.89 gm). Struck 378-372 BC.
O: Baaltars seated right, torso facing, holding grain ear and grape-bunch in left hand, eagle-tipped sceptre in right arm; 'BLTRZ' in Aramaic to left, thymiaterion to right; all within crenellated wall
R: Ana, nude, and Datames standing facing each other, both have their right arms raised; thymiaterion and 'TRDMW' (Datames) in Aramaic between them; all within square dotted border within linear border.
- SNG Levante 83; SNG France 292; BMC Lycaonia pg. 168, 35; SNG Copenhagen 300; SNG von Aulock 5943.

Datames, the son of Kamisares and a Scythian mother, served as a member of the Persian king's bodyguard before he became satrap of Cilicia and Cappadocia upon his father's death in 384 BC. Throughout his early career, he put down a revolt in Lydia, defeated the rebel governor Thyos in Paphlagonia, and briefly occupied the city of Sinope. Because of these successes, the Persian king placed him in charge of the second war against Egypt, along with Pharnabazos and Tithraustes, satrap of Caria.
When Datames' enemies in Artaxerxes' court accused him, perhaps falsely, of intending to revolt against the Great King, he then became, in fact, the first of the Satraps to revolt. His initial success in this endeavor prompted the revolt of other satraps across the empire. Datames' success, however, was short-lived. Distrust among the satraps disintegrated their rebellion and his own son's desertion to Artaxerxes was the beginning of the end. Datames himself was assassinated by Mithradates, the son of Ariobarzanes, satrap of Phrygia, in 362 BC.
1 commentsNemonater
DiadF.jpg
Diadumenian129 viewsDiadumenian, as Caesar. 218 AD. AR Denarius 3.04 g. 2nd emission, July AD 217-March 218

O: M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAN CAES, bare-headed and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing half-left, head right, holding standard and sceptre; two standards behind.
RIC IV 102 (Macrinus); BMCRE 87 (Macrinus); RSC 3.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus in 217. Diadumenian, in turn, received the titles of Caesar and Prince of the Youth. He was also given the name Antoninus after the assassinated emperor Caracalla.

These titles are seen on this example as ANT and PRINC IVVENTVTIS.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
DiadumenianStandards.jpg
DIADUMENIAN63 viewsDIADUMENIAN (Caesar, 217-218). Denarius. 2.53 g. 20mm, Rome mint.
O: M OPEL DIADVMENIAN CAES, Bareheaded, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing left, holding baton; two signa to right.
-RIC 107.

1st emission of Macrinus, AD 217, only three examples in the Reka Devnia hoard.

Diadumenian's three main types as Caesar exactly correspond to Macrinus' three issues, which for their part can be approximately dated on the basis of the titles they bear and their volumes of issue as revealed by the Reka Devnia hoard. So Diadumenian's dates derive from those estimated for Macrinus.

Marcus Opellius Diadumenianus was born in 208. According to Aelius Lampridius, quoted below, the boy was so named because he was born with a diadem formed by a rolled caul.

“Now let us proceed to the omens predicting his imperial power — which are marvellous enough in the case of others, but in his case beyond the usual wont. 4 On the day of his birth, his father, who then chanced to be steward of the greater treasury, was inspecting the purple robes, and those which he approved as being brighter in hue he ordered to be carried into a certain chamber, in which two hours later Diadumenianus was born. 2 Furthermore, whereas it usually happens that children at birth are provided by nature with a caul, which the midwives seize and sell to credulous lawyers (for it is said that this bring luck to those who plead), 3 this child, instead of a caul, had a narrow band like a diadem, so strong that it could not be broken, for the fibres were entwined in the manner of a bow-string. 4 The child, they say, was accordingly called Diadematus, but when he grew older, he was called Diadumenianus from the name of his mother's father, though the name differed little from his former appellation Diadematus.”

His father Macrinus was hailed as Augustus on April 8, 217. Dio Cassius tells us that Diadumenian was named Caesar and Prince of the Youth by the Senate in May 217 as soon as news of Macrinus' accession reached Rome. A little later, Dio continues, news arrived that Diadumenian had independently been proclaimed Caesar by the soldiers at Zeugma, as he was on his way from Antioch to join Macrinus in Mesopotamia, and that he had also assumed Caracalla's name Antoninus. Hence this first short issue of coins in Rome is with the titles Caesar and Prince of the Youth, but still without Antoninus.

When the armies of Elagabalus revolted at Emesa on May 16, 218, Macrinus traveled to the praetorian fortress at Apamaea to shore up (buy) support and to raise Diadumenian to the rank of Augustus. Still, Macrinus’ armies were defeated outside Antioch in less than a month.

10 year old Diadumenian was captured while fleeing to Zeugma and executed shortly thereafter. He reigned as Caesar for 13 months and as Augustus for less than one.

Although the Senate never confirmed Diadumenian’s title as Augustus, there is extremely rare silver (one or two pieces?) with Diadumenian as emperor. It is believed that a large issue was struck, only to be immediately recalled and melted down when the news of Macrinus’ defeat reached Rome.
5 commentsNemonater
Domitian_RIC_II_0669.jpg
Domitian RIC II 066937 viewsDomitian. 81-96 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 88, 14 Sept.-89 13 Sept. A.D. (3.28g, 19.3mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P VIII, laureate head right. Rev: IMP XIX COS XIIII CENS PPP, Minerva standing left with thunderbolt and spear, shield at her l. side (M3). RIC I 669, RCV 2732, RSC 251, BMC 153. Ex CNG.

A common denarius of Domitian in very good condition. The legends are complete and sharp, and there is very little wear, even on the highest points. 88 A.D. was the probable year of the Secular Games, and also saw a revolt in Upper Germany. 89 A.D. saw Domitian in Germany, a victory over the Dacians, and a double triumph.
3 commentsLucas H
D669.jpg
Domitian RIC-66970 viewsAR Denarius, 3.02g
Rome mint, 88-89 AD
RIC 669 (C3). BMC 153. RSC 251.
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XIX COS XIIII CENS P P P; Minerva stg. l., with thunderbolt and spear; shield at her l. side (M3)
Acquired from Ken Dorney, June 2014.

The fourth issue of 88-89 records Domitian's 19th imperial acclamation, the largest issue by far of the time period. With wars being fought against both the Chatti and the Dacians the awards were coming fairly quickly one after another. Also, the revolt of the rebel legate Saturnius occurred in January of 89. Domitian did not take up the consulship in 89 (presumably he was away from Rome on campaign), so the imperial acclamations are the only way to differentiate the separate issues. T.V. Buttrey has proposed that his 19th salutation may in fact be for the victory over Saturnius, dressed up as a German victory (via private correspondence).

A decent coin with some minor corrosion featuring a sorrowful looking Domitian. Better in hand.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
284594.jpg
DYNASTS OF LYCIA. Perikles (Circa 380-360 BC)16 viewsTetrobol. Uncertain mint, possibly Limyra.

18 mm, 2.80 g

Obv: Facing scalp of lion.
Rev: 𐊓𐊁𐊕-𐊆𐊋-𐊍𐊁 ("Perikle" in Lycian), Triskeles ("three legs" in Greek) within incuse circle.

Müseler VIII.47-51; SNG von Aulock 4254-5.

Lycia initially fought for the Persians in the Persian Wars, but on the defeat of the Achaemenid Empire by the Greeks, it became intermittently a free agent. After a brief membership in the Athenian Empire, it seceded and became independent (its treaty with Athens had omitted the usual non-secession clause), was under the Persians again, revolted again (the Revolt of the Satraps), was conquered by Mausolus of Caria, returned to the Persians, and went under Macedonian hegemony at the defeat of the Persians by Alexander the Great.

Pericles, who ruled from 380 BC to about 360 BC, was ruler during the Revolt of the Satraps. The Satraps’ revolt was a rebellion in the Achaemenid Empire of several satraps against the authority of the Great King Artaxerxes II Mnemon. During the Revolt of the Satraps, Pericles declared himself king of Lycia and drove out the Xanthian ruler Arttum̃para. Pericles is regarded as the last king of Lycia. After the revolt failed, the land once again reverted to the empire.

Struck during the reign of Pericles (Perikle), c. 380-361/2 BC, this issue may be connected to Perikles' conquests in Lycia and Caria and/or the satrapal revolt of 362/1. It was, however, struck in great haste and with little quality control: the vast majority of the surviving examples were struck from worn or broken dies and are often poorly centered on small flans.
Nathan P
Nero_37.jpg
E71 viewsNero AE As

Attribution: RIC I 313, Rome
Date: AD 65
Obverse: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP laureate head l.
Reverse: Victory advancing l. holding shield with “ S P Q R” inscribed, S-C in fields
Size: 26 mm
Weight: 12.3 grams
(Bust of Nero: Museo Nazionale, Rome)

“He was about the average height, his body marked with spots and malodorous, his hair light blond…His health was good for though indulging in every kind of riotous excess, he was ill but three times in all during the fourteen years of his reign.” –Seutonius Life of Nero LI

Upon the death of Claudius in AD 54, 16 year-old Nero was accepted as the next emperor. At first, he pampered the senate, made financial promises to the praetorian guard, and generally appeared to be headed in the direction of the superior reign of the divine Augustus. Problems soon became evident upon the poisoning of Britannicus, Claudius’ son. The murder of Nero’s mother, Agrippina, in AD 59 was the single most notoriously sordid act of the emperor’s entire reign. Still, he was noted for numerous other disdainful exploits as well. Nero became infatuated with Poppaea, the wife of a close friend, Marcus Otho. He had Otho appointed governor of Lusitania and soon began an affair with Poppaea. His marriage to Octavia, of course, was a problem as well, so Nero had her exiled on the island of Pandateria in AD 62. There she was accused of adultery and subsequently killed not long after. Sadly, in AD 65, while throwing a temper tantrum, Nero kicked a pregnant Poppaea to death. He did remarry again, but eventually became lovers with the boy Sporus who resembled Poppaea.

“Rumour had it that he used to roam the streets after dark, visiting taverns with his friends, mugging people in the street, attacking women, and thieving from shops and stalls. He was also accused of abusing married women and freeborn boys.” – from Chronicle of the Roman Emperors by Chris Scarre (1995)

Nero’s reign is marked by a time of financial bleeding of the imperial coffers. His “projects” and excesses were so vast, that the emperor needed to find money wherever he could. One of his most heinous rampages saw him coercing wealthy citizens to will their possessions and fortunes to him prior to forcing them to commit suicide. The Great Fire of AD 64, which started in the neighborhood of the Circus Maximus and spread rapidly to 10 of Rome’s 14 regions, brought the emperor’s popularity further down as tensions reached the boiling point. This is partially due to the fact that he diverted the blame for the fire in the direction of an emerging religious “cult”, the Christians (who were persecuted unmercifully). It is said that he even tied some Christians to posts and had them tarred and lit to illuminate his parties in the royal gardens. Later several conspiracies were unraveled and quelled, but in the end, Nero pushed his luck too far. The revolts of Vindex, Rufus, and Galba were the beginning of the end for the emperor. He was abandoned by his guards and found himself alone at the palace. One of his freedmen, Phaon, led him out of the city to a villa. There Nero committed suicide by stabbing himself in the neck (although his private secretary Epaphroditus finished the job). His last words were, “What an artist the world is losing!” He died in AD 68 at age 30.
4 commentsNoah
EB0233b_scaled.JPG
EB0233 Apollo / Eagle6 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Revolt of Magas in Kyrene, AE 17, 276-249 BC.
Obverse: Laureate head (Ptolemy as Apollo?) right.
Reverse: [ΠTOΛEM BAΣIΛ], eagle left, with wings open, MAΓ (?) monogram left.
References: Cf. Svoronos 328; BMC Ptolemies p. 39, 27-28.
Diameter: 17.5mm, Weight: 3.297g.
EB
EB0254b_scaled.JPG
EB0254 Amphora / Vine leaf7 viewsJUDAEA, FIRST REVOLT, AE 17 prutah, 67-68 AD.
Obverse: Amphora with Hebrew legend 'year 2'.
Reverse: Vine leaf & tendril around legend 'Freedom of Zion'.
References: SGI 5639; Meshorer 153.
Diameter: 17.5mm, Weight: 2.463g.
1 commentsEB
Egypt1a_img.jpg
Egypt, Athens Imitative, Silver tetradrachm164 viewsObv:– Head of Athena right, droopy eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and bent-back palmette, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves.
Rev:– ΑΘΕ, right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square;
Minted in Egypt from . B.C. 420 - 380.
Reference:– cf. SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526 (Athens),

Ex- Forum Ancient Coins where they graded it VF. The metal did not fill the die completely on the obverse resulting in the rough flat high area near Athena's temple. A test cut on the reverse was filled with pitch in antiquity.

The silver is quite bright making it relatively tricky to photograph.

From the Harald Ulrik Sverdrup Collection. Ex CNG. From a small hoard of 5 Athenian and 4 Athenian imitative issues.

Comment provided by Forum -
"Athenian tetradrachms with this droopy eye and bent back palmette have been identified as Egyptian imitative issues because they are most frequently found in Egypt and rarely in Greece.

Early in his reign the Egyptian Pharaoh Hakor, who ruled from 393 to 380 B.C., revolted against his overlord, the Persian King Artaxerxes. In 390 B.C. Hakor joined a tripartite alliance with Athens and King Evagoras of Cyprus. Persian attacks on Egypt in 385 and 383 were repulsed by Egyptian soldiers and Greek mercenaries under the command of the Athenian general Chabrias. Perhaps these coins were struck to pay the general and his Greek mercenaries."

17.157g, 25.3mm, 270o
3 commentsmaridvnvm
Egypt_1a_img.jpg
Egypt, Athens Imitative, Silver tetradrachm34 viewsObv:– Head of Athena right, droopy eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and bent-back palmette, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves.
Rev:– ΑΘΕ, right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square;
Minted in Egypt from . B.C. 420 - 380.
Reference:– cf. SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526 (Athens),

Ex- Forum Ancient Coins where they graded it VF. The metal did not fill the die completely on the obverse resulting in the rough flat high area near Athena's temple. A test cut on the reverse was filled with pitch in antiquity.

The silver is quite bright making it relatively tricky to photograph.

From the Harald Ulrik Sverdrup Collection. Ex CNG. From a small hoard of 5 Athenian and 4 Athenian imitative issues.

Comment provided by Forum -
"Athenian tetradrachms with this droopy eye and bent back palmette have been identified as Egyptian imitative issues because they are most frequently found in Egypt and rarely in Greece.

Early in his reign the Egyptian Pharaoh Hakor, who ruled from 393 to 380 B.C., revolted against his overlord, the Persian King Artaxerxes. In 390 B.C. Hakor joined a tripartite alliance with Athens and King Evagoras of Cyprus. Persian attacks on Egypt in 385 and 383 were repulsed by Egyptian soldiers and Greek mercenaries under the command of the Athenian general Chabrias. Perhaps these coins were struck to pay the general and his Greek mercenaries."

17.157g, 25.3mm, 270o

Updated image using new photography setup.
maridvnvm
GRK_Euboia_Histiaia_tetrobol.JPG
Euboia, Hisiaia.12 viewsSear 2496, BCD Euboia 378-424, BMC 24 ff.

AR tetrobol, 12-13 mm, 3rd-2nd centuries B.C.

Obv: Wreathed head of nymph Histiaia with her hair rolled facing right.

Rev: ΙΣΤ--AIEΩN; nymph Histiaia seated right on stern of galley, wing on side of galley,control symbol(s), if any, below (off flan).

Histiaia, named after its patron nymph, commanded a strategic position overlooking the narrows leading to the North Euboian Gulf. In the Illiad, Homer describes the surrounding plain as “rich in vines.” In 480 B.C. the city was overrun by the Persians. After the Persian Wars it became a member of the Delian Confederacy. In 446 the Euboians revolted, seized an Athenian ship and murdered its crew. They were promptly reduced by Athens. Perikles exiled the population to Macedonia and replaced them with Athenians. The exiled population probably returned at the end of the Peloponnesian War in 404; thereafter they seem to have been largely under the control of Sparta until they joined the Second Athenian Confederacy in 376-375. The city appears to have become a member (for the first time) of the reconstituted league of Euboian cities in 340, but its allegiance during most of the 4th century seems to have vacillated between Athens and Macedonia. It was pro-Macedonian during the 3rd century, for which it was attacked in 208 and captured in 199 by a Roman-Pergamene force. The Roman garrison was removed in 194. To judge from the wide distribution of its coinage, Histiaia continued to prosper. Little is known of its later history, but finds at the site indicate it continued to be inhabited in Roman, Byzantine, and later times. (per NumisWiki)

The date of this extensive coinage is difficult to determine and is the subject of controversy. The bulk of it would appear to belong to the latter part of the third century B.C., and it may have commenced with the cessation of silver issues for the Euboian League circa 267 B.C. There are numerous imitations, of poor style and rough execution, which would seem to have been produced in Macedon just prior to the Roman victory over Perseus in 168 B.C. (per Sear)

Ref: Numismatik Lanz. Münzen von Euboia: Sammlung BCD. Auction 111 (November 25, 2002). Munich.
Stkp
Lg3_quart_sm.jpg
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA / AVGVSTI PII FIL / Ӕ As or Dupontius (156-161 A.D.)19 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair arranged in a chignon (bun) behind the head / AVGVSTI PII FIL, Venus standing left holding Victory and leaning on shield set on a helmet, S-C across fields in the lower half

Ӕ, 22.5-24+mm, 9.56g, die axis 11h

There may be a countermark across the front part of the face on obverse, but due to its location it is difficult to be sure and identify it.

AVGVSTI PII FIL(ia) = daughter of August Antoninus Pius, points out to the ruling of Fausta's father Antoninus Pius rather than her husband Marcus Aurelius. Reverse: Unlike Greek Aphrodite, in addition to her other aspects Roman Venus was also a goddess of victory, this embodied in her representation as Venus Victrix (Victorious) or Victris (of Victory), like in this case: she offers a little winged representation of victory, resting on defensive military attributes (as a female goddess, she represented passive, defensive aspects of war, active ones being the domain of male Mars). SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious).

Of two Ӕ coins with the same legends and Venus with shield, RIC 1367 and 1389a, the first is a sestertius and its typical dimensions are characteristic of the type: 30+ mm and 20+g. This one is definitely smaller. Material seems reddish, so this one is more likely an as. Minted in Rome. Some sources give issue dates as 156-161 (the end of Faustina's father's reign), others as 145-146 (her marriage).

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor is Latin for the Younger), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (born probably 21 September c. 130 CE, died in winter of 175 or spring of 176 CE) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She was held in high esteem by soldiers and her own husband and was given divine honours after her death. Faustina, named after her mother, was her parents' fourth and youngest child and their second daughter; she was also their only child to survive to adulthood. She was born and raised in Rome. Her great uncle, the emperor Hadrian, had arranged with her father for Faustina to marry Lucius Verus. On 25 February 138, she and Verus were betrothed. Verus’ father was Hadrian’s first adopted son and his intended heir; however, when Verus’ father died, Hadrian chose Faustina’s father to be his second adopted son, and eventually, successor. Faustina’s father ended the engagement between his daughter and Verus and arranged for Faustina's betrothal to her maternal cousin, Marcus Aurelius; Aurelius was also adopted by her father.

In April or May 145, Faustina and Marcus Aurelius were married, as had been planned since 138. Since Aurelius was, by adoption, Antoninus Pius' son, under Roman law he was marrying his sister; Antoninus would have had to formally release one or the other from his paternal authority (his patria potestas) for the ceremony to take place. Little is specifically known of the ceremony, but it is said to have been "noteworthy". Coins were issued with the heads of the couple, and Antoninus, as Pontifex Maximus, would have officiated. Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, and only sparing references to Faustina. Faustina was given the title of Augusta on 1 December 147 after the birth of her first child, Galeria Faustina (or Domitia? sources differ which of them was born in 147 and was the first child).

When Antoninus died on 7 March 161, Marcus and Lucius Verus ascended to the throne and became co-rulers. Faustina then became empress. Unfortunately, not much has survived from the Roman sources regarding Faustina's life, but what is available does not give a good report. Cassius Dio and the Augustan History accuse Faustina of ordering deaths by poison and execution; she has also been accused of instigating the revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband. The Augustan History mentions adultery with sailors, gladiators, and men of rank; however, Faustina and Aurelius seem to have been very close and mutually devoted.

Faustina accompanied her husband on various military campaigns and enjoyed the love and reverence of Roman soldiers. Aurelius gave her the title of Mater Castrorum or ‘Mother of the Camp’. She attempted to make her home out of an army camp. Between 170–175, she was in the north, and in 175, she accompanied Aurelius to the east.

That same year, 175, Aurelius's general Avidius Cassius was proclaimed Roman emperor after the erroneous news of Marcus's death; the sources indicate Cassius was encouraged by Marcus's wife Faustina, who was concerned about her husband's failing health, believing him to be on the verge of death, and felt the need for Cassius to act as a protector in this event, since her son Commodus, aged 13, was still young. She also wanted someone who would act as a counterweight to the claims of Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, who was in a strong position to take the office of Princeps in the event of Marcus’s death. The evidence, including Marcus's own Meditations, supports the idea that Marcus was indeed quite ill, but by the time Marcus recovered, Cassius was already fully acclaimed by the Egyptian legions of II Traiana Fortis and XXII Deiotariana. "After a dream of empire lasting three months and six days", Cassius was murdered by a centurion; his head was sent to Marcus Aurelius, who refused to see it and ordered it buried. Egypt recognized Marcus as emperor again by 28 July 175.

Faustina died in the winter of 175, after a somewhat suspicious accident, at the military camp in Halala (a city in the Taurus Mountains in Cappadocia). Aurelius grieved much for his wife and buried her in the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. She was deified: her statue was placed in the Temple of Venus in Rome and a temple was dedicated to her in her honor. Halala’s name was changed to Faustinopolis and Aurelius opened charity schools for orphan girls called Puellae Faustinianae or 'Girls of Faustina'. The Baths of Faustina in Miletus are named after her.

In their thirty years of marriage, Faustina bore Marcus Aurelius thirteen children, of whom 6 reached adulthood and were significant in history. The best known are emperor Commodus and the closest to him sister Lucilla (both depicted in a very historically inaccurate movie "Gladiator" and, together with their parents, in a much more accurate 1st season "Reign of Blood" of the TV series "Roman Empire").
Yurii P
Juive 3.jpg
First Revolt - "Eighth" of 69-70 AD26 viewsLG’LT SYWN : "For the Redemption of Zion" , chalice with pearled rim.
SNT ‘RBY : Year 4 , "lulav" between two "etrogs".

bought in Jerusalem
1 commentsGinolerhino
Juive 2 Year2 67 AD.jpg
First revolt. Small bronze minted in 67 AD49 viewsHebrew legend , footed amphora
Hebrew legend, vine leaf.
2 commentsGinolerhino
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_Rome_179.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)41 viewsSRCV 10201, RIC V S-179, Göbl.744b, Cohen 160, Van Meter 49/3

AE Antoninianus, 22 mm., 180°

Rome mint (per Göbl), 10th officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate bust right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, Stag walking left, X in exergue.

Issued to commemorate Gallienus’s vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_Sear_10201_stag_l.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)14 viewsSRCV 10201, RIC V-S 179, Göbl 744b, Van Meter 49/3

BI Antoninianus, 2.60 g., 20.29 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, tenth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, stag standing left, X in exergue.

Issued to commemorate Gallienus’s vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-1_(S),_Rome_181_var.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)26 viewsSRCV 10200, RIC V S-181 var (officina letter), Göbl 716b, Van Meter 49/7

AE Antoninianus, 20 mm., 0°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate [head] right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, antelope walking left, Γ in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aurreolus.
.
RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_Rome_283.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsSRCV 10362, RIC V S-283, Göbl 712b, CT 1337, Van Meter 270

BI Antoninianus, 3.20 g., 21.58 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, first officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: SOLI CONS AVG, winged horse springing right., A in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Sol invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. A team of four winged horses drew Sol's golden chariot across the sky each day.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_Rome_230_tiger.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)15 viewsSRCV 10281, RIC V S-230, Göbl 713b, CT 1341, Van Meter 153

BI Antoninianus, 3.01 g., 20.14 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, second officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: LIBERO • P [•] CONS AVG, tigress walking left. B in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The tiger was sacred to Liber Pater (or the Greek Dionysus or Bacchus).

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V-1_(S)_Rome_207.png
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)16 viewsSRCV 10236, RIC V S-207, Göbl 731b, Van Meter 100

BI Antoninianus, 3.53 g., 21.87 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, sixth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: IOVI CONS AVG, goat standing right. ς (stigma) in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Jupiter invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V-1_(S)_Rome_177_doe.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)21 viewsSRCV 10199, RIC V S-177, Göbl 728b, CT 1361, Van Meter 49/1

BI Antoninianus, 2.51 g., 20.75 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, fifth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, doe walking right, looking left. E in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus. As goddess of the hunt, Diana is often portrayed as a huntress accompanied by a deer.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-1_(S)_Rome_164.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)20 viewsSRCV 10178, RIC V S-164, Göbl 738b, CT 1386, Van Meter 19/2

BI Antoninianus, 3.30 g., 21.39 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, eighth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking left cradling a trophy/rudder in his left arm and holding a globe in his outstretched right hand. H in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The connection between Apollo and the centaur is obscure.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_245_hippocamp.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)18 viewsSRCV 10292, RIC V S-245, Göbl 743b, CT 1392, Van Meter 178/1

BI Antoninianus, 2.95 g., 18.25 mm. max. (undersize flan), 180°

Rome mint, ninth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: [GA]LLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: NEPT[VNO CONS AVG], hippocamp swimming right. N in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Neptune invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The hippocamp is a mythical beast consisting of the foreparts of a horse and the sea-serpent tail. They were the chariot-beasts of Neptune.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_165_griffin.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)18 viewsSRCV 10180 var. (obv. legend), RIC V S-165, Göbl 718z, Van Meter 19/5 var. (obv. legend)

BI Antoninianus, 3.09 g., 20.35 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, fourth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, griffon standing left. Δ in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The griffon is a mythical beast consisting of the ith the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle. The griffon pulled the chariot of Apollo.

RIC rarity C.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V-1_(S)_181_Rome_antelope.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)14 viewsSRCV 10200, RIC V S-181, Göbl 750b, Van Meter 49/7.

BI Antoninianus, 2.42 g., 20.50 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, twelfth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, antelope/gazelle standing left. XII in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S_207_goat_right.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)9 viewsSRCV 10236, RIC V S-207, Göbl 731b, Van Meter 100

BI Antoninianus, 3.22 g., 19.26 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, sixth officina, tenth emision, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: IOVI CONS AVG, goat standing right, ς (stigma) in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_207_goat_l.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)20 viewsSRCV 10235, RIC V-S 207, Göbl 730l, Van Meter 99.

BI Antoninianus, 2.74 g., 21.29 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, sixth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: IOVI CONS AVG, goat standing left, ς (stigma) in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Jupiter the Protector, invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection, believing that, as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored those in positions of authority similar to his own. The infant Jupiter was suckled by the goat Amaltheia on Mount Ida.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10200_dianae_cons_antelope_right.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)38 viewsSRCV 10200, RIC V S-181, Göbl 747b, Van Meter 49/6.

BI Antoninianus, 3.25 g., 21.41 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, eleventh officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, antelope/gazelle walking right. XI in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
3 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10177_centaur_bow.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10177, RIC V S-163, Göbl 735b, Van Meter 19/1

BI Antoninianus, 3.25 g., 22.40 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, seventh officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow. Z in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The connection between Apollo and the centaur is obscure.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
062-gallienus.jpg
Gallienus AE Antoninianus13 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:GALLIENVS AVG
Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG; Centeur walking l. , drawing bow;

This type were issued ca. 267-268 AD to commemorate vows to Appolo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.
Tanit
gallienus_RIC283.jpg
GALLIENUS AE antoninianus - 267-268 AD (sole reign)43 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG (radiate head right)
rev: SOLI CONS AVG (Pegasus right springing heavenward), A in exergue.
ref: RIC Vi 283, Cohen 979 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
3.52gms, 19mm

Gallienus issued a series of coins in Rome which honored nine deities as Conservator Augusti or protector of the emperor by pairing his portrait with reverses picturing an animal or animals symbolic of each deity. Included in this group of celestial guardians Sol with portray Pegasus. It appears that Gallienus was issuing the "animal series" coins both to secure, through some religious festival, the aid of Rome's protective gods against continuing invasions, revolts, and plague and to entertain the Roman populace with pageantry and circus games.
berserker
gallienus_RIC179.jpg
GALLIENUS AE antoninianus - 267-268 AD (sole reign)27 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG (radiate head right)
rev: DIANAE CONS AVG (Stag walking right, [X in ex])
ref: RIC Vi 179, Cohen 160
mint: Rome (or Mediolanum?)
2.66gms, 16mm

Gallienus produced an entire series of Antoniniani invoking the protection of various gods and goddesses against the revolt of Aureolus in 268. When Gallienus was murdered in 4 March 268, Claudius II paid off the soldiers, and probably coins was struck at Mediolanum. This hypothese is prove by this coin where the bust looks nothing like Gallienus, but much like Claudius II, whose coins were very commonly imitated by unofficial or "barbaric" mints.
berserker
coins1 205~0.jpg
gallienus DIANAE CONS AVG457 viewsgallienus, 267-268 A.D., mint of rome..
OBV: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
REV: DIANAE CONS AVG, stag walking left. X in exergue.

this coin is historically important because it is believed that this coin was minted to commemorate vows to goddess diana and invoke her protection of gallienus against the revolt of aureolus... theres a whole series of these asking all kinds of different gods/goddesses for help. when i get more of these " zoo" coins ill post them here!

submitted by ancientcoins
2 commentsancientcoins
Gallienus_RIC_163.JPG
Gallienus, 253 - 268 AD21 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head of Gallienus facing right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right drawing a bow; Z in exergue.

Note: Refers to the vows Gallienus made to Apollo seeking his favor in quelling the revolt of Aureolus.

Billon Antoninianus, Rome, 7th Officina, 267 - 268 AD

3.1 grams, 21 x 19 mm, 180°

RIC Vi 163, RSC 72, S10177, VM 19/1
SPQR Coins
Gallienus_RIC_V,_I_285.jpg
Gallienus, AE Antoninianus, RIC V, I 28591 viewsGallienus
As sole Augustus, 260-268 A.D.

Coin: AE Antoninianus, invoking the protection of Sol against the revolt of Aureolus.

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust facing right.
Reverse: SOLI CONS AVG, a Bull, standing to the right. XI in exergue.

Weight: 2.34 g, Diameter: 21 x 20 x 1 mm, Die axis: 200°, Mint: Rome, struck between 267 - 268 A.D. Reference: RIC V, I 285, Note: 1 of 25 AE Antoninianii, ranging from Gallienus to Tetricus II, I bought from a seller in 2012. He had 125 for sale in total, and had in turn bought them from the original finder, who is said to have found this Hoard in 2003 near Harlow in the County of Essex.
Masis
coin_1_quart.jpg
GALLIENVS AVG / FIDES MILIT AE/Bi. antoninianus (260-268 A.D.)21 viewsGALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right, one ribbon behind, one forward across shoulder/ FIDES MILIT, Fides Militum standing left, holding vexillum and long scepter, MP or MD in exergue.

AE3, 17mm, 1.27g, die axis 6 (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

AVG = Augustus. Fides was the Roman goddess of trustworthiness and good faith. Fides Militum = "Military confidence" or "Army's loyalty". Sceptres, often two to three foot ivory rods topped with a globe or an eagle, were introduced by Augustus as a symbol of Rome's power. They would be carried by emperors while riding in chariots to celebrate military victories and thus a scepter is a symbol of emperor's leadership and victory. Vexillum -- ensign of a section of legion. MD may mean Mediolanum mint, MP may mean Mediolanum pecunia (coin) or Mediolanum mint, prima officina (workshop #1). Either way, it was probably minted at Mediolanum.

Very similar to a coin (with MP mintmark), listed at WildWinds with references to RIC V-1, Milan 481K; Goebl 1370a; Sear 10214. http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/gallienus/RIC_0481.jpg

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus. The son of emperor Valerian and his wife Mariniana. Born c. 218. Co-emperor with his father since Oct 253. His sons Valerian II and Saloninus were named his co-emperors and heirs, but both died early (Valerian II in 258 and Saloninus in 260). His father was infamously captured after the Battle of Edessa by Sassanian Persian king Shapur I, also in 260, leaving Gallienus a sole ruler. His whole career was spent dealing with innumerable invasions and revolts, which speaks to his credit, because despite this he managed to stay in power for so long. Famous for his military reforms and the first decree of tolerance of Christianity. Despite this some martyrologies mention his as a persecutor, probably mistaking him for his father's actions during their joint reign. Infamous for losing Gaul and Palmyra. Died in Sept 268 in Mediolanum as a result of yet another military coup, Fides Militum finally failed him. Succeeded by one of his generals Claudius Gothicus, later known as Claudius II. There were some rumors that Claudius was the one who murdered Gallienus, but this was never proved.
Yurii P
Coriosolites.JPG
Gaul, Northwest. Coriosolites (57-52 BC)29 viewsBI Stater

5.36 g

Obverse: Celticized head right, hair in large spiral curls, S-like ear; pearl strings flowing around

Reverse: Devolved charioteer driving biga right; ornaments around; below, boar right.

DT 2329; Slg. Flesche - (vgl. 198)

The Coriosolites (one among a number of tribes in the area) inhabited a region called Armorica in what is now northwest France. They were a mixture of Celts who had fled Germanic incursions across the Rhine and the original inhabitants of Armorica, a place where customs and beliefs of the megalithic age still lingered on.

The Coriosolite coinage appears to have constituted a confederate currency, manufactured at the time of the Gallic Wars between 57 BC, the date of the revolt of the Armoricans and 51 BC, the end of the war of the Gauls. For the Armoricans, the war began with invasion by the Roman General Crassus, who subjugated the tribes by fighting each individually and taking hostages. The Celts then formed an alliance to more effectively fight Rome and captured envoys sent by Rome to serve as their own hostages.

Aware of their efforts, Caesar sent three legions under Sabinus who routed the Celts. No more battles were fought in Armorica, but the Armorican resistance continued; some of the population, unwilling to live under Roman rule, banded together and hid in remote areas. Twenty thousand Armoricans (including many Coriosolites) were among the forces that attempted to relieve Vercingetorix at the siege of Alesia in 52 BC.

J.-B. Colbert de Beaulieu defined six classes of Coriosolite coinage. This coin is in Class VI, defined by a nose shaped like a backward 2 on the obverse and, on the reverse, a symbol resembling a ladder on its side in front of a pony with a boar underneath. John Hooker identifies five coin types within Group VI. The coin above is most likely the fifth type (evidenced by the placement of the curl at the bottom of the horse's mane on the reverse). While 1-3 types in Class VI are among the earliest Coriosolite coins (perhaps even preceding the Gallic wars), Hooker asserts that, based on the style of the driver's body on the reverse, types 4 and 5 may have been minted just prior to the forming of the Celtic coalition and capture of the Roman envoys.
1 commentsNathan P
GordII.jpg
Gordian II Africanus / Victory53 viewsGordian II Africanus. Silver Denarius, AD 238. Rome.
O: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian II right.
R: VICTO-RIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
- RIC 2; BMC 28; RSC 12.

Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus), was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. The double "GG" in "AVGG" (Augustus) on the reverse was to show that power was shared between the two men although Gordian II did not receive the additional title of high priest or Pontifex Maximus. He died in battle outside of Carthage.

Confronted by a local elite that had just killed Maximinus's procurator, Gordian's father (Gordian I) was forced to participate in a full-scale revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22.

Due to his advanced age, Gordian I insisted that his son, Marcus Antonius Gordianus (Gordian II), be associated with him. A few days later, Gordian entered the city of Carthage with the overwhelming support of the population and local political leaders. Meanwhile in Rome, Maximinus' praetorian prefect was assassinated and the rebellion seemed to be successful. Gordian in the meantime had sent an embassy to Rome, under the leadership of Publius Licinius Valerianus, to obtain the Senate’s support for his rebellion. The senate confirmed the new emperor on 2 April and many of the provinces gladly sided with Gordian.

Opposition would come from the neighboring province of Numidia. Capelianus, governor of Numidia, loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, and who held a grudge against Gordian, renewed his alliance to the former emperor and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationed in the region, III Augusta, and other veteran units. Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed, and Gordian I took his own life by hanging himself with his belt. The Gordians had reigned only twenty-two days.
3 commentsNemonater
Egypt1a_img~0.jpg
GREEK, Egypt, 420 - 380 BC, AR Tetradrachm (Athens owl imitative)271 viewsObv:– Head of Athena right, droopy eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and bent-back palmette, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves.
Rev:– AΘE, right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square;
Minted in Egypt from . B.C. 420 - 380.
Reference:– cf. SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526 (Athens),
ex-Forum. From the Harald Ulrik Sverdrup Collection. Ex CNG. From a small hoard of 5 Athenian and 4 Athenian imitative issues.

Athenian tetradrachms with this droopy eye and bent back palmette have been identified as Egyptian imitative issues because they are most frequently found in Egypt and rarely in Greece.

Early in his reign the Egyptian Pharaoh Hakor, who ruled from 393 to 380 B.C., revolted against his overlord, the Persian King Artaxerxes. In 390 B.C. Hakor joined a tripartite alliance with Athens and King Evagoras of Cyprus. Persian attacks on Egypt in 385 and 383 were repulsed by Egyptian soldiers and Greek mercenaries under the command of the Athenian general Chabrias. Perhaps these coins were struck to pay the general and his Greek mercenaries.

The metal did not fill the die completley on the obverse resulting in the rough flat high area near Athena's temple. A test cut on the reverse was filled with pitch in antiquity.

17.157g, 25.3mm, 270o
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Hadrian - Africa.jpg
Hadrian - Africa128 viewsObverse: AVG COS III PP, laureate head right.
Reverse: Africa, wearing elephant trunk on head, reclining left, holding scorpion and cornucopiae and resting left elbow on rock, a basket of corn in front
Mint : Rome
Date : 134-138 AD
Reference : RIC II 299; RSC 140
Grade : VF
Weight : 3.5g
Denom : Denarius
Metal : Silver
Acquired: 17/06/04

Comments : This issue commemorates Hadrian's travels to Africa in 128 AD. He was the first Emperor to visit Africa. Not to be confused with Mauretania, which he visited in 123 9where he personally oversaw a revolt in this troublesome area). When he went to Africa it rained on his arrival for the first time in the space of five years, and for this he was beloved by the Africans. Hadrian heaped benefactions upon the province and numerous fortresses and military roads were built in Africa.
3 commentsBolayi
HadrianDecapolis.jpg
Hadrian, head right184 viewsVespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Gadara, Decapolis
9266. Bronze AE 23, Spijkerman 26; SNG ANS 6, 1300, F, Decapolis, Gadara mint, 11.04g, 22.8mm, 0o, 71/72 A.D.; obverse OYECPACIANOC KAICAP, laureate head right, countermarked with "Hadrian's head"; reverse GADARA, Tyche standing left holding wreath and cornucopia, date LELP left ( = 71/72 A.D. ); interesting coin that relates to both the first and second jewish revolts; $160.00
The `Hadrian's head` countermark was struck during the Second Jewish Revolt (`Bar Kochbah` uprising) led by Simon Bar Kochba against Rome, 133 - 135 A.D. In 135 A.D., Hadrian destroyed Jerusalem and founded `Aelia Capitolina` on the site. The Jews were dispersed throughout the Roman Empire.

whitetd49
Hadrse12-3.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 561a, Sestertius of AD 119 (Jupiter Victor)26 viewsÆ Sestertius (23.9g, Ø 33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 119.
Obv.: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust of Hadrian facing right, drapery on far shoulder.
Rev.: PONT MAX TR POT COS III (around) S C (in ex.), Jupiter seated left holding Victory statuette and sceptre.
RIC 561; BMCRE 1146; Cohen 1185; Strack 533; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-2) 599 (30 spec.).
ex G. Henzen (1994).

This issue is connected with the suppression of a revolt in Britain in AD 117 (see Strack p.70 : Expeditio Britannica)
Charles S
Hadrse26-3.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 596, Sestertius of AD 119-121 (Victory with trophy)40 viewsÆ sestertius (26.3g, Ø33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 119-121.
Obv.: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III, laureate, heroic bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
Rev.: VICTORIA AVGVSTI (around) S C (field), Victory advancing right, holding trophy.
RIC 596; Cohen 1462; Strack 561; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-2) 767 (1 spec.)
ex G.Henzen (1997).

In AD 117, Hadrian successfully repressed a revolt in Britain. Even though one legion was lost, the senate issued a number of coins celebrating the victory from AD 119 onwards. This issue with Victoria holding a trophy was one of these.
2 commentsCharles S
02959v00a.jpg
Hadrianus39 viewsSestertius
OV: Draped bust with bare head to right
Leg: HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
RV: Hadrianus togate with scroll walking to right, behind him centurion and three Standartbearers with lionskins.
Leg: S C
Ex: DISCIPLINA
Rome
RIC 746
32mm / 24.87g.
Note: This reverse may celebrate the military reforms of Hadrian after the bar kochba revolt.
Julianus of Pannonia
halfshekelI.jpg
Half Shekel, Tyre LA (Year 1)132 views6.43 g Tyre Mint 126/125 BCE

O: Head of Herakles (Melqart)
R: Eagle standing left; ΤΥΡΟΥ ΙΕΡΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΑΣΥΛΟΥ "Of Tyre the Holy and City of Refuge." around; Date LA to left; Monogram FP to right.

BMC Phoenicia page 250 #213 lists one Year 1 half shekel with M monogram. DCA lists this date as R3, the highest rarity rating.
Unique with with FP monogram. Glossy, dark chocolate find patina.

Shekels and Half Shekels of Tyre began being issued as autonomous silver coins in 126/125 BCE after gaining freedom from Seleucid domination that year. Although similar in style to the Seleucid coinage, the most obvious change was the King's bust being replaced with the city's chief god Melqart.

They have become highly desired due to their being the money of choice for payments to the Jerusalem Temple. The half shekel was the required yearly tribute to the temple for every Jewish male over the age of 20.

Ed Cohen notes in Dated Coins of Antiquity, that the minting of Tyre shekels or, more specifically, half shekels, ended at the onset of the Jewish Revolt in 65/66 and the minting of the Jewish Revolt shekels then begins. This, along with other compelling evidence, has led many, including me, to believe the later "KP" shekels were struck south of Tyre.
4 commentsNemonater
Revolt,_j_1360.jpg
Hendin 1360104 viewsAE Prutah. Year 2, 67-68 A.D.. Hendin 1360. Obverse: Amphora with broad rim and two handles, (year 2 in Hebrew). Reverse: Vine leaf on small branch, (the freedom of Zion in Hebrew). ex Forvm.3 commentsLucas H
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Hendin-66129 viewsFirst Jewish Revolt 66-70 AD
AE Prutah,Mint: Jerusalem, Date: 67/68AD
Obv-SH'NAT SHTAYIM-Year Two-Amphora with broad rim and two handles.
Rev-CHAROT TZION - Freedom of Zion-Vine leaf with twig on tendril.
Size:18mm
Meshorer:TJC-196a
1 commentsbrian l
1__H-664~0.jpg
Hendin-66420 viewsFirst Jewish Revolt 66-70 AD
AE Prutah,Mint: Jerusalem, Date: 68/69AD
Obv-SH'NAT SH'LOSH -Year Three-Amphora with broad rim and two handles and lid decorated with tiny globes hanging around edge.
Rev-CHAROT TZION - Freedom of Zion-Vine leaf with twig on tendril.
Size: 17mm
Meshorer:TJC-205
brian l
coins114.JPG
Histiaia, Euboia23 viewsThe history of the island of Euboea is largely that of its two principal cities, Chalcis and Eretria, both mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships. Both cities were settled by Ionian Greeks from Attica, and would eventually settle numerous colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Cumae and Rhegium, and on the coast of Macedonia. This opened new trade routes to the Greeks, and extended the reach of western civilization. The commercial influence of these city-states is evident in the fact that the Euboic scale of weights and measures was used among the Ionic cities generally, and in Athens until the end of the 7th century BC, during the time of Solon.[citation needed] The classicist Barry B. Powell has proposed that Euboea may have been where the Greek alphabet was first employed, c. 775-750 BC, and that Homer may have spent part of his life on the island.

Chalcis and Eretria were rival cities, and appear to have been equally powerful for a while. One of the earliest major military conflicts in Greek history took place between them, known as the Lelantine War, in which many other Greek city-states also took part. In 490 BC, Eretria was utterly ruined and its inhabitants were transported to Persia[clarification needed]. Though it was restored nearby its original site after the Battle of Marathon, the city never regained its former eminence.

Both cities gradually lost influence to Athens, which saw Euboea as a strategic territory. Euboea was an important source of grain and cattle, and controlling the island meant Athens could prevent invasion and better protect its trade routes from piracy.

Athens invaded Chalcis in 506 BC and settled 4,000 Attic Greeks on their lands. After this conflict, the whole of the island was gradually reduced to an Athenian dependency. Another struggle between Euboea and Athens broke out in 446. Led by Pericles, the Athenians subdued the revolt, and captured Histiaea in the north of the island for their own settlement.

By 410 BC, the island succeeded in regaining its independence. Euboea participated in Greek affairs until falling under the control of Philip II of Macedon after the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, and eventually being incorporated into the Roman Republic in the second century BC. Aristotle died on the island in 322 BC soon after fleeing Athens for his mother's family estate in Chalcis.

Tetrobol, 275-225 BC, Sear (GC) 2496
Obv: Anepigraphic. Head of the nymph, Histiaia, right, wearing wreath of vine and hair rolled.
Rev: ΙΣΤΙΑΙΕΩΝ
The nymph Histiaia seated right on stern of galley and holding naval standard.

Ebay
ecoli
HUN_Zsigmund_Huszar_578_Pohl_118-9_#2.jpg
Huszár 578, Pohl 118-9, Unger 450c, Réthy II 124A, Fryas H.27.6 # 2 49 viewsHungary. Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437).

AR denar (nominal fineness 0.540 AR; average weight 0.77 g.), .72 g., 16.12 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: mO•n • SIG—ISmVnDI, Patriarchal cross, K—L (privy mark) between arms.

Rev: + REGI[S] • VnGARIE ETC, Shield with Árpádian stripes.

The type was struck in 1427-1437. This privy mark was struck in 1436 in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Leonardo Bardi-Noffry, kammergraf, or Petrus Lang, kammergraf.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4, Unger value 6 DM, Frynas rarity C. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of a cross on the reverse and the placement of pellets in the legends. This is a variation that is neither described nor depicted in any of the references, in that there is not a pellet between the ET and the C on the reverse.

This emission was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.540 silver and an average weight of 0.77 g., which is the same fineness and weight as its predecessor (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that Sigismund introduced this emission as a monetary reform, to address the deterioration in value of that earlier emission. The new emission, then called the “new greater money,” had the value of 100 to the aranyforint, and maintained its value until Sigismund’s death. In 1387, the bishop of Transylvania, who had long been reluctant to collect the tithe due to the poor quality of the coinage, demanded that all arrears be paid – and in this new currency. The result was a peasant revolt!

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).
Stkp
HUN_Zsigmond_Huszar_578_Pohl_118-9.JPG
Huszár 578, Pohl 118-9, Unger 450c, Réthy II 124A 191 viewsHungary. Sigismund (Zsigmond, in Hun.) of Luxembourg (1387-1437; Holy Roman Emperor 1433-1437). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: [M]On • SIG—IS[M]VnDI, Patriarchal cross, K—L (privy mark) between arms.

Rev: + R[EGIS] VnGARIE • ETC, Shield with Árpádian stripes.

The type was struck in 1427-1437 (per Pohl, Huszár & Unger). This privy mark was struck in 1436 in Kremnitz (then Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Leonardo Bardi-Noffry, kammergraf, or Petrus Lang, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. The descriptions and depictions vary amongst the references with respect to the presence or absence of a cross on the reverse and the placement of pellets in the legends. This is a variation that is neither described nor depicted in any of the references, in that there is not a pellet between the ET and the C on the reverse.

This emission was struck with a nominal fineness of 0.540 silver and an average weight of 0.77 g., which is the same fineness and weight as its predecessor (per Huszár). However, Engel notes that Sigismund introduced this emission as a monetary reform, to address the deterioration in value of that earlier emission. The new emission, then called the “new greater money,” had the value of 100 to the aranyforint, and maintained its value until Sigismund’s death. In 1387, the bishop of Transylvania, who had long been reluctant to collect the tithe due to the poor quality of the coinage, demanded that all arrears be paid – and in this new currency. The result was a peasant revolt!

“Owing to inner strife and disordered general conditions, the coins [of this period] were usually minted with extremely low precious metal content; moreover, poor mintages were often struck with negligently engraved dies. As a result of the hurried, superficial minting, it was sometimes doubtful whether a faulty coin had been issued officially, or was a forgery” (Huszár 1963, at 15).

Stkp
lg2_quart_sm.jpg
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / P M S COL VIM / Ӕ30 (239-240 AD)17 viewsIMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / P M S CO - L VIM, personification of Moesia standing facing, head left, arms outstretched over a lion (right) and a bull (left). AN • I • in exergue.

Ӕ, 29-30+mm, 16.75g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: looks like red copper.

IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG = Imperator Caesar Marcus Antonius Gordianus Augustus, P M S COL VIM = Provinciae Moesiae Superioris Colonia Viminacium = Colony of Viminacium, in the province of Upper Moesia, AN•I• = the first year. 238 AD was the infamous "year of the 6 emperors", so 239-240 was the first sole ruling year of Gordian III. The bull is the symbol of Legio VII Claudia, based in the capital of Moesia Superior, Viminacium itself, and the lion is the symbol of Legio IV Flavia Felix based in another city of Moesia Superior, Singidunum (modern Belgrade). Due to size this is most probably a sestertius, but large dupondius is another possibility, since it is clearly made of red copper and sestertii were typically made of expensive "gold-like" orichalcum, a kind of brass (but in this time of civil strife they could have used a cheaper replacement). Literature fails to clearly identify the denomination of this type.

A straightforward ID due to size and clear legends, this is AMNG 71; Martin 1.01.1 minted in Viminacium, Moesia Superior (Kostolac, Serbia).

Gordian III was Roman Emperor from 238 AD to 244 AD. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. Antonia Gordiana was the daughter of Emperor Gordian I and younger sister of Emperor Gordian II. Very little is known of his early life before his acclamation. Gordian had assumed the name of his maternal grandfather in 238 AD.

In 235, following the murder of Emperor Alexander Severus, Maximinus Thrax was acclaimed Emperor. In the following years, there was a growing opposition against Maximinus in the Roman senate and amongst the majority of the population of Rome. In 238 (to become infamous as "the year of six emperors") a rebellion broke out in the Africa Province, where Gordian's grandfather and uncle, Gordian I and II, were proclaimed joint emperors. This revolt was suppressed within a month by Cappellianus, governor of Numidia and a loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax. The elder Gordians died, but public opinion cherished their memory as peace-loving and literate men, victims of Maximinus' oppression.

Meanwhile, Maximinus was on the verge of marching on Rome and the Senate elected Pupienus and Balbinus as joint emperors. These senators were not popular and the population of Rome was still shocked by the elder Gordians' fate, so the Senate decided to take the teenage Gordian, rename him Marcus Antonius Gordianus like his grandfather, and raise him to the rank of Caesar and imperial heir. Pupienus and Balbinus defeated Maximinus, mainly due to the defection of several legions, particularly the II Parthica, who assassinated Maximinus. However, their joint reign was doomed from the start with popular riots, military discontent and an enormous fire that consumed Rome in June 238. On July 29, Pupienus and Balbinus were killed by the Praetorian Guard and Gordian proclaimed sole emperor.

Due to Gordian's age, the imperial government was surrendered to the aristocratic families, who controlled the affairs of Rome through the Senate. In 240, Sabinianus revolted in the African province, but the situation was quickly brought under control. In 241, Gordian was married to Furia Sabinia Tranquillina, daughter of the newly appointed praetorian prefect, Timesitheus. As chief of the Praetorian Guard and father in law of the Emperor, Timesitheus quickly became the de facto ruler of the Roman Empire.

In the 3rd century, the Roman frontiers weakened against the Germanic tribes across the Rhine and Danube, and the Sassanid Empire across the Euphrates increased its own attacks. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243). The campaign was a success and Gordian, who had joined the army, was planning an invasion of the enemy's territory, when his father-in-law died in unclear circumstances. Without Timesitheus, the campaign, and the Emperor's security, were at risk.

Gaius Julius Priscus and, later on, his own brother Marcus Julius Philippus, also known as Philip the Arab, stepped in at this moment as the new Praetorian Prefects and the campaign proceeded. Around February 244, the Persians fought back fiercely to halt the Roman advance to Ctesiphon. Persian sources claim that a battle occurred (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. Roman sources do not mention this battle and suggest that Gordian died far away from Misiche, at Zaitha (Qalat es Salihiyah) in northern Mesopotamia. Modern scholarship does not unanimously accept this course of the events. One view holds that Gordian died at Zaitha, murdered by his frustrated army, while the role of Philip is unknown. Other scholars have concluded that Gordian died in battle against the Sassanids.
Philip transferred the body of the deceased emperor to Rome and arranged for his deification. Gordian's youth and good nature, along with the deaths of his grandfather and uncle and his own tragic fate at the hands of the enemy, earned him the lasting esteem of the Romans.
Yurii P
ClodiusAlbinus.jpg
Imperator Caesar Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus219 viewsClodius Albinus, Lugdunum mint, 18mm, 3.25 g. Struck 195 - 196 C.E.
O: Bust right, IMP CAES D CLO SEP ALB AVG
R: Aequitas facing left holding scales and cornucopiae, AEQVITAS AVG COS II. RIC 13a, Ex Tom Cederlind

When allied with Septimius Severus, Clodius Albinus’ portraits show him with hair combed forward to cover a receding hairline matched with a short scruffy beard.

When Septimius Severus named his son Caracalla Caesar, Albinus understood this as the end of their alliance and the beginning of a fight for his life. Ablinus took the title of Augustus (Imperator Caesar Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus), and his portrait quickly converts to a full head of hair and voluminous beard worthy of an Emperor.

According to Curtis Clay, Albinus broke with Severus c. Nov. 195, but was defeated and killed by Severus near Lugdunum, not on 19 Feb. 197 as traditionally stated, but a year earlier on 19 Feb. 196, after a revolt lasting only about three months!

This explains the scarcity of Albinus' coinage as Emperor compared to Albinus as Caesar under Severus.
3 commentsNemonater
3340093.jpg
IONIA, Phokaia.38 viewsThe ancient Greek geographer Pausanias says that Phocaea was founded by Phocians under Athenian leadership, on land given to them by the Aeolian Cymaeans, and that they were admitted into the Ionian League after accepting as kings the line of Codrus. Pottery remains indicate Aeolian presence as late as the 9th century BC, and Ionian presence as early as the end of the 9th century BC. From this an approximate date of settlement for Phocaea can be inferred.

According to Herodotus the Phocaeans were the first Greeks to make long sea-voyages, having discovered the coasts of the Adriatic, Tyrrhenia and Spain. Herodotus relates that they so impressed Arganthonios, king of Tartessus in Spain, that he invited them to settle there, and, when they declined, gave them a great sum of money to build a wall around their city.

Their sea travel was extensive. To the south they probably conducted trade with the Greek colony of Naucratis in Egypt, which was the colony of their fellow Ionian city Miletus. To the north, they probably helped settle Amisos (Samsun) on the Black Sea, and Lampsacus at the north end of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles). However Phocaea's major colonies were to the west. These included Alalia in Corsica, Emporiae and Rhoda in Spain, and especially Massalia (Marseille) in France.

Phocaea remained independent until the reign of the Lydian king Croesus (circa 560–545 BC), when they, along with the rest of mainland Ionia, first, fell under Lydian control[8] and then, along with Lydia (who had allied itself with Sparta) were conquered by Cyrus the Great of Persia in 546 BC, in one of the opening skirmishes of the great Greco-Persian conflict.

Rather than submit to Persian rule, the Phocaeans abandoned their city. Some may have fled to Chios, others to their colonies on Corsica and elsewhere in the Mediterranean, with some eventually returning to Phocaea. Many however became the founders of Elea, around 540 BC.

In 500 BC, Phocaea joined the Ionian Revolt against Persia. Indicative of its naval prowess, Dionysius, a Phocaean was chosen to command the Ionian fleet at the decisive Battle of Lade, in 494 BC. However, indicative of its declining fortunes, Phocaea was only able to contribute three ships, out of a total of "three hundred and fifty three". The Ionian fleet was defeated and the revolt ended shortly thereafter.

After the defeat of Xerxes I by the Greeks in 480 BC and the subsequent rise of Athenian power, Phocaea joined the Delian League, paying tribute to Athens of two talents. In 412 BC, during the Peloponnesian War, with the help of Sparta, Phocaea rebelled along with the rest of Ionia. The Peace of Antalcidas, which ended the Corinthian War, returned nominal control to Persia in 387 BC.

In 343 BC, the Phocaeans unsuccessfully laid siege to Kydonia on the island of Crete.

During the Hellenistic period it fell under Seleucid, then Attalid rule. In the Roman period, the town was a manufacturing center for ceramic vessels, including the late Roman Phocaean red slip.

It was later under the control of Benedetto Zaccaria, the Genoan ambassador to Byzantium, who received the town as a hereditary lordship; Zaccaria and his descendants amassed a considerable fortune from his properties there, especially the rich alum mines. It remained a Genoese colony until it was taken by the Turks in 1455. It is a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.

IONIA, Phokaia. Circa 521-478 BC. AR Hemidrachm (9mm, 1.54 g). Head of griffin left / Quadripartite incuse square. SNG Copenhagen –; SNG von Aulock 2116; SNG Kayhan 512-6. VF, dark toning.
ecoli
Judea,_First_Jewish_Revolt.jpg
Jewish First Revolt17 viewsAE Prutah
Jerusalem mint, 67-68 A.D.
18mm, 2.95g

Obverse:
Amphora with braod rim and two handle.
"Year Two" inscribed in Hebrew

Reverse:
Vine leaf on small branch.
"The Deliverence of Zion" inscribed in Hebrew
1 commentsWill J
Fow7y3Ci4JqWc8mB2NgXGd99BT5k6z.jpg
JEWISH WAR - FIRST REVOLT AE PRUTAH, YEAR TWO7 viewsHendin 1360, Very Fine, 17.4mm, 2.61 grams, Struck year two 67/68 C.E.
Obverse: Rimmed amphora with paleo-hebrew inscription YEAR TWO
Reverse: Vine leaf on small branch with tendril, inscription FREEDOM OF ZION
Antonivs Protti
Jewish_War_1_Year_2.JPG
Jewish War 1 Year 223 viewsFirst Jewish Revolt Year Two prutah
FIRST REVOLT YEAR TWO PRUTAH, Hendin 661
Hendin 661, Nice Very Fine+ with a beautiful patina, 16.9mm, 2.77 grams. Minted in the second year of the the Jewish Revolt against Rome
67/68 C.E. A wonderfully centered sharp coin. Excellent for type.
1 commentsRomanorvm
BarbPrutahWeb.jpg
Jewish War Year 2 irregular bronze prutah38 viewsJewish War, 66-70 AD, irregular bronze prutah, 16.1 mm, 2.92 gm. Dated "year 2", struck 67/68 AD.
O: Amphora crude style and legend.
R: Vine leaf on tendril, crude style and legend.
Unique obverse die, Hendin-1360b, MCP 048 with R67

A scarcer irregular issue bronze coins of the Jewish War. Some believe that these were struck at a second mint, moving with the army. Recent data suggests that these were made at secondary quasi-official mints and accepted in circulation as regular coins.

"The most amazing thing is the high number of irregular dies (56 obverse & 74 reverse dies!) vs. the extreme rarity of irregular dies for the prutah of the 3rd year. Something important happened in the production of these prutot between the 2nd and the 3rd years of the revolt. Has an illegal workshop been closed after year 2? Or was there apprentice engravers employed at the regular mint on year 2 who were no longer employed on year 3?" - JPFontanille
Nemonater
bar_kochba.jpg
Judaea, Bar Kochba Revolt113 viewsBar Kochba bronze, 132-135 AD.
Obverse- Palm tree, 'Simon'.
Reverse- Vine leaf, 'year 2 of the freedom of Israel.'
Hendin-708, 24 mm, 8.4 g.
4 commentsb70
Year2Shekel.jpg
Judaea, First Revolt Shekel, Year 2125 viewsJudaea, First Jewish War AR Shekel. Dated year 2 (AD 67/8)
O: Hebrew script read from right to left SKL ISRAL “Shekel of Israel”, the date Shin Bet, "Year Two" of the revolution, above Omer cup with beaded rim
R: Hebrew script YRUSLIM H KDOSA “Jerusalem the Holy” around sprig of three pomegranates.

This coin was minted during times of great upheaval in Judaea as well as the rest of the Roman empire.

As Jewish factions were fighting for control in Jerusalem, General Vespasian's armies invaded Galilee in 67 CE with 60,000 men as they began the effort to quell the rebellion started a year earlier. Vespasian captured the commander of Galilee, Josephus ben Matthias, in the little mountain town of Jotapata, which fell after a fierce siege of 47 days. It was the second bloodiest battle of the revolt, surpassed only by the sacking of Jerusalem, and the longest except for Jerusalem and Masada.

Driven from Galilee, Zealot rebels and thousands of refugees arrived in Judea, causing even greater political turmoil in Jerusalem.

Meanwhile, back in Rome in 68 CE, Nero commits suicide, plunging the Empire into a civil war. Galba, Otho and Vitellius would assume the purple till Vespasian, leaving the battle in Judaea to Titus, brought the matter to a conclusion in 69.
6 commentsNemonater
Judaea,_First_Revolt,_AE-16mm_Prutah__Year_2_(67-8_AD),_Hendin_(old)_661,_Hendin_(2010),_1360,_Meshorer_196_,_Q-001,_6h,_15,5mm,_2,12g-s.jpg
Judaea, First Revolt, (Year 2 = 67-68 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 661, Vine leaf, #1138 viewsJudaea, First Revolt, (Year 2 = 67-68 A.D.), AE-16(Prutah), Hedin 661, Vine leaf, #1
avers: שנח שתים, Hebrew legend "Shenath Shethaim" (Year Two) around amphora with a wide rim and two handles.
reverse: חרות ציון, Hebrew legend "Cheruth Zion" (Freedom of Zion) around vine leaf with small branch and tendril.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 2,12g, axes: 6h,
mint: Judaea, First Revolt, date: Year 2 = 67-68 A.D., ref: Hendin (old) 661, Hendin (2010), 1360, Meshorer 196.
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
w2w.jpg
Judaea, First Revolt, AE 19mm Prutah. Year 2 = 67-8 AD.11 viewsObv: Hebrew legend "Shenath Shethaim" (Year Two) around amphora with wide rim and two handles.
Rev: Hebrew legend "Cheruth Zion" (Freedom of Zion) around vine leaf with small branch and tendril.
ancientone
Judaea-first-revolt.jpg
Judaea, Jewish First Revolt (67-68 AD) AE Prutah, Year 239 viewsAncient Greek, Judaea, Jewish First Revolt (67-68 AD) AE Prutah, Year 2

Obverse: SNT-STYM, Year Two in ancient Hebrew script, amphora with fluted body, broad rim and two handles.

Reverse: HRT-SYWN, Freedom of Zion in ancient Hebrew, vine leaf on a small branch.

Reference: Hendin 1360, AJC II P.260 11a

Ex: Kayser-i Rum Numismatics +photo

Viewable with Segoe UI Historic

Obverse Legend:

𐤔𐤍𐤕𐤔𐤕𐤉𐤌 ← SNT-STYM "Year Two"

Reverse Legend:

𐤇‬𐤓𐤕𐤔𐤉𐤅𐤍 ← HRT-SYWN "Freedom of Zion"
Gil-galad
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JUDAEA, Jewish War First Revolt37 viewsAE eighth-sheqel, 19.50mm (4.63 gm).

Inscription around (year four), lulav bunch flanked by an etrog on either side / Inscription around (to the redemption of Zion), chalice with pearled rim.

Hendin, 1369.
socalcoins
Prutah1.jpg
JUDAEA, Jewish War First Revolt53 viewsAE prutah, 18.69mm (2.91 gm).

Amphora with broad rim and two handles, legend around (year 2) / Vine leaf on small branch, legend around ("the freedom of Zion"). Struck AD 67-68.

Hendin, 661; Meshorer, 197.
1 commentssocalcoins
coins21.JPG
Judaea; Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem), Hardian50 viewsAelia Capitolina (Jerusalem) in Judaea.

In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem, in Judaea, left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 66–73. He rebuilt the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina after himself and Jupiter Capitolinus, the chief Roman deity. A new temple dedicated to the worship of Jupiter was built on the ruins of the old Jewish Second Temple, which had been destroyed in 70. In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision, which was considered by Romans and Greeks as a form of bodily mutilation and hence "barbaric". These anti-Jewish policies of Hadrian triggered in Judaea a massive Jewish uprising, led by Simon bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. Indeed, Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian's report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation "I and the legions are well". However, Hadrian's army eventually put down the rebellion in 135, after three years of fighting. According to Cassius Dio, during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. The final battle took place in Beitar, a fortified city 10 km. southwest of Jerusalem. The city only fell after a lengthy siege, and Hadrian did not allow the Jews to bury their dead. According to the Babylonian Talmud, after the war Hadrian continued the persecution of Jews. He attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars (see Ten Martyrs). The sacred scroll was ceremonially burned on the Temple Mount. In an attempt to erase the memory of Judaea, he renamed the province Syria Palaestina (after the Philistines), and Jews were forbidden from entering its rededicated capital. When Jewish sources mention Hadrian it is always with the epitaph "may his bones be crushed" (שחיק עצמות), an expression never used even with respect to Vespasian or Titus who destroyed the Second Temple.

JUDAEA, Aelia Capitolina (Jerusalem). Hadrian. 117-138 CE. Æ 22mm (11.03 gm, 11h). Struck 136 CE. IMP CAES TRAIANO HADRIANO AVG P P, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust / COL AEL KAPIT, COND in exergue, Hadrian, as priest-founder, plowing with team of oxen right; vexillum behind. Meshorer, Aelia 2; Hendin 810; SNG ANS -.
ecoli
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Judea - First Jewish Revolt AE prutah, 68-69 AD35 viewsFirst Jewish Revolt
AE Prutah
Jerusalem, 68/69AD
SH'NAT SH'LOSH
Year Three-Amphora with broad rim and two handles and lid decorated with tiny globes hanging around edge
CHAROT TZION
Vine leaf with twig on tendril
Hendin 664
1 commentsArdatirion
HEN664.jpg
JUDEA - JEWISH REVOLT22 viewsAE Prutah. Hendin 664. 68-69 A.D. Year 3. dpaul7
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JUDEA - JEWISH REVOLT23 viewsAE Prutah. Hendin 661. 67-68 A.D. (Year 2).dpaul7
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Judea, 2nd Revolt54 viewsDate: 132-135 AD
Size: AE 24
Obverse: Palm/wreath
Reverse: Broad Lyre
Reference: H. 680
3 commentsJohn K
first_jewish_revolt_res.jpg
JUDEAN--FIRST JEWISH REVOLT8 views66 - 70 AD
AE Prutah 16.43 mm max., 2.26 g
O: Amphora with broad rim and two handles, "year 2" (in Hebrew) around
R: Vine leaf on small branch, "the freedom of Zion" (in Hebrew) around
Jerusalem mint; year 2, Hendin 1360
(ex Forum)
laney
JulianII_Bull~2.jpg
Julian II - 355-363 AD AE3 Apis Bull91 views
JULIAN II. 361-363 AD. Æ 28mm * Constantinople mint.

Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB., bull standing right, two stars above; .CONSP(delta)(palm).

Patina: Dark brown

Size: 28mm
Weight: (8.55 gm).

RIC VIII 162; LRBC 2058.

“In the spring of 360, Julian's troops rose in revolt against Constantius, and Julian II was proclaimed as Augustus. The depiction of the bull is well understood. Julian II often slaughtered bulls to Mars, the Roman god of war.

"..On 4 May 360, Venus joined Mars to form a single star between the horns of Taurus, the Bull, as the constellation set in the western sky. Two weeks earlier, Mars was between the horns, and Venus rested on the shoulder of the bull. There can be little doubt that this planetary conjunction, or grouping, is shown on this coin.”
Tiathena
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JULIAN II AE1 (double majorina) AD360-36326 viewsobv: D.N.FL.CL.IVLIANVS.PF.AVG (diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: SECVRITAS.REIPVB / ASIRM (Apis Bull standing right, two stars above)
ref: RIC VIII-Sirmium107
6.22gms, 28mm

Julian came to power in 360 CE in a revolt against Constantius II and tried to reinstate pagan gods. Julian would certainly be looking for a heavenly sign to offset the Christian vision of Constantius' father, Constantine the Great. This event materialized on May 4, 360 as Mars and Venus occulted, thus forming one very bright star. This occultation happened to occur in the constellation of Taurus directly between the horns. Two weeks prior to the occultation, the planets were in the exact location indicated on the coin. This was probably the last coin minted by the Romans that had an astrological base.
berserker
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Julius Caesar and Vercingetorix37 viewsTHE BATTLE OF ALESIA

Caesar describes this "battle"in his Commentaries on the war in Gaul in Book VII, “Chapters 63-90.”

The story begins in the winter of 54/53 BC when the Eburones attack and destroy the XIVth Legion. The Roman losses have been estimated to be as high as 9000 men. The atmosphere in Rome, at that time, is a politically complex and tense one for Caesar. He realizes he will not be reinforced. Before long, half of Gaul is in revolt; and for the first time individual Gallic tribes--the Senones, Parisii, Pictones, Cadurci, Turoni, Aulerci, Lemovices and Anndes--unite under the leadership of one man, Vercingetorix (Meier 317).

Vercingetorix is a charismatic, highly gifted and ambitious man. He detests the Romans but has carefully studied their tactics. Caesar, himself, comments that “in the exercise of his command Vercingetorix ‘added the utmost care to the utmost severity’” (Meier 318).

The contest between these two leaders is intriguing, and I am unable to do it justice within the confines of this thread. In his book, Caesar, Christian Meir writes not only with the authority of impressive scholarship; he carefully depicts, with the gift of a story teller, the decisions of these men.

Suffice it to say that Vercingetorix seeks temporary refuge with 80,000 men on the summit of a hill named Alesia. His position is “impregnable and impossible to take by storm” (Meier 323). Caesar sees his chance, and in an endeavor that is incredible by any standard, he builds a siege wall/trench that completely surrounds Vercingetorix’s stronghold. “The wall built by the Romans extended for fourteen kilometers, with twenty-three forts as strong points” (Meier 323).

Realizing his predicament, Vercingetorix calls for help. 250,000 Gauls march on Caesar; “the whole of Gaul was to show itself and be victorious” (Meier 324). Surrounded himself, Caesar orders his men to attempt the almost impossible: they must build another siege wall/trench that will surround their first feat of engineering. The Gauls attack Caesar on both sides, and the Romans now fight a battle on two “fronts.”

Caesar, in command of 60,000 men (10 legions or so) is seriously, numerically out numbered. And yet, because of Caesar’s ingenuity and courage; because his legions are superior warriors; perhaps, because Fortune (upon whom Caesar certainly counted) favored the brave (Virgil); and because of the Roman soldier’s other weapon—the shovel; Caesar won a stunning victory. “Few battles, says Plutarch, have been fought with such outstanding bravery and such a wealth of technical invention or ‘martial genius’” (Meier 327).

Works Cited

Meier, Christian. Caesar. London: Fontana Press: 1996.
Cleisthenes
ALEXANDER_III_AR_Drachm.JPG
Kingdom of Macedonia, Alexander the Great. AR Drachm. Struck 323 – 317 BC at Lampsakos, Mysia.21 viewsObverse: No legend. Head of Herakles, wearing lion-skin knotted at base of neck, facing right.
Reverse: AΛEΞANĐPOY. Zeus Aëtophoros seated facing left, right leg drawn back, feet on stool, eagle in right hand, sceptre in left; buckle in left field; Λ above Ω below throne.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 4.16gms | Die Axis: 7 | Cut mark above eyebrow on obverse.
Price: 1376

Alexander the Great reigned from 336 to 323 BC but this coin was struck shortly after his death, in around 323 to 317 BC under Leonnatos, Philip III Arrhidaios, or Antigonos I Monophthalmos.

Leonnatos was a Macedonian officer under Alexander the Great and one of the diadochi, rival generals, family and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for the control of Alexander's empire after his death in 323 BC.
Leonnatos was the same age as Alexander and was very close to him. After Alexander died, Leonnatos was made satrap of Phrygia and Alexander's sister, Cleopatra, offered him her hand in marriage. When the Athenians heard that Alexander had died, they revolted against Macedonia. Leonnatos led an army of 20,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry to relieve the new regent, Antipater, probably with the ambition of usurping Antipater's power since a victory over the Athenians would have enhanced Leonnatos' own claim to the throne. However, in 322 BC, Leonnatus was killed in battle against the Athenians and his marriage to Cleopatra never took place.
Philip III Arrhidaeus was the king of Macedonia after the death of Alexander the Great, from 323 BC until his own death in 317 BC. He was a son of King Philip II of Macedonia and a half-brother of Alexander. Named Arrhidaeus at birth, he assumed the name Philip when he ascended the throne.
As Arrhidaeus grew older it became apparent that he had mild learning difficulties. Alexander was very fond of him, and took him on his campaigns, both to protect his life and to ensure he would not be used as a pawn in a challenge for the throne. After Alexander's death in Babylon, Arrhidaeus was proclaimed king by the Macedonian army in Asia, but he was a mere figurehead, and a pawn of the powerful generals, one after the other.
Antigonos I Monophthalmus (Antigonos the One-eyed) was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. As part of the division of the provinces after Alexander's death, Antigonos received Pamphylia and Lycia from Perdiccas, regent of the empire, but he incurred the enmity of Perdiccas by refusing to assist Eumenes to obtain possession of Paphlagonia and Cappadocia, the provinces which had been allotted to him. Leonnatos had left with his army for Greece, leaving Antigonos to deal with Cappadocia, a task he apparently couldn't complete alone and Perdiccas seems to have viewed this as a direct affront to his authority. Perdiccas then went with the royal army to conquer the area himself and from there he turned west towards Phrygia in order to confront Antigonos. Antigonos, however, escaped to Greece where, in 321 BC, he obtained the favour of Antipater, regent of Macedonia.
When Perdiccas died later that same year, a new attempt at division of the empire took place and Antigonos found himself entrusted with the command of the war against Eumenes, who had joined Perdiccas against the coalition of the other generals which included Antipater, Antigonos, Ptolemy and Craterus. Eumenes was defeated and forced to retire to the fortress of Nora in Cappadocia, and a new army that was marching to his relief was routed by Antigonos.
In 319 BC Antipater died, and Polyperchon was given the regentship, but Antigonos and the other dynasts refused to recognize him since it undermined their own ambitions. Antigonos' old adversary, Eumenes, who had been given authority over anyone within the empire by Polyperchon, raised an army and built a fleet in Cilicia and Phoenicia, and soon after formed a coalition with the satraps of the eastern provinces. Antigonos fought against him in two great battles and, though both were inconclusive, in the aftermath of the second battle Antigonos managed to capture the family and possessions of the Silvershields, an elite regiment within Eumenes' army. The Silvershields negotiated the release of their families by handing over Eumenes to Antigonos in return. Antigonos had Eumenes executed resulting in him now being in possession of the empire's Asian territories, stretching from the eastern satrapies to Syria and Asia Minor in the west.
2 comments*Alex
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Kingdom of Thrace. Lysimachos AR Tetradrachm178 viewsCirca 297-281 B.C. AR Tetradrachm, Thompson 59, Müller 88 (Sestus mint), 17.146g, maximum diameter 31.2mm, die axis 0o, Mysia, Lampsacus mint. Obverse diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon. Reverse Athena seated left on prow, Nike crowning name in extended right, transverse spear resting against right side, resting left arm on shield behind, KA monogram inner left, herm outer left. gVF. Nice style, beautiful portrait of Alexander.

Ex Otakirak Collection. Ex Stack's, Bowers and Ponterio NYINC Auction 2012, lot 194. Ex FORVM.

Lysimachos, a Macedonian of great physical strength and fortitude, rose to prominence as a σωματοφύλαξ, or “bodyguard” for Alexander the Great. When Alexander’s territories were parceled out during the settlement at Babylon in 323 BC, Lysimachos was given control of Thrace, the Chersonese, and the intervening Black Sea coast. Unfortunately, much of this territory was no longer under Macedonian control, but was claimed by various Thracian tribes. Although Lysimachos was involved to some extent in the early wars of the Diadochs, most of his early years as satrap were preoccupied with subduing the Thracian tribes, an endeavor that was largely unsuccessful. By the time he assumed the royal title in 306/5 BC, his kingdom consisted of little more than the southern portions of Thrace. While this territory included a few already active mints, such as Ainos and Byzantion, Lysimachos was forced to depend on his ally Kassander, the king of Macedon, for coinage, as the sources of bullion were under the control of his enemies. This situation changed in 302 BC, when Lysimachos raised an army at the urging of Kassander and invaded Asia Minor, territory which Antigonos I Monophthalmos controlled, and whose son, Demetrios I Poliorketes, was threatening Kassander’s southern flank in Thessaly. Lysimachos quickly captured much of the Hellespont, and he penetrated as far as Lydia. This territory was rich with both silver bullion and mint cities, including Alexandria Troas, Ephesos, Lampsakos, Magnesia, and Sardis. Lysimachos used these mints to begin striking coinage on his behalf, while at the same time, he apparently sent bullion back to Thrace, where Lysimacheia and Sestos also began to produce coinage for him. These mints initially struck coins of Alexander type for Lysimachos, but later changed to the new Lysimachos type in 297 BC. After Lysimachos and Seleukos I defeated the Antigonids at Ipsos in 301 BC, most of western Asia Minor passed to Lysimachos. He now held some of the most prosperous cities in the Aegean, and soon most of the well-established mints were striking coinage in his name. Many of these same mints were required to pay large sums of tribute in order to fund further campaigns of expansion. One such object of expansion was Macedon, the ultimate goal of all the Diodochs. Since the death of Kassander in 298 BC, it had fallen into chaos and was eventually captured by Demetrios, who was, in turn, driven out by the joint invasion of Lysimachos and Pyrrhos in 288 BC. Initially, Macedon was split between the two, with Lysimachos taking the eastern half and its mint of Amphipolis. By 285 BC, when Lysimachos also obtained the western half from Pyrrhos, Pella also began producing coinage for Lysimachos. His successes, however, were short-lived. Beginning in 284 BC with the murder of his step-sons, Lysimachos became involved in a treacherous game of political and dynastic intrigue. As a result, revolt broke out among the Asian cities under his control, and Seleukos I launched an invasion against him. At the battle of Korupedion in 281 BC, Lysimachos was killed, and his kingdom was subsumed into the Seleukid empire. Ptolemy Keraunos, however, siezed Lysimachos’ European territories after he murdered Seleukos I later that year. Edward T. Newell’s study of Lysimachos’ lifetime issues arranged them according to the territorial expansion of his kingdom. Unfortunately, Newell died before completing his study, and consequently many issues are missing from Margaret Thompson’s survey of his unfinished work. The many ‘unpublished’ coins that have appeared over the past two decades reveal how little is known about Lysimachos’ coinage. Although most catalogs list these unpublished coins as posthumous issues, this is unlikely, as most of his mint cities were taken over by other kingdoms following Lysimachos’ death. The cities that continued to issue his coins as a regular type, such as Byzantion, were mostly ones that regularly conducted trade with cities to the north of Thrace, whose economies were likely dominated by Lysimachos type coinage during his lifetime. A few cities, such as Tenedos, struck brief, sporadic issues of Lysimachos type coins long after his death, but these issues were likely struck for some specific purpose that required this type, and are not part of any regular series. At the beginning of his reign, Lysimachos continued to use Alexander’s coinage types, later modifying them by replacing Alexander’s name with his own. In 297 BC, Lysimachos introduced a new type: the obverse was a portrait of Alexander; the reverse was Athena, Lysimachos’ patron goddess. G.K Jenkins noted the power of the Alexander portrait in his commentary on the Gulbenkian Collection: “The idealized portrait of Alexander introduced on the coinage of Lysimachos in 297 BC is characterized by the horn of Ammon which appears above the ear. The allusion is to Alexander’s famous visit to the oracle of Ammon at the Siwa Oasis in 331, when the god is supposed to have greeted Alexander as ‘My son’.... The best of the Alexander heads on Lysimachos’ coinage...have a power and brilliance of effect that is irresistible. It [is speculated] that these Alexander heads may have derived from an original gem carved by Pyrgoteles, an engraver prominent among the artists of Alexander’s court....” Regardless of the inspiration for the new design, part of the remarkable attraction of this coinage is its artistic variety: each engraver created his own fresh and distinctive portrayal of the world’s greatest conqueror. (Commentary courtesy of CNG).
6 commentsJason T
kyrene_magas.jpg
Kyrene; Magas; horned head of Apollo Karneios left/ ΠΤΟΛΕΜ ΒΑΣΙΛ, eagle standing right, K-Y at sides20 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Revolt of the Magas in Kyrene, c. 276-249 B.C. Bronze AE 12, BMC -, VF, Kyrene mint, weight 2.220g, maximum diameter 12.3mm, die axis 180o, 276 - 250 B.C.; obverse horned head of Apollo Karneios left; reverse ΠΤΟΛΕΜ ΒΑΣΙΛ, eagle standing right, K-Y at sides; rough reddish patina; rare. Magas was half-brother to Ptolemy II and son of Berenike, the Macedonian second wife of Ptolemy I. He tried repeatedly to gain independence from Ptolemaic control. In 276 B.C he crowned himself King, married the daughter of Antiochos I and staged a double invasion of Egypt. But the Seleukid army was defeated by Ptolemy II and Magas also faced an internal revolt of Lybian nomads. Still, Kyrene remained independent as long as Magas lived; Ex ForumPodiceps
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L. Manlius Torquatus and L. Cornelius Sulla52 viewsL. Manlius Torquatus and L. Cornelius Sulla (82 BC). AR denarius 3.99 g. Military military mint with Sulla.
O: Helmeted bust of Roma right, with peaked visor, cruciform earring and necklace, hair in three locks; L MANLI before; PRO•Q behind
R: Sulla, togate, driving triumphal quadriga right, holding branch and reins; above, Victory flying left crowning Sulla with laurel wreath; L•SVLLA•IM in exergue. - Crawford 367/5. Sydenham 757. Manlia 4.
Fine style, light golden toning.

As consul for the year 88 BC, Sulla was awarded the coveted assignment of suppressing the revolt of Mithradates VI of Pontus, but political maneuvers resulted in this assignment being transferred to Marius. In response, Sulla turned his army on Rome, captured it, and reclaimed his command against Mithradates. His prosecution of the first Mithradatic War was successful, but he spared the Pontic king for personal gain. In 83 BC, Sulla returned to Italy as an outlaw, but he was able to win the support of many of the leading Romans. Within a year, he fought his way to Rome, where he was elected dictator. It was during this campaign to Rome that this denarius was struck. The obverse type represents Sulla's claim to be acting in Rome's best interest. The reverse shows Sulla enjoying the highest honor to which a Roman could aspire: the celebration of a triumph at Rome.

We learn from Plutarch that L. Manlius Torquatus was one of Sulla’s generals. This type was struck during Sulla’s political campaign to be elected dictator, following his return to Rome after his victory against Mithridates. Prior to the Mithridatic Wars, L. Manlius Torquatus had been Sulla’s quaestor - a post he had resigned to assume his military role; hence on this issue he is proquaestor.
1 commentsNemonater
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LVIF and laureate (?) head right154 viewsSYRIA: SELEUCIS & PIERIA. Antiochia ad Orontem. Nero or Domitian. Æ 22. A.D. 65/66 (year 114; if Nero) or A.D. Obv: Illegible legends, laureated head left; 2 countermarks: (1) on head, (2) behind neck. Rev: SC within laurel-wreath of eight leaves. Ref: RPC 4298 (if Nero) or 2024 (if Domitian). Axis: 30°. Weight: 6.35 g. CM(1): LVIF in rectangular punch, 7 x 3 mm. Howgego 726 (12 pcs). Note: Countermark of the 6th Legion Ferrata. Applied only to the samaller denomination, primarily of the SC series. Likely applied at the same time as countermark (2), possibly in Palestine after the transfer of the Legion to Caparcotna in Judaea, where it is known to have been stationed after the Jewish revolt of 132-135 (and possibly even from around 123). CM(2): Laureate (?) head right, in square punch, 4 mm. Howgego 134 (11 pcs). Note: Also countermark of the 6th Legion Ferrata. Likely applied at the same time as countermark (1). Collection Automan.Automan
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Macrinus94 viewsIMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Macrinus right

FELECITAS TEMPORVM
Felicitas standing left holding long caduceus and cornucopiae

Rome 217 AD
2.37g

Sear 7331, RSC 19a, RIC 62

Scarce/Rare: 5 specimens in Reka Devnia Hoard (Cohen 19)

Ex-ANE

Wildwinds speciman #2


Macrinus was the Praetorian prefect during the reign of Caracalla. After hearing a prophecy that he would become Emperor Macrinus feared that Caracalla would have him killed. In order to save his life he arranged Caracalla's assassination and he and his son Diadumenian seized power and were accepted by the senate. Macrinus concluded an unfavourable peace with the Persians. This disgrace, magnified by propaganda of Julia Maesa, Caracalla's aunt, inspired the Syrian legions to revolt. In the ensuing conflict Macrinus was defeated. He fled, only to be betrayed and executed.

SOLD to Calgary Coin June 2017
2 commentsJay GT4
ISL_Mamluk_Balog_295_Isma__il.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Mamluk. Hajji I (al-Muzaffar Sayf al-Din Hajji) (747-748 A.H. = 1346-1347 A.D.)6 viewsBalog 315 Plate XII 315; SNAT Hamah 480-481; Album 943

AE fals, Hamah mint, undated: 3.13 g., 21.32 mm. max., 270°

Obv.: Circular line border. Field divided by two horizontal lines (fesse). Ornament in upper and lower segments. االملك المظف (=al-Malik al-Muzaffar).

Rev.:Circular line border. Inverted linear dodekalobe, each point of arch crowned with tiny fleur-de-lis. In center: ضرب (=duriba/struck) / بحماة (bi-Hamah) in two lines.

Hajji was the sixth of Muhammad I's sons to serve as sultan, acceding to office at age 15. One year later, a group of Circassian mamluks angry at Hajji's killing of a senior Circassian emir in his retinue revolted against his rule. Hajji sought to eliminate them, but once he reached the outskirts of Cairo, his troops abandoned him. He was captured and killed. He was known for his love of sports and pigeon racing, acts which frustrated the senior Mamluk emirs who believed he neglected his duties and spent extravagant sums gambling.
Stkp
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_480_al-Ashraf_N_#257;sir_al-D_#299;n_Sha__b_#257;n_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)6 viewsBalog 480 Plate XVIII 480; Album 958

AE fals, Trablus/Tripoli (Lebanon), undated: 2.51 g., 18.15 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Circular line with border of dots. Field divided by two horizontal lines of dots into three segments: ضرب طر (duriba/struck) / الملك الاشرف (al-Malik al-Ashraf) / ا طرابلس [?] (Trablus)

Rev.: Circular line with border of dots. Lion passant to left, with tail curled back. The lion's body is adapted to the circular field.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
Stkp
ISL_Mamluks_Balog_461_al-Ashraf_N_#257;s_#803;ir_al-D_#299;n_Sha__ban_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)7 viewsBalog 461, Plate XVII, No. 461; SNAT Hamah 581-584; Album 958

AE fals; Ḥamāh mint, undated; 2.67 g., 19.69 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Circular line in border of dots. In it, oblong cartouche, lateral ends pointed inwards, on upper and lower sides, convexity; الملك (= al-Malik) / الاشرف (= al-Ashraf) in two rows in center.

Rev.: No border. Double circular line, connected with 12 spokes; on the external circle, 24 short radiating rods, crowned with a pellet; بحماة (= Hamah) in center.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
Stkp
ISL_Mamluk_Balog_467_Sha__b_#257;n_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)6 viewsBalog 467 Plate XVII 467; SNAT Hamah 605-607; Album 958

AE fals, Hamah mint, dated (7)75 A.H. = 1373/74 A.D.: 2.16 g., 18.71 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Circular line with border of dots. Field divided by two horizontal lines into three segments: بحماة / الملك الاشرف / ضرب (= Hamah / al-Malik al-Ashraf / duriba = struck)

Rev.: Circular line with border of dots. Field divided by a triple horizontal lines into two segments: و ستين / سنة خمس (= and seventy / five years).

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
Stkp
ISL_MAMLUK_Balog_462_v_al-Ashraf_N_#257;s_#803;ir_al-D_#299;n_Sha__ban_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)18 viewsBalog 462 Plate XVII 462 var. (orientation of bendy); SNAT Hamah 615-616; Album 958

AE fals; Hamah mint, undated 776-778 A.H. = 1374-1377 A.D.; 1.62 g., 17.81 mm. max., 90°

Obv.: Solid border, circular border within; الملك الاشرف (= al-Malik al-Ashraf) between arabesque ornaments in center.

Rev.: Field divided into three horizontal segments, the central fesse segment bendy with seven pieces to left; بحما (= bi-Hamah) in upper segment, ضرب (= duriba/struck) in lower.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
1 commentsStkp
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_464_Al_Ashraf_Sha__ban.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)4 viewsBalog 464 Plate XVII 464a-b; SNAT Hamah 595-604; Album 958

AE fals, Hamah mint, struck 773 A.H. = 1371/2 A.D.: 1.40 g., 18.28 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Circular line in border of dots. In it, linear square. الملك (= al-Malik) / الاشرف (= al-Ashraf) in two rows in center; بحماة (= bi Hamah) in upper segment, ضرب (= duriba/struck) in lower segments.

Rev.: Border comprised of circular rigid cable to left between two linear circles. Lion passant to left, with tail curled back, knot in the middle of the tail.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
Stkp
ISL_Mamluks_Balog_466.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)15 viewsBalog 466 Plate XVII 466; SNAT Hamah 574-580; Album 958

AE fals, Hamah mint, dated (76)4 A.H. = 1363 A.D.: 2.58 g., 20.55 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Rigid cable to left border between two circular lines. In center: الاشرف (al-Ashraf) / سنة بحماة (sanat bi-Hamah) / ضرب (duriba) / أربعة (arbe/four)

Rev.: Fleur-de-lis with wide basis, between two small rings. Top flanked by two pellets.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
1 commentsStkp
ISL_MAMLUKS_Balog_471_Sha__ban_II.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). Sha`ban II (al-Ashraf Nasir al-Din Sha`ban) (764-778 A.H. = 1363-1377 A.D.)7 viewsBalog 471 Plate XVIII 471; Album 958

AE fals, Halab/Aleppo mint, undated: 1.96 g., 19.26 mm. max., 270°

Obv.: Circular line border. Field divided by two horizontal lines into three segments: ضرب / الملك الاشرف / بحلب (= duriba = struck / al-Malik al-Ashraf = the King al-Ashraf / bi-Halab = in Halab)

Rev.: Circular line border. Linear dodekalobe with flowerets looking inwards. In it, linear hexagram with central crescent.

Sha'ban II was a grandson of Muhammad I, being the son of one of Muhammad's sons who never held office. In 1363, the senior Mamluk emirs, led by Emir Yalbugha, deposed Sultan Muhammad II on charges of illicit behavior and installed ten-year-old Sha'ban as his figurehead replacement. In 1366 Sha'ban, who sought to wield power, supported a successful revolt against Yalbugha. One year later, Sha'ban, who still had few mamluks of his own but was supported by the common people, quelled a rebellion. Again in 1373, the commoners assisted Sha'ban in defeating a rebellion. Because of their loyalty and key support during these revolts, Sha'ban treated the commoners well throughout his reign, including efforts to provide food for the poor during a two-year famine in Egypt. In 1376, Sha'ban went on the Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca. In his absence emirs again rebelled against Sha'ban, which was followed by a rebellion of Sha'ban's own mamluk guard, who murdered him in 1377.
Stkp
ISL_Mamluk_Balog_504___Ali.jpg
Mamluk (Bahri). `Ali II (al-Mansur `Ala al-Din Ali) (778-783 A.H. = 1377-1381 A.D.)4 viewsBalog 504 Plate XIX 504; Album 963

AE fals, Trablus/Tripoli mint, undated; 2.71 g., 18.45 mm. max. 0°

Obv.: Border of dots, in which circular line. Field divided by two horizontal lines into three segments: ضرب طر (duriba Trablus) / لملك المنصور (al-Malik al-Mansur) / ابلس (_____).

Rev. Border of dots in which circular line. In it, a hexagon with concave sides. In the segments formed by circle and hexagon, annulets. In the field, fleur-de-lis with rhomboidal basis.

Ali was the son of Sha'ban II and the great-grandson of Muhammad I. He was installed as sultan at age nine upon the death of his father in a revolt. He died four years later.
Stkp
ANTLEGXVI.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG XVI53 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
Galley right mast with banners at prow

LEG XVI
legionary eagle between two standards


Patrae mint

32-31BC

3.26g

Ex- Tom Cederlind

The 16th was founded by Julius Caesar in 54 BC. It is believed to have been granted "Flavia" title by Domitian in 89 AD following the Saturninus revolt.
1 commentsJay GT4
byz_2_pan.jpg
Maurice Tiberius, 13 August 582 - 22 November 602 A.D.29 viewsBronze follis, (SBCV 494), weight 11.8g, max. diameter 31.9 mm, 2nd officina, Constantinople mint, 590 - 591 A.D.; Obv. D N mAVRC TIbER PP AVC, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, globus cruciger in right, shield in left, Rev. large M, cross above, ANNO left, σ I II (year 9) right, B (2nd officina) below, CON in exergue. Brown with dusty green desert patina.

Background Info courtesy Forvm Ancient Coins;

Joint rule with Theodosius (his son), 29 March 590 - 22 November 602 A.D.
Maurice Tiberius, a successful general, was selected by Tiberius II Constantine as his successor. Although he achieved a favorable peace in Persia and was able to stem the losses of territory in Italy and Africa, much of the Balkans were lost. Focas, a junior officer, led a military revolt against Maurice and was declared emperor in November 602. Maurice and Theodosius, his son and co-emperor, were captured and murdered.

Steve E
Maxentius_as_Caesar_RIC_Carthage_51a.jpg
Maxentius as Caesar - RIC VI 51a (Carthage)2 viewsDenomination: Follis
Era: Late 306 AD
Metal: AE
Obverse: M AVR MAXENTIVS NOB CAES, Laureate head right

Reverse: SALVIS AVGG ET CAES FEL KART, Carthage standing facing, head left, holding up fruits in both hands; H in left field, Δ in exergue.
Mint: Carthage
Weight: 10.20 gm.
Reference: RIC VI Carthage, 51a.
Provenance: Purchased from Mike Vosper, March 28, 2019; ex Roma Numismatics E-Sale 46, lot 804 (subsequently processed, removing dirt and deposits).

RIC: “The mint of Carthage, previously administered as part of Severus’ territories, passed into new control with Maxentius’ revolt at Rome in October 306…The immediate response to Maxentius’ revolt was a coinage in gold and Aes, in which Herculius appears as the sole legitimate Augustus, styled AVG or IMP…AVG; the title ‘Caesar’ is given to Maxentius (who receives it nowhere else at all)…”

GVF. Clean smooth surfaces, with no evidence of recent surface crud removal after the sale by Roma Numismatics.
Steve B5
maximusprincRIC3.jpg
Maximus / Princeps85 viewsMaximus (Caesar, 235/6-238). AR Denarius Rome mint, 236-7.
O: MAXIMVS CAES GERM; Bareheaded and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS; Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear; two signa to right
- RIC IV 3; RSC 10

Gaius Julius Verus Maximus (Maximvs Caesar) was the son of Maximinus I Thrax. Maximus was most likely given the rank of Caesar at the same time or shortly after his father assumed the rank of Augustus. He was reportedly a very handsome youth. Maximvs Caesar was loyal to his father and remained by his side during his campaign on the Danube. He was also present at the disastrous siege of Aquileia in 238 AD.

After the revolt of Gordian I and Gordian II and ascension of Balbinus and Pupienus, Maximinus and Maximus marched on Rome. They first reached the city of Aquileia, expecting an easy victory as the city's walls had long been in disrepair. However, under the leadership of senators Rutilius Pudens Crispinus and Tullus Menophilus, the walls had been repaired and the city rallied to defend itself in a siege. The Aquileians had plenty of food and good morale.

According to Herodian of Antioch, "The army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair when the soldiers found that those whom they had not expected to hold out against a single assault were not only offering stout resistance but were even beating them back. The Aquileians, on the other hand, were greatly encouraged and highly enthusiastic, and, as the battle continued, their skill and daring increased. Contemptuous of the soldiers now, they hurled taunts at them. As Maximinus rode about, they shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. Unable to vent his wrath upon the enemy, he was enraged at most of his troop commanders because they were pressing the siege in cowardly and halfhearted fashion. Consequently, the hatred of his supporters increased, and his enemies grew more contemptuous of him each day."

Condemned by the Senate, Maximus and his father were murdered by their own troops just outside Aquileia on June 24th, 238 AD.
2 commentsNemonater
Miletos_12_stater.jpg
Miletos, Ionia 1/12 Stater 17 viewsAR 1/12 Stater
Size: 8/10 mm Weight: 1.07 grams

Miletos, Ionia
Circa 510 BCE

Obverse: Lions head to left.

Reverse: Star ornament within incuse square.

Notes:
- One of the earliest coin minting states of the Ionian Confederacy, output was greatly curtailed following the failure of the Ionian revolt against the Persian rule.
- Mother city to a great many colonies, including Abydos, Kyzikos, Sinope, and Pantikapaion.

Ex eBay USA, 2004
Pharsalos
hongwutongbao.jpg
Ming Dynasty27 viewsTai Zu Emperor

1368 - 1398 CE

Obverse: Hong Wu Tong Bao

Reverse: Plain

Tai Zu is the founder of the Ming dynasty

Kublai Khan had conquered China and established the Yuan Dynasty in 1279. Kublai Khan died in 1291. He had no able successors, and the weakness and tyranny of the next five Yuan emperors roused the people to revolt. One of these factions was led by Zhu Yuanzhang, the son of a peasant family. He had risen through the ranks after joining as a common soldier, by distinguishing himself in battle, and succeeded to command the rebel troops on the death of his predecessor. He declared himself emperor Ming Taizu (T`ai Tsu) in 1368, and set about conquering the rest of China. By 1387 the conquest of China was complete.
2 commentsPericles J2
303,1_Aquillius.jpg
Mn. Aquillius - AR denarius7 viewsRome
²c. 106 BC
¹109-108 BC
radiate head of Sol right
X
Luna in biga right, crescent and three stars above, star below
(MN)·AQVIL
ROMA
¹Crawford 303/1, Sydenham 557, BMCRR Italy 645, RSC I Aquillia 1, SRCV I 180
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Rauch


Moneyer was son of Manius Auillius consul 129 BC. He would become a Roman general, and consul in 101 B.C. He successfully put down a revolt of the slaves in Sicily but was accused of extortion in the province. He was acquitted on account of his military services, although there was little doubt of his guilt. In the First Mithridatic War he was defeated and taken prisoner in 88 B.C. Mithradates treated him with great cruelty, and is said to have put him to death by pouring molten gold down his throat. The method of his execution became famous and, according to some accounts, was repeated by Parthian contemporaries to kill Marcus Licinius Crassus who was at the time the richest man in Rome and a member of the First Triumvirate.
Johny SYSEL
Pergammon.jpg
Mysia. Kings of Pergamon. Eumenes I AR Tetradrachm.87 viewsStruck circa 263-255/50 BC (30mm, 17.02g, 2h). Westermark Group III, obv. die V.XXIV; SNG France 1606-9; SNG von Aulock 1355 (same obverse die); SNG Copenhagen 334. Obverse: Head of Philetairos right, wearing laurel wreath bound with a broad ribbon with wide hemmed borders. Reverse: ΦIΛETAIPOY in right field, Athena enthroned left, right hand resting on shield set at her feet, left elbow resting on small sphinx seated right; transverse spear in background, ivy leaf above knee, monogram on throne, bow to right. EF, toned. High relief portrait.

Ex CNG: Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 Spring 2014 lot 929022.

The coinage of Pergamon under Eumenes I crystalized the design of the kingdom’s tetradrachmai for almost 100 years. It features on the obverse a realistic portrait of the eunuch Philetairos, who was initially a treasurer for the diadoch Lysimachos. He entrusted to the eunuch 6000 talents of silver (and gold) for safekeeping in Sardis. However, Philetairos switched allegiance to Seleukos shortly before the Battle of Korupedion in 281 BC, when Seleukos defeated Lysimachos. Seleukos, in turn, was assassinated roughly a year later. The newly created kingdom enjoyed autonomy from the Seleukids and the fortress city of Pergamon was built with Philetairos as its “king”, although he was never publicly crowned as such. Philetairos coined at least three different types of tetradrachmai, which were influenced by his allegiance to different rulers. First, he minted Lysimachos-type coins for his master Lysimachos. After the latter’s defeat and death he next minted coins of the Alexander-type either with the legend Alexandrou or Seleukou. Lastly, in a show of self-assurance and independence, he minted coins with the obverse portrait of Seleukos and the reverse directly copied from the earlier Lysimachos-type coin with Athena seated. However, the similarity ends there: instead of putting a dominating diadoch’s name, he boldly put his name on the coins. After his death, the administration passed on to his adopted nephew Eumenes I. The new ruler was able to liberate his realm from the dominion of the Seleukids when he revolted, at the instigation of Ptolemy II of Egypt, and rather unexpectedly, defeated Antiochos I in Sardis in 261 BC. He greatly expanded his territory and founded several cities. His coinage initiated a type which showed a highly realistic and unflattering portrait of his predecessor Philetairos and showed him as diademed, heavy-set and ostensibly obese whose face dominates the whole space of the obverse of the coin. At this point, there is no need of legitimizing current rulers by reference to Alexander. They could either put their own portraits or the likeness of the founder of a dynasty which they belong. This would eventually become the norm for most coins of third century BC Hellenistic kingdoms. The design on Eumenes’ coins would remain unchanged for the next century and would be adopted by succeeding rulers Attalos I ((241-197 BC) and Eumenes II (197-160 BC). It was estimated that it required 200 obverse dies to mint the coins during those span of time of its existence. As for any long-lived (and much copied) designs of any ancient coin (i.e. coins of Phillip II, Alexander III and Lysimachos), the various Philetairou-type coins could be assigned to a particular ruler according to symbols and monograms and level of artistry.
6 commentsJason T
NEAPOLITAN_REPUB_HENRY_1648.jpg
NEAPOLITAN REPUBLIC - Henry de Guise57 viewsNEAPOLITAN REPUBLIC - Henry de Guise (1647-1648) AE 3 Tornesi, 1648. Obv.: Crowned shield with letters SPQN. Legend: HEN DE LOR DUX REIP N. Rev.: Bound wheat and olives, legend PAX ET UBERTAS 1648. Reference: KM #55. Ex Ardatirion collection.
These are always poorly struck, usually not this nice. The design quality of this piece is rather crude, and the SPQN is NOT aligned properly... letters are sideways. Usually they are straight. Probably made toward the end of the siege of the Republic by Spain.
From Wikepedia: The Neapolitan Republic was a Republic created in Naples, which lasted from 22 October 1647 to 5 April 1648. It began after the revolt led by Masaniello and Giulio Genoino against the Spanish viceroys.
The leader of the Republic was Henry II of Lorraine, duke of Guise, descendant of the former king of Naples Rene I of Anjou. The Republic had the following official names: Serenissima Repubblica di questo regno di Napoli ("Most Serene Republic of this Kingdom of Naples"), Reale Repubblica ("Royal Republic"), and Serenissima Monarchia repubblicana di Napoli ("Most Serene Republican Monarchy of Naples"). All indicated the double nature of the Republic, both republican and monarchical, and "Serenissima" was a purposeful comparison with the famous Italian maritime republic with the same title, Venice. The coat of arms was a red shield with the motto S.P.Q.N., in imitation of the well-known S.P.Q.R., the initialism of the Latin phrase, Senatus Populusque Romanus ("The Senate and the People of Rome"), Thus, the Neapolitan phrase meant "The Senate and People of Naples." The coat of arms contained the crest of the duke of Guise.
dpaul7
CGallus.jpg
Nero / Caius Cestius Gallus52 viewsSELEUCIS and PIERIA, Antioch. Nero. AD 54-68. Æ As (30.5mm, 15.36 g, 12h).
Caius Cestius Gallus, legatus Syriae. Dated year 115 of the Caesarean Era (AD 66/7).
O: Laureate head right; coiled serpent to right. IM • NER • CLAV • CAESAR
R: ЄΠI ΓAIOY KЄCTIO Y ΛNTIO ЄT • ЄIP in five lines within wreath (In the magistracy of Gaius Cestius, Antioch, year 115)
- McAlee 294 = Superior, (9 December 1989), lot 2827 (same dies); RPC I – Extremely rare, the second known.

Josephus lays much of the blame for the Jewish revolt at the feet of Florus, the Roman procurator of Judaea. Florus was notorious for his cruelty and greed. In 66 C.E. he demanded 17 talents from the temple treasury, using the pretense that it was needed by the Emperor. The Jews refused, ridiculing his request by taking up a mock collection for the “poor Florus.”

Florus responded by sending troops to loot and pillage the Upper-Marketplace in Jerusalem. Thousands of Jews were killed, including woman and children. Rather than bringing the city under control, Josephus reasons, “What more need be said? It was Florus who constrained us to take up war with the Romans, for we preferred to perish together rather than by degrees. The war in fact began in the second year of the procuratorship of Florus and in the twelfth of Nero's reign.”

The Sicarii, or “dagger-men,” took the fortress of Masada and killed the Roman garrison stationed there, establishing the first rebel stronghold. The fortress of Antonia was also captured and the Roman soldiers stationed there were slain. The remaining Roman holdouts surrendered under the agreement that their lives would be spared but they too were slaughtered. At the same time, the daily sacrifices for the Emperor were discontinued. A mixture of elation and fear gripped Jerusalem as they awaited the inevitable Roman response.

Gaius Cestius Gallus, Legate of Syria in 66 C.E., was the response. On Nero’s order, he assembled a force at Antioch comprised of legio XII Fulminata, detachments from the three other legions based in Syria, six cohorts of auxiliary infantry and four alae of cavalry. He also had military support from the Jewish ruler Herod Agrippa II and two other client kings, Antiochus IV of Commagene and Sohaemus of Emesa.

Within three months Gallus, with his force of over 30,000 troops, began working their way down from Galilee to Jerusalem, attacking key cities such as Chabulon, Joppa and Antipatris. Although enduring successful raids from the rebels, the Romans finally enter and set fire to the suburbs of Jerusalem as the rebels retreated to the safety of the temple fortress.

After setting fire to Bezetha, north of the temple, Gallus encamped in front of the royal palace, southwest of the temple. At that time, Josephus says he could have easily taken the city since pro-Roman Jews were ready to open the gates of the city for him. A six day delay, however, strengthened the insurgents. The zealots attacked and killed the pro-peace faction in the city, murdering their leaders, then assaulted the Romans from the wall. The advance units of the Romans employ the Testudo, overlapping their shields over themselves like the back of a tortoise, and began undermining the walls. After five days they are on the verge of success when, for an undetermined cause, Gallus called off the attack. In History of the Jews, Professor Heinrich Graetz suggests: “[Cestius Gallus] did not deem it advisable to continue the combat against heroic enthusiasts and embark on a lengthy campaign at that season, when the autumn rains would soon commence . . . and might prevent the army from receiving provisions. On that account probably he thought it more prudent to retrace his steps.” Whatever the reason, Gallus decided to abruptly leave Jerusalem.

Gallus, with evidently little battlefield experience, suffered one humiliating defeat after another during the retreat. By the battles end the losses amounted to 5,300 infantry, 480 cavalry, all the pack animals, artillery and the eagle standard of the legio XII Fulminata. With the rebels emboldened by their shocking victory, the stage is set for the Romans to return in greater force. This time, however, Nero would send general Vespasian.

Cestius Gallus died a broken man in 67 C.E. Tacitus described the outbreak of the revolt to Gallus death as follows: “the endurance of the Jews lasted till Gessius Florus was procurator. In his time the war broke out. Cestius Gallus, legate of Syria, who attempted to crush it, had to fight several battles, generally with ill-success. Cestius dying, either in the course of nature, or from vexation.” - The Histories V
4 commentsNemonater
76.jpg
Nerva Denarius - Concordia Exercitum (RIC II 3)155 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 97 AD
3.42g

Obv: Laureate bust of Nerva (R)
IMP NERVA CAES AUG PM TRP COS II PP

Rev: CLASPED HANDS holding legionary Eagle placed upon prow. CONCORDIA EXERCITUM (Harmony with the Army) in exergue.

On the same day as Domitian's assassination, the Senate declared the elderly Nerva emperor. He vowed to restore liberties which had been curtailed during the autocratic government of Domitian. However, Nerva who was 66 years old and childless, struggled in his inability to assert his authority over the Roman army.

In October 97 these tensions came to a head when the Praetorian Guard, led by Casperius Aelianus, laid siege to the Imperial Palace and took Nerva hostage. He was forced to submit to their demands, agreeing to hand over those responsible for Domitian's death and even giving a speech thanking the rebellious Praetorians! Nerva was unharmed in this assault, but his authority was damaged beyond repair. He realized that his position was no longer tenable and shortly thereafter, he announced the adoption of Trajan as his successor, and with this decision all but abdicated.

This wonderfully ironic issue was no doubt minted in the wake of the Praetorian revolt in an effort to assure the masses that the emperor was still in control.

RIC II 3 RSC 25
1 commentsKained but Able
[901a]_NervaAntiochAE26.jpg
Nerva, 18 September 96 - 25 January 98 A.D., Antioch, Syria191 viewsBronze AE 26, BMC Syria, p. 182, 261, aVF, Antioch mint, weight 13.524g, maximum diameter 25.0mm, die axis 0o, Jan - Sep 97 A.D.; Obverse: IMP CAESAR NERVA AVG III COS, laureate head right; Reverse: large S C in wreath, D below; unbelievable portrait. Ex FORVM. Photo courtesy FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families
Nerva (96-98 A.D.)

David Wend

Introduction
Although short, the reign of Marcus Cocceius Nerva (A.D. 96-98) is pivotal. The first of Edward Gibbon's so-called "Five Good Emperors," Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Claimed as an ancestor by all the emperors down to Severus Alexander, he has traditionally been regarded with much good will at the expense of his predecessor, Domitian.

Ancestry
Nerva could claim eminent ancestry on both sides of his family. On the paternal side, his great-grandfather, M. Cocceius Nerva, was consul in 36 B.C.; his grandfather, a distinguished jurist of the same name, accompanied Tiberius on his retirement to Capri in 26 A.D. On his mother's side an aunt, Rubellia Bassa, was the great-granddaughter of Tiberius. In addition, a great-uncle, L. Cocceius Nerva, played a part in the negotiations that secured a treaty between Octavian and Antony in 40 B.C

Early Career and Life under Domitian
Nerva was born on 8 November, 30 A.D. Little is known of his upbringing beyond the fact that he belonged to a senatorial family and pursued neither a military nor a public speaking career. On the other hand, he did hold various priesthoods and was a praetor-designate. More importantly, as praetor designate in 65, Nerva was instrumental in revealing the conspiracy of Piso against the emperor Nero.

As a result, he received triumphal ornaments and his statue was placed in the palace. Following Nero's fall in 68, Nerva must have realized that support of Vespasian and the Flavian cause was in his best interests. In 71 his loyalty was rewarded with a joint consulship with the emperor, the only time that Vespasian ever held the office without his son Titus. It was under the reign of Vespasian's other son, Domitian, that Nerva's political fortunes were ultimately determined, however. He shared the ordinary consulship with Domitian in 90, an honor that was perhaps the result of his alerting the emperor about the revolt of Antonius Saturninus, the governor of Upper Germany, in 89. Even so, like so many others of the senatorial class, Nerva came under scrutiny in the final years of Domitian's reign, when the emperor was unwilling to tolerate any criticism.

Whether or not Nerva was forced to withdraw from public life during Domitian's final years remains an open question. What is not in dispute is that he was named emperor on the same day that Domitian was assassinated in September, 96. Indeed, in some respects the accession was improbable, since it placed the Empire under the control of a feeble sexagenarian and long-time Flavian supporter with close ties to the unpopular Domitian. On the other hand, Nerva had proven to be a capable senator, one with political connections and an ability to negotiate. Moreover, he had no children, thereby ensuring that the state would not become his hereditary possession.

Imperial Initiatives
Upon taking office, Nerva made immediate changes. He ordered the palace of Domitian to be renamed the House of the People, while he himself resided at the Horti Sallustiani, the favorite residence of Vespasian. More significantly, he took an oath before the senate that he would refrain from executing its members. He also released those who had been imprisoned by Domitian and recalled exiles not found guilty of serious crimes. Nevertheless, Nerva still allowed the prosecution of informers by the senate, a measure that led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

In the area of economic administration Nerva, like Domitian, was keen on maintaining a balanced budget. In early 97, after appointing a commission of five consular senators to give advice on reducing expenditures, he proceeded to abolish many sacrifices, races, and games. Similarly, he allowed no gold or silver statues to be made of himself. Even so, there was some room for municipal expenditure. For the urban poor of Italy he granted allotments of land worth 60 million sesterces, and he exempted parents and their children from a 5% inheritance tax. He also made loans to Italian landowners on the condition that they pay interest of 5% to their municipality to support the children of needy families. These alimentary schemes were later extended by Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.

Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few. By early 98 he dedicated the forum that Domitian had built to connect the Forum of Augustus with the Forum of Peace. It became known as the Forum of Nerva, or the Forum Transitorium. Nerva also built granaries, made repairs to the Colosseum when the Tiber flooded, and continued the program of road building and repairs inaugurated under the Flavians. In addition, pantomime performances, supressed by Domitian, were restored.

In the military realm, Nerva established veterans' colonies in Africa, a practice that was continued by the emperor Trajan. Normal military privileges were continued and some auxiliary units assumed the epithet Nervia or Nerviana. We are not well informed beyond these details, and any military action that may have occurred while Nerva was emperor is known sketchy at best.

Nature of Nerva's Government
Nerva's major appointments favored men whom he knew and trusted, and who had long served and been rewarded by the Flavians. Typical was Sextus Julius Frontinus. A consul under Vespasian and governor of Britain twenty years earlier, Frontinus came out of retirement to become curator of the water supply, an office that had long been subject to abuse and mismanagement. He helped to put an end to the abuses and published a significant work on Rome's water supply, De aquis urbis Romae. As a reward for his service, Frontinus was named consul for the second time in 98. Similarly, the emperor's own amici were often senators with Flavian ties, men who, by virtue of their links to the previous regime, were valuable to Nerva for what they knew. Thus do we find the likes of A. Didius Gallus Fabricius Veiiento, one of Domitian's ill-reputed counselors, seated next to Nerva at an imperial dinner. Nerva was less willing to consult the Senate as a whole. In many cases he preferred the opinions of his own consilium, and was less submissive than many senators would have liked. This attitude may have been responsible for hostile discontent among several senators.

Mutiny of the Praetorians and the Adoption of Trajan
It was not long before the assassination of Domitian came to work against the new emperor. Dissatisfied that Domitian had not been deified after his death, the praetorian guards mutinied under Casperius Aelianus in October 97. Taking the emperor as hostage, they demanded that Nerva hand over Domitian's murderers. The emperor not only relented, but was forced to give a public speech of thanks to the mutineers for their actions. His authority compomised, Nerva used the occasion of a victory in Pannonia over the Germans in late October, 97 to announce the adoption of Marcus Ulpius Traianus, governor of Upper Germany, as his successor. The new Caesar was immediately acclaimed imperator and granted the tribunicia potestas. Nerva's public announcement of the adoption settled succession as fact; he allowed no time to oppose his decision. From the German victory, Nerva assumed the epithet Germanicus and conferred the title on Trajan as well. He also made Trajan his consular colleague in 98.

Death and Deification
On January 1, 98, the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Three weeks later he died at his villa in the Gardens of Sallust. From his headquarters at Cologne, Trajan insisted that Nerva's ashes be placed in the mausoleum of Augustus and asked the senate to vote on his deification. We are further told that he dedicated a temple to Nerva, yet no trace of it has ever been found. Nor was a commemorative series of coins issued for the Deified Nerva in the wake of his death, but only ten years later.

Conclusion
Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Copyright (C) 1998, David Wend.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
KneelingKing.jpg
Persian Empire, Lydia, Darius I 1/6 Siglos43 viewsPERSIA, Achaemenid Empire. temp. Darios I to Xerxes I. Circa 505-480 BC. AR Sixth Siglos (7mm, 0.84 g).

O: Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, drawing bow
R: Incuse punch.

Carradice type II; Winzer 1.8 (Darios I), this denomination is otherwise unpublished in refs; cf. Klein 756 (1/4 siglos); SNG Kayhan 1027 (1/3 siglos).

"Darius I the Great ruled the Persian Empire at its peak. He is mentioned in the Biblical books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Daniel, Haggai, and Zechariah. He continued to allow the Jewish people to return to Israel and provided money for the restoration of the Temple in Jerusalem, which was completed in his sixth year. Darius invaded Greece to subjugate it and to punish Athens and Eretria for aiding the Ionian Revolt. He subjugated Thrace and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom, but his campaign ended at Marathon, where he was famously defeated by a smaller Greek army." - Forvm
Nemonater
NektaneboMed.jpg
PHARONIC KINGS OF EGYPT, Nektanebo II, 360-343 BC38 viewsAE
15 mm (4 mm thick), 4.4 gm
Obv: Ram leaping left, head reverted.
Rev: Scales of Ma'at; countermark with helmeted bust right.
Ref: Weiser 1

A few months ago a friend, upon hearing that I was collecting ancient coins, said he would like to have a coin issued by a pharaoh. Hmm. "I don't think there are any", I replied. I hadn't come across any in my whirlwind but voluminous searching, although I hadn't been searching for such a coin.

Turns out there are some. Nektanebo II, the last native pharaoh of Egypt, issued coins in bronze, gold, and perhaps silver. Prior to that, Egypt did produce some coins for the purpose of international trading-- imitations of Athens, Attica tets, for instance-- but Nektanebo appears to be the first pharaoh to issue coins for local use. Maybe.

Per auction house sales information from half a decade ago, it seems these bronzes were extremely rare. I wonder if a small horde was recently found because the prices have fallen and there are currently six specimens in retail e-stores and at least two more were auctioned off recently.

There is not universal agreement regarding the issuer, purpose, and location of circulation of these coins. Sellers tout it as the "sole pharonic issue"-- I'm sure that boosts desirability-- but it may not be accurate. Hope it is though.

CNG, in the description of this coin (one similar to mine),

Nekht-her-hebet, or Nektanebo II as he was known to the Greeks, was the nephew of Pharaoh Tachos (Djed-her). Placed in command of the Egyptian army in Syria during the Satrapal Revolt, he turned his troops against his own king and took Egypt by force. In 351-350 BC he repelled a Persian invasion but was driven from his throne in 344-343 BC by a second assault. He fled Egypt, found refuge in Ethiopia, and retained control of Upper Egypt for another few years. As the last pharaoh, Alexander sought to connect himself with Nektanebo after conquering Egypt, allowing the rumor that he was in fact his son to spread. Alexander’s connection to the pharaoh lasted, and for years the sarcophagus of Nektanebo II, now in the British Museum, was considered to be Alexander’s own.

The traditional attribution of this issue to Nektanebo, however enticing, has been increasingly contested. Finds of the coins have been consistently noted outside of Egypt. Kevin Butcher has placed the bronzes at Antioch circa 1st century BC, where the leaping ram imagery would fit well.

I wanted this coin for several reasons.

First, well… a pharaoh's coin? That's just cool.

Second, it depicts the Scales of Ma'at. Such a device was used in Jitterbug Perfume, a book by Tom Robbins, one of my favorite authors. In it, at a limbo-like way station, the newly dead have their hearts weighed against a feather. The heart must be light as a feather to move on. I was unaware until seeing this coin that the scene was taken directly from Egyptian mythology.

Third, it is for an almost-finished themed collection I've been working on.

Nektanebo II (translated from Egyptian "Nakhthorheb (meryhathor)" or "Nekht-her-hebet" or "Nekht-harhebi" ; alternate spelling Nectanebo), the last native Egyptian pharaoh, part of the 30th dynasty. His 17 year reign spanned from 360 to 343 BC.
Birth name: Nakht-hor-heb (mery-hathor) “Strong is His Lord Horus, Beloved of Hathor”
Throne name: Snedjem-ib-re Setep-en-inhur “Pleasing to the Heart of Re, Chosen of Onuris”

Additional biographic information about Nektanebo II
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/nectanebo1.htm

About Ma'at, the Scales of Ma'at, and the weighing of hearts:
http://www.egyptartsite.com/judgement.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maat
http://www.aldokkan.com/religion/hall_maat.htm

4 commentsTIF
tyreGalleySev.jpg
Phoenicia, Tyre. Ae18 Galley16 viewsObv: Emperor bust r.
Rev: Galley right, murex shell above.

As a reward for their help against the revolt of Pescinnius Niger, Septimius Severus made Tyre a colony circa 201 A.D.
ancientone
SeptimiusPisidiaAntiochAE22.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. 102 viewsPisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. AE 22mm (5.21 gm). Obverse: Laureate, head left. Reverse: Mên standing facing, head right, foot on bucranium, holding sceptre and Nike on globe; cock at feet left. SNG France 3, 1118. Cleaning scratches, very fine. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Marcus_Aurelius_39.jpg
Q128 viewsMarcus Aurelius Sestertius

Attribution: RIC III 964
Date: AD 168-169
Obverse: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIII, laureate head r.
Reverse: SALVTI AVG COS III, Salus stg. l. feeding snake wrapped around altar, and holding scepter, S-C across fields
Size: 30-34 mm
Weight: 25.93 grams
(Image of Marcus Aurelius courtesy Phillip Harland: Archaeological Museum, Selçuk, Turkey)

“He studied philosophy with ardor, even as a youth. For when he was twelve years old he adopted the dress and, a little later, the hardiness of a philosopher, pursuing his studies clad in a rough Greek cloak and sleeping on the ground; at his mother’s solicitation, however, he reluctantly consented to sleep on a couch strewn with skins.” – Historia Augusta Life of Marcus II.6

Marcus Aurelius assumed the role of emperor upon the death of the Deified Antoninus Pius in AD 161. He quickly made his brother, Lucius Verus, joint emperor. This partnership endured successfully until the death of Verus in AD 169. Unfortunately, Marcus’ rule was one beleaguered by warfare (i.e. the Parthian War) made worse by the plague (brought back from the war), invasion (the Germanic Quadi and Marcomanni on the Danube front), and insurrection (the revolt of Cassius, governor of Syria). Marcus sought solace in his philosophical meanderings. His writings were not bright and cheerful, because, after all, they came from a man latent with preoccupations. During another campaign against the Germanic Quadi in AD 179-180, Marcus fell ill. He had dealt with stomach and chest problems for a few years prior to this (some historians speculate it was cancer). He took the drug theriac to endure the pain. Theriac contains opium, so Marcus may have been addicted to this “medication”. He lived only one week after the inception of this final malady. He died near Sirmium on March 17, AD 180. His body was placed in the Mausoleum of Hadrian, and he was subsequently deified by the senate.

“The first rule is, to keep an untroubled spirit; for all things must bow to Nature’s law, and soon enough you must vanish into nothingness, like Hadrian and Augustus. The second is to look things in the face and know them for what they are, remembering that it is your duty to be a good man. Do without flinching what man’s nature demands; say what seems to you most just – though with courtesy, modesty, and sincerity.” – Marcus Aurelius Meditations (To Myself) VIII.5
4 commentsNoah
428,3_Q__Cassius.jpg
Q. Cassius Longinus - AR denarius18 viewsRome
¹²55 BC
head of young Jupiter (or Bonus Eventus or Genius Populi Romani)* right, scepter behind
eagle on thunderbolt right, lituus on left and jug on right
Q·CASSIVS
¹Crawford 428/3, SRCV I 391, Sydenham 916, BMCRR 3868, RSC I Cassia 7
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,03g
ex Aurea

* The sceptrum, fulmen and aquila point to this being the bust of a young Jupiter, for whom such insignia are normally reserved. The priestly implements on the reverse likely allude to an ancestor who belonged to the college of pontiffs, and if we take the symbolism of this coin to be in reference to Jupiter, then it is probable that this coin is in reference to a family member who was once Flamen Dialis, (high priest of Jupiter), a position of great importance and privilege in Rome that entitled the holder of that office to many honours, including the right to a lictor, the toga praetexta, the sella curulis, and to a seat in the Senate. (ROMA NUMISMATICS historical articles)

Q. Cassius Longinus was brother or cousin of C. Cassius Longinus (Caesar's murderer). He served as a quaestor of Pompey in Hispania Ulterior in 54 BC. In 49 BC, as tribune of the people, he strongly supported the cause of Caesar, by whom he was made governor of Hispania Ulterior. He treated the provincials with great cruelty, and his appointment (48 BC) to take the field against Juba I of Numidia gave him an excuse for fresh oppression. The result was an unsuccessful insurrection at Corduba. Cassius punished the leaders with merciless severity, and made the lot of the provincials harder than ever. At last some of his troops revolted under the quaestor Marcellus, who was proclaimed governor of the province. Cassius was surrounded by Marcellus in Ulia. Bogud, king of Mauretania, and Marcus Lepidus, proconsul of Hispania Citerior, to whom Cassius had applied for assistance, negotiated an arrangement with Marcellus whereby Cassius was to be allowed to go free with the legions that remained loyal to him. Cassius sent his troops into winter quarters, hastened on board ship at Malaca with his ill-gotten gains, but was wrecked in a storm at the mouth of the Iberus (Ebro). His tyrannical government of Hispania greatly injured the cause of Caesar. (wikipedia)
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
festus.jpg
Retrograde prutah of Festus81 viewsCoin type: Prutah
Ruler: Porcius Festus
Reference: Hendin 653
Obverse description: Greek text meaning “Nero” within wreath.
Obverse legend: NEP WNO C
Reverse description: Palm branch facing up with Greek text meaning “Caesar” and date (year 5 =58 CE) .
Reverse legend: Date LE, KAICAPOC
Year: 58 CE

This type is very crude, because caion standards during Festus was very low, possibly because coins were the last thing on people's minds during 58 CE, keeping in mind he was the last person to mint coins before the First Jewish Revolt.
Aarmale
Heraclius,_s715.JPG
Revolt of the Heraclii, SBCV 71542 views[E]RACΛIO CONS[VΛI]
Bare head bust of Heraclius facing, wearing consular robes
Large X between N M, Cross above, Star below
AE decanummium
Carthage Mint
17mm, 5.16g

novacystis
41367imitation_s1917.jpg
Revolt of the Provinces, Time of Ptolemy X Soter II47 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Revolt of the Provinces, Time of Ptolemy X Soter II, c. 116 - 80 B.C. Bronze AE 34, Svoronos 1917, obverse encrustation, 17.991g, 34.5mm, 0o, c. 86 - 84 B.C.; obverse diademed head of Zeus Ammon right; reverse barbarous imitation of “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, two eagles standing left on thunderbolts, very crude. A large and very crude imitation of common Zeus obverse, two-eagles reverse type. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Vespasian~0.jpg
RIC 2 Vespasiandenarius293 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Laur. head of Vespasian right

IVDAEA
Judaea as mourning captive seated right on ground at foot of trophy.

Celebrating the success of Vespasian and Titus in quelling the first Jewish Revolt. Portrait looks like a cross between Otho and Vitellius

Rome 69-70 AD

RIC 2 (C2); Sear 2296

3.285g

Ex-Maridvnvm; Ex-Forum!

8 commentsJay GT4
Titus_Judea.jpg
RIC 369 Titus denarius74 viewsT CAES IMP VESP PON TR POT
Laureate head of Titus right

Titus sanding right, left foot on helmet, holding spear and parazonium, Palm tree before him at foot of which Judaea, as a mourning captive, is seated right, on ground

Rome 72 AD
3.32g

RIC II 369 (R2)

Ex-Canadian Coin

The reverse celebrates the success of Vespasian and Titus in quelling the First Jewish Revolt. Also commonly known as Judea Capta denarius.

Wildwinds example
4 commentsJay GT4
Clodius_Albinus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE / Emperor Clodius Albinus (195 - 197 A.D.), as Augustus.37 viewsSilver Denarius.
Obverse : "IMP CAES D CLO ALBIN AVG" Laureate head right.
Reverse : "SPE AVG COS II" Spes advancing left, holding up flower and raising skirt.
Lugdunum mint.
2.04 Gr . Max 17 mm. aF . RIC 41 ( The Roman Imperial Coinage, Volume IV, Part 1, # 41 )

Ex J. S. Vogelaar Collection
EX CNG eAuction 223, Part of Lot 583

Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus was born between 140 and 150 A.D. He came from a wealthy, if not noble, family from Hadrentum in Africa. He was raised to the Senate by the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and was Governor of Bithynia during the revolt of Avidius Cassius. He remained loyal to Aurelius, and also served with distinction under Commodus. Albinus was the Governor of Britain at the time of Commodus’ death in 192 A.D. As one of the leading men of the empire, it was rumored that Albinus was at the least aware of the conspiracy. Pertinax, and then Didius Julianus would succeed Commodus on the throne. After the murder of Julianus, Albinus, along with Pescennius Niger , and Septimius Severus were the three leading men in the Empire. Both Niger and Severus were hailed as Augutus by their legions. Albinus reached an agreement with Severus, in which Albinus supported Severus, and kept the Western Empire under control, while Severus took his legions east to deal with Niger. In return, Severus named Albinus Caesar, and made him his heir. After dealing with Niger, Severus proclaimed his eldest son, Caracalla, as Caesar, thus breaking with Albinus. Left with no choice, Albinus was declared Augustus in 195 A.D, and led his legions from Britain to the continent, where he made his headquarters at Lugdunum (modern Lyons). Albinus was unable to secure the support of the German legions, and was repulsed in his attempts to invade Italy. Finally, in February of 197, Albinus was defeated and killed in a battle near Lugdunum. Severus was left as the sole Emperor of Rome.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Hadrian_Sestertius_with_Galley.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE / Hadrian Sestertius with Galley 52 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, references: BMCRE III 1409, RIC II 706, SRCV II 3596; condition: aVF, nice bust and galley, artificial patina probably covering epoxy filled pits or other damage, mint: Rome, weight: 23.649g, maximum diameter: 33.0mm, die axis: 0o, date struck: 132 - 135 A.D.; obverse HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right; reverse FELICITATI AVG, galley rowed left over waves, five oarsmen, steersman under an arched shelter at the stern, vexillum on prow, S - C flanking ship, COS III P P in ex; additional comments: ex Morton & Eden auction 59 (13 - 14 Nov 2012), part of lot 957; ex Kenneth Edwin Day Collection.

In 132, a messianic, charismatic Jewish leader Simon bar Kokhba started the Bar Kokhba revolt, a war of liberation for Judea against Rome. At first the rebellion was a success. The legion X Fretensis was forced to retreat from Jerusalem to Caesarea. The legion XXII Deiotariana, which advanced from Egypt, was destroyed. The Jews re-established their sacrifices and struck coins to celebrate their independence. The rebellion would last for only 30 months. By 135, the Romans had recaptured Jerusalem, Simon bar Kokhba was dead, and the majority of the Jewish population of Judea was either killed, exiled, or sold into slavery. Jerusalem was renamed Colonia Aelia Capitolina and an altar to Jupiter was erected on the site of the Temple. The Jews remained scattered without a homeland for close to two millennia.


*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

EX FORVM Auction.

My additional comments : Coin in hand under sun light is a piece of Art.
2 commentsSam
P1100927a.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aurelian20 viewsAurélianus d' Aurélien

20 mm 3.1 g

Avers : IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG (Buste radié à droite, avec cuirasse)

Revers : CONSERVAT AVG (Sol debout, levant la main droite et tenant un globe de la main gauche, le pied droit posé sur un captif en habit oriental assis à gauche, les mains liées dans le dos)


Atelier : Antioche

Émission : 5

Officine : 2

Date : printemps 274 – début 275

Le captif au revers commémore les victoires d’Aurélien sur Palmyre qui permit de réintégrer la partie orientale de l’empire, qui s’ était séparée de Rome après la défaite de Valérien I contre les Perses en 260. Après avoir vaincu Palmyre en 272, la ville fut détruite en 273 après une seconde révolte. La légende du revers montre aussi qu’ Aurélien se place sous la protection du Soleil. Le développement de ce culte va aboutir à une forme de monothéisme qui favorisera l’implantation du christianisme au siècle suivant. Ce culte eut beaucoup de succès dans de nombreuses régions de l’empire et dans les armées du Danube et d’Orient. Aurélien vénérait particulièrement le Soleil.
Vamp
coins1 205.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus DIANAE CONS AVG95 viewsGallienus, c. 267-268 A.D., Rome.
OBV: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
REV: DIANAE CONS AVG, stag walking left.
EX: X, Rome.

This coin was minted to get the goddess Diana to help Gallienus with the revolt the of Aureolus.
1 commentsancientcoins
moneta 622.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus39 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head right
rev: DIANAE CONS AVG. Antelope walking left.
exergue: X
Struck 267-268 A.D. at unknown mint
Note: Commemorates vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.
Jericho
bpS1O4Gallienus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus40 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate head, right.
Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG
Centaur drawing bow, right.
Antoninianus, 2 gm, 19.4 mm, Rome RIC 163
History (As sole Augustus, 260-265, Part I): The loss of Valerian led many to believe that the Empire was ripe for their grab of a portion of the imperial power. The first to revolt in the East was Ingenuus, the Governor of Pannonia and Moesia. Proclaimed Emperor by his Legions, he was defeated soon after by Aureolus, one of Gallienus' field generals. Next to rise was Regalianus who quickly realized a similar fate. Also in 260 the family Macriani revolted, taking with them Syria, Egypt and Asia Minor. Again, Aureolus came through by defeating Macrianus in 261 while his younger brother, Quitus, was removed by Odaenathus, the ruler of Palmyra and ally of Rome. Gallienus could do little about the flood of barbarous incursions in the West, short of sending his young and inexperienced son, Saloninus, to establish the Imperial Presence. Postumus, the Governor of Lower Germany, filled the power vacuum by allowing his Legions to declare him Emperor in 260. thus establishing the seed for a breakaway empire that would last for the next fourteen years. Meanwhile back in the East, the next to revolt was the trusted field commander, Aureolus in 262, but he reneged on the gambit through the intercessions of Gallienus. In the following year or perhaps 264, Gallienus and Aureolus, now put in Command of the newly established mobile cavalry, initiated a campaign in the West to depose Postumus. Greatly successful, the campaign came to a sudden halt in 265 when Gallienus was seriously wounded and Aureolus failed to prevent Postumus from escaping. No further action would be taken against Postumus for the remainder of the reign of Gallienus.
Massanutten
moneta 521.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Rome - RIC V (Part 1) 16340 viewsGallienus Antoninianus
obv: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate bust right
rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG. Centaur walking right, drawing bow.
exergue: Z
Struck 267-268 A.D. at Rome
RIC V (Part 1) 163
Note: Issued to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.
Jericho
moneta 564.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Rome - RIC V (Part I) 1734 viewsGallienus Antoninianus
obv: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate bust right
rev: DIANAE CONS AVG. Doe walking right, looking back.
exeruge: epsilon
Struck 267-268 A.D. at Rome
RIC V (Part I) 17
Note: Commemorates vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.


Jericho
2-Gordian-I-RIC-1~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gordian I, RIC 1.65 viewsDenarius, March - April 238, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian I.
Reverse: P M TR P COS P P / Gordian I standing, togate, holding branch, and wearing parzonium.
2.88 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #1; Sear #8446.

The third century saw numerous usurpers in various parts of the Empire. However, the local revolt in Africa which brought Gordian I and his son to power was the first and only time the cause of a usurper was taken up by the Senate before a current emperor was dead. Thus the Gordiani became legitimate Roman emperors, and their coinage, all minted at the imperial mint in Rome, became legitimate coinage of the Empire.

Provenance:
ex Gillardi Collection.
Tinchant sale (1962).
2 commentsCallimachus
bpS1N5GordianIII.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gordian III (238-244)47 viewsObv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, left.
Rev: P M TR P IIII COS II P P
Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting left arm on lyre.
Antoninianus, 5.1 gm, 22.6 mm, Rome RIC 88
History: Inheritor of a vast family fortune following the failed revolt of Gordians I and II, he was appointed Caesar under the subsequent, but short lived co-rule of the Emperors Pupienus and Balbinus. Aged thirteen, the first three years of rule came under the close guidance of the Senate, but in 341 he appointed Timesitheus to command the Praetorian Guard and help guide him through the growing chaos created by barbaric incursions. During the greatly successful campaign against the Sasanian king Shapur I, his mentor unexpectedly died and was replaced by Philip. Prosecution of the war immediately went sour culminating in the death of the Emperor probably by the instigation of Philip I who most benefited from it.
Massanutten
bpS1M3MaximinusThrax2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I Thrax (235-238)105 viewsObv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: SALVS AVGVSTI
Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar.
Denarius, 3 gm, 19mm, Rome RIC 14
History: Proclaimed Emperor by the Legions of the Rhine after they murdered Severus Alexander. He remained popular with the Army, but eventually lost the support of the Patricians and the Senate because of his oppressive domestic policies and declared a public enemy. In response to this and the Senate's recognition of opposition Augustii, he decided to crush Italy, but became bogged down in the unsuccessful siege of Aquilea in Northern Italy. Maximinus and his son, Maximus, were murdered by his troops who were discontent over the invasion of the homeland and likely encouraged by Rome to revolt.
Massanutten
bpS1O1PhilipI.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Philip I (The Arab) (244-249)42 viewsObv: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Radiate and draped bust, right.
Rev: FELICITAS TEMP
Felicitas standing left, holding cornucopiae and caduceus.
Antoninianus, 4.8 gm, 23 mm, Rome RIC 31
History: "During their reign the thousandth anniversary of the city of Rome was celebrated with games and shows of great magnificence." - Eutropius from the Breviarium IX.3.
On his ascension after the death of Gordian, Philip wanted nothing more than to return to Rome. He accomplished this by agreeing to pay Shapur I the disgraceful sum of a half million denarii plus an annual endemnity. After multiple revolts in the East, Philip made the unfathomable mistake of consolidating all of his malcontent Legions under the single command of Decius who they predictably proclaimed Emperor in 249. Emperor and pretender met in battle at Verona and Philip was defeated.
Massanutten
bpS1V1TrajanDecius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Trajan Decius (249-351)31 viewsObv: IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG
Radiate and draped bust right.
Rev: ADVENTVS AVG
Decius on horseback left, raising right hand and holding sceptre in left.
Antoninianus, 5.2 gm, 22.3 mm, Rome RIC 11b
History: Held a variety of important posts for the Empire before being dispatched by Philip to the Danube to settle a local revolt and quell a growing flood of barbaric incursions. The Legions declared Decius Emperor and compelled him to march against Philip. This coin celebrates his triumphal entry into Rome following his success at Verona and the Senate's award of the surname of Trajan. It was not very long before he had to return his attention to Dacia and deal with a new revolt and renewed barbaric incursions. On arriving he linked his forces with those of Gallus. Initial success prompted him to raise his son Herennius Etruscus to co-Augustus. Unfortunately, this was followed by their complete defeat in the marshes of Abrittus by the Gothic chieftain Kniva. Decius was survived by his wife Herrennia Etruscilla and a second son, Hostilian who at the time held the rank of Caesar.
Massanutten
deces.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Trajan Decius, AD 249-251. AR Antoninianus Rome mint, 3rd officina. 3rd-4th emissions, AD 25058 viewsTrajan Decius. AD 249-251. AR Antoninianus Rome mint, 3rd officina. 3rd-4th emissions, AD 250. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right /PANNONIAE The two Pannoniae standing facing, each with head turned outward and holding signum. RIC IV 21b; RSC 86..
The Pannonians (Pannonii) were probaof Illyrian origin. They were a brave and warlike people, and were conquered by the Romans in the time of Augustus (about B.C. 33). In A.D. 7 the Pannonians joined the Dalmatians and the other Illyrian tribes in their revolt from Rome, but were conquered by Tiberius after a struggle which lasted three years (A.D. 7-9). Pannonia was originally only one province, but was afterwards divided into two provinces, called Pannonia Superior and Pannonia Inferior. The principal towns were Carnuntum, Siscia (Sissek), Poetovio (Pettau), Sopianae (Fünfkirchen), and Aquincum (Altofen). - Harry Thurston Peck. Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. New York. Harper and Brothers. 1898.
3 commentsAdrian W
bpS1X2Valerian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian I (253-260)35 viewsObv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: AEQVITAS AVGG
Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae
Antoninianus, 3 gm, 20 mm, Rome RIC 209
History: Commissioned by Gallus to the Rhine to gather an Army, the news that Gallus had subsequently been murdered prompted the Legions to proclaim him Emperor. On his arrival to Italy, the forces of the pretender Aemilian had no heart for battle and executed him. The Senate quickly ratified his regime and the appointment of his son, Gallienus as co-Augustus. With all points of the Empire collapsing under the strain of barbarous invasions, father and son agreed to geographically split their responsabilities with the son headed to the West and Valerian focused to the East. His first order of business was to quell the widespread and destructive rampage of Shapur I. The Battle Order implemented by Valerian met with great success in the recovery of territory and elimination of localized revolts. Then disaster struck. The plague decimated his legions to the point where he was forced to withdraw into the city of Edessa. He saw little option, but to sue for peace and proceeded to make the colossal error of going to Shapur in person with a small retinue of advisors. Shapur was delighted to take advantage of the situation and promptly placed this unwise emperor in chains. He spent the remainder of his life being tortured and tormented by his captor who found it amusing to use him as a footstool to mount his horse. On his eventual death, Shapur reportedly had his body skinned and put on display, truly the low point of a profoundly troubled Empire.
Massanutten
bpS1X4Valerian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Valerian I (253-260)30 viewsObv: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG
Radiate and draped bust, right.
Rev: RESTITVTI GENER HVMANI
Emperor advancing right, raising hand and holding globe.
Antoninianus, 2.8 gm, 21.6 mm, Antioch RIC 220
Commentary: Reverse translates to "Restorer of the human race". Cited in Foss' text for 'Roman Historical Coins' commemorating the suppression of the revolt of Uranius Antoninus and the restoration of Antioch.
Massanutten
Vespasian RIC 15 obv and rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Vespasian Judaea Capta, RIC 1566 viewsVespasian
AR Denarius
Rome Mint. 69-70 A.D.
18.2mm. 3.09g.
Die Alignment: 180 degrees
Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG - Laureate bust right.
Rev: [NO LEGEND] - Captive Jewess seated right, in the attitude of mourning, trophy of captured arms behind.
Ex: IVDAEA
Ref: RIC 15. BMC 35. Sear 2296. Cohen 226. RSC 226. VM 32.
Notes: Ex Barry P. Murphy. This type celebrates the success of Vespasian and Titus in quelling the First Jewish Revolt. Coins commemorating this event are referred to as "Judea Capta issues. - Excerpt taken from FORVM catalogue.
seraphic
Copy_(1)_of_vespasian43.jpg
Roman Empire, Vespasian, Silver Denarus RIC 4343 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 43; RSC II 43; BMCRE II 50; BnF III 36; Hunter I 21, weight 3.3 g, maximum diameter 18.2 mm, Rome mint, Jul - Dec 71 CE.
Obverse: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M, laureate head right.
Reverse simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus, AVGVR above, TRI POT below

Roman emperor Vespasian was most famous for building the Flavian Amphitheater, also known as the Colosseum. Like many Roman emperors, Vespasian rose in prominence because of his military skills and work ethics. Following his ten year rule, he left behind a record of restored order, stability and good government. He was succeeded by his son Titus in 79 CE, who had been sent to quell the Jewish revolt of 66-70 CE.
NORMAN K
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ROMAN EMPIRE, Vespasian. AD 69-79. Æ Sestertius. “Judaea Capta” commemorative. Rome mint. Struck AD 7157 viewsVespasian. AD 69-79. Æ Sestertius (34mm, 22.5 g,). “Judaea Capta” commemorative. Rome mint. Struck AD 71. IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, laureate head right / IVDAEA CAPTA, palm tree; to left, Vespasian standing right, with left foot set on helmet, holding vertical spear in right hand and cradling parazonium in left arm; to right, Jewess seated right on cuirass, propping her head on her left hand in attitude of mourning; S C in exergue.
RIC II 427; Hendin 1543 (Lyon); BMCRE 543-4; BN 498

Judaea Capta coins (also spelled Judea Capta) were a series of commemorative coins originally issued by the Roman Emperor Vespasian to celebrate the capture of Judaea and the destruction of the Jewish Second Temple by his son Titus in 70 AD during the First Jewish Revolt. There are several variants of the coinage. The reverse of the coins shows a female (representing Jerusalem?) seated right in an attitude of mourning at the base of a palm tree, with either a captive bearded male (representing Judah?) standing left, with his hands bound behind his back, or the standing figure of the victorious emperor, or the goddess Victory, with a trophy of weapons, shields, and helmets to the left.

The female figure may reflect the prophecy of Isaiah 3:8, 25-26: "For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen ... Thy men shall fall by the sword and thy mighty in the war. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground".

The Judaea Capta coins were struck for 25 years under Vespasian and his two sons who succeeded him as Emperor - Titus and Domitian. These commemorative coins were issued in bronze, silver and gold by mints in Rome, throughout the Roman Empire, and in Judaea itself. They were issued in every denomination, and at least 48 different types are known.

Only bronze 'Judaea Capta' coins were struck in Caesarea, in the defeated Roman province of Judea. These coins are much cruder than the Roman issues, and the inscriptions are in Greek rather than Latin. The designs feature the Goddess Nike writing on a shield, Minerva with a spear, shield, trophy and palm tree, etc. Most such coins were issued during the reign of the Emperor Domitian (81-96 AD).
Adrian W
PMaentCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, P. Maenius Antias, AR Denarius - Crawford 249/17 viewsRome, The Republic.
P. Maenius M.f. Antias, 132 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.88g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma facing right; * behind.

Reverse: Victory in quadriga galloping right; P. MAE ANT below; ROMA in exergue.

References: Crawford 249/1; Sydenham 492; BMCRR 988-90; Maenia 7.

Provenance: Ex Stack's Auction, 14-15 June 1971, Lot 109.

The reverse refers to the moneyer’s ancestor, C. Maenius, consul in 338 BCE, who had a victory over the Latins near Antium and received the surname Antias or Antiaticus. Antium was a Volscian city that was in revolt at the time. The rams of the ships of Antium were taken by Rome and used to adorn the Rostrum in the Roman Forum.

Carausius
10400525.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius60 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius
GordianIII-master portrait.jpg
Roman, Gordian III - 238-244 AD483 viewsMARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS was born in 225. His grandfather was Gordian I and his uncle was Gordian II. After their failed revolt in 238, Gordian was raised (April, 238) to Caesar under the Senate's co-Augusti, Balbinus and Pupienus. When they were killed in July, 238, Gordian became sole Augustus. His rule was generally thought to be mild and wise, guided by his Praetorian Praefect, Timesitheus. Gordian III married Timesitheus's daughter Tranquillina in 241. Unfortunately, both Timesitheus and Gordian died on campaign against the Sassanians in 243-244. His mysterious death on February 25, 244 possibly was plotted by his successor, Philip I.

The details of this coin may be viewed at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?album=102&pos=7
3 commentsjimwho523
Pupienus portrait - RIC 10(a).jpg
Roman, Pupienus, April - June 238 A.D.894 viewsMARCVS CLODIVS PUPIENVS MAXIMVS was born about 164. He was a Senator in 238 when the revolt of the Gordians broke out against Maximinus I, and he was one of the Senate's "Committee of Twenty" to oversee the defense of Italy in support of the Gordians. When the Gordians were quickly killed in Africa, the Senate made Pupienus and a Senator named Balbinus co-Augusti. Pupienus was to lead the army and Balbinus was to administrate. Maximinus was soon killed by his own men at Aquileia but discontent in Rome led to the murder of Pupienus by the Praetorian Guard on July 29, 238. This portrait is from a Antonianus (ex-Forum) in my collection (see jimwho523's gallery for actual coin)13 commentsjimwho523
RPC1954a.jpg
RPC-1954-Vespasian120 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.97g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
RPC 1954 (20 spec.).
Obv: AYTOKPA OYEΠACIANOC KAICAP CЄBACTOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ЄTOYC NЄOY IЄPOY•B; Eagle with wreath in beak standing, l. on club; in l. field, palm branch
Acquired from Athena Numismatics, August 2014.

"At Antioch gold and silver currencies were struck" writes Tacitus in his book The Histories concerning the early activity of Vespasian in the Summer and Fall of 69 immediately after the Eastern legions acclaimed him emperor. Large numbers of tetradrachms were struck in 69-70, which would likely have been used for legionary payment. They show up in countless hoards in the region due to the increased military activity surrounding the Jewish Revolt. During this time period Titus led three legions which he used to conduct the siege and destruction of Jerusalem.

This tetradrachm is from group 4, attributed wholly to the Antioch mint by style. Groups 1-3 are thought to have been engraved in Alexandria Egypt due to their 'Alexandrian' style (see my RPC 1945). The Antioch mint engraved dies are much finer in style, this coin being a good example of that better quality. In high relief with a stunning portrait.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1961c.jpg
RPC-1961-Vespasian72 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.08g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
RPC 1961 (5 spec.).
Obv: AYTOKPA KAICA OYЄCΠACIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ЄTOYC NЄOY IЄPOY B; Eagle with wreath in beak on club to l.; in l. field, palm branch; crescent between eagle's legs

The 69-70 time period saw large issues of tetradrachms minted at Antioch, most likely due to the massive military operations in Judaea involved with crushing the Jewish revolt. Titus Caesar mounted the siege of Jerusalem during the spring and summer of 70 when this coin was probably struck. Both Antioch and Alexandria struck coins for circulation in Syria. This tetradrachm is in very fine 'Antiochene' style and is likely a product of that mint. The crescent between the eagle's legs is a trademark of the RPC group 5 tetradrachms from Antioch.

A lovely coin in excellent style.
7 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1970d.jpg
RPC-1970-Vespasian84 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.25g
Antioch mint, 69 AD
RPC 1970 (9 spec.).
Obv: AVTOKPATΩP KAICAP CЄBACTOC OYECΠACIANOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ETOYC NEOY IEPOY A; Eagle with wreath in beak standing, l. on club; in l. field, palm branch
Acquired from Tom Cederlind, October 2014.

Vespasian was proclaimed emperor in Alexandria Egypt on 1 July 69 and the legions in Antioch followed suit a week or so later. "At Antioch gold and silver currencies were struck" according to Tacitus in 'The Histories' - and here is one of those coins. Struck between mid July and 30 September 69 this early tetradrachm was probably minted to help finance Vespasian's rise to the purple. These issues are found in hoards all over Judaea, indicating they were also used to pay the legions stationed there involved with crushing the ongoing Jewish revolt. This coin even now has some of the Judaean dirt still clinging to it.

Struck in good 'Antioch' style the coin is better in hand than my feeble attempt at photography would otherwise indicate.


2 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC1971.jpg
RPC-1971-Vespasian57 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 14.66g
Antioch mint, 69-70 AD
RPC 1971 (9 spec.).
Obv: AYTOKPATΩP KAICAP CЄBACTOC OYECΠACIANOC; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: ETOYΣ NЄOY•IЄPOY•B; Eagle with wreath in beak on a club to l.; in l. field, palm branch
Acquired from Ancient Imports, November 2014.

The 69-70 time period saw large issues of tetradrachms minted at Antioch, most likely due to the massive military operations in nearby Judaea involved with crushing the Jewish revolt. Titus Caesar mounted the siege of Jerusalem during the spring and summer of 70 when this coin was struck.

In fine 'Antiochene' style featuring a smiling Vespasian.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC2405.jpg
RPC-2405-Vespasian66 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 11.86g
Alexandria mint, 69 AD
RPC 2405 (6 spec.).
Obv: AYT TIT ΦΛAYI OYEΣΠAΣIAN KAIΣ; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r., date LA before neck
Rev: ΦΛΑΥΙ ΟΥΕΣΠΑΣΙΑΝΟΣ ΚΑΙΣ; laureate and cuirassed bust of Titus, r.
Ex Heritage Auctions, eBay, May 2017.

Struck in July/August 69, this is the rarest tetradrachm type for Vespasian's regnal year one at Alexandria. The reverse featuring Titus Caesar is no doubt a nod both to his importance as Vespasian's heir and his new role as supreme commander of the legions suppressing the Jewish Revolt.

Worn, but in good Alexandrian style with the portraits still intact.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
RPC2416.jpg
RPC-2416-Vespasian92 viewsAR Tetradrachm, 12.72g
Alexandria mint, 69-70 AD
RPC 2416 (7 spec.).
Obv: AYTOK KAIΣ ΣEBA OYEΣΠAΣIANOY; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r., date LB before neck
Rev: Τ ΦΛΑΥΙ ΟΥΕΣΠΑΣΙΑΝΟΣ ΚΑΙΣ; laureate head of Titus, r.
Ex CNG E377, 29 June 2016, The Hermanubis collection, lot 28.

From the beginning, Vespasian intended for Titus to succeed him. This was announced on the provincial coinage quite clearly in Cappadocia, Syria, and as seen here on this coin struck in Alexandria, regnal year 2. At the time, Vespasian was busy preparing for his arrival in Rome and Titus was put in command of the legions quelling the Jewish revolt in Judaea. This tetradrachm is a perfect illustration of the amount of trust Vespasian put in his eldest son and clearly shows his choice of successor. Titus' importance to Vespasian cannot be understated and the coinage bears this out. The type is fairly scarce for Alexandria year 2.

The coin comes from the Hermanubis collection. CNG notes the collection 'was assembled with a focus on both quality and rarity'. Judging from this piece, I cannot but agree. Darkly toned with very fine Alexandrian style portraits.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
RRC292-1_Brockage.jpg
RRC 292/1 (Licinius Nerva) Brockage36 viewsObv. Bust of Roma left, wearing crested helmet ornamented with feathers, armed with a spear, shield showing galopping horseman; above her head, crescent, before X, behind ROMA
Rev. Brockage of obverse
Rome, ca. 113-112 B.C.
17 mm, 3.94 grams
References: RCC 292/1; Sear 169, RSC Licinia 7, Syd. 548

Struck during the invasions of the Cimbri and Teutones. This coin should show a famous representation of a voting scene, but due to a minting error, it turned out to be a brockage. Some eight years after his duty as a IIIVir Monetalis, P. Licinius Nerva became propraetor in Sicily. There, he was asked to sort out cases of illegal enslavement of Rome's allies. At first, he acquitted himself well of the job, freeing 800 slaves. Then the Sicilian land- and slaveowners pressured him stopping his inquiries. The disappointed slaves revolted, and Rome lost control in Sicily for nearly four years, when the ancestor of the moneyer responsible for RRC 401/1 (Mn. Aquillius) would reconquer the island.
Syltorian
DAOGUANG_H_28_17.JPG
Schjöth --, Hartill (QC) 28.17 Type DG2.1, Hartill (CCC) 22.654, KM C 30-844 viewsDaoguang (1821-1850)

10 cash (cast brass), 1828-1850 [?], Xinjiang Province, Aksu mint, 26 mm, nominal weight 5.595 grams (1 qian 5 fen).

Obv: Daoguang tongbao.

Rev: Aksu left (in Manchu script) and Aqs(u) right (in Turkic script), ba nian (8th year) top and wu (ten) bottom.

Type DG.2.1 and DG.2.2 coins differ in the style of the ba. In DG2.1 coins, the ba is comprised of two strokes that do not touch.

A commemorative marking the suppression of a revolt in Xinjiang Province in 1828 (per KM). The ten cash coin was introduced to overcome the shortage of coins for army pay, but was effectively a devaluation, given the nominal weight of the coins, and they circulated as two cash coins (per Hartill).

Hartill rarity 9 (QC) & 14 (CCC).
Stkp
RvltDO8.jpg
Sear 715 - Decanummium - 608-610 AD - Carthage mint77 viewsRevolt of the Heraclii (608-610 AD)
Date: 608-610 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Decanummium

Obverse: RCIO - CONSVI
Bust of Heraclius, facing, bearded, wearing consular robes. In right hand, eagle-topped scepter. Above head, cross.

Reverse: Large "X"; Above, cross; Beneath, ; To left, /N/; To right, /M/

Carthage mint
DO 8; Sear 715
2.88g; 17.6mm; 330°
Pep
RvltDO9.jpg
Sear 716 - Pentanummium - 608-610 AD - Carthage mint53 viewsRevolt of the Heraclii (608-610 AD)
Date: 608-610 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Pentanummium

Obverse: ] - [ ]
Bust facing, beardless, wearing consular robes.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left, //; To right, //

Carthage mint
DO 9; Sear 716
2.30g; 14.0mm; 345°

Ex CNG
Pep
RvltSear717.jpg
Sear 717 - Binummium - 608-610 AD - Carthage mint51 viewsRevolt of the Heraclii (608-610 AD)
Date: 608-610 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Binummium

Obverse: No legend
Bust facing, beardless, wearing consular robes(?); To left and right, pellet.

Reverse: Large ""; To left and right, pellet.

Carthage mint
Sear 717; MIB 15; BN 8
0.86g; 9.5mm; 180°
Pep
RvltDO16.jpg
Sear 722 - Follis - 610 AD (Indictional Year 14) - Alexandretta mint145 viewsRevolt of the Heraclii (608-610 AD)
Date: 610 AD (Indictional Year 14)
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ]
Busts of Heraclius and his father, facing, both bearded and bareheaded, wearing consular robes. Between heads, cross.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, cross; To left, ///; To right, /; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Alexandretta mint
DO 16; Sear 722
9.67g; 29.5mm; 180°
2 commentsPep
othozuz.JPG
Second_RIC 10_zuz20 viewsBaar Kochba revolt "denarius", originally a SECVRITAS Otho Rome mint coin. On the lower left of the obverse one can see the name clearly and on the other side remnants of the original reverse legend "..CV RI T..." as well as the wreath held by Secvritas are visible. The common host coins the zuz were struck on are denarii of Trajan, Vespasian and Domitian; Titus, Nerva, Nero and Galba being less frequent. Otho is distinctly rare and a restruck Vitellius I have not seen.
It is fun to try to figure out the original type.
jmuona
IMG_9996.JPG
Seleukos II Kallinikos5 views
SELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Seleukos II Kallinikos. 246-225 BC. Æ Magnesia on the Maeander. Struck before the revolt of Antiochos Hierax. Diademed bust of Artemis right, quiver at shoulder / Apollo standing left, holding arrow and resting hand on grounded bow; monograms in outer fields; all within meander border. SC 670 HGC 9, 347.
ecoli
J23-Kochba.jpg
Shimon Bar Kochba Revolt, Æ, 132-135 CE88 viewsBronze of 21.9 mm, 4.35 grams. This coin was struck 134/135 CE during the third year of the second Jewish revolt against Rome.

Obverse: Palm tree with seven branches and two bunches of dates, and the Hebrew inscription – שמעון (‘Shimon’ the first name of Bar Kochba).
Reverse: Vine leaf on tendril with the Hebrew inscription around – לחרות ירושלים (‘For the Freedom of Jerusalem’).

Reference: Hendin 739, Mildenberg 160.

Added to collection: April 11, 2005
Daniel Friedman
King_John_AR_Penny.JPG
Struck 1205 - 1216, John (1199 – 1216), AR Penny minted at Winchester, England16 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer, Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*Alex
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
Struck 1305 - 1306, EDWARD I (1272 - 1307), AR Penny minted at London, England11 viewsObverse: EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Undated Penny, type 10cf1. Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
Nero___Divus_Augustus__Struck_A_D__66_-_67.JPG
Struck A.D. 66 - 67 under Nero. DIVUS AUGUSTUS. AR Billon tetradrachm of Alexandria10 viewsObverse: NERΩ KΛAY KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER AY. Radiate bust of Nero facing left, wearing aegis; before LIΓ = regnal year 13 = A.D.66-67.
Reverse: ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ. Radiate head of Augustus facing right.
Diameter: 24mm | Weight: 12.5gms | Die Axis: 12
GICV : 636 | Emmett : 113
Ex Pavlos S. Pavlou (London)

EVENTS OCCURRING AT THE TIME THIS COIN WAS STRUCK
A.D.66
The Jewish Revolt began in October this year when the Zealots laid siege to Jerusalem and annihilated the Roman garrison, a cohort of Legio III Cyrenaica.
The Roman writer Petronius died in this year. Having been charged with treason he committed suicide. Pliny the Elder stated that before he died, Petronius broke his fluorspar wine-dipper, which had cost 300,000 sesterces, so that Nero could not inherit it.
A.D.67
Vespasian arrived in Ptolemais, along with Legio X Fretensis and Legio V Macedonica, to put down the Jewish Revolt.
Nero travelled to Greece to participate in the Olympic Games and other festivals.
1 comments*Alex
berytos_augustus_BMC55.jpg
Syria, Berytos, Augustus, BMC 5522 viewsPhoenicia, Berytos, Agustus BC 27 - AD 14
AE 20, 6.19g
struck under propraetor Quinctilius Varus, 6-4 BC
obv. IMP CAE[SAR AGVSTV]
Bare head, r.
rev. P.QVIN - CT L - VS - VRVS (starting upper l.)
Two eagles between two standarts
BMC 55; RPC 4543
good S, struck on a small flan, reddish sand-patina

This coin has been struck under Varus when he was legatus Augusti pro praetore in Syria 7/6 BC - 5/4 BC. The Jewish historian Josephus mentions the swift action of Varus against a messianic revolt in Judaea after the death of Rome's client king Herod the Great in 4 BC. After occupying Jerusalem, he crucified 2000 Jewish rebels, and may have thus been one of the prime objects of popular anti-Roman sentiment in Judaea, for Josephus, who made every effort to reconcile the Jewish people to Roman rule, felt it necessary to point out how lenient this judicial massacre had been.
Jochen
Antiochos_VII_Eueagetas_Silver_Tetradrachm,_circa_138_-_129_BC.jpg
Syria, Seleucid Kings. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. AR Tetradrachm. Tyre mint. Dated SE 177 (136/5 BC).90 viewsSyria, Seleucid Kings. Antiochos VII Euergetes (Sidetes). 138-129 BC. AR Tetradrachm (30 mm, 14.20 g, 12 h). Tyre mint. Dated SE 177 (136/5 BC). Diademed and draped bust right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY, Eagle standing left on thunderbolt; palm frond in backgound; to left, A/PE above club surmounted by Tyre monogram; to right, A and monogram above HOP (date); monogram between legs. SC 2109.5a; Newell, Tyre 121; HGC 9, 1074.

Antiochos VII was called Sidetes because he was reared in the Pamphylian
seaport of side. He was the younger son of Demetrios I. his elder brother Demetrius II was captured by the Parthians. He undertook the reconquest of
Palestine, he besieged and captured Jerusalem. ( 134 BC).
Ultimately the ruling high priest John Hyrcanus accepted seleucid suzerainty,
though retaining autonomy with respect to internal affairs.
Antiochos temporarily recovered Babylonia from the Parthians, but while
wintering in Media he was caught off guard by a native revolt coordinated
with an attack by the Parthian army. He was vanquished and killed by
Phraates II. His body was returned to antioch in a silver casket, but his son Seleucus was kept as a hostage at the Parthian court.
These events marked the permanent loss of the eastern Seleucid empire.
4 commentsAntonivs Protti
Apamea_ad_Orontes_2000.jpg
Syria, The Great Colonnade at Apamea113 viewsApamea, on the right bank of the Orontes River, was a treasure city and stud-depot of the Seleucid kings, and was the capital of Apamene. Its site is found about 55 km (34 mi) to the northwest of Hama, Syria, overlooking the Ghab valley.

Previously known as Pharmake, it was fortified and enlarged by Seleucus I Nicator in 300 B.C., who so named it after his Bactrian wife, Apama. The fortress was placed upon a hill; the windings of the Orontes, with the lake and marshes, gave it a peninsular form. Seleucus had his commissariat there, 500 elephants, with 30,000 mares, and 300 stallions. The pretender, Diodotus Tryphon, made Apamea the basis of his operations.

Josephus relates, that Pompey marching south from his winter quarters, probably at or near Antioch, razed the fortress of Apamea in 64 B.C. and the city was annexed to the Roman Republic. In the revolt of Syria under Q. Caecilius Bassus, it held out against Julius Caesar for three years till the arrival of Cassius, 46 B.C.
Located at a strategic crossroads for Eastern commerce, the city flourished to the extent that its population eventually numbered half a million. It was one of the four cities of the Syrian tetrapolis. The city boasted one of the largest theaters in the Roman world, and a monumental colonnade.

On the outbreak of the Jewish War, the inhabitants of Apamea spared the Jews who lived in their midst, and would not suffer them to be murdered or led into captivity.
Destroyed by Chosroes I in the 6th century, it was partially rebuilt and known in Arabic as Famia, and destroyed by an earthquake in 1152. In the Crusades it was still a flourishing and important place and was occupied by Tancred.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apamea,_Syria

The ancient city has been damaged as a result of the ongoing civil war in Syria.
Joe Sermarini
Thasos_tet.JPG
Thasos, Thrace127 viewsafter 148 BC
AR Tetradrachm (33mm, 16.86g)
O: Head of young Dionysus right, wreathed in ivy and flowers.
R: Herakles standing nude left, holding club and lion's skin; ΣΩTHPOΣ left, HPAKΛOYΣ right, ΘAΣIΩN in ex.
SNG Cop 1040; Sear 1759

Inhabited since prehistoric times, the island of Thasos is said to be the mythological home of the Sirens.
Phoenician traders occupied Thasos by the late ninth century BC, drawn by her prolific gold mines. A hundred years later Greek colonists from Paros settled on the island and prospered from Thasos’ gold and marble production, as well as her fertile vineyards. Thasian wine was renowned throughout the Mediterranean, for which they honored Dionysus on their coinage.
A brush with the Persian army under King Darius at the beginning of the fifth century caused Thasos to increase her production of war ships, and after the defeat of Xerxes in 480 BC Thasos joined the Delian League. However a dispute with Athens over mining interests on the Thracian mainland led Thasos to revolt in 465 BC, only to submit after the Athenians destroyed her ships and razed the city walls.
The island was occupied by Sparta from 404 until 393 BC, when Thasos fell to Athens, who eventually granted her independence. Thasos then came under the control of Phillip II of Macedonia around 340 BC, who immediately seized the gold mines. Thasos remained a part of the Macedonian Empire until falling under Roman rule in 197 BC.
4 commentsEnodia
46206q00.jpg
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D.54 viewsBronze prutah, Hendin 1360, Fair, Jerusalem mint, 2.669g, 16.8mm, year 2, 67 - 68 A.D.; obverse amphora with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; reverse , vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around. ex Forvm

"Discontent and inept rule led to open rebellion in 66 A.D. The Romans distracted by the Civil Wars following the death of Nero were unable to put a speedy end to the revolt. But, in 70 A.D. Titus, sone of the new Emperor Vespasian captured and sacked Jerusalem and destroyed them temple."
Randygeki(h2)
The_First_Jewish_Revolt,_66_-_70_A_D_.jpg
The First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D. Bronze prutah24 viewsThe First Jewish Revolt, 66 - 70 A.D. Bronze prutah, Hendin 661, F, Jerusalem mint, 2.890g, 16.8mm, year 2, 67-68 A.D.; obverse amphora with broad rim and two handles, year 2 (in Hebrew) around; reverse , vine leaf on small branch, the freedom of Zion (in Hebrew) around. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Thasos.jpg
Thrace. Thasos (Circa 480-463 BC)28 viewsAR Stater

22 mm, 8.44 g

Obverse: Ithyphallic satyr advancing right, carrying off protesting nymph.
Reverse: Quadripartite incuse square.

Le Rider, Thasiennes, 5; SNG Copenhagen 1010-2; HGC 6, 331.

Both location and mineral riches aided the thriving economy of the North Aegean island of Thasos. According to Herodotos (VI, 46), the city derived 200-300 talents annually from her exploitation of its local silver mines as well as mines controlled on the Thracian mainland opposite the island city-state. Additionally, Thasos gained much material wealth as a producer and exporter of high quality wines, and it was perhaps due to this trade in wine that her coinage spread throughout the Aegean making it a widely recognized and accepted coinage in distant lands.

Thracians for the most part were illiterate, with no alphabet of their own and no written history or literature. Aristotle, though no doubt exaggerating, wrote that Thracians were unable to count beyond four. What we know about Thracians is largely through the prism of what the Greeks and Romans have written and from archeological findings (including coins). We know they were fiercely independent, powerful, and feared, excelling in warfare, horsemanship, and metalwork. Thracians regarded war and plunder as the noblest way of life. Another ancient Greek philosopher, Xenophanes, described Thracians as being "large, powerfully built men," with "a skin white, delicate and cold," and "largely red-haired." Among the noteworthy Thracians of history are thought to be the gladiator Spartacus and the fable-writer Aesop.

The motif of the satyr abducting a maenad appears on several northern Greek coins. In the case of Thasos, this Dionysiac motif served to promote the island's famous wine. Satyrs belong to the retinue of Dionysos (the god of wine) while maenads were the immortal female followers of Dionysos.

This particular series of coinage likely terminated with the capture of Thasos by Athens in 463 BC after its revolt two years earlier. The terms under which Thasos surrendered were harsh and involved the loss of most of her sources of revenue, except that from her famous wine.
1 commentsNathan P
Tiberius__AD_14-37__Æ_Sestertius_(35_5mm,_27_11_g,_7h)__Rome_mint__Struck_AD_36-37__Hexastyle_temple_with_flanking_wings;_Concordia_seated_within_216.jpg
Tiberius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius3 views(no legend) - Hexastyle temple with flanking wings; Concordia seated inside, holding patera and cornucopiae; Hercules and Mercury stand on podia; Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Victories and other figures above pediment.
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST P M TR POT XXXIIX - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (36-37 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 27.11g / 35.5mm / 6
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 61
BMCRE 116
Cohen 69
Provenances:
Classical Numismatic Group, Inc.
Acquisition/Sale: CNG Internet 424 #414

From Wikipedia:
The Temple of Concord (Latin: Aedes Concordiae) in the ancient city of Rome refers to a series of shrines or temples dedicated to the Roman goddess Concordia, and erected at the western end of the Roman Forum. The earliest may have vowed by Marcus Furius Camillus in 367 BC, but history also records such a temple erected in the Vulcanal in 304, and another immediately west of the Vulcanal, on the spot the temple later occupied, commissioned in 217. The temple was rebuilt in 121 BC, and again by the future emperor Tiberius between 7 BC and AD 10.

Backed up against the Tabularium at the foot of the Capitoline Hill, the architecture had to accommodate the limitations of the site. The cella of the temple, for instance, is almost twice as wide (45m) as it is deep (24m), as is the pronaos. In the cella a row of Corinthian columns rose from a continuous plinth projecting from the wall, which divided the cella into bays, each containing a niche. The capitals of these columns had pairs of leaping rams in place of the corner volutes. Only the platform now remains, partially covered by a road up to the Capitol.

One tradition ascribes the first Temple of Concord to a vow made by Camillus in 367 BC, on the occasion of the Lex Licinia Sextia, the law passed by the tribunes Gaius Licinius Stolo and Lucius Sextius Lateranus, opening the consulship to the plebeians. The two had prevented the election of any magistrates for a period of several years, as part of the conflict of the orders. Nominated dictator to face an invasion of the Gauls, Camillus, encouraged by his fellow patrician Marcus Fabius Ambustus, Stolo's father-in-law, determined to resolve the crisis by declaring his support for the law, and vowing a temple to Concordia, symbolizing reconciliation between the patricians and plebeians.

Camillus' vow is not mentioned by Livy, who instead describes the dedication of the Temple of Concord in the Vulcanal, a precinct sacred to Vulcan on the western end of the forum, by the aedile Gnaeus Flavius in 304 BC. Flavius' actions were an affront to the senate, partly because he had undertaken the matter without first consulting them, and partly because of his low social standing: not only was Flavius a plebeian, but he was the son of a freedman, and had previously served as a scribe to Appius Claudius Caecus. The Pontifex Maximus, Rome's chief priest, was compelled to instruct Flavius on the proper formulae for dedicating a temple. Cicero and Pliny report that Flavius was a scribe, rather than aedile, at the time of the dedication, and a law was passed immediately afterward forbidding anyone from dedicating a temple without the authorization of the senate or a majority of the plebeian tribunes.

Yet a third Temple of Concord was begun in 217 BC, early in the Second Punic War, by the duumviri Marcus Pupius and Caeso Quinctius Flamininus, in fulfillment of a vow made by the praetor Lucius Manlius Vulso on the occasion of his deliverance from the Gauls in 218. The reason why Manlius vowed a temple to Concordia is not immediately apparent, but Livy alludes to a mutiny that had apparently occurred among the praetor's men. The temple was completed and dedicated the following year by the duumviri Marcus and Gaius Atilius.

The murder of Gaius Gracchus in 121 BC marked a low point in the relationship between the emerging Roman aristocracy and the popular party, and was immediately followed by the reconstruction of the Temple of Concord by Lucius Opimius at the senate's behest, which was regarded as an utterly insincere attempt to clothe its actions in a symbolic act of reconciliation.

From this period, the temple was frequently used as a meeting place for both the senate and the Arval Brethren, and in later times it came to house a number of works of art, many of which are described by Pliny.

A statue of Victoria placed on the roof of the temple was struck by lightning in 211 BC, and prodigies were reported in the Concordiae, the neighborhood of the temple, in 183 and 181. Little else is heard of the temple until 7 BC, when the future emperor Tiberius undertook another restoration, which lasted until AD 10, when the structure was rededicated on the 16th of January as the Aedes Concordiae Augustae, the Temple of Concordia of Augustus.

The temple is occasionally mentioned in imperial times, and may have been restored again following a fire in AD 284. By the eighth century, the temple was reportedly in poor condition, and in danger of collapsing.

The temple was razed circa 1450, and the stone turned into a lime kiln to recover the marble for building.

From CNG:
The Temple of Concordia at the northern end of the Forum in Rome was unusual in that its width was greater than its length. We do not know precisely when the temple was originally built, but its unorthodox design was likely due to space limitations. The temple was restored after the revolt of the Gracchi in 121 BC, and again under Tiberius in AD 10.
Gary W2
tpl1722LG.jpg
Titus as Caesar RIC-1444127 viewsAR Denarius, 3.42g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
RIC 1444 (R2). BMC p. 98 note. RSC 127. RPC 845 (0 spec.).
Obv: IMPERATOR T CAESAR AVGVSTI F; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PACI ORB TERR AVG; Turreted and draped female bust, r; below EPHE
Acquired from Ephesus Numismatics, April 2010.

The reverse features a turreted female bust, most likely Tyche with the attributes of a City Goddess. Here she is symbolic of the world peace Vespasian has inaugurated after the recent Civil War and revolts in Judaea and Batavia. The type was also struck for Vespasian and Domitian as Caesar and is one of the more fascinating reverses minted at Ephesus.

8 commentsDavid Atherton
Titus,_79-81_AD,_bronze_Judaea_Capta.jpg
Titus Caesarea Maritima W/Countermark65 viewsTitus, 79-81 AD, Ae 21.6 mm, 7.09 g. Caesarea Maritima Mint
O: Laureate head of Titus right, Greek text ΑYTΟΚΡ TΙT ΟΣ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ around.
R: Nike right, left foot on helmet, writing AY T KAIC with right hand upon shield, hanging from palm tree. Greek text IΟΥΔΑΙΑΣ ΕΑΛWΚΥΙΑΣ around w/ countermark. Rare with countermark.
Hendin 1446 (prev. Hendin 743). AJC II supplement VII, 2.

Caesarea Maritima, built by Herod the Great about 25 - 13 B.C., was named to flatter Augustus, the Caesar. It became the capital of Iudaea Province and the residence of the Roman procurators and governors including Pontius Pilatus, praefectus and Antonius Felix. In 66 A.D., the desecration of the local synagogue led to the disastrous Jewish revolt. After the revolt was suppressed, 2500 Jewish captives were slaughtered at Caesarea in Gladiatorial games held by Titus to celebrate his victory. Today, Caesarea's ruins lie on Israel's Mediterranean coast about halfway between Tel Aviv and Haifa, on the site of Pyrgos Stratonos ("Straton's Tower").
Nemonater
Titus_RIC_II_118.jpg
Titus RIC II 004913 viewsTitus 79-81 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 79 A.D, after July 1. (3.2 g, 18.35mm, 6h). Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG PM, laureate head right. Rev: TRP VIIII IMP XV COS VII PP, captive, hands bound behind back, kneeling right below trophy. RIC II 49, RSC 295, BMC 31.

Coins with Titus as Caesar under Vespasian with this trophy/captive type were issued earlier in 79 A.D., before Vespasian’s death on June 23, 79 A.D. (RIC II Vespasian 1076). When Titus became Augustus, the type continued memorializing his part in the Judean victory during the First Jewish Revolt.
Lucas H
118.jpg
Trajan Denarius - Trajan and Nerva (RIC 28)76 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 98-99 AD
3.16g

Obv: Laureate bust of Trajan (R)
IMP NERVA CAES TRAIAN AVG GERM P M

Rev: Trajan, togate, standing (L), receiving globe from Nerva (R)
R P COS II P P, PROVID below.

Rare
No examples in Reka Devnia Hoard

RIC 28 RSC 319a


After the revolt of the Praetorians in October 97 AD, Nerva was in need of a popular, youthful and vigourous heir. Stationed on the German frontier, Trajan soon received a handwritten note from Nerva, informing him of his adoption. Trajan was highly respected within the army and his adoption was the best possible remedy against the resentment much of the army felt against Nerva. But Trajan didn't come speeding back to Rome in order to help restore Nerva's authority. Rather than going to Rome he summoned the leaders of the earlier mutiny by the praetorians to Upper Germany. Instead of receiving a promised promotion, they were executed on arrival. Such ruthless actions made it quite clear that with Trajan as part of it, Rome's government was not to be messed with.

Nerva died on 28 January AD 98. His successor's eventual entry at Rome in AD 99 was a triumph. Jubilant crowds rejoiced at his arrival. The new emperor entered the city on foot, he embraced each of the senators and even walked among the ordinary people. This was unlike any other Roman emperor and perhaps grants us a glimpse of Trajan's true greatness.

5 commentsKained but Able
Vespasian_Æ_Sestertius_-_Judaea_Capta.jpg
Vespasian (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 2 viewsIMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III - Laureate head right
IVDAEA - CAPTA - Palm tree; to left, Vespasian standing right, foot on helmet, holding spear and parazonium; to right, Jewess seated right on cuirass, in attitude of mourning.
Exergue: SC


Mint: Rome (71 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 20.89g / 33.07mm / 6h
References:
RIC II 167
Hendin 1504
Sear 2327
BMCRE 543-4
BN 498
Provenances:
Marc R. Breitsprecher
Pegasi auction
Acquisition/Sale: Marc R. Breitsprecher Internet $0.00 11/18
Notes: Nov 8, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

When Vespasian was proclaimed emperor by the legions in the East in AD 69, he left his son Titus to quell the Jewish uprising led by the Zealots, John of Gischala and Simon bar Giora. Titus accomplished the task in 70 AD, and in the following year, Vespasian, Titus, and Domitian celebrated a splendid triumph in Rome. Several different reverse types were employed on the coinage of the Flavians to commemorate the triumph.

The main Judaea Capta coinage was a series of imperial issues struck in gold, silver, and bronze, and provincial issues struck in silver and bronze, to celebrate the Roman defeat of Judaea, the capture of Jerusalem, and the destruction of the Jewish Second Temple during the First Jewish War (66-73 CE). Generally, the reverse of this coinage shows a Jewish female seated in an attitude of mourning beneath a palm tree. Sometimes a bound male captive, or the figure of the victorious emperor or Victory, is found standing on the other side amid weapons, shields, and helmets. While some gold and silver coins bear no legend on the reverse, most issues are inscribed IVDAEA CAPTA, IVDAEA DEVICTA, or simply IVDAEA. The imperial coins were struck for only Vespasian and Titus. Provincial drachms were minted in Asia Minor for Titus (who oversaw the capture of Jerusalem and the destruction of the Temple). The provincial bronze coinage for Titus and Domitian (who did not participate in any of the actions, but was included by familial association) was struck in Judaea by the Roman administration at Caesarea Maritima and even by the Romanized Jewish ruler, Agrippa II, who was a friend of Titus and his supporter during the war.

From Roma:
Struck for 25 years by Vespasian and his sons Titus and Domitian, the Judaea Capta coins were issued in bronze, silver and gold by mints in Rome, throughout the Roman Empire, and in Judaea itself. They were issued in every denomination, and at least 48 different types are known. The present piece proudly displays imagery of this significant Roman victory, after which Vespasian boldly closed the gates of the Temple of Janus to signify that all of Rome’s wars were ended, and that the Pax Romana again prevailed.

The obverse portrait of Vespasian shows him as strong, robust and in the prime of life; the reverse celebrates Rome and Vespasian’s triumph over the Jewish revolt in Judaea, which Titus had brought to a close the previous year with the capture of Jerusalem after a seven month siege and the destruction of the Second Temple. It had been a costly and devastating war which had cost the lives of twenty five thousand Roman soldiers and somewhere between two hundred and fifty thousand and one million Jewish civilians. The design incorporates Vespasian who stands with his left food on a helmet and holds a spear and parazonium while a Jewish woman is seated in an attitude of mourning. It has been occasionally suggested that the female figure represents Judaea, and it is sometimes noted that the reverse of this coin can be interpreted to reflect the prophecy of Isaiah 3:8, 25-26: 'For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen ... Thy men shall fall by the sword and thy mighty in the war. And her gates shall lament and mourn, and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground'.

The Arch of Titus in Rome, built by his brother Domitian shortly after his death and in commemoration of this victory, depicts the Roman army carrying off the treasures from the Temple of Jerusalem, including the Menorah, after the siege of the city had ended. The spoils were used to fund the building of the Flavian Amphitheatre, more commonly known as the Colosseum, the great lasting monument of the Flavian dynasty.
Gary W2
1374_Titus_Vespasian_Antioch_b.jpg
Vespasian and Titus - Antioch11 viewsAR tetradrachm
69-70 AD
laureate head of Vespasian on eagle left
AVTOKPAT KAIΣA OVEΣΠAΣIANOV
laureate head of Titus right
T ΦΛAVI OVEΣΠ KAIΣ·ETOVΣ NEOV IEPOV
*__B
McAlee 332; Prieur 110; RPC 1943
ex Künker

Forum Ancient Coins note: "Struck to pay Titus' legions during and after the First Jewish Revolt. RPC notes c. 320 different dies indicate 6,500,000 Syrian tetradrachms might have been minted. This was the quantity Titus would have needed to pay his four legions. Hoard evidence finds many of these types in Judaea confirming they were used to pay the legions."
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Vespasian_ric_773.jpg
Vespasian AR Denarius80 viewsVespasian (69-79). AR Denarius (18.08 mm, 3.50 g, 6h). Rome, AD 75.
Obv: Bare head l. R IMP CEASAR VESPASIANUS AUG
Rev: Pax seated l., resting l. elbow on throne and holding branch.
PON MAX TRP COS VI
RIC II 773 (this coin); RSC –. Extremely Rare variety, near VF.
Ex Vecchi sale 13, 1998, 757.
Ex: St Paul Antiques auction 7 Lot 285 June 11, 2017




Vespasian ruled Rome for 10 years, and he was the last emperor in the year of the four emperors. His rule brought stability to the empire. He was famous for his military response to the Jewish revolt, and for the construction of the Flavian amphitheater. The looting of Jerusalem provided the funding for this building project. The colosseum was completed by his son Titus who became emperor after the death of Vespasian. The Flavian era had three emperors, Vespasian, his son Titus and his other son Domitian.

While this coin is worn, please take note of the bare head of Vespasian. There are only 2 known coin types that feature Vespasian with a bare head, all others are laureate. For one coin type there are several examples known to exist. For the coin type displayed below, this coin was, until very recently the only one to have surfaced. A second example has now been found by an expert on Flavian coinage. The reference Roman Imperial Coinage II Part 1 refers to my coin but does not have a photo of the coin. I sent a photo to the co-author of the volume, and I hope that a photo will be added when this edition is updated.
7 commentsorfew
vespasian_Judea.jpg
Vespasian Judea Capta Ae As128 viewsIMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III
Laureate head of Vespasian right

IVDAEA CAPTA SC
Judea as mourning captive seated right amidst arms at foot of palm-tree

Rome 71 AD

10.54g

Sear 2357
RIC 303 (R)

Ex-Incitatus

SOLD!

Celebrates the success of Vespasian and Titus in quelling the First Jewish Revolt and the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem

From Curtis Clay:
The same type is more common with IVDEA (one A omitted): RIC 305 (C). However. IVDAEA CAPTA asses as a group are rarer than the corresponding sestertii, which add a standing Jew or the standing emperor to the type of Judaea mourning below a palm tree.
1 commentsJay (Titus Pullo)
Vespasian_IVDEA.jpg
Vespasian Judea Capta denarius161 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Laur. head of Vespasian right

Rev.
IVDAEA
Judaea as mourning captive seated right on ground at foot of trophy.

Celebrating the success of Vespasian and Titus in quelling the first Jewish Revolt.

Rome 69-70 AD

Sear 2296

3.11g

Ex-Incitatus

Sold!
1 commentsTitus Pullo
Vespasian_LXF_CM.jpg
Vespasian LXF Countermark26 viewsVespasian. 69-79 A.D. AE Dupondius. Lugdunum Mint. 71 or 72 A.D. (10.93g, 28m, 6h) Obv: IMP C[AESAR V]ESPASIA[N AVG COS III] (1156), radiate head right, globe below. LXF countermark. Rev: SECVRITAS AVGVSTI; SC in ex., Securitas std. r., head resting on raised arm, with sceptre, to r. alter and torch. RIC II 1156 or 1197.

With pertinent portions of the legend obscured, it may be impossible to nail down the exact type. It was for the countermark that I obtained this coin however. Legio X Fretensis played a key role in the Flavian suppression of the Jewish Revolt, and was garrisoned in Jerusalem following the war. This coin traveled a long way from Lugdunum, where it was minted, to Judaea, where it was presumably countermarked.
Lucas H
Vespasian_RIC_II_2.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 000298 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. Rome Mint 21 Dec. 69 to early 70 A.D. (3.07g, 18.5m, 6h). Obv: IMP [CAES]ɅR VESPɅSIɅNVS ɅVG, laureate head r. Rev: IVDɅEɅ in exergue, Judaea seated r., head resting on hand, in attitude of mourning, to r. of trophy. RIC II 02, RSC 266, BMC 35. Ex CNG.

Perhaps the iconic type of the reign of Vespasian, this commemorates the Flavian victory in the First Jewish Revolt culminating in the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D.

Despite some wear on the obverse, this example is well centered, and the reverse retains its detail.
Lucas H
Vespasian,_RIC_II_362.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 036231 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 72-73 A.D. (2.95g., 18.41mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right. Rev: VICTORIA AVGVSTI, Victory walking right, holding palm, crowning a legionary standard. RIC II 362. RSC 618, Hendin 771 (GBC 4), BMC 74.

A victory type commemorating Vespasian’s victory over the Jews during the First Jewish Revolt between 66 to 70 A.D. Sent by Nero to deal with the rebellion, Vespasain’s success led to the legions in the East declaring him Emperor after Nero’s death during the year of 4 emperors in 69 A.D.
Lucas H
Vespasian_RIC_II_0777.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 077723 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 75 A.D. (3.11g., 20.4m, 6h). Obv: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right. Rev: PON MAX TR P COS VI, Victory standing l. on prow, with wreath and palm. RIC II 777, BMC 166, RSC 368.

This type, with Victory on a prow, may refer to Vespasian’s naval victory in 67 A.D. during the Jewish Revolt. Josephus, The Jewish War, III 522-524. With an irregular flan, this example has complete legends.
Lucas H
Vespasian_529.jpg
Vespasian RIC II 155962 viewsVespasian 69-79 A.D. AR Denarius. Antioch Mint 72-73 A.D. (3.18g, 17.2mm, 6h). Obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right. Rev: Vespasian standing right in quadriga with branch and sceptre. RIC II 1563, RPC II 1931, RCV 2279.

Commemorating the Judea Capta Triumphal parade, celebrated in 71 AD., this is one of the more rarely issued eastern denari of the Flavian reign. Typical of Antioch, this coin has a high relief portrait. This is issue formed part of the last issue of Vespasian’s denarii from the Syrian region. The suppression of the revolt in Judea was the highpoint of the Flavians' successes, and allowed Vespasian to have much needed coin from the plunder of the Second Temple in Jerusalum, coin that his predecessors, Galba, Otho, and Vitellius lacked as they assumed the purple.
5 commentsLucas H