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QuinCEgnatuleiobis.jpg
29 viewsRepublic Quinarius - 97 BC. - Mint of Rome
C. EGNATVLEIVS C. f.- Gens Egnatuleia
Ob.: Laureate head of Apollo right. C. EGNATVLEI C F (NAT & VL in monogram) behind. Q below
Rev. Victory inscribing shield on trophy. Q in central field. In ex. ROMA
Gs. 1,8 mm. 15,9x16,9
Craw. 333/1, Sear RCV 213

Maxentius
QuinAnonimo.jpg
67 viewsAnonymous Republic Quinarius - After 211 BC.
Ob.: Helmeted head of Roma right, V behind
Rev.: Dioscuri galloping right, ROMA in a tablet.
Gs. 2,2 mm. 16,1
Craw. 44/6, Sear RCV 42

2 commentsMaxentius
sfc-data-dificil-500-rs-1936-rgte-feijo-2-D_NQ_NP_1897-MLB4769578494_082013-F.jpg
9 viewsMOEDA - 500 Réis - 1938 - Regente Feijó
________________________________________
Série Ilustres
Excelente estado de conservação


ANVERSO
O busto do Regente do Império Diogo António Feijó circundado pela inscrição REGENTE FEIJÓ. Em baixo, monograma do gravador Calmon Barreto.

REVERSO
No centro, uma coluna coríntia encimada pela inscrição circular BRASIL entre dois filetes. À esquerda do campo, o valor 500 e, à direita, a palavra RÉIS em posição horizontal. No exergo, a data e, ao lado direito, a sigla do gravador Walter Toledo.

PADRÃO MONETÁRIO
MIL-RÉIS (de 08/10/1833 a 31/10/1942)

PERÍODO POLÍTICO
República, Era Vargas (1930-1945)

ORIGEM
Casa da Moeda, Rio de Janeiro

CARACTERÍSTICAS
Material: bronze alumínio
Diâmetro: 22,5 mm
Peso: 5,00 g
Espessura: 1,80 mm
Bordo: serrilhado
Titulagem: Cu 910, Al 90
Eixo: reverso medalha (EV)
_____________________
Antonivs Protti
thumbnail.jpg
10 viewsMoeda Brasil 1935- 1000 Reis
Serie Ilustres - Padre Anchieta
Módulo Maior - Escassa
________________________________

ANVERSO
Efígie do Padre José de Anchieta, de perfil, onde
se ostenta a inscrição vertical ANCHIETA.
Missionário e fundador de São Paulo.
Sigla do gravador Calmon Barreto.

REVERSO
No centro, um livro aberto e o valor 1000 réis em
semicírculo. Sob o valor, a data. No exergo, a palavra
BRASIL. Sigla do gravador Walter Toledo.

PADRÃO MONETÁRIO
MIL-RÉIS (de 08/10/1833 a 31/10/1942)

PERÍODO POLÍTICO
República, Era Vargas (1930-1945)

ORIGEM
Casa da Moeda, Rio de Janeiro

CARACTERÍSTICAS
Material: bronze alumínio
Diâmetro: 26,7 mm
Peso: 8,00 g
Espessura: 2,10 mm
Bordo: serrilhado
Antonivs Protti
500mark1923A.jpg
61 viewsGermany. Weimar Republic. 1919- 1933. Aluminum 500 Mark 1923-A. EINIGKEIT UND RECHT UND FREIHEIT, Eagle, star below / DEUTSCHES REICH 500 MARK 1923 A.

KM 36
oneill6217
Hispania_republican.JPG
21 viewsAntonivs Protti
sabinus.jpg
L. Titurius L. f. Sabinus AR Denarius174 viewsOBV: Bearded head of King Tatius r.; before, A; behind, SABIN.
REV: Rape of the Sabine women; in exegue, L. TITVRI.
Date: 89 BC
3.3g
RRC 698. CR 344/1a.

The Roman Republic L. Titurius L. f. Sabinus Denarius.
miffy
ThoriusBalbus.jpg
#L. Thorius Balbus. 105 BC. AR Denarius32 viewsRome mint. ISMR behind, head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin headdress / L THORIVS below, BALBVS in exergue, bull charging right.

"The obverse refers to the the cult of Juno Sospita at Lanuvium, the moneyer's birthplace. The reverse is likely a play on the moneyer's name (Taurus sounds like Thorius). Cicero described L. Thorius Balbus as a man who lived in such a manner that there was not a single pleasure, however refined or rare, that he did not enjoy. This is one of the most common republican denarii." -- Roman Silver Coins edited by David Sear and Robert Loosley
ancientone
quadrans.jpg
107 viewsROME. temp. Hadrian-Antoninus Pius. Circa AD 120-161
Æ Quadrans (16mm, 2.94 g, 7h)
Rome mint
Petasus
Winged caduceus; S C flanking
Weigel 18; RIC II 32; Cohen 36

Weigel reconsiders the anonymous quadrantes as a cohesive group. The seriesportrays a pantheon of eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules. Types are primarily a portrait of the god, with an attribute on the reverse and are usually influenced by (but not directly copied from) earlier designs, primarily from the Republic. He updates the series to the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus.
5 commentsArdatirion
00022x00.jpg
55 viewsROME. temp. Domitian-Antoninus Pius. Circa AD 81-160
Æ Quadrans (16mm, 3.99 g, 12 h)
Rome mint
Griffin seated left, paw on wheel
Tripod; S C flanking
Weigel 15; RIC II 28; Cohen 38

Weigel reconsiders the anonymous quadrantes as a cohesive group. The seriesportrays a pantheon of eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules. Types are primarily a portrait of the god, with an attribute on the reverse and are usually influenced by (but not directly copied from) earlier designs, primarily from the Republic. He updates the series to the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus.
Ardatirion
00056x00~0.jpg
44 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 25 Centimes (21mm, 1.99 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 25 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 18.1a; cf. Arroyo 99 (for official issue); Lissade 95
Ardatirion
00055x00~0.jpg
47 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Brass 50 Centimes (25.5mm, 4.26 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352

On 1 June 1835, local officials arrested engraver Joseph Gardner of Belleville on charges of counterfeiting. When searching his house, officials discovered dies for Spanish 8 reales in various states of completion, coining implements, a bag of gold dust, and several bags of "spurious Haytien coppers." Yet Gardner was not the only individual striking illicit Haitian coins. James Bishop of neighboring Bloomfield, New Jersey had been arrested several months before, and a third person was responsible for the issue brought to Haiti by Jeremiah Hamilton.

Today, two distinct issues of counterfeits can be identified: a group of 25 and 50 Centimes, clearly related in fabric, and two different dates of 100 Centimes. The smaller denominations are most often found lacking a silver plating, while the plating year 26 100 Centimes is fine enough to deceive the likes of NGC and Heritage. Additionally, there are a handful year 27 100 centimes overstruck on US large cents. While I have not yet found a regular strike from these dies, they are the most likely candidate for Belleville's production.
Ardatirion
00004x00~6.jpg
33 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Silvered Brass 50 Centimes (25mm, 4.55 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 25 of the Republic (AD 1828/9)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 25
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 50 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM 20a; cf. Arroyo 105 (for official issue); Lissade 96; iNumis 25, lot 1352
Ardatirion
00014x00~2.jpg
43 viewsHAITI, Premier République. Jean Pierre Boyer. President, 1825-1843
Silvered CU 100 Centimes (31mm, 10.32 g, 12h)
Contemporary counterfeit. Dated L'An 27 of the Republic (AD 1830/1)
J * BOYER * PRESIDENTE *, AN 27
Bust left
REPUBLIQUE D'HAITI */ 100 * C
Palm tree flanked by cannon and banners
KM A23a; cf. Arroyo 117 (for official issue); Lissade 103
Ardatirion
lg004_quad_sm.jpg
"As de Nîmes" or "crocodile" Ӕ dupondius of Nemausus (9 - 3 BC), honoring Augustus and Agrippa36 viewsIMP DIVI F , Heads of Agrippa (left) and Augustus (right) back to back, Agrippa wearing rostral crown and Augustus the oak-wreath / COL NEM, crocodile right chained to palm-shoot with short dense fronds and tip right; two short palm offshoots left and right below, above on left a wreath with two long ties streaming right.

Ӕ, 24.5 x 3+ mm, 13.23g, die axis 3h; on both sides there are remains of what appears to be gold plating, perhaps it was a votive offering? Rough edges and slight scrapes on flan typical for this kind of coin, due to primitive technology (filing) of flan preparation.

IMPerator DIVI Filius. Mint of COLonia NEMausus (currently Nîmes, France). Known as "As de Nîmes", it is actually a dupontius (lit. "two-pounder") = 2 ases (sometimes cut in halves to get change). Dupondii were often made out of a golden-colored copper alloy (type of brass) "orichalcum" and this appears to be such case.

Key ID points: oak-wreath (microphotography shows that at least one leaf has a complicated shape, although distinguishing oak from laurel is very difficult) – earlier versions have Augustus bareheaded, no PP on obverse as in later versions, no NE ligature, palm with short fronds with tip right (later versions have tip left and sometimes long fronds). Not typical: no clear laurel wreath together with the rostral crown, gold (?) plating (!), both features really baffling.

But still clearly a "middle" kind of the croc dupondius, known as "type III": RIC I 158, RPC I 524, Sear 1730. It is often conservatively dated to 10 BC - 10 AD, but these days it is usually narrowed to 9/8 - 3 BC.

It is a commemorative issue, honoring the victory over Mark Antony and conquest of Egypt in 30 BC. The heads of Augustus and Agrippa were probably positioned to remind familiar obverses of Roman republican coins with two-faced Janus. Palm branch was a common symbol of victory, in this case grown into a tree, like the victories of Augustus and Agrippa grown into the empire. The two offshoots at the bottom may mean two sons of Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, who were supposed to be Augustus' heirs and were patrons of the colony. Palm may also be a symbol of the local Nemausian deity, which was probably worshiped in a sacred grove. When these coins were minted, the colony was mostly populated by the settled veterans of Augustus' campaigns, hence the reminiscence of the most famous victory, but some of the original Celtic culture probably survived and was assimilated by Romans. The crocodile is not only the symbol of Egypt, like in the famous Octavian's coins AEGYPTO CAPTA. It is also a representation of Mark Antony, powerful and scary both in water and on land, but a bit slow and stupid. The shape of the crocodile with tail up was specifically chosen to remind of the shape of ship on very common "legionary" denarius series, which Mark Antony minted to pay his armies just before Actium. It is probably also related to the popular contemporary caricature of Cleopatra, riding on and simultaneously copulating with a crocodile, holding a palm branch in her hand as if in triumph. There the crocodile also symbolized Mark Antony.

Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa was born c. 64-62 BC somewhere in rural Italy. His family was of humble and plebeian origins, but rich, of equestrian rank. Agrippa was about the same age as Octavian, and the two were educated together and became close friends. He probably first served in Caesar's Spanish campaign of 46–45 BC. Caesar regarded him highly enough to send him with Octavius in 45 BC to train in Illyria. When Octavian returned to Rome after Caesar's assassination, Agrippa became his close lieutenant, performing many tasks. He probably started his political career in 43 BC as a tribune of the people and then a member of the Senate. Then he was one of the leading Octavian's generals, finally becoming THE leading general and admiral in the civil wars of the subsequent years.

In 38 as a governor of Transalpine Gaul Agrippa undertook an expedition to Germania, thus becoming the first Roman general since Julius Caesar to cross the Rhine. During this foray he helped the Germanic tribe of Ubii (who previously allied themselves with Caesar in 55 BC) to resettle on the west bank of the Rhine. A shrine was dedicated there, possibly to Divus Caesar whom Ubii fondly remembered, and the village became known as Ara Ubiorum, "Altar of Ubians". This quickly would become an important Roman settlement. Agrippina the Younger, Agrippa's granddaughter, wife of Emperor Claudius and mother of Emperor Nero, would be born there in 15 AD. In 50 AD she would sponsor this village to be upgraded to a colonia, and it would be renamed Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium (colony of Claudius [at] the Altar of Agrippinians – Ubii renamed themselves as Agrippinians to honor the augusta!), abbreviated as CCAA, later to become the capital of new Roman province, Germania Inferior.

In 37 BC Octavian recalled Agrippa back to Rome and arranged for him to win the consular elections, he desperately needed help in naval warfare with Sextus Pompey, the youngest son of Pompey the Great, who styled himself as the last supporter of the republican cause, but in reality became a pirate king, an irony since his father was the one who virtually exterminated piracy in all the Roman waters. He forced humiliating armistice on the triumvirs in 39 BC and when Octavian renewed the hostilities a year later, defeated him in a decisive naval battle of Messina. New fleet had to be built and trained, and Agrippa was the man for the job. Agrippa's solution was creating a huge secret naval base he called Portus Iulius by connecting together lakes Avernus, Avernus and the natural inner and outer harbors behind Cape Misenum at the northern end of the Gulf of Naples. He also created a larger type of ship and developed a new naval weapon: harpax – a ballista-launched grapnel shot with mechanisms that allowed pulling enemy ships close for easy boarding. It replaced the previous boarding device that Romans used since the First Punic War, corvus – effective, but extremely cumbersome. A later defence against it were scythe blades on long poles for cutting ropes, but since this invention was developed in secret, the enemy had no chance to prepare anything like it. It all has proved extremely effective: in a series of naval engagements Agrippa annihilated the fleet of Sextus, forced him to abandon his bases and run away. For this Agrippa was awarded an unprecedented honour that no Roman before or after him received: a rostral crown, "corona rostrata", a wreath decorated in front by a prow and beak of a ship.

That's why Virgil (Aeneid VIII, 683-684), describing Agrippa at Actium, says: "…belli insigne superbum, tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona." "…the proud military decoration, gleams on his brow the naval rostral crown". Actium, the decisive battle between forces of Octavian and Mark Antony, may appear boring compared to the war with Sextus, but it probably turned out this way due to Agrippa's victories in preliminary naval engagements and taking over all the strategy from Octavian.

In between the wars Agrippa has shown an unusual talent in city planning, not only constructing many new public buildings etc., but also greatly improving Rome's sanitation by doing a complete overhaul of all the aqueducts and sewers. Typically, it was Augustus who later would boast that "he had found the city of brick but left it of marble", forgetting that, just like in his naval successes, it was Agrippa who did most of the work. Agrippa had building programs in other Roman cities as well, a magnificent temple (currently known as Maison Carrée) survives in Nîmes itself, which was probably built by Agrippa.

Later relationship between Augustus and Agrippa seemed colder for a while, Agrippa seemed to even go into "exile", but modern historians agree that it was just a ploy: Augustus wanted others to think that Agrippa was his "rival" while in truth he was keeping a significant army far away from Rome, ready to come to the rescue in case Augustus' political machinations fail. It is confirmed by the fact that later Agrippa was recalled and given authority almost equal to Augustus himself, not to mention that he married Augustus' only biological child. The last years of Agrippa's life were spent governing the eastern provinces, were he won respect even of the Jews. He also restored Crimea to Roman Empire. His last service was starting the conquest of the upper Danube, were later the province of Pannonia would be. He suddenly died of illness in 12 BC, aged ~51.

Agrippa had several children through his three marriages. Through some of his children, Agrippa would become ancestor to many subsequent members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. He has numerous other legacies.
Yurii P
107-1a-NAC61.jpg
"C" Denarius, Crawford 107/1a - My favorite Coin26 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Above, “C”; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Etruia(?)
Weight: 4.44 gm.
Reference: Crawford 107/1a
Provenance: NAC 61; 25-OCT-2011, Privately purchased by RBW from CNG in 1989


Comments: This is one of my favorite coins. It is not high grade, neither the obverse nor the reverse is well centered. The dioscuri are really just blobs, and this coin would be overlooked in any sale but the NAC 61 sale of RBW’s finest and rarest coins, perhaps the greatest Roman Republican auction of our generation. Nevertheless, the coin has a lovely tone and a style that is very characteristic of this issue which is quite rare.

Unique to this variety and the related staff issue, are the braided locks extending from the helmet to the hair binding. The stars are simple dots above the dioscuri, and ROMA is cut into the die with very large letters with a very fine line tool. There has been much speculation on the significance of the “C” insignia, but few with any real merit.
1 commentsSteve B5
107-1b-Naville-6-6-2015-wht.jpg
"C", larger head, Denarius, Crawford 107/1b17 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; above, “C” symbol; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Etruria(?)
Weight: 4.32 gm.
Reference: Crawford 107/1b
Provenance: Naville auction, 7-MAY-2017

Comments:
This type with a “C” symbol is of the same fundamental style as the staff symbol 106/3c. presumably both issues from the same mint. The type is somewhat scarce, but the most common of the three other “C” sub-varieties.
Near complete on a large flan, GVF.
Steve B5
EpirFake.jpg
"Epirus, the Epeirote Republic, Didrachm size modern fake, genuine drachm prototypes dated 234-168 BC. "69 viewsEpirus, the Epeirote Republic, modern fake, genuine drachm prototypes dated 234-168 BC.,
Didrachm size (ø 22 mm / 8,50 g), silver, axes about coin alignment ↑↓ (ca. 160°), edge: 50 % filed, 50 % hammered,
Obv.: A· , laureate head of Zeus Dodonaios right, A· behind, dotted border.
Rev.: AΠEI / PΩTAN , eagle standing right on thunderbolt, all within oak wreath, dotted border.
for prototype cf. BMC p. 89, no. 14 (drachm size 4,5-5,0 g., AI· -monogram behind head on obverse) ; - Dewing 1444 (same) ; Franke, - Epirus 100 (same) ; - SNG Cop. 108ff. ; for a drachm showing similar style cf. http://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=748945 (also a fake?) .

1 commentsArminius
Janus119BCCrawford281_1.jpg
(500a) Roman Republic, 119 BC, M. Furius Philius - Furia 1882 viewsRoman Republic, 119 BC, M. Furius Philius - Furia 18. Crawford 281/1, Sydenham 529; 19mm, 3.23 grams. aVF, Rome; Obverse: laureate head of Janus, M FORVRI L F around; Reverse: Roma standing left erecting trophy, Galic arms around, PHLI in exergue. Ex Ephesus Numismatics.

Gauis Marius
As a novus homo, or new man, Marius found the rise in the Roman cursus honorum ( "course of honours"-- the sequential order of public offices held by aspiring politicians in the Roman Republic) a daunting challenge. It is certain that he used his old family client contacts and his military relations as a source of support. Among these contacts were the powerful Metelli family, and their early support was to prove to be a disaster for them. Just a few short years after his service as Quaestor, Marius was elected Tribune of the Plebes in 119 BC. In this position so soon after the political turmoil and murder of the Gracchi brothers (Gaius murdered 123 BC), Marius chose to follow the populares path, making a name for himself under similar auspices. As Tribune, he would ensure the animosity of the conservative faction of the Senate, and the Metelli, by passing popular laws forbidding the inspection of ballot boxes. In do doing, he directly opposed the powerful elite, who used ballot inspection as a way to intimidate voters in the citizen assembly elections.

Marius would go on to be elected Consul seven times and figure prominantly in the civil unrest of the early eighties as Lucius Cornelius Sulla's opponent. In 88 BC, Sulla had been elected Consul. There was now a choice before the Senate about which general to send to Asia (a potentially lucrative command): either Marius or Sulla. The Senate chose Sulla, but soon the Assembly appointed Marius. In this unsavory episode of low politics, Marius had been helped by the unscrupulous actions of Publius Sulpicius Rufus, whose debts Marius had promised to erase. Sulla refused to acknowledge the validity of the Assembly's action.

Sulla left Rome and traveled to "his"army waiting in Nola, the army the Senate had asked him to lead to Asia. Sulla urged his legions to defy the Assembly's orders and accept him as their rightful leader. Sulla was successful, and the legions murdered the representatives from the Assembly. Sulla then commanded six legions to march with him opon Rome and institute a civil war.

This was a momentous event, and was unforeseen by Marius, as no Roman army had ever marched upon Rome—it was forbidden by law and ancient tradition.

Sulla was to eventually rule Rome as Dictator. In his book Rubicon, historian Tom Holland argues that Sulla's actions had no lasting negative effect upon the health of the Republic, that Sulla was at heart a Republican. However, once a Roman general has defied Republican tradition, once a Roman general has used his command to combat fellow Romans, once a Roman general has set-up himself as Dictator--it follows that the decision to replicate these decsions (think: Caesar and Rubicon) is that much more easiely taken.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
P.Licinius Nerva voting.jpg
(500a113) Roman Republic, P. Licinius Nerva, 113-112 B.C.86 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC: P. Licinius Nerva. AR denarius (3.93 gm). Rome, ca. 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left, holding spear over right shoulder and shield on left arm, crescent above, * before, ROMA behind / P. NERVA, voting scene showing two citizens casting their ballots in the Comitium, one receiving a ballot from an attendant, the other dropping his ballot into a vessel at right. Crawford 292/1. RSC Licinia 7. RCTV 169. Nearly very fine. Ex Freeman and Sear.

Here is a denarius whose reverse device is one that celebrates the privilege and responsibility that is the foundation of a democratic society; it is a forerunner to the L. Cassius Longinus denarius of 63 B.C. Granted, humanity had a long road ahead toward egalitarianism when this coin was struck, but isn't it an interesting testimony to civil liberty's heritage? "The voter on the left (reverse) receives his voting tablet from an election officer. Horizontal lines in the background indicate the barrier separating every voting division from the others. Both voters go across narrow raised walks (pontes); this is intended to ensure that the voter is seen to cast his vote without influence" (Meier, Christian. Caesar: A Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 12). This significant coin precedes the Longinus denarius by 50 years.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
Denarius91BC.jpg
(501i) Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.58 viewsSilver denarius, Syd 646a, RSC Junia 16, S 225 var, Cr 337/3 var, VF, 3.718g, 18.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (control letter) behind; reverse Victory in a biga right holding reins in both hands, V (control numeral) above, D•SILANVS / ROMA in ex; mint luster in recesses. Ex FORVM.

Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant.

MARCUS Livius DRUSUS (his father was the colleague of Gaius Gracchus in the tribuneship, 122 B.C.), became tribune of the people in 91 B.C. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity. With some of the more intelligent members of his party (such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites. Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes.

The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate. By help of these riders the bill was carried.

Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise. The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. His assassin was never discovered (http://62.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSUS_MARCUS_LIVIUS.htm).

The ensuing "Social War" (91-88 B.C.) would set the stage for the "Civil Wars" (88-87 & 82-81 B.C.) featuring, notably, Marius & Sulla; two men who would make significant impressions on the mind of a young Julius Caesar. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.158 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
CnCorneliusLentulusMarcellinusARDenariusSear323.jpg
(503f) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius87 viewsCn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius, Sear-323, Cr-393/1a, Syd-752, RSC-Cornelia 54, struck 76-75 BC at Spanish Mint, 3.94 grams, 18 mm. EF. Obverse: GPR above Diademed, draped and bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman People facing right, sceptre over shoulder; Reverse: EX in left field, SC in right field; CN LEN Q in exergue, Sceptre with wreath, terrestrial globe and rudder. An exceptional example that is especially well centered and struck on a slightly larger flan than normally encountered with fully lustrous surfaces and a most attractive irridescent antique toning. Held back from the Superb EF/FDC by a small banker's mark in the right obverse field, but still worthy of the finest collection of Roman Republican denarii. Ex Glenn Woods.

Re: CORNELIA 54:

“Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus may be the same moneyer whose issues have been already described (no.s 702-704). Mommsen suggested that these coins were struck in 74 B.C. as a special issue, authorized by the Senate, to defray the cost of armaments against Mithridates of Pontus and the Mediterranean pirates. But Grueber’s view that they were struck in 76 B.C. by Cn. Cornelius Lentulus acting in the capacity of quaestor of Pompey, seems more in accordance with the evidence of finds" (see: G. ii, p. 359n and The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 1).

H. A. Seaby shows the coin with the smaller head (Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus pg. 33) while David R Sear shows a coin sporting a larger version (Roman Coins and Their Values, pg. 132).

“Cn. Lentulus strikes in Spain in his capacity as quaestor to the proconsul Pompey, who had been sent to the peninsula to assist Q. Caecillus Metellus Piusagainst sertorius”(Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132).

This is not an imperatorial minted coin for Pompey. At the time these coins were minted the Procounsel Pompey was sent to Spain to aid in the war against Sertorius. The moneyer Cn Lentulus served as his Quaestor where he continued to mint coins for Rome.

CN = Cneaus; LEN = Lentulus

Cneaus was his first name. His last, or family name is Lentulus and this clan is a lesser clan within the Cornelii, which is what his middle name of Cornelius implies.

Q = This tells us that he was a Quaestor, or Roman magistrate with judicial powers at the time when the coin was issued, with the responsibility for the treasury. Had this been a position that he once held it would be noted on the coin as PROQ or pro [past] Questor.

For Further Reading on the Cornelia 54 & 55:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum, by H. A. Grueber. London, 1910, Vol. II, pgs. 358, 359, 52, 57

Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus, by H.A.Seaby 1952, pgs. 32-33

The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 122, 241

Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132, 133

Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 407

by Jerry Edward Cornelius, April 2006, THE 81 ROMAN COINS OF THE CORNELIA
http://www.cornelius93.com/Cornelia54.html
1 commentsCleisthenes
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.69 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
DSC06620-horz.jpg
00 - 01 - Marco Junio Bruto38 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus, al ser adoptado por su Tío toma el nombre de Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus

AR Denario 18,00 mm de 3,60 gr.

Anv: "BRVTVS", Busto a cabeza desnuda de Lucio Junio Bruto a der.
1er.Consul y fundador de la República Romana en el 509 A.C., luego de participar activamente en la conspiración para derrocar a Tarquino "El Soberbio", último Rey de Roma
Rev: "AHALA", Busto a cabeza desnuda de Cayo Servilio Ahala a der.
Magister Equitum (Maestro de caballos) en el 439 D.C., autor del magnicidio del Dictador Espurio Melio en defensa de la República auque muchos autores atribuyen este asesinato a su deseo de convertirse en Rey de Roma

Acuñada por, quizás, el mas famosos de los asesinos de Julio Cesar, unos 10 años antes y a la edad de 31 años cuando desempeñaba uno de sus primeros cargos públicos como Magistrado Monetario. A travéz de esta moneda se atribuye la descendencia paterna de Lucio Junio Bruto y Materna de Cayo Servilio Ahala, dos defensores de la República y magnicidas; además muestra su fuerte defensa de la Res Pública, oposición a la tiranía y convencimiento que existía el homicidio justificable, valores que pondría mas tarde en práctica.
También se cree que esta moneda es una advertencia a Pompeyo "El Grande", quien tenía intensiones de convertirse en Dictador.

Acuñada durante los años 54 A.C. (s/RRC) ó 59 A.C. (s/BMCRR)
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: Craw.RRC 433/2 - Syd. CRR #907 - BMCRR Roma #3864 - RSC vol.I #Junia 30, p.56 y #Servilia 17, p.89 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #398, p.149 - Albert #1362 - Mabbott #4079 - Catalli #617, p.2001 - Vagi #82 - Harlan RRM #3-4, pag.20
mdelvalle
Craw_433_2_Denario_M__Junius_Brutus.jpg
00 - 01 - Marco Junio Bruto27 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus, al ser adoptado por su Tío toma el nombre de Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus

AR Denario 18,00 mm de 3,60 gr.

Anv: "BRVTVS", Busto a cabeza desnuda de Lucio Junio Bruto a der.
1er.Consul y fundador de la República Romana en el 509 A.C., luego de participar activamente en la conspiración para derrocar a Tarquino "El Soberbio", último Rey de Roma
Rev: "AHALA", Busto a cabeza desnuda de Cayo Servilio Ahala a der.
Magister Equitum (Maestro de caballos) en el 439 D.C., autor del magnicidio del Dictador Espurio Melio en defensa de la República auque muchos autores atribuyen este asesinato a su deseo de convertirse en Rey de Roma

Acuñada por, quizás, el mas famosos de los asesinos de Julio Cesar, unos 10 años antes y a la edad de 31 años cuando desempeñaba uno de sus primeros cargos públicos como Magistrado Monetario. A travéz de esta moneda se atribuye la descendencia paterna de Lucio Junio Bruto y Materna de Cayo Servilio Ahala, dos defensores de la República y magnicidas; además muestra su fuerte defensa de la Res Pública, oposición a la tiranía y convencimiento que existía el homicidio justificable, valores que pondría mas tarde en práctica.
También se cree que esta moneda es una advertencia a Pompeyo "El Grande", quien tenía intensiones de convertirse en Dictador.

Acuñada durante los años 54 A.C. (s/RRC) ó 59 A.C. (s/BMCRR)
Ceca: Roma.

Referencias: Craw.RRC 433/2 - Syd. CRR #907 - BMCRR Roma #3864 - RSC vol.I #Junia 30, p.56 y #Servilia 17, p.89 - Sear RCTV Vol.I #398, p.149 - Albert #1362 - Mabbott #4079 - Catalli #617, p.2001 - Vagi #82 - Harlan RRM #3-4, pag.20
mdelvalle
C_Norbanus_83BC_CR-3571b_Syd_739_Norbana_2.JPG
000. Republic, C Norbanus. AR Denarius. 83 BC. Norbana 2.129 viewsObv. Diademed head of Venus r C NORBANUS LXXVIIII
Rev. Ear of wheat, fasces and caduceus.
Rome, 83 BC. 3.88g. Cr-357/1b, Syd 739, Norbana 2.
ex-HJB
1 commentsLordBest
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey76 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

Check
ecoli
Aes_Rude~0.jpg
001.1 Aes Rude 2344 viewsRoman Republic. c. 4th C. BC. (15.57 grams. 22x22x7 mm). Found turn of the century excavations around Mt. Ingino, Gubbio, Umbria. Thurlow and Vecchi, plate #2, discussed page 15. Ex Warren Esty.

Aes rude, or rough bronze, was used for trade in on the Italian peninsula prior to the use of actual coins. These bronze bars were traded by weight on the Italian peninsula. The “rude” bars were eventually surpassed by marked bars (Aes Signatum).
1 commentsLucas H
Aes_Rude.jpg
001.2 Aes Rude85 viewsRoman Republic. c. 5th-3rd C. BC. Found turn of the century excavations around Mt. Ingino, Gubbio, Umbria.
(19.37 grams. 21x20x7 mm). Thurlow and Vecchi, plate #2, discussed page 15. Ex Warren Esty.

Aes rude means rough bronze, and prior to the use of actual coins, these bronze bars were traded by weight on the Italian peninsula. The “rude” bars were eventually given markings (Aes Signa).
2 commentsLucas H
0010-010np_noir.jpg
0030 - Republic, Didrachm198 viewsRome mint c. 269-266 BC
No legend, Diademed head of young Hercules right, with club and lion's skin over shoulder
ROMANO, She wolf right, suckling Romulus and Remus
7.29 gr
Ref : RCV # 24, RSC # 8
6 commentsPotator II
0010-015.jpg
0083 - Republic, Didrachm (Quadrigatus)55 viewsRome or other italian mint, c 215-211 BC
Laureate janiform head of Dioscuri
ROMA in relief in linear frame at exergue, Jupiter, holding thunderbolt in right hand and scepter in left, in fast quadriga driven right by Victory.
6,69 gr - 20-21 mm
Ref : RCV #33, RSC # 24
3 commentsPotator II
AS REPUBLICA anónimo.jpg
01-01 - As Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)145 viewsAE AS 34 mm 34.1 gr
Anv: Cabeza bifronte barbada y laureada de Jano - "I" (Marca de valor = 1 AS) sobre la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" debajo e "I" en campo derecho.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #627 Pag.191 - Craw RRC #56/2 - Syd CRR #143 - BMCRR #217
mdelvalle
Craw_56_2_AS_Anonimo.jpg
01-01 - As Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)41 viewsAE AS 34 mm 34.1 gr
Anv: Cabeza bifronte barbada y laureada de Jano - "I" (Marca de valor = 1 AS) sobre la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" debajo e "I" en campo derecho.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #627 Pag.191 - Craw RRC #56/2 - Syd CRR #143 - BMCRR #217
mdelvalle
Semis Emision anonima.jpg
01-02 - Semis Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)131 viewsAE Semis 28 mm 17.7 gr
Anv: Cabeza barbada y laureada de Saturno viendo a derecha - "S" (Marca de valor = Semis = 1/2 AS) detrás de la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" debajo y "S" en campo superior.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #766 Pag.207 - Craw RRC #56/3 - Syd CRR #144a - BMCRR #229 - Hannover #597
1 commentsmdelvalle
Craw_56_3_Semis_Anonimo.jpg
01-02 - Semis Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)38 viewsAE Semis 28 mm 17.7 gr
Anv: Cabeza barbada y laureada de Saturno viendo a derecha - "S" (Marca de valor = Semis = 1/2 AS) detrás de la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" debajo y "S" en campo superior.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #766 Pag.207 - Craw RRC #56/3 - Syd CRR #144a - BMCRR #229 - Hannover #597
mdelvalle
Sextante Emision anónima.jpg
01-05 - Sextante Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)81 viewsAE Sextante 20 mm 6.9 gr
Anv: Cabeza de Mercurio vistiendo petasos alado viendo a derecha - "· ·" (Marca de valor = Sextante = 1/6 AS) sobre la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" arriba y "· ·" debajo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1024 Pag.246 - Craw RRC #56/6 - Syd CRR #143d - BMCRR #263
mdelvalle
Craw_56_6_Sextante_Anonimo.jpg
01-05 - Sextante Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)27 viewsAE Sextante 20 mm 6.9 gr
Anv: Cabeza de Mercurio vistiendo petasos alado viendo a derecha - "· ·" (Marca de valor = Sextante = 1/6 AS) sobre la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" arriba y "· ·" debajo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1024 Pag.246 - Craw RRC #56/6 - Syd CRR #143d - BMCRR #263
mdelvalle
Uncia Emision anónima.jpg
01-09 - Semi Uncia Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)63 viewsAE Semi Uncia 18 mm 3.9 gr
Anv: Cabeza de Mercurio vistiendo petasos alado viendo a derecha - Sin marca de valor.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" arriba.
Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1360 Pag.257 - Craw RRC #56/8 - Syd CRR #143f - BMCRR #277
mdelvalle
Craw_56_8_Semi_uncia_Anonima.jpg
01-09 - Semi Uncia Emision Anonima (211 - 206 A.C.)21 viewsAE Semi Uncia 18 mm 3.9 gr
Anv: Cabeza de Mercurio vistiendo petasos alado viendo a derecha - Sin marca de valor.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "ROMA" arriba.

Ceca: Roma

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1360 Pag.257 - Craw RRC #56/8 - Syd CRR #143f - BMCRR #277
mdelvalle
0010-019.jpg
0110 - Republic, Quartuncia66 viewsRome mint, circa 217-215 BC
Head of Roma right, wearing a crested helmet
Prow of galey right, ROMA above
3,41 gr - 15 mm
Ref :RCV # 624
According to RCV, "the quartuncia is the smallest denomination of the Roman bronze coinage, and has been briefly produced during the semilibral weight standard. With the further decline in the weight of the bronze coinage after 215 BC, issue of the experimental quartuncia ceased."
4 commentsPotator II
0010-017.jpg
0113 - Republic, Sextans33 viewsRome mint, circa 217-215 BC
She-wolf suckling twins, in exergue two pellets.
ROMA in right field. Eagle standing right, holding flower in beak. Behind, two pellets
29 mm, 24.22 gr
Ref : RCV # 609, Sydenham # 95, Crawford # 39/3
Potator II
0010-018.jpg
0129 - Republic, Uncia58 viewsRome mint, c. 215-212
Head of Roma right wearing attic helmet, pellet behind
ROMA prow of galley right
9.08 gr
Ref : Crawford 41/10
2 commentsPotator II
Brutus-Syd-907.jpg
013. M. Junius Brutus.58 viewsDenarius, 54 BC, Rome mint.
Obverse: BRVTVS / Bust of L. Junius Brutus.
Reverse: AHALA / Bust of C. Servilius Ahala.
4.09 gm., 19 mm.
Syd. #907; RSC #Junia 30; Sear #398.

The moneyer of this coin is the same Brutus who killed Julius Caesar. However, this coin was minted about a decade earlier. It portrays two ancestors of Brutus:

1. L. Junius Brutus lead the Romans to expel their king L. Tarquinius Superbus. He was one of the founding fathers of the Roman Republic, and was elected one of the first consuls in 509 BC.

2. C. Cervilius Ahala. In 439 BC, during a food shortage in Rome, Spurius Maelius, the richest patrician, bought as much food as he could and sold it cheaply to the people. The Romans, always fearful of kings, thought he wanted to be king. So an emergency was declared and L. Cincinnatus was proclaimed Dictator. Maelius was ordered to appear before Cincinnatus, but refused. So Ahala, as Magister Equitam, killed him in the Forum. Ahala was tried for this act, but escaped condemnation by voluntary exile.
4 commentsCallimachus
0010-019-5.jpg
0149 - Republic, Sestertius84 viewsRome mint, ca 211-208 BC
Head of Roma right, IIS behind
Dioscuri riding right, two stars above, ROMA at exergue
1.06 gr, 13 mm
Ref : RCV # 46, RSC # 4
1 commentsPotator II
0010-020np_noir.jpg
0168 - Republic, As114 viewsAs minted in Rome, circa 211-206 BC
No legend, head of janus
Prow of galley right, ROMA at exergue, I above galley
37.22 gr
Ref RCV # 627
Potator II
0180.jpg
0180 - Semis Roman Republic 42-36 BC41 viewsObv/Head of Minerva (?) r.
Rev/Statue standing l. on top of pedestal; (CV)-IN on both sides.

AE, 22.2 mm, 5.60 g
Moneyer: anonymous.
Mint: Carthago Nova.
APRH/151 - CNH/7 [R2]
ex-Ibercoin, auction 16.1, lot 2018
dafnis
0010-040np_noir.jpg
0195 - Republic, Sextans61 viewsSextans struck in Rome, circa 211-206 BC
Head of Mercury right, wearing petasus, two pellets above helmet
ROMA, Prow of galley right, surmounted by a victory right
5.11 gr
Ref : RCV #1218
Potator II
DSC08187_DSC08191_china_10-cash_ND_o-r.JPG
02 - China, Republic - 10 Cash coin26 views-
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The Republic of China
1920 (ND) - Ten Cash

(Titles in Chinese, some in English)

obv: Crossed Flags.

Weight: 6.5 Grams
Size: 31 mm

ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Tucson, Arizona. USA.
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*NOTE: Coin next to a modern USA State Quarter-Dollar (25 cents) in this photo for size comparison.
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rexesq
DSC08183_china_10cash_ND_w-US-25c_obv.JPG
02 - China, Republic - 10 Cash coin.19 views-
--
The Republic of China
1920 (ND) - Ten Cash

(Titles in Chinese, some in English)

obv: Crossed Flags.

Weight: 6.5 Grams
Size: 31 mm

ex Old Pueblo Coin Exchange, Tucson, Arizona. USA.
--
-

*NOTE: Coin next to a modern USA State Quarter-Dollar (25 cents) in this photo for size comparison.
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rexesq
Augustus_RIC_288.jpg
02 Augustus RIC 28822 viewsAugusts 27 B.C.- 14 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome mint, 19 B.C. P. Petronius Turpilianus, moneyer. (3.65g, 18.2m, 0h). Obv: TVRPILIANS IIIVIR FERON, Diad. and draped bust of Feronia r. Rev: CAESAR AVGVSTVS SIGN RECE, Parthian kneeling r. presenting standard w. X marked vexillum. RIC 288, BMC 14, RSC 484.

A historical type commemorating the return of the standards lost by Crassus at the battle of Carrhae during his Parthian campaign in 53 B.C. Rome was humiliated by the defeat and loss of several Legionary Eagles. Crassus and several of his generals were killed. Through diplomacy, Augusts secured the return of the Eagles, an important victory to tout on his coinage.

I've been wanting this type for some time because of it's historic significance, but as it's outside of my primary collecting area, I was willing to compromise on condition. This example is worn, but clearly recognizable. The obverse has banker's marks which seem to disappear or become much more scarce on denarii towards the end of the Republic and beginning of the Empire.
Lucas H
AS M.ATILIUS SARANUS.jpg
02-10 - M. ATILIUS SARANUS (148 A.C.)84 viewsAE AS 29 mm 20.4 gr
Anv: Cabeza bifronte barbada y laureada de Jano - "I" (Marca de valor = 1 AS) sobre la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "M.ATILI" arriba, "ROMA" debajo e "I" en campo derecho.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #727 Pag.200 - Craw RRC #214/2a - Syd CRR #399 - BMCRR #692
mdelvalle
Craw_214_2a_AS_M_Atilivs.jpg
02-10 - M. ATILIUS SARANUS (148 A.C.)30 viewsAE AS 29 mm 20.4 gr
Anv: Cabeza bifronte barbada y laureada de Jano - "I" (Marca de valor = 1 AS) sobre la cabeza.
Rev: Proa de galera a derecha - "M.ATILI" arriba, "ROMA" debajo e "I" en campo derecho.

Ceca: Roma

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #727 Pag.200 - Craw RRC #214/2a - Syd CRR #399 - BMCRR #692
mdelvalle
0207_RRR464_2.jpg
0207 - Denarius Carisia 46 BC24 viewsObv/ Head of Juno Moneta r.; behind, MONETA.
Rev/ Coinage tools, laurel wreath around; above, T CARISIVS.

Ag, 18.1 mm, 3.89 g
Mint: Roma
RRC 464/2 [120/133]
ex-Ibernumis, private sale
1 commentsdafnis
0010-030np_noir.jpg
0217 - Republic, Victoriatus99 viewsMinted circa 211-206 BC
Head of Jupiter right
Victory and trophy. ROMA at exergue, linked V and B in field
3.11 gr
Ref : RCV #51
1 commentsPotator II
0233_REPROM_RRC423_1.jpg
0233 - Denarius Servilia 57 BC9 viewsObv/ Head of Flora with flower crown; behind, lituus; around, FLORAL PRIMVS.
Rev/ Soldiers facing each other, holding swords and shields; in ex., C SERVEIL; C F on field.

Ag, 18.8 mm, 3.85 g
Moneyer: C. Servilius C.f.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 423/1 [dies o/r: 99/110]
ex-DNW, auction Feb 2019, lot 683
1 commentsdafnis
Republik_denar.jpg
028 - Roman republic, L Julius 141 BC - Syd 443, Cr 224/128 viewsObv: Helmeted head of Roma right, XVI behind.
Rev: Dioscuri galloping right, L. IVLI below, ROMA in exe.
Minted in Rome 141 BC.
pierre_p77
Republik_denar2.jpg
029 - Roman republic, P Maenius Antiaticus. denarius - Syd 492. Cr 249/135 viewsObv: helmeted head of Roma right, X behind.
Rev: Victory in quadriga right, P MAE ANT below, ROMA in exe.
Minted in Rome 132 BC.
pierre_p77
043_B_C_,_P_Accoleius_Lariscolus,_AR-den-Head-Diana-r_-P_ACCOLEIVS_–_LARISCOLVS_Triple-cult_Cr_486-1_Syd-1148_43-BC_Q-001_6h_17-18mm_3,74g-s.jpg
043 B.C., P.Accoleius Lariscolus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 486/1, Rome, Diana-Hecate-Selene facing, #1130 views043 B.C., P.Accoleius Lariscolus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 486/1, Rome, Diana-Hecate-Selene facing, #1
avers: Bust of Diana Nemorensis right draped, behind P•ACCOLEIVS upwards, before LARISCOLVS downwards, border of dots.
reverse: Triple cult statue of Diana Nemorensis (Diana-Hecate-Selene) facing, behind, cypress grove, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-17,5mm, weight: 3,74g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 43 B.C., ref: Crawford 486/1, Sydenham 1148, Sear Imperators 172, B. Accoleia 1.
Q-001
quadrans
048-BC-C_Vibius_Cf_Cn_Pansa_Caetronianus_Rep_AR-Den_IOVIS_AX-VR-_Cr-449-1a_Syd-947_Vibia-18_Rome_48-BC_Q-001_4h_17,5-18,5mm_2,96g-s.jpg
048 B.C., C.Vibius Cf. Cn. Pansa Caetronianus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 449/1a, Jupiter Axurus seated left, #1136 views048 B.C., C.Vibius Cf. Cn. Pansa Caetronianus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 449/1a, Jupiter Axurus seated left, #1
avers: Mask of Pan right, PANSA below. border of dots.
reverse: IOVIS•AXVR•before, C•VIBIVS•C•F•C•N behind, Jupiter Axurus seated left, holding a plate in the right hand, scepter in left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 2,96g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date: 48 B.C., ref: Crawford 449/1a, Sydenham 947, Sear, CRI 20, Vibia 18,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Rep_AR-Den_L_HOSTILIVS-SASERNA_Crawford-448-3_Syd-953_Rome_48-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_18mm_3,93g-s.jpg
048 B.C., L.Hostilius Saserna, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 448/3, L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing faceing,226 viewsL.Hostilius Saserna (48 B.C.), Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 448/3, L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing facing,
avers: Head of Gallia right, Gallic trumpet (carnyx) behind.
reverse: L•HOSTILIVS SASERNA, Diana of Ephesus standing facing, holding spear and stag by its antler.
exergue: - /-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,93g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 48 B.C., ref: Crawford 448/3, Sydenham 953, CRI 19, Hostilia 4,
Q-001
8 commentsquadrans
049_BC-_MN_ACILIVS_III_VIR_VALETV__SALVTIS_Crawford_442-1a__Sydenham_922__RSC_Acilia_8a,_Q-001_2h_18,5-19,5mm_3,75g-s.jpg
049 B.C., Mn. Acilius Glabrio. Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 442/1a, Valetudo (as Salus) standing left, #1166 views049 B.C., Mn. Acilius Glabrio. Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 442/1a, Valetudo (as Salus) standing left, #1
avers: Laureate head of Salus with earrings and necklaces right, SALVTIS downward behind, border of dots.
reverse: Valetudo (as Salus) standing left, leaning on column and holding a snake, MN•ACILIVS III•VIR•VALETV (MN and TV ligate) behind and before, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,75g, axis: 2h,
mint: Rome, date: 49 B.C., ref: Crawford 442/1a, Sydenham 922, RSC Acilia 8,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
049_BC-_MN_ACILIVS_III_VIR_VALETV__SALVTIS_Crawford_442-1b__Sydenham_922__RSC_Acilia_8a,_Q-001_6h_21-20mm_3,95g-s.jpg
049 B.C., Mn. Acilius Glabrio. Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 442/1b, Valetudo standing left, #1461 views049 B.C., Mn. Acilius Glabrio. Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 442/1b, Valetudo standing left, #1
avers: Laureate head of Salus right, SALVTIS downward behind, border of dots.
reverse: Valetudo (as Salus) standing left, leaning on column and holding a snake, MN•ACILIVS III•VIR•VALETV ( MN and TV ligate ) behind and before. border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 3,95g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 49 B.C., ref: Crawford 442/1b, Sydenham 922, RSC Acilia 8a,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
049_BC-_Q__SICINIVS_III__VIR__C__COPONIVS__PR__S__C__Crawford_444-1a__Sydenham_939__RSC_Sicinia_1_Q-001_5h_16,5mm_3,31g-s.jpg
049 B.C., Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 444/1a, C•COPONIVS• PR•S•C•, Club of Hercules, arrow, and bow, #1132 views049 B.C., Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 444/1a, C•COPONIVS• PR•S•C•, Club of Hercules, arrow, and bow, #1
avers: Q•SICINIVS III•VIR, diademed head of Apollo right, star below.
reverse: C•COPONIVS• PR•S•C•, Hercules' club surmounted by lion skin, scalp right, bow on right, the arrow on left.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 3,31g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 49 B.C., ref: Crawford 444/1a, Sydenham 939, Sicinia 1,
Q-001
"An important type, one of the first of the "Imperatorial" series. Struck at a military mint in the East, 49 B.C., after the moneyer, owing his appointment to Pompey the Great, fled Caesar's advance upon Rome with the Praetor Coponius (commander of the fleet), and part of the Senate (thus the S C on the reverse, to lend legitimacy to the coinage). Coponius is likely the father or grandfather of the man by the same name who served as procurator in Judaea under Augustus, from A.D. 6 to A.D. 9."
quadrans
Denarius M.ABURIUS M.F.GEMINUS.jpg
05-01 - M. ABURIUS M.F. GEMINUS (132 A.C.)108 viewsAR Denarius 19 mm 3.8 gr
Anv: Cabeza con yelmo de Roma viendo a derecha - "Monograma = XVI = Nueva marca de valor = 16 Ases" bajo la pera de Roma, "GEM" detrás.
Rev: "M ABVRI" (AB y VR en ligadura) - Sol con corona radiada y látigo cabalgando en cuadriga a derecha. "ROMA" en exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #127 Pag.97 - Craw RRC #250/1 - Syd CRR #487 - BMCRR #995 - RSC Vol.1 Aburia 6 Pag.9
1 commentsmdelvalle
Craw_250_1_Denario_M_Aburius_M_F_Geminus.jpg
05-01 - M. ABURIUS M.F. GEMINUS (132 A.C.)21 viewsAR Denarius 19 mm 3.8 gr
Anv: Cabeza con yelmo de Roma viendo a derecha - "Monograma = XVI = Nueva marca de valor = 16 Ases" bajo la pera de Roma, "GEM" detrás.
Rev: "M ABVRI" (AB y VR en ligadura) - Sol con corona radiada y látigo cabalgando en cuadriga a derecha. "ROMA" en exergo.

Ceca: Roma

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #127 Pag.97 - Craw RRC #250/1 - Syd CRR #487 - BMCRR #995 - RSC Vol.1 Aburia 6 Pag.9
mdelvalle
Rep_AR-Den_Marcus-Junius-Brutus_BRVTVS_AHALA_Crawford-433-2_Syd-907_Junia-30_Rome_54-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_16,5-18,5mm_3,15g-s.jpg
054 B.C., Marcus Junius Brutus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 433/2, C. Servilius Ahala right, #1148 views054 B.C., Marcus Junius Brutus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 433/2, C. Servilius Ahala right, #1
avers: BRVTVS left, head of L. Junius Brutus right. Border of dots.
reverse: AHALA left, head of C. Servilius Ahala right. Border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,15g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 54 B.C., ref: Crawford 433-2, Sydenham 907,
Q-001
quadrans
56_4_PanoramaBlack1.jpg
056/4 Subgroup 85 & 86A AE Triens60 viewsAnonymous. Ae Triens. Apulia. 212-208 BC. (9.08 g, 23.72 g) Obv: Helmeted head of Minerva right, four pellets above. Rev: ROMA, prow right, four pellets below.

Originally defined as Crawford 56/4, this type of Triens have been assigned to subgroup 85 & 86A. This is a Q or H triens, that is missing the Q or H. Andrew McCabe gives the subgroup the number F1 which has the following characteristics:

"Mint: Apulia. Second Punic war. Related to RRC 85 H, and RRC 86 anchor and Q. Obverses are in high relief. The general style, for examples Janus, or Hercules’ truncation, or the regular reverse prow, is like RRC 86 anchor and Q. Reverses of Sextans and Quadrans have either regular, or Luceria style, prows with a club in an elevated fighting platform. On regular reverses, the top and central keel lines join half way across prow. Flans are thin and broad akin to late issues of Luceria. All denominations As through Sextans are known."

"The regular reverse prow is tall (height/width) with a fighting platform and deck structure elevated more than usual, and there is always a line extending either side of the deck structure. The keel-lines are also distinctive, with the middle of the three lines always converging with the top line half way across the prow... These specific design features – especially the middle keel line converging with the upper line half way across the prow – are identical with and typical of the RRC 86A Q series from Apulia58... The obverses of all denominations are in high relief, and show high quality engraving."

"So a close geographic and timing link between the Anchor Q, H, L, L-T, CA and P coins can be posited. These coins are certainly a second Punic war issue from Apulia. It remains open for discussion which city minted these group F1 coins, presumably alongside the RRC 85 and RRC 86 issues."

This is one out of six specimens: "F1 Triens: 6 coins, mean 9.4 grams, heaviest 10.5 grams".

All quotes are from the work of Andrew McCabe.

Link to thread at Forvm Ancient Coins: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=90604.0

On this topic at Andrew McCabe's homepage: http://andrewmccabe.ancients.info/RRC056.html

I would strongly recommend anyone who wants to learn more about Roman Republican coins to give Andrew McCabe's homepage a visit.


1 commentsPaddy
058_BC-_M_Aemilius_Scaurus_and_P_Plautius_Hypsaeus_AR_Denarius__King_Aretas_of_Nabataea,_Cr422-1b,_Syd_914,_Aemilia9a_Q-001_8h_17,5-18mm_3,73g-s.jpg
058 B.C., M. Aemilius Scaurus and P. Plautius Hypsaeus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 422/1b, Jupiter in quadriga left, #1148 views058 B.C., M. Aemilius Scaurus and P. Plautius Hypsaeus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 422/1b, Jupiter in quadriga left, #1
avers: King Aretas of Nabataea kneeling right by camel, offering the olive branch, M•SCAVR/AED CVR above, EX-S•C to sides, REX ARETAS in exergue.
reverse: Jupiter in quadriga left, scorpion beneath horses' forelegs, P•HVPSAE AED CVR above, C•HVPSAE COS PREIVE in exergue, CAPTV on right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,0mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 8h,
mint: Rome, date: 58 B.C., ref: Crawford 422-1b, Sydenham 914,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Nero_RIC_I_55.jpg
06 Nero RIC I 5528 viewsNero. 54-68 A.D. Rome Mint. 65-66 A.D. (3.30g, 18.7m, 5h). Obv: [N]ERO CAESAR AVGVS[TVS], laureate head right. Rev: ROMA in ex., Roma, helmeted and dr., seated l. on cuirass, r. holding Victory, l. parazonium by side, r. foot resting on helmet; shields, with greaves behind. RIC I 55 (R).

A worn denarius of Nero, but with an interesting reverse. Roma, deprecated frequently on denarii during the Republic, was as not frequently used during the empire. While not necessarily a scarce type, it seems less ubiquitous than Salas and Jupiter for Nero.
1 commentsLucas H
062_BC-L__Aemilius_Lepidus_Paullus_,_AR_Denarius__Cr_415-1,_Syd_926,_Aemilia10_Q-001_h_17,5-18mm_g-s.jpg
062 B.C., L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 415-1, L. Aemilius Paullus standing to the right of the trophy, #1140 views062 B.C., L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 415-1, L. Aemilius Paullus standing to the right of the trophy, #1
avers: PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA, Veiled and diademed head of Concordia right.
reverse: L. Aemilius Paullus standing to the right of the trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left; TER above, PAVLLVS in exergue.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 62 B.C., ref: Crawford 415-1, Sydenham 926, Aemilia 10,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
A-19_Rep_AR-Den_C_Hosidius-C_f_Geta_Bust-Diana-r_-GETA-III_-VIR_Boar-r_-C_HOSIDI_C_F__Crawford-407-1_Syd-904_Rome_68-BC_Q-001_axis-11h_17mm_3,89g-s.jpg
064 B.C., C.Hosidius Cf.Geta, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 407-2, Rome, C•HOSIDI•C•F, Wild boar, #1129 views064 B.C., C.Hosidius Cf.Geta, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 407-2, Rome, C•HOSIDI•C•F, Wild boar, #1
avers: GETA before, III•VIR behind, diademed and draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver on the shoulder.
reverse: C•HOSIDI•C•F, Wild boar of Calydon right, pierced by a spear and attacked by a dog.
exergue: -/-//C•HOSIDI•C•F, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,89g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 064 B.C., ref:Crawford 407-2, Syd-903, Hosidia 1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Rep_AR-Den-Ser_L_Roscius-Fabatus_Head-Juno-Sospita-r_-lizard-behind-L_ROSCI-below_Girl-Snake-in-ex-FABATI_Crawford-412-1_Syd-915_Rome_64-BC_Q-001_axis-1h_17,5-19,5mm_3,00g-s.jpg
064 B.C., L. Roscius Fabatus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 412/1, Rome, Maiden and Snake, FABATI, #186 views064 B.C., L. Roscius Fabatus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 412/1, Rome, Maiden and Snake, FABATI, #1
avers: Juno Sospita right, wearing goat-skin headdress; L ROSC below; behind, lizard,
reverse: Maiden standing right, feeding snake holding itself erect before her, control symbol tortoise walking right on own ground line in left field, FABATI in exergue.
exergue: -/-//FABATI, diameter: 17,5-19,5 mm, weight: 3,00g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 64 B.C., ref: Crawford 412/1,
Q-001
quadrans
A-06_Rep_AR-Den_Q_Pomponius-Musa_Head-Apollo-r_-behind-crossed_flutes_Euterpe-r_-l_-Q_POMPONI_r_-MVSA_ROMA_Crawford-410-5_Syd-815_Rome_66-BC_Q-001_axis-9h_17,5-19mm_3,50g-s.jpg
066 B.C., Q. Pomponius Músa, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 410/5, Rome, Euterpe standing right, Q•POMPONI MVSA, #199 views066 B.C., Q. Pomponius Músa, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 410/5, Rome, Euterpe standing right, Q•POMPONI MVSA, #1
avers: Laureate head of Apollo right; behind, two flutes in saltire.
reverse: Q•POMPONI MVSA, Euterpe, the Muse of Lyric Poetry, standing right, one hand raised to the chin, the other resting on a low pedestal and holding two pipes.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 3,50g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 66B.C., ref: Crawford-410/5, Sydenham-815,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
A-06_Rep_AR-Den_Q_Pomponius-Musa_Head-Apollo-r_-behind-turtle_Euterpe-r_-l_-Q_POMPONI_r_-MVSA_ROMA_Crawford-410-5_Syd-815_Rome_66-BC_Q-002_0h_17,0-19mm_2,58g-s.jpg
066 B.C., Q. Pomponius Músa, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 410/7c, Rome, Terpsichore standing right, Q•POMPONI MVSA, #1178 views066 B.C., Q. Pomponius Músa, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 410/7c, Rome, Terpsichore standing right, Q•POMPONI MVSA, #1
avers: Laureate head of Apollo right, turtle behind.
reverse: Q•POMPONI MVSA, Terpsichore (Muse of Dance) standing right, holding plectrum and lyre.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,58g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 66B.C., ref: Crawford-410/7c, Sydenham-820, Pomponia 18,
Q-002
quadrans
Mensor_Q-001_axis-5h_17-19mm_3,76g-s.jpg
076-075 B.C., L. Farsuleius Mensor, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 392/1b, Rome, Warrior in quadriga, #1236 views076-075 B.C., L. Farsuleius Mensor, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 392/1b, Rome, Warrior in quadriga, #1
avers: MENSOR S•C Bust of Libertas right.
reverse: Warrior in quadriga assisting togate male into biga right, control number XXCVT under horses.
exergue: -/-//L•FARSVLEI, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 3,76g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date:, ref: Crawford-392-1b, Sydenham 789a, Farsuleia 2,
Q-001
quadrans
A-03_Rep_AR-Den_P_Satrienus_Helm-Head-Roma-r_-ITX-behind_She-Wolf-l_-above-ROMA-ex-P_SATRIE-NVS_ROMA_Crawford-388_Syd-_Rome_77-BC_Q-001_9h_16,5-18mm_3,81g-s.jpg
077 B.C., P. Satrienus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 388/1b, Rome, She-Wolf left, ROMA/ P•SATRIE/NVS, #1275 views077 B.C., P. Satrienus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 388/1b, Rome, She-Wolf left, ROMA/ P•SATRIE/NVS, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, ITX behind,
reverse: She-Wolf left, above ROMA, in exergue P•SATRIE/NVS.
exergue: -/-//P•SATRIE/NVS, diameter: 16,5-18mm, weight: 3,81g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 77 B.C., ref: Crawford-388/1b, Sydenham 781a, Satriena 1,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
A-11_Rep_AR-Den_M_Volteius-M_f_-Laur-Head-Jupiter-r__Capitolin-Temple-M_VOLTEI_M_F_-below_Crawford-385-1_Syd-774_Rome_78-BC_Q-001_axis-10h_16,5-17,5mm_3,69g-s.jpg
078 B.C., M.Volteius M.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 385/1, Rome, Capitoline temple, M•VOLTEI•M•F, #1 116 views078 B.C., M.Volteius M.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 385/1, Rome, Capitoline temple, M•VOLTEI•M•F, #1
avers: Laureate head of Jupiter right, border of dots.
reverse: M•VOLTEI•M•F, Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus with closed doors, thunderbolt on the pediment.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,69g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date: 78 B.C., ref: Crawford 385/1, Sydenham 774,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Rep_AR-Den-Ser_L_Papius_Head-Juno-Sospita-r_-Griphon_leaping-r-Amphora_L_PAPI-ex_ROMA_Craw_-384-1_Syd-773_Rome_79-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5mm_3,35g-s.jpg
079 B.C., L. Papius, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 384/1, RRC 108, Gryphon leaping right, flask with square basket, L•PAPI, #1314 views079 B.C., L. Papius, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 384/1, RRC 108, Gryphon leaping right, flask with square basket, L•PAPI, #1
avers: Head of Juno Sospita right; behind, water-bottle,
reverse: Gryphon leaping right, below Amphora with strap (suitcase), L•PAPI,
exergue: -/-//L•PAPI, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 79 B.C., ref: Crawford 384/1, Sydenham 773, RRC 108 var,
Q-001
"This is the "flask/square basket" type, Crawford pair type 108; Babelon pair type 18." by Helvetica, Thank you!
1 commentsquadrans
Rep_AR-Den-Ser_L_Papius_Head-Juno-Sospita-r_-Griphon_leaping-r-_L_PAPI-ex_ROMA_Craw_-384-1_Syd-773_Rome_79-BC_Q-002_axis-6h_18-18,5mm_3,57g-s.jpg
079 B.C., L. Papius, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 384/1, RRC 110, Gryphon leaping right, water-flask with water-flask, L•PAPI, #1173 views079 B.C., L. Papius, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 384/1, RRC 110, Gryphon leaping right, water-flask with water-flask, L•PAPI, #1
avers:- Head of Juno Sospita right; behind, water-flask,
reverse: Gryphon leaping right, below water-flask, L•PAPI,
exergue: -/-//L•PAPI, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 3,57g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 79 B.C., ref: Crawford 384/1, Sydenham-773, RRC 110, BMCRR 110, Babelon unlisted,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Rep_AR-Den-Ser_L_Papius_Head-Juno-Sospita-r_-Griphon_leaping-r-_L_PAPI-ex_ROMA_Craw_-384-1_Syd-773_Rome_79-BC_Q-003,_6h,_17-19,5mm,_3,62g-s.jpg
079 B.C., L. Papius, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 384/1, RRC 139, Gryphon leaping right, Unknown with Whip, L•PAPI, #1132 views079 B.C., L. Papius, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 384/1, RRC 139, Gryphon leaping right, Unknown with Whip, L•PAPI, #1
avers: Head of Juno Sospita right, unknown symbol behind.
reverse: Gryphon leaping right, below Whip, L•PAPI in exergue.
exergue: -/-//L•PAPI, diameter: 17,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,62g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 79 B.C., ref: Crawford 384/1, Sydenham-773, RRC 139var., Babelon 54.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Republica_AR-Den_S-dot-C_A-dot-CXXIIII_TI-dot-CLAVD-dot-TI-dot-F_A-dot-N_Xx_Xx_Q-001_18mm_3_79g-s.jpg
079 B.C., Ti. Claudius Nero, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 383/1, Rome, Denarius serratus, A•CXXIIII// TI•CLAUD•TI•F/AP•N, Victory in biga right, #1 84 views079 B.C., Ti. Claudius Nero, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 383/1, Rome, Denarius serratus, A•CXXIIII// TI•CLAUD•TI•F/AP•N, Victory in biga right, #1
avers: Bust of Diana r., draped, with bow and quiver over shoulder, before S•C, Border of dots.
reverse: Victory in biga right, holding wreath in right hand and reins and palm-branch in the left hand, below, control-letter "A" and dot on the right and numeral A•CXXIIII// TI•CLAUD•TI•F/AP•N (VD and AP are ligated).
exergue: A•CXXIIII// TI•CLAVD•TI•F/AP•N (VD and AP are ligated), diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date 79 B.C., ref: Crawford 383/1, Sydenham 770a, Claudia 6,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Denarius A.C.PULCHER.jpg
08-01 - APPIUS CLAUDIUS PULCHER, T. MANLIUS MANCINUS y Q. URBINIUS (111 - 110 A.C.)58 viewsAR Denarius 17 mm 3.3 gr
Anv: Busto de Minerva o Palas (como Roma) con yelmo alado viendo a derecha, detrás un signo desconocido.
Rev: Victoria llevando con ambas manos las riendas de una triga que cabalga a derecha . Uno de los caballos mira hacia atrás.
Una de las dos ocasiones en que se acuña una triga ( Carruaje de guerra griego tirado por tres caballos) en las monedas romanas. "AP•CL•T•MANL•Q•VR" (MANL y VR en ligadura) en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #176 Pag.106 - Craw RRC #299/1a - Syd CRR #570 - BMCRR #1290 - RSC Vol.1 Claudia 2 Pag.31
mdelvalle
Craw_299_1a_Appius_Claudius_-_Manlius_Mancinus_-_R__Urbinus.jpg
08-01 - APPIUS CLAUDIUS PULCHER, T. MANLIUS MANCINUS y Q. URBINIUS (111 - 110 A.C.)18 viewsAR Denarius 17 mm 3.3 gr
Anv: Busto de Minerva o Palas (como Roma) con yelmo alado viendo a derecha, detrás un signo desconocido.
Rev: Victoria llevando con ambas manos las riendas de una triga que cabalga a derecha . Uno de los caballos mira hacia atrás.
Una de las dos ocasiones en que se acuña una triga ( Carruaje de guerra griego tirado por tres caballos) en las monedas romanas. "AP•CL•T•MANL•Q•VR" (MANL y VR en ligadura) en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #176 Pag.106 - Craw RRC #299/1a - Syd CRR #570 - BMCRR #1290 - RSC Vol.1 Claudia 2 Pag.31
mdelvalle
Rep_AR-Den-Ser_L_Procilius_Head-Juno-Sospita-r_-S_C-beh__Juno-Sospita-in-biga-r_-b_snake-L_PROCILI_F__ROMA_Craw_-379-2_Syd-772_Rome_80-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5-19,5mm_3,85g-s.jpg
080 B.C., L. Procilius, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 379/2, Rome, Juno Sospita in biga right, Snake, L•PROCILI•F, #186 views080 B.C., L. Procilius, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 379/2, Rome, Juno Sospita in biga right, Snake, L•PROCILI•F, #1
avers: Head of Juno Sospita right, behind, S•C,
reverse: Juno Sospita in biga right, holding shield and spear, below, snake, below L•PROCILI•F,
exergue: -/-//L•PROCILI•F, diameter: 17,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,85g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 B.C., ref: Crawford 379/2, Syd-772, Procilia 2,
Q-001
quadrans
081_B_C_,_A_Postumius_A_f_Sp_n_Albinus__AR-Den-_Serratus,_Bust_of_Diana_r_,_Bull,_Altar_Cr372-1,_Syd_745,_Postumia-7,Q-001,_2h,18,5-20mm,3,91g-s.jpg
081 B.C., A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus., Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 372/1, Rome, A•POST•A•F-S•N•ALBIN, Togate figure, ox an altar, #1134 views081 B.C., A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus., Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 372/1, Rome, A•POST•A•F-S•N•ALBIN, Togate figure, ox an altar, #1
avers: Bust of Diana right, bow, and quiver over shoulder, bucranium above.
reverse: A•POST•A•F-S•N•ALBIN, Togate figure standing left on a rock before a lighted altar, ox standing right about to be sacrificed.
exergue: -/-/--, diameter: 18,5-20,0mm, weight: 3,91g, axis: 2h,
mint: Rome, date: 81 B.C., ref: Crawford-372-1, Sydenham-745, Postumia-7,
Q-001
quadrans
A-22_Rep_AR-Quinarius_Anonymus_Laur-head-Apollo-r__Victory-r_-crowning-trophy_ROMA_Crawford-373-1b_Syd-609c_Rome_81-BC_Q-001_axis-2-3h_12,5-14,5mm_1,57g-s.jpg
081 B.C., Anonymus, Republic AR-Quinarius, Crawford 373-1b, Victory right, crowning trophy, ROMA, #1103 views081 B.C., Anonymus, Republic AR-Quinarius, Crawford 373-1b, Victory right, crowning trophy, ROMA, #1
avers: Laur head of Apollo right,
reverse: Victory right, crowning trophy, below ROMA.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 12,5-14,5mm, weight: 1,57g, axis: 2-3h,
mint: Rome, date: 81 B.C., ref: Crawford 373-1b, Syd-609c,
Q-001
quadrans
082_B_C_,_L__Censorinus,_AR-den-head_of_Apollo_r_-L_CENSOR,_the_satyr,_Marsyas,_standing_l__Cr_363-1d_Syd-737_Marcia-24_Q-002_7h_17,5mm_3,91g-s.jpg
082 B.C., L. Censorinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 363/1d., Rome, L•CENSOR, The satyr, Marsyas, standing left, #1129 views082 B.C., L. Censorinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 363/1d., Rome, L•CENSOR, The satyr, Marsyas, standing left, #1
avers: Laureate head of Apollo right.
reverse: L•CENSOR, The satyr, Marsyas, standing left with wineskin over the shoulder, behind him, the column surmounted by the draped figure (Minerva?).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,91g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 82 B.C., ref: Crawford 363/1d, Sydenham 737, Marcia 24,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
082_B_C_,_L__Censorinus,_AR-den-head_of_Apollo_r_-L_CENSOR,_the_satyr,_Marsyas,_standing_l__Cr_363-1d_Syd-737_Marcia-24_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
082 B.C., L. Censorinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 363/1d., Rome, L•CENSOR, The satyr, Marsyas, standing left, #2128 views082 B.C., L. Censorinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 363/1d., Rome, L•CENSOR, The satyr, Marsyas, standing left, #2
avers: Laureate head of Apollo right.
reverse: L•CENSOR, The satyr, Marsyas, standing left with wineskin over the shoulder, behind him, the column surmounted by the draped figure (Minerva?).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0-17,0mm, weight: 3,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 82 B.C., ref: Crawford 363/1d, Sydenham 737, Marcia 24,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
A-13_Rep_AR-Den_L_Cornelius-L_f_P_n_Sulla-Felix_L_Manlius-L_f_-Torquatus_L_MANLI-PRO-Q_L_SVLLA_IMP_ROMA_Crawford-367_Syd-757_Rome_82-BC_Q-001_axis-10h_18,5-19mm_3,60g-s.jpg
082 B.C., L. Manlius Torquatus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford-367-5, Rome, Victory, in quadriga right, #183 views082 B.C., L. Manlius Torquatus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford-367-5, Rome, Victory, in quadriga right, #1
avers: L•MANLI before, PRO.Q behind, helmeted Roma right.
reverse: Sulla, being crowned by Victory, in quadriga right, L•SVLLA•IM in exergue.
exergue: -/-//L•SVLLA•IM, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 10h,
mint: Rome, date: 082 B.C., ref: Crawford-367-5, Syd 757., Manlia 4,
Q-001
quadrans
A-20_Rep_AR-Den_C_Norbanus_C_NORBANVS-C-XXXIIII-Head-Venus-r__Corn-ear-Axe-Caduceus_Crawford-357-1_Syd-739_Rome_83-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_18mm_3,80g-s.jpg
083 B.C., C Norbanus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford-357-5, Rome, Corn ear, fasces, and caduceus, #191 views083 B.C., C Norbanus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford-357-5, Rome, Corn ear, fasces, and caduceus, #1
avers: Number behind (C-XXXIIII), C•NORBANVS below, diademed head of Venus right.
reverse: Corn ear, fasces, and caduceus.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,80g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 083 B.C., ref: Crawford-357-5, Syd-739, Norbana 2,
Q-001
quadrans
084_B_C_,_C_Licinius_L_f_Macer,_AR-den,_C_LICINIVS_L_F_MACER,_Cr354-1,_Syd_732,_Babelon_Licinia_16,_Q-001,_9h,_18,5-20,5mm,_g-s.jpg
084 B.C., C.Licinius.L.f Macer, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 354/1, Rome, C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER in two line, Minerva in quadriga right, #1153 views084 B.C., C.Licinius.L.f Macer, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 354/1, Rome, C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER in two line, Minerva in quadriga right, #1
avers: Diademed bust of Vejovis left, seen from behind, hurling the thunderbolt.
reverse: C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER in two line, Minerva in quadriga right with javelin and shield.
exergue: -/-//C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER, diameter: 18,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,91g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 84 B.C., ref: Crawford 354/1, Sydenham 732, Licinia 16,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
A-17_Rep_AR-Den_L_Julius-Bursio_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-M__Victory-in-quadriga-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO_-CXXXXVI_Craw_-352-1_Syd-728_Rome_85-BC_Q-001_axis-11h_19-20,5mm_4,08g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #181 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #1
avers: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury, and Neptune; behind, trident and control symbol ??? .
reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 19-20,5mm, weight: 4,08g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1, Sydenham 728,
Q-001
quadrans
A-18_Rep_AR-Den_L_Julius-Bursio_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-Mark_Victory-in-quadriga-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO__Crawford-352-1_Syd-728_Rome_85-BC_Q-002_axis-11h_17,5-19mm_4,02g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #292 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #2
avers: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury, and Neptune, behind, trident and control symbol bust of birds right.
reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath, in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 4,02g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1, Sydenham 728, Julia 5,
Q-002
quadrans
085_B_C__L_Julius-Bursio,_Rep_AR-Den,_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-Mark_Victory-in-quadr_-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO_,_Crawford-352-1a_Syd-728_Rome_Q-001_8h_19,5-20,0mm_3,24g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1a, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #3114 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1a, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #3
avers: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury and Neptune, behind, trident and control symbol poppy (?).
reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 8h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1a, Sydenham 728, Julia 5,
Q-003
quadrans
Rep_AR-Den_MN-Fonteius_MN-FONTEI-CF_Laur-head-of-Apollo_CF_below_chin_Cupid-on-goat-right_Crawford-353-1c_Syd-724a_Rome_85-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_19,5-20,5mm_3,99g-s.jpg
085 B.C., Mn. Fonteius C.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 353/1, Rome, Winged figure on goat right, #1103 views085 B.C., Mn. Fonteius C.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 353/1, Rome, Winged figure on goat right, #1
avers: Laureate head of Apollo Veiovis right, below, thunderbolt, behind, MN•FONTEI (MN ligate), before, C•F.
reverse: Winged figure on goat right; above, pilei, in ex. thyrsus; laurel wreath as a border.
exergue: -/-//thyrsus, diameter: 19,5-20,5 mm, weight: 3,99g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford-353/1c, Syd-724a, Fonteia 10,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
A-07_Rep_AR-Den_M_Vergilius_No-legends-Head-Apollo-r__Jupiter-quadriga-r__no-legend_ROMA_Crawford-350-A2_Syd-723_Rome_86-BC_Q-001_axis-11h_19,5-20mm_3,73g-s.jpg
086 B.C., Vergilius, Gargilius and Ogulnius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 350-A2, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right, #199 views086 B.C., Vergilius, Gargilius and Ogulnius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 350-A2, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right, #1
avers: No legends, Laureate head of Apollo right, thunderbolt below.
reverse: No legend or control letters, Jupiter in quadriga right, holding reins and hurling a thunderbolt.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 86 B.C., ref: Crawford 350-A2, Syd 723, Vergilia 1var.,
Q-001
quadrans
A-09_Rep_AR-Den_L_Rubrius-Dossenus_Head-Jupiter-r_-DOS-behind_Triumphal-quadriga-r_-dec-eagle-thund_-in-ex-L_RVBRI__Crawford-348-1_Syd-705_Rome_87-BC_Q-001_3h_16-18mm_3,78ga-s.jpg
087 B.C., L. Rubrius Dossenus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 348/1, Rome, L•RVBRI, Victory in quadriga right, Rubria 1, #172 views087 B.C., L. Rubrius Dossenus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 348/1, Rome, L•RVBRI, Victory in quadriga right, Rubria 1, #1
avers: Laureate head of Jupiter right, with scepter over his shoulder, DOSSEN below.
reverse: Empty triumphal slow quadriga right decorated with a thunderbolt on the side panel, surmounted by small wreath-bearing Victory, L•RVBRI in exergue.
exergue: -/-//L•RVBRI, diameter: 16-18mm, weight: 3,78g, axis: 3h,
mint: Rome, date: 87 B.C., ref: Crawford 348-1, Syd 705, Rubria 1,
Q-001
quadrans
A-09_Rep_AR-Den_L_Rubrius-Dossenus_Head-Jupiter-r_-DOS-behind_Triumphal-quadriga-r_-dec-eagle-thund_-in-ex-L_RVBRI__Crawf-348-1_Syd-705_Rome_87-BC_Q-002_8h_17,5-19mm_3,50g-s.jpg
087 B.C., L. Rubrius Dossenus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 348/1, Rome, L•RVBRI, Victory in quadriga right, Rubria 1, #266 views087 B.C., L. Rubrius Dossenus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 348/1, Rome, L•RVBRI, Victory in quadriga right, Rubria 1, #2
avers: Laureate head of Jupiter right, with scepter over his shoulder, DOSSEN below.
reverse: Empty triumphal slow quadriga right decorated with a thunderbolt on the side panel, surmounted by small wreath-bearing Victory, L•RVBRI in exergue.
exergue: -/-//L•RVBRI, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 3,50g, axis: 8h,
mint: Rome, date: 87 B.C., ref: Crawford 348-1, Syd 705, Rubria 1,
Q-002
quadrans
A-09_Rep_AR-Den_L_Rubrius-Dossenus_Head-Juno-r_-DOS-behind_Triump_-quadr_-r_-dec-eagle-thund__L_RVBRI__Crawf_-348-2_Syd-706_Rome_87-BC_Q-001_11h_15,5-17,5mm_3,78gx-s.jpg
087 B.C., L. Rubrius Dossenus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 348/2, Rome, L•RVBRI, Victory in quadriga right, Rubria 2, #165 views087 B.C., L. Rubrius Dossenus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 348/2, Rome, L•RVBRI, Victory in quadriga right, Rubria 2, #1
avers: Veiled and diademed head of Juno right, wearing ear-ring and necklace, with scepter on the left shoulder, DOS behind.
reverse: Triumphal chariot with side panel decorated with an eagle on a thunderbolt, above, Victory with wreath flying right, In exergue, L•RVBRI.
exergue: -/-//L•RVBRI, diameter: 15,5-17,5mm, weight: 3,78g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 87 B.C., ref: Crawford 348-2, Syd 706, Rubria 2,
Q-001
quadrans
A-10_Rep_AR-Den_L_Rubrius-Dossenus_Head-Minerva-r_-DOS_Triumph_quad_r_-dec-eagle-thund_-Vict_above-inex-L_RVBRI__Crawf-348-3_Syd-707_Rome_87-BC_Q-001_11h_15,5-16mm_3,67gx-s.jpg
087 B.C., L. Rubrius Dossenus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 348/3, Rome, L•RVBRI, Victory in quadriga right, Rubria 3, #165 views087 B.C., L. Rubrius Dossenus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 348/3, Rome, L•RVBRI, Victory in quadriga right, Rubria 3, #1
avers: Bust of Minerva right, wearing Corinthian helmet and aegis, behind, DOS.
reverse: Triumphal quadriga with side-panel decorated with thunderbolt right, above, Victory with outspread wings in biga, in exergue, L•RVBRI.
exergue: -/-//L•RVBRI, diameter: 15,5-16mm, weight: 3,67g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 87 B.C., ref: Crawford 348-3, Syd 707, Rubria 3,
Q-001
quadrans
A-05_Rep_AR-Den_C_n_Cornelius-Cn_f_Lentulus-Clodianus_Helm-Head-Mars-r__Victory_in_biga-r_-ex-C_N_LENTVL_ROMA_Crawford-345-1_Syd-702_Rome_88-BC_Q-001_axis-0h_17,5mm_3,80g-s.jpg
088 B.C., C.n. Cornelius Cn.f. Lentulus Clodianus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 345/1, Rome, C•N•LENTVL, Victory in biga right, #187 views088 B.C., C.n. Cornelius Cn.f. Lentulus Clodianus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 345/1, Rome, C•N•LENTVL, Victory in biga right, #1
avers: Helmeted bust of Mars right, seen from behind.
reverse: Victory in biga right, in exergue C•N•LENTVL.
exergue: -/-//C•N•LENTVL, diameter:17,5 mm, weight: 3,80g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 88 B.C., ref: Crawford 345/1, Sydenham 702, Cornelia 50,
Q-001
quadrans
089_BC,_Rep_,_AR-Den_,_L_Titurius_L_f__Sabinus,_SABIN,_head_r_,_L_TITVRI,_Victory_biga_r_,_Scorp__r_,_Crfw_-344-3,_Syd-700,_Tituria_6_,_Q-001,_0h,_18-19mm,_3,59g-s.jpg
089 B.C. L.Titurius L.f. Sabinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 344/3, Rome, Victory in Biga right, L•TITVRI below and Scorpion, #180 views089 B.C. L.Titurius L.f. Sabinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 344/3, Rome, Victory in Biga right, L•TITVRI below and Scorpion, #1
avers: Bearded head of King Tatius right, SABIN behind.
reverse: Victory in Biga right, bearing wreath, L•TITVRI below, Scorpion as control mark in exergue, border of dots.
exergue: L•TITVRI//Scorpion, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 3,70g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 089 B.C., ref: Syd-700, Crawford-344/3, Tituria 6.,
Q-001
quadrans
Republic_Ar-quinar_M-CAO_M-Porcius-Cato_RRC_343-2d__Rome_89-BC_Q-001_axis-3h_16mm_1,68ga-s.jpg
089 B.C., M.Porcius Cato, Republic AR-Quinar, Crawford 343/2d, Rome, VICTRIX, Victory seated right, #170 views089 B.C., M.Porcius Cato, Republic AR-Quinar, Crawford 343/2d, Rome, VICTRIX, Victory seated right, #1
avers: Head of Liber right. wearing ivy wreath; behind, M•CATO downwards, border of dots.
reverse: Victory seated right, holding patera and palm branch, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//VICTRIX, diameter: 16mm, weight: 1,68g, axis: 3h,
mint: Rome, date: 89 B.C., ref: Crawford 343/2d, Sydenham 597c, Porcia 7,
Q-001
quadrans
089_B_C_,_M_Porcius_Cato,_Repulic_AR-Quinar,_M_CATO,_VICTRIX,_Crawford_343-2d,_Q-001,_0h,_13mm,_1,80g-s.jpg
089 B.C., M.Porcius Cato, Republic AR-Quinar, Crawford 343/2d, Rome, VICTRIX, Victory seated right, #2176 views089 B.C., M.Porcius Cato, Republic AR-Quinar, Crawford 343/2d, Rome, VICTRIX, Victory seated right, #2
avers: Head of Liber right. wearing ivy wreath; behind, M•CATO downwards, border of dots.
reverse: Victory seated right, holding patera and palm branch, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//VICTRIX, diameter: 13mm, weight: 1,80g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 89 B.C., ref: Crawford 343/2d, Sydenham 597c, Porcia 7,
Q-002
quadrans
090-BC-C_Publicius_Mall_,_A_Postumius_Albinus,_L_Metellus_Rep_AR-Den_L_METEL,_A_ALB_S_F_,_C_MALL,_ROMA,_Syd_611a_Crwf__335-1b_Q-001_9h_18-18,5mm_3,70g-s.jpg
090 B.C. C.Publicius Mall., A.Postumius Albinus and L.Metellus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 335/1b, Rome, C•MALL, Roma seated left on pile of shields, #1118 views090 B.C. C.Publicius Mall., A.Postumius Albinus and L.Metellus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 335/1b, Rome, C•MALL, Roma seated left on pile of shields, #1
avers: L•METEL, A•ALB•S•F•, Laureate head of Apollo right, star beneath the chin, border of dots.
reverse: C•MALL (AL ligate), Roma seated left on pile of shields, holding a sceptre, being crowned by Victory standing left behind her, ROMA below, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 3,70g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 090 B.C., ref: Syd 611a, Crawford 335/1b, Caecilia 46., Postumia 3.,
Q-001
quadrans
Rep_AR-Den_Q_Titius_Head_of_Mutinus_Titinus_(Priapus)_r_-wearing_winged_diad_Pegazus-r__Q-dot-TITI_Crawford-341-1_Syd-691_Rome_90-BC_Q-001_3h_18-20mm_3,38g-s.jpg
090 B.C. Q.Titius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 341/1, Rome, Pegasus springing right, Q•TITI on base, #190 views090 B.C. Q.Titius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 341/1, Rome, Pegasus springing right, Q•TITI on base, #1
avers: Head of Mutinus Titinus (Priapus) right, wearing a winged diadem.
reverse: Pegasus springing right, Q•TITI on base.
exergue: - -/-//Q•TITI, diameter:18-20 mm, weight: 3,38g, axis: 3h,
mint: Rome, date: 90 B.C., ref: Crawford 341/1, Sydenham 691,Titia 1,
Q-001
quadrans
Rep_AR-Den_C_Vibius-C_f_Pansa_Laur-Head-Apollo-r_-beh_-PANSA-bef_contr_m_Minerva-quadriga-r_-ex-C_VIBIVS_C_F__Cr__342_5b_Syd-684a_Rome_90-BC_Q-001_axis-10h_18,5-19,5mm_3,88g-s.jpg
090 B.C., C.Vibius Cf.Pansa, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 342/5b, Rome, C•VIBIVS•C•F, Minerva in quadriga right, #189 views090 B.C., C.Vibius Cf.Pansa, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 342/5b, Rome, C•VIBIVS•C•F, Minerva in quadriga right, #1
avers: PANSA, laureate head of Apollo right, symbol before.
reverse: Minerva in quadriga right, holding a spear, reins, and trophy, C•VIBIVS•C•F, in exergue.
exergue: -/-//C•VIBIVS•C•F, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,88g, axis: 10h,
mint: Rome, date:090 B.C., ref: Crawford 342-5b, Syd 684a, Vibia 1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Rep_AE-Quadrans_Q-001_axis-h_xxmm_xxg-s.jpg
091 B.C., Anonymous Republic AE-Quadrans, SRCV 1194, Prow right, #1101 views091 B.C., Anonymous Republic AE-Quadrans, SRCV 1194, Prow right, #1
avers: Head of Hercules right, wearing lion’s skin, behind, three pellets.
reverse: Prow right, and before, three pellets.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 91 B.C., ref: SRCV-1194,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
096-BC-A_Postumius_S_f_Albinus_Republica_AR-Den_Star-R_Head-of-Apollo-r__A_ALBINVS_S_F_Dioscuri-watering-horse_left-Crescent_Syd_612b_Crawford-335-10b_Q-001_3h_16-22mm_3,67g-s.jpg
096 B.C. A.Postumius S.f. Albinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 335/10b, Rome, Dioscuri watering horse left, Crescent above, A•ALBINVS•S•F•, #1, Rare !!!149 views096 B.C. A.Postumius S.f. Albinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 335/10b, Rome, Dioscuri watering horse left, Crescent above, A•ALBINVS•S•F•, #1, Rare !!!
avers: Laureate head of Apollo right, behind star below R, before X, border of dots.
reverse: Dioscuri watering horse (left) at the fountain of Juturna, in left field crescent above, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//A•ALBINVS•S•F•, diameter: 17,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,76g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date:096 B.C., ref: Syd-612b, Crawford-335/10b, Postumia 6., Rare !!!
Q-001
"This issue is said to relate to the battle of Lake Regillius; the Roman army was commanded by A. Postumius Albus. Legend says that the Dioscuri were said to have assisted the Romans in obtaining the victory; the reverse of shows the Dioscuri watering their horses at the fountain of Futurna in the Roman Forum, where they were supposed to have arrived on the eve of the battle."
3 commentsquadrans
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar161 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
Saserna_den_2.jpg
1) The Caesarians: Hostila 5a15 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Hostilius Saserna
AR Denarius, 48 BC

Head of Pietas right / HOSTILIVS SASERN, Victory advancing right with winged cauduceus, palm branches and trophy.

Syd 951a, Cr448/1b, Hostilia 5a
RM0039
Sosius
Hostilius_Saserna_Den_2.jpg
1) The Caesarians: L. Hostilius Saserna AR denarius29 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
L. Hostilius Saserna
AR denarius (20mm, 3.79 g, 12h). 48 BC

Head of Gallia r., hair in disarray; carnyx (Gallic trumpet) behind / L. HOSTILIVS [S]ASERNA, Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus standing facing, holding spear and stag by its antler.

Crawford 448/3. CRI 19. RSC Hostilia 4. Obverse flan flaw, otherwise ~EF

Ex Heritage
RM0028
1 commentsSosius
Valeria_16-18_2.jpg
1) The Caesarians: Valeria - Drunken Mint Worker?16 viewsRoman Republic
AR Denarius.
L. Valerius Acisculus. 45 BC.

Diademed head of Apollo Soranus right, axe behind, star above; in laurel wreath

Very poor strike. According to Andrew McCabe: about 30% of obverse visible, and 0% of reverse.

Valeria 16-18
RM0044
Sosius
100105.jpg
1. Æ Aes Grave Triens268 viewsAnonymous. Circa 280-276 BC. Æ Aes Grave Triens (49mm, 106.35 gm). Thunderbolt; four pellets across field / Dolphin swimming right; four pellets below. Thurlow-Vecchi 3; Crawford 14/3; Haeberlin pl. 39, 7-10. VF, green patina.

Ex Cng Sale 100 lot 105 310/300

The triens (plural trientes) was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-third of an as (4 unciae).
ecoli73
36562_0.jpg
1. Roman Republican. Q. Fabius Labeo. AR Denarius. Circa 124 BC.9 views(18.5mm., 3.92g.) Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, ROMA and before, LABEO. Below chin, X. Rev. Jupiter in prancing quadriga r., holding sceptre and reins and hurling thunderbolt; below horses, rostrum. In exergue, Q·FABI. Babelon Fabia 1. Sydenham 532. RBW 1094. Crawford 273/1.Russel K
IMG_0220.JPG
1.1 Roman Republic Denarius109 views88 BC
Rome Mint
Cornelius Lentulus
Zam
IMG_0221~0.JPG
1.2 Roman Republic Denarius70 views88 BC
Rome Mint
Cornelius Lentulus
Zam
c6_1_b.jpg
1.21 L. Scribonius Libo48 viewsAR Republican Denarius
Rome, 62 BC

obv. LIB - BON-EVENT
Bonus Eventus (diademed), deity of good fortune and events
Zam
00230Q00.jpg
1.Roman Republican. Appius Claudius Pulcher, T. Manlius Mancius, and Q. Urbinius. AR Denarius. 111-110 BC.19 views(17 mm. 3,89 g.). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; quadrangular device to left / Victory driving triga right; AP · CL · T · (MANL) · Q · (VR) in exergue. Crawford 299/1a; Sydenham 570; Claudia 2.Ruslan K
Denarius METELLUS.jpg
10-01 - C. POBLICIUS, A. POSTUMIUS S. F. ALBINUS y L. CAECILIUS METELLUS (96 A.C.)51 viewsAR Denarius 18 mm 3.4 gr
Anv: "L·METEL detrás A·ALB·S·F delante de Cabeza laureada de Apolo viendo a derecha - "*" debajo del cuello.
Rev: "C·MALL" (AL en ligadura) - Roma sentada a izquierda sobre una pila de escudos, detrás de ella Victoria coronándola. "ROMA" en exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #220 Pag.114 - Craw RRC #335/1 a-c - Syd CRR #611-611a - BMCRR #724/726/730 - RSC Vol.1 Caecilia 45-46a Pag.21
mdelvalle
Craw_335_1a-c_Denario_C_Poblicius_Malleolus_-_Postumius_Albinus_-_Caecilius_Metellus.jpg
10-01 - C. POBLICIUS, A. POSTUMIUS S. F. ALBINUS y L. CAECILIUS METELLUS (96 A.C.)13 viewsAR Denarius 18 mm 3.4 gr

Anv: "L·METEL detrás A·ALB·S·F delante de Cabeza laureada de Apolo viendo a derecha - "*" debajo del cuello.
Rev: "C·MALL" (AL en ligadura) - Roma sentada a izquierda sobre una pila de escudos, detrás de ella Victoria coronándola. "ROMA" en exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #220 Pag.114 - Craw RRC #335/1 a-c - Syd CRR #611-611a - BMCRR #724/726/730 - RSC Vol.1 Caecilia 45-46a Pag.21
mdelvalle
100ReisRepublica.jpg
100 Réis13 viewsBrazil Republic

1889 AD

Obverse: REPÚBLICA DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRAZIL

Reverse: ORDEM E PROGRESSO 15 DE NOVEMBRO DE 1889
Pericles J2
A-21_Rep_AR-Quinarius_C_Fundanius_Laur-head-Jupiter-r_-S-beh__Victory-crowning-trophy-with-captive_ex-Q_Craw_326_2_Syd_584_Rome_101-BC_Scarce_Q-001_axis-11h_14,5-15mm_1,92g-s.jpg
101 B.C., C. Fundanius, Republic AR-Quinarius, Crawford 326/2, C•FVNDA, Victory crowning trophy with captive, #188 views101 B.C., C. Fundanius, Republic AR-Quinarius, Crawford 326/2, C•FVNDA, Victory crowning trophy with captive, #1
avers: Laureate head of Jupiter right, S behind.
reverse: C•FVNDA (ND ligate) in right, Victory standing to right with palm, trophy with kneeling captive on right.
exergue: -/-//Q, diameter: 14,5-15mm, weight: 1,92g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 101 B.C., ref: Crawford 326/2, Sydenham 584, Fundania 2,
Q-001
quadrans
L__Julius_L_f__Caesar_AR-Den_CAESAR_L-IVLI-L-F_Crawford-320-1_Julia-4_Sydenham-593_103_BC_Q-001_axis-7h_19mm_2,99g-s.jpg
103 B.C., L. Julius L.f. Caesar, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 320/1, Rome, Venus in biga of Cupids left, #1128 views103 B.C., L. Julius L.f. Caesar, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 320/1, Rome, Venus in biga of Cupids left, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Mars left, behind, CAESAR, above, control mark. The control mark is retrograde Q which was heretofore unknown (by forarr).
reverse: Venus in biga of Cupids left, holding scepter and reins, above, control mark, below, lyre, in exergue: L•IVLI•L•F•.
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•L•F•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,99g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 103 B.C., ref: Crawford 320/1, Sydenham 593a., Julia 4a.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
A-05_Rep_AR-Den_Q_Minucius-M_f_Thermus_Helm-Head-Mars-l__Victory_in_biga-r_-ex-Q_THERM_MF_Crawford-319-1_Syd-592_Rome_103-BC_Q-001_4h_18,5-20mm_3,74g-s.jpg
103 B.C., Q.Minucius-M.f.Thermus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 209/1, Rome, Q•THERM•MF, Roman soldier fighting, #199 views103 B.C., Q.Minucius-M.f.Thermus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 209/1, Rome, Q•THERM•MF, Roman soldier fighting, #1
avers: Helmeted Head of Mars left (helmet has long crest and plumbe on each side). The border of dots.
reverse: Roman soldier fighting barbarian soldier in the protection of fallen comrade, in exergue Q•THERM•MF (THE and MF are ligature). The border of dots.
exergue: -/-//Q•THERM•MF, diameter:18,5-20 mm, weight: 3,74g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date: 103 B.C., ref: Crawford 319/1, Sydenham 592, Minucia 19,
Q-001
quadrans
Rep_AR-Den_R__L_SATVRN_Crawford-317-3a_Syd-578_Rome_104-BC_Q-001_axis-0h_19,5mm_3,81g-s.jpg
104 B.C., L. Appuleius Saturnius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 317/3a, Rome, Quadriga right, #1149 views104 B.C., L. Appuleius Saturnius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 317/3a, Rome, Quadriga right, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma left, border of dots. above, control mark,
reverse: Saturn in quadriga right holding reins in the right hand, above, control mark R•, below, in exergue: L•SATVRN.
exergue: -/--//L•SATVRN, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,81g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 104 B.C., ref: Crawford 317/3a, Sydenham 578., Appuleia 1,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
105_B_C_,_L_Thorius_Balbus,_AR-den,_ISMR,_Head_of_Juno_Sospita_r_,_L_THORIVS_BALBVS,_Bull_r_,_K,_Cr_316-1,_Syd-598,_Thoria_1,_Sear_192,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-20,5mm,_3,74g-s.jpg
105 B.C., L.Thorius Balbus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 316/1, Rome, L•THORIVS/BALBVS in two line, Bull charging right, #1133 views105 B.C., L.Thorius Balbus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 316/1, Rome, L•THORIVS/BALBVS in two line, Bull charging right, #1
avers: ISMR abbreviated legend behind the head of Juno Sospita right, wearing a goat-skin headdress.
reverse: L•THORIVS/BALBVS in two line, Bull charging right, control letter "K" above.
exergue: -/-//L•THORIVS/BALBVS, diameter: 18,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,83g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 105 B.C., ref: Crawford 316/1, Sydenham 598, Sear 192, Thoria 1,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
coin219.JPG
105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
ecoli
Rep_AR-Den_MN-Fonteius_Heads-Dioscuri-r-in-field-PP__MN-FONTEI_countermark-F_Crawford-307-1a_Syd-566_Rome_108-07-BC_Q-001_axis-11h_19,5mm_3,31g-s.jpg
108-107 B.C., M.N.Fonteius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 307/1a, Rome, Galley with Rostrum right, #1139 views108-107 B.C., M.N.Fonteius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 307/1a, Rome, Galley with Rostrum right, #1
avers: Laureate conjoined heads of the Dioscuri right six-pointed star below the chin, P P in front of the face, stars above.
reverse: MN•FONTEI (MN and NTE are ligated), Galley with Rostrum right, F below.
exergue:-/-//F, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,31g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 108-07 B.C., ref:Crawford 307-1a, Syd-566, Fonteia 8 var.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
109-108_BC-_L_Flaminius_Chilo_ROMA_X_L_FLAMINI_CILO_Crawford_302-1__Sydenham_540__RSC_Flaminia-1_Q-001_4h_17,0-18,5mm_3,95ga-s.jpg
109-108 B.C., L. Flaminius Chilo, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford 302/1, Rome, Victory in biga right, #1152 views109-108 B.C., L. Flaminius Chilo, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 302/1, Rome, Victory in biga right, #1
avers: Head of Roma right, wearing a winged helmet with griffin crest, the mark of value X under the chin, ROMA behind.
reverse: Victory in biga right, holding wreath, L•FLAMINI/CILO below.
exergue:-/-//CILO, diameter: 17,0-18,5mm, weight: 3,95g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date: 109-108 B.C., ref: Crawford-302-1, Syd-540, Flaminia-1.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
109-108_BC-_Man_Aquillius_X_MN_AQVIL_ROMA_Crawford_303-1__Sydenham_557__RSC_Aquilia-___Q-001_6h_19,0-20,0mm_3,79ga-s.jpg
109-108 B.C., Man.Aquillius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 303/1, Rome, Luna in biga right, #1188 views109-108 B.C., Man. Aquillius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 303/1, Rome, Luna in biga right, #1
avers: Radiate head of Sol right, X below the chin. Border of dots.
reverse: Luna in biga right, crescent moon and three stars above, one star below. MN•AQVIL/ROMA below (MN ligate). Border of dots.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 109-108 B.C., ref: Crawford 303-1, Syd 557, Aquillia 1.,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
A-x3_Rep_AR-Den_xxxxxxx_Crawford-_Syd-_Rome_-BC_Q-001_axis-5h_18mm_3,74g-s.jpg
110-109 B.C., C. Claudius Ap.f.C.n. Pulchner, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 300/1, Rome, Victory in biga, #1114 views110-109 B.C., C. Claudius Ap.f.C.n. Pulchner, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 300/1, Rome, Victory in biga, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Rome right (helmet decorated with circular device). Border of dots.
reverse: Victory in biga right, holding both hands. Border of dots.
exergue: -/-/ C•PVLCHER, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date:110-109 B.C., ref: Crawford 300/1, Sydenham 569, Claudia 1.,
Q-001
quadrans
111-10_B_C_,_T__Manlius_Mancinus,_Appius_Claudius_Pulcher_and_Q__Urbinus__AR_den_,_Mallia_2,_Crawford_299-1b,_Sydenham_570a,_Q-001,_10h,_16,5-18mm,_3,9g-s.jpg
111-110 B.C., T. Manlius Mancinus, Appius Claudius Pulcher and Q. Urbinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 299/1b, Rome, Victory in triga right, #165 views111-110 B.C., T. Manlius Mancinus, Appius Claudius Pulcher and Q. Urbinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 299/1b, Rome, Victory in triga right, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right; circle behind. Border of dots.
reverse: Victory in triga right, T•MAL•AP•CL•Q•VR•(MAL and VR ligate) below. Border of dots.
exergue:-/-//T•MAL•AP•CL•Q•VR•(MAL and VR ligate), diameter: 16,5-18,0mm, weight: 3,90g, axis: 10h,
mint: Rome, date: 111-110 B.C., ref: Crawford-299-1b, Syd-570a, Mallia 2.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
A-08_Rep_AR-Den_L_Pomponius-Cn_f__L_POMPONI_CNF_-Helm-head-Roma-r__L_LIC_CN_DOM_-biga-r__Crawford-282-4_Syd-522_Rome_118-BC_Q-001_1h_19,5mm_3,74g-s.jpg
112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #1211 views112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #1
avers: L•POMPONI•CNF (NF ligate), Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind.
reverse: Gallic warrior (Bituitus?) driving galloping biga right, hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx, in ex. L•LIC•CN•DOM•,
exergue: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,74g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/4, Syd 522a, Pomponia 7a,
Q-001
quadrans
112-109_B_C_,_L_Pomponius_Cn_f_,_L_Licinius_Crassus,_Cn_Domitius_Ahenobarbus,_AR-Den,_L_POMPONI_CNF,_X,_L_LIC_CN_DOM_ROMA_Crwf-282-4,_Syd-522,_Rome_Q-001_2h_19-19,5mm_3,73g-s.jpg
112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #2111 views112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #2
avers: L•POMPONI•CNF (NF ligate), Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind.
reverse: Gallic warrior (Bituitus?) driving galloping biga right, hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx, in ex. L•LIC•CN•DOM•,
exergue: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, diameter: 19,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 2h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/4, Syd 522a, Pomponia 7a,
Q-002
quadrans
Rep_AR-Den_Cn_Blasio,Cornelia_CN_BLASIO_CN_F-wreath_Juno-Jupiter-Minerva_below-ROMA_Gamma_Crawford-296-1e_Syd-561b_Rome_111-12-BC_Q-001_axis-9h_17,5-19mm_3,99g-s.jpg
112-111 B.C., Cn. Cornelius Cn.F. Blasio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 296/1e, Rome, #184 views112-111 B.C., Cn. Cornelius Cn.F. Blasio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 296/1e, Rome, #1
avers: CN•BLASIO•CN•F, Helmeted head of Mars right (Corinthian helmet), above the star, behind the wreath.
reverse: Jupiter standing facing between Juno and Minerva, in the field Υ, below ROMA.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 3,99g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 111-112 B.C., ref: Crawford 296/1e, Sydenham 561b, Cornelia 19,
Q-001
quadrans
112-11_B_C_,_Lucius_Caesius,_AR_den_,_Caesia_1,_Crawford_298-1,_Sydenham_564,Sear_175_,_Q-001,_11h,_18,5-20mm,_3,72g-s.jpg
112-111 B.C., Lucius Caesius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 298/1, Rome, Two Lares sitting right, #1115 views112-111 B.C., Lucius Caesius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 298/1, Rome, Two Lares sitting right, #1
avers: Heroic bust of Vejovis facing left, hurling a thunderbolt and seen from behind, PA (Roma) monogram behind.
reverse: Two Lares sitting right, hound between them, head of Vulcan left with pair of pincers above, ER monogram in right field.
exergue: -/-/L•CAESI (AE ligate), diameter: 18,5-20mm, weight: 3,72g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 112-111 B.C., ref: Crawford-298-1, Sydenham-564, Caesia-1, Sear-175,
Q-001
quadrans
DSS_Q-001_axis-7h_18-19,5mm_3,56g-s.jpg
112-111 B.C., Ti. Quinctius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 297/1, Rome, Two horses left, #1224 views112-111 B.C., Ti. Quinctius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 297/1, Rome, Two horses left, #1
avers: Bust of Hercules left, wearing lion's skin headdress, club over the shoulder.
reverse: Two horses left, the rider on the nearer horse, TI Q and rat below, D•S•S in incuse on the tablet in exergue.
exergue: -/-//D•S•S, diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 3,56g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date:112-111 B.C., ref: Crawford 297-1, Sydenham 563, Quinctia 6,
Q-001
quadrans
114-113_BC__C__Fonteius_Denarius,_Janiform_head_of_the_Dioscuri,_C_FONT,_galley,_ROMA,_Cr290-1,_Syd_555,_Fonteia_1,_Q-001,_h,_mm,_g-s.jpg
114-113 B.C., C. Fonteius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 290-1, C•FONT, galley, #1142 views114-113 B.C., C. Fonteius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 290-1, C•FONT, galley, #1
avers: Janiform head of the Dioscuri, control letter "C" left and "Ж" right
reverse: C•FONT, galley with the pilot and three oarsmen, ROMA in ex.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 114-113 B.C., ref: Crawford 290-1, Sydenham 555, Fonteia 1.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
114-113_BC_Man_Aemilius_Lepidus_Denarius_ROMA_M_N_AEMILIO_LEP_Cr291-1,_Syd_554_Aemilia_7_Q-001_9h_18,2-18,4mm_3,81g-s.jpg
114-113 B.C., Man Aemilius Lepidus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford-291-1, Rome, MN•AEMILIO•, equestrian statue, -/-//LEP, #1179 views114-113 B.C., Man Aemilius Lepidus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford-291-1, Rome, MN•AEMILIO•, equestrian statue, -/-//LEP, #1
avers: Laureate, diademed head of Roma right, ROMA before, * behind.
reverse: MN•AEMILIO• (MN ligate), The equestrian statue on the triumphal arch, L E P between the arches.
exergue: -/-//LEP, diameter: 18,2-18,4mm, weight: 3,81g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date:114-113 B.C.,, ref: Crawford 291-1, Syd 554, Aemilia 7,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
115-114_BC,_Rep_,_AR-Den_,_M_Cipius_Helm__head_of_Roma_r__M_CIPI_M__F_,_Victory_in_biga_r_,_ROMA,_Crawford-289-1,_Syd-546,_Rome,_Q-001,_10h,_16,5mm,_3,84g-s.jpg
115-114 B.C., M. Cipius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 289/1, Rome, Victory in biga right, #1,102 views115-114 B.C., M. Cipius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 289/1, Rome, Victory in biga right, #1,
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind X, M•CIPI•M•F, border of dots.
reverse: Victory in biga right, holding palm branch; below, rudder.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 3,84g, axis: 10h,
mint: Rome, date: 115-114 B.C., ref: Crawford 289/1, Sydenham 546, Cipia 1.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
115-114_BC,_Rep_,_AR-Den_,_M_Cipius_Helm__head_of_Roma_r__M_CIPI_M__F_,_Victory_in_biga_r_,_ROMA,_Crawford-289-1,_Syd-546,_Rome,_Q-002,_0h,_15,5-16,2mm,_3,87g-s.jpg
115-114 B.C., M.Cipius (115-114 B.C.), Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 289/1, Rome, Victory in biga right, #2,74 views115-114 B.C., M.Cipius (115-114 B.C.), Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 289/1, Rome, Victory in biga right, #2,
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind X, M•CIPI•M•F, border of dots.
reverse: Victory in biga right, holding palm branch; below, rudder.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 15,5-16,2mm, weight: 3,87g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 115-114 B.C., ref: Crawford 289/1, Sydenham 546, Cipia 1.,
Q-002
quadrans
A-02_Rep_AR-Den-Ser_C_Publicius-Malleolus-C_f__C-MALLE-C-F-X-behind_L-LIC-CN-DOM_ROMA_Crawford-282-3_Syd-524_Rome_118-BC_R1_Q-001_11h_19-20mm_3,79g-s.jpg
118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #1155 views118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #1
(L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo 118.)
avers: C•MA-L-LE-C•F Helmeted head of Roma right, behind, X.
reverse: Bearded warrior (Bituitus?) fast biga right, holding a shield, carnyx, and reins and hurling spear, in exergue, L•LIC•CN•DOM.
exergue: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM, diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/3, Syd-524, Licinia 13 and Domitia 17,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
118_B_C_,_L__Licinius_Crassus_and_Cn__Domitius_Ahenobarbus_with_C__Malleolus_C_f_,_AR-Den-serr_,_Licinia_13_and_Domitia_17,_Crw282-3,_Syd-524,_Rome,_Q-003,_3h,_19mm,_3,73g-s.jpg
118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #278 views118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #2
(L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo 118.)
avers: C•MA-L-LE-C•F Helmeted head of Roma right, behind, X.
reverse: Bearded warrior (Bituitus?) fast biga right, holding a shield, carnyx, and reins and hurling spear, in exergue, L•LIC•CN•DOM.
exergue: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM, diameter: 19,0mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 3h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/3, Syd-524, Licinia 13 and Domitia 17,
Q-002
3 commentsquadrans
A-02_Rep_AR-Den-Ser_C_Publicius-Malleolus-C_f__C-MALLE-C-F-X-behind_L-LIC-CN-DOM_ROMA_Crawford-282-3_Syd-524_Rome_118-BC_R1_Q-001_1h_18-19mm_3,35g-s.jpg
118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #3196 views118 B.C., L. Licinius Crassus, and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus with C. Malleolus C.f., Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L•LIC•CN•DOM., #3
(L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo 118.)
avers: C•MA-L-LE-C•F Helmeted head of Roma right, behind, X.
reverse: Bearded warrior (Bituitus?) fast biga right, holding a shield, carnyx, and reins and hurling spear, in exergue, L•LIC•CN•DOM.
exergue: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/3, Syd-524, Licinia 13 and Domitia 17,
Q-003
quadrans
Denarius SILANUS.jpg
12-01 - D. JUNIUS L. F. SILANUS (91 A.C.)46 viewsAR Denarius 17 mm 3.6 gr
Anv: Cabeza con yelmo alado de Roma viendo a derecha - "A" letra de control detrás de la cabeza.
Rev: "D.SILANVS L.F." Victoria en biga cabalgando a derecha, sosteniendo las riendas con ambas manos. Número de control sobre los caballos. "ROMA" en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #225 Pag.115 - Craw RRC #337/3 - Syd CRR #646 -BMCRR #1772-1839 - RSC Vol.1 Junia 15 Pag.54
mdelvalle
Craw_337_3_Denario_D__Junius_L_F__Silanus.jpg
12-01 - D. JUNIUS L. F. SILANUS (91 A.C.)14 viewsAR Denarius 17 mm 3.6 gr

Anv: Cabeza con yelmo alado de Roma viendo a derecha - "A" letra de control detrás de la cabeza.
Rev: "D.SILANVS L.F." Victoria en biga cabalgando a derecha, sosteniendo las riendas con ambas manos. Número de control sobre los caballos. "ROMA" en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #225 Pag.115 - Craw RRC #337/3 - Syd CRR #646 -BMCRR #1772-1839 - RSC Vol.1 Junia 15 Pag.54
mdelvalle
Craw_337_3_Denario_D__Junius_L_F__Silanus_1.jpg
12-01 - D. JUNIUS L. F. SILANUS (91 A.C.)23 viewsAR Denarius 17x18 mm 3.6 gr

Anv: Cabeza con yelmo alado de Roma viendo a derecha - "A" letra de control detrás de la cabeza.
Rev: "D.SILANVS L.F." Victoria en biga cabalgando a derecha, sosteniendo las riendas con ambas manos. "II" Número de control sobre los caballos. "ROMA" en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #225 Pag.115 - Craw RRC #337/3 - Syd CRR #646 -BMCRR #1772-1839 - RSC Vol.1 Junia 15 Pag.54
mdelvalle
123_B_C_,_M_Fannius_C_f_,_AR-Denarius,_Crawford_275-1,_Rome,_Victory_in_quadriga_right,_M_FAN_CF_,_Q-001_7h_16-17mm_3,81g-s.jpg
123 B.C., M. Fannius C.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 275/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//M•FAN•C•F, #1154 views123 B.C., M. Fannius C.f., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 275/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//M•FAN•C•F, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, X below the chin, ROMA behind.
reverse: Victory in quadriga right, holding reins in left hand and wreath in the right hand, line border, in exergue M•FAN•C•F (AN ligate).
exergue: -/-// M•FAN•C•F (AN ligate), diameter:16,0-17,0 mm, weight: 3,80g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 123 B.C., ref: Crawford 275/1, Sydenham 419, Fannia 1.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
125_BC-_Man__Acilius_Balbus_,_Roma_head_r__BALBVS_beh__ROMA,_MN·ACILI,_Jupiter_and_Victory_quadriga_r_,_Crawf_271-1__Syd_498__Acilia_1,_Q-001_h,_mm,_g-s.jpg
123 B.C., Man. Acilius Balbus., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 271/1, Rome, Jupiter and Victory in quadriga right, -/-//MN•ACILI, #1151 views123 B.C., Man. Acilius Balbus., Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 271/1, Rome, Jupiter and Victory in quadriga right, -/-//MN•ACILI, #1
avers:- Helmeted head of Roma right within a laurel wreath, BALBVS (AL ligate) behind, ROMA below, Ӿ below the chin.
reverse: Jupiter and Victory in galloping quadriga right, wheel below, MN•ACILI (MN ligate) in exergue.
exergue: -/-//MN•ACILI (MN ligate), diameter:18,5 mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 123 B.C., ref: Crawford 271/1, Sydenham 498, Acilia 1.,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
A-12_Rep_AR-Den_T_Cloelius_Helm-head-Roma-behind-wreath-below-ROMA_Victory-in-biga-r_-ex-T_CLOVLI_Crawford-260-1_Syd-516_Rome_128-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5mm_3,75g-s.jpg
128 B.C., T. Cloelius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 260/1, Rome, Victory in biga right, #184 views128 B.C., T. Cloelius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 260/1, Rome, Victory in biga right, #1
avers: ROMA, helmeted head of Roma right, wreath behind.
reverse: Victory in biga right, holding reins in both hands, below, corn-ears, in exergue, T•CLOVLI.
exergue: -/-//T•CLOVLI, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,75g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 128 B.C., ref: Crawford 260-1, Sydenham 516, Cloulia 1,BMCRR Rome 1079.
Q-001
quadrans
128-1_Decia_2.jpg
128/1. Decia - denarius (206-200 BC)19 viewsAR Denarius (uncertain mint, 206-200 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind head.
R/ The Dioscuri galloping right; shield & carnyx below horses; ROMA in exergue.
4.01g; 20.5mm
Crawford 128/1 (less than 10 obverse dies/less than 12 reverse dies)
- Privately bought from Münzen & Medaillen Basel.
- Ex collection of Elvira Elisa Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001), former director of the National Numismatic Collection (part of the Smithsonian Institute).
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 29, lot 479.

* Anonymous (shield & carnyx), Decius?:

This very rare issue has traditionally been attributed to a descendant of a line of three heroes named Publius Decius Mus. The first of that name was Consul in 340 BC; he received the Grass Crown after having saved his army from destruction against the Samnites, then sacrificed himself at the Battle of Vesuvius during his consulship in an act of devotio (exchanging his life against the victory of his army). His son was four times Consul (312, 308, 297 and 295 BC) and similarly sacrificed himself at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC against a coalition of Etruscans, Samnites, and Gauls. The third of that name was Consul in 279 BC and fought against Pyrrhus, who successfully thwarted his attempt to sacrifice himself like his ancestors (cf. discussion in Broughton, vol. I, p. 193).

300 years later, Trajan restored several issues of the Republic, including this one, but with the addition of DECIVS MVS on the obverse (RIC 766). Babelon thus assumed that this denarius was minted by the son of the last Publius Decius Mus (Decia 1). In this hypothesis, the shield and Carnyx refers to the second Mus -- the one who fought the Gauls.

However, Crawford contested this view, writing: "The restoration of this issue by Trajan with the added legend DECIVS MVS provides no grounds whatever for supposing that it was originally struck by someone of that name - the family was certainly extinct by this period."

It is still very strange that Trajan picked this rare denarius, from an irregular mint, for restoration. He could have chosen many other anonymous issues of the early Roman coinage, and simply add the name of Decius Mus. It thus shows that the imperial mint had retained some specimens or archives of previous issues up to the 3rd century BC, because due to its rarity, this denarius had already disappeared from circulation by the time of Trajan. A list of the magistrates behind each issue could therefore have been kept as well; Trajan might have selected the moneyers whom he thought were significant for the history of Rome and restored their issue. A Publius Decius Subulo was living in these years (Livy, xliii. 17) and perhaps minted this coin; his name could have been preserved in the archives of the mint, which might have led Trajan to pick his denarius for restoration.
1 commentsJoss
Quinarius P.CATO.jpg
13-03 - M. PORCIUS CATO (89 A.C.)46 viewsAR Quinarius 14 mm 1.8 gr
Anv: Cabeza de joven Baco o Liber (Dios del Vino) de pelo largo, vistiendo corona de hojas de hiedra viendo a derecha - "M·CATO" (AT en ligadura) detrás de la cabeza. No se aprecia pero usualmente Marca de Control debajo.
Rev: Victoria alada sentada a derecha, portando palma en mano derecha y pátera en izquierda. "VICTRIX" (TR en ligadura) en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #248 Pag.119 - Craw RRC #343/2a-b - Syd CRR #597/597c -BMCRR #662/693 - RSC Vol.1 Porcia 7-7c Pag.80/81 - Kestner 2999 var.
mdelvalle
A-14_Rep_AR-Den_C_Aburius-Geminus_Helm-head-Roma-r_-GEM-behind_Mars-in-quadriga-r_-ex-C_ABVRI-ROMA_Crawford-244-1_Syd-490_Rome_134-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_17,5-18mm_3,76g-s.jpg
134 B.C., C. Aburius Geminus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 244/1, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right, #183 views134 B.C., C. Aburius Geminus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 244/1, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right, #1
avers: GEM behind of helmeted head of Roma right, * below the chin.
reverse: Mars in quadriga right, holding the spear, shield, trophy, and reins, C•ABVRI (AB and VR are ligated) below, ROMA in exergue.
exergue: C•ABVRI//ROMA, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,76g, axis:7 h,
mint: Rome, date:134 B.C., ref: Crawford 244-1, Sydenham 490, Aburia 1.,
Q-001
quadrans
135_BC,_C__Augurinus,_AR-Den,_ROMA,_Roma_head_r_,_X,_C_A_VG,_Ionic_column,_Cr242-1,_Syd_463,_Q-001,_0h,_17-18,7mm,_3,54g-s.jpg
135 B.C., C. Minucius Augurinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 242/1, Rome, C•A/VG//--, Ionic column surmounted by the statue, #1131 views135 B.C., C. Minucius Augurinus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 242/1, Rome, C•A/VG//--, Ionic column surmounted by the statue, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, ROMA behind, X below the chin.
reverse: C•A-VG flanking Ionic column surmounted by the statue, at the base, two stalks of grain; on left, L. Minucius Augurinus standing right, holding patera, foot on modius; on right, M. Minucius Faesus standing left, holding lituus.
exergue: C•A/VG//--, diameter: 17,0-18,7mm, weight: 3,54g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 135 B.C., ref: Crawford 242/1, Sydenham 463, Minucia 3.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Rep_AR-Den_L_Trebanius-Helm-head-of-Roma-r__Jupiter-quadriga-r__L_TREBAVI_ex-ROMA_Crawford-241-1_Syd-456_Rome_135-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5mm_3,46g-s.jpg
135 B.C., L.Trebanius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 241-1a, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right, #1101 views135 B.C., L.Trebanius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 241-1a, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind, the mark of value X.
reverse: Jupiter in quadriga right, holding scepter and reins in the left hand and hurling thunderbolt with the right hand, below horses, L•TREBANI (AN ligate) In exergue, ROMA.
exergue: L•TREBANI//ROMA, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,46g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 135 B.C., ref: Crawford 241-1a, Sydenham 456, Trebania 1., FFC 1161,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
136_B_C_,_Cn__Lucretius_Trio,_AR-Denarius,_Crawford_237-1a,_Rome,_Dioscuri_right,_-CN_LVCR-ROMA,_Q-001_6h_18-18,5mm_3,82g-s.jpg
136 B.C., Cn. Lucretius Trio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 237/1a, Rome, Dioscuri right, -/-//CN•LVCR//ROMA, #1146 views136 B.C., Cn. Lucretius Trio, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 237/1a, Rome, Dioscuri right, -/-//CN•LVCR//ROMA, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, TRIO behind, before X. Line border within the border of dots.
reverse: Dioscuri right, in exergue -/-//CN•LVCR//ROMA. Line border within a border of dots.
exergue: CN•LVCR//ROMA, diameter:18,0 mm, weight: 3,78g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 136 B.C., ref: Crawford 237/1a, Sydenham-450, Lucretia 1.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
137_BC-_M_Baebius_Qf_Tampilus_Denarius__137_BC__TAMPIL,_head_of_Roma_left,_X_before,_Syd_489,_Cr236-1c__Q-001_3h_16,5-18,5mm_3,97g-s.jpg
137 B.C., M. Baebius Q.f. Tampilus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford-236-1, Rome, Apollo in quadriga right, #1137 views137 B.C., M. Baebius Q.f. Tampilus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford-236-1, Rome, Apollo in quadriga right, #1
avers: TAMPIL, Head of Roma left, X before.
reverse: Apollo in quadriga right holding bow and arrow, reins and branch, ROMA below, M•BAEBI•Q•F in ex.
exergue: ROMA//M•BAEBI•Q•F, diameter: 16,5-18,5 mm, weight: 3,97g, axis:3 h,
mint: Rome, date: 137 B.C., ref: Crawford 236-1c, Syd 489, Baebia 12.,
Q-001
quadrans
Rep_AR-Den_Sex_Pompeius_Helm-head-of-Roma_r_behind-jug-before-X_She-wolf-r__SEX-PO_ex-ROMA_Crawford-235-1_Syd-461a_Rome_137-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_17-19,5mm_3,73g-s.jpg
137 B.C., Sextus Pompeius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 235/1, Rome, Wolf standing right, #179 views137 B.C., Sextus Pompeius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 235/1, Rome, Wolf standing right, #1
avers: Head of Roma, X below the chin, jug behind.
reverse: SEX POMP FOSTLVS, Wolf standing right, head turned, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, shepherd to left, birds on fig tree behind, ROMA in ex.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 17-19,5mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 137 B.C., ref: Crawford 235-1, Syd-461a, Pompeia 1.,
Q-001
quadrans
Craw_343_2a-b_Quinario_M_Porcius_Cato.jpg
14-03 - M. PORCIUS CATO (89 A.C.)10 viewsAR Quinarius 14 mm 1.8 gr

Anv: Cabeza de joven Baco o Liber (Dios del Vino) de pelo largo, vistiendo corona de hojas de hiedra viendo a derecha - "M·CATO" (AT en ligadura) detrás de la cabeza. No se aprecia pero usualmente Marca de Control debajo.
Rev: Victoria alada sentada a derecha, portando palma en mano derecha y pátera en izquierda. "VICTRIX" (TR en ligadura) en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #248 Pag.119 - Craw RRC #343/2a-b - Syd CRR #597/597c -BMCRR #662/693 - RSC Vol.1 Porcia 7-7c Pag.80/81 - Kestner 2999 var.
mdelvalle
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
Rep_AR-Den_L_Iulius_XVI_L_IVLI_ROMA_Crawford-224-1_Syd-443_Rome_141-BC_Q-001_axis-11h_18-19mm_3,35g-s.jpg
143 B.C., L. Iulius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 224/1, Rome, L•IVLI/ ROMA, Dioscuri galloping right, #1276 views143 B.C., L. Iulius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 224/1, Rome, L•IVLI/ ROMA, Dioscuri galloping right, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind XVI, border of dots.
reverse: Dioscuri galloping right, L•IVLI (VL ligate) below, in ex. ROMA.
exergue: L•IVLI//ROMA, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 141 B.C., ref: Crawford 224/1, Sydenham 443, Julia 1.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Rep_AR-Den_L_Iulius_XVI_L_IVLI_ROMA_Crawford-224-1_Syd-443_Rome_141-BC_Q-002_axis-6h_18,5-19mm_3,82g-s.jpg
143 B.C., L. Iulius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 224/1, Rome, L•IVLI/ ROMA, Dioscuri galloping right, #286 views143 B.C., L. Iulius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 224/1, Rome, L•IVLI/ ROMA, Dioscuri galloping right, #2
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind XVI, border of dots.
reverse: Dioscuri galloping right, L•IVLI (VL ligate) below, in ex. ROMA.
exergue: L•IVLI//ROMA, diameter: 18,5-19mm, weight: 3,82g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 141 B.C., ref: Crawford 224/1, Sydenham 443, Julia 1.,
Q-002
quadrans
147_B_C_,_C_Terrentius_Lucanus_AR-Denarius,_Roma_right_Victory,_X,_behind,_C_TER_LVC,_Dioscuri_ROMA_in_ex,_Cr-217-1,_Syd_425_Q-001_0h_18-19mm_3,92g-s.jpg
147 B.C. C.Terrentius Lucanus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 217/1, Rome, C•TER•LVC (TE ligate), Dioscuri galloping right, #1118 views147 B.C. C.Terrentius Lucanus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 217/1, Rome, C•TER•LVC (TE ligate), Dioscuri galloping right, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind Victory with wreath and X, border of dots.
reverse: Dioscuri galloping right, C•TER•LVC (TE ligate) below, in ex. ROMA.
exergue: C•TER•LVC//ROMA, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,92g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 147 B.C., ref: Crawford 217/1, Sydenham 425, Terentia 10.,
Q-001
quadrans
Denarius N.BALBUS.jpg
15-01 - C. NAEVIUS BALBUS (79 A.C.)52 viewsAR Denarius Aserrado 18 mm 3.4 gr
Anv: Cabeza con diadema de Venus viendo a derecha - "S C".
Rev: Victoria en triga cabalgando a derecha, "CXXXX" número de control sobre los caballos. "C·NAE·BALB·" (AB y AL en ligadura) en Exergo.
Una de las dos ocasiones en que se acuña una triga (Carruaje de guerra griego tirado por tres caballos) en las monedas romanas.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #309 Pag.130 - Craw RRC #382/1b - Syd CRR #769b -BMCRR #2926-76 - RSC Vol.1 Naevia 6 Pag.68
mdelvalle
Craw_382_1b_Denario_C__Naevius_Balbus_1.jpg
15-01 - C. NAEVIUS BALBUS (79 A.C.)15 viewsAR Denarius Aserrado 18 mm 3.4 gr

Anv: Cabeza con diadema de Venus viendo a derecha - "S C".
Rev: Victoria en triga cabalgando a derecha, "CXXXX" número de control sobre los caballos. "C·NAE·BALB·" (AB y AL en ligadura) en Exergo.
Una de las dos ocasiones en que se acuña una triga (Carruaje de guerra griego tirado por tres caballos) en las monedas romanas.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #309 Pag.130 - Craw RRC #382/1b - Syd CRR #769b -BMCRR #2926-76 - RSC Vol.1 Naevia 6 Pag.68
mdelvalle
Craw_382_1b_Denario_C__Naevius_Balbus_2.jpg
15-01 - C. NAEVIUS BALBUS (79 A.C.)15 viewsAR Denarius Aserrado 19 mm 3.8 gr
Anv: Cabeza con diadema de Venus viendo a derecha - "S C".
Rev: Victoria en triga cabalgando a derecha, "L" número de control sobre los caballos. "C·NAE·BALB·" (AB y AL en ligadura) en Exergo.
Una de las dos ocasiones en que se acuña una triga (Carruaje de guerra griego tirado por tres caballos) en las monedas romanas.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #309 Pag.130 - Craw RRC #382/1b - Syd CRR #769b -BMCRR #2926-76 - RSC Vol.1 Naevia 6 Pag.68
mdelvalle
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
Denarius MENSOR.jpg
17-01 - LUCIUS FARSULEIUS MENSOR (75 A.C.)52 viewsAR Denarius 18 mm 2.6 gr ?
Anv: Busto con vestido, diadema, aro y collar de Libertas (Libertad) viendo a derecha - "S C" sobre "Pileus" (Gorro usado por los esclavos) detrás del busto.
Rev: Roma en biga avanzando a derecha, ayudando a un ciudadano con toga a subir al carruaje. Marca de control bajo los caballos. "L•FARSVLEI" en Exergo.
Esta moneda presumiblemente alude a la Lex Julia (90 A.C), que confería derechos de ciudadano a todos los italianos.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #329 Pag.134 - Craw RRC #392/1b - Syd CRR #789 -BMCRR #3293-3305 - RSC Vol.1 Farsuleia 2 Pag.47
mdelvalle
Craw_392_1b_Denario_Lucius_Farsuleius_Mensor.jpg
17-01 - LUCIUS FARSULEIUS MENSOR (75 A.C.)16 viewsAR Denarius 18 mm 2.6 gr ?

Anv: Busto con vestido, diadema, aro y collar de Libertas (Libertad) viendo a derecha - "S C" sobre "Pileus" (Gorro usado por los esclavos) detrás del busto.
Rev: Roma en biga avanzando a derecha, ayudando a un ciudadano con toga a subir al carruaje. Marca de control bajo los caballos. "L•FARSVLEI" en Exergo.
Esta moneda presumiblemente alude a la Lex Julia (90 A.C), que confería derechos de ciudadano a todos los italianos.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #329 Pag.134 - Craw RRC #392/1b - Syd CRR #789 -BMCRR #3293-3305 - RSC Vol.1 Farsuleia 2 Pag.47
mdelvalle
MOD_up_to_1899-USA-Vermont-3.jpg
1786 Vermont Copper61 viewsVariety RR7 (Rarity 3)

NGC VF-30 with CAC

Census (The last time I checked) - 63 NGC graded coins - 26 VF's (VF-30 = ?) - 22 graded higher
(From Heritage Auction Records Two VF20; eight VF25; three VF30; three VF35; ten = VF ?)

On June 15, 1785 the Vermont legislature granted Reuben Harmon, Jr. an exclusive franchise to make copper coins. They were to weigh 160 grs. which exceeded even the Tower Mint standards for halfpence. This weight was reduced to 111grs. in October of that year.

Vermont coinage initially had two basic designs with several varieties of each and one oddball issue

First design

Obv. – Shows the sun rising over the Green Mountains and a plough in the foreground with the date below. The obverse legend read VERMONT(I)S RESPUBLICA (the Republic of Vermont”). Later VERMONTIS became VERMONTENSIUM (better Latin).

Rev – Shows the All-Seeing Eye in the Blazing Sun within a constellation of 13 stars for the original 13 colonies. The reverse legend read STELLA QUARTA DECIMA or the 14th star referring to local pressure to join the union.

Second design

The mint operator petitioned the legislature to permit a change in design to approximate that similar to most other coppers then current (British halfpence and their local imitations including Connecticut). The Vermont legislature amended the act to specify the following:

Obv. – A head with the motto AUCTORITATE VERMONTENIUS, abridged

Rev. – A women with the letters, INDE: ET LIB: - for Independence and Liberty.

Third Design the “Immune Columbia” issue

Although the third design bears the date 1785, it was probably struck later. The obverse matches the requirements for the second design but the reverse shows a seated figure of Columbia (a poetical name for America) and the legend IMMUNE COLUMBIA, this reverse was not authorized by the Vermont Legislature.

Vermont coppers were produced from 1785 to 1788

I once had a very large collection of U.S. coins and this is the only coin I have that was part of my original collection.

My cost was $2,200, however, I actually did not have to pay a single cent out of pocket or provide any item in trade. But that is a long story.
Richard M10
1794_Chichester___Portsmouth_Halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester and Portsmouth, Sussex.29 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S PHILANTHROPIST•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: CHICHESTER AND PORTSMOUTH • / HALFPENNY; Arms of the town of Portsmouth; the sun and moon over a triple-towered castle, with the arms of Chichester above the gateway below the central tower, 1794 in exergue.
Edge: PAYABLE AT SHARPS PORTSMOUTH AND CHALDECOTTS CHICHESTER.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 19

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. The issuers of this token were John Chaldecott, a silversmith and cutler in Chichester and Thomas Sharp, a mercer in Portsmouth. Chaldecott was also a partner in the Chichester Old Bank and the Portsmouth, Portsea and Hampshire Bank. The two men were probably relations or close friends and they issued joint tokens in both Portsmouth and Chichester in the 18th century.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard who was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
1795_John_Howard_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Portsmouth, Hampshire.73 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F.R.S. PHILANTHROPIST •. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦”
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 57b

The dies for this token were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
The Fitzwilliam Museum regards Liverpool as an alternative possibility for the place of issue.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

John Howard was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
Republican_Centennial_Medal_1954.JPG
1954 Official Republican Centennial Medal27 viewsObv: REPUBLICAN CENTENNIAL 1854 - 1954, Conjoined busts of Abraham Lincoln and Dwight Eisenhower facing right.

Rev: Two lighted torches, quotes between: "WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE, WITH CHARITY FOR ALL, WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT, AS GOD GIVES US TO SEE THE RIGHT, LET US STRIVE ON TO FINISH THE WORK WE ARE IN" -Abraham Lincoln. "IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH PEOPLE, BE LIBERAL, BE HUMAN. IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH THE PEOPLE'S MONEY OR THEIR ECONOMY, OR THEIR FORM OF GOVERNMENT, BE CONSERVATIVE." Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Engraver: Gilroy Roberts

Mint: Medallic Art Company, Date: 1954, Bronze, Diameter: 63.6 mm

Note: Gilroy Roberts was already the chief engraver of the United States Mint when he designed this medal. He would go on to design the portrait on the John F. Kennedy half dollar.
Matt Inglima
A_new_coin__Blackadjust_.jpg
196/1 AE As30 viewsAnonymous [Star]. Æ As. Rome Mint. c 169-158 BC. (32 mm, 17.95 g, 4 h) Rev: Laureate head of Janus; above, I. Obv: Prow of galley right; above, star; before, I; below, ROMA.
BMCRR 461; Syd 264; Crawford 196/1

Reddish-brown patina with some black spots. Nearly very fine.
A duplicate from the RBW Collection of Roman Republican Coins. Purchased privately from Frank Kovacs in 1988

Ex: Triskles
Paddy
199-170_B_C_,_Anonymus_AR-Den_Unc__Helm-Roma-Head-l__Dioscuri-galloping-r_-D-below_ROMA_Cr-171-1_Syd-285_Rome_199-170-BC_R6-Q-001_8-9h_17,5-18,5mm_3,18g-s.jpg
199-170 B.C., Anonymus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 171/1, Rome, Uncertain mint, #1 R6!!! 134 views199-170 B.C., Anonymus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 171/1, Rome, Uncertain mint, #1 R6!!!
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind, border of dots.
reverse: Dioscuri galloping right, "D" below horses, ROMA in the linear frame below.
exergue: D//ROMA, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 8-9h,
mint: Rome, Uncertain mint, date: 199-170 B.C., ref: Crawford 171/1, Sydenham 285, very Rare (R6),
Q-001
quadrans
SeptSevDenFund.jpg
1bs Septimius Severus87 views193-211

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
Blindado
Sicinia_5_Den.jpg
2) The Pompeians: Quintus Sicinius17 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Quintus Sicinius for Pompey
AR Denarius, 49 B.C. (3.6g)

Diademed head of Fortuna Populi Romani, goddess of Fortune of the Roman people. FORT before, P.R. behind / Crossed palm branch and winged caduceus (staff carried by ambassadors in wartime), wreath above. Q. SICINIVS, III VIR

The symbols of good fortune and victory on the reverse, together with Fortuna populi Romani on the obverse, anticipate victory by Pompey over Caesar.

CR 440, Sear Imperators #1, Sicinia 5
RM0043
Sosius
20francs Or Napoleon B An 12.jpg
20 Francs From France, NAPOLEON58 viewsAU, 21mm. , Paris, France, 1803/1804
Obv:BONAPARTE PREMIER CONSUL
REV: REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, 20 Francs, AN 12
AN 12 means the 12th year from republican calendar= from september 24th 1803 to september 22 nd 1804
Jean Paul D
Denarius CAETRONIANUS.jpg
20-01 - C. VIBIUS C.F. C.N. PANSA CAETRONIANUS (48 A.C.)57 viewsAR Denarius 17 mm 3.4 gr
Anv: Máscara de Pan barbado viendo a derecha - "PANSA" debajo.
Rev: Júpiter "Axurus" sentado en su trono a izquierda, con la cabeza radiada, portando pátera en su mano derecha y cetro en la izquierda - "C·VIBIUS C· F· C· N" delante, "IOVIS AXVR" detrás.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #420 Pag.153 - Craw RRC #449/1a - Syd CRR #947 -BMCRR #3978 - Sear CRI #20 - RSC Vol.1 Vibia 18 Pag.98
1 commentsmdelvalle
200-2_Pinaria.jpg
200/2. Pinaria - as (155 BC)12 viewsAE As (Rome, 155 BC)
O/ Laureate head of Janus; I above.
R/ Prow right; NAT above; I before; ROMA below.
26.59g; 33mm
Crawford 200/2 (13 specimens in Paris)

* Pinarius Natta:

This moneyer came from the old patrician gens Pinaria (Cicero, De Divinatione, ii. 21). Despite its ancestry, this gens produced very few noteworthy members, although some of them are recorded until the empire.

The cognomen Natta is old; the first known Pinarius to bear it was Lucius Pinarius Natta, Magister Equitum in 363, and Praetor in 349 BC. Then, nobody else of that name is recorded until our moneyer, and his probable brother (RRC 208, 150 BC), who are both completely unknown apart from their coins. Finally, the last Natta of the Republic was a Pontifex in 56, brother-in-law to Clodius Pulcher, the famous Tribune (Cicero, Pro Domo, 118). It seems that the Nattae had lost their political influence early, but retained some religious duties until the end of the Republic, as Cicero says that they learnt "their sacred ceremonies from Hercules himself" (Pro Domo, 134).

The Pinarii indeed claimed to descend from a mythical Pinarius, who had welcomed Hercules with a banquet when he came to Latium (Livy, i. 7). This myth was so deeply stuck in the Roman mythology that it was still used by Caracalla on an unique aureus (leu 93, lot 68).
Joss
Rep_AR-Den_Anonymus_ROMA_Crawford-112-2a_Syd-240_Rome_211-BC_Q-001_axis-0h_18,5-19,5mm_3,88g-s.jpg
206-195 B.C., Anonymus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 112/2a, Rome, Scarce! #188 views206-195 B.C., Anonymus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 112/2a, Rome, Scarce! #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind X, before staff, border of dots.
reverse: Dioscuri galloping right, in exergue ROMA.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,88g,
mint: Rome, date: 206-195 B.C., ref: Crawford 112/1, Syd 240, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
210-1_Junia2.jpg
210/1. Junia - denarius (149 BC)10 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 149 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind.
R/ The Dioscuri right; C IVNI C F below; ROMA in exergue.
3.80g; 19mm
Crawford 210/1 (56 obverse dies/70 reverse dies)
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 39, lot 402.

* Gaius Junius C.f.:

Gaius Junius belonged to the very famous gens Junia, which was originally patrician, but turned plebeian in the first century of the Republic. He and his homonymous father are not known, partly due to the lack of a cognomen. They certainly did not belong to the two main stirpes of the Junii -- the Brutii and the Silanii -- as none of them used the praenomen Gaius before the end of the 1st century BC. Other minor families of the gens however counted some members named Gaius, such as the Bubulci, or the Pulli.

Joss
Rep_AR-Den_Anonymus_ROMA_Crawford-53-2_Syd-229_Rome_211-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_18mm_3,86g-s.jpg
211 B.C., Anonymus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 53/2, Rome, Scarce! #199 views211 B.C., Anonymus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 53/2, Rome, Scarce! #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind X, border of dots.
reverse: Dioscuri galloping right stars over the heads, in exergue ROMA.
exergue: -/-//Roma, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,86g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 211 B.C., ref: Crawford-53/2, Sydenham-229, RSC-2, Scarce!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
211-208_B_C_,_Anonymus_AR-Denarius,Roma_right_ROMA_Dioscuri_Cr-167-1,_Syd_311_Q-001_7h_17,-18,5mm_3,53g-s.jpg
211-208 B.C., Anonymus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 167/1, Rome, #1168 views211-208 B.C., Anonymus Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 167/1, Rome, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind X, before staff, border of dots.
reverse: Dioscuri galloping right, in exergue in linear frame ROMA, line border.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 3,53g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 211-208 B.C., ref: Crawford 167/1, Syd 311, Anonymous,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
211-208_BC,_Rep_,_AR-Sest,_Anonymus,_Helm__head_of_Rome_r__SII_behind,_Dioscouri_r_,_below_ROMA,_Crawford-42-7,_Syd-142,_Rome,_Q-001,_8h,_10,5-11,5mm,_0,97g-s.jpg
211-208 B.C., Anonymus Republic AR-Sestertius, Crawford 042/7, Rome, Dioscuri galloping right, #194 views211-208 B.C., Anonymus Republic AR-Sestertius, Crawford 042/7, Rome, Dioscuri galloping right, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind SII, border of dots.
reverse: Dioscuri galloping right, in exergue in linear frame ROMA, line border.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 10,5-11,5mm, weight: 0,97g, axis: 8h,
mint: Rome, date: 211-208 B.C.,
ref: Crawford 042/7, Syd 142, BMCRR Rome 13, Sear 46, Anonymous,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
coins36.JPG
217-215 BC Roman Republic AE Semi uncia 19 viewsThe semuncia (Latin half-ounce) was an ancient Roman bronze coin valued at one-twenty-fourth of an as produced during the Roman Republic. It was made during the beginning of Roman cast bronze coinage as the lowest valued denomination. The most common obverse types were a bust of Mercury or an acorn (occasionally marked with Σ), and the most common reverse types were a prow or a caduceus. It was issued until ca. 210 BC, at about the time the same time as the denarius was introduced.

Cr. 38/7
217-215 BC
Obverse: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus
Reverse: ROMA above prow right

From Ebay(UK seller - George Clegg)

Check
ecoli
Republic,_C__Terentius_Lucanus.jpg
217/1 C. Terentius Lucanus AR. Denarius.31 viewsTerentius Lucanus AR Denarius. 147 BC. Obverse: Head of Roma right, small Victory behind. Reverse: The Dioscuri right, C. TER LVC below horses, ROMA in exergue. 3.9 g., 20 mm, RSC Terentia 10, Craw 217/1.Lucas H
Denarius P.CATO.jpg
22-01 - M. PORCIUS CATO (47/46 A.C.)60 views Mejor conocido como M. CATO UTECENSIS Propraetor y fiel adherente del partido de POMPEYO "El Grande" .

AR Denarius 18 mm 3.0 gr
Anv: Busto vestido de mujer (Roma o Libertas) viendo a derecha - "ROMA" (MA en ligadura) detrás y "M·CATO PRO·PR" delante del busto.
Rev: Victoria sentada a derecha portando Palma sobre hombro derecho y corona de laureles en mano izquierda. "VICTRIX" en Exergo.

Ceca: Utica - Tunez
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1381 Pag.263 - Craw RRC #462/1b - Syd CRR #1053a - BMCRR (Africa)#18 - RSC Vol.1 Porcia 10a Pag.81
mdelvalle
Craw_462_1b_Denario_M__Porcius_Cato.jpg
22-01 - M. PORCIUS CATO (47/46 A.C.)22 views Mejor conocido como M. CATO UTECENSIS Propraetor y fiel adherente del partido de POMPEYO "El Grande" .
AR Denarius 18 mm 3.0 gr

Anv: Busto vestido de mujer (Roma o Libertas) viendo a derecha - "ROMA" (MA en ligadura) detrás y "M·CATO PRO·PR" delante del busto.
Rev: Victoria sentada a derecha portando Palma sobre hombro derecho y corona de laureles en mano izquierda. "VICTRIX" en Exergo.

Ceca: Utica - Tunez

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1381 Pag.263 - Craw RRC #462/1b - Syd CRR #1053a - BMCRR (Africa)#18 - RSC Vol.1 Porcia 10a Pag.81
mdelvalle
Craw_449_1a_Denario_Vibius_Pansa_Caetronianus.jpg
23-01 - C. VIBIUS C.F. C.N. PANSA CAETRONIANUS (48 A.C.)20 viewsAR Denarius 17 mm 3.4 gr

Anv: Máscara de Pan barbado viendo a derecha - "PANSA" debajo.
Rev: Júpiter "Axurus" sentado en su trono a izquierda, con la cabeza radiada, portando pátera en su mano derecha y cetro en la izquierda - "C·VIBIUS C· F· C· N" delante, "IOVIS AXVR" detrás.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #420 Pag.153 - Craw RRC #449/1a - Syd CRR #947 -BMCRR #3978 - Sear CRI #20 - RSC Vol.1 Vibia 18 Pag.98
mdelvalle
Republic,_Marcius_Mn__F_.jpg
241/1 M. Marcius Mn. f. AR Denarius31 viewsM. Marcius Mn. f. AR Denarius. 134 B.C. Obverse: Head of Roma right, modius behind. Reverse: Victory in biga right, M MAR C/ RO MA below divided by two ears of corn. 3.6 g, 18 mm, Craw 241/1, RSC Marcia 8.1 commentsLucas H
1168Hadrian_RIC28.jpg
28 Anonymous issues. Time of Hadrian to Antoninus Pius. Rome Quadrans 117-161 AD15 viewsReference.
RIC 28; C. 38

Obv.
Griffin seated left

Rev. S-C
Tripod.

2.43 gr
15 mm
6h

Note.
The series of Imperial-era anonymous quadrantes portrays eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules, as well as the Four Seasons. They invariably depict either a portrait on the obverse and an attribute of the deity on the reverse, or otherwise an attribute on either side. These designs appear to be influenced, but not directly copied from, earlier designs of the Republican period.
okidoki
rjb_repub_04_06.jpg
29127 viewsMn Aemilio Lep c.114/3 BC
AR denarius
Obv "ROMA"
Female bust (Roma?) right
Rev "MN AEMILIO LEP"
Equestrian statue on three arches (aqueduct?, the Aqua Marcia)
Rome mint
Crawford 291
mauseus
Junia_30_denarius.jpg
3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus19 viewsMARCUS JUNIUS BRUTUS
Moneyer
AR Denarius. (3.5g), 54 BC.

BRVTVS, bare head of L Junius Brutus right / AHALA, bare head of C Servilius Ahala right.

Syd 907, Cr433/2, Junia30; aF

Marcus Junius Brutus (early June, 85 BC – 23 October, 42 BC), often referred to as Brutus, was a politician of the late Roman Republic. He is best known in modern times for taking a leading role in the assassination of Julius Caesar ten years after this coin was minted.
RM0032
Sosius
image~5.jpg
3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus52 viewsGold stater, BMCRR II p. 474, 48; RPC I 1701A (Thracian Kings); BMC Thrace p. 208, 1 (same); SNG Cop 123 (Scythian Dynasts), military mint, weight 8.39g, 44 - 42 B.C.; obverse Roman consul L. Junius Brutus (traditional founder of the Republic) in center, accompanied by two lictors, KOΣΩN in ex, BR (Brutus) monogram left; reverse eagle standing left on scepter, wings open, raising wreath in right talon; ex CNG Store

From the Elwood Rafn Collection.

2 commentsSosius
roman_republic,_L__Appuleius_Saturninus.jpg
317/3b L. Appuleius Saturninus. 30 viewsRoman Republic. L. Appuleius Saturninus. 104 B.C. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. SRCV I 193, Crawford 317/3b. 18.4mm, 3.32 g. Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma left. Reverse: Saturn in a quadriga right, K below, L SATVRN in exergue. Ex Forvm.Lucas H
Republic,_defending_comrad.jpg
319/1 Marcus Minucius Thermus M F55 viewsMarcus Minucius Thermus M. F. AR Denarius. Rome mint. 103 B.C. 3.9 g, 19.5 mm. Obv: Helmeted head of Mars left, banker's mark under chin. Rev: Q THERM M F below, Roman soldier protecting fallen comrade from attacking barbarian soldier, both swords raised. Crawford 319/1. RCV 197. RSC Minucia 19. Lucas H
323-1_-_Ivlia.jpg
323/1. Julia - denarius (101 BC)8 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 101 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; corn-ear behind.
R/ Victory in biga right, holding reins in both hands; L IVLI below.
3.84g; 19mm
Crawford 323/1 (47 obverse dies/59 reverse dies)

* Lucius Julius:

Although our moneyer belonged to the very famous gens Julia, his life is completely unknown. The Julii had been among the important patrician gentes of the early Republic, but fell in obscurity in the fourth century. In the second century, a new branch emerged, the Julii Caesares, but Crawford notes that our moneyer cannot be a Caesar because he did not use this cognomen and his coins lack a reference to Venus (cf. RRC 258 and 320).

The corn ear on the obverse refers to grain distributions, which often featured on Republican coins (RRC 242, 243, 245, 260, 261, 306, 330).
Joss
Republic,_quinarius,_victory.jpg
333/1 C. Egnatuleius quinarius32 viewsC. Egnatuleius AR quinarius. Rome mint. 97 B.C. (1.6 g., 16 m). Obv: C EGNATVLEI C F Q, laureate head of Apollo right. Rev: Q in field, Victory left, inscribing shield on trophy. Crawford 333/1. RCV 213. Lucas H
CsIIVIIIThes213.jpg
337-361 AD - Constantius II - RIC VIII Thessalonica 213 - SPES REIPVBLICE27 viewsEmperor: Constantius II (r. 337-361 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG
Our Lord Constantius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding spear and globe.
Exergue: SMTSΓ (Thessalonica mint, third officina)

RIC VIII Thessalonica 213
1.80g; 16.3mm; 135°
Pep
Republic,_D__Silanus.jpg
337/3 D. Silanus AR. Denarius.25 viewsD. Silanus L. f. AR Denarius. 91 B.C. Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma right, control mark behind. Reverse: Victory in biga right, D. SILVANVS L F/ ROMA in exergue. 3.7g, 17 mm, Syd. 646, Cr337/3, RSC Junia 15.Lucas H
L__Titurius_L_F__Sabinus,_Tituria_4.jpg
344/2b L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus 24 viewsL. Titurius L.f. Sabinus 89 B.C. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 89 B.C. (3.9 g, 17.48 mm, 9h). Obv: Head of Tatius right, SABIN behind, palm branch below chin. Rev: Tarpeia buried to her waist in shields, fending off two soldiers about to throw shields on her, LTITV[RI] in ex. Tituria 4, Craw. 344/2b, Syd 699.

Tarpeia, daughter of the commander of the citadel, betrayed her fellow Romans to the Sabines when they came to attack Rome. Tarpeia offered to admit the Sabines into the city in return for what they wore on their arms. She had in mind the gold torques the Sabines usually wore. The Sabines agreed, but disgusted by her greed, the gave her the shields they worn on their arms and put her to death by crushing her under their shields. She was then thrown from a high cliff above the city. The Tarpeian Rock, from which traitors were thrown in Rome, is named after her.

This type was later used by Augustus, possibly to demonstrate his ties to the times of the Republic (RIC I 299).
1 commentsLucas H
JulIIVIIIConst150.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Constantinople 150 - SPES REIPVBLICE23 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Our Lord Claudius Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bare-headed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
Exergue: CONSS (Constantinople mint, sixth officina)

RIC VIII Constantinople 150
2.22g; 15.9mm; 180°
Pep
JulIIVIIISirm81.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Sirmium 081 - SPES REIPVBLICE32 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fair/Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN IVLIA-NVS NOB C
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bareheaded, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
Exergue: (A?)SIRM (Sirmium mint, first? officina)

RIC VIII Sirmium 81
1.80g; 17.1mm; 195°
Pep
JulIIVIIISirm81or83.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Sirmium 081 or 083? - SPES REIPVBLICE44 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: D N IVLIA-NVS NOB C
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bareheaded, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear, a captive at his feet.
Exergue: unknown (SIRM?)

RIC VIII Sirmium 81 or 83?
1.99g; 16.5mm; 345°
Pep
ValIIXSis15(a)xi_2.jpg
364-375 AD - Valentinian I - RIC IX Siscia 15(a)xi - SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE37 viewsEmperor: Valentinian I (r. 364-375 AD)
Date: 367-375 AD
Condition: Fine/aFine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG
Our Lord Valentinian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE
The Republic is secure.
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
"D" in left field
Exergue: *?SISC (Siscia mint, unknown officina)

RIC IX Siscia 15(a)xi; VM46
1.95g; 18.6mm; 210°
Pep
ValensIXThes27(b)xii.jpg
364-378 AD - Valens - RIC IX Thessalonica 27(b)[xii] - SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE31 viewsEmperor: Valens (r. 364-378 AD)
Date: 367-375 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN VALEN-S PF AVG
Our Lord Valens Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE
The Republic is safe.
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
"●/Γ" in left field
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint, third officina)

RIC IX Thessalonica 27(b)[xii]; VM 49
3.14g; 19.4mm; 330°
Pep
ValIIIXAquil58(a).jpg
375-392 AD - Valentinian II - RIC IX Aquileia 58(a) - SALVS REIPVBLICAE38 viewsEmperor: Valentinian II (r. 375-392 AD)
Date: 388-392 AD
Condition: VF
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG
Our Lord Valentinian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
The Republic is safe.
Victory advancing left, holding trophy on shoulder with right hand, dragging captive with left hand.
in left field.
Exergue: AQ(P or S) (Aquileia mint, first or second officina)

RIC IX Aquileia 58(a); VM 47
1.25g; 14.1mm; 210°
Pep
ValIIIXThes62(a).jpg
375-392 AD - Valentinian II - RIC IX Thessalonica 62(a) - GLORIA REIPVBLICE36 viewsEmperor: Valentinian II (r. 375-392 AD)
Date: 384-387 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG
Our Lord Valentinian Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: GLORIA REI-PVBLICE
Glory of the Republic.
Camp Gate.
"B" in left field
Exergue: TES (Thessalonica mint, second officina)

RIC IX Thessalonica 62(a) - new officina
2.02g; 13.1mm; 150°
Pep
379-1_Procilia.jpg
379/1. Procilia - denarius (80 BC)8 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 80 BC)
O/ Laureate head of Jupiter right; S C downwards behind.
R/ Juno Sospita standing right, holding shield and hurling spear; snake before; L PROCILI/F downwards behind.
3.57g
Crawford 379/1 (104 obverse dies/116 reverse dies)

* Lucius Procilius:

The life of Procilius is sparsely known. Besides, he is the only recorded member of the gens Procilia for the Republic and the lack of a cognomen further indicates a humble origin. Dictionaries often record two different Procilius (a historian and a politician), but they were possibly the same person. Since there are 35 years between this denarius and the dated events of Procilius' life, the moneyer could have been the father of the politician and historian.

Regarding Procilius the historian, none of his writings has survived, even as fragments, but he is quoted by Varro about the origin of the Lacus Curtius on the Forum (Latin Language, v. 148), Pliny the Elder on a text related to Pompey (Natural History, viii. 2), and Cicero alludes that he wrote on Greek constitutions (Atticus, ii. 2). The scope of his works must have therefore been quite extensive. In the aforementioned letter, Cicero shows his dislike for Procilius, which is perhaps related to Procilius' political role.

Indeed, in other letters, Cicero mentions that Procilius was also a Tribune of the Plebs in 56, and that he was allied to Gaius Porcius Cato (Cato the Younger's cousin) and Marcus Nonius Sufenas, also Tribunes that year. They supported Publius Clodius Pulcher, Tribune in 59 and Aedile in 56, who -- as Tribune -- had banned Cicero from Rome for his repression of the Catiline Conspiracy, hence the animosity of Cicero towards Procilius. In 56, Pulcher and the three tribunes, including Procilius, prevented the elections from taking place, in order to force an interregnum, so that Crassus and Pompey could be chosen consuls for 55 (Cassius Dio, Roman History, xxxix. 27-33).

They used violence and bribery to prevent this election and were therefore sued. Cato and Sufenas were acquitted, but Procilius was found guilty on 4 July 54 (Cicero, Atticus, iv. 15). Apparently, he was not condemned for the complete illegality of his deeds, but because he had killed a man in his house; and Cicero complains that 22 judges on 49 still wanted to absolve him. In the following letter to Atticus (ii. 16), Cicero adds that there are rumors about Sufenas and his judges, possibly about corruption, but does not give more details.

The use of Juno Sospita refers to the town of Lanuvium, where she was worshiped, probably the hometown of Procilius.

Joss
ArcIXConst86c.jpg
383-408 AD - Arcadius - RIC IX Constantinople 86(c) - SALVS REIPVBLICAE25 viewsEmperor: Arcadius (r. 383-408 AD)
Date: 388-392 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Arcadius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
The Republic is safe.
Victory advancing left, with right hand carrying trophy over shoulder and dragging captive with left. in left field.
Exergue: CONS? (Constantinople mint, unknown officina)

RIC IX Constantinople 86(c); VM 39
0.91g; 13.1mm; 0°
Pep
ArcIXConst86(c)3.jpg
383-408 AD - Arcadius - RIC IX Constantinople 86(c)3 - SALVS REIPVBLICAE34 viewsEmperor: Arcadius (r. 383-408 AD)
Date: 388-392 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Arcadius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
The Republic is safe.
Victory advancing left, with right hand carrying trophy over shoulder and dragging captive with left. in left field.
Exergue: CONS (Constantinople mint, third officina)

RIC IX Constantinople 86(c)3; VM 39
0.96g; 13.3mm; 210°
Pep
HonVM48.jpg
393-423 AD - Honorius - Van Meter 48 - SALVS REIPVBLICAE32 viewsEmperor: Honorius (r. 393-423 AD)
Date: 393-423 AD
Condition: Fine/Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Our Lord Honorius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE
The Republic is safe.
Victory advancing left, carrying trophy and dragging captive.
Exergue: unknown

VM 48
1.57g; 13.3mm; 330°
Pep
normal_Antony_and_Octavian_001.jpg
4) Antony and Octavian Denarius37 viewsMark Antony and Octavian
AR Denarius, 2.97g
Ephesus, spring/summer, 41 BC

M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R P C M BARBAT Q P (MP and AV in monogram), Bare hd of Mark Antony right / CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR R P C, Bare head of Octavian right

Sear 1504

This series of coins commemorates the establishment of the second Triumvirate of November 43 B.C. between Antony, Octavian and Lepidus. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic. Within a few years Antony would depart Italy for the Eastern provinces.

The moneyer for this coin is M. Barbatius Pollio who was also a Questor in 41 BC. Barbatius bears the title of "Quaestor pro praetore" abbreviated to QP a distinction shared by his colleague L. Gelllius.

Photo and text credit goes to FORVM member Jay GT4, from whom I purchased the coin in 2011. Thanks, Jay!
RM0034
1 commentsSosius
Antony_Fouree_Mule.jpg
4) Antony fouree mule31 viewsMark Antony
Fouree Denarius
Mule, combining Republican Reverse with Antony Bust

Bust of Antony, ~41BC / Reverse from Marius-Capito, ~81BC

Update May 2013: Now in JayGT4's collection
RM0013
1 commentsSosius
40Reis.jpg
40 Réis11 viewsBrazil Republic

1897 AD

Obverse: REPÚBLICA DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRAZIL

Reverse: A ECONOMIA FAZ A PROSPERIDADE
Pericles J2
Rex_Aretas,_Denarius.jpg
422/1b M. Aemilius Scaurus & P. Plautius Hypsaeus155 viewsRepublic. AR Denarius. 58 B.C. 3.93 g. Obv: M SCAVR AED CVR above, EX S C in fields, REX ARETAS below, King Aretas kneels right with palm branch in left hand, alongside camel. Rev: P HVPSAEVS AED CVR above, CAPTVM on right, C HVPSAE COS PREIVE in exergue, Jupiter drives quadriga left and hurls thunderbolt. Crawford 422/1b. Hendin 1441. Ex Amphora-catalog 98, item 96.

My absolute favorite coin thus far! Commemorating Scaurus' victory over Nabataea.
9 commentsLucas H
republic_denarius,_bacchus,_h_1443.jpg
431/1 A. Plautius 50 viewsA. Plautius. Republic: AR Denarius. Hendin 1443. BACCHIVS, IVDAEVS, kneeling figure facing right with palm branch in left hand, camel behind. A PLAVTIVS AED CVR S C, turreted head facing right.

Very worn, but I enjoy the historic significance of this coin. I understand this may be the first coin depicting Roman involvement in Judaea.
1 commentsLucas H
A__Plautius.jpg
431/1 A. Plautius 49 viewsA.Plautius. Republic: AR Denarius.. 55 B.C. (3.71g, 18.8mm, 5 h). Obv: . Turreted head of Cybele right, A PLAVTIVS before, AED CVR S C behind. Rev: BACCHIVS, IVDAEVS, kneeling figure facing right with palm branch in left hand, camel behind. Crawford 431/1. Hendin 1443, Plautia 13

This coin is historic in that it probably references Rome’s first involvement in Judaea, and the supplicant on the reverse may very well be Aristobulus.
4 commentsLucas H
Marcus_Junius_Brutus_Craw__433_1.jpg
433/1 Marcus Junius Brutus 31 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, 54 B.C. (4.01g, 19.1m, 4h). Obv: LIBERTAS, head of Libertas r., hair in bun. Rev: BRVTVS in ex., consul Lucius Junius Brutus walking l., between two lictors, preceded by an accensus. Craw. 433/1, RCV 397.

Brutus, perhaps Caesar’s most famous assassin, shows his political leanings on this coin 10 years before the assassination. Lucius Junius Brutus, the first consul and founder of the Republic reportedly expelled the last Tarquin king from Rome in 509 B.C. This is referred to as “The coin that should have warned Caesar.”
1 commentsLucas H
44-6-CNG-2_22gm-dot.jpg
44/6 Quinarius - Dot Variety30 viewsDenomination: Quinarius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with 3-bar splayed visor, V mark of value behind. Dot under neck.
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. with streaming cape. Horse’s tail hangs down. ROMA in relief.
Weight: 2.22 gms
Reference: Crawford 44/6
Provenance: CNG, eSale 279 lot 209
Comments: Early Quinarius. Group 2, with splayed visor and horse tail hanging downward. Three bar visor. This is the “dot” variety, with dot below the truncation. See P. Debernardi, “The Orzivecchi Hoard and the Beginnings of the Denarius.” NC, 2014 pp. 75-89.
1 commentsSteve B5
44-6-Gr1-3bar-2_13gmSmall.jpg
44/6 Quinarius group 1 22 viewsDenomination: Quinarius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with 3-bar splayed visor, V mark of value behind
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. with streaming cape. Horse’s tail extended. ROMA in relief.
Weight: 2.13 gms
Reference: Crawford 44/6
Provenance: Gert Boersema, April 17, 2012
Comments: Early Quinarius. Group 1, with splayed visor and horse tail extended. Three bar visor
1 commentsSteve B5
44-6-A2-MnM-May-2014.jpg
44/6 Quinarius group 2 35 viewsDenomination: Quinarius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with 3-bar splayed visor, V mark of value behind
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. with streaming cape. Horse’s tail hangs down. ROMA in relief.
Weight: 2.21 gms
Reference: Crawford 44/6
Provenance: M&M Gmbh, Auction 40, Lot 485
Comments: Early Quinarius. Group 2, with splayed visor and horse tail hanging downward. Three bar visor
2 commentsSteve B5
44-7-A1-Ba-2.jpg
44/7 Sestertius17 viewsDenomination: Sestertius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with 2-bar splayed visor, IIS mark of value behind.
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. with flag style cape. Horse’s tail hangs down. ROMA in relief.
Weight: 1.09 gms
Reference: Crawford 44/7
Provenance: Roma Numismatics, November 2, 2016, lot 2038
Comments: Early Sestertius. Group 1, with splayed visor and horse tail extended. Broad head
Steve B5
44-7-A1.jpg
44/7 Sestertius10 viewsDenomination: Sestertius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with 2-bar splayed visor, IIS mark of value behind.
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. with streaming cape. ROMA in relief.
Weight: 1.07 gms
Reference: Crawford 44/7
Provenance: Titano auction 44, Lot 55, June 18, 2013
Comments: Group 1 sestertius with streaming cape.
Steve B5
44-7-G2-CNG-05-12.jpg
44/7 Sestertius - Group 211 viewsDenomination: Sestertius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with 2-bar splayed visor, IIS mark of value behind.
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. with streaming cape. ROMA in relief.
Weight: 1.02 gms
Reference: Crawford 44/7
Provenance: CNG eSale 79, lot 211, May 16, 2012
Comments: A little sestertius gem that has much more of a metallic surface character than apparent in the photo, is a slightly anomalous variation. The obverse is clearly group 2, with bound hair, but the reverse is a rare variation with tail slightly extended.
Steve B5
44-7-A1-Aa.jpg
44/7 Sestertius group 111 viewsDenomination: Sestertius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with 2-bar splayed visor, IIS mark of value behind.
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. with flag style cape. Horse’s tail hangs down. ROMA in relief.
Weight: .95 gms
Reference: Crawford 44/7
Provenance: Artemide Asta XL, June 3 2014, lot 2038
Comments: Early Sestertius. Group 1, with splayed visor and horse tail extended. Narrow head.
Steve B5
44-7-04-2011-Varesi-58.jpg
44/7 Sestertius group 310 viewsDenomination: Sestertius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with 2-bar splayed visor, unbound hair, IIS mark of value behind.
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. with streaming cape. ROMA in relief.
Weight: 1.14 gms
Reference: Crawford 44/7
Provenance: Varesi Asta 59, April 28, 2011
Comments: Group 3 sestertius with unbound hair, streaming cape, and extended horse tail
Steve B5
roman_republic,_Mn__Cordius_Rufus.jpg
463/1b Mn. Cordius Rufus35 viewsMn. Cordius Rufus. 46 B.C. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. SRCV I 440, Sydenham 976c. 19.2mm, 3.85 g., Obverse: RVFVS III-VIR, Conjoined heads of the Dioscuri r., wearing pilei surmounted by stars. Reverse: MN-CORDIVS (MN in monogram) on right, Venus Verticordia standing left, scales in right, transverse scepter in left, cupid on her left shoulder. Ex Forvm.1 commentsLucas H
Scipio.jpg
47-46 BC Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio68 viewsQ METEL SCIPIO IMP
head of Africa right, laur. and clad in elephant's skin, corn-ear before, plough below

EPPIVS LEG F C

Naked Hercules standing facing right, hand on hip resting on club set on rock

North Africa
47-46 BC

Sear 1380/1

Born Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica. He was adopted by his uncle by marriage and father's second cousin Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius. He married Aemilia Lepida, daughter of Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus Livianus (son of the Censor Marcus Livius Drusus and wife Cornelia Scipio and adopted by Mamercus Aemilius Lepidus) and wife Claudia (sister of Appius Claudius Pulcher (Senior)), and was the father in law of Pompey the Great, married to his daughter Cornelia Metella, called Quinta Pompeia for being his fifth wife.

He was Tribune in 59 BC and became Consul with Pompey the Great in 52 BC. During Caesar's civil war, he served the party of Pompey and fought against Caesar and Marcus Antonius. In 49 BC he was sent as Proconsul to Syria and the following year he took part in the Battle of Pharsalus, where he commanded the center of the Republican battleline. After Pharsalus he fled to Africa were he commanded an army with Cato the Younger, losing in the Battle of Thapsus. After the defeat he tried to escape but was cornered by the fleet of Publius Sittius when he wrecked the ship as he tried to escape to the Iberian Peninsula, to continue to fight from there. He committed suicide by stabbing himself so he would not fall at the hands of his enemies.

SOLD to Calgary Coin June 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
53-2-C_3-C_5.jpg
53/2 Denarius Group 415 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with Peaked visor, X mark of value behind
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r., Flag cape., ROMA in raised letters in three-line rectangular frame.
Weight: 3.72 gm
Reference: Crawford 53/2
Provenance: CNG Esale 284, lot 230, 8-Aug-2012

Comments: Group 4 flag cape and small stars (later variation of group 4). This is one of the coins that spans the Group 4-Group 5 boundary. The obverse style is very close to the prototypical group 5 with a charming, almost “elfin” face, but the frame on the reverse is a close rectangle rather than a long exergual frame. This is an anonymous sibling to RRC 88/2, the spear head symbol series. Reverse slightly off-center, otherwise GEF.
Steve B5
53-2-G5.jpg
53/2 Denarius Group 512 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Roma with Peaked visor, X mark of value behind
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r., Flag cape., ROMA in raised letters in exergue.
Weight: 3.99 gm
Reference: Crawford 53/2
Provenance: Ebay, ex Ibercoin 12, Lot 3. Feb, 2013

Comments: This is a true prototype of group 5. The obverse style is has a charming face, and the reverse ROMA is in a fully exergual frame. This is an anonymous sibling to RRC 88/2, the spear head symbol series. Little actual wear but the reverse is a little off-center and there are a few minor dings. Very Fine.
Steve B5
215_P_Hadrian__Emmett_848_13.jpg
5728 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 128-29 AD Hands Clasped32 viewsReference.
Emmett 848.13; Dattari 1525; Milne 1274; RPC III, 5728

Issue L IΓ = year 13

Obv. AVT KAI TPAI AΔPIA CEB
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from back, with Paludamentum.

Rev. PATHR PATRIDOC (nobele vader)
Hands clasped, L IΓ

13.08 gr
25 mm
6h

note.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Bust of Septimius Severus wearing a paludamentum
In Republican and Imperial Rome, the paludamentum was a cloak or cape fastened at one shoulder, worn by military commanders (e.g. the legionary Legatus) and rather less often by their troops. As supreme commander of the whole Roman army, Roman emperors were often portrayed wearing it in their statues (e.g. the Prima Porta Augustus) and on their coinage. After the reign of Augustus, the paludamentum was restricted to the Emperor.[citation needed] Children would also wear it sometimes, when there was bad weather and they needed protection.
The paludamentum was generally crimson, scarlet, or purple in colour, or sometimes white. It was fastened at the shoulder with a clasp, called a fibula, whose form and size varied through time. Putting on the paludamentum was a ceremonial act on setting out for war.
2 commentsokidoki
JuliusCaesar.jpg
701a, Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, assassinated 15 March 44 B.C.196 viewsJulius Caesar

Of the great man, Joseph Sermarini states,"Gaius Julius Caesar is one of the most famous men in history. At the end of his brilliant military and political career he had gained control of the Roman state. His puppet senate heaped more and more honors upon him. In February 44 B.C. the senate named him dictator for life. Many senators, however, feared that he wished to become king, ending the Republic. On the 15th of March 44 B.C., 63 senators attacked him with knives they had hidden in the folds of their togas. This most famous of assassinations plunged the Roman Republic into 17 years of civil war, after which it would re-emerge as the Roman Empire."

It is not possible to adequately discuss Gaius Julius Caesar within the constraints of this gallery. He was born on either the 12th or the 13th of July in 100 B.C. [most scholars agree upon this date, but it is debated], and he was assassinated on 15 March 44 B.C.

Caesar is arguably the most important figure in Roman history; only Augustus and, perhaps, Constantine the Great made contributions of equivalent magnitude. Caesar was a truly gifted writer, orator, politician and soldier .

Library and book store shelves are crowded with a variety of biographies on this historical giant. Christian Meier, professor of Ancient History at the University of Munich, has written a scholarly as well as intriguing biography of Caesar. It is simply titled Caesar. It was first published in Germany in 1982, and a recently published paper back translation by David McLintock is now available from Fontana Press (a subsidiary of HarperCollins Publishers).

Caesar is fascinating.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
AugustusAE19Sardeis.jpg
702a, Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.40 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. AE 19mm (5.98 gm). Lydia, Sardeis. Diodoros Hermophilou. Obverse: head right. Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing facing holding scepter and eagle. RPC I, 489, 2986; SNG von Aulock 3142. aVF. Fine portrait. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2150 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
TiberiusHierapolis.jpg
703b, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Hierapolis, Phrygia111 viewsBronze AE 16, RPC I 2966 (1 specimen), F, Phrygia, Hierapolis, 3.300g, 15.6mm, 0o; Obverse: TIBEPIOC KAISAR, laureate head right; Reverse: IERAPOLEITWN ZOSIMOS [...], Apollo Archegetes (Lairbenos) standing left, playing lyre; reverse countermarked with star of six rays, in oval punch, 2.5 x 3.5 mm, Howgego 445 (3 pcs, 1 of which from this magistrate); dark patina; very rare. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

TIBERIUS (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

The reign of Tiberius Claudius Nero (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships. His reign abounds in contradictions. Despite his keen intelligence, he allowed himself to come under the influence of unscrupulous men who, as much as any actions of his own, ensured that Tiberius's posthumous reputation would be unfavorable; despite his vast military experience, he oversaw the conquest of no new region for the empire; and despite his administrative abilities he showed such reluctance in running the state as to retire entirely from Rome and live out his last years in isolation on the island of Capri. His reign represents, as it were, the adolescence of the Principate as an institution. Like any adolescence, it proved a difficult time.

. . . .

It is all but inevitable that any historical assessment of Tiberius will quickly devolve into a historiographical assessment of Tacitus. So masterful is Tacitus's portrayal of his subject, and so influential has it been ever since, that in all modern treatments of Tiberius, in attempting to get at the man, must address the issue of Tacitus's historiographical methods, his sources, and his rhetoric. The subject is too vast to address here, but some points are salient. Tacitus's methods, especially his use of innuendo and inference to convey notions that are essentially editorial glosses, makes taking his portrayal of Tiberius at face value inadvisable. Further, his belief in the immutable character of people -- that one's character is innate at birth and cannot be changed, although it can be disguised -- prevents him from investigating the possibility that Tiberius evolved and developed over his lifetime and during his reign. Instead, Tacitus's portrayal is one of peeling back layers of dissimulation to reach the "real" Tiberius lurking underneath.

Overall, Tiberius's reign can be said to show the boons and banes of rule by one man, especially a man as dark, awkward, and isolated as Tiberius. For the people of the provinces, it was a peaceful and well-ordered time. Governors behaved themselves, and there were no destructive or expensive wars. In the domestic sphere, however, the concentration of power in one person made all the greater the threat of misbehavior by ambitious satellites like Sejanus or foolish friends like Piso. Furthermore, if the emperor wished to remain aloof from the mechanics of power, he could do so. Administrators, who depended on him for their directions, could operate without his immediate supervision, but their dealings with a man like Sejanus could lead to disaster if that man fell from grace. As a result, although he was not a tyrant himself, Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the complete article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

By Garrett G. Fagan, Pennsylvania State University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.


Hierapolis in History

Usually said to be founded by Eumenes II, king of Pergamum (197-159 BC), Hierapolis may actually have been established closer to the 4th century BC by the Seleucid kings.

The name of the city may derive from Hiera, the wife of Telephus (son of Hercules and grandson of Zeus), the mythical founder of Pergamum. Or it may have been called the "sacred city" because of the temples located at the site. (The name Pamukkale is sometimes used just to refer to the white terraces, but the modern name of the whole area is also Pamukkale.)

With Colossae and Laodicea, Hierapolis became part of the tri-city area of the Lycus River valley. Hierapolis was located across the river from the other two cities and was noted for its textiles, especially wool. The city was also famous for its purple dye, made from the juice of the madder root.

The hot springs at Hierapolis (which still attract visitors today) were believed to have healing properties, and people came to the city to bathe in the rich mineral waters in order to cure various ailments.

Hierapolis was dedicated to Apollo Lairbenos, who was said to have founded the city. The Temple of Apollo that survives in ruins today dates from the 3rd century AD, but its foundations date from the Hellenistic period.

Also worshipped at Hierapolis was Pluto, god of the underworld, probably in relation to the hot gases released by the earth (see the Plutonium, below). The chief religious festival of ancient Hierapolis was the Letoia, in honor of the the goddess Leto, a Greek form of the Mother Goddess. The goddess was honoured with orgiastic rites.

Hierapolis was ceded to Rome in 133 BC along with the rest of the Pergamene kingdom, and became part of the Roman province of Asia. The city was destroyed by an earthquake in 60 AD but rebuilt, and it reached its peak in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD.

Famous natives of Hierapolis include the Stoic philosopher Epictetus (c.55-c.135 AD) and the philosopher and rhetorician Antipater. Emperor Septimus hired Antipater to tutor his sons Caracalla and Geta, who became emperors themselves.

Hierapolis had a significant Jewish population in ancient times, as evidence by numerous inscriptions on tombs and elsewhere in the city. Some of the Jews are named as members of the various craft guilds of the city. This was probably the basis for the Christian conversion of some residents of Hierapolis, recorded in Colossians 4:13.

In the 5th century, several churches as well as a large martyrium dedicated to St. Philip (see "In the Bible," below) were built in Hierapolis. The city fell into decline in the 6th century, and the site became partially submerged under water and deposits of travertine. It was finally abandoned in 1334 after an earthquake. Excavations began to uncover Hierapolis in the 19th century.

Hierapolis in the Bible

Hierapolis is mentioned only once in the Bible, when St. Paul praises Epaphras, a Christian from Colossae, in his letter to the Colossians. Paul writes that Epaphras "has worked hard for you and for those in Laodicea and in Hierapolis" (Colossians 4:12-13). Epaphras was probably the founder of the Christian community at Hierapolis.

Ancient tradition also associates Hierapolis with a biblical figure, reporting that Philip died in Hierapolis around 80 AD. However, it is not clear which Philip is menat. It could be Philip the Apostle, one of the original 12 disciples, who is said to have been martyred by upside-down crucifixion (Acts of Philip) or by being hung upside down by his ankles from a tree.

Or Philip could be Philip the Evangelist, a later disciple who helped with administrative matters and had four virgin-prophetess daughters (Acts 6:1-7; 21:8-9). Early traditions say this Philip was buried in Hierapolis along with his virgin daughters, but confusingly call him "Philip the Apostle"! In any case, it seems a prominent person mentioned in Acts did die in Hierapolis.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hierapolis-pamukkale.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.67 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
SERVILLIA.jpg
82-80 BC C. Servilius Vatia Restoration 222 viewsLaureate head of Apollo right; lituus and B behind, mark of value below chin (XVI monogram)

Battle between two mounted horsemen, the one on the left armed with a sword, the other with spear, his shield inscribed M
C SERVEIL


Restored Issue 82-80 BC.
Original being of C. Servilius 127 BC

3.48g

Crawford 370/1b; Sydenham 720; Servilia 7
Scarce

ex-Canadian Coin

This is the Wildwinds example!

David Sear's Millennial addition comments:

"This type represents a remarkable revival of the issues of the monetary triumvirate which had held office approximately 45 years earlier though with the substitution of Apollo for the Roma head on the obverse. As well as being complimentary to several of Sulla's most prominent supporters Crawford suggests that their true purpose was to enable Sulla to issue a civil coinage without appointing a new triumvirate of moneyers for 82 BC or, alternatively, to celebrate the restoration of the Republic in 80."
5 commentsJay GT4
A_PLAUTIUS.jpg
A PLAUTIUS ROMAN REPUBLIC; GENS PLANCIA AR Fouree Denarius17 viewsOBVERSE: Turreted hd of Cybele right, A PLAVTIVS before, AED CVR SC behind
REVERSE: supplicant offerng palm-branch, camel behind; IVDAEVS before, BACCHIVS below
Rome 55 BC
18mm, 3.2g
Cr431/1, Syd 932, Hendin 741, Plautia 13
Legatus
A__Licinius_Nerva.JPG
A. Licinius Nerva – Licinia-24a106 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC A Licinius Nerva AR Denarius. 47 BC. Rome. NERVA behind, FIDES before, laureate head of Fides right / A. LICINIVS below, III VIR across field, one-armed horseman galloping right, dragging captive, holding shield and sword, by the hair. Cr454/1; Sydenham 955; SRVC 430; Licinia 24a2 commentsBud Stewart
L__Postumia_Albinus.jpg
A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. - Postumia-8130 viewsA. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Denarius (3.93 gm) 81 BC. HISPAN, veiled head of Hispania / A ALBIN S N, togate figure standing left between legionary eagle and fasces, POST A F in ex. Sydenham 746, Crawford 372/2, RCV 2974 commentsBud Stewart
A_Postumius.png
A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus17 viewsRoman Republic AR serrate denarius 3.91 g, 20 mm
A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus
Rome mint, 81 BC
Draped bust of Diana right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; bucranium above / Priest and bull with lighted altar between them
Rob D
L__Postumia_Albinus~0.JPG
A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. – Postumia-763 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC A. Postumius A.f. Sp.n. Albinus. 81 BC. AR Serrate Denarius (19mm, 3.38 g, 11h). Rome mint. Draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder; bucranium above / Togate figure standing left on rock, holding aspergillum over head of ox, standing right; lighted altar between them. Crawford 372/1; Sydenham 745; SRCV 296; Postumia 7. From the Richard Weigel Collection1 commentsBud Stewart
Maiorina Graciano RIC IX Rome 43a.jpg
A140-05 - Graciano (367 - 383 D.C.)52 viewsAE2 Maiorina 21 x 19 mm 4.5 gr.
Hijo mayor y Co-Augusto de Valentiniano I

Anv: "DN GRATIA-NVS [P F AVG]" - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[REPARATIO REI PVB]" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié de frente, viendo a izquierda, ayudando a la República con corona torreada a levantarse con el brazo derecho y portando una Victoriola en su mano izquierda. "[S]MRP ó B ó Q" en exergo.

Acuñada 378 - 383 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.Ilegible)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Roma) #43a Pag.125 - Cohen Vol.VIII #30 Pag.130 - DVM #38 Pag.310 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9126.e. Pag.278
mdelvalle
Maiorina Magno Maximo Reparatio Reipvb.jpg
A144-10 - Magno Máximo (383 - 388 D.C.)53 viewsAE2 Maiorina 22 x 20 mm 3.9 gr.

Anv: "DN MAG MA[XI] - MVS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "REPARATIO REIPVB" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié de frente, viendo a izquierda, ayudando a la República con corona torreada a levantarse con el brazo derecho y portando una Victoriola en su mano izquierda. "[SVGP ó S]" en exergo. Estimo la ceca en función de la leyenda del anverso, única Lyon con esta leyenda.

Acuñada 383 - 386 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Lyon (Off.Incierta)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Lugdunum) #32 Pag.49 - Cohen Vol.VIII #3 Pag.167 - DVM #13 Pag.313 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9261.b. Pag.291 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4203
mdelvalle
REmpire-Achaea.jpg
Achaea264 viewsAchaea, province of the Roman Empire, consisted of the modern-day Peloponnese in southern Greece and is bordered on the north by the provinces of Epirus and Macedonia. The region was annexed to the Roman Republic in 146 BC following the sack of Corinth by the campaign of Roman general Lucius Mummius. L. Mummius was awarded the cognomen "Achaicus" as "conqueror of Achaea" for his actions.ancientone
15104254386401088906398.jpg
AE Aes Signatum or Aes Formatum15 viewsCentral Italy (Rome?).
Anonymous, 4th-3rd Century BCE.
AE Aes Signatum or Aes Formatum - Fragment (209g; circa 70mm).

A peice of an Aes Signatum or Aes Formatum ingot. Both sides show indecipherable remnants of design.

Provenance: Ex Dr. Neussel Collection [Peus Auction 420/421 (1 Nov 2017), Lot 18]; purchased on eBay from D.F. Grotjohann (17 Oct 2009).
Carausius
Rep_As_b.jpg
AE as60 viewsRepublican anonymous issue
211-206 B.C.
30.7 grams, 32 mm.
2 commentsTibsi
Janus~1.jpg
AE As Janus36 viewsRoman Republican. Sex. Atilius Saranus. As, ca 155.
Obv.: Laureate head of Janus, above mark of value I.
Rev.: Prow right; above SAR, before I. Below, ROMA.

B. Atilia 3. Syd 378. Cr. 199/2.
1 commentsTanit
2AA52A98-FEEB-48D9-B303-B1BA989F11A3.jpeg
AE3 of Valens/Securitas Republicae13 viewsAE3 of Valens. Obverse: Pearl-diademed, cuirassed, draped bust right. DNVALEN SPAVG. Reverse: Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch. SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE. Dot delta SIS (Siscia) in exergue. Possibly RIC IX Siscia 7b, type ii(b). From the Balkans.Celticaire
aelia-eudoxia-hh-photo.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia - Victory Seated18 viewsRoman Imperial, Aelia Eudoxia AE3, Antioch, (383-408 AD), 2.3g, 17mm

Obverse: AEL EVDO-XIA AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing necklace and earrings, crowned by hand of God.

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirasse, pointing to a shield inscribed chi-rho which rests on a low column, Mintmark ANTΓ. "Health of the Republic"

Reference: RIC X 104

Ex: Holding History +photo
Gil-galad
Aelia-Flaccilla.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla AE4, Antioch. Victory28 viewsRoman Imperial, Aelia Flaccilla AE4, Antioch, AD 383-388, 1.7g, 12mm

Obverse: AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG, Diademed and draped bust right.

Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory seated right, inscribing Chi-Rho onto shield set on column. Mintmark ANƐ. "Health of the Republic"

Reference: RIC IX Antioch 64

Ex: Aegean Numismatics +photo
Gil-galad
flaccillaNicoB.jpg
Aelia Flaccilla-Salvs Reipvblicae AE2-Not in RIC144 viewsAttribution-Aelia Flaccilla 378-388 AD. Van Meter 5

Obv.AEL FLAC-CILLA AVG- Draped bust right, in elaborate headdress, necklace,
& mantle
REV. SALVS REI-PVBLICAE- Empress standing facing, arms folded over chest
LF. Branch
EX. SMNB
black-prophet
L__Aemilius_Lepidus_Paullus.jpg
Aemilius Lepidus Paullus - Aemilia-10153 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus. 62 BC. AR Denarius (18mm - 4.38 g). Rome mint. Diademed and veiled head of Concordia right / L. Aemilius Paullus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left. Unusually heavy flan. Crawford 415/1; Sydenham 926; Aemilia 10. RSC 366 Bud Stewart
2200405.jpg
Aes Grave Sextans33 viewsAnonymous. 225-213 BC. Æ Aes Grave Sextans (29x20mm, 28.57 g, 12h). Uncertain mint in Umbria. Club / Two pellets (mark of value). Thurlow & Vecchi 172. Fine, green patina.

Ex CNG sale 220 lot 405 115/150

The sextans was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-sixth of an as (2 unciae).

ecoli
125166.jpg
Aes Grave Sextans Circa 269-266 BC39 viewsThe sextans was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-sixth of an as (2 unciae). The most common design for the sextans was the bust of Mercury and two pellets (indicating two unciae) on the obverse and the prow of a galley on the reverse. Earlier types depicted a scallop shell, a caduceus, or other symbols on the obverse.

ROME. Circa 269-266 BC. Æ Aes Grave Sextans (31mm, 20.40 g). Exterior of cockle shell; two pellets / Interior of cockle shell. Thurlow-Vecchi 20; Crawford 21/5; Haeberlin pl. 28, 3-8. Fine, rough green patina.

Ex-CNG 125, lot 166, 88/100

Check
ecoli
aes_rude_SRCV505.jpg
Aes rude, SRCV 50525 viewsRoman Republic, 5th - 4th century BC
Aes rude, length 32.5mm, 14.23g
ref. SRCV I, 505; Thurlow-Vecchi pl. 2
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Aes Rude is the earliest type of money used by the population of central Italy. They are actually irtregular pieces of bronze with no marks or designs. More advanced types were used later: Aes Signatum or Aes Grave, and in the end, normal struck coins (FAC).
Jochen
111-1-AL-Indalo.jpg
AL Monogram - Denarius, Crawford 111/111 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Below, “AL” monogram; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Uncertain
Weight: 4.10 gm.
Reference: Crawford 111/1
Provenance: Indalo (through Ebay), 1-MAR-2014

Comments:
The AL monogram denarii are rare with 16 known specimens, 5 of which are in the British museum and The Bibliothèque nationale de France, each having two, and Kestner, having one.
Steve B5
1kroon.jpg
Aluminium-Bronze 1 Kroon.76 viewsEstonia. Republic (1918-1941) Aluminium-Bronze 1 Kroon

Denomination 1 Kroon
Date Struck 1934
Mint Tallinn
Obv: Arms of State, date in exe.
Rev: Norse Longboat sailing left.
Weight 5 gm.
Diameter 25 mm
Grade VF.
Material Aluml-Bronze
Mintage 3406066, Reference Eesti Vabariigi mündid ja paberrahad, Gunnar Haljak. Väljaandja Tallinn 2008
3 commentsGaiusCaligula
IM002362.JPG
Amman - Forum - Temple at top of Theatre13 viewsA photo of me (from ten years ago) looking at the remains of the small temple at the back of the Roman Theatre in Amman. Though the appearance of a temple was no longer required at this time - unlike during the late Republican era when they were included to avoid the legal prohibition against building permanent temples - the tradition of including a small temple at the top rear of Roman theatres prevailed in many cases. otlichnik
Amphipolis,_Macedon_Athena_-_Goats.jpg
Amphipolis, Macedon ca. 168-149 BC.17 viewsAmphipolis, Macedonia, ca. 168-149 BC. Ae 21 to 23mm. Weight 6.93g. Obv: Head of Artemis right. Rev: ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ, two goats standing on their hind legs, butting heads. Minted for Amphipolis in Macedon circa 168-149 BC. Amphipolis was founded by the Athenians in 436 BC to protect their mining interests in the north. The city surrendered to the Spartan general Brasidas in 424 BC. The city preserved its independence until 357, when it was captured by Philip II of Macedon. This piece was minted following the dissolution of the Macedonian monarchy and the establishment of four separate Macedonian republics in 168 BC. The obverse of this type depicts the diademed head of Artemis Tauropolis facing right, with bow and quiver at her shoulder. The reverse type features two goats on their hind legs, contending, face to face, with the Greek legend ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΙΤΩΝ in the fields. Sear Greek 1394.ddwau
50-2-white-bg1.jpg
Anchor - Denarius, Crawford 50/212 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor. Behind, “X”. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; below to r., anchor; in linear frame “ROMA”.
Mint: Rome
Weight: 4.71 gm.
Reference: Crawford 50/2
Provenance: Gert Boersema. 31-JAN-2018


Comments: Anonymous denarius with anchor symbol (early variety with splayed visor)
VF.
Steve B5
imitative_rome_I_c_BC.jpg
Ancient imitative, Saturn/Prow39 viewsRoman Republican, 1st Century B.C., Ancient Imitative. Bronze semis, cf. Crawford 339/2 (official, Rome mint), VF, porous dark patina, 3.598g, 16.7mm, 0o, obverse head of Saturn right; reverse , prow right. An unofficial imitative of a late anonymous issue. ex FORVMPodiceps
RRPostumiusMed~0.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 2, Dogs.47 viewsRoman Republic
moneyer L. Caesius, 74 BC, Rome.
AR denarius, 18.74 mm, 3.6 gm
Obv: bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder
Rev: hound running right, spear below; C. POSTVMI, TA in exergue
Ref: Crawford 394/1a

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


2 commentsTIF
RRCaesiusLarge.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 2. Dogs.43 viewsRoman Republic, Moneyer L. Caesius, 112-111 BC
AR denarius, 3.92 gm
Obv: Vejovis facing left, from behind; holding thunderbolt; monogram AP.
Rev: Two Lares Praestites seated, facing left, holding spears, dog between; bust of Vulcan above; legend LA-RE.
Ref: Crawford 298/1. Sydenham 564. RSC Caesia 1.

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


2 commentsTIF
RRVeturiusMED.jpg
ANIMALS/PINK FLOYD, Track 3. Pigs (Three Different Ones)27 viewsRoman Republic
moneyer Ti. Veturius, 137 BC, Rome
AR denarius, 3.85 gm
Obv: helmeted bust of Mars right
Rev: youth kneeling left, holding pig; at either side, two soldiers standing holding spear and touching pig with swords. ROMA above.
Ref: Crawford 234/1. Sydenham 527. RSC Veturia 1.

Composite picture of the collection:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-104363

Interactive presentation:
http://prezi.com/q7mw1k1zur65/?utm_campaign=share&utm_medium=copy&rc=ex0share


TIF
2190391.jpg
Anonymous19 viewsAnonymous. After 211 BC. Æ Triens (22mm, 7.34 g, 2h). Uncertain mint. Helmeted head of Minerva right; four pellets above / Prow of galley right; four pellets below. Crawford 56/4; Sydenham 143b. VF, dark green patina, minor porosity.

Ex A.K. Collection (Triton XII, 6 January 2009), lot 463 (part of).

Ex-CNG 219 lot 391 60/100

The triens (plural trientes) was an Ancient Roman bronze coin produced during the Roman Republic valued at one-third of an as (4 unciae). The most common design for the triens was the bust of Minerva and four pellets (indicating four unciae) on the obverse and the prow of a galley on the reverse. It was not a common denomination and was last struck c. 89 BC.


ecoli
2190390.jpg
Anonymous26 viewsAnonymous. After 211 BC. Æ Semis (23mm, 9.69 g, 7h). Uncertain mint. Laureate head of Saturn right; S behind / Prow of galley right; S above. Crawford 56/3; Sydenham 143a. VF, green patina, minor roughness.

Ex-CNG 219 lot 390 62/100

The semis (literally meaning half) was a small Roman bronze coin that was valued at half an as. During the Roman Republic, the semis was distinguished by an 'S' (indicating semis) or 6 dots (indicating a theoretical weight of 6 unciae). Some of the coins featured a bust of Saturn on the obverse, and the prow of a ship on the reverse.

Initially a cast coin, like the rest of Roman Republican bronzes, it began to be struck from shortly before the Second Punic War (218-204 BC). The coin was issued infrequently during the Roman Empire, and ceased to be issued by the time of Hadrian (117-138 AD).
ecoli
IMG_0355.JPG
Anonymous10 viewsAnonymous. 211-210 BC. AR Victoriatus (16.5mm, 3.14 g, 6h). Spearhead (first) series. Mint in southeast Italy. Laureate head of Jupiter right within border of dots / Victory standing right, placing wreath on trophy; Roma in exergue.

In around 218 BC, at roughly the same time as the appearance of the silver denarius, mints in the Roman Republic began to strike silver coins bearing on the obverse a bust of Jupiter and on the reverse a figure of Victory placing a wreath upon a trophy. Known as a victoriatus in Latin or tropaikon in Greek, this coin was primarily issued to facilitate payments in Greek-speaking southern Italy, where its weight was roughly equivalent to a drachm or half nomos. Rome at this time had a great need for coinage, as the Second Punic War then raged across Italy, and the city needed silver to pay her allies. This function is demonstrated by the hoard evidence, which shows that their circulation was generally limited to southern Italy, and later Cisalpine Gaul and Spain.

The victoriatus was generally struck in less pure silver than the denarius, rarely meeting the same 90% standard, yet it generally followed the same overall pattern of debasements. Despite this, it proved to be an important coin for the budding empire. Though the type was discontinued around 170 BC, the coins themselves continued to circulate, eventually becoming worn enough to function in the marketplace as quinarii. Accordingly, even into the early Imperial period, the silver quinarius was also sometimes refered to as a victoriatus.
ecoli
Anonymous_RSC_176.jpg
Anonymous - RSC-176100 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC Anonymous, 115 - 114 BC, AR denarius (21mm, 3.82g). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind and ROMA below / Roma seated right on shields; wolf and twins before, two birds in fields. Crawford 287/1; Sydenham 530; RSC 176; RCV 1648 commentsBud Stewart
quadrans.jpg
Anonymous AE Quadrans13 viewsOBV: Head of Hercules right, wearing lion skin, three pellets behind.
REV: Prow right, ROMA above, three pellets below.
Date: 91 BC
3.01g
Syd 679c, Cr339/4a-b

The Roman Republic Anonymous Quadrans.
miffy
republicanae_copy.jpg
Anonymous AE Quadrans23 viewsAnonymous. 169-158 BC. Æ Quadrans, 28mm. Obv: Head of Hercules right. Rev: Prow right, ROMA below.Molinari
roman-republic-annoymous-91bc.jpg
Anonymous AE Semis circa 91 BC30 viewsRoman Republic Anonymous AE Semis circa 91 BC, 6.19g, 23mm

OBV: Head of Saturn right.

REV: Prow of a galley right "S" before, "ROMA" in exergue

REF: RCV 901

Ex: Aegean Numismatics +photo
Gil-galad
roman-republic-ae-semis-reshoot-1.jpg
Anonymous AE Semis circa 91 BC42 viewsRoman Republic Anonymous AE Semis circa 91 BC, 6.19g, 23mm

Obverse: Head of Saturn right.

Reverse: Prow of a galley right "S" before, "ROMA" in exergue

Reference: RCV 901

EX: Aegean Numismatics
Gil-galad
quinarius.jpg
Anonymous AR Quinarius; Bust of Apollo r./ Victory crowning trophy, D between, ROMA in ex4 viewsRoman Republican Anonymous AR Quinarius, 14mm, 1.73g, minted at Rome, 81 BC. Laureate bust of Apollo right. Victory standing right crowning trophy, "D" between and "ROMA" in exergue. RSC 227a, Syd 609a, Crawford 373/1b. Podiceps
Roman_republic_litra,_Apollo___horse,_AE15.JPG
Anonymous Æ Litra; Head of Apollo r. / Horse left10 viewsAnonymous, litra, before 211 B.C. 15mm, 2.4g. Obverse: laureate head of Apollo right. Reverse: ROMA Horse prancing left with loose reins. Sydenham 28. Crawford 26/3. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
Roman_Republic_sextans,_Mercury___Prow.JPG
Anonymous Æ Sextans; Mercury/ Prow, ear of grain above, KA to right18 viewsRoman Republic sextans, Mercury / Prow
anonymous sextans, Sicily mint, 211-208 BC. Size/Weight: 20 mm, 6.1g. Obverse: head of Mercury right, two globes above. Reverse: prow, ROMA below, ear of grain above, KA to right. RRC 69/6a. ex areich, photo credit areich
Podiceps
roman_lion.jpg
Anonymous Bronze double litra; Female head r./ Lion walking r.16 viewsRoman Republic, 275 - 270 B.C. Bronze double litra, Crawford 16/1a, Sydenham 5, BMCRR Romano-Campanian 23; SRCV I 590, South Italy mint, 7.580g, 20.7mm, 90o, obverse diademed female head right; reverse , lion walking right, head facing, broken spear in mouth and resting on forepaw, ROMANO in ex; scarce. ex FORVMPodiceps
Quadrigatus.jpg
ANONYMOUS issue AR silver quadrigatus. Janiform head, Jupiter in quadriga141 viewsRoman Republic AR silver quadrigatus (didrachm). Struck 225-212 BC. Laureate, Janiform head facing left/right. Reverse - Jupiter holding scepter and hurling thunderbolt in chariot driven by Victory; ROMA incuse on square tablet. Crawford 28/3, RCV 32. 22mm, 6.3g. Scarce.

Edge crack and some isolated corrosion, otherwise nicely toned and quite attractive.

Ex Incitatus Coins
4 commentsPhiloromaos
Republic_As.jpg
Anonymous PAE As 169-158 B.C. Crawford 176/1, Sydenham 358, BMCRR 63539 viewsLaureate head of Janus; above, I / PAE monogram above, ROMA in exergue, prow of galley right; before, I before. Rome mint.
Maximum Diameter: 33.0 mm
Weight: 34.11 g

A duplicate from the RBW Collection of Roman Republican Coins. Ex SCMB (April 1989), 162
2 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
iber_2_res.jpg
ANONYMOUS REPUBLICAN BARBAROUS SEMIS, HISPANIA 23 viewsafter 211 BC
AE 16 mm, 2.11 g
O: Laureate head of Saturn right, inverted S behind.
R: Prow of galley right, S above, ROMA in exergue
laney
d6f1_10~0.jpg
Anonymous Republican denarius 157-155 B.C.113 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV I 76, RSC I 6, Sydenham 376, gVF, Rome mint, obverse head of Roma right wearing winged helmet, X behind; reverse Victory in biga right, whip in right, ROMA in ex. Gorgeous dark toning.4 commentsAdrian S
iber_1_res.jpg
ANONYMOUS REPUBLICAN SEMIS, HISPANIA 21 viewsafter 211 BC
AE 20 mm, 3.78 g
O: Laureate head of Saturn right, S behind.
R: Prow of galley right, S above, ROMA in exergue
laney
193.jpg
Anonymous Roma Denarius - Dioscuri Galloping (Syd 311)35 viewsAR Denarius
Rome, after 211 BC
4.21g

Obv: Helmeted head of Roma (R), behind, X.

Rev: The Dioscuri galloping (R); below, ROMA in linear frame.

Sydenham 311. RBW –. Crawford 53/2.

Naville Numismatics Auction 45, Lot 374
ex. Elvira Clain Stefanelli (1914-2001) collection, curator of the National Numismatics Collection at the Smithsonian.

An example of the earliest denarius coinage from its first production in the last part of the 3rd and early 2nd centuries BC. Rome overhauled its coinage around 211 BC and introduced the denarius, containing an average 4.5 grams, or 1/72 of a Roman pound, of silver. The word dēnārius is derived from the Latin dēnī "containing ten", as its value was originally of 10 assēs. It formed the backbone of Roman currency throughout the Roman Republic.
2 commentsOptimo Principi
Semis1000.jpg
Anonymous Roman Republic33 viewsAE Semis 21mm, 8.6g, anonymous, after 211 BC.
Obv.: Laureate head of Saturn right; S behind.
Rev.: Prow of galley right; S above, ROMA below.
Reference: ACIP 2659; Burgos R44.
Notes: sold to JWT, 9/7/2015
John Anthony
ANONYMOUS_ROMAN_REPUBLICAN_3.jpg
ANONYMOUS ROMAN REPUBLIC AR Didrachm27 viewsOBVERSE: Helmeted head of Mars left, oak-sprig behind
REVERSE: ROMANO on tablet below head of bridled horse right, ear of wheat behind
Struck at Metapontum, 280-276 BC
19 mm, 6.55g
Cr13/1, Syd 1
1 commentsLegatus
ANONYMOUS_ROMAN_REP.jpg
Anonymous Roman Republic Denarius, Cr46/1(b)75 viewsOBV: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, X
REV: The Dioscuri galloping right; ROMΛ in exergue in raised letters within linear frame
3.45g, 19.8mm

Minted at Rome, 214-213 BC
1 commentsLegatus
Anonymous_Roman_Republic.jpg
ANONYMOUS ROMAN REPUBLIC Æ Uncia15 viewsObv.: Helmeted head of Roma left, pellet behind
Rev.: Galley prow right, ROMA above, pellet below
Rome mint, 217-215 BC
25mm, 8.8g, 3h
Reference: Crawford 38/6, Sydenham 86 , BMC 88
Ex JAZ Numismatics
Legatus
combined~27.jpg
Anonymous Roman Republican Denari. 157 BCE.25 viewsAnonymous Roman Republican Denari.

From Date: 157 BCE.
To Date: 156 BCE.

Obverse: Roma in helmet with a peaked visor.

Reverse: Victory in a galloping biga, holding reigns in l. and goad in r. Legend ROMA in three sided border, with lines at left, top, and right. The right and left lines are diagonal. The rear horse in the biga is almost completely concealed by the near horse.

RRC 197/1a and 1b represent the only fully anonymous issues for the type of Victory in a biga with goad (197/1a) and whip (197/1b). No siblings can be found of RRC 197/1a with goad, and Crawford suggests it is a transitional issue from the earlier Luna in biga with goad to the Victory in biga with Whip type. The fabric of this and subsequent anonymous issues tend to be somewhat more compact and high relief.


Roma, 3,8 g, 19,85 mm, RRC 197/1a.
Flamur H
coin.jpg
Anonymous Semuncia 30 viewsRoman Republic, anonymous, semilibral standard, 217-215 BC.,
Æ Semuncia ( ca. 20 mm / ca. 5-6 g),
Obv.: Head of Mercury r., wearing winged petasus.
Rev.: ROMA , above prora r.
Crawford 38/7 ; Sydenham 87 ; BMC 129 .




Tanit
Roman_Republic_triens,_Minerva___Prow.JPG
Anonymous Triens, Minerva / Minerva with 4 globes above, CA below5 viewsRoman Republic triens, Minerva / Prow
anonymous triens, Canusium mint, 209-208 BC
Size/Weight: 22 mm, 4.4 g. Obverse: Minerva with 4 globes above, CA below. Reverse: prow, ROMA above, 4 globes below, CA to right. RRC 100/3. ex areich, photo credit areich

Podiceps
Sydenham_519_19mm,_4_40_grams_113_B_C__Cr_79_1.jpg
Anonymous Wheel Cr.79/164 viewsCrawford 79/1 Wheel (209-8BC) Sicily?
Denarius Serratus
Ob: helmeted head of Roma right, behind X
Rev: Dioscuri riding right with lances, below wheel, in exergue ROMA; line border

BMCRR II 308 (217-197BC)

Sydenham 519 (113BC) Narbo

Iridescent highlights, 4.4gr.

Grueber: The wheel maybe a symbol of the moneyer rather than of a mint, although it does occur on aes grave of Campania and central Italy, and the early coins of Luceria and Tartentum. This is the earliest occurrence of the serratus on republican denarii and the only anonymous. Only serratus attributed to a mint other than Rome by Count de Salis.

Sydenham classifies this serratus with Porcia 8 at the colony of Narbo. The serrated edge may have been suggested by the Gaulish custom of using serrated rings or wheels as currency. Tacitus stated that the Gaulish tribes showed a marked preference for coins that were serrati bigatique (Germania 5) Sydenham wrote an article entitled “Origin of the Roman Serrati” NC 1935 209 ff.

Crawford writes that Mattingly’s view that serrati were Marian coins was demolished by Sydenham’s article, but his view that they were struck at non-Italian mints for Trans-alpine circulation does not hold either. Grueber’s view that they are probably merely decorative best remaining theory. Crawford Vol 2 p. 581

Tacitus Germania 5 pecuniam probant veterem et diu notam, serratos bigatosque. They approve the old and long known money, those that are serrated and biga depicting.
3 commentsPetrus Elmsley
214-212_B_C_,_Anonymous,_AE-Uncia,_Sicily,_ROMA,_Cr-,_Syd_,_Q-001,_0h,_24,5-26mm,_12,81g-s.jpg
Anonymous, AE Uncia (after 217 B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-25, Crawford 38-6, Prow of galley right, #1111 viewsAnonymous, AE Uncia (after 217 B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-25, Crawford 38-6, Prow of galley right, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Roma left, one pellet (mark of value) behind the neck.
reverse: ROMA, Prow of galley right, one pellet (mark of value) below.
exergue: ROMA//•, diameter: 24,5-26,0mm, weight: 12,81g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, Sicily, date: after 217-215 B.C., ref: Crawford 38-6, Syd 86, BMC 88,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
rep_11.jpg
Anonymous; Imitative; Saturn/ Prow, SC above7 viewsI am by no means sure about the identification, but this appears similar to some Spanish? imitatives of Late Roman Republic Semis, c. 100 B.C. - 50 A.D.
The use of SC may suggest a muddling of late Republican types with those of Augustus or a later Emperor. Laureate head of Saturn right; reverse SC above, Prow right, ROMA below.
-Those who know better, please, leave a comment
Podiceps
Republic_AE-33_xx_ROMA_3-BC_Q-001_axis-5h_33mm_34,82g-s.jpg
Anonymus AE As, ( ??? B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-33, Crawford ???, ROMA, Prow of galley right, #167 viewsAnonymus AE As, ( ??? B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-33, Crawford ???, ROMA, Prow of galley right, #1
avers: Laureate head of Janus.
reverse: Prow right, ROMA in exergue.
exergue:-/-//ROMA, diameter: 33mm, weight: 34,82g, axis:5h,
mint: Rome, date: ???, ref: ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Republic_AE-33_Janus_ROMA_3-BC_Q-001_axis-5h_32-33mm_22,62g-s.jpg
Anonymus AE As, (208 B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-33, Crawford 106-4, ROMA, Prow of galley right, #190 viewsAnonymus AE As, (208 B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-33, Crawford 106-4, ROMA, Prow of galley right, #1
avers: Laureate head of Janus, I above.
reverse: Prow right, I above, ROMA in exergue.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 32-33mm, weight: 22,62g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 208 B.C., ref: Crawford 106-4, Syd ?,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Roma_Republic_Anonymus_Quadrans,_AE-18_Head_of_Hercules_right,_Prow_of_galley_right,three_pellet,_cc2cent_BC_Q-001_3h_18-19mm_4,23g-s.jpg
Anonymus AE Quadrans (after 211 B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-18, Crawford ???, Prow of galley right, #1162 viewsAnonymus AE Quadrans (after 211 B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-18, Crawford ???, Prow of galley right, #1
avers: Head of young Hercules right, wearing lion's skin headdress, three pellets behind, (mark of value).
reverse: ROMA, Prow of galley right, three pellets (mark of value) below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 4,23g, axis: 3h,
mint: Rome, date: after 211 B.C., ref: Crawford ???, McCabe group H1 Qd.1.,(Half-weight fractions, overstrikes on Punic bronzes).
Q-001
quadrans
Republic_AE-30_Helmeted-head-right_ROMA_3-BC_Q-001_axis-5h_30mm_22,57g-s.jpg
Anonymus AE Sextans (217-215 B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-30, Crawford 38-5, Prow of galley right, #171 viewsAnonymus AE Sextans (217-215 B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-30, Crawford 38-5, Prow of galley right, #1
avers: Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus, two pellets (mark of value) above.
reverse: ROMA, Prow of galley right; two pellets (mark of value) below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 30mm, weight: 22,57g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 217-215 B.C., ref: Crawford 38-5, Sydenham 85, Anonymous,
Q-001
quadrans
Roma_Republic_Anonymus_Triens,_AE-20_Helmeted_head_of_Minerva_right,_Prow_of_galley_right,_four_pellet,_cc2cent_BC_Q-001_11h_19,5-20mm_5,3g-s.jpg
Anonymus AE Triens (after 211 B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-20, Crawford 56-4, Prow of galley right, #1162 viewsAnonymus AE Triens (after 211 B.C.), Rome, Republic AE-20, Crawford 56-4, Prow of galley right, #1
avers: Helmeted head of Minerva right, above, four pellets (mark of value).
reverse: ROMA, Prow of galley right; four pellets (mark of value) below.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20mm, weight: 5,3g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: after 211 B.C., ref: Crawford 56-4, McCabe group H1(Half-weight fractions, overstrikes on Punic bronzes).
Q-001
quadrans
republick.JPG
Antonia 16 viewsQ Antonius Balbus AR Serrate Denarius. 83-82 BC. Laureate head of Jupiter right; SC behind and (letter)(•) before
Victory in quadriga right, Q ANTO BALB below, PR in ex. Cr364/1c; Syd 742a.
Britanikus
Claudia3.JPG
Ap. Claudius Pulcher, T. Maloleius, Q. Urbinius denarius. 111-110 B.C62 viewsHelmeted head of Roma right, ?device behind.
Victory in triga right.
ex. AP CL T MA Q VR
Mallia 2, Claudia 3, Cr299/1b, Syd 570a
whitetd49
AR 61 D.jpg
Ap. Claudius, T. Maloleius and Q. Urbinius. Roman Republic Denarius22 viewsAp. Claudius, T. Maloleius and Q. Urbinius. Denarius, 111 or 110.
Head of Roma with winged helmet r. Rev. AP. CL. T. MAL. Q. VR Victory in triga r., holding reins
Tanit
republican.jpg
Appius Claudius Pulcher, T. Manlius Mancinus and Q. Urbinius denarius38 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV I 176, RSC I Mallia 2, BMC 1293, Sydenham 570a, Crawford 299/1b, VF, dark toning, Rome mint, obverse head of Rome right, circle in square behind; reverse Victory in triga, T MAL AP CL Q VR in exergue.Adrian S
Appius_Claudius_Pulcher_(111-110_BCE)_denarius_(AR).png
Appius Claudius Pulcher, T. Manlius Mancius, and Q. Urbinius (moneyers, 111-110 BCE) denarius (AR)108 viewsObv.: Helemeted head of Roma right Rev.: Victory in triga right, one horse looking back Exergue: T . MA . AP . CL . Q . VR Diameter: 18,25 mm Weight: 3,85 g Crawford 211/1a

Bigas, trigas and quadrigas are a common sight on the reverse of Republican denarii.
Nick.vdw
A35A84B7-67AC-427C-A64C-1BA338B9B76E.jpeg
Apulia, Ausculum 12 viewsfrom Ausculum, where a battle was fought between the Roman Republic and King Pyrrhus; where afterwards the victor had famously said
to one who was congratulating him: "If we are victorious in one more battle with the Romans, we shall be utterly ruined."

Apulia, Ausculum, Æ 18mm. 3rd Century BC. Head of young Herakles left, in lion's skin, club behind neck / Nike standing right, holding wreath & palm. SNG ANS 648
ecoli
Apulia,_Luceeria__MGA14.jpg
Apulia, Luceria15 viewsAE Quincunx
26.64mm, 17.37grams
211-200 BC
Helmeted head of Minerva right, 5 pellets above
Wheel with 8 spokes L-OVCERI between spokes.
SNG ANS 699
The quincunx was originally a coin issued by the Roman Republic c. 211–200 BC, whose value was five twelfths (quinque and uncia) of an as, the Roman standard bronze coin. On the Roman quincunx coins, the value was sometimes indicated by a pattern of five dots or pellets. However, these dots were not always arranged in a quincunx pattern.
JBGood
2014-12-25_jul_20144.jpg
Arcadius RIC IX Cyzicus? 18 viewsobv D.N Arcardius P.F AVG , bust right
rev: SALVS REI-REPUBLICAE
Victory walking with capture, cross
1,30 grams 13 mm
Niclas E
Arcadius- salus reipublicae.jpg
Arcadius- salus reipublicae143 viewsArcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.

Obverse:
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

D N ARCADI-VS P F AVG

DN: Dominus Noster, our lord
ARCADIVS: Arcadius
PF: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

There seems to be a double strike close to his face, or some faults of the engraver.

Reverse:
SALVS REIPVBLICAE, The health of the republic

SALVS: Health
REIPVBLICAE:

Dot in left field

Victory advancing left, trophy over shoulder in right, dragging captive with left

Domination: Copper AE 4, size 12 mm.

Mint: ALEA, Alexandria Δ= delta f14th Officina. RICIX20c (388-392) or as RICIX23b (a second emission 15 May 392 - 6 Sep 394 A.D)
They are impossible to distinguish.

The coin is considered VF (Very fine).
1 commentsJohn Schou
Arcadius-_Salus_Reipublicae_1.jpg
Arcadius- SALVS REIPVBLICAE71 viewsArcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.

Obverse:
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

D N ARCADI-VS P F AVG

DN: Dominus Noster, our lord
ARCADIVS: Arcadius
PF: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

There seems to be a double strike close to his face, or some faults of the engraver.

Reverse:
SALVS REIPVBLICAE, The health of the republic

SALVS: Health
REIPVBLICAE: Republic


Victory advancing left, trophy over shoulder in right, dragging captive with left

Domination: Copper AE 4, size 14 mm.

Mint: SMK(gamma); Cyzicus; (Gamma) 3.rd Officina. RIC IX : 26c (Cyzicus).
John S
Augustus~0.jpg
Augustus86 viewsAugustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.

Obverse:

Augustus with his bare head right

CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT

CAESAR: Ceasar, emperor
AVGVST: Agustus
PONT MAX: Pontifix Maximus,
TRIBVNIC: Tribunicia, tribunal
POT: POTESTAS, the people

Reverse:

M MAECILIVS TVLLVS III VIR A A A F F

M: Marcus
MAECILLIS: Maelcilius
TVLLVS: Tullus
IIIVIR: Triumviri
AAAFF: Auro, Argento, Aeri, Flando, Feriundo,

S . C, Senatus Consultum

I think the dots were used as centering devices, one see them sometimes on Soldiers/Standards coins although on this coin it is certainly a large dot.

Domination: AS, Copper

Mint: Rome

The Roman Moneyers (or you may prefer the title of Mint Magistrates) were also responsible for the minting of gold, silver and bronze coinage and they reported to the Senate. They were known as the Triumviri Monetales or Triumviri Auro, Argento, Aeri, Flando, Feriundo which is abbreviated as III VIR. A.A.A. F.F. which may be translated as 'Commision (or college) of three men under whom gold, silver and bronze coins were struck'. (Note that the order of the metals varies according to different references.) The title 'III VIR. A.A.A. F.F.' occurs rarely on Republic coins and when it is present it is usually seen in an abbreviated form such as 'III VIR'. It is interesting to note that the full title occurs frequently on the reverses of Augustan Aes

The College of the Three Moneyers was a revived republican tradition. This coin was struck under the supervision of Marcus Salvius Otho, an ancestor of the future emperor Otho. Later, the number of members was increased to four, and their names were not included on the coins.

TRP = This is short for tribunicia potestate - "with the power of the Tribune of the Plebs." The government of Rome was split into the Patricians (who were Senators) and the Plebians. Nine Tribunes of the Plebs were elected by both Plebs and Patricians every year to be in charge of the Plebian assembly. These Tribunes could not be injured because it could be punishable by death. They had veto powers, and they could prevent a law from being passed or an election. An emperor cannot technically rule on the Plebian assembly since he is a Patrician, but by taking the title he could be free from injury. On a coin, if this symbol is followed by a number, it depicts how many times he has been elected Tribune of the Plebs.
John Schou
Augustus_RIC_86a.jpg
Augustus - [RIC 86a, BMC 41, CBN 1132, Cohen 19]86 viewsSilver denarius, 3.13g, 18.44mm, 90 degree, Colonia Patricia mint, 19 B.C.

Obv. - CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right

Rev. - SIGNIS RECEPTIS, Aquila on left and standard on right flanking S P Q R arranged around shield inscribed CL V

A superb piece with a particularly beautiful portrait and an attractive tone.

This famous and historically important denarius of Augustus commemorates the reconquest of the legionary eagles from the Parthians. These signa where lost, when Crassus was defeated at the battle of Carrhae and their return back to Rome was one of the greatest diplomatic successes Augustus had.

The CL V on the reverse of this issue represents the clipeus virtutis, which was - according to the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, the funerary inscription giving the achievements of Augustus - a golden shield displayed in the Curia Iulia that was given to Augustus by the Senate and the Roman people (Senatus PopulusQue Romanus) in commemoration of his virtue, piety, justice and clemency. Even though it seems to be obvious that Augustus must have been awarded the shield right after he achieved absolute power and declared the restoration of the Republic, Sydenham suggests "that there is no decisive evidence as to the exact date at which the golden shield was conferred, but the coins on which it is represented are of later date than the year BC 27". When, in 19 BC, the Parthians returned the standards they had captured from Crassus in 53, there would have been an excellent opportunity to once again recall Augustus' pietas, one of the virtues recorded on the clipeus.
___________

Purchased from VCoins seller Ancient Artifacts & Treasures, Inc. at the 2013 BRNA Dalton, GA coin show

Sold 25Apr2015 to Lucas Harsh Collection
2 commentsrenegade3220
Augustus_Victory_Over_Brutus.jpg
Augustus Victory over Brutus27 viewsAugustus, Philippi, (Macedon Northern Greece) 27 BC - 10 BC, 20mm, 5.64g, BMC 23, Sear 32
OBV: VIC AVG, Victory standing on globe left.
REV: COHOR PRAEPHIL, 3 legionary standards

Commemorates the battle of Philippi, 42 B.C., in which Octavian and Antony defeated the Republican tyrannicides Brutus and Cassius, who subsequently committed suicide. Augustus later settled the veterans of a Praetorian Cohort at Philippi, and he conferred upon them the right to mint coins, of which this is an example. The images on this coin presumably refer to the Emperor's above described victory in 42 BC.
The winged victory standing on a globe representing the cosmos.
Such a coin is delivering, without words but in clear images that everyone would have understood, the message that Augustus now rules the world.
All the old political institutions were reestablished and the "dignity" of the Senate was restored, but actual power was now in the hands of one man alone.
Romanorvm
33616.jpg
Baebius Q.f. Tampilus – Baebia-1214 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC M. Baebius Q.f. Tampilus. 137 B.C. AR denarius (18.64 mm, 3.95 g, 9 h). Rome mint. TAMPIL, Helmeted head of Roma left; denomination below chin / ROMA below, M • BAEBI • Q • F in exergue, Apollo, holding branch, bow and arrow, and reins, driving galloping quadriga right. Crawford 236/1e; Sydenham 489; Baebia 12; RCV 116Bud Stewart
141-1-CNG-RBW-Blk.jpg
Bird and TOD - Denarius, Crawford 141/110 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 189-180 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Luna in a biga looking up at a crescent moon. Horses rearing, Bird and TOD below ; Legend ROMA in short frame.
Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.72 gm.
Reference: Crawford 141/1
Provenance: From the RBW collection, CNG Electronic sale 364, 2-DEC-2016, lot 103; Ex Peus 322, 1-NOV-88, lot 56.

Comments:
Bird and TOD monogram. Well centered, lovely surfaces and toning. Luna’s head and the crescent moon are weakly struck, otherwise GVF.
Steve B5
0123-Consul_20Fs.jpg
Bonaparte I° Consul - 20 francs or An 12 A45 viewsAtelier de Paris (A)
BONAPARTE PREMIER CONSUL, tête nue a gauche
REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, couronne de lauriers entourant 20 FRANCS en deux lignes. A l'exergue . coq . AN 12. . A .
Tranche inscrite DIEU PROTEGE LA FRANCE
6.44 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 510/2
The revolution has ended, Bonaparte is soon becoming Napoleon I Empereur, as Octavian became Augustus (note the similarities on this portrait with those of Augustus on the "bull butting" denarii), but still unsure of what is going on. We see many contradictory messages for a laïque republic : a consul on obverse, a republic on reverse, a revolutionary calendar (An 12) and ... God save France on the edge...
Now you know why you find french people so romantic...
11-249
Potator II
Bramsen 0067.JPG
Bramsen 0067. Column du Department du Rhone, 1800.117 viewsBramsen 0067. Column du Department du Rhone, 1800. – 6 views
Obv. From the trumpet of the winged victory hangs a banner AUX BRAVES DU DEP U RHONE
Rev. Text IN EACH DEPATMENT THERE WILL BE ERECTED A COLUMN TO THE MEMORY OF THE BRAVE MEN OF THE DEPARTMENT WHO DIED IN DEFENSE OF THE FATHERLAND AND OF LIBERTY -- DECREE OF 29 VENTOSE YEAR 8 OF THE REPUBLIC; CONSULS BONAPARTE, CAMBACERES, LEBRUN; MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR LU. BONAPARTE. In French.
33mm

Struck in 1800, rare.
LordBest
Bramsen 0310.JPG
Bramsen 0310. Légion d'Honneur, 1804.486 viewsObv. Laureate head of Napoleon ANDRIEU F below.
Rev.the cross of the order, in the centre of which the eagle of France stands on the fulmen of Jove, encircled with a flat ring, on which the motto, HONNEUR . ET . PATRIE. is impressed. A wreath of the branches of oak and laurel, with their fruit, surrounds the cross behind AUSPICE NEAPOLEONE GALLIA RENOVATA. Exergue, DENON DIRT. JALEY FT.

The engraving is of the highest quality. Some scratches on the obverse, not particularly visible in hand. The scratches on the portrait itself do not penetrate the patination to bare metal.

Laskey's Narrative:
Napoleon having been elected First Consul for life, immediately marked his great event by instituting the order of the Legion of Honour, which, by joining personal decoration with pecuniary stipend, answered two purposes, that of reconciling the people of France to the restoration of artificial rank in society, and also or securing to Napoleon himself the personal attachment of all those connected with the institution; in short it was a cheap, but efficacious mode of giving bribes to all ranks both in military and civil life, and therefore likely to be attended with the best consequences to his own popularity.


On this occasion, Joseph Bonaparte, the Consul's brother, was made the grand officer of the order.

It was also decreed that the legion should be composed of fifteen cohorts, and a council of administration; that each cohort should consist of seven grand officers, twenty commandants, thirty officers, and 350 legionaries; and that the First Consul should always be the chief of the legion, and of the council of administration. The members were to be military men, who had distinguished themselves in the war, or citizens, who, by their knowledge, talents, and virtues, had contributed to establish or defend the republic.



LordBest
76-1a.jpg
Branch, Denarius, Crawford 76/1a22 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 211 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with visor of three straight lines; Branch behind; “X” below chin of Roma. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.77 gm.
Reference: Crawford 76/1a
Provenance: Harlan Berk, 1-DEC-2008


Comments: Crawford lists four sub-varieties of 76/1 differentiated by the presence or absence of a small curl on the left shoulder and a fillet detail tied to the branch. This example is the most common variety without either of these details.

What Crawford does not differentiate is the two significantly different obverse styles found in this issue. The obverse of the first is rendered with Roma’s helmet visor comprised of three very short lines. This variety is always Cr. 76/1a without the curl and fillet details. The second variety has Roma’s helmet visor of three long lines and of somewhat more elegant style, and is found with and without the curl and fillet.
1 commentsSteve B5
76-1a-NAC72-3_93gm.jpg
Branch, Denarius, Crawford 76/1d (Long visor)9 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 211 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with visor of three long straight lines; Loop under visor and loop in front of ear; Branch behind, tied with fillet (partially obscured); Lock of hair on left shoulder; “X” below chin of Roma. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.93 gm.
Reference: Crawford 76/1d
Provenance: NAC 72, Lot 1005, 17-MAY-2013


Comments: Crawford lists four sub-varieties of 76/1 differentiated by the presence or absence of a small curl on the left shoulder and a fillet detail tied to the branch. This example has both the curl on the left shoulder and the fillet on the branch.

What Crawford does not differentiate is the two significantly different obverse styles found in this issue. The obverse of the first is rendered with Roma’s helmet visor comprised of three very short lines. This variety is always Cr. 76/1a without the curl and fillet details. The second variety has Roma’s helmet visor of three long lines and of somewhat more elegant style, and is found with and without the curl and fillet. The present coin is the second style with the long visor.

This sub variety is the scarcest of the four sub-varieties of Cr. 76/1. Slightly off-center, obscuring part of the branch and the stars above the dioscuri on the reverse. otherwise, beautiful old toning and GVF.
Steve B5
1sent.jpg
Bronze üks Sent.31 viewsEstonia. Republic (1918-1941) Bronze 1 Sent

Denomination 1Sent.
Date Struck 1929
Mint Tallinn
Obv: Arms of State, date below.
Rev: Oak leaves and acorns in field, value centre
Weight 2 gm.
Diameter 16 mm
Grade VF.
Material Bronze
Mintage 23548300, Reference Eesti Vabariigi mündid ja paberrahad, Gunnar Haljak. Väljaandja Tallinn 2008
GaiusCaligula
asrepblican.jpg
Bronze Republican As 180-80 BC29 viewsObverse : Heads of Janus
Reverse : Prow of Galley, ROMA below, PT or TP above

Weight 29.83 gms,
Crawford 177/1. Sydenham -353 (r4)
ex Harlan Berk, inventory # cc19828
daverino
5_senti_1931.jpg
Bronze Viis Senti52 viewsEstonia. Republic (1918-1941) Bronze 5 Senti
Denomination: 5 Senti
Date Struck 1931
Mint Tallinn
Obv: EESTI VABARIIK, VIIS SENTI
Rev: Arms of State, date in exe.
Weight 3.5 gm.
Diameter 23.3 mm
Grade VF.
Material Bronze
Mintage 5500000?, Reference Eesti Vabariigi mündid ja paberrahad, Gunnar Haljak. Väljaandja Tallinn 2008

Generously donated by Pekka K.
Will Hooton
C__Antestius_Republic_Denarius.JPG
C Antestius Republic Denarius19 viewsC Antestius Denarius, 146BC, Sydenham 411, Crawford 219/1e, BMCRR 850, Anestia 1, Sear V 95, 3.5g, 18.04mm,
OBV: C ANTESTI behind head of Roma, X below chin head of Roma right,
REV: ROMA in exergue, Dioscuri galloping, dog leaping right below horses,

SCARCE
Romanorvm
Licinia16.JPG
C Licinius Lf Macer Denarius, 84 BC50 viewsDiademed bust of Apollo (Vejovis) left, seen from behind, hurling thunderbolt.
Minerva in quadriga right with javelin & shield.
ex. C LICINIVS L F /MACER
whitetd49
C__Naevius_Balba_Republic~0.JPG
C Naevius Balba Republic26 viewsC. Naevius Balba, one of only 2 Republican Trigas, 79 BC, Rome, 19mm, 3.78g, Crawford 382/1a, RSC Naevia 6, axis 4o
OBV: Head of Venus right, wearing diadem, S•C behind, L before.
REV: Victory in triga right, holding reins in both hands, C NAE BALB in exergue.
EX: CNG
Romanorvm
C_Norbanus_2.jpg
C NORBANUS ROMAN REPUBLIC; GENS NORBANA AR Denarius20 viewsOBVERSE: C• NORBANVS, head of Venus right, wearing stephane, earring, and necklace; XVIIII behind
REVERSE: Prow-stem, fasces, caduceus and grain ear.
Rome 83 BC
3.8g, 18mm
Crawford 357/1a. Sydenham 740. Norbana 1
Legatus
Poblicius.jpg
C POBLICIUS QF ROMAN REPUBLIC; AR Serratus Denarius21 viewsOBVERSE: ROMA, draped bust of Roma right, helmeted & decorated with corn ears, control mark letter above
REVERSE: C•POBLICI•Q•F, Hercules strangling the Nemean lion, club at his feet
Struck at Rome 80 BC
3.88g, 16mm
Cr380/1, Syd 768, Poblicia 9
1 commentsLegatus
2391CServeiliusMfCnDenarius.JPG
C SERVILIUS M.F. ROMAN REPUBLIC; GENS SERVILIA AR Denarius4 viewsOBVERSE: Winged, helmeted head of Roma right, surmounted by head of an eagle, Lituus star under chin, ROMA below; wreath and monogram behind head
REVERSE: the Dioscuri galloping in opposite directions, C SERVEILI M F in ex.
Struck at Rome 136 BC
3.86g, 21.2mm
Cr 239/1; Syd 525; RSC Servilia I
ex. J. Montgomery Collection; ex. Alfred de la Fe
Legatus
226-1b-sb-blk.jpg
C TITINI XVI - Denarius, Crawford 226/1b13 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 141 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “XVI” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Victory in biga right, holding whip in right hand and reins in left; below, C TITINI; in linear frame, ROMA.

Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.93 gm.
Reference: Crawford 226/1b
Provenance: Astarte XX, Lot 65; 30-Oct-2009.

Comments:
This is the scarce elegant style version of this otherwise common issue. In his introduction to RRC, Crawford says:

“…with the issue of C. Titinius, however,
a new style appears, with a rounded ornate head of Roma decorated by a necklace
of pendants instead of a necklace of beads. This new style reappears intermittently,
in the issues of M. Aurelius Cota (no. 229), M. Baebius Tampilus (no. 236) and C.
Serveilius M.f. (no. 239); it also influences what may be called the old style, so that the heads become broader while retaining basically the same features. The original
version of this style appears for the last time in the issues of C. Valerius Flaccus
(no. 228) and M. Aurelius Cota (no. 229)”

I have never seen an example of this style for C. Valerius Flaccus and Crawford does not call it out in his catalog, though he does for M. Aurelius Cota.

The reverse is slightly off-center, obscuring the far horse head so it isn’t complete. Otherwise the coin is GEF and among the finest dies of this engraver.
Steve B5
C__Antestius.jpg
C. Antestius - Antestia-1a107 viewsRoman Republic, AR Denarius (3.26 gm), C.ANTESTI, 146 BC, Rome Mint, Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma looking to the right, before X, C.AESTI behind, border of dots. Reverse: Dioscuri going right, puppy below looking upwards with one forefoot raised, ROMA in exergue. Crawford 219/1D, Sydenham 411, Antestia-1a, RCV 95/14 commentsBud Stewart
Cassia-1.png
C. Cassius – Cassia-113 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C Cassius Denarius. 126 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; urn and X behind / Liberty in quadriga right; C. CASSI below, ROMA in exergue. Cr266/1; Syd 502; RCV 142Bud Stewart
Desktop831.jpg
C. EGNATULEIUS ROMAN REPUBLIC; GENS EGNATULEIUS AR Quinarius12 viewsOBVERSE: Laureate head of Apollo; behind, C. EGATVLEI C. F. Q.
REVERSE: Victory l., inscribing shield attached to trophy; beside trophy, carnyx; between Victory and trophy, Q; in ex
Struck at Rome, 97 BC
1.6g, 18mm
Crawford 333/1, Egnatueleia 1, Syd 588
Legatus
C__Licinius_Lf_Macer.jpg
C. Licinius Lf Macer Republican Denarius38 viewsC. Licinius Lf Macer, Silver denarius, Rome, 84 BC, 3.891g, 20.8mm, die axis 180o, SRCV I 274, RSC I Licinia 16, Crawford 354/1, Sydenham 732
OBV: diademed and cloaked bust of Apollo (or Vejovis) left, from behind, brandishing thunderbolt in right
REV: Minerva in quadriga right, spear in right, shield and reigns in left, C•LICINIVS•L•F / MACER in ex

EX: Forum Ancient coins

This moneyer wrote a history of Rome in sixteen volumes, of which only fragments exist today.
He served as praetor in 68 B.C. but committed suicide several years later after he was accused of extortion.
Romanorvm
Licinius_Macer_Apollo-Athena.jpg
C. Licinius Macer, Apollo-Vejovis * Minerva, Roman Republic, moneyer, AR Denarius Serratus85 views"Rome is a state on the move, and growing stronger every day."

Obv: Diademed bust of Apollo-Vejovis, left; viewed from behind, brandishing thunderbolt, cloak over left shoulder.
No Legend.
Rev: Minerva driving a quadriga right, holding spear and shield. No Legend.

Exergue: C LICINIVS L[F] MACER

Mint: Rome
Struck: 84 BC.

Size: 21.4 mm.
Weight: 3.89 grams
Die axis: 180 degs.

Condition: Lovely, bright luster; minimal tarnish.

Refs:*
M. Crawford Vol. I, p. 370, 354/1, Vol. II, Pl. XLVI, 17
D. Sear I, p. 123, 274
Licinia 16
Sydenham, 732
RSC 16

Tiathena
C__Marius_C_f__Capito.jpg
C. Marius C.f. Capito - Maria-9132 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Marius C.f. Capito. 81 B.C. AR Serrate Denarius (3.86 g, 19.5 mm). CAPIT • XXXXI behind draped bust of Ceres right, wreathed in corn, symbol below chin. / Plowman steering yoke of oxen left, XXXXI above; C • MARCI • C • F / SC in ex. Crawford 378/1c; Sydenham 744b; RSC Maria 9; RCV 3009 commentsBud Stewart
00751.jpg
C. Norbanus (RSC I Norbana 2, Coin #751)1 viewsRSC I Norbana 2, AR Denarius, Rome, 83 BC
OBV: CXXV C.NORBANVS; Diademed haed of Venus right wearing single drop earring and pearl necklace.
REV: Fasces between ear of wheat and caduceus.
SIZE: 20.6mm, 3.86g
MaynardGee
C__Norbanus.png
C. Norbanus - Norbana-222 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Norbanus. AR Denarius (18.6mm, 3.86 grams), Struck Circa. 83 BC Obverse: Diademed head of Venus right, wearing single drop earring and pearl necklace, CLXXV behind, C • NORBANVS below. Reverse: Grain ear to left, fasces in center, and caduceus to right. Crawford 357/1b; Sydenham 739; SECV 278; Norbana-21 commentsBud Stewart
malleolus_Poblicia01.jpg
C. Poblicius Malleolus, Crawford 282/349 viewsC. Poblicius Malleolus, gens Poblicia
AR - denarius serratus, 19.5mm, 3.8g
Narbo 118 BC (Crawford)
obv. C.MA - L - L - E.C.F
Head of Roma, with decorated and winged helmet, r.
X behind
rev. Nude Gallic warrior (Bituitus?), driving biga r., hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx.
below L.LIC.CN.DOM.
Crawford 282/3; Sydenham 524; RCV 158; Poblicia 1
about VF

Lucius Licinius Crassus, & Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus
The reverse commemorates the victory of L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus over the Allobroges and their ally Bituitus, king of the Averni. It is one of the very few issues of the Roman Republic struck outside of Rome, this issue was struck in the newly founded city of Narbo in Gaul. These coins, minted by a number of moneyers at this time (and bearing their names) were important in establishing the republican chronology.
Jochen
34273.jpg
C. Porcius Cato – Porcia-111 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Porcius Cato. 123 B.C. AR denarius (18.42 mm, 3.81 g, 8 h). Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind / C•CATO / ROMA, Victory driving biga right. Crawford 274/1; Sydenham 417; RSC Porcia 1; RCV 149Bud Stewart
00786.jpg
C. Postumius (RSC Postumia 9, Coin #786)11 viewsRSC Postumia 9, AR Denarius, Rome, 74 BC
OBV: Draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver at her shoulder.
REV: C POSTVMI, Hound running right, spear below.
SIZE: 18.6mm, 3.68g
MaynardGee
C__Postumius.jpg
C. Postumius - Postumia-972 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Postumius 74 BC. AR denarius.(17mm, 3.98g). Rome mint. Bust of Diana right, draped, with bow and quiver over shoulder / C POSTVMI. Hound running right; below, spear. Crawford 394/1a, RSC I Postumia 9, Sydenham 785, RCV 3301 commentsBud Stewart
C__Renius.png
C. Renius – Renia-159 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C Renius, 138 BC, AR Denarius (3.84 gm) Helmeted head of Roma right "X" behind. Juno Caprotina in a biga of goats right "C RENI" below "ROMA" in exergue. Renia 1, Crawford 231/1, RCV 108, Syd 4321 commentsBud Stewart
239-1-CNG.jpg
C. SERVEILI M.F - Denarius, Crawford 239/133 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 136 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma R, necklace of pendants and elaborately decorated griffon tufts along the back of the helmet. Wreath behind above mark of value - voided x. ROMA below.

Reverse: Dioscuri Riding in opposite directions, heads reverted; In exergue, C. SERVEILI.M.F; border of dots.


Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.90 gm.
Reference: Crawford 239/1
Provenance: CNG auction 85 lot 780, 16-Sep-2010. ex. Edward Gans collection. (Gans was the founder of the original Numismatic Fine Arts and issued catalogs until the early 1960’s. NFA was later purchased by Bruce McNall)



Comments:
This unusually elaborate style of Roma on the obverse and the dioscuri on the reverse is unique to this issue, and one of the early deviations from the consistent Roma/Dioscuri fashions of the first 70 years of the denarius.

This issue is quite common with many high grade examples available. The coin is somewhat darkly toned but with underlying silver sheen. Lovely and Near EF.
2 commentsSteve B5
C__Servilius_C_f.JPG
C. Servilius C.f. – Servilia-1541 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Servilius C.f. AR Denarius 57 BC (18.57mm 3.86 grams) FLORAL PRIMUS, hd. of Flora r., wearing wreath of flowers, lituus behind; / C•SERVEIL C•F•, two warriors facing each other with short swords upward. Crawford 423/1, Servilia 15, Syd 890, RCV 380Bud Stewart
C__Servilius_M_f_.png
C. Servilius M.f. – Servilia-121 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Servilius M.f. 136 BC. AR Denarius (20mm, 3.82 g, 5h). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; to left, wreath above mark of value / The Dioscuri on horseback rearing in opposing directions, heads facing one another. Crawford 239/1; Sydenham 525; Servilia 1; SRVC 116Bud Stewart
C__Servilius_Vatius.png
C. Servilius Vatia – Servilia-625 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC AR denarius C. Servilius Vatia, 127 BC. Obv: Helmeted head of Roma right; lituus behind, * before; ROMA beneath. Rev: Horseman galloping left, holding lance and round shield inscribed with M on upper half, battling horseman who wields sword and shield; C•SERVEIL (VE in ligature) in exergue. Crawford 264/1; Sydenham 483; Servilia 6: RCV 1401 commentsBud Stewart
C__Sulpicius_C_f__Galba.JPG
C. Sulpicius C.f. Galba – Sulpicia-161 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Sulpicius C.f. Galba. 106 BC. AR Serrate Denarius. Conjoined laureate heads of the Dei Penates left / Two soldiers swearing oath over a sow; Control Mark F above. Crawford 312/1; Syd 572; Sulpicia 1; RCV 189.1 commentsBud Stewart
0086.jpg
C. Titinius, Denarius16 viewsC. Titinius. AR Denarius

RRC 226/1b
141 bc

Av: Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, XVI.
Rv: Rev. Victory in biga right; below horses, C. TITINI; in exergue, ROMA.

I love these horses. In the context of the traditional depiction of biga on the republican denarii this must have been quite a revolution.
--
Ex ArtemideAste, Antiquities 4, 19/20.03.2016
1 commentsNorbert
228-1-Blk.jpg
C. VALERIUS FLACCUS XVI - Denarius, RRC 228/141 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 140 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma R; Behind, XVI downward. Border of dots


Reverse: Victory in biga r., Holding reins in l. hand and whip in r. hand; above FLAC; below monogram of C. VAL.C.F. Line border

Mint: Rome
Weight: 4.03 gm.
Reference: RRC 128/1
Provenance: Aureo & Calico Alba Longa sale, November 7, 2018, Lot 710; Ex. NFA XXVII, Dec 4-5, 1991, Lot 343.

Sear plate coin for this type in Roman Coins and their Values. This issue is one of the five issues listed in RRC with the mark of value XVI instead of X, signaling the re-tariffing of the denarius. Beautiful toning, well centered and Superb EF.
3 commentsSteve B5
C__Vibius_C_f__C_n__Pansa_Caetronianus.png
C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus – Vibia-1666 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus. 48 B.C. AR denarius (19 mm, 3.99 g, 6 h). Rome. Head of youthful Bacchus (or Liber) right, wreathed with ivy / C • VIBIVS • C • F • C • N, Ceres advancing right, holding torch in each hand; in right field, plow. Crawford 449/2; HCRI 21; Sydenham 946; Vibia 16; SRVC 421Bud Stewart
00762.jpg
C. Vibius C.F. Pansa (RSC I Vibia 2, Coin #762)2 viewsRSC I Vibia 2, AR Denarius, Rome, 90 BC
OBV: PANSA; Laureate head of Apollo right, control symbol below chin.
REV: C•VIBIVS•C•F•; Minerva in a quadriga right, trophy over shoulder in right, spear and reins in left.
SIZE: 17.69mm, 3,74g
MaynardGee
210-1-Blk.jpg
C.IVNI.C.F - Denarius, Crawford 210/130 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 149 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Victory in biga, C.IVNI.C.F below horses, ROMA in framed border in exergue.

Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.56 gm.
Reference: Crawford 210/1
Provenance: NAC 73, Lot 52, 18-NOV-2013.

Comments:
Moneyer probably C. Iunius C.f., Not otherwise known.
Well centered and complete with very nice old toning. AEF.
2 commentsSteve B5
argos.jpg
C.Mamilius C. f. Limetanus & Argos + Ulysses12 viewsRome, Republic, Denarius serratus, with letter M. C.Mamilius C. f. Limetanus, 82 BC. Dr. bust of Mercury right earing winged petasus, caduceus over shoulder, control letter behind. Rev: Ulysses walking right holding staff, his right hand extended toward Argos the dog, C MAMIL on left, LIMETAN (TA in monogram) on right. CRR 741. Sear RCV I: 282, RSC Mamilia 6, with countermarkPodiceps
300-1-CClaudiusPulcher.jpg
C.PVLCHER - Denarius, RRC 300/119 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 110-109 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma R. Beaded border.

Reverse: Victory in a Biga; C. PVLCHER below. Beaded border

Mint: Rome
Weight: 4.01 gm.
Reference: Crawford 300/1
Provenance: Lucernae, 25-Jan-2010

Comments:
As do many issues of the last two decades of the 2nd century BC, this issue is usually found with very well executed dies in good style. The present coin is no exception. attractively toned coin, slight weakness at Roma’s visor, otherwise, GVF.
2 commentsSteve B5
201-1-CNG-Apr-2012.jpg
C.SCR - Denarius, Crawford 201/115 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 154 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: C.SCR - Dioscuri riding r. C.SCR below. ROMA in raised letters in and framed border

Mint: Rome
Weight: 4.30 gm.
Reference: Crawford 201/1
Provenance: CNG eSale 277, Lot 173, 11-APR-2012.

Comments:
Crawford suggests the moneyer is C. Scribonius, Praef. Socium 181 BC.
Lovely example, graded at least GVF.
1 commentsSteve B5
228-2-Jencek-Jan-2010-3_80g.jpg
C.VAL.C.F - Denarius, Crawford 228/2 - X mark of value21 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 140 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma R, X mark of value behind.

Reverse: Victory in biga. FLAC above, C.VAL.C.F below. ROMA in a two line frame exergue.

Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.80 gm.
Reference: Crawford 238/2
Provenance: John Jencek, Private Purchase, 23-Jan-2010

Comments:
C. Valerius Flaccus. This is the only moneyer who coined with both the X mark of value and also, the XVI mark of value. Sydenham (period IV, series 17-18) suggests the X coins to possibly be earlier and places Valarius first in the sequence of moneyers who minted coins with XVI. Grueber in BMCRR (Vol I, p. 124-125) goes further and suggests that Valerius may have held the office of moneyer two different times in close succession and separates the coins with X and XVI to different groups. Crawford in RRC places Valerius last of these moneyers.

Jencek graded this coin AEF. It is really lovely with little wear, round and well centered. Victory is slightly weak, otherwise fully struck.
1 commentsSteve B5
60-1a-blk.jpg
Caduceus (early) - Denarius, Crawford 60/114 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 211-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma R; X behind. Border of dots

Reverse: Dioscuri riding r.; Caduceus symbol below.; ROMA in raised letters in frame. Line border

Mint: Unknown mint in central Italy
Weight: 4.72 gm.
Reference: RRC 60/1
Provenance: Aureo & Calico Alba Longa sale, November 7, 2018; Ex. The Goodman Collection, Triton I, December 2-3, 1997, lot 892.

This issue is one of the most crude but distinctive of the early denarii. Lovely light toning, well centered and about EF.
1 commentsSteve B5
108-1-NAC84.jpg
Caduceus, Denarius, Crawford 108/111 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 211-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with splayed visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Below, caduceus symbol; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Uncertain
Weight: 4.37 gm.
Reference: Crawford 108/1
Provenance: NAC 84, Part II, 21-MAY-2015

Comments:
Crawford 108/1 with Caduceus symbol is a rare issue. It is believed to be later and is of completely different style from the other caduceus issue, Crawford 60/1. Well centered, nearly complete, and VF
Steve B5
AncientRomanEmpire-AR-denarius-JuliusCaesar-046800.jpg
Caesar93 viewsRoman Imperatorial
Gaius Julius Caesar
(Reign as Dictator and/or Consul of the Roman Republic 49-44 BC)
(b. 100 BC, d. 44 BC)


Obverse: DICT.IN PERPETVO CAESAR, Wreathed and veiled head of Caesar facing right

Reverse: C MARIDIANVS, Venus holding Victory, resting elbow on shield set on globe, facing left



Silver Denarius
Minted in Rome February-March, 44 BC



Translations:

Imperatorial=The Imperatorial period extends from the outbreak of civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey in January 49 B.C. and ends early 27 B.C. when Caesar's adopted heir Octavian was given the title "Augustus" by the Senate, effectively making him the sole ruler of the entire Roman territory. 

DICT.IN PERPETVO CAESAR=Dictator for Life Julius Caesar

C MARIDIANVS=Moneyer Caius Cossutius Maridianus

References:
Crawford 480/15
RSC 42

1 commentsSphinx357
Marcia-19.png
Caius Marcius Censorinus – Marcia-1914 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC Caius Marcius Censorinus Denarius. 88 BC. Head of Apollo right / Free horse galloping right, C.CENSORI below, NA above, I in ex. Cr346/2; Syd 714; RCV 257Bud Stewart
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CALABRIA, Tarentum186 viewsTaranto was founded in 706 BC by Dorian immigrants as the only Spartan colony, and its origin is peculiar: the founders were Partheniae, sons of unmarried Spartan women and perioeci (free men, but not citizens of Sparta); these unions were decreed by the Spartans to increase the number of soldiers (only the citizens of Sparta could become soldiers) during the bloody Messenian Wars, but later they were nullified, and the sons were forced to leave. According to the legend Phalanthus, the Parthenian leader, went to Delphi to consult the oracle and received the puzzling answer that he should found a city where rain fell from a clear sky. After all attempts to capture a suitable place to found a colony failed, he became despondent, convinced that the oracle had told him something that was impossible, and was consoled by his wife. She laid his head in her lap and herself became disconsolate. When Phalanthus felt her tears splash onto his forehead he at last grasped the meaning of the oracle, for his wife's name meant clear sky. The harbour of Taranto in Apulia was nearby and he decided this must be the new home for the exiles. The Partheniae arrived and founded the city, naming it Taras after the son of the Greek sea god, Poseidon, and the local nymph Satyrion. A variation says Taras was founded in 707 BC by some Spartans, who, the sons of free women and enslaved fathers, were born during the Messenian War. According to other sources, Heracles founded the city. Another tradition indicates Taras himself as the founder of the city; the symbol of the Greek city (as well as of the modern city) is Taras riding a dolphin. Taranto increased its power, becoming a commercial power and a sovereign city of Magna Graecia, ruling over the Greek colonies in southern Italy.

In its beginning, Taranto was a monarchy, probably modelled on the one ruling over Sparta; according to Herodotus (iii 136), around 492 BC king Aristophilides ruled over the city. The expansion of Taranto was limited to the coast because of the resistance of the populations of inner Apulia. In 472 BC, Taranto signed an alliance with Rhegion, to counter the Messapii, Peuceti, and Lucanians (see Iapygian-Tarentine Wars), but the joint armies of the Tarentines and Rhegines were defeated near Kailìa (modern Ceglie), in what Herodotus claims to be the greatest slaughter of Greeks in his knowledge, with 3,000 Reggians and uncountable Tarentines killed. In 466 BC, Taranto was again defeated by the Iapyges; according to Aristotle, who praises its government, there were so many aristocrats killed that the democratic party was able to get the power, to remove the monarchy, inaugurate a democracy, and expel the Pythagoreans. Like Sparta, Tarentum was an aristocratic republic, but became democratic when the ancient nobility dwindled.

However, the rise of the democratic party did not weaken the bonds of Taranto and her mother-city Sparta. In fact, Taranto supported the Peloponnesian side against Athens in the Peloponnesian War, refused anchorage and water to Athens in 415 BC, and even sent ships to help the Peloponnesians, after the Athenian disaster in Sicily. On the other side, Athens supported the Messapians, in order to counter Taranto's power.

In 432 BC, after several years of war, Taranto signed a peace treaty with the Greek colony of Thurii; both cities contributed to the foundation of the colony of Heraclea, which rapidly fell under Taranto's control. In 367 BC Carthage and the Etruscans signed a pact to counter Taranto's power in southern Italy.

Under the rule of its greatest statesman, strategist and army commander-in-chief, the philosopher and mathematician Archytas, Taranto reached its peak power and wealth; it was the most important city of the Magna Graecia, the main commercial port of southern Italy, it produced and exported goods to and from motherland Greece and it had the biggest army and the largest fleet in southern Italy. However, with the death of Archytas in 347 BC, the city started a slow, but ineluctable decline; the first sign of the city's decreased power was its inability to field an army, since the Tarentines preferred to use their large wealth to hire mercenaries, rather than leave their lucrative trades.

In 343 BC Taranto appealed for aid against the barbarians to its mother city Sparta, in the face of aggression by the Brutian League. In 342 BC, Archidamus III, king of Sparta, arrived in Italy with an army and a fleet to fight the Lucanians and their allies. In 338 BC, during the Battle of Manduria, the Spartan and Tarentine armies were defeated in front of the walls of Manduria (nowadays in province of Taranto), and Archidamus was killed.

In 333 BC, still troubled by their Italic neighbours, the Tarentines called the Epirotic king Alexander Molossus to fight the Bruttii, Samnites, and Lucanians, but he was later (331 BC) defeated and killed in the battle of Pandosia (near Cosenza). In 320 BC, a peace treaty was signed between Taranto and the Samnites. In 304 BC, Taranto was attacked by the Lucanians and asked for the help of Agathocles tyrant of Syracuse, king of Sicily. Agathocles arrived in southern Italy and took control of Bruttium (present-day Calabria), but was later called back to Syracuse. In 303 BC-302 BC Cleonymus of Sparta established an alliance with Taranto against the Lucanians, and fought against them.

Arnold J. Toynbee, a classical scholar who taught at Oxford and other prestigious English universities and who did original and definitive work on Sparta (e.g. The Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. xxxiii 1913 p. 246-275) seemed to have some doubts about Tarentum (Taranto) being of Spartan origin.

In his book The Study of History vol. iii p. 52 he wrote: "...Tarentum, which claimed a Spartan origin; but, even if this claim was in accordance with historical fact..." The tentative phrasing seems to imply that the evidence is neither conclusive or even establishes a high degree of probability of the truth that Tarentum (Taranto) was a Spartan colony.

CALABRIA, Tarentum. Circa 302-281 BC. AR Drachm (17mm, 2.91 gm). Helmeted head of Athena right, helmet decorated with Skylla hurling a stone / Owl standing right head facing, on olive branch; Vlasto 1058; SNG ANS 1312; HN Italy 1015. VF.

Ex-Cng eAuction 103 Lot 2 190/150
2 commentsecoli
Cambodia.jpg
Cambodia - People's Republic of Kampuchea 40 viewsKm69 - 5 Sen - 1979Daniel F
022.JPG
Carmo (Seville) Hispania Ulterior Early 1st Century BC Bronze As 15 viewsBronze as, Villaronga 24, SNG BM Spain 1588 ff., Burgos 459, F, 16.2g, 25mm,
Carmo (Seville) mint, male head right; reverse CARMO, legend between two heads of grain ; scarce!!!
Hispania is the Latin term given to the Iberian peninsula. Hispania Ulterior (Further Hispania) was a region of Hispania during the Roman Republic, roughly located in Baetica and in the Guadalquivir valley of modern Spain and extending to all of Lusitania (modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of Salamanca province) and Gallaecia (modern Northern Portugal and Galicia). Its capital was Corduba.
Antonivs Protti
Hispania_Republica1.JPG
Castulo, Spain, AE17, (2.76g) 1st century BC, 33 viewsYoung male head right, Phoenician letter before. / Bull right, crescent above, two Phoenicial letters below. Burgos 897 2 commentsAntonivs Protti
EF-celtic-imm.jpg
CELTIC, Celtic Imitation of Roman Republican Semis103 viewsObverse-Bust of Saturn
Reverse-Galley prow, S above, OMA below.

I think the R in the exergue may be off center. The A is about 30 degrees tilted left.
CoinScrubber
cent_american_rep.jpg
CENTRAL AMERICAN REPUBLIC51 viewsCENTRAL AMERICAN REPUBLIC - 1831 AR 2 Reales. KM #9.3.1 commentsdpaul7
DSC_2410.JPG
CHILE - 5 Pesos 1927 - KM 17326 viewsObv: REPUBLICA DE CHILE, defiant condor on the Rock Left.
Rev: 5 CINCO PESOS 1927 within wreath.
Minted in Santiago de Chile

37 mm in diam. 25 g.
1 commentspierre_p77
China.jpg
China109 viewsy400.2 - 20 Cash - Republic of China
Hunan - 1911+
Y11j - 20 Cash - Tai Ching, Guang Xu
Hupeh - 1906
Y394.1 - 50 Cents - Republic of China
Honan - 1911+
Y190 - 1 Cash - Ching Dyn., Guang Xu
Kwangtung - 1890-1898
Daniel Friedman
GANSU_WARLORDS.jpg
CHINA - Gansu Province Warlords141 viewsCHINA - Gansu Province Warlords - Republic of China (1911-1949). Brass cast issue, 1919, 20 Wen. Obv.: Crossef Republic flags. Rev.: Lettering in wreath. Unlisted in Krause. Another coin of this type can be seen at ZENO.RUdpaul7
China Modern.jpg
China - Modern Coinage111 viewsY1 - 1 Fen – People’s Republic - 1980
Y2 - 2 Fen – People’s Republic - 1981
Y3 - 5 Fen – People’s Republic - 1976
Y264 - 1 Yuan – Sword Dancer - 1990
Y265 - 1 Yuan – Female Archer - 1990
Y330 - 1 Yuan - 1995
y1069 - 1 Yuan - 2006
Daniel Friedman
ORDO_CULTURE_SPEC_MONEY.jpg
CHINA - Ordos Culture67 viewsCHINA - Ordos Culture "Special Money" - AE Lattice piece with "+" character. Late Bronze Age, c. 1600-1200 B.C.E. 40 mm at longest part; about 19 mm wide. 3.5 g. This is described by some China monetary experts as a form of money; others say this is not the case - as with Bell Money, Bridge Money, etc. These experts seem to lean toward the theory that these were burial objects.
Per Wikipedia: The Ordos culture comprises the period from Upper Paleolithic to the late Bronze age at the Ordos Desert, in the south of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China, about 300 kilometers from modern Beijing. The Ordos were predominantly Mongoloid, as known from their skeletal remains and artifacts, but numerous interactions between Europoid and Mongoloid might have also taken place in that region over the course of several centuries, until its occupation by Qin and Han dynasties.
dpaul7
china_1_fan.jpg
CHINA - REPUBLIC103 viewsCHINA - REPUBLIC AE 10 cash, 1916. KM#324.1 commentsdpaul7
CHINA_REP_BRASS_302a.jpg
CHINA - Republic179 viewsCHINA - Republic (1911-1949) Brass 10 Cash, c. 1920. Y-302a. dpaul7
CHINA_REPUBLIC_MIN_GUO_TONG_BAO_10_CASH.jpg
CHINA - Republic28 viewsCHINA - Republic (1911-1949) 1 Cash, circa 1912. Obv. legend: 民国通寳 = Min Guo Tong Bao (read top-bottom-right-left) meaning People's Kingdom (Republic of China) Precious Coin. Rev.: Dang Shi (Value Ten). Dongchuan, Yunnan Province Mint. Reference: Hartill 24.8.
*NOTE: This is one of the LAST of five official "Cash" coins (with square hole) cast in China, ending a tradition of well over 2,000 years!
dpaul7
CHINA_REP_SZECHUAN_PROV.jpg
CHINA - Republic - Szechuan Province146 viewsCHINA - Republic - Szechuan Province Brass 50 Cash, 1912. Parts of obverse weakly struck. Reference: Y-449.1a.
dpaul7
CHINA_REP_KWANGTUNG_20C.jpg
CHINA - Republic, Kwangtung Province85 viewsCHINA - Republic, Kwangtung Province - AR 20 cents, 1920. Reference: Y-423.dpaul7
3720615629_34e1167173_o.jpg
Claudia47 viewsRoman Republic Denarius of C.Claudius Pulcher. 110-109BC. Head of Roma right / Victory in biga right. Syd 569.

Ex. Gorny & Mosch auction 134, 11/10/2004, 2361.
2 commentsrmon
9jyRfDi4Ba2EiKo5x6WmFK3r8JzLw7.jpg
Claudia 2 Roman Republic A. Claudius Pulcher et al 111-110 BC AR Denarius24 viewsClaudia 2 Roman Republic A. Claudius Pulcher et al 111-110 BC AR Denarius. Head of Roma/Victory driving triga. Cr. 299/1a. VF.
Size: 17 mm _6602 sold
Antonivs Protti
Republican_Cloelius_Roma_Biga_denar_AR20_3.71g_Cr-2601_Syd-516_Cloulia1.jpg
Cloelius, Roma, Biga, denar37 viewsDenarius, Rome, 128 BC, 3.71g. Cr-260/1, Syd-516, Cloulia 1. Obv: Head of Roma r., wreath behind, ROMA below, Rx: Victory in biga r., ear of wheat below horses, [T] CLOVLI in exergue. . Fine

ex HJB
areich
89-2-NAC78-4_36g.jpg
Club, Denarius, Crawford 89/118 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; below, club symbol; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Apulia
Weight: 4.36 gm.
Reference: Crawford 89/1
Provenance: NAC 78 part , lot 537, 28-MAY-2014


Comments: The club issue is believed to be closely related by style to the fully anonymous RRC 53/2 group 4. In fact many coins of these two varieties are identical stylistically but for the symbol. It is now believed that all denari of this period of the II Punic war were struck in the war theater, probably in Apulia, rather than in Rome as Crawford suggested.

The reverse of this coin is slightly off-center and there is some indication of over striking, although it is so light the under-type is not discernable. Otherwise lovely iridescent toning, struck on a round flan and EF.
1 commentsSteve B5
Papiria7.JPG
Cn Carbo denarius, 121 BC48 viewsHelmetted head of Roma right, X behind
Jupiter with thunderbolt in quadriga right
CARB below
ex. ROMA
Papiria 7, Cr 279/1, Syd 415, RCV 150
whitetd49
coins121.JPG
Cn Domitianus Ahenobarbus 128 BC15 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC: Cn Domitianus Ahenobarbus Denarius. 128 BC. Head of Roma right, * below / Victory in galloping biga right, ROMA above, man spearing lion (or hound?) below horses, CN DOM in ex. Syd 514, Cr261/1,Domitia 14.
ecoli
Papiria-7.png
Cn. Carbo – Papiria-716 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC Cn Carbo Denarius. 121 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind / Jupiter in galloping quadriga right brandishing a thunderbolt, CARB below, ROMA in ex. Crawford 279/1; Syd 415; RCV154Bud Stewart
Cn__Lentulus.jpg
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus - Cornelia-5579 viewsROMAN REPUBLICAN, Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus. 76-75 B.C. AR denarius (3.80 g, 17.7 mm). Spanish (?) mint. G. P. R - Diademed and draped bust of Genius right, scepter over shoulder / LENT CVR ӿ F Scepter with wreath, globe, and rudder; EX to left; S.C to right. Crawford 393/1b; Sydenham 752a; RSC Cornelia 55; SRCV 324. banker's mark on cheek.2 commentsBud Stewart
domitianus_ahenobarbus_Cr261.1.jpg
Cn. Domitianus Ahenobarbus, Crawford 261/160 viewsRoman Republic, Cn. Domitianus Ahenobarbus, gens Domitia
AR - Denarius, 18.52mm, 3.88g
Rom, 128 BC
obv. Head of Roma, helmeted, r., star before, grain-ear behind
rev. Victory, holding whip, galloping in biga right, ROMA above, man spearing big
hound below horses, CN.DOM in ex.
Crawford 261/1; Sydenham 514; Domitia 14
VF/near VF, rev.slightly off center, dark old collection toning
Pedigree.
Ex Gorney & Mosch, auctions 155-157, Lot 2631

Sometimes the scene beneath the biga is interpreted as fight of a gladiator against a lion, but sometimes related to Bituitus, king of the Averni, who unleashed a pack of huge dogs against the Romans in his battles.
Jochen
AR_-_Cn__Lucret__Trio-3.jpg
Cn. Lucret. Trio, 136 BC 23 viewsAR Denarius, Syd 450, Cr237/1

Grade Ch AU - Strike 5/5 - Surface 5/5
Obv.: TRIO behind the head of Roma facing right and X below chin.
Rev.: The Dioscuri galloping right, with legend CN.LVCR below the horses, and ROMA in the exergue.

This type/style denarius is seen frequently during the Republic Period and I felt it important that my set have an example of this style.

I purchased this coin from Heritage Auctions
Richard M10
Cn__Plancius.JPG
Cn. Plancius - Plancia-180 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC Cn. Plancius. 55 BC. AR Denarius (3.88 gm - 18.51 mm). Head of Macedonia right wearing causia (felt hat). CN•PLANCIVS before, AED•CVR•S•C (aedile curele, senatus consulto) behind; Reverse agrimi standing right, bow and quiver behind. Cr432/1; Syd 933; Plancia-1; SRCV 3963 commentsBud Stewart
147-1-Naville-Blk.jpg
CN.DO Monogram - Denarius, Crawford 147/17 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 189-180 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri riding r. ROMA in raised letters in frame. CN.DO below
Mint: Rome
Weight: 3.23 gm.
Reference: Crawford 147/1
Provenance: Naville sale, 23-FEB-2013.

Comments:
CN.DO monogram issue. This was a very inexpensive coin from Naville on this auction. Still, a nice representative example of of this issue with no problems. The moneyer is believed to be Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Cos. 162. Obverse a bit off-center, nice surfaces and toning, VF.
Steve B5
Congo Democratic Rep - Belgian Congo.jpg
Congo Democratic Republic - Belgian Congo41 viewsKM20 - 1 franc - 1923Daniel F
Congo Republic - Katanga.jpg
Congo Republic - Katanga35 viewsKM1 - 1 Franc - 1961 Daniel F
Constantine II- VOT V.jpg
Constantine II- VOT V56 viewsConstantine II , 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D.

Obverse:
Laureate bust right.

CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
IYN: Junior
NOB: Noble
C: Caesar


Reverse:
CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, our emperor

CAESARVM: Emperor
NOSTRORVM: Our
VOT V in wreath, Vows of the five years


Domination: Bronze AE 3, size 19 mm

Exe: The most common of them would be from Siscia, RIC VII Siscia 163, with ASIS* through to ESIS* in exe. RIC 163

In the Id- section there was a small funny discussion about Constantine being nude, and here is the final answer:

The conventional usage had better be kept, and is as Robert says. Sculpture shows that from the mid-1st century onward, a 'head' showing the naked shoulders (or after c. 100 the pectorals as well), is the 'short' equivalent to a nude or semi-nude (half-draped) statue: i.e., it is at least vaguely divinized. Often, both on the coins and on the sculptures, there was a bit of drapery on one shoulder, which would be the 'short' version of semi-nude. The point is that real, live Romans didn't go around that way; they even wore a tunic under the toga, and we know what they thought about bare feet!
But Head to r. is shorter than Heroic Bust to r. (which many wouldn't understand, anyhow) in listing coins. In discussing a coinage, of course, one may need to discuss some in terms of divinizing or heroizing, but in lists the 'Head' usage is established, more than established; besides, for the Republic it is accurate: family portraits were just heads with little more than the neck.
Pat L.
John Schou
Constantius II SPES REI-PVBLICE 1.jpg
Constantius II SPES REI-PVBLICE49 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.

Obverse:

Head right, bust draped, cuirassed, and perl-diademed.

DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF

DN: Dominus Noster
CONSTAN-TIVS: Constantius
PF: Pius Felix

Reverse:

SPES REI-PVBLICE, The faith of the republic

SPES: Faith/ hope
REI-PVBLICE: Republic

Emperor helmeted in military dress standing left holding globe in right and spear in left

Domination: Bronze, AE 4, size 15 mm

Mint: Maybe Alexandria
John S
Constantius II- SPES REIPVBLICE new.jpg
Constantius II- SPES REIPVBLICE67 viewsConstantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.

Obverse:

Head right, bust draped, cuirassed, and perl-diademed.

DN CONSTAN-TIVS PF

DN: Dominus Noster
CONSTAN-TIVS: Constantius
PF: Pius Felix

Reverse:

SPES REI-PVBLICE

SPES: Faith/ hope
REI-PVBLICE: Republic

Emperor helmeted in military dress standing left holding globe in right and spear in left

Domination: Bronze, AE 4, size 15 mm

Mint: ANB, Antiochia. In RIC VIII it is listed as Antiochia 193; dated 6 Nov.355-3 Nov.361; scarce
John Schou
P1019513.JPG
Cordius Rufus. Roman Republic. 46 B.C. Silver Denarius AR17mm.9 viewsCordius Rufus. Roman Republic. 46 B.C.
Obv: no legend - Conjoined heads of the Dioscuri, right wearing pilei (caps); in field above, two stars.
Rev: MN CORDIVS -Venus standing left with Cupid on left shoulder, holding transverse scepter and scales.
Lee S
armorica_quart.jpg
Coriosolite Bi "boar" stater, region: Armorica (Brittany and Channel Islands), c. 56 BC24 viewsSlightly oval shape, obverse convex, reverse a bit concave. 19-20+mm, 2+mm thick, 5.05g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: billon of unknown silver and other metal content.

Obverse: stylized head of a god right (Celtic "Apollo", most probably a Sun or sky god) with three plaits of curly hair forming the triskelion-like spiral pattern, reverse: stylized charioteer driving a chariot right with a boar right under the horse and a curl and leaf device in front of it.

The design is loosely based on golden staters of Philip II of Macedon with laureate head of Apollo right on obverse and a charioteer driving a biga (Mediterranean two-horse chariot) right on reverse.

ID: since the obverse is worn off, it is impossible to determine exactly the variety of this coin. but the reverse features such as no reins, chariot driver's head has no long "nose" and even the weak obverse and strong clear reverse all point to series Y. The pellet eye of the pony, no ears, characteristic shape of the pony's head, "weird" driver and the leaf and curl rather than the quadrilateral banner all point to class I (roman numeral), most probably its middle group I (letter), but earlier group H or later transitional groups J or even K of class III are also possible (only the shape of the eye and nose on the obverse would have allowed to tell definitely). This is a well-developed middle chronological type, minted somewhere west of the river Rance.

Mythological and symbolic connotations of this design are very complex. The spirals (here present in the god's hair and as the device before the horse) were one of the most important Celtic symbols, with its main meaning related to the Sun and life (e. g. the Sun's "growing" from winter to summer solstice and then dwindling back, growing from child to adult, leaves and vines unfolding etc.) The double spiral meant life and death or death and rebirth, the cycle of seasons, that sort of thing. The triple spiral or triskelion was probably of the biggest mystical significance, connected to the godhead, with meaning like past+present+future = eternity or morning + day + evening = time. It definitely had to do with the change of seasons, flow of time, power over life and death. Thus the god's hear all made out of spirals with three main spiral branches. The charioteer also probably represents a deity, probably the same deity representing light and life, hunting the boar representing darkness and death. The boar symbol (if one looks closely, there is a rising or setting sun symbol -- a pellet within a circle over a line -- between the boar's legs) is connected to the darkness because boars are dark and their tusks look like crescent moons. They are also parts of many myths, e. g. Greek darkish stories of the Calydonian Boar hunted by Meleager and his many hero comrades or the Erymanthian boar killed by Heracles as his fourth (by some counts) labor: Celts shared the Greek mythological tradition, but probably imbued it with many of their own mythological connotations. God hunting the boar probably symbolizes the same as the spirals in the obverse: changing of seasons, passing of time, life and rebirth etc.

Coriosolites were a Gallic tribe. In the 1st century BC they were living in the so called "Armorica" (ar mor = by the sea) -- a region of modern Brittany around the river Rance roughly to the south of Jersey. They probably migrated there from Rhineland, running away from the Germanic expansion, since they share some cultural features with the Celtic tribes of the Rhine. This tribe on its own was hardly of much significance compared to the other neighboring Gallic tribes (Unelli, Osismii, Veneti, Redones, Abrincatui etc.), but their coin making is among the best studied of all the Celts because several huge hoards of their coins were discovered in Brittany and Jersey, and studied in detail. When Romans led by Julius Caesar came to conquer Gaul, Coriosolites were actively resisting, first on their own, then as a part of the local tribal union and, finally, contributed to Vercingetorix's war effort. The minting of these coins and hoarding them was probably related to these war activities and subsequent defeat, so since series Y is in the middle of the chronology, it can probably be dated around the middle of the Gallic wars (58 - 50 BC), but since the main event in Armorica, the stand off with Viridovix, happened in 57-56 BC, that's probably the best guess.

In addition to Caesar himself, two other Roman generals who fought Coriosolites should be mentioned: Publius Licinius Crassus (86|82? - 53 BC), a son of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Caesar's co-triumvir, who led the initial assault on Armorica, and Quintus Titurius Sabinus, who defeated the union of three Gallic tribes (Unelli, Curiosolitae, and Lexovii) under the chieftain Viridovix in 56 BC. Ironically to our discussion, when Crassus went back to Rome, his first office there was a monetalis, i. e. a Republican official with authority to issue coins.

A lot more about this type of coins can be learned here:
http://www.writer2001.com/exp0002.htm
Yurii P
58-2-08-2006-LHS.jpg
Cornucopia, Denarius, Crawford 58/2/121 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 207 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor. Behind, “X”. Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Corucopia below riders; in linear frame. “ROMA”.
Mint: Rome
Weight: 4.12 gm.
Reference: Crawford 58/2
Provenance: LHS Numismatik purchased 16-AUG-2006


Comments: Anonymous denarius with cornucopia symbol below dioscuri. This issue is of usually of very pleasing style and is quite common in high grade. This example coin is Good EF.

This coin was part of the Ritter-Leu “S” hoard. For more on this hoard, see P. Debernardi and S. Brinkman “An Early Roman Republican Denarius Hoard”, Numismatic Chronicle, 2016.
1 commentsSteve B5
2790203.jpg
Cr 38/5 - Anonymous Sextans22 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Anonymous Æ Sextans (30mm, 30.20 g, 9h). Semi-Libral std. Rome mint. ~217-215 BC.

Head of Mercury right, wearing winged petasus; •• (mark of value) above / Prow of galley right; •• (mark of value) below.

VF, dark green patina, earthen highlights.
Crawford 38/5; Sydenham 85.
From the Bruce R. Brace Collection.
ex CNG
RR0001
3 commentsSosius
981cnga411.jpg
Cr 39/4 Æ Uncia Anonymous3 viewsc. 217-215 B.C.E. Rome

Radiate and draped facing bust of Sol; • (value) to left
Crescent; two stars and • (value) above; ROMA below
24mm 12.47 gm

ex. McCabe; ex RBW

This large "unit" of the semilibral standard, comes from the series sometimes also described as "collateral". Crawford identified only struck bronzes from Triens to Semuncia for this issue. There are no clearly-associated cast bronze larger denominations, with the nearest-dated such cast types having more directly-related struck smaller denominations.
Yet, this series demonstrates the last great gasp of creativity in Republican bronze, no Prows in sight and without standardized presentations of the soon-to-be-rigid obverse gods.
Although not rare, these interesting types do not show up in every sale. This specimen has a bit of roughness but also a wonderful strike.
PMah
AE_Quadrans_punic~0.jpg
Cr 56/5 - AE Quadrans, Sardinia12 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
AE Quadrans (3.5g), Sardinia
After 211 B.C., probably a second Punic war overstrike over a Punic bronze

Head of Hercules with three dots behind / Prow of galley with eye.

Crawford RRC 56/5 (lightweight Punic overstrike).

Thanks to FORVM member Andrew McCabe for his help attributing this coin.
RR0006
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AsForumPhilius.jpg
Cr 144/4 AE Quadrans 10 viewso: head of Hercules right, clad in Nemean Lion's scalp, three pellets (mark of value) behind
r: prow of galley right, Victory flying right crowning LFP monogram with wreath above, three pellets (mark of value) before, ROMA below

Roman Republic, LFP monogram (L. Furius Philus?), 189 - 179 B.CBronze quadrans, Crawford 144/4, Sydenham 300c, SRCV I 1088, F, nice olive green patina, pitting on obverse, Rome mint, weight 7.513g, maximum diameter 22.3mm, die axis 180o, 189 - 179 B.C.; obverse head of Hercules right, clad in Nemean Lion's scalp, three pellets (mark of value) behind; reverse prow of galley right, Victory flying right crowning LFP monogram with wreath above, three pellets (mark of value) before, ROMA below; from the Andrew McCabe Collection; very rare;
Purchased from Forum Ancient Coins
PMah
Q_Marius_Quadrans.jpg
Cr 148/4 - Q Marius Quadrans16 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Q. MARIUS
Æ Quadrans, ~189-180 BC, 7.64g

Head of Hercules r., wearing lion’s skin; above, three pellets. / Q·MARI Prow r.; before, three pellets and below, ROMA.

Maria 4. Sydenham 367c. Crawford 148/4.
Very rare. VG/aFine.

Thanks to Andrew McCabe for his help IDing this coin.
RR0024
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AsForumPurp.jpg
Cr 187/2 AE As Furia 12 viewsRoman Republic, Furius Purpurio, 169 - 158 B.C., Bronze as, Crawford 187/2, Sydenham 359, BMCRR II Italy 424, Russo RBW 798, SRCV I 705

Bronze as, Crawford 187/2, Sydenham 359, BMCRR II Italy 424, Russo RBW 798, SRCV I 705, gF, green and red patina, 19th century India ink collection mark, R.L. Furia" on reverse, weight 23.130g, maximum diameter 37.9mm, die axis 225o, Rome mint, 169 - 158 B.C.; obverse laureate and bearded head of Janus, I (mark of value) above; reverse prow right, PVR (ligate) above, I before, ROMA in exergue; big 37.9 mm bronze, from the Andrew McCabe Collection; scarce

Purchased from Forum Ancient Coins
PMah
Spurilia_1_Den.jpg
Cr 230/1 - Spurilia 1 Denarius16 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
AR Denarius (4.0g)
A. Spurilius, Moneyer, 139 BC

Helmeted head of Roma r.; behind, X. / Luna in biga r., holding reins and whip; below, A·SPVRI. In exergue, ROMA.

Spurilia 1. Sydenham 448. Crawford 230/1. aVF, tight flan
RR0031
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660aa177combo.jpg
Cr 231/1 AR Denarius C. Renius8 views138 BCE Rome mint
o: Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind
r: Juno (Caprotina?) in biga of goats right, C. RENI below goats, ROMA in exergue.
Renia 1. 3.73 gm 18.00 mm
What can one say about a type that prominently features goats pulling a cart? Apparently a great deal if you are one of the great Republican numismatists and historians, who have a wide variety of explanations for why one of the more serious goddesses is being pulled around in a goat chariot on a fairly common coin. Crawford spends half a page saying why his predecessors are wrong to say the reverse depicts "Juno Caprotina" or other variations on the type. However, all he concludes is that it has something to do with Juno and and something to do with a goat, but not apparently "Juno of the Goat". This is one of those explanations in Crawford that leave something to be desired, such as clarity.

However, clarity is not a problem with this coin, which is nearly perfect except for the awkward chip in the flan from separation from the strip. I feel that the worker who separated the coins really tried to get the best out of this one.
PMah
689CN444.jpg
Cr 244/3 Æ Quadrans C. Aburius Geminus12 viewsRome, 134 BCE
o: Head of Hercules right, wearing lion’s skin headdress; ••• (mark of value) behind, [club below]
r: Prow of galley right; C • (ABVR)I/GEM above, ••• (mark of value) to right
Sydenham 491a; Type as RBW 1008
18.5mm 4.29 gm

This coin, as with the other 3 posted at same time, is vastly better in hand. This coin also has a Republic-nerd pedigree to die for: From the Andrew McCabe Collection. Ex RBW Collection Duplicate; purchased by RBW from Roberto Russo.
PMah
Vargunteia_1_Denarius~0.jpg
Cr 257/1 - Vargunteia 1 Denarius40 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
AR Denarius (3.7g)
M Vargunteius, moneyer 130 BC.

M VARG, helmeted head of Roma right, X before / Jupiter in slow quadriga right, ROMA in ex.

Vargunteia 1, Cr257/1, Syd 507.
RR0032
2 commentsSosius
CNGlot496Domitia.jpg
Cr 261/1 AR Denarius Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus 16 views128 BCE. (20mm, 3.90 g, 6h). Rome mint.
o: Helmeted head of Roma right; grain stalk to left, mark of value below chin
r: Victory, holding reins and whip, driving biga right, ROMA above; below, man attacking lion with spear, CN. DOM in ex
Crawford 261/1; Sydenham 514; Domitia 14; RBW 1056.
The Domitii Ahenobarbi peaked early in the late Republic, with many a contentious character active at key moments.
The last to hold the name for long was Nero's father, conveniently dying in time for Nero's mother Agrippina to marry Claudius, who adopted young Domitius.
PMah
Carbo_Denarius~0.jpg
Cr 279/1 - Cn Carbo Denarius17 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Cn Carbo Denarius. 121 BC.

Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind / Jupiter in galloping quadriga right brandishing a thunderbolt, CARB below, ROMA in ex.

Papiria7, Crawford 279/1; Syd 415.
RR0009
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Sergia_1_Den_2.jpg
Cr 286/1 - Sergia 1 Denarius36 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
AR Denarius (3.7g)
M Sergius Silus, Moneyer. 116 BC.

EX S C ROMA *, head of Roma right / Horseman galloping left with sword & severed head held aloft, Q below horses leg, M SERGI below, SILVS in ex.

Sergia 1, Syd 534, Cr286/1. aF, holed.
RR0030
1 commentsSosius
Fonteia_1.jpg
Cr 290/1 - Fonteia 121 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
C Fonteius Denarius.
114-113 BC.

Janiform head of the Dioscuri, control letter left, * right / C FONT, galley with pilot and three oarsman, ROMA in ex.

Cr290/1, Syd 555, Fonteia 1
RR0017
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CNGBlasio.jpg
Cr 296/1d AR Denarius Cn. Blasio Cn.f. 34 viewso: Helmeted male head (Mars or Scipio Africanus?) right; [mark of value] above, prow stem behind
r: Jupiter standing facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt, crowned by Juno on left and Minerva on right
Cn. Blasio Cn.f. 112-111 BC. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.86 g, 6h). Rome mint. Helmeted male head (Mars or Scipio Africanus?) right; [mark of value] above, prow stem behind / Jupiter standing facing, holding scepter and thunderbolt, between Juno on left and Minerva on right, crowning Jupiter with wreath; Π between Jupiter and Minerva. Crawford 296/1d; Sydenham 561b; Cornelia 19.
2 commentsPMah
443CassiaCNG.jpg
Cr 298/1 AR Denarius Lucius Caesius 13 views112-111 BCE. AR Denarius (20.4mm, 3.72 g, 1h). Rome mint.
O: Youthful, draped bust of Vejovis left, seen from behind, hurling thunderbolt; ROMA monogram to right
R: Two Lares seated right, each holding a staff; dog standing right between them, head of Vulcan and tongs above; L. CAESI
Crawford 298/1; Sydenham 564; Caesia 1

An unusual coin for this era of the Republic, particularly the bust seen over the shoulder. On the Rev, these are often cited as "Lares Praestites", guardians of the City of Rome. That makes sense as a coin, but that image is rare on coins and I (hope/think) some of the more local or personal lares are intended. The unusual obverse suggests that perhaps the reverse is equally creative and artistic.

PMah
Flaminia_Den.jpg
Cr 305/1 - Flaminia 15 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
L Flaminius Chilo
AR Denarius, 3.78g
109-108 BC.

ROMA, helmeted head of Roma right; X before / L FLAMIN, Victory in biga right.

Sear 179, Flaminia 1, Cr302/1, Syd 540. VF
RR0016
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48369q00.jpg
Cr 324/1 - Lucilius Rufus, 101 B.C.30 viewsSilver denarius, SRCV I 202, Sydenham 599, Crawford 324/1, RSC I Lucilia 1, VF, flat strike areas, Rome mint, weight 3.816g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 45o, 101 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, PV behind, all within a laurel wreath; reverse Victory in a biga right, whip in right, reigns in left, RVF above, M·LVCILI in exergue

Purchased from FORVM (my first Roman Republic coin)
RR0003
2 commentsSosius
Clouli_Quinarius~0.jpg
Cr 332/1 - Cloulia 2 Quinarius11 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
T Cloulis
AR Quinarius. 98 BC.

Laureate head of Jupiter right / Victory crowning trophy.

Cr332/1, Syd 586, Cloulia 2, sear5 #212
RR0012
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egnatul_quin.jpg
Cr 333/1 - Egnatuleius12 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
C. Egnatuleius C.f.
AR Quinarius (1.97 gm). Rome. 97 BC

Laureate head of Apollo right / Victory standing left, erecting trophy.

Crawford 333/1. Sydenham 588. Egnatuleia 1. Darkly toned. Good Very Fine.
Ex Heritage
RR0014
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Cato_Quinarius~0.jpg
Cr 343/2b - Cato Quinarius9 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
M Porcius Cato
AR quinarius. 89 BC.

Head of Liber right, crowned with an ivy wreath, M•CATO behind / Victory seated right, holding palm and patera. VICTRIX in ex.

Syd 597c, Cr343/2b, Porcia 7, Sear5 #248 gVF
RR0010
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Lentulus_Quin.jpg
Cr 345/2 - Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus20 viewsTHE ROMAN REPUBLIC
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Clodianus, moneyer
AR Quinarius (2.18g), 88 B.C.

Laureate head of Jupiter r. / Victory standing r., crowning trophy; CN LENT in exergue

Babelon Cornelia 51. Sydenham 703. Crawford 345/2. aVF
RR0019
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memmius_den_2.jpg
Cr 349/1 - L. and C. Memmius L.f. Galeria (87 BC)10 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
L. and C. Memmius L.f. Galeria (87 BC). 2 AR denarii (3.75 gm). Rome Mint

Laureate head of Saturn left; behind, harpa; to left, .P (retrograde); to right, EX. S. C / Venus driving biga r., holding scepter, Cupid flying l. above.

Crawford 349/1, Sydenham 712. Memmia 8. Toned. VF
Ex Heritage
RR0021
RR0022
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591AA221combo.png
Cr 352/1 AR Denarius L. Iulius Bursio5 views85 bce; 3.83 gms; 20.50 mm
o: Male head right, with attributes of Apollo (youthful head), Mercury (winged headress) and Neptune (trident); behind, rudder.
r: Victory in quadriga right; above, numeral [xv??]; in exergue, L. IVLI. BVRSIO
This is an odd type, combining attributes of three gods on the obverse with an extremely mundane reverse. The rudder die mark is fairly rare, and I have not seen another published example. Any Republican type with a wide variety of die marks and numbers will end up representlng a large issue. I will update this posting soon, when I retrieve my Crawford set.
This coin, despite the deposits, is in excellent condition.
PMah
Julia_5a_Den.jpg
Cr 352/1c - Julia 5a Denarius15 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
AR Denarius (4.1g)
L Julius Bursio, Moneyer. 85 BC.

Bust of Apollo Vejovis or Genius right, trident & control mark behind / Victory in quadriga right; number above.

Julia 5a, Cr352/1c, Syd 728a-b. VF/F
RR0018
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Crespusia_1_Denarius_.jpg
Cr 361/1c - Crespusia 1 Denarius20 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Pub Crepusius Denarius. 82 BC.

Laureate head of Apollo right, control symbols before and behind / Horseman right, brandishing spear; P CREPVSI in ex, control-numeral behind.

Syd 738a, Cr361/1c., Crespusia 1, Sear 283; VF/aVF
RR0013
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metellus_pius_den.jpg
Cr 374/1 - Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius Denarius44 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius
(81 BC). AR denarius (19mm, 3.93 gm, 7h). Uncertain mint in northern Italy.

Diademed head of Pietas right; to right, stork standing right / Q. C. M. P. I. in exergue, elephant standing left, wearing bell around neck.

Crawford 374/1. Sydenham 750. Caecilia 43. Darkly toned. Good Very Fine.
Ex Heritage
RR0023
2 commentsSosius
Maria_9_Denarius.jpg
Cr 378/1c - Maria 9 Fouree Denarius20 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
AR Fouree Denarius (2.9g), 81 BC
C Marius C f Capito, Moneyer.

CAPIT and numeral, bust of Ceres right, wreathed with corn, symbol below chin / Plowman with yoke of oxen plowing l., numeral above, C MARI C Fi below, SC in ex.

Maria 9, Syd 744b, Cr378/1c.
RR0020
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Farsueleia_1_Denarius.jpg
Cr 392/1a - Farsuleia 1 Denarius33 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
L. Farsuleius Mensor
AR Denarius. 75 BC.

MENSOR before diademed and draped bust of Liberty right; SC & pileus behind / Roma in biga assisting togate figure to mount into the chariot; scorpion below horses; L FARSVLEI in ex.

Crawford 392/1a; Syd 798a, Farsuleia 1
RR0015
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Aemilia_10_dealer.jpg
Cr 415/1 - Aemilia 1045 viewsL Aemilius Lepidus Paullus
ROMAN REPUBLIC
AR Denarius, 62 BC (3.7g)
Moneyer: L Aemilius Lepidus Paullus

Veiled and diademed head of Concordia right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA around / L Aemilius Paullus standing to right of trophy, Perseus and his two sons captive on the left, PAVLVS in ex.

Cr415/1, Syd 926, Aemilia 10 VF

Ex Imperial Coins
RR0004
3 commentsSosius
Aemilia_8_Dealer_.jpg
Cr 422/1b - Aemilia 854 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
AR Denarius, 58 BC (3.9g)
Moneyers: M Aemilius Scarus & Pub Plautius Hypsaeus

M SCAVR AED CVR EX S C, Nabatean king Aretas kneeling before camel, REX ARETAS beneath camel / P HVPSAEVS AED CVR CAPTV C HVPSAE COS PREIVER, Jupiter in quadriga right; scorpion to left.

Cr422/1b, Syd 913, Aemilia 8 VF, worn dies

Ex Imperial Coins
RR0005
3 commentsSosius
Caldus_Den_2~0.jpg
Cr 437/1b - C. Coelius Caldus 19 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
C. Coelius Caldus
AR denarius. Rome, 3.82g, 53BC

C. COEL. CALD. COS, bare head of the Caius Coelius right; behind, tablet inscribed L.D / CALDVS III VIR, radiate head of Sol right; behind, S above oval shield; below chin, round shield.

Crawford 437/1b. RSC Coelia 5 gVF, areas of light porosity
Ex Heritage
RR0008
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Caldus_Den_1~0.jpg
Cr 437/2a - C. Coelius Caldus 32 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
C. Coelius Caldus
AR denarius. Rome, 3.82g, 51BC

C COEL CALDVS COS, Bare head of Caius Coelius, standard with HIS behind, boar below chin / CALDVS. III. VIR (ALD ligate) in exergue, figure seated left atop lofty lectisternium inscribed L. CALDVS/VII. VIR. EPVL (sic; VIR and EPVL ligate) between two trophies.

Crawford 437/2a. RSC Coelia 7

gVF, areas of light porosity
Ex Heritage

Re-imaged 4/17/13. This was my second-most viewed coin, but I just really wanted to improve the background!
RR0007
1 commentsSosius
485ArteCombo.png
Cr 453/1a AR Denarius L. Plautius Plancus 13 views47 BCE
o: Facing head of Medusa with coiled snake on either side; below, L. PLAVTIVS
r: Aurora flying right, head facing slightly left, holding palm branch and reins in each hand and conducing four horses of the Sun; below, PLANCVS Cr. 453/1a. Plautia 15
(g. 3.82 mm. 18.50)
Several very nice specimens on these galleries, see JayT4 and Carausius for example.
Reasonable minds can differ, slightly, but this reverse is possibly the most artistic of the Republican series. This coin is decent, but some examples are breathtaking. Obviously, an infusion of Greek engravers that year. Perhaps from Alexandria or the aftermath of Pharsalus (speculating a bit here).
PMah
575AA204comb.png
Cr 467/1 AR Denarius J. Caesar22 viewso: COS.TERT.DICT.ITER. Head of Ceres right
r: AVGVR above, PONT.MAX. below. Simpulum, sprinkler, capis and lituus; M in right field
Minted in Africa, c 46 b.c.
3.37 gms; 19.00 mm
This coin is not a beauty and may have been a pendant at some point. Yet it is one of those intensely historical coins, minted on either side of the Battle of Thapsus, which ended the old Republican resistance to Julius Caesar. This type, with "M" ligate in reverse field right, has been said to indicate "Munus" (gift in the sense of obligation); the other variation has "D", presumably "Donativum" (gift in the sense of "here you go, poorer person"). I personally find the distinction between M and D somewhat odd and perhaps there was a more sophisticated distinction being made. As the marks appear on coins of equal value, it seems a very obscure way of distinguishing among soldiers and mere beneficiaries.
1 commentsPMah
Republik_1.jpg
Cr. 053/1, Republic - Victoriatus27 viewsRepublic
Anonymous issue, AR Victoriatus, after 211 BC
Obv.: Laureate head of Jupiter r.
Rev.: Victory r., crowning trophy; in exergue ROMA
Ref.: RSC 9, Crawford 53/1
Ag, 2.98g, 17.1mm
shanxi
Republik_13.jpg
Cr. 206/1, Republic, 150 BC, Safra 16 viewsSafra
AR Denarius, 150 BC, Rome
Obv.: Head of Roma right with winged helmet, X behind.
Rev.: SAFRA / ROMA, Victory in biga right holding reins in right hand and whip in left.
Ag, 19.5mm, 3.87g
Ref.: Crawford 206/1, Sydenham 388
shanxi
Republik_16.jpg
Cr. 2222/1, Republic, 143 BC, Anonymous24 viewsAnonymous
AR Denarius, 143BC, Rome
Obv.: Head of Roma right with winged helmet, X behind
Rev.: Diana in biga of stags right holding torch, crescent below, ROMA in exergue
Ag, 17.9x19.5mm, 4.21g
Ref.: Crawford 222/1, Sydenham 438
shanxi
Republik_14~0.jpg
Cr. 237/1a, Republic, 136 BC, Cn. Lucretius Trio. 10 viewsCn. Lucretius Trio.
AR Denarius, 136 BC, Rome
Obv: TRIO, Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) below chin.
Rev: CN LVCR / ROMA, The Dioscuri galloping right.
Ag, 17.4x19.6mm, 3.87g
Ref.: Crawford 237/1a.
shanxi
Republik_15.jpg
Cr. 242/1., Republic, 135 BC, C. Minucius Augurinus24 viewsC. Minucius Augurinus
AR Denarius, 135 BC, Rome
Obv: Helmeted head of Roma right, below chin, X, behind, ROMA.
Rev: C•A – VG Ionic column surmounted by statue, holding staff in r. hand; on either side, togate figure. Togate figure on left holding loaves in both hands, togate figure on right holding lituus. Column decorated with forepart of lion on either side at the base and two bells at the top, grain ears behind each of the lions.
Ag, 18mm, 3.69g
Ref.: Sydenham 463, Crawford 242/1.

This column is the first architectural structure on a Roman coin (the first building comes 57 years later). It honors L. Minucius Augurinus, who, as prefect, introduced price controls on grain and thus fought a famine.
shanxi
Republik_07.jpg
Cr. 263/1a, Republic, 127 BC, M. Caecilius Metellus33 viewsM. Caecilius Metellus
Denarius, 127 BC, Rome
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, star on helmet, star below, ROMA upward behind.
Rev.: M.METELLVS.Q.F., Macedonian shield with elephant's head in central boss, surrounded by laurel wreath.
Ag, 3,90g, 18 mm
Ref.: Crawford 263/1a, Syd. 480.
Ex Lanz Numismatik
1 commentsshanxi
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Cr. 296/1, Republic, 112 BC, Cn. Cornelius Blasio28 viewsCn. Cornelius Blasio
Denar, Rome, 112 BC
Obv.: [CN. BLASIO] CN. F., helmeted head of Mars (Scipio Africanus??) right, star above
Rev.: ROMA, Jupiter, scepter in left, thunderbolt in right, between Juno and Minerva
Ag, 3.82g, 17mm
Ref.: Albert 1084, Sear 173, Crawford 296/1
Ex Lanz Numismatik
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Cr. 322/1b, Republic, 102 BC, C. FABIUS C. F. HADRIANUS13 viewsC. FABIUS C. F. HADRIANUS
Denarius, 102 BC, Rome
Obv: EX A PV, Veiled and turreted head of Cybele right.
Rev: C FABI C F, Victory driving biga right, holding goad; stork before; control N. below.
Ag, 3.95g, 20mm
Ref.: Crawford 322/1b
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann auction 31, Lot 440
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Cr. 335/10a, Republic, late 90s BC, A. ALBINUS, Dioscuri, Apollo12 viewsC. MALLEOLUS, A. ALBINUS SP. F. and L. CAECILIUS METELLUS.
Denarius (Late 90s BC). Rome.
Obv: ROMA, Laureate head of Apollo right; behind star; X (mark of value) below chin.
Rev: A ALBINVS S F, The Dioscuri standing left, each holding spear and wearing pilos surmounted by star, watering horses; crescent in left field.
Ag, 3.62g, 18mm
Ref.: Crawford 335/10a, RSC Postumia 5a
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann auction 31, Lot 441
Ex Roma Numismatics Limited, Auction 4, Lot 2634
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Cr. 342/3a, Republic, 90 BC, C. Vibius C.f. Pansa, Ceres, Pig15 viewsC. Vibius C.f. Pansa
AR Denarius, 90 BC, Rome
Obv.: PANSA, Laureate head of Apollo right, symbol below chin
Rev.: C VIBIVS C F, Ceres walking right, holding two torches, pig in front
Ag, 17.5mm, 3.99g
Ref.: Cr. 342/3a, Sear 241
Ex Münzhandlung Sonntag, Auction 22, #28
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Cr. 344/1a, Republic, 89 BC, L. Titurius L.f. Sabinus14 viewsL. Titurius L.f. Sabinus
AR Denarius, 89 BC, Rome
Obv: Head of Tatius right, SABIN behind, TA monogram before.
Rev: Two Roman soldiers, each carrying a Sabine woman in his arms, L TITVRI in exergue.
Ag, 3.83g, 18mm
Ref.: Crawford 344/1a, Sydenham 698, RSC Tituria 1.
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Cr. 344/2C, Republic, 150 BC, L. Titurius L.F. Sabinus31 viewsL. Titurius L.F. Sabinus
AR Denarius, 89 BC, Rome
Obv.: SABIN A PV, Head of King Tatius right, palm below chin
Rev.: Tarpeia facing between two soldiers, star and crescent
Ag, 17mm, 4g
Ref.: Crawford 344/2C, Sydenham 699a
Clashed dies. See the mirrored BIN from SABIN behind the leg of the right soldier
Ex E.E. Clain-Stefanelli Collection
1 commentsshanxi
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Cr. 348/3, Republic, 87 BC, L. Rubrius Dossenus16 viewsL. Rubrius Dossenus
AR Denarius, 87 BC, Rome
Obv: Helmeted bust of Minerva right, wearing aegis; behind, DO[S].
Rev: Triumphal chariot with side panel decorated with eagle; above, Victory in chariot right. In exergue, L RVBR[I].
Ag, 17.5mm, 4.07g
Ref.: Sydenham 707, Crawford 348/3.
Ex E.E. Clain-Stefanelli Collection
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Cr. 385/3, Republic, 75BC, M. Volteius M.F., Ceres, Snakes, Rudder31 viewsM. Volteius M.F.
AR Denarius, 75 BC
Obv.: Head of Liber right wearing wreath of ivy and grapes
Rev.: M. VOLTEI. M.F. in exergue, Ceres in biga right driven by two serpents; rudder behind.
Ag, 18mm, 3.9g
Ref.: Crawford 385/3, Sydenham 776, Volteia 3
Ex Lanz Numismatik
1 commentsshanxi
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Cr. 394/1a, Republic, 74BC, C. POSTUMIUS40 viewsC. POSTUMIUS
Denarius, 74 BC, Rome
Obv.: Bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder.
Rev.: Hound running right, spear below, C. POSTVMI/TA ligate
Ag, 3.77g, 18.2mm
Ref.: Crawford 394/1a, Sydenham 785.
1 commentsshanxi
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Cr. 394/1a, Republic, 74BC, C. POSTUMIUS 43 viewsC. POSTUMIUS
Denarius, 74 BC, Rome
Obv.: Bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder.
Rev.: Hound running right, spear below, C. POSTVMI/TA ligate
Ag, 3.99g, 18.5mm
Ref.: Crawford 394/1a, Sydenham 785.
1 commentsshanxi
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Cr. 408/1a, Republic, 67BC, C Calpurnius Piso L F Frugi19 viewsC Calpurnius Piso L F Frugi
Denarius, 67 BC, Rome
Obv.: Laureate head of Apollo right, wheel behind
Rev.: [C] PISO L F FRV, Horseman with palm, star above
Ag, 17mm, 3.89g
Ref.: Cr.408/1a, Syd.850f.
(scratches strongly enhanced by photo light)
Ex Numismatik Lanz, Auction 158, Lot 355
Ex Gorny & Mosch, Auction 225, Lot 1947
Ex Pecunem Gitbud&Naumann auction 29, Lot 505
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Cr. 416/1c, Republic, 62BC, Bonus Eventus, Scribonian well23 viewsL. Scribonius Libo
Denarius, 62 BC, Rome
Obv.: BON EVENT LIBO, Head of Bonus Eventus right
Rev.: PVTEAL SCRIBON, Puteal Scribonianum (Scribonian well), decorated with garland and two lyres, anvil at base.
Ag, 18x19 mm, 3.93 g
Ref.: Cr. 416/1c; Syd. 928
Ex Lanz Numismatik
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Cr. 433/1, Republic, 42 BC, M. Junius Brutus28 viewsM. Junius Brutus
AR Denarius, 42BC, Rome
Obv.: LIBERTAS, Head of Libertas right.
Rev.: BRVTVS, Consul L. Junius Brutus walking left between two lictors, carrying fasces over shoulder; accensus to left.
Ag, 19mm, 3.87g
Ref.: Crawford 433/1
Ex Münzkabinett Heinrich
Ex Gitbud & Naumann, auction 39, lot 826
2 commentsshanxi
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Cr. 442/1a, Republic, 49 BC, Man. Acilius Glabrio 46 viewsMan. Acilius Glabrio
AR Denarius, 49 BC
Obv.: Laureate head of Salus right, SALVTIS upward behind.
Rev.: Valetudo standing left, leaning on column and holding snake, MN ACILIVS III VIR VALETV behind and before.
Ag, 3.79 g, 18 mm
Ref.: Crawford 442/1a. Sydenham 922. RSC Acilia 8
1 commentsshanxi
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Cr. 494/23, Republic, 42 BC, P. Clodius M. f. Turrinus 33 viewsP. Clodius M. f. Turrinus
AR Denarius, 42 BC, Rome
Obv.: Laureate bust of Apollo right; lyre behind
Rev.: P•CLODIVS right; M•F• left, Diana standing facing, with bow and quiver over shoulder, holding lighted torch in each hand;
AR, 3,78 g, 20 mm.
Ref.: Sydenham 1117, Crawford 494/23, Babelon Clodia 14
Old collection label
Ex Lanz Numismatik
1 commentsshanxi
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Cr. 494/23, Republic, 42 BC, P. Clodius M. f. Turrinus6 viewsP. Clodius M. f. Turrinus
AR Denarius, 42 BC, Rome
Obv.: Laureate bust of Apollo right; lyre behind
Rev.: P•CLODIVS right; M•F• left, Diana standing facing, with bow and quiver over shoulder, holding lighted torch in each hand;
AR, 3.92g
Ref.: Sydenham 1117, Crawford 494/23, Babelon Clodia 14
Ex Collection Reusing/Schürer
Ex Manfred Olding
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Crawford 13/131 viewsDenomination: Didrachm
Era: c. 300-280 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of bearded Mars L. Behind, Oak Spray.
Reverse: Horse’s head R. on base. Behind, corn ear. ROMANO on base of horse’s head.
Weight: 6.45 gm
Reference: Crawford 13/1
Provenance: Kunker eLive Auction 50, 18-JUL-2018.
Ex. Fritz Rudolf Künker 34, Osnabrück 1996, No. 173.


Comments: Oak spray on obverse is very light and off flan, but in-hand, the spray is obviously there. There are five curious edge cuts (test cuts?) near each other at 10-11 o'clock obv. Rare dies. Some private discussion of the authenticity but 5 coins show up in ACSearch (after 1999) and other sources with the same obverse die. Two of these have a different reverse dies. The coin is light, but all examples are light(ish), with the heaviest being 7.12 g. and the lightest is my coin 6.45 g. The second lightest of the group is 6.51 g. I am convinced it is authentic.
3 commentsSteve B5
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Crawford 20/1 - Hercules and Wolf and Twins30 viewsDenomination: Didrachm
Era: c. 269-266 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Head of Hercules R. Club and lionskin over shoulder. Border of dots.
Reverse: She-2olf r., suckling twins. ROMANO in exergue.
Weight: 7.21 gm
Reference: Crawford 20/1
Provenance: CNG shop, 09-MAR-2009

Comments: Obverse fully centered and complete. Reverse struck from a somewhat worn die, and slightly off-center obscuring the “O” in ROMONO. GVF/VF.
3 commentsSteve B5
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Crawford 25/1 Didrachm25 viewsDenomination: Didrachm
Era: c. 241-235 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of beardless Mars r. Helmet decorated with gryphon.
Reverse: Horse’s head r.; behind, sickle; below truncation, ROMA.
Weight: 6.57 gm.
Reference: Crawford 25/1
Provenance: Goldberg 69 lot 3233, 31-MAY-2012

Comments: Both sides centered, but slightly short flan leaves no trace of border on either side. Tiny obverse planchet void below chin; almost imperceptible fine cleaning marks below ROMA on reverse. Otherwise, strong VF.

2 commentsSteve B5
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Crawford 290/1, Roman Republic, C. Fonteius, Denarius56 viewsRoman Republic (Rome mint 114-113 BC.), C. Fonteius.
AR Denarius (3.74 g, 19-20 mm).
Obv.: Janiform head of the Dioscuri; I left, mark of value (XVI monogram) right, six dots below.
Rev.: C. FONT (NT in monogram) above, Galley with pilot and three oarsmen; ROMA in exergue.
Crawford 290/1 ; Sydenham 555 ; Bab. Fonteia 1 ; BMC (Italy) 597 .

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
30-1.jpg
Crawford 30/1 Didrachm quadrigatus35 viewsDenomination: Didrachm
Era: c. 225-214 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Laureate, Janiform head of Dioscuri. Border of dots
Reverse: Jupitetr in quadriga r., driven by Vicotry. Jupiter holds scepter in l. hand and hurls thunderbolt with r. hand, ROMA incuse on raised tablet. Line border
Weight: 6.66 gm.
Reference: Crawford 30/1
Provenance: Private purchase from an associate of Matteo Cavedoni (Numismatica Florentina) 1-JUN-2007

Comments: This is Crawford’s 3rd sequence of quadrigati, distinguished by Victory standing on the tailboard of the chariot rather than in the chariot with Jupiter. Reverse slightly off-center, otherwise nicely toned and GVF.
2 commentsSteve B5
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Crawford 312/1, Roman Republic, C. Sulp