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JULIAN-2.JPG
61 viewsJULIAN II - AE1 - 361-363 - Mint of Antioch
Obv.: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: SECVRITAS REIPVB
Bull standing right, two stars above; (palm) ANTB (palm).
Maxentius
DenDJSilanus.jpg
33 viewsAR Denarius - 91 BC.
D. JVNIVS SILANVS - Gens Junia
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, control mark behind (T)
Rev.: Victory in biga right, holding reins in both hands, XIIII above. In ex. D SILANVS / ROMA
Gs. 3,6 mm. 19,4x18,2
Craw. 337/3, Sear RCV 225

Maxentius
DenPinarioNatta.jpg
33 viewsDenarius - 155 BC.
PINARIVS NATTA - Gens PINARIA
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind
Rev.: / Victory in biga right holding whip and reins, NAT below, ROMA in ex.
Gs. 3,8 mm. 17,7
Craw. 200/1, Sear RCV 77.



Maxentius
DenCCatone.jpg
28 viewsDenarius - 123 BC (Grueber 150/125 BC) - Mint of Rome (Crawford). Uncertain mint in Italy (Grueber)
C. [PORCIVS] CATO - Gens Porcia
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind
Rev.: Victory in biga right holding reins and whip; C CATO below, ROMA in ex.
Gs. 3,9 mm. 18,9
Craw. 274/1, Sear RCV 149, BMRRC II 461.



Maxentius
DenLSaufeio.jpg
63 viewsDenarius - 152 BC (Grueber 172/151 BC) - Mint of Rome
L. SAVFEIVS - Gens Saufeia
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind
Rev.: Victory in galloping biga right, holding reins and whip. L. SAVF below horses. In ex. ROMA in a tablet.
Gs. 3,4 mm. 16,8x17,3
Craw. 204/1, Sear RCV 83, BMRRC 834



1 commentsMaxentius
DenMLucilioRufo.jpg
28 viewsDenarius - 101 BC. - Mint of Rome
M. LVCILIVS RVFVS - Gens Lucilia
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right within laurel wreath; P V behind
Rev.: Victory in biga right holding reins and whip; RVF above, M LVCILI in exergue.
Gs. 4 mm 19,2x21,5
Craw. 324/1, Sear RCV 202, Grueber 1613



Maxentius
DenScauroIpseo.jpg
70 viewsDenarius - Denarius - 58 BC.
M. AEMILIVS SCAVRVS & P. PLAVTIVS HVPSAEVS - Gens Aemilia & Plautia
Obv.:M. SCAVR AED CVR - EX S C - REX ARETAS Nabatean king Aretas kneeling before camel, holding olive branch
Rev.: P HVPSAE AED CVR - CAPTV - C HVPSAE COS PREIVE, Jupiter in quadriga left holding thunderbolt and reins; scorpion to left.
Gs. 4,1 mm. 16,65x17,40
Cr422/1b, Sear RCV 379

1 commentsMaxentius
DenLIliusBursio.jpg
102 viewsDenarius - 85 BC. - Rome mint
L. IVLIVS BVRSIO - Gens Iulia
Obv.: Winged male head right with the attributes of Neptune, Apollo and Mercury, control-mark & trident behind
Rev.: Victory in quadriga right holding reins and wreath, L IVLI BVRSIO in ex.
Gs. 3,9 mm 19,79
Crawf. 352/1a, Sear RCV 268, Grueber 2485



Maxentius
Troas1.jpg
81 viewsTROAS, ALEXANDREIA, Third Century AD, AE 21
Turreted bust of Tyche right; behind, vexillum/Horse grazing right. 21 mm. Cf. SNG Cop 109 (obv. legend variant); cf. Grose 7763 (obv. legend variant); cf. Lindgren I, 326 (obv. legend variant).
Collecting Ancient Greek Coins 25b (this coin pictured).

Ex: Dr. Paul Rynearson
1 commentspaul1888
coin151.jpg
38 viewsConstantinople RIC 21a
Valentinian I AE3. DN VALENTINIANVS P F AVG,
pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
/ SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing
left holding wreath & palm branch. CONSPD in ex.
Coin #151
cars100
26531q00.jpg
100 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Prieur 720 (1 example), SNG Paris 2331, Weber -, VF, 13.043g, 26.9mm, 180o, Aegeae mint, 132 - 133 A.D.; obverse AUTOKR KAIS TRAIA ADRIANO SEB P P, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ETOUS •QOR• AIGEAIWN, eagle standing facing on harpe, wings spread, head turned right, goat in ex; rare;

Aegeae issued tetradrachms only during the reigns of Hadrian and Caracalla. The issues were probably related to visits of these emperors to the town or to its famous sanctuary of Asclepius. -- The Syro-Phoenician Tetradrachms and Their Fractions from 57 BC to AD 253 by Michel and Karin Prieur

ex FORVM
dealer's picture
1 commentsareich
sfc-data-dificil-500-rs-1936-rgte-feijo-2-D_NQ_NP_1897-MLB4769578494_082013-F.jpg
9 viewsMOEDA - 500 Réis - 1938 - Regente Feijó
________________________________________
Série Ilustres
Excelente estado de conservação


ANVERSO
O busto do Regente do Império Diogo António Feijó circundado pela inscrição REGENTE FEIJÓ. Em baixo, monograma do gravador Calmon Barreto.

REVERSO
No centro, uma coluna coríntia encimada pela inscrição circular BRASIL entre dois filetes. À esquerda do campo, o valor 500 e, à direita, a palavra RÉIS em posição horizontal. No exergo, a data e, ao lado direito, a sigla do gravador Walter Toledo.

PADRÃO MONETÁRIO
MIL-RÉIS (de 08/10/1833 a 31/10/1942)

PERÍODO POLÍTICO
República, Era Vargas (1930-1945)

ORIGEM
Casa da Moeda, Rio de Janeiro

CARACTERÍSTICAS
Material: bronze alumínio
Diâmetro: 22,5 mm
Peso: 5,00 g
Espessura: 1,80 mm
Bordo: serrilhado
Titulagem: Cu 910, Al 90
Eixo: reverso medalha (EV)
_____________________
Antonivs Protti
Byzantine_follis.JPG
224 views
An Anonymous Follis Class A 2 coin, type 21
Obverse: Christ facing, holding book of gospels IC to left XC to rightEmmanovha IC XC (God with us)
Reverse: +IhSYS XRISTYS bASILEY bASILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)
Sear attributes it to the joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII 1020-1028 AD
Grierson in DOC says Romanus III and into Michael IV's
1 commentsJon the Lecturer
Troas_D.jpg
63 viewsTROAS, ALEXANDREIA, Third Century AD, AE 21
Turreted bust of Tyche right; behind, vexillum/Horse grazing right. 21 mm. Cf. SNG Cop 109 (obv. legend variant); cf. Grose 7763 (obv. legend variant); cf. Lindgren I, 326 (obv. legend variant).
Collecting Ancient Greek Coins 25b (this coin pictured).
1 commentspaul1888
edward_III.jpg
45 viewsEdward III Groat; Pre-Treaty Period; 1356 to 1361

Edward III - Born: November 13, 1312 – Died: June 21, 1377; was Kind of England from February 1, 1327 to June 21, 1377. He was considered one of the most successful kinds of the middle ages and rebuilt the military into an international military power. His reign occurred directly after the reign of his father, Edward II, who was not considered a successful king.
1 commentspaul1888
017~0.JPG
61 viewsPtolemy III Euergetes. Æ Hemidrachm - Triobol. Alexandreia mint. First phase, struck circa 246-242/1. Diademed head of Zeus-Ammon right / Eagle standing left on thunderbolt, head right; cornucopia over shoulder; E between legs. Svoronos 974 var. (control mark).

AE40 about 46.5 g.

--------------------------------

Ar 0.249g, 6.7mm
Elea(Elia?), Aeolis, AR Hemiobol. Late 5th century BC. Head of Athena left, in crested helmet / E L A I, around olive wreath, all within incuse square. SNG Cop 164 ex Forvm
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
thumbnail.jpg
10 viewsMoeda Brasil 1935- 1000 Reis
Serie Ilustres - Padre Anchieta
Módulo Maior - Escassa
________________________________

ANVERSO
Efígie do Padre José de Anchieta, de perfil, onde
se ostenta a inscrição vertical ANCHIETA.
Missionário e fundador de São Paulo.
Sigla do gravador Calmon Barreto.

REVERSO
No centro, um livro aberto e o valor 1000 réis em
semicírculo. Sob o valor, a data. No exergo, a palavra
BRASIL. Sigla do gravador Walter Toledo.

PADRÃO MONETÁRIO
MIL-RÉIS (de 08/10/1833 a 31/10/1942)

PERÍODO POLÍTICO
República, Era Vargas (1930-1945)

ORIGEM
Casa da Moeda, Rio de Janeiro

CARACTERÍSTICAS
Material: bronze alumínio
Diâmetro: 26,7 mm
Peso: 8,00 g
Espessura: 2,10 mm
Bordo: serrilhado
Antonivs Protti
sfc-1000-reis-1935-modulo-maior-anchieta-v01-D_NQ_NP_927129-MLB26255525110_102017-F.jpg
9 viewsAntonivs Protti
Copy_of_severus-alexander_ae-sestertius_quadriga_cut-01.JPG
28 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 - 33 mm

References: Cohen 377, RIC 495
5 commentsrexesq
Copy_of_severus-alexander_ae-sestertius_quadriga_02.jpg
16 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm

References: Cohen 377, RIC 495
-----------------------

~*~I will most likely be taking this coin out of it's plastic prison soon. I will post more pics after doing so.~*~
rexesq
DSC08136_sev-alex_sest_quadriga.JPG
8 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm
rexesq
DSC08134_sev-alex_sest_quadriga.JPG
12 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm
rexesq
DSC08131_sev-alex_sest_quadriga.JPG
13 viewsSeverus Alexander
Ancient Rome
Emperor Severus Alexander(222 - 232 AD) AE (Bronze) Sestertius
Struck at the Rome Mint in AD 229 - 230.

obv: IMP SEV ALEXANDER AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

rev: P M TR P VIII COS III P P - Emperor riding in quadriga right holding eagle tipped sceptre in one hand and holding the reigns in the other.
'SC' below, in exergue.

Weight: 21 Grams
Size: 32 mm - 33 mm
rexesq
500mark1923A.jpg
61 viewsGermany. Weimar Republic. 1919- 1933. Aluminum 500 Mark 1923-A. EINIGKEIT UND RECHT UND FREIHEIT, Eagle, star below / DEUTSCHES REICH 500 MARK 1923 A.

KM 36
oneill6217
Marcus_Aurelius_Sestertius.jpg
108 viewsMarcus Aurelius. Sestertius.
Reign: Emperor, A.D. 161-180
Denomination: Æ Sestertius.
Diameter: 31 mm.
Weight: 25.46 grams.
Mint: Struck in Rome, A.D. 158-9.
Obverse: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG. PII F. Head, bare, right, bust draped and cuirassed.
Reverse: TR. POT. XIII COS. II S. C. Virtus standing right, left foot on helmet, holding spear and parazonium.
Reference: RIC (A. Pius) 187, 1349b. Cohen 741.
Ex Richard Graham Collection, Schulman Sale, June, 1966, #1896.
paul1888
Bayern_König_Maximilian_II__Joseph_Kreuzer_1861_Eiche_Kranz_München.jpg
17 viewsKönigreich Bayern

Maximilian II. Joseph, 1848 - 1864

Kreuzer 1861, München

Vs: Gekröntes Wappen.

Rs: Wertangabe und Jahr im Eichenkranz.

Erhaltung: Fleckig, sehr schön.

Durchmesser: 14 mm

Gewicht: 0,9 g Billon _390
Antonivs Protti
Augsburg_Kaiser_Joseph_II__Cu_Pfennig_1786_Vindelicorum_Kupfer_Pyr.jpg
11 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich - Augsburg, Reichsstadt

Zeit Joseph II. 1765 - 1790



Pfennig 1786

Stadtpyr in Kartusche/Wertzahl,darunter Jahreszahl.

Erhaltung: Sehr schön.

Durchmesser: 16 mm

Gewicht: 1,9 g (Cu) _1989
Antonivs Protti
Argentinien_2_Centavos_1890_Hände_Fahnen_Sonne_Argentina_Bronze.jpg
13 views

Argentinien

2 Centavos

1890

Vs.: Freiheitsmütze über sich reichende Hände, eingerahmt von Kranz und Fahnen, darüber Sonne, das Ganze im Perlkreis, darunter Jahr

Rs.: Argentina, Sinnbild der Republik, Kopf n. l.

Erhaltung: Sehr schön

Metall: Bronze

30 mm, 9,65 g _592
Antonivs Protti
3_Reich_5_Reichsmark_1934_F_Garnisonskirche_Datum_Stuttgart.jpg
12 views3. Reich

Deutschland

5 Reichsmark 1934 F (Silber)

Münzstätte Stuttgart

Garnisonskirche mit Datum

Gewicht: 13,88g

Erhaltung: sehr schön _1692
Antonivs Protti
Coesfeld_IIII_Pfennig_1763_Stierkopf_Kupfer_RDR.jpg
13 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich - Coesfeld, Stadt

IIII Pfennig 1763

Stadtwappen mit Stierkopf/Wertzahl

Erhaltung: Sehr schön.

Durchmesser: 21 mm

Gewicht: 2,5 g _1493
Antonivs Protti
Deutsches_Reich_Kaiserreich_12_Mark_1918_D_München_Wilhelm_II__Adler.jpg
17 viewsDeutsches Reich -- Kaiserreich

Wilhelm II. 1888-1918

1/2 Mark 1918 D

München

Vorderseite: Jahr und Wert zwischen Eichenzweigen.

Rückseite: Adler zwischen Eichenzweigen.

Erhaltung: Fast Stempelglanz.

Metall: Silber, .900 fein.

Gewicht: 2,7 g.

Durchmesser: 20 mm. _792
Antonivs Protti
Deutsches_Reich_Friedrich_Schiller_100_Geburtstag_Seidan_1859_Verein.jpg
17 viewsBronzemedaille

Signiert W.S (Wenzel Seidan)

Undatiert (1859)

Auf den 100. Geburtstag Schillers gewidmet vom Prager Schiller-Verein





Vs: Umschrift, darin bekleidetes Brustbild nach rechts.

Rs: Sieben Zeilen Schrift zwischen zwei Lorbeerzweigen

8,0 g ; 26,0 mm

Vorzüglich _1193
Antonivs Protti
Deutsches_Reich_Friedrich_Schiller_100_Geburtstag_Seidan_1859_Verein_(2).jpg
24 viewsMedaillen

Deutsches Reich

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller war ein bedeutender deutsche Dichter, Dramatiker, Philosoph und Historiker (*1759 in Marbach am Neckar, + 1805 in Weimar)

Zinnmedaille

Signiert W.S (Wenzel Seidan)

Undatiert (1859)

Auf den 100. Geburtstag Schillers gewidmet vom Prager Schiller-Verein





Vs: Umschrift, darin bekleidetes Brustbild nach rechts.

Rs: Sieben Zeilen Schrift zwischen zwei Lorbeerzweigen

7,5 g ; 26,0 mm

Kleine Randunebenheiten, Vorzüglich _1193
Antonivs Protti
Deutsches_Reich_1_Mark_1915_D_München_Kursmünze.jpg
22 viewsDeutsches Reich

Kaiser Wilhelm II., 1888-1918

1 Mark 1915 D (Silber)

Münzstätte München

Vs.: Gekrönter Reichsadler

Rs.: Wert und Jahreszahl

Gewicht: 5,5g

Erhaltung: fein getönt, unzirkuliert _899
Antonivs Protti
Frankreich_Medaille_1878_Exposition_Universelle_Paris_Barre.jpg
11 viewsFrankreich

Medaille 1878 (Bronze)

von Barre

auf die Exposition Universelle zu Paris

Vs.: Kopf nach links

Rs.: Schrift

Gewicht: 15,4g

Durchmesser: 30mm

Erhaltung:min.Rdf., zaponiert, vorzüglich _897
Antonivs Protti
Frankreich_France_Napoleon_III__10_Centimes_1855_D_Lyon_Adler.jpg
29 views
Frankreich

Napoleon III. 1852-1870

10 Centimes

1855 D

Münzstätte: Lyon

Vs.: Napoleon III. nach links im Perlkreis

Rs.: Adler auf Bündel im Pelkreis

Erhaltung: Fast sehr schön

Metall: Bronze

30 mm, 9,47 g _694
Antonivs Protti
DOA_Deutsch_Ostafrika_1_Pesa_1892_Berlin_Krone_Adler_Kranz.jpg
18 viewsDeutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft

1 Pesa

1892

Münzstätte: Berlin

Vs: Im Lorbeerkranz auf arabisch "Gesellschaft Deutschlands" und die islamische Jahreszahl (in arabischen Zahlzeichen) 1309 für 1892

Rs: Reichsadler

Literatur: Jäger 710

Erhaltung: Schön

Metall: Kupfer

25 mm, 6,26 g _694
Antonivs Protti
Deutschland_Potsdam_Medaille_1924_Schwimmfest_Sieger.jpg
17 viewsDeutschland

Potsdam

Medaille 1924 (Bronze)

II.Preis , gestiftet vom Potsdamer Schwimmclub

Vs.: Schwimmer greifen nach Lorbeerkranz, den Germania hält

Rs.:Gravur

Gewicht: 16,3g

Durchmesser: 35mm

Erhaltung: vorzüglich _591
Antonivs Protti
Hessen_Darmstadt_Landgraf_Ernst_Ludwig_Albus_1697_Löwenschild.jpg
20 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich - Hessen Darmstadt

Ernst Ludwig, 1678 - 1739

Albus 1697

Löwenschild auf Zweigen.

Rs: Wert und Jahr auf Zweigen.

Erhaltung: Fast sehr schön

Durchmesser: 17 mm

Gewicht: 0,9 g Silber _1092
Antonivs Protti
Habsburg_RDR_Taler_1780_Maria_Theresia_Polierte_Platte.jpg
31 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich

Haus Habsburg

Maria Theresia, 1740-1780

Taler 1780 (Silber)

Vs.: Büste nach rechts

Rs.: Gekrönter Doppeladler

Gewicht: 28,2g

Durchmesser: 41,5mm

Erhaltung: fein getönt, Polierte Platte-

Posthume Prägung aus den 1970er Jahren, vorallem hergestellt für den Export in die USA _2691
Antonivs Protti
Niederlande_Wilhelmina_1_Cent_1914_Utrecht_Löwe_Bronze.jpg
21 views
Niederlande

Wilhelmina 1890-1948

1 Cent

1914

Münzstätte: Utrecht

Vs.: Löwe mit Schwert und Pfeilbündel n. l., das Ganze im Perlkreis

Rs.: Nominal im Kranz

Erhaltung: Sehr schön

Metall: Bronze

19 mm, 2,44 g _190
Antonivs Protti
Mecklenburg_Stadt_Rostock_3_Pfennig_1859_Steinhorst_Greif_Kupfer.jpg
10 viewsStadt Rostock

3 Pfennig 1859 BS ( Benjamin Steinhorst)

Greif nach links.

Rs: Wert, Jahr und Mmz.

Erhaltung: Randfehler, sehr schön.

Durchmesser: 21 mm

Gewicht: 2,8 g (Cu) _1999
Antonivs Protti
Preussen_2_Mark_1901_Friedrich_I__Wilhelm_II_Helm_Adler_Krone_Silber.jpg
23 viewsDeutsches Reich

Preussen

Königreich



Wilhelm II. (1888-1918)

2 Mark 1901

Münzstätte: Berlin

Anlässlich des 200jährigen Bestehen des Königreiches



Vorderseite: "+FRIEDRICH.I.1701. WILHELM.II.1901." um gestaffelte Brustbilder (nach links), das vordere mit gekröntem Adler auf Helm

Rückseite: "DEUTSCHES REICH 1901 / * ZWEI MARK *" um Krone über Adler mit Wappenschild auf Brusthöhe

Rand geriffelt

feine Kratzer, Vorzüglich / Stempelglanz

Silber (900/1000)

11,1g

Durchmesser ca. 28mm

AKS # 136

Jaeger # 105 _2998
Antonivs Protti
POLEN_KRAKAU_Schilling_1666_Johann_Kasimir_Büste_Reiter.jpg
14 viewsPolen

Johann Kasimir (1649-1668)

1666 (?)

Schilling (Kupfer)

Münzstätte: Krakau (?)

Vs: Büste nach rechts. Umschrift: "IOAN CAS REX"

Rs: Reiter nach rechts. Umschrift: "SOLI..... 1666"

Gewicht: 1,0g

Durchmesser: 14 mm

Erhaltung: schön _299
Antonivs Protti
Polen_Baltikum_Riga_König_Sigismund_Wasa_3_Gröscher_1593_Schlüssel.jpg
27 viewsKönigreich Polen - Stadt Riga

Sigismund III., 1587 - 1632

III Gröscher 1593, Mzz. Lilie

Vs: Gekrönter Kopf nach rechts.

Rs: Wertzahl III, darunter Stadtburg zwischen Jahrzahl und Wertangabe in Schrift.

Iger R.93.1c

Erhaltung: Sehr schön.

Durchmesser: 21 mm

Gewicht: 2,3 g Silber _4896
Antonivs Protti
Österreich_1_Kreuzer_1885_Franz_Joseph_I__Wien.jpg
28 viewsÖsterreich

Kaiser Franz Joseph I., 1848-1916

1 Kreuzer 1885 (Kupfer)

Münzstätte Wien

Vs.: Gekrönter Doppeladler

Rs.: Wert und Jahreszahl

Gewicht: 3,3g

Erhaltung: unzirkuliert _496
Antonivs Protti
Salzburg_Max_Gandolph_Küenburg_3_Kreuzer_1681_Heiliger_Rupert_Faß.JPG
18 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich - Erzbistum Salzburg

Max Gandolph Graf von Küenburg, 1668 - 1687

3 Kreuzer 1681

Erhaltung: Sehr schön.

Vs: Hüftbild des Heiligen Rupert mit Krummstab und Salzfaß.

Rs: Stifts und Familienwappen zwischen Jahreszahl und Wertzahl.

Durchmesser: 21 mm

Gewicht: 1,6 g Silber _2692
Antonivs Protti
RDR_Österreich_Leopold_1_Kreuzer_1701_Oppeln_Opole_Krone_Adler_Silber.jpg
35 views
RDR

Österreich

Leopold 1657-1705

1 Kreuzer

1701

Münzstätte: Oppeln

Vs.: Bekränztes Brustbild n. r.

Rs.: Gekrönter doppelköpfiger Adler mit Wertzahl auf der Brust

Literatur: Herinek 1800

Erhaltung: Fast sehr schön

Metall: Silber

17 mm, 0,77 g _2191
Antonivs Protti
RDR_Österreich_Böhmen_Maria_Theresia_1_Kreutzer_1761_P_Prag_Kartusche.jpg
17 views
Österreich

Böhmen

Maria Theresia 1740-1780

1 Kreutzer

1761 P

Münzstätte: Prag

Vs.: Büste von Maria Theresia n. r.

Rs.: Nominal über Jahr und Prägestättenbuchstabe, das Ganze in Kartusche

Literatur: Herinek 1607

Erhaltung: Vorzüglich

Metall: Kupfer

24-25 mm, 9,43 g 1999
Antonivs Protti
Westfalen_Münster_Domkapitel_VI_Pfennig_1762_Paulus_Schwert_Kupfer.jpg
13 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich - Münster, Domkapitel



VI Pfennig 1762, Münzstätte Münster,

Hl. Paulus mit Bibel und Schwert.

Rs: Wert und Jahr.

Erhaltung: Schön.

Durchmesser: 25 mm

Gewicht: 3,2 g (Cu) _692
Antonivs Protti
Westfalen_Münster_Domkapitel_3_Pfennig_1758_Paul_Bibel_Schwert_Cu.jpg
17 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich - Münster, Domkapitel

III Pfennig 1758 (?), Münster

Heiliger Paulus mit Bibel und Schwert

Rs: Jahreszahl und Wertzahl

Erhaltung: Fast sehr schön.

Durchmesser: 23 mm

Gewicht: 3,8 g (Cu) _691
Antonivs Protti
Westfalen_Hieronymus_Napoleon_3_Cent_1809_Kassel_Kupfer_Monogramm.jpg
21 viewsKönigreich Westfalen

Hieronymus Napoleon, 1807 - 1813

3 Cent 1809 C, Kassel

Monogramm aus HN im Kranz.

Rs: Landesbezeichnung, Wert, Mzz. und Jahr.

Erhaltung: Sehr schön

Durchmesser: 25 mm

Gewicht: 4,3 g _694
Antonivs Protti
USA_12_Dollar_1968_Kennedy_IN_GOD_WE_TRUST.jpg
14 viewsVereinigte Staaten von Amerika

1/2 Dollar 1968 (Silber)

Kennedy

Vs.: Kopf nach links

Rs.: Weißkopfseeadler

Erhaltung: vorzüglich

Gewicht: 11,5g. _992
Antonivs Protti
Denarius_111-110.jpg
15 viewsDenarius
Appius Claudius Pulcher, T Manlius Mancinus & Q Urbinus
Mint: Rome
111-110 BCE

Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma, right; behind, mark (circle within a triangle); border of dots
Reverse: Victory in triga right, holding reins in both hands, one horse looking back; AP CL T MAL Q VR in exergue; border of dots

Crawford (RRC) 299/1a
Sydenham 570
RSC I Mallia 1
SRCV I 176
Shea B
IMG_0358.JPG
10 viewsM. Cipius M.f. 115-114 BC. AR Denarius (17mm, 3.98 g, 4h). Rome mint. Helmeted head of Roma right; X (mark of value) to left / Victory driving galloping biga right, holding reins and palm frond; rudder below. Crawford 289/1; Sydenham 546; Cipia 1; Type as RBW 1118.ecoli
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6 viewsAntonivs Protti
moeda-prata-2000-reis-1932-comemorativa-4-cent-colonizaco-D_NQ_NP_610126-MLB26385204095_112017-F.jpg
5 viewsAntonivs Protti
moeda-brasil-de-prata-5000-reis-santos-dumont-ano-1936-linda-D_NQ_NP_284405-MLB20865527006_082016-F.jpg
14 viewsAntonivs Protti
flor-de-cunho-2000-reis-1939-floriano-D_NQ_NP_134901-MLB20444262010_102015-F.jpg
7 viewsAntonivs Protti
flor-de-cunho-2000-reis-1939-floriano-D_NQ_NP_491901-MLB20444262036_102015-F.jpg
8 viewsAntonivs Protti
1000-reis-1822-flr-cunho-comem-100-anos-independencia-D_NQ_NP_434705-MLB25057700208_092016-F.jpg
7 viewsAntonivs Protti
1000-reis-1822-flr-cunho-comem-100-anos-independencia-D_NQ_NP_283705-MLB25057700220_092016-F.jpg
10 viewsAntonivs Protti
110088LG.jpg
12 viewsTheodosius I. A.D. 379-395. Æ nummus (13 mm, 1.3412 g, 12 h). Heraclea, A.D. 388-392. D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Theodosius I right / SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, head right, holding trophy over shoulder and dragging captive; SMHB. RIC 26b.2. Quant.Geek
gal585.jpg
Gallienus, RIC 585 var 2, 253-268 CE25 viewsGallienus, AE antoninianus, sole reign
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, laureate head right.
Reverse: GALLIENVS AVG, Uberitas standing left, holding a purse and a cornucopia. Epsilon in right field
19 mm., 2.9 g.
NORMAN K
valentinianda.jpg
Valentinian I, RIC IX 15 Siscia40 views VALENTINIAN I, AE3 CE. 364-375
Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing lert, holding wreath and palm, star over A in left field.
Mintmark DASIS, RIC IX Siscia 15, 17.4 mm, 2.4 g.
NORMAN K
Nero_Den_RIC_60_reimaged.jpg
6 Nero27 viewsNERO
AR Denarius (19mm, 3.43 g, 6h)
Rome mint. Struck ~65-66 AD

O: Laureate head right

R: Salus seated left on throne, holding patera.

RIC I 60; RSC 314. aVF

Ex-CNG Sale 35, Lot 737, 9/20/95

In AD 65-66 two new types appear on the coins of Nero, Jupiter Custos- “Guardian”, and Salus- “Well-Being” (of the emperor). Nero gave thanks for surviving the Pisonian Conspiracy, which got its name from G. Calpurnius Piso, a senator put forward as an alternative emperor by senior military officers and government officials who feared the increasingly erratic Nero. The plot was discovered, many prominent Romans were executed, and others, such as the philosopher Seneca, were forced to commit suicide. This delayed the emperor’s fate for a few years.

RI0043
1 commentsSosius
Nero_As_RIC_306.jpg
6 Nero AE As28 viewsNERO
AE As
NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP, laureate head right / PACE P R VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT S-C, the Temple of Janus, latticed window to l., garland hung across closed double doors on the right.
RIC 306, Sear5 #1974

On the rare occasions when Rome was not at war with a foreign enemy the doors of the 'Twin Janus' temple were ceremonially closed, an event which Nero commemorated extensively on the coinage of 65-67 A.D. -- David R. Sear, Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol 1
RI0042
Sosius
j100.jpg
Julian II RIC 100, Heraclea 355-360 CE25 viewsObverse: DN IVLIA-NVS NOB C, bare-headed, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLIC, emperor helmeted in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
SMHD in ex. Heraclea mint. 17.4 mm., 1.8 g.
NORMAN K
valens12.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 12b Aquileia48 viewsValens, AE3, 367-375 CE.
Obverse: D N VALENS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing lert, holding wreath and palm.
Mintmark SMAQP Aquileia, 17.5 mm, 2.4 g.

NORMAN K
Diocletian12.jpg
1 Diocletian Pre-Reform Radiate40 viewsDiocletian
AE Antoninianus, 293-295, Antioch, Officina 9
IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MIL_ITVM, Emperor standing right, short scepter in left hand, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, scepter in left, ED in lower middle field, XXI in exergue
RIC V, Part II, 322
Ex Max Mehl Coins
Ex Andreas Reich

Thanks to FORVM members stinats and Genio Popvli Romani for helping to attribute this coin!
Sosius
Decius_Prov_areich.jpg
3 Trajan Decius11 viewsTrajan Decius, July 249 - June or July 251 A.D., Antiochia, Pisidia, Central Asia Minor

Trajan Decius
AE 24, Antiochia Mint

IMP CAES C MESS Q TRA DECIO TRAI AV, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / ANTIO - CHICO, eagle on vellexium between two standards topped with wreaths, S R in ex

BMC Lycia, etc p 198, 125 aF
Ex Andreas Reich
Sosius
Decius_Ant_1~0.jpg
3 Trajan Decius13 viewsEx Andreas ReichSosius
Gallienus_Unident_Prov.jpg
7 Gallienus39 viewsGallienus
Æ27 of Smyrna, Ionia

O: AVT K Π ΛIK_[IN] ΓAΛΛIHNOC, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right

R: CMYPNAIΩN Γ N_EΩKOPΩN[..] IΠ[ΠIKOV] ΦIΛH_TOV, the Amazon Smyrna, turreted and cuirassed, standing left, holding bipennis and pelta right.

SNG Copenhagen 1410var

Thanks to FORVM member Andreas Reich and www258pair.com for help IDing this coin.
Sosius
Gallienus_RIC_230_Panther.jpg
7 Gallienus39 viewsGALLIENUS
BI Antoninianus.
Sole reign, 253-268 AD

O: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right

R: LIBERO P CONS AVG, panther walking left.

RIC 230, RSC 586; Sear 10281. aVF
Sosius
Zeno_Solidus.jpg
98 Zeno Solidus23 viewsZeno, First Reign
AV Solidus. Constantinople Mint

D N ZENO-PERP AVG, facing helmeted and cuirassed bust, holding shield, spear behind / VICTORI-A AVGGG and officina letter, Victory standing left, holding long cross, star in right field, CONOB in exergue.

RIC 910. Sear (2014) 21514. Broad flan. Holed, but otherwise VF.

Thanks to FORVM member Rick2 for his help identifying this coin!
Sosius
aeeu.jpg
Aelia Eudoxia, RIC X 104 Antioch16 viewsAelia Eudoxia, AE3, 400-404 CE
Obverse: AEL EVDO_XIA AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped bust right, wearing pearl necklace and earrings, hair elaborately weaved with long plait up the back of head and tucked under diadem, hand of God holding wreath above head.
Reverse: SALVS REI_PVBLICAE, Victory seated right on cuirass, inscribing Christogram on shield set on a column
ANTG in exergue Antioch, Officina 3. 17.05mm., 1.4 g.
sold 2-2018
NORMAN K
AUGUSTUS_Cistophorus_Pergamum.JPG
AUGUSTUS. AR Cistophorus (3 denarii) of Pergamum. Struck c.19 - 18 B.C.604 viewsObverse: IMP IX TR PO V. Bare head of Augustus facing right.
Reverse: Triumphal arch surmounted by Augustus in facing triumphal quadriga; IMP IX TR POT V on architrave; S P R SIGNIS RECEPTIS in three lines within arch opening, standards at either side.
RIC I : 510 | BMC : 703 | RSC : 298.

This coin commemorates Augustus' triumphant agreement with the Parthians in 20 B.C. under which they returned the legionary standards captured from Crassus who was defeated and killed at Carrhae thirty-three years earlier (53 B.C.) Augustus installed these standards in the Temple of Mars Ultor.
The reverse of the coin shows the triumphal arch which was awarded to Augustus on the occasion of his recovery of the standards. This was the second triumphal arch awarded to Augustus and, like the earlier arch which had been constructed in 29 BC to honour his victory over Cleopatra, this second arch, which archaeological evidence suggests may actually have incorporated the first arch, stood in close proximity to the Temple of Divus Julius at the southern entrance to the Roman Forum.

This is the rarest cistophorus struck during the reign of Augustus with the exception of the exceedingly rare issues featuring a sphinx.
6 commentsdivvsavgvstvs
Gordian_III_Cappadocia.jpg
Cappadocia, Caesarea. Six corn ears25 viewsGordian III, 238-244 A.D. Cappadocia, Caesarea. 7,1g, 23mm. Obv: AV KAI M ANT GORDIANOC; Draped and laureate Gordian III right; Rev: [MHTP] KAI NE (in field) [E]T - Z ("Münze von Kaisareia, Metropolis und Inhaberin einer Neokorie"); Six corn ears, Year Z (= 7, Year 244 A.D.) Cf. Sydenham 616; SNG Österreich, Slg. Leypold II 2812 and 2814. Podiceps
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Demetrios II Nikator, Second reign, 129-125 BC. Silver tetradrachm. Tyre.44 viewsObv: Diademed head of king right.
Rev: Eagle standing on prow left, with palm branch, club surmounted by monogram and monogram in inner left field, two monograms in inner right field, monogram between legs.
References: SC 2195.5b. Newell 179. Hoover 1122.
28 mm, 13,23 g.
1 commentsCanaan
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Gallienus VI 283 Rome 253-268 CE33 viewsGallienus, AE Antoninianus. Rome mint, sole reign.
Obverse - GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
Reverse – SOLI CONS AVG, Pegasus springing right, heavenward.
Mintmark A. 20.47 mm., 3.7 g. Cohen 979, Sear 10362
Cohen 979 comment: one of Gallienus last issue. Gallienus was assassinated near Mila while attempting to deal with the userper Aureolus. This coin was a talisman called fo the protection of Gallienus and Rome.
*Some believe the horse to be one of Sol's chariot horesus and the reverse inscription indicates this is probably the case.
1 commentsNORMAN K
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Gallienus RIC 585 Siscia11 viewsGallienus, AE antoninianus. Rome or Siscia. Sole reign.
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VBERITAS AVG, Uberitas standing left holding purse and cornucopiae.
RIC V-1 Siscia 585 var (attributes); 17.28 mm., 1.8 g.
NORMAN K
gal297.jpg
Gallienus, RIC 662 Antioch, 253-268 CE17 viewsGallienus, AE antoninianus, Antioch, sole reign

Obverse: GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
Left field: Star.
No mint-mark
16.8 mm., 2.5 g. RIC V-I 662; Cohen V 1098, rated common
NORMAN K
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Gallienus, RIC V 245 Rome, 253 - 268 CE.22 viewsBronze antoninianus
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
Reverse: NEPTVNO CONS AVG, Hippocamp right, N in ex
RIC V 245 (sole reign), Rome mint, 2.7g, 19.2mm
Reverse translation: Neptune god of the seas, preserver Augustus
NORMAN K
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Great Britain: gold half-sovereign of Queen Victoria, 1901, from the Terner Collection28 viewslordmarcovan
1390_L_Senticius.jpg
L. Sentius C.f. - AR denarius7 views²96 BC
¹101 BC
Rome
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
(AR)G·PVB
Jupiter in quadriga right, holding scepter, thunderbolt and reins
D
L·SENTI·C·F
¹Crawford 325/1b, SRCV I203, Sydenham 600, RSC I Sentia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,00g
ex Gorny & Mosch

Moneyer held praetorship in 93-89 BC.
Johny SYSEL
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Magnus Maximus, RIC VIII 26a Arles, 383-388 CE.17 viewsMagnus Maximus AE2
Obverse: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPB, Emperor standing left, raising kneeling woman.
PCOM in ex. Arles mint, 21.9 mm, 4.4 g.
NORMAN K
sear1966clipped.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196666 viewsObverse: IC-XC (bar above) in field, Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, seated upon throne without back; holds gospels in left hand.
Reverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOT or var, MP OV bar above in upper right field, Full-length figure of emperor, bearded on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and jewelled loros of simplified type; holds in right hand labarum-headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.
four main varieties:
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1167-1183?
Sear 1966 Var d, Fourth coinage; H 16.14,15; 17.1-4
rev: Jewel within circle on loros waist
16mm .89gm
As discussed in the Byzantine forumThese are the "neatly clipped" trachies.
During the reign of Manuel I the silver content of the trachy was dropped from c.6% to c.3%, but later types were sometimes issued with the higher silver content.
In Alexius III's time these high silver types were clipped down to half size, probably officially, presumably so as to match the lower silver content of the later issues.
Of course this would only have worked as long as the populace accepted the idea that the clipped coins were all high silver versions to start with. Once smarties started clipping ordinary coins these types would soon have have fallen out of favour and been withdrawn.

Ross G.


During the reign of Alexius III were reused coins of previous releases, clipping its border in a very regular mode and thus reducing to half their weight. Regularity of shearing and the fact that they were found to stock uniforms, suggesting that this clipping is a formal issuance of mint. Based on the stocks found in Constantinople , some of which consist only of clipped coins, it may safely be dated between 1195 and 1203.
Hendy and Grierson believe that this shearing was a consequence of the devaluation of trachy mixture during the reign of Isaac II and Alexius III. They reduced by half the already low silver content of this coin: shearing coins of previous emperors, still widely in circulation, made their trachy consistent with the intrinsic value of current emissions. Of course, this does not justify the clipping of coins already degraded of Isaac II and Alexius III. Therefore, reason for their declassification is not understood. I think that reason of Ross is right!
The structure of their dispersion in hoards indicates that, however, were made after the other emissions. Clipped trachys appear in small amounts along with regular trachy in hoards, represents a rarity. Were clipped trachys of Manuel I, Andronicus I, Isaac II and Alexius III, and perhaps of John II; those of Manuel are less scarce. In principle, we must believe that all trachys after Manuel I have been clipped, although many have not yet appeared.

Antvwala
wileyc
mar67.jpg
Maximinus I, RIC 67 / BMC 13 viewsMaximinus, AE sestertius, struck early in his reign.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG. Laureate and draped bust right, similar to that of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVG. Victory advancing right, holding wreath, S C at sides.
24.8 g, 31 mm diam.
NORMAN K
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MUGHALS-AURANGZEB-SURAT-MINT-AH-1095-RY-27-ONE-RUPEE-13 viewsAbu'l Muzaffar Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad (3 November 1618 – 3 March 1707), commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his regnal title Alamgir (Persian: "Conqueror of the World"), was the sixth, and widely considered the last effective Mughal emperor. His reign lasted for 49 years from 1658 until his death in 1707. _1200Antonivs Protti
Radiato_imitativo_britannico.jpg
Radiato imitativo britannico (270-273 AD)33 viewsAE, 2.45 gr, 18.56 mm, VF
Zecca non ufficiale britannica (o gallica), sul D/ verosimilmente Vittorino o Tetrico I
D/ legenda di fantasia, testa radiata a dx
R/ legenda di fantasia, divinità sacrifica su un altare appoggiata su uno scudo (o ruota). Compatibile con una FORTVNA REDUX con ruota e timone
Provenienza: ex Marc Breitsprecher collection, Grand Marais Minnesota Usa (da lui acquistata a Embankment station coin fair, London), via vAuctions 290 lot 462, 8 novembre 2012
paolo
Vespasian_Prow_star.jpg
RIC 0941 Vespasian denarius97 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Laureate head right

COS VIII
Prow of galley right, star above.

Rome 77-8 AD

3.39g

RIC II 941 (C); BMCRE 210; RSC 136.

Rated common but tough to find on the market.

Ex-Ancient Treasures, Ex-ANE.

This reverse type copied from aurei and denarii of Ahenobarbus struck for Mark Antony in 40 BC, Crawford 521 .
7 commentsJay GT4
BOTH_ANTIOCHOS_1_TET.jpg
SOLD Antiochus 1 Soter 281-261 BC Posthumous Tetradrachm SOLD10 views SOLD Obverse: Diademed head of Antiochus 1 facing right
Reverse: Apollo sitting on ompholos testing arrow in RH, LH holding grounded bow.
2 monograms, one in each field
Ins- ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ
A posthumous coinage from the reign of Antiochus 11
Mint of Seleucia on the Tigris
SC 587.1c 17g 29.5mm SOLD
cicerokid
theo26b.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 26b Cyzicus20 viewsBronze AE4, 388-392 CE.
Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SALVS REIPBLICAE, Victory walking left, holding trophy and dragging captive. Chi-ro in left field
SMKB in ex. Cyzicus mint 13.5 mm, 1.4 g.
NORMAN K
theo54c.jpg
Theodosius I, RIC IX 54c Constantinople24 viewsBronze AE2, 378-382 CE.
Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing left raising up kneeling woman with turret with right hand & holding Victory on a globe.
CON in ex. Constantinople mint 24 mm, 3.7 g.
NORMAN K
gallienus_tiger~0.jpg
Tigress - Gallienus RIC VI 230192 viewsGallienus, Striped Tigress, AE Antoninianus. Rome mint, sole reign.
Obverse - GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
Reverse - LIBERO P CONS AVG, striped tigress walking left.
Mintmark R, Rome. 19.4 mm diam. 3.1 g
NORMAN K
valens3.jpg
Valens, RIC IX 17b Rome23 viewsValens, AE3
Obverse: D N VALEN-S P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
Twelve different mintmarks are known, some of which were used for the later, identical issue 24b. These examples: R dot SECVNDA; R dot TERTIA AND RB.
R dot SECVNDO in ex. Rome mint. 17.1 mm, 2.0 g.


NORMAN K
Valens-7.JPG
Valens-751 viewsAE3, 364-378 AD, Constantinople mint
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, Diademmed , draped, and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left with wreath and palm.
CONSP(Gamma) exergue, RIC 21c
2.0gm , 17mm
Jerome Holderman
valentinian7a.jpg
VALENTINIAN I, RIC IX 7(a)vii Siscia22 views
VALENTINIAN I, AE4 AD 364-375
Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing lert, holding wreath andpalm. Star over A in left field.
Mintmark DDSISC, RIC IX Siscia 7a, type vi(b)First period, Official 1. 18.1mm, 3.2 g.
NORMAN K
valentinianii20.jpg
Valentinian II, AE2, Arles, Ric 20, 378-383 CE.21 viewsObverse: DN VALENTINIANVS IVN PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing front, offering hand to kneeling woman, on left hand he holds a globe with Victory on top
PCON in ex. Arles mint, 23.3 mm, 4.6 g.
NORMAN K
valentinianii37.jpg
Valentinian II, AE2, Thessalonica RIC 37b17 viewsObverse: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, diademed, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing front, offering hand to kneeling woman, on left-hand he holds a globe with Victor on top.
SMTS in ex, Thessalonica mint. 23.8mm, 4.3g.
NORMAN K
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Valentinian II, RIC IX 26b Siscia, 378-383 CE34 views
Valentinian II, AE2 of Siscia
Obverse: DN VALENTINIANVS IVN PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO-REIPVB, emperor standing left, holding Victory on globe, raising woman kneeling right before him.
Mintmark star BSISC dot.
RIC IX Siscia 26b; Sear 20276. 23.1 mm., 4.5 g.
NORMAN K
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Δ in circular punch240 viewsARABIA PETRAEA. Petra. Septimius Severus. Æ 22. A.D. 193-211. Obv: (…)-CEOYHPON(…). Laureate head right; countermark on shoulder. Rev: (…)-MHTPOΠ(…). Tyche seated left on rock, holding trophy in right hand and stele in extended left hand (?). Ref: Spijkerman 28v; BMC -. Axis: 360°. Weight: 7.24 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego 801 (19 pcs). Note: May bave been countermarked during reign of Elagabalus, although this is uncertain since the coins of Elagabalus were too small to be countermarked Δ, and no coins were issued after his reign. Collection Automan.Automan
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Δ in circular punch279 viewsIONIA. Smyrna. Civic. Æ 20. Time of Gordian to Valerian. Obv: .IEPACVNKΛHTOC. Laureate and draped bust of the Roman Senate right, countermark on bust. Rev: CMVPΓNE-ΩKOPΩN. Figure of Tyche holding rudder and cornucopia, inside tetrastyle temple. Ref: Ex. Lindgren II:556; BMC 233. Axis: 180°. Weight: 4.95 g. CM: Δ in circular punch, 5.5 mm. Howgego 791 (34 pcs). Note: The countermark was probably not applied before the time of the joint reign of Valerian and Gallienus. Collection Automan.Automan
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98 viewsROME. Antoninus Pius. AD 138-161.
PB Tessera (22mm, 5.09 g, 11 h)
The Lighthouse of Portus
ANT
Rostowzew 64, fig. 2; Kircheriano 66

Possibly ex Trau collection.

The Lighthouse of Portus was restored during the reign of Antoninus Pius. This tessera was likely distributed during the ceremony.
1 commentsArdatirion
AR_Dirhem_of_Harun_al-Rashid_of_the_Abbasid_dynasty,_808_AD_192_AH.JPG
51 views'ABBASID CALIPHATE. temp. Al-Muqtadir. Second reign, AH 296-317 / AD 908-929.
AR Dirhem.
Madinat al-Salam mint. Dated AH 299 (AD 911/2).
Album 246.1
Ardatirion
islamic_2.jpg
64 viewsEAST AFRICA, Kilwa Sultanate. 'Ali bin al-Hasan. Late 5th century AH / 11th century AD
Æ Fals (21mm, 2.68 g, 3 h). Kilwa Kisiwani mint.
Inscription in two lines; star at center
Inscription in three lines
Album 1180; Walker, Kilwa 12; SICA 10, 589-91; Zeno 87054 (this coin)

Acquired in the 1960's, likely through circulation in Dar-es-Salaam.

Chittick ("On the Chronology of the sultans of Kilwa" in NC 13, 1973), the excavator of Kilwa Kisiwani, notes that these issues were found in the earliest stratigraphic layers and accordingly reassigns them to the first sultan of Kilwa. Walker and Freeman-Grenville gave them to an otherwise unattested 13th century ruler of the same name. However, the picture is muddled by finds from the excavations at Songo Mnara, occupied only between the 14th and 16th centuries, where this type was among the most numerous to be found. The type is unlikely to have remained in circulation for such a long period and may been reissued by subsequent rulers.
Ardatirion
quadrans.jpg
107 viewsROME. temp. Hadrian-Antoninus Pius. Circa AD 120-161
Æ Quadrans (16mm, 2.94 g, 7h)
Rome mint
Petasus
Winged caduceus; S C flanking
Weigel 18; RIC II 32; Cohen 36

Weigel reconsiders the anonymous quadrantes as a cohesive group. The seriesportrays a pantheon of eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules. Types are primarily a portrait of the god, with an attribute on the reverse and are usually influenced by (but not directly copied from) earlier designs, primarily from the Republic. He updates the series to the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus.
5 commentsArdatirion
00022x00.jpg
55 viewsROME. temp. Domitian-Antoninus Pius. Circa AD 81-160
Æ Quadrans (16mm, 3.99 g, 12 h)
Rome mint
Griffin seated left, paw on wheel
Tripod; S C flanking
Weigel 15; RIC II 28; Cohen 38

Weigel reconsiders the anonymous quadrantes as a cohesive group. The seriesportrays a pantheon of eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules. Types are primarily a portrait of the god, with an attribute on the reverse and are usually influenced by (but not directly copied from) earlier designs, primarily from the Republic. He updates the series to the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus.
Ardatirion
973330.jpg
32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
valentinien1-resitvtor-reip-cyzique.JPG
RIC.10a1(var) Valentinian I (AE4, Restitvtor Reip)17 viewsValentinian I, western roman emperor (364-375)
Quarter maiorina (?) AE4 : Restitvtor Reip (364-365, Cyzicus mint)

bronze, 17 mm diameter, 1.98 g, die axis: 6 h

A/ D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ RESTITV-TOR REIP / SMK• in exergue; emperor standing facing left, holding l. standard and r. Victory on a globe

Divisonal emission ?
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valens-secvritas-reipvblicae.JPG
RIC.7(abs) Valens (AE3, Secvritas Rei Pvblicae)25 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Nummus AE3 : Secvritas Rei Pvblicae (364-367, Siscia)

bronze, 18 mm diameter, 2.52 g, die axis: 6h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICAE / ΓSISC in exergue ; Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm
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RIC.6f4 Valens (siliqua, Restitvtor Reip)11 viewsValens, eastern roman emperor (364-378)
Siliqua : Restitvtor Reip (366, Lyon)

silver (900 ‰), 18 mm diameter, 1.80 g, die axis: 6h

A/ D N VALEN-S P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ RESTITV-TOR REIP / SLVG• à l'exergue ; emperor standing facing, head right, holding labarum and Victory on globe
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louis1-obole-melle-lin.JPG
D.613var Louis the Pious (obol, Melle, class 2)34 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 0.74 g, 17 mm diameter, die axis 9 h

O/ LVDO / VVIC
R/ +METALLVM; cross pattée

As the value of a denier was quite important (a sheep typically cost 10 deniers during Charles the Great's reign), a smaller coin was needed. Clearly speaking, an obol is a half-denier. The carolingian coinage is typically one of silver deniers and obols. Obols and deniers were usually produced by pairs of the same kind.

Contrary to the related denier, the name of the ruler is here in the field and the mint name surrounds a cross pattée.
The absence of the imperial title made think that the coin had been struck when Louis was king of Aquitaine (before the death of Charles the Great). However there are similar obols with out of Aquitain mints. The absence of the imperial title (as well as an abbreviated name Lvdovvic instead of Hlvdovvicvs) may be due to a lack of space.
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louis1-denier-melle-circ.JPG
D.611 Louis the Pious (denier, Melle, class 2)33 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Denier (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 1.77 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 6 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée
R/ +METALLVM; cross pattée

The obsverse is similar to the previous denier. The difference is that the mint name is around a cross pattée on the reverse. This type is scarer than the one with the mint name in the field. The presence of both types in a hoard shows that both date from the beginning of Louis' reign and belong to the same Class 2.
Grierson and Blackburn suggest that this difference is due to a misunderstanding of the mint instructions.
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louis1-denier-temple.JPG
D.1179 Louis the Pious (denier, class 3)51 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 1.56 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

The XPISTIANA should be read "χρISTIANA", nice mix of greek and latin letters.

This is the most common carolingian coin (Class 3 of Louis' coinage).
The obverse is the same as Class 2. However, the reverse is a signature of the alliance between the Carolingians and the Roman Church, which began with Louis' father (Charles the Great) and the systematic introduction of a cross on coins. Louis carried on...

There is no indication of the mint name on this coinage. This fact is generally interpreted as a reinforcement of the imperial autority. Many people tried to localize the precise location of mints. Simon Coupland proposed an attribution, using stylistic similarities to other coins of well known mints. Some cases are easy to attribute but not this one (maybe Quentovic or Verdun ?)...

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louis1-obole-temple.JPG
D.1180 Louis the Pious (obol, class 3)10 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
"Temple" obol (unknown mint, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 0.69 g, 16 mm diameter, die axis 2 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS MP; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +PSTIΛNΛ REICIO; temple

This obol is a reduced version of the temple denier.
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louis1-obole-2xlegchret.JPG
D.abs Louis the Pious (obol, class 3)19 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (unknown mint in the south-east of France?, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 0.77 g, 15 mm diameter, die axis 5 h

O/ +PISTIΛNΛ PI; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +OPISTIΛNΛ PE; cross pattée

This obol may be due to a double reverse error because of the absence of the sovereign's name and the legend repetition on both sides. However several dies were used to strike this type (I could find 3 obverse and 3 reverse dies), one side always bears 4 pellets as the other does not. One of the reverse dies is associated to the more typical obverse legend +HLVDOVVICVS I. Consequently an error does not seem to be likely. Because of hoard localizations, these obols seem to come from a single mint, in the south-east of France (Lyon, Arles?).
1 commentsDroger
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RIC.28a Gratian (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)15 viewsGratian, western roman emperor (367-383)
Maiorina AE2: Reparatio Reipvb (378-383, Lyon)

bronze, 22 mm diameter, 4.56 g, die axis: 12 h

A/ D N GRATIA-NVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO - REIPVB / LVG? in exergue; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand
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charles2-denier-melle-2.JPG
D.626 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1d, Melle)25 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle, class 1d, 840-864)

Silver, 1.73 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 5h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX; cross pattée
R/ +METVLLO; carolingian monogram

This coinage with the shorter legend CΛRLVS REX is much rarer than the common one with the legend CΛRLVS REX FR. The composition of a hoard in Poitou suggests that this type can be unambiguously attributed to Charles the Bald. This coinage may have been minted at the beginning of Charles the Bald's reign, just before Pippin II took the control of Melle in 845.
Among the 12 known specimens, 5 have a deformed monogram, with the L and the S exchanging places, and on their sides. This feature, the shorter legend, as well as the unusual position of the legend opening cross on top of the monogram may suggest that there was some confusion in Melle at this time, when Charles gave back (temporarily) Aquitaine to Pippin.
The reverse is slightly double struck.
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charles2-denier-mellex.JPG
D.627 Charles II the Bald (denier ?, class 1d, Melle)16 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
Denier (Melle ?, class 1d, 840-864)

Silver, 1.35 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX R; cross pattée
R/ +METxVLLO; carolingian monogram

The x in METxVLLO on the reverse has been widely discussed.
For instance, Depeyrot understands it as an immobilization/feudal issue. The crude style of theses deniers and the lightly degenerate legend of this one (CARLVS REX R instead of REX FR) seems in coherence with this hypothesis. However, the x is always at the same place.
Moreover, this type of coin has been found in the Brioux hoard, which may be datable to the beginning of Charles the Bald's reign. Grierson and Blackburn suggest that these coins with x were mainly minted in Poitiers. Using the legend of the close Melle mint allowed to take advantage of the reputation of Melle coinage.
Coupland proposes that this METxVLLO type came after the METVLLO type after 860 and until round 925. Then, it was replaced by the MET/ALO type. In order to explain the differences of interpretation, Coupland thinks that several hoards were wrongly dated or described.
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D.762 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 1e, Paris)28 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
"Temple" denier (Paris, class 1e, 840-864)

Silver, 1.70 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 4h

O/ +CΛRLVS REX FR; cross pattée
R/ +PΛRISII CIVITΛS; temple

The mint's name (Paris) stands in for the usual legend XPISTIANA RELIGIO. The royal authority may have been quite weak in the beginning of Charles' reign, and each mint may have been tempted to make a clear legend to characterize its own coinage.
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charles2-gdr-curtisasonien.JPG
D.375 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 2, Courcessin?)35 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877)
GDR denier (Courcessin?, class 2, 864-875)

Silver, 1.43 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +GRΛTIΛ D-I REX; carolingian monogram
R/ +I.CVRTISΛSONIEH; cross pattée

In 864, Charles the Bald promulgated the edict of Pîtres, huge reform whose aim was to protect the kingdom from Viking raids. It also reinforced royal authority on minting, and created a new type of deniers . The new coins could be only struck at 10 mints (Palace, Chalon sur Saône, Melle, Narbonne, Orléans, Paris, Quentovic, Reims, Rouen and Sens). This limitation had never been applied, more than 110 mints struck the new coinage. This can be understood as a lack of control of the central autority. However it seems that several mints shared dies... Grierson and Blackburn proposed that only 10 main mints produced dies and partially outsourced coinage production ?
On the obverse is written GRATIA D-I REX (GDR) around a carolingian monogram. The alliance with Roman Church goes on... The reverse already existed for Class 1, with the mint name around a cross pattée.
Class 2 of Charles' coinage is made of these GDR deniers.

The precise localization of the mint in Normandie (north of France) is still not clear. According to Grierson and Blackburn, Courti(s) Sasonien(sis) may come from some groups of Saxons settled in northern part of Gaul.
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charles2-denier-toulouse-imp.JPG
D.1007 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 3, Toulouse)13 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875-877)
Denier (Toulouse, class 2, 876-877)

Silver, 1.59 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 7h

O/ +CΛRLVS IMP R- ; cross pattée
R/ +TOLOSΛ+CIVI ; CA / RL in the center

The presence of the name of the sovereign on the reverse is quite rare for carolingian coins. This is also the case for Toulouse deniers of Charles the Bald's Louis II (or grandson Louis III) with LV / DO.

This coinage is also sometimes attributed to Charles the Fat.
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louis8-9-denier-tournois.JPG
Dy.187 Louis VIII (the Lion) or IX (Saint Louis): denier tournois19 viewsLouis VIII, king of France (1223-1226) or Louis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Denier tournois (1223-1250)

Billon, 0.81 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 4h30
O: +LVDOVICVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS CIVI; châtel tournois

The question of the attribution of this denier to Louis VIII or to the first part of Louis IX's reign is difficult. Indeed, Louis VIII only ruled for 3 years and both the father and the son have the same name...
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louis9-denier-tournois.JPG
Dy.193A Louis IX (Saint Louis): denier tournois34 viewsLouis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Denier tournois (1250-1270)

Billon (229 ‰), 0.95 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 1h30
O: +LVDOVICVS.REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS.CIVIS; châtel tournois

The difference between the deniers tournois of the first and second part of Saint Louis' reign is the absence or presence of an S at the end of CIVI(S) on the reverse.
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Dy.213 Philip IV (the Fair): Gros tournois with a round O37 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Gros tournois with a round O (1280-1290)

Silver (958 ‰), 4.07 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 12h
O: inner circle: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BNDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS.CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign). The only difference with the Gros tournois of the first part of Philip III's reign is PHILIPPVS, spelled with 2 P intead of 1.
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Dy.221 Philip IV (the Fair): denier parisis with a round O 9 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Denier tournois with round O (1280-1290)

Billon (359 ‰), 0.94 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 7h
O: PhILIPPVS REX; FRA/OCN
R: +PARISIVS CIVIS; croix pattée

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign).
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philippe4-denier-tournois-orond.JPG
Dy.223 Philip IV (the Fair): denier tournois with a round O 16 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Denier tournois with round O (1280-1290)

Billon (299 ‰), 1.00 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 4h
O: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign). The only difference with the denier tournois of the first part of Philip III's reign is PHILIPPVS, spelled with 2 P intead of 1.
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Dy.223A Philip IV (the Fair): denier tournois with a round O 11 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Denier tournois with round O (1280-1290)

Billon (299 ‰), 1.10 g, diameter 19 mm, die axis 7h
O: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS•CIVISx; châtel tournois

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign). The only difference with the denier tournois of the first part of Philip III's reign is PHILIPPVS, spelled with 2 P intead of 1.
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Dy.224 Philip IV (the Fair): obol tournois with a round O 7 viewsPhilip IV, king of France (1285-1314)
Obol tournois with round O (1280-1290)

Billon (270 ‰), 0.55 g, diameter 15 mm, die axis 2h
O: +PhILIPPVS REX; cross pattée
R: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois

This type was struck during 1280-1285 (end of Philipp III's reign) and 1285-1290 (beginning of Philip IV's reign).
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philippe5-gros-tournois.JPG
Dy.238 Philip V (the Tall): Gros tournois 25 viewsPhilip V, king of France (1316-1322)
Gros tournois (1318)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.93 g, diameter 26mm, die axis 12h

O: inner circle: +PhILIPPVS(hammer)REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮
SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV⋮XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS(hammer)CIVIS; châtel tournois;
outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

At first sight, Philip V's gros tournois are very similar to his father's ones. However, the general style is quite different: Philip V's tournois have a stretched castle, thiner letters with more space between them (especially for TVRONVS CIVIS), n of nOmЄ is an n but not an N) and ⋮ instead of . between IhV and XPI. Moreover, it is commonly thought that a hammer (like here) or a crescent separating TVRONVS/CIVIS and PHILIPPVS/REX is a typical feature of Philip V.

Philip V's gros tournois are scarcer than Philip IV's. His reign was shorter and a silver lack prevented him from minting as much as he wanted. Philip had to forbid the production of silver items like dishes in order to keep silver for minting.
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Dy.262 Philip VI (of Valois): Gros à la couronne, 1st emission7 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros à la couronne, 1st emission (01/01/1337)

Silver (851 ‰), 2.51 g, diameter 25 mm, die axis 5h
O: inner circle: (ringlet)PhI-LIP-PVS-REX; legend interrupted by a cross pattée; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮nOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI
R: inner circle: +FRANCORVm; châtel tournois under a crown, with 3 bullets inside; outer circle: a circlet of 11 fleur-de-lis

Philip VI is the first non direct capetian king. He was the cousin of the 3 previous kings.
The Gros tournois hadn't changed since its creation by Saint Louis. During Philip VI's reign, 3 new types of Gros were struck, with lighter weight and less silver. These monetary difficulties may be related to the premisses of the One Hundred Years' war and French military defeats.

The 3 bullets in the chatel (without any star below) are characteristic of the 1st emission.
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Dy.265 Philip VI (of Valois): Gros à la queue33 viewsPhilip VI, king of France (1328-1350)
Gros à la queue (09/27/1348 and 01/15/1349)

White billon (479 ‰), 3.33 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 6h
O: inner circle: (crown)PhILIP-PVS.REX; legend interrupted by a cross pattée; outer circle: BnDICTV⋮SIT⋮nOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV⋮XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS.CIVIS; châtel tournois with 3 archs under a crown; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

This Gros was struck at the end of Philip's reign and contains a quite small amount of silver.
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louis2-denier-vise.JPG
D.1155 Louis II the Stammerer (denier, Visé)5 viewsLouis II the Stammerer, king of the Franks (877-879)
Denier (Tours)

Silver, 0,79 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 8h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS REX; KRLS monogram of Charles (legend beginning at 10h)
R/ +IN VICO VIOSΛTO; croix pattée

The KRLS (Karolus) monogram appears on this coinage of Louis II. One can imagine that there hadn't been much time to think about a new monogram just after Charles II's death.

Louis II was physically quite weak and died 2 years after his father Charles II. His reign was consequently very short.
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RIC.26b4 Valentinian II (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)20 viewsValentinian II, western roman emperor (375-392)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Siscia mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 5,76 g, die axis: 8 h,

A/ D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / BSISC. in exergue; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand
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RIC.67a1 Valentinian II (AE4, Salvs Reipvblicae)14 viewsValentinian II, western roman emperor (375-392)
Nummus AE4: Salvs Reipvblicae (383-392, Antioche, 1st officine)

bronze, 12 mm diameter, 1.51 g, die axis: 6 h,

A/ D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SALVS REI-PVBLICAE / ANTA in exergue, chrisme in the field, Victory advancing left, holding trophy on
shoulder with right hand and dragging captive with left one
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valentinien2-sil-virtvs-treves.JPG
RIC.67a1 Valentinian II (AE4, Salvs Reipvblicae)7 viewsValentinian II, western roman emperor (375-392)
Nummus AE4: Salvs Reipvblicae (383-392, Antioche, 1st officine)

bronze, 12 mm diameter, 1.51 g, die axis: 6 h,

D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS RO-MANORVM / TRPS in exergue; Roma seating left on cuirass, holding globe and spear
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D.1041 Louis III (denier, Tours)31 viewsLouis III, king of the Franks (879-882)
Denier (Tours)

Silver, 1.78 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +IIISIRICORDIΛ DI REX; Louis' monogram (legend beginning at 3h)
R/ +HTVR◊NES CIVITAS; croix pattée

Louis III became king of West Francia at 16 after his father Louis II died quite young. As he was the only living son of Charles II, Louis II had inherited the full kingdom of West Francia from his father. At opposite, when Louis II died, his sons Louis III and Carloman II divided the kingdom into a northern part for Louis III and a southern part for his brother Carloman II. During his reign, Louis III (in alliance with his brother) achieved military successes, especially against Vikings. However, Louis III's reign didn't last long. Louis III died inadvertently at 19 while chasing a girl on his horse. He hit violently the lintel of a door with his head.
Louis III's coinage is hard to distinguish from Louis II's. Both bear the same name et both reigns were very short. Three kinds of coins can be found:
* coins with legend LVDOVICS REX and a KRLS monogram : these coins have been found for northern and southern mints and are consequently given for Louis II;
* coins with a LVDOVICVS monogram ; they have only been found for the northern mints, and are consequently supposed to be Louis III's;
* coins of Toulouse with LV/DO, imitating the ones of Charles emperor with CA/RL. The attribution to Louis II seems to be straightforward due to the southern position.
The legend of the coin is different from the traditional Gratia di Rex, but still shows a religious origin. However its success remained very limited, with some scare coins of Louis III and Eudes.
3 commentsDroger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-arles.JPG
RIC.26a1 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)16 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 4.23 g, die axis: 5 h

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / PCON in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 26.a.1(C)
Ferrando II 1669 (C4)
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RIC.26a2 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)10 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 21 mm diameter, 5.04 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / SCON in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 26.a.2(C)
Ferrando II 1670 (C4)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-lyon.JPG
RIC.32.(6 or 7) Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)17 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 3.95 g, die axis: 7 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / LVG? in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 32.(6 ou 7)(S)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-treves.JPG
RIC.85 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)14 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Trèves mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 5.23 g, die axis: 7 h,

A/ D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / SMTRP; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 85.1(S)
Droger
lothaire-denier-chalon.JPG
D.268 Lothair (denier, Chalon-sur-Saône)16 viewsLothair, king of the Franks (954-986)
Denier (Chalon-sur-Saône)

Silver, 1.26 g, 21 mm diameter, die axis 1h

O/ +LOTARVS.REX; B
R/ +CAVILON.CIVT; cross pattée

The B on the obverse means Bourgogne.

Although Lothair's reign had lasted more than 30 years, his coins are quite scarce. Moreover, they are often hard to distinguish from feudal issues. The types are varied, as well as the spelling of the king's name, depending on the mint. This is an evidence of a lack of central control.
Droger
henry7-souverain.JPG
S.2233 Henry VII Tudor (sovereign type penny, Durham)9 viewsHenry VII Tudor, king of England (1485-1509) and Bishop Richard Fox
Sovereign type penny (mint: Durham)

A/ [hENRIC] DI [GRA RE]X A[NG]; king seated on throne with one pilar, holding scepter and orb
R/ [CIVI-TA]S-DIR-hAm; royal shield on cross, mitre above, D and R on the sides

silver, 0.55 g, diameter 15 mm, die axis 8h
Droger
car_snake~1.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA31 viewsAE 28 X 31 mm 17.31 g
198 - 217 AD
OBV: AVT KM AVPH ANTWEINOC
LAUR HEAD R
REV: OVLPIAC PAVTALIAC
NIMBATE COILED SERPENT
Pautalia mint
(ex A. Reich)
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caraca_pautal_snake_2.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA42 viewsAE 28 X 31 mm 17.34 g
198 - 217 AD
OBV: AVT KM AVPH ANTWEINOC
LAUR HEAD R
REV: OVLPIAC PAVTALIAC
NIMBATE COILED SERPENT
Thrace, Pautalia mint; cf Varbanov 5201 var; Ruzicka 168, 686ff; SNG Evelpidis 997
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sep_car_temp_b_resb.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA and SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS 37 views198-217 AD
Struck ca. 208 AD (on the tenth anniversary of Caracalla's reign)
AE 23 mm; 10.04 g
O: [IMPP CAESS SEVER ANT AVGG], laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Severus, seen from behind, to left, facing bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Caracalla, seen from behind, to right. (confronted busts)
R: [DECENNALES ANTONINI COS III /] COL BER, tetrastyle temple, with stairs from front, containing Astarte facing, crowned by Nike standing on column.
Berytus, Phoenicia; cf BMC 70.122-71.129; Sear GIC 2302, SNG Righetti 2246. Rare
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mac_dia.jpg
(0217) MACRINUS AND DIADUMENIAN44 views217 - 218 AD
AE PENTASSARION 27 mm 12.62 g
O: AYKMOPEA MAKREINOC KM OPEA ANTWNEINOC
LAUREATE HEAD OF MACRINUS R FACING BARE-HEAD OF DIADUMENIAN L (confronted busts)
R: VR PONTIANOV MARKIANOPOLEITWN, "E" IN LEFT FIELD
SERAPIS STANDING LEFT HOLDING SCEPTER
MARKIANOPOLIS
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egal_antipatris_temple_res.jpg
(0218) ELAGABALUS (ANTIPATRIS MINT)40 views218 -222 AD
AE 17.5 mm; 6 5 g
O ...NOC C... Laureate draped bust of Elagabalus right
R: Tetrastyle temple, central arch; within, Tyche in short chiton kneeling left holding small bust and spear, resting her foot on river god (Yarkon); ΑΝ(ΤΙΠ) (Antipatris) in exe.
Antipatris (very rare city), Judaea
cf. Sofaer Pl. 21 4, 5.; cf. BM-1, pl. II.7, cf. SNG ANS-635, cf. Rosenberger 1. Very rare.
(Antipatris struck coins only during the reign of Elagabalus)
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philip_wolf_twins.jpg
(0244) PHILIP I32 views244 - 249 AD
Struck 248 AD
Silver Antoninianus (23 mm, 3.77 gm.)
O: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed.
R: SAECVLARES AVGG, she-wolf standing left, suckling the twins, II in ex.
(commemorates 1000th year of founding of Rome)
Rome mint; Reference: RSC 178.RIC 15.
1 commentslaney
gallienus_iovi_070210.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS50 views253 - 260 AD (joint reign) 260 - 268 AD (sole reign)
struck 255-256, during Joint Reign with Valerian
AR Antoninianus, 22 mm 3.45 g
O: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
R: IOVI CON_SERVA_TORI, Gallienus standing facing, head right, vertical spear in right hand, receiving globe with left from Jupiter standing facing, head left, vertical scepter in left hand, globe in right
Wreath in upper center field
Samosata mint
RIC V, Part I, 440; Göbl 1697b
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gallienus_centaur~0.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS34 views253 - 268 AD
(struck during sole reign 260 - 268)
O: GALLIENVS AVG
Laur head R
R: APOLLINI CONS AVG, H IN EXE.
Centaur stg L hldg globe & rudder
Rome, Off. 8
AE 20.5 mm 2.87 g
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gallien_victory_res.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS15 views253-268
struck during sole reign
Billon antoninianus 20 mm, 2.80 g
O: GALLIENVS AVG Radiate draped bust right
R: VICTORIA AET, S to left; Victory standing left holding wreath and palm
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gallien_aequit_2_res.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS24 views253-268 AD
struck ca. 261-262 AD, during sole reigh
AE 18.5 mm, 2.76 g
O: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right
R: AEQVITAS AVG, VI in right field, Aequitas standing facing, head left, holding scales and cornucopia
Rome mint
(EB)
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gallien_pax_res.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS13 views253 - 268
struck 253-260 AD during joint reign
AE 25X27 mm, 17.12 g
O: IMP C P LIC [GALLIENVS AVG] laureate draped bust right
R: Pax standing left holding scepter and branch S/C
RIC 231 (j)
Rome
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gallien_moose_res.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS16 views253-268 AD
struck 260-268 AD during sole reign
AE 19.5 mm 3.46 g
O: GALLIENVS AVG radiate bust right
R: DINAE CONS AVG moose standing right, XD in exe
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gallienus_centaur_blk_res_b.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS29 views253 - 268 AD
(struck during sole reign 260 - 268)
O: GALLIENVS AVG
Laur head R
R: APOLLINI CONS AVG, H IN EXE.
Centaur stg L hldg globe & rudder
Rome, Off. 8
AE 20.5 mm 2.87 g
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carinus_potin_res.jpg
(0283) CARINUS29 views283 - 285 AD
struck 282/283 AD (reignal year 1)
Potin Tetradrachm 19 mm, 7.86 g.
O: A KMA KAPINOC K, laureate and cuirassed bust right
R: Eagle standing between two standards, LA above.
Alexandria
Köln 3170; Dattari 5578; Milne 4679; Curtis 1913
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MAXIMIANUS_TEMPLE_RES.jpg
(0286) MAXIMIANUS27 views286 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.
Struck 2nd reign; 307 - 308 AD
AE Follis 24 mm 5.14 g
O: IMP C MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right
R: CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated within hexastyle temple, head turned left, holding globe in right hand, scepter in left; TT in exe
Ticinum mint
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maximian_concord_e_blk_res.jpg
(0286) MAXIMIANUS25 views286-305, 307-308, and 310 AD
struck ca 293, during 1st reign; pre-reform, Officina 5
AE 21.5 mm 4.85 g
O: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS AVG radiate draped cuirassed bust right
R: CONCORDIA MILITVM Emperor receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, E between; XX pellet in exe.
Cyzicus mint
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CONSTANTIUS_II_SEC_RES.jpg
(0324) CONSTANTIUS II25 views324 - 337 AD (as Caesar)
337 - 361 AD (as Augustus)
337 - 361 AD
AE 14 mm 1.00 g
O: D N FL CONST-ANTIVS AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRI-TAS REIP, Securitas standing half-right, legs crossed, leaning on column, scepter in right, R leaf S in ex
Rome mint RIC VIII 9(c); VM75 Rare


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FAUSTA.jpg
(0324) FAUSTA57 views(2nd wife of Constantine I; daughter of Maximian; mother of emperors Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans)
324 - 326 AD
AE 20.7 mm 2.86 g
O: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
DR BUST R, HAIR WAVED WITH BUN AT TACK, WEARING PEARL NECKLACE
R: SPES REIPVBLICAE
FAUSTA STANDING FACING, LOOKING L, HOLDING INFANTS CONSTANTINE II AND CONSTANTIUS II
SMK DELTA(?) IN EXE
RIC 50 SCARCE
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CONSTANS_R.jpg
(0333) CONSTANS32 views333 - 337 (as Caesar)
337 - 350 AD (as Augustus)
AE 14 mm 1.28 g
O: D N FL CONSTANS AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRITAS REIP, Securitas standing right holding scepter in right and leaning left elbow on column
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JULIAN_II_B.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II32 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
struck 360 - 363 AD, as Augustus
AE 15.5 mm max. 1.51 g
Obv: FL CL IVLIAN-VS P F AVG, diademed draped bust right
Rev: SPES REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing left in military dress holding globe & spear
Rare
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julian_spes_re.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II20 viewsAE 15.5 mm; 1.72 g
O: D N FL CL IVLIANVS NOB CS, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear; uncertain mark in left field
Cyzicus mint
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julian_asis.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II (as Caesar)32 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 15.5 mm, 1.83 g
O: DN CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES, bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: SPES REI-PVBLICAE, emperor standing left, helmeted, in military dress, globe in right, spear in left; ASIS in exe.
Siscia Mint
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julian_ii_spes_reip.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)22 viewsJulian II as Caesar
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 17 mm; 1.91 g
O: DN IVLIANV-S NOB CAES draped cuirassed bust right
R: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear
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jul_ii_spes_rei.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)16 viewsJulian II as Caesar
AE 16 mm max; 1.83 g
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
O: DN IVLIAN-VS NOB C draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear
Siscia mint
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valentin_sec_rei_sis.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I44 views364 - 375 AD
AE 18 mm max. 2.50 g
O: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left holding wreath and palm, * / F left, M right; ΔSISC in exergue
Siscia mint; cf RIC IX 15(a)
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valt_i_sec_sisc_symb_4_res.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I39 views364 - 375 AD
struck 367 - 375 AD
AE 18 mm; 1.45 g
O: VALENTINIANVS PF AVG Diademed, draped bust right.
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left carrying wreath and palm, R over symbol 4 (A with a curl on top) to left, F to right, GSISCS in exergue.
Siscia mint; RIC IX-15a
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val_I_restit_reip_res.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I50 views364 - 375 AD
AE 19 mm; 3.20 g
O: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: RESTITVTOR REIP Emperor standing facing, head right, hohlding a Victory and a labarum ; TESB in exe.
Thessalonica mint
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valent_i_sec_dsisc_res.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I31 views364-375 AD
struck 367 - 370 AD
AE 18 mm; 2.10 g
O: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, diademed bust right, draped and cuirassed
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm; star over F to left; M to right; DSISC in exe., Siscia mint
cf RIC 15a
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val_1_sec_palm_res.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I39 views364-375 AD
AE 17.5 mm; 2.51 g
O: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, diademed draped & cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding wreath & palm
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VAL_I_SEC_RES.jpg
(0364) VALENTINIAN I--SECVRITAS67 views364 - 375 AD
AE 17 mm 2.68 g
O: D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, VICTORY ADVANCLING LEFT HOLDING WREATH AND PALM, "R" IN LEFT FIELD, DSISC IN EX
SISCIA
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gratian_repar.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN28 views367 - 383 AD
AE 22 x 23.5 mm; 3.31 g
O: D N GRATIA-NVS P F AVG, Rosette-diademed bust right, draped & cuirassed
R: REPARATIO REIPVB, Gratian standing front, head left, offering right
hand to female on left to rise from kneeling position, in other hand
he holds Victory on a globe
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GRATIAN_REPAR_BSIS_RES.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--REPARATIO (SISCIA)35 views367 - 383 AD
AE 23 mm 4.37 g
O: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB, EMPEROR STANDING LHOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE FIGURE
*BSISC IN EXE
SISCIA MINT
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gratian.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--REPARATIO (ANTIOCH)49 views367 - 383 AD
AE 23.5 mm 5.47 g
O: DN GRATIAANVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
GRATIAN STANDING L HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
ANTA IN EXE
ANTIOCH
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gratian_reparatio_b.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--REPARATIO (ANTIOCH)31 views367 - 383 AD
AE 23 mm 5.95 g
O: D N GRATIA-NVS P F AVG, Rosette-diademed bust right, draped & cuirassed
R: REPARATIO REIPVB, Gratian standing front, head left, offering right
hand to female on left to rise from kneeling position, in other hand
he holds Victory on a globe,
ANTA in exer. ANTIOCH RIC IX 42(b).
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GRATIAN_PCON_RES.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--REPARATIO (ARLES)37 views367 - 383 AD
AE 22.5 mm 5.59 g
O: DNANGRATIANVS P F AVG, DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB, GRATIAN STANDING HOLDING VICORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FIGURE
PCON IN EXE
ARLES MINT
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GRATIAN_REPARATIO_PCON_2_RES.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--REPARATIO (ARLES)27 views367 - 383 AD
AE 24 mm 4.03 g
O: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB, GRATIAN STANDING R OFFERING HAND TO KNEELING FIGURE
PCON IN EXE
ARLES MINT
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gratian_rome_res.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--REPARATIO (ROME)38 views367 - 383 AD
AE 24,5 mm max 4.50 g
O: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVG, GRATIAN STANDING HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE, AND OFFERING HAND TO KNEELING FIGURE
SMRQ IN EXE
ROME MINT
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GRATIAN_REP_2A__RES.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--REPARATIO (ROME)27 views367 - 383 AD
AE 22 mm 4.82 g
O: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, DIAD DR CUIR BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVG, GRATIAN STANDING HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE, AND OFFERING HAND TO KNEELING FIGURE
SMRT IN EXE
ROME MINT
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GRATIAN_SECURITAS_2_RES.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--SECURITAS39 views367 - 383 AD
AE 16.5 X 18.5 mm 2.24 g
O: DN GRATIANVS PF AVG, Gratian facing right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, carrying wreath and palm
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GRAT_SEC_SISC_RES.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--SECURITAS (SISCIA)35 views367 - 383 AD
AE 18 mm 1.63 g
O: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG, BUST RIGHT
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, VICTORY ADVANCINE LEFT, "R" IN LEFT FIELD
SISCIA
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GRATIAN_SECURITAS_RES.jpg
(0367) GRATIAN--SECURITAS (THESSALONICA)39 views367 - 383 AD
AE 18 mm max 2.31 g
O: DN GRATIANVS PF AVG, Gratian facing right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, carrying wreath and palm; star/? left, G right
TES in exe
Thessalonica
RIC IX 32 v.
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val_salus_res.jpg
(0375) VALENTINIAN II25 views375 - 392 AD
AE 11.5 mm; 1.24 g
O: [D N VALEN]TINIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: SALVS REI-P[VBLICAE], Victory walking left, trophy over shoulder and, dragging captive behind her; Chi-Rho in left field
SM--? in exe; Cyzicus or Nicomedia mint
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valentinian_ii_reparatio_res.jpg
(0375) VALENTINIAN II--REPARATIO31 views375 - 392 AD
Struck 379 - 383 AD
AE 23.5 mm 4.55
O: D N VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, DIAD DR BUST RIGHT
R:REPARATIO REIPVB, EMPEROR STANDING LEFT HOLDING VICTORY AND HELPING RAISE KNEELING FEMALE,
CONSD IN EXE
CONSTANTINOPOLIS, RIC IX 54b
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VAL_II_REP_DES_RES.jpg
(0375) VALENTINIAN II--REPARATIO (ROME)41 views375 - 392 AD
AE 24 mm 5.40 g
O: D N VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, DIAD DR CUIR BUST RIGHT
R: REPARATIO REIPVB, EMPEROR STANDING HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE IN L HAND, AND HOLDING HAND OF KNEELING TURRETED WOMAN
SMRB IN EXE
ROME
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VAL_II_REP_3_RES.jpg
(0375) VALENTINIAN II--REPARATIO (THESSALONICA)28 views375 - 392 AD
Struck 378 - 383 AD
AE 23 mm 4.96 g
O: D N VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, DIAD DR BUST RIGHT
R:REPARATIO REIPVB, EMPEROR STANDING LEFT HOLDING VICTORY AND HELPING RAISE KNEELING FEMALE,
"D" IN RIGHT FIELD
SMTES IN EXE
THESSALONICA RIC IX 37b
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VAL_II_REP_2_RES.jpg
(0375) VALENTINIAN II--REPARATIO (THESSALONICA)23 views375 - 392 AD
struck 378 - 383 AD
AE 20 X 23 mm 4.91 g
O: D N VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, DIAD DR BUST RIGHT,"Z" BEFORE
R:REPARATIO REIPVB, EMPEROR STANDING LEFT HOLDING VICTORY AND HELPING RAISE KNEELING FEMALE,
"A" IN RIGHT FIELD (OFFICINA 1)
SMTES IN EXE
THESSALONICA
RIC IX 37b
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valentinian_ii_salus_res.jpg
(0375) VALENTINIAN II--SALVS23 views375 - 392 AD
AE 13.5 X 15.0 mm 0.89 g
O: DN VALENTINIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, holding trophy on shoulder and dragging captive behind her. Chi-rho in left field.
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theodosius.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I38 views379 - 395 AD
AE 22.5 mm 5.76 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG
DIAD DR CUIR BUIST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
THEODOSIUS STANDING L HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE & RAISING KNEELING WOMAN
ASIS IN EXE
SISCIA
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theod_res.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I38 views379 - 395 AD
AE 13 mm 0.92 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left with trophy & captive; Chi-Rho in l. field. SMKA in ex.
CYZICUS MINT
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theodosius_resb.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I40 views379 - 395 AD
AE 13 mm 1.22 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE. Victory advancing left with trophy & captive; Chi-Rho in l. field. SMKA in ex.
CYZICUS MINT

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theo_1_reparat_asisc_resb.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I19 views379 - 396 AD
AE 23 mm; 3.12 g
O: D N THEODOSIVS PF AVG. Pearl diademed, draped and cuirasseed bust at right.
R: REPARATIO REI PVB, Theodosius standing front, head left, offering right hand to female on left to rise from kneeling position, in other hand he holds Victory on a globe. ASISC in exergue.
Siscia mint; RIC XI 26c
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theod_11_res.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I29 views379 - 395 AD
AE 8 mm; 1.16 g
O: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory walking left, trophy in right over shoulder, dragging captive with left, christogram left, CONSA in ex
Constantinople mint;
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theo_salus.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I23 views379 - 395 AD
AE 12 mm; 1.00 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive. Chi-rho in left field
Cyzicus mint
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theodos_salus_2.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I26 views379 - 395 AD
AE 12.5 mm; 0.98 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing left, holding trophy and dragging captive. Chi-rho in left field
Cyzicus mint
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theodosius_reparatio.jpg
(0379) THEODOSIUS I19 views379 - 395 AD
AE 23 mm; 4.36 g
O: DN THEODOSIVS P F AVG. Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust at right.
R: REPA[RATIO REI PVB], Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe in left hand and raising kneeling, turreted woman, with right hand
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AELIA_FLAC_.jpg
(0383) AELIA FLACCILLA66 views(wife of Theodosius I)
383 - 388 AD
AE 2, 5.45 g
O: AEL FLACCILLA, DIAD DR BUST R, SEEN FROM FRONT
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, VICTORY SEATED R INSCRIBING CHI RHO ON SHIELD SUPPORTED BY COLUMN, "T" IN RIGHT FIELD
ANTE IN EXE
ANTIOCH RIC 61
(OFFICINA E = 5)
(ex HJBerk)
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arcadius_c_res.jpg
(0383) ARCADIUS46 views383 - 408 AD
AE 13 mm 0.85 g
O: DN ARCADIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left holding trophy over right shoulder and dragging captive, chi-rho in left field.
laney
arcadus_salus.jpg
(0383) ARCADIUS15 views388-392
AE 13 mm, 1.44 g
O: DN ARCADIVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed and draped bust right
R: SALVS REIPVBLICAE Victory advancing l. carrying trophy and dragging captive; Christogram in l. field
laney
mag_max_5.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS37 views383 - 388 AD
AE 22 mm 4.29 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
LVGP IN EXE
LUGDUNUM
SCARCE
laney
mag_max_4.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS28 views383 - 388 AD
AE 24 mm 4.16 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
PCON IN EXE
ARELATE
laney
mag_max_2.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS34 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21.5 mm X 25 mm 4.48 g
O DN MAG MAXI[MV]S PF AVG
DIAD DRAPED AND CUIR BUST R
R: REPARATIO REI[PVB]
MAGNUS STANDING L HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
laney
mag_max_1.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS43 viewsMAGNUS MAXIMUS
383 - 388 AD
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
SCON IN EXE
ARELATE
RIC 26(a) IX
laney
mag_max_7.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS54 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21.5 mm 4.28 gO: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
laney
mag_max_6.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS53 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21 mm 4.62 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
laney
magnus_maximus_scon_b.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS11 views383 - 388 AD
AE 22 mm; 6.25 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG diademed bust right
R: REPARATIO REIPVB Emperor standing head left, holding Victory on globe and raising kneeling female; SCON in exe
Arleate mint; RIC 26(a) IX
laney
mag_max_b.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS16 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21.5 mm X 25 mm 4.48 g
O DN MAG MAXI[MV]S PF AVG diademed, craped and cuirassed bust right
R: REPARATIO REI[PVB] Magnus staging left holding Victory on globe and raising kneeling female
laney
mag_max_reparatio.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS9 views383-388 AD
AE 22 mm, 4.81 g
O: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right;
R:REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing facing, head left, raising turreted woman with right hand, Victory on globe in left hand, Victory crowning him with wreath and holding palm frond
laney
theo_i_salus_rei_res.jpg
(0388) THEODOSIUS I18 views388 - 392 AD
AE 14 mm; 1.3 g
O: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, trophy on shoulder, dragging captive behind her; Chi-Rho in left field
(EB)
laney
honorius_res~0.jpg
(0393) HONORIUS28 views393 - 423 AD
AE 13 mm max., 1.15 g
O: DN HONORIVS PF AVG, diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
R: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing left holding trophy over right shoulder and dragging captive.
Chi-rho in left field; SMKA in exe
RIC IX Cyzicus 30c, (R2)
laney
titus_domitian_aegae_b.jpg
(10) VESPASIAN (Titus and Domitian as Caesars)24 views69 - 79 AD
Reign of Vespasian
AE 19.5 mm; 3.05 g
O: laureate bust of Titus on left, confronted with bare-headed, draped bust of Domitian;
R: Apollo standing right wearing long chiton, taenia in right, laurel branch in left
Aegae, Aeolis. RPC II 968; BMC Aeolis p. 98, 22; SNG Cop 25. scarce;
d.s.
laney
Denarius91BC.jpg
(501i) Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.58 viewsSilver denarius, Syd 646a, RSC Junia 16, S 225 var, Cr 337/3 var, VF, 3.718g, 18.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (control letter) behind; reverse Victory in a biga right holding reins in both hands, V (control numeral) above, D•SILANVS / ROMA in ex; mint luster in recesses. Ex FORVM.

Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant.

MARCUS Livius DRUSUS (his father was the colleague of Gaius Gracchus in the tribuneship, 122 B.C.), became tribune of the people in 91 B.C. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity. With some of the more intelligent members of his party (such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites. Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes.

The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate. By help of these riders the bill was carried.

Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise. The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. His assassin was never discovered (http://62.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSUS_MARCUS_LIVIUS.htm).

The ensuing "Social War" (91-88 B.C.) would set the stage for the "Civil Wars" (88-87 & 82-81 B.C.) featuring, notably, Marius & Sulla; two men who would make significant impressions on the mind of a young Julius Caesar. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
rjb_2015_12_04.jpg
(VI)24116 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P F AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust right
SPES REIPVBL
Emperor on horseback left, extending arm in salute and holding spear; to left below, captive seated left
*/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 241
mauseus
rjb_2015_12_06.jpg
(VI)241cf10 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS P AVG
Helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
SPES REIPVBL
Emperor on horseback left, extending arm in salute and holding spear; to left below, captive seated left
*/-//PLN
RIC (VI) - (cf 241)
mauseus
rjb_2015_12_05.jpg
(VII)30019 viewsFausta
FLAV MAX FAVSTA AG
Draped bust of Fausta right
SALVS REIPVBLICAE
Salus standing facing, head left, cradling two infants in her arms
-/-//PLON
RIC (VII) 300
mauseus
IMITATIVE OTTOMAN.jpg
*IMITATION OTTOMAN Cedid Mahmudiye968 viewsThis piece came in a bag of modern Foreign coins - 21 pounds! May be gold inside!!!
The dating did not seem right to me! From the experts at Zeno, I found a similar issue..... This attribution from Zeno:
Imitation of gold cedid mahmudiye (KM, Turkey #645) with distorted inscriptions and fantasy regnal year 78. Made for jewelry purposes throughout the 19th and early 20th century, very likely outside Turkey: similar imitations are met in abundance in South Russia and Ukraine, along the shores of Black and Azov seas, where they were widely used for adorning Gypsy and native Greek women's garments.

So, as you see, it is not exactly a FAKE or a COUNTERFEIT - it is an IMITATION, so the makers could not get into trouble. The regnal years alone would show that the coin was not "real" -

An interesting piece that may turn up from time to time!
dpaul7
Julian_II.jpg
*SOLD*84 viewsJulian II AE 1

Attribution: RIC VIII 164, Constantinople, scarce
Date: AD 361-363
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB dot, Apis bull stg. r., two stars above,
palm CONSPA palm in exergue (double struck)
Size: 28.9 mm
Weight: 8.7 grams
ex-Forvm
4 commentsNoah
!CFmFj+QB2k~_(KGrHqZ,!hgE0f0lifVHBNVqZuj6qg~~_12.jpg
*SOLD*48 viewsTheodosius I AE4

Attribution: RIC IX 67b/70a, Antioch
Date: AD 383-392
Obverse: DN THEODO-SIVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SALVS REI-PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., trophy on shoulder, dragging
captive behind her, cross in l. field, ANTB or ANT Delta in exergue
Size: 13 mm
Weight: 1.37 grams
Noah
nurnberg_1_kreuzer_1773.jpg
*SOLD*20 views Nürnberg - 1 Kreuzer

Attribution: KM #367; 'Stadtansichtskreuzer von Nürnberg' (city-view Kreuzer of Nuremberg) is the specific type
Date: AD 1773
Obverse: View of Nuremberg in Bavaria/Germany, Providence of God above, 1773 below
Reverse: Three Coat of Arms of Nuremberg – 1) Top is 'Freie und Reichsstadt' ('Free city and city of the German Empire), the meaning is that Nuremberg has no other ruler above it than
the Emperor himself; 2) right is a half eagle, black on golden field, in the l. half, and six red and six silver oblique stripes in the r. field; 3) left shows a golden harpyia (mythic bird) on a blue field, has a female head and is crowned.
Noah
prutahjanfull1.jpg
0 - Alexander Jannaeus Prutah - H. 469110 viewsThis coin, minted under the reign of Alexander Jannaeus (103 BCE - 76 BCE), is a bronze prutah.
OBV. Upside-down achor reading BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞANΔΡOY.
REV. Eight ponted star, letters in the spokes, reading 'Yehonatan the King'.
aarmale
image~20.jpg
000a. L. Sulla and L. Manlius Toruatus33 viewsL. Sulla and L. Manlius Torquatus. 82 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.89 g, 7h). Military mint moving with Sulla. Helmeted head of Roma right / Sulla driving triumphal quadriga right, holding branch and reins, being crowned by Victory flying left. Crawford 367/5; Sydenham 757 or 757a; Manlia 4 or 5. Near VF, toned, a few light scratches on the obverse.

From the Elwood Rafn Collection.

As consul for the year 88 BC, Sulla was awarded the coveted assignment of suppressing the revolt of Mithradates VI of Pontus, but political maneuvers resulted in this assignment being transferred to Marius. In response, Sulla turned his army on Rome, captured it, and reclaimed his command against Mithradates. His prosecution of the first Mithradatic War was successful, but he spared the Pontic king for personal gain. In 83 BC, Sulla returned to Italy as an outlaw, but he was able to win the support of many of the leading Romans. Within a year, he fought his way to Rome, where he was elected dictator. It was during this campaign to Rome that this denarius was struck. The obverse type represents Sulla's claim to be acting in Rome's best interest. The reverse shows Sulla enjoying the highest honor to which a Roman could aspire: the celebration of a triumph at Rome.
ecoli
coins430.JPG
001a. Fausta Heraclea SPES REIPVBLICAE6 viewsRIC VII Heraclea 80 R1

ecoli
coin14~0.JPG
002. AUGUSTUS31 viewsAUGUSTUS AE as. Lugdunum mint, 10 BC or after. CAESAR PONT MAX, laureate head right. Reverse - the Altar of Lugdunum, Victory on each pedestal, ROM ET AVG below. RCV 1690.

This early type was issued circa 10 BC and the years immediately following, to commemorate the completion of the altar at Lugdunum, which was inaugurated on August 1st, 10 BC. A later type of this series was also issued later in the reign of Augustus, and includes both Augustus and Tiberius as Caesar.
ecoli
0029.jpg
0029 - Denarius Vibia 89-8 BC48 viewsObv/Laureate head of Apollo r.; PANSA behind, below control mark.
Rev/Minerva in quadriga r., holding spear and reins in l. and trophy in r.; C VIBIVS C F in ex.

Ag, 18.2mm, 3.90g
Moneyer: C.Vibius C.f. Pansa
Mint: Rome.
RRC 342/5b [dies o/r: 988/1097 (3b-5b)]
ex-LHS Numismatik, auction 100, lot 389
2 commentsdafnis
Augustus_AE-Semis_VIC-AVG_COHOR-PRAE-PHIL_Phillipi-Macedon_SNG-Cop-305_Q-001_h_18mm_0_00g-s.jpg
002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), (Time of Claudius or Nero, circa AD 41-68.??? ), Macedon, Phillipi, RPC I 1651, AE-18, (AE Semis), COHOR-PRAE-PHIL, Three military standards,108 views002p Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), (Time of Claudius or Nero, circa AD 41-68.??? ), Macedon, Phillipi, RPC I 1651, AE-18, (AE Semis), COHOR-PRAE-PHIL, Three military standards,
Augustus Macedon Phillipi Æ18 / Struck to Commemorate the Battle of Actium
avers:- VIC-AVG, Nike standing left holding wreath and palm branch.
revers:- COHOR-PRAE-PHIL, Three military standards.
exe: VIC/AVG//--, diameter:18mm, weight: , axis: h,
mint: Macedon, Phillipi, Pseudo-autonomous issue, date: Time of Claudius or Nero, circa AD 41-68., ref: RPC I 1651, SNG ANS 677; SNG Copenhagen 305, BMC 23, SGI 32.
Q-001
"This coin has traditionally been attributed to Augustus, but due to its copper composition, RPC attributes it as likely from Claudius to Nero; Philippi probably did not issue copper coins during the reign of Augustus."
1 commentsquadrans
0032~0.jpg
0032 - Denarius Marcia 134 BC32 viewsObv/Helmeted head of Roma r., behind modius, before crossed X.
Rev/Victory in biga r., holding reins in l. and whip in r. hand; below M MAR C, below RO MA divided by two grain ears.

Ag, 19.7mm, 3.79g
Moneyer: M.Marcius Mn.f.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 245/1 [dies o/r: 120/150] - BMCRR 1008 - Syd. 500.
ex-Valencia Coin Market 20 may 2007
dafnis
0033.jpg
0033 - Denarius Postumia 131 BC60 viewsObv/Helmeted head or Roma r., nehind apex, before crossed X.
Rev/Mars in quadriga r., holding spear, shield and reins in l. and trophy in r. hand; below L POST ALB, ROMA in ex.

Ag, 20.0mm, 3.92g
Moneyer: L.Postumius Albinus (son)
Mint: Rome.
RRC 252/1 [dies o/r: 47/59] - BMCRR Rome 1129 - RSC Postumia 1 - Syd. 472
ex-Münzen & Medaillen, auction 28 may 207, lot 1310
2 commentsdafnis
coin345.JPG
004. Caligula 41 viewsGAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior.

Æ As (28mm, 10.19 gm). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. Bare head left / Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC I 38; Cohen 27. Near VF, dark brown surfaces. Ex-CNG
ecoli
q10.JPG
005a. Helena Antioch SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE25 viewsRIC VII Antioch 67 R4
ecoli
ss31.JPG
005a. Helena Siscia SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE30 viewsRIC VII Siscia 204 S
ecoli
U3141F1PSHJQFNX.JPG
005cc. Valeria Messalina48 viewsMessalina, 41-48 AD

Size/Weight: 17mm, 3.36g

AEOLIS, Aegae. Messalina. Augusta, AD 41-48. Draped bust right / Zeus Aëtophorus standing left. RPC I 2430; SNG Copenhagen 23.

Obverse: CЄBACTH MЄCAΛЄINA draped bust right
Reverse: AIΓAЄΩN Zeus standing left, holding eagle and scepter

This should look familiar, A. Reich :)

Attribution: RPC 2430, SNG Aulock -, SNG Leypold -, SNG Righetti -, Lindgren -, Sear GIC –
ecoli
coin191.JPG
006. Nero (54 AD - 68 AD) 47 viewsNero, last of the Julio-Claudians, had been placed in the difficult position of absolute authority at a young age coupled with the often-contradictory efforts of those in a position to manipulate him. Augustus, however, had not been much older when he began his bid for power, and so a great deal of the responsibility for Nero's conduct must also rest with the man himself. Nero's reign was not without military operations (e.g., the campaigns of Corbulo against the Parthians, the suppression of the revolt of Boudicca in Britain), but his neglect of the armies was a critical error.

Nero As, 26x27 mm, 10.0 g. Obverse: Nero laureate right, NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP. Reverse: Temple of Janus, with latticed window to left and closed double doors to right, PACE PR VBIQ PARTA IANVM CLVSIT, SC.

Check
1 commentsecoli
0087.jpg
0087 - Denarius Aemilia/Plautia 58 BC44 viewsObv/ M SCAVR / AED CVR Kneeling figure r., holding olive branch and reins of camel standing beside him; on either side, EX – S·C. In exergue, REX ARETAS.
Rev/ P HVPSAE / AED CVR Jupiter in quadriga l. holding reins in l. hand and hurling thunderbolt with r.; behind, CAPTV. Below, C HVPSAE COS / PREIVE.

Ag, 18.6 mm, 3.96 g
Moneyers: M. Aemilius Scaurus, P. Plautius Hypsaeus
Mint: Rome.
RRC 422/1b [dies o/r: 336/373] - Bab. Aemilia , Plautia 10 - Syd. 912
ex-CNG Coins, auction e-248, lot 350
dafnis
99104.jpg
009. Vitellius 69 AD155 viewsVITELLIUS. 69 AD.

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68.

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

AR Denarius (20mm, 3.24 gm). Rome mint. Laureate head right / Tripod-lebes; dolphin above, raven below. RIC I 109; RSC 111. Ex-Cng
1 commentsecoli73
DSC07046_obv_03_DSC07051_rev_04.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows49 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
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4 commentsrexesq
DSC07044_obv_01_DSC07048__rev_01JPG.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows36 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
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2 commentsrexesq
Julian-II_AR-Siliqua_vows_1_9gr_03_rev-85%.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows - 00139 views Roman Empire, 4th century AD Silver Siliqua.
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, struck 361 - 363 AD, Constantinople Mint, Prima Officinae.

obverse: " DN JULIANUS P F AUG " - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

reverse: " VOTIS V MULTIS X " - within wreath, '' P CON '' in exergue (below), for Constantinople mint.

Size: 19 dia.
Weight: 1.9 Grams
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5 commentsrexesq
DSC07050_rev_03.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows - Reverse.14 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
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rexesq
DSC07049_rev_02.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows - Reverse.12 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
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rexesq
DSC07063_rev_09.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows - Reverse. BRIGHT.16 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
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Slightly off color photo; too much lighting.
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rexesq
philip-I_tetradrachm_laureate-bust-right-cuirassed_obv_03_rev_04.JPG
01 - Philip I Tetradrachm - Laureate bust left, seen from front, cuirassed. Head of Medusa on breastplate. 45 viewsTetradrachm of Antioch, Syria.
Dated Year 3 of reign.
obv: Laureate, cuirassed bust left, seen from the front, breastplate decorated with a gorgoneion/medusa head.

rev: Eagle standing facing left, tail right. Wreath in its beak, ANTIOXIA SC below.
2 commentsrexesq
V669a.jpg
01 Domitian as Caesar RIC 66927 viewsÆ As, 11.05g
Rome mint, 73-74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PAX AVGVST; S C in field; Pax stg. l., leaning on column, with caduceus and branch
RIC 669 (C). BMC -. BNC 699.
Acquired from Musa Numismatics, August 2019.

The propaganda value of Pax for the Flavian dynasty after the Civil War, the revolt of Civilis, and the Jewish War cannot be underestimated. In her various guises she is one of the most popular types on Vespasian's coinage and shows up quite frequently during the reign on the coins struck for both himself and his sons. This As struck for Domitian as Caesar shows Pax leaning on a column, which likely copies a well known cult image of the goddess.

Tellingly, less than a decade later, Pax would not feature so prominently on Domitian's own coinage as Emperor.

Fine style early portrait.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
VHC01-coin.jpg
01- AUSTRALIA: 1 SOVEREIGN, KM13, (1901-M)60 viewsSize: 22.05 mm. Composition: .917 Gold/.2354 oz. Mintage: 3,012,000 ("S" mintmark)- 3,987,000 ("M" mintmark)- 2,889,000 ("P" mintmark).
Grade: PCGS AU58 (Cert. # 5820151).
Comments: Purchased 3/1/10 from eBay seller "akbeez".
lordmarcovan
RPC_I_1651_Augusto_PHILIPPI_MACEDONIA.jpg
01-75 - Filipi - Macedonia - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)18 viewsAE17 17 mm 5.0 gr.
Atribuida a Octavio/Augusto pero por la composición del metal correspondería su acuñación desde Claudio I a Neron, Filipi probablemente no acuñara en cobre durante el reinado de Augusto.

Anv: "VIC - AVG" a los lados de Victoria estante a izquierda sobre una base, portando guirnalda y hoja de palma.
Rev: "COHOR PRAE PHIL" - rodeando a tres estandartes militares.

Acuñada probablemente 41 A.C. - 68 D.C.
Ceca: Filipi - Macedonia

Referencias: RPC I #1651 Pag.308 - SNG Cop #305/6 - Sear GICTV #32 Pag.4 - BMC 5 #23 Pag.98 - SNG ANS #674-677
mdelvalle
BMC_XXVI__62_Augusto_BERYTOS_FENICIA.jpg
01-80 - Beritos - Fenicia - AUGUSTO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)19 viewsAE22 22 mm 12.0 gr.
Acuñada a Divo Augusto durante el reinado de Trajano.
La Colonia Iulia Augusta Felix Berytus fue fundada por veteranos de las 5ta. y 8va. legione, probablemente en el 14 A.C.

Anv: " DIVOS AVGVSTVS " Cabeza desnuda de Augusto viendo a derecha.
Rev: "COL·/ IVL " (en campo centro alto), "AVG" (en campo derecho) y , "BER" (en campo izquierdo), rodeando a Fundador velado, arando a derecha con un buey y una vaca .

Acuñada probablemente 98–102 D.C.
Ceca: Beritos - Fenicia

Referencias: RPC I #1651 Pag.308 - Sawaya 2009 #565 Pag.37 - BMC Phoenicia #65-5 Pag.60
mdelvalle
Philip-I-RIC-012.jpg
01. Philip I.18 viewsAntoninianus, 248 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip I.
Reverse: SAECVLARES AVGG / Lion facing right. I in exergue.
4.60 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #12; Sear #8956.

During the reign of Philip I, the Empire celebrated the millennium of the founding of the City of Rome. The thousandth year of Rome was calculated as running from April 21, 247 to April 21, 248. During this year, celebrations were held throughout the empire, and in the city of Rome itself. Spectacular games were held for the people and a series of coins was issued depicting the animals which appeared in these games. Other reverse types looked back a 1000 years (wolf & twins) or ahead to the future (SAECVLVM NOVVM / temple) as Rome entered a "new age." The first 8 coins in this album are the coins issued for this occasion.
Callimachus
coin214.JPG
010. Vespasian 69 AD - 79 AD36 viewsVespasian

The character of this emperor showed very little, if anything, of the pagan tyrant. Though himself a man of no literary culture, he became the protector of his prisoner of war, the Jewish historian Josephus, a worshipper of the One God, and even permitted him the use of his own family name (Flavius). While this generosity may have been in some degree prompted by Josephus's shrewd prophecy of Vespasian's elevation to the purple, there are other instances of his disposition to reward merit in those with whom he was by no means personally sympathetic. Vespasian has the distinction of being the first Roman Emperor to transmit the purple to his own son; he is also noteworthy in Roman imperial history as having very nearly completed his seventieth year and died a natural death: being in feeble health, he had withdrawn to benefit by the purer air of his native Reate, in the "dewy fields" (rosei campi) of the Sabine country. By his wife, Flavia Domitilla, he left two sons, Titus and Domitian, and a daughter, Domitilla, through whom the name of Vespasian's empress was passed on to a granddaughter who is revered as a confessor of the Faith.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century. In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!"

Denarius. IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right / VES-TA to either side of Vesta standing left, holding simpulum & scepter. RSC 574
ecoli
coin287.JPG
011. Titus 79-81 AD28 viewsTitus. 79-81 AD.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. [[17]] It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well.

AR Denarius (3.44 gm). Laureate head right/Radiate figure on rostral column. RIC II 16a; BMCRE 29; RSC 289. Fine. Scarce and interesting reverse type. Ex-CNG
ecoli
Claudius_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP____EX-S-C-P-P-OB-CIVES-SERVATOS_RIC-I-112_C-38_Q-001_34-36mm_23,63g-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!,370 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!,
Claudius became “Father of the Country” in 50 AD, and this title was added to the coinage, at the end of the legend, with it’s abbreviation: PP. The reverse legend translates to “For Saving the Lives of Citizens.
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, laureate head of Claudius right
revers:- No legend - Wreath, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS within,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 34-36mm, weight: 23,63g, axis:11h,
mint:Thracian ?, date: 50-54 A.D., ref: RIC-I-112, C-38,
Q-001
"RIC is in error to state that P P only appeared on Claudius' bronze coins in 50 AD. In fact Claudius became P P very early in 42 AD, and P P appeared immediately not only on his quadrantes, which are specifically dated to 42 by the title COS II, but also on his sestertii and middle bronzes.
Stylistically your coin should not be attributed to Rome, but to a Thracian mint perhaps active only towards the end of the reign. These coins, scarcer than the Rome-mint ones, are not recognized in RIC!" by Curtis Clay. Thank you "curtisclay".
5 commentsquadrans
Claudius_AE-Sest_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P_EX-S-C-P-P-OB-CIVES-SERVATOS_RIC-I-112_C-38_Q-001_11h_34-36mm_23,63ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!, Re-Shot !342 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 112var. (?), Thracian ?, AE-Sestertius, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS, Rare !!!, Re-Shot !
Claudius became “Father of the Country” in 50 AD, and this title was added to the coinage, at the end of the legend, with it’s abbreviation: PP. The reverse legend translates to “For Saving the Lives of Citizens.
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, laureate head of Claudius right
revers:- No legend - Wreath, EX-S-C/P-P/OB-CIVES/SERVATOS within,
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 34-36mm, weight: 23,63g, axis:11h,
mint:Thracian ?, date: 50-54 A.D., ref: RIC-I-112, C-38,
Q-001
"RIC is in error to state that P P only appeared on Claudius' bronze coins in 50 AD. In fact Claudius became P P very early in 42 AD, and P P appeared immediately not only on his quadrantes, which are specifically dated to 42 by the title COS II, but also on his sestertii and middle bronzes.
Stylistically your coin should not be attributed to Rome, but to a Thracian mint perhaps active only towards the end of the reign. These coins, scarcer than the Rome-mint ones, are not recognized in RIC!" by Curtis Clay. Thank you "curtisclay".
1 commentsquadrans
0121.jpg
0121 - Denarius Cipia 115-4 BC42 viewsObv/ Helmeted head of Roma r.; before, M CIPI MF; behind, X.
Rev/ Victory in biga r., holding reins and palm-branch tied with fillet; below, rudder; in ex. ROMA.

Ag, 17.5 mm, 3.93 g
Moneyer: M. Cipius M.f.
Mint: Roma.
RRC 289/1 [dies o/r: 535/669] - Bab. Cipia 1 - Syd. 546
ex-Numismática Hinojosa, eBay june 2011 - art. #350470428453
dafnis
0141.jpg
0141 - Denarius Julia 103 BC33 viewsObv/ Helmeted head of Mars r.; above, control mark C; behind, CAESAR.
Rev/ Venus in biga of Cupids l., holding sceptre and reins; above control mark C; below, lyre; L IVLI L F in ex.

Ag, 17.0 mm, 4.09 g
Mint: Roma.
Moneyer: L. Iulius Caesar.
RRC 320/1 [dies o/r: 92/92] - Syd. 593a - RSC Julia 4
ex-Artemide Aste, auction 9E, lot 9194
dafnis
0189.jpg
0189 - Denarius Plautia 60 BC50 viewsObv/ Head of Neptune r.; behind, trident; before, P YPSAE SC.
Rev/ Jupiter in quadriga r., holding reins and thunderbolt; below C YPSAE COS PRIV; behind, CEPIT.

Ag, 19.7 mm, 3.88 g
Moneyer: P. Plautius Hypsaeus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 420/1a [dies o/r: 34/38 (all var.)]
ex-NAC, auction 78, lot 674
1 commentsdafnis
Augustus_RIC_220.jpg
02 Augustus RIC I 022047 viewsAugustus 27 B.C.-14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint 13-14 A.D. (3.57g, 19.5, 0 h). Obv: [CAESAR AVGVSTVS] DVI F PATER PATRRIAE, laureate head r. REV: [PONTIF] MAXIM, Liva as Pax seated r. on low-backed chair, vertical scepter in r., branch in left. RIC I 220 (R2), RSC 223.

Worn and on an irregular flan, I still wanted this example because of the reverse. Minted in his last year as emperor, this was Augustus’ precursor to Tiberius’ “tribute penny.” While this was one of many types during Augustus’ reign, it was one very few types for Tiberius.
1 commentsLucas H
dom as caesar spes.jpg
02 Domitian as Caesar RIC 788157 viewsAR Denarius, 3.36g
Rome mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVT; Spes, draped, advancing l., holding up flower in r. hand and with l. holding up her skirt.
RIC 788 (C). BMC 156. RSC 375. BNC 135.
Ex Harlan J Berk 155, 31 July 2007, lot 247.

During Vespasian's reign, Domitian was given the honorary title PRINCEPS IVVENTVT or 'Prince of Youth', celebrated here on this denarius from 74 AD. The title is one that was often given to young princes who were marked out as chosen heirs.

Spes, the personification of hope, is seen here on the reverse advacing left, holding a budding flower. The flower is a symbol of future well being.

Domitian's coinage during Vespasian's rule was unique. While Titus followed closely the types of his father, Domitian struck out on his own. One wonders how much of an input the young prince had on his own series.

A very likeable coin with a good portrait and excellent centring.


2 commentsVespasian70
Antíoco I, Soter.jpg
02-02 - Antioco I Soter (281 - 261 A.C.)42 viewsDespués de la muerte de Alejandro Magno, sus generales se repartieron el imperio, siendo protagonistas durante veinte años de grandes luchas y peleas por obtener el poder. Fueron los llamados diádocos, (διάδοχοι) o sucesores. La lucha entre ellos para obtener el poder y la hegemonía duró casi cincuenta años, hasta el 281 adC en que murió el último de los diádocos, Seleuco I Nikátor. Después de estos antiguos generales gobernaron los llamados epígonos (επίγονοι), que significa los nacidos después.
Antíoco I Sóter (que quiere decir 'salvador') (324 adC-261 adC) era hijo del fundador de la dinastía Seléucida, Seleuco I Nicátor y de Apame, princesa sogdiana y nieta de Espitamenes. Se casó con su madrastra, Estratónice. Era uno de estos epígonos a que se refiere la Historia. Se le conoce sobre todo por su triunfo frente a los gálatas en Asia Menor (pueblo galo procedente de Europa que se asentó aquí en el siglo III adC), cuya invasión supo detener a tiempo. Los gálatas venían de una expedición contra los griegos y habían sido vencidos por ellos. Pero al amparo de esta invasión frustrada se fueron formando pequeños Estados independientes que se irán consolidando durante los reinados de los reyes sucesores de Antíoco. Fue enemigo de otro de los epígonos, Ptolomeo II de Egipto y en las luchas que mantuvo contra él Antíoco perdió grandes extensiones de terreno además de que el rey egipcio consiguiera también la hegemonía sobre el mar Mediterráneo. Murió en combate durante la guerra que mantuvo contra Eumenes I, gobernador del reino de Pérgamo en Asia Menor. A Antíoco I le sucedió su hijo Antíoco II Teos (el dios).(Wikipedia)
AE 17 mm 5.8 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema viendo a derecha.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Zeus de pié de frente viendo a izquierda sosteniendo estrella ? en mano derecha extendida y cetro en izquierda.

Ceca: Antioquía en Orontes
Referencias:
mdelvalle
0229_REPROM_RRC313_1b.jpg
0229 - Denarius Memmia 106 BC9 viewsObv/ Laureate head of Saturn l., harpa and ROMA behind; before, control mark.
Rev/ Venus on biga r., holding scepter and reins. Above, Cupid flying l. and holding wreath; below, L MEMMI GAL.

Ag, 18.9 mm, 3.93 g
Moneyer: father of L. and C. Memmii L.f. Gal.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 313/1b [dies o/r: 131/164 all var.]
ex-CNG, auction e436, lot 455 (ex-A McCabe, direct purchase to Künker am Dom, 2018)
dafnis
LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Æ Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
augustus berytos AE22.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AE22 of Berytus 49 viewsobv: IMP.CAES AVGVSTVS (bare head of Augustus right)
rev: COL.IVL (founder plowing with two oxen, left)
ref: BMC 52, RPC 4540,
mint: Berytus
8.45gms, 22mm

Colony Berytus (modern Beirut) in Phoenicia. Augustus sent to it part of the veterans takens from two legions (V Macedonica and VIII Augusta) as a reinforcement to the first military settlers of Julius Caesar.
berserker
Nero-Prieur-89.jpg
027. Nero.16 viewsTetradrachm, 63-64 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: ΝΕΡΩΝ ΚΑΙΣΑΡ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΣ / Laureate bust of Nero.
Reverse: ΕΤΟΥΣ ΒΙΡ . Ι / Eagle on thunderbolt, palm branch at right.
14.25 gm., 25 mm.
Prieur #89.

Dating this coin: BIP is the Greek way of writing the numeral 112 (B = 2; I = 10; P = 100) -- which is year 112 of the Caesarean Era of Antioch ( which started numbering from the Battle of Pharsalia, Aug. 9, 48 BC). The second I (after BIP) stands for the 10'th year of Nero's reign, which by today's reckoning is 63 - 64 AD.
Callimachus
V633.jpg
02a Domitian as Caesar RIC 79149 viewsAR Quinarius (Broken), 1.04g
Rome mint, 75 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGVSTI; Victory std. l., with wreath and palm
RIC 791 (C). BMC 158. RSC 634. BNC 136.
Acquired from GB Collection, June 2016

Quinarii were struck under Vespasian for Domitian Caesar from 73 onwards. This common piece dates to 75 when the largest quinarius issue of the reign was produced.

Broken, but enough of the major devices remain to identify it properly. I think I got the better half.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
Tiberius_RIC_I_4.jpg
03 01 Tiberius RIC 454 viewsTiberius 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint, 15-16 A.D. (3.74g, 17.6mm, 6h). Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: [TR POT X]VII. IMP [VII] in exergue, Tiberius, laur. And cloaked, stg. In slow Quadriga r., holding laurel branch and eagle tipped scepter. RIC I 4 (R2), BMC 7, RSC 48.

For an emperor with relatively long reign, Tiberius’ silver coinage was remarkably unvaried with the ubiquitous “tribute penny” making up the bulk of his denarii. This is a decent example of, perhaps, the second most common silver coin. Although the reverse legends are largely off the flan, the obverse has a decent portrait and legend.
2 commentsLucas H
Medio Follis Justiniano I SB00165.jpg
03-10 - Justiniano I (01/08/527 - 14/11/565 D.C.) 21 viewsAE Medio Follis 28 x 30 mm 7.1 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINIANVS PP.AVG." - Busto con yelmo y coraza, portando "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda, viendo al frente. A su Izquierda " + " .
Rev: Gran " K ", " + " arriba, " A/N/N/O " a izquierda, " XII " (Año de reinado) a derecha y " Δ " (Letra de Officina) debajo.

Acuñada Año=12, 538/9 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #165 Pag. 61 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #62-75 - B.M.C. #107/12, 115/19 - Tolstoi M.B. #318/36 - Ratto M.B. #539/42, 547 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #82-91 - Hahn M.I.B. #96 (H.Weller)
mdelvalle
Decanummium Justiniano I SB00167.jpg
03-25 - Justiniano I (01/08/527 - 14/11/565 D.C.) 26 viewsAE Decanummium (10 nummi) 15 mm 4.6 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINIANVS PP.AVG." - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: Gran " I ", " + " arriba, " A/N/N/O " a izquierda y " X/X/X " (Año de reinado) a derecha. " CON " en exergo.

Acuñada Año=30, 556/7 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #167 Pag. 62 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #76-85, 88-95 - B.M.C. #126/32, 135/37 - Tolstoi M.B. #408/16 - Ratto M.B. #552/4, 556/9 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #92/6 - Hahn M.I.B. #99 (I.T.Roper Coll.)
mdelvalle
Decanummium Justiniano I SB00326.jpg
03-27 - Justiniano I (01/08/527 - 14/11/565 D.C.) 32 viewsAE Decanummium (10 nummi) 15 mm 3.7 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINIANVS PP.AVG." - Busto con yelmo y coraza, portando "Sphaira" ó "globus cruciger" u "Ordis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda, viendo al frente. A su Izquierda " + ".
Rev: Gran " I ", " A/N/N/O " a izquierda y " XX/XV/II " (Año de reinado) a derecha. " CON " en exergo.

Acuñada Año=37, 563/4 D.C.
Ceca: Ravenna

Referencias: Sear BCTV #326 Pag. 85 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #347/55 - B.M.C. #404/9 - Tolstoi M.B. #450/2 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #2/7 - Hahn M.I.B. #229
1 commentsmdelvalle
Vespasian-RIC-15.jpg
035. Vespasian.39 viewsDenarius, 69-71 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG / Laureate bust of Vespasian.
Reverse: IVDAEA / Jewish woman captive seated on ground, mourning; trophy behind her.
3.44 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #15; Sear #2296.

When the Jewish Revolt began in 66 AD, Nero appointed Vespasian supreme commander in the East to put down the uprising. In 69 AD Vespasian made his own bid for the throne and left his son Titus to finish up the Jewish War -- which he did in 70 AD by capturing Jerusalem and destroying the Temple. This victory of Vespasian and Titus was the major military event of the reign, and numerous coins were issued to commemorate it.
2 commentsCallimachus
042.jpg
038 GALLIENUS11 viewsEMPEROR: Gallienus
DENOMINATION: Antoninianus
OBVERSE: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right
REVERSE: AETERNITAS AVG, Sol, radiate, standing left with with raised hand and holding globe, Γ to left.
DATE: 260-2688 AD (Sole Reign)
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 2.90 g
RIC: 160
Barnaba6
Caligula_denarius.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 2223 viewsGaius (Caligula) 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyons) Mint 37 AD. (3.3g, 18.5mm, 2h). Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right. Rev: anepigraphic, Augustus, radiate head right between two stars. RIC I 2, BMC 4, Sear 1808. Ex personal collection Steve McBride/Incitatus Coins.

Son of Germanicus, Gaius was adopted by Tiberius and was proclaimed Emperor on Tiberius’ death. His reign, marked by cruelty, was ended when he was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. There is some question when the Imperial Mint was moved from Lugdunum to Rome, but the majority view holds at least Gaius’ early issues were still from Lugdunum.

With more than moderate wear and damage, this coin still has an almost complete obverse legend, and is a decent weight. It was very difficult for me to track down a denarius of Gaius.
2 commentsLucas H
Follis Justino II SB00360.jpg
04-02 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 33 viewsAE Follis 30 x 28 mm 13.4 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Sofia a la derecha, sentados de frente en doble trono, ambos nimbados, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz.
Rev: Gran " M ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " + " arriba, "Ilegible" (Año reinal) a derecha y " Γ" (Letra de Officina) debajo. "CON" en exergo.

Acuñada Incierto - 565 - 578 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.3ra.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #360 Pag. 91 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #22-43 - B.M.C. #28-81 - Tolstoi M.B. #57-109 - Ratto M.B. #782-824 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-43 - Hahn M.I.B. #43
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino II SB00361D.jpg
04-10 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 28 viewsAE Medio Follis 21 x 25 mm 7.3 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Sofia a la derecha, sentados de frente en doble trono, ambos nimbados, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz.
Rev: Gran " K ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " + " arriba, "Signo=5" (Año reinal) a derecha y " Δ" (Letra de Officina) debajo.

Acuñada Año=5 - 569/70 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #361 Pag. 92 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #44-58 - B.M.C. #82-100 - Tolstoi M.B. #217-234 - Ratto M.B. #825-833 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #45-51 - Hahn M.I.B. #44a-c
mdelvalle
foto8.jpg
04-12 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)22 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Aretas IV y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat.
AE 17 x 14 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Aretas IV y su Reina Shaquilath viendo a derecha."Letras arameas en el campo".
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "ARETAS, SHUQAILAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos HRTT/SQY y una debajo LT).

Acuñada: 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5699 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #15-20 Pag 8 - SNG ANS #6.1438-43 - Meshorer #114 - SNG Copenhagen #127-131
mdelvalle
foto7.jpg
04-14 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)18 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Aretas IV y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat.
AE 17 x 16 mm 3.8 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Aretas IV y su Reina Shaquilath viendo a derecha."Letras arameas en el campo".
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "ARETAS, SHUQAILAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos HRTT/SQY y una debajo LT).

Acuñada: 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5699 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #15-20 Pag 8 - SNG ANS #6.1438-43 - Meshorer #114 - SNG Copenhagen #127-131
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino II SB00365.jpg
04-14 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 21 viewsAE Medio Follis 21 x 24 mm 5.2 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Busto con yelmo y coraza, portando "Sphaira" ó "globus cruciger" u "Ordis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) en mano derecha y escudo en izquierda, viendo al frente.
Rev: Gran " K ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " + " arriba, " I " (Año reinal) a derecha y " TES " debajo.

Acuñada Año=1 - 565/6 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalónica

Referencias: Sear BCTV #365 Pag. 93 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #61/4 - B.M.C. #101/4 - Tolstoi M.B. #38-40 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-5 - Hahn M.I.B. #68a-b
mdelvalle
Medio Follis Justino II SB00366.jpg
04-15 - Justino II (15/11/565 - 05/10/578 D.C.) 21 viewsAE Medio Follis 21 x 24 mm 5.2 gr.

Anv: "D.N. IVSTINVS PP.AVG." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Sofia a la derecha, sentados de frente en doble trono, ambos nimbados, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz.
Rev: Gran " K ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " Ilegible " arriba, " ε " (Año reinal) a derecha y " TES " debajo.

Acuñada Año=5 - 569/70 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalónica

Referencias: Sear BCTV #366 Pag. 93 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.I #65-85 - B.M.C. #105/24 - Tolstoi M.B. #173-188 - Ratto M.B. #835-842 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #6-15 - Hahn M.I.B. #70a-f
mdelvalle
foto9.jpg
04-16 - Aretas IV (9 A.C. - 40 D.C.)24 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Aretas IV y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat.
AE 15 x 13 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Aretas IV y su Reina Shaquilath viendo a derecha."Letras arameas en el campo".
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "ARETAS, SHUQAILAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos HRTT/SQY y una debajo LT).

Acuñada: 39 - 40 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GICTV #5699 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #15-20 Pag 8 - SNG ANS #6.1438-43 - Meshorer #114 - SNG Copenhagen #127-131
mdelvalle
foto11.jpg
04-20 - Malichus II (40 - 70 D.C.)24 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Malichus II y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat II.
AE 12 x 14 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Malichus II y su Reina (y hermana?) Shaquilath II viendo a derecha. Gráfila de puntos.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas y fileteadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "MALICHUS / SHUQAI / LAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos y una debajo). Grafila de puntos.

Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #5703 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #4-5 Pag 11 - SNG ANS #6.1444 - Meshorer #140A
mdelvalle
foto12.jpg
04-22 - Malichus II (40 - 70 D.C.)23 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Malichus II y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat II.
AE 13 x 14 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Malichus II y su Reina (y hermana?) Shaquilath II viendo a derecha. Gráfila de puntos.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas y fileteadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "MALICHUS / SHUQAI / LAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos y una debajo). Grafila de puntos.

Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #5703 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #4-5 Pag 11 - SNG ANS #6.1444 - Meshorer #140A
mdelvalle
foto10.jpg
04-24 - Malichus II (40 - 70 D.C.)21 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Malichus II y su esposa/hermana? Shuqailat II.
AE 14 x 15 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: Bustos conjugados laureados y vestidos de Malichus II y su Reina (y hermana?) Shaquilath II viendo a derecha. Gráfila de puntos.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas y fileteadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "MALICHUS / SHUQAI / LAT" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos y una debajo). Grafila de puntos.

Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #5703 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #4-5 Pag 11 - SNG ANS #6.1444 - Meshorer #140A
mdelvalle
foto13.jpg
04-30 - Rabbel II (70 - 106 D.C.)28 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Rabbel II y su esposa/hermana? Gamilath.
AE 16 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: Cabezas conjugadas laureadas de Rabbel II y su Reina (y hermana?) Gamilath viendo a derecha. Él con pelo largo y ornamentos sobre su cabeza.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas y fileteadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "RABBEL / GAMILATH" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos).

Acuñada: 76 - 102 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #5706 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #3-7 Pag 13 - SNG ANS #6.1447-50 - Meshorer #163a
mdelvalle
foto14.jpg
04-32 - Rabbel II (70 - 106 D.C.)25 viewsEste tipo fue acuñado en nombre de Rabbel II y su esposa/hermana? Gamilath.
AE 17 x 15 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: Cabezas conjugadas laureadas de Rabbel II y su Reina (y hermana?) Gamilath viendo a derecha. Él con pelo largo y ornamentos sobre su cabeza.
Rev: Dos cornucopias cruzadas y fileteadas. Entre ellas leyenda en arameo "RABBEL / GAMILATH" (En 2 líneas entre los cuernos).

Acuñada: 76 - 102 D.C.
Ceca: Petra

Referencias: Sear GCTV Vol.2 #5706 Pag.560 - B.M.C. Vol.28 #3-7 Pag 13 - SNG ANS #6.1447-50 - Meshorer #163a
1 commentsmdelvalle
Matyas-Hunyadi_Garas_U_550-d_C2-213A-E_H-692-695_P-193-2,_mOnETA_mAThIE_REIS_hVnOAR,_PATROnA_VnGARIE,_1479-85_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_26,5mm,_2,9g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Gross, U-550.d-var., Madonna and child, #01168 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Gross, U-550.d-var., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•RЄIS•hVnOAR, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads(two!!), Crown(!!) and Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak. (Legends error! "•RЄIS•hVnOAR" instead of "•RЄGIS•hVnGAR" and variation!)
reverse: PATROnA VnGARIЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots. (Legend variation!)
exergue, mint mark: K/ Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 26,5mm, weight: 2,9g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1469 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-550.d-var., CNH-2-213A-Evar., Huszár-692, Pohl-193-02,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
FaustaCONSSalus.JPG
043. Fausta, wife of Constantine I. AE Follis, Constantinople mint.81 viewsAE Follis. Constantinople mint, late 326AD.

Obv.Bust of Fausta right FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG

Rev. Fausta standing holding Constantine II and Constantius II SALVS REIPVBLICAE.

RIC VII 12; LRBC 976. gVF

A very rare and interesting coin. The mint at Constantinople was only in operation for a couple of months when Fausta was executed, coins of her and Crispus from this mint are very hard to come by.
1 commentsLordBest
faustaspes~0.jpg
043. Fausta, wife of Constantine I. AE Follis, Rome mint. FDC.191 viewsAE Follis. Rome mint.

Obv.Bust of Fausta right FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG

Rev. Fausta standing holding Constantine II and Constantius II SPES REIPVBLICAE

RIC 292, S 3903, VM 6. R4.

FDC. Finest known Fausta bronze, with full mint lustre sheathed in a thin Tiber patina. ex- Tom Cederlind.
5 commentsLordBest
Trajan-RIC-147.jpg
045. Trajan.15 viewsDenarius, 103-111 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P / Laureate bust of Trajan.
Reverse: COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC / Trophy of arms: two shield, one round, one oval; at base: two swords, two javelins, and two shields.
3.28 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #147.

The conquest of Dacia, the most important military enterprise of Trajan's reign, occupied two campaigns: 101 - 102 AD, and 105 - 106 AD. This coin commemorates the victories of the second of these campaigns.
Callimachus
Claudius_RIC_I_64.jpg
05 Claudius RIC I 6465 viewsClaudius. 41-54 A.D. Rome Mint 51-2 A.D. (3.32g, 18.4m, 0h). Obv: [TI CLA]VD CAESAR AVG PM TR P XI IMP P P C[OS V], laureate head right. Rev: SPQR/PP/OBCS in three lines in oak wreath. RIC I 64. RSC 96.

Claudius was put on the throne by the Praetorian Guard after the murder of Caligula, and was eventually murdered by Nero’s mother. This is a worn coin and common reverse during Claudius’ reign, but I wanted to obtain it as denarii of Claudius seem few and far between, second only to Gaius in the 12 Caesar series it seems.
4 commentsLucas H
Seleuco III, Soter Cerauno.jpg
05-02 - Seleuco III, Soter Cerauno (226 - 223 A.C.)52 viewsSeleuco III Sóter Cerauno (? - 223 adC). Rey de la dinastía seleúcida, hijo mayor de Seleuco II Calinico, a quien sucedió. Su apelativo Cerauno significa “el Rayo”. Su reinado fue breve (apenas tres años, desde el 225 adC). Decidió llevar a cabo el plan que su padre no pudo realizar en vida: enfrentar al rey Atalo I de Pérgamo, aliado de Antioco Hierax, hermano de Seleuco Calinico y tio suyo, el cual había muerto hace poco, pero que había ayudado a Atalo, quien había aprovechado la situación para expandir sus fronteras y conquistar toda el Asia Menor.
En el transcurso de esta campaña realizada en la región del Tauro, Seleuco III murió asesinado víctima de la traición de uno de sus oficiales llamado Nicanor, en complicidad con el galo Apaturios (223 adC).
Fue sucedido por su hermano Antíoco III Megas, contando con el apoyo de Aqueo, pariente del difunto rey quien había tenido gran influencia durante su reinado. Aqueo rechazó la corona que le ofrecieron las tropas y prefirió gobernar como regente del imperio. Nombró a Molón gobernador de las provincias superiores y él se reservó el Asia Menor; combatió con éxito contra Atalo I y lo confinó en Pérgamo, de modo que suyo fue el mérito de ganar la guerra que había empezado Seleuco III. (Wikipedia)
AE 12 mm 2.0 gr.

Anv: Busto de Artemisa viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY" - Apolo sentado a izquierda en ónfalo (Piedra semicilíndrica centro del culto de Apolo en Delfos, fetiche de basalto y altar de la madre tierra de la religión micénica) con flecha en mano derecha levantada y apoyando la izquierda en un arco. "CE / Λ" en campo izquierdo y "AP" (Monograma) en exergo.

Ceca: Antioquía en Orontes

Referencias: B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #8 Pag.22 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #6929 Pag.646 - SNG Spaer #518 - Newell E.T. (Western Seleucid Mints) #1036
mdelvalle
RI 053a img.jpg
053 - Lucius Verus Denarius - Unlisted with this bust type62 viewsObv:– IMP L AVREL VERVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– CONCORD AVG TR P / COS II, Concordia seated left holding patera
Unlisted.
Notes - with many thanks to Curtis Clay for his help with the following information on this coin.
This is a somewhat scarce type for Verus on denarii. The RD hoard lists 9 specimens without TR P in the reverse legend and 6 specimens like this with TR P. Of the 6 RD coins with TR P, 4 showed head bare, 1 head bare with fold of cloak on shoulders, 1 bust draped with head bare. The last two were new variants, the first had been reported in Rivista ital. di num. 1907. New specimens of this coin can easily show new bust variants and this is one of them.
BMC lists ten different right-facing portrait types for Verus on aurei and denarii of 161, plus three left-facing types!
maridvnvm
054_Macrinus_(217-218_A_D_),AE-27-Pentassarion__AV_K_OPPE_CEV-_Markianopolis-Moesia_Inf_Mus-532_Var1214v__217-18-AD-Q-001_axis-6h_26,5-27,5mm_10,41g-s.jpg
054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Mushmov-532., Varbanov-, AE-27, Pentassarion, 62 views054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Mushmov-532., Varbanov-, AE-27, Pentassarion,
avers:- AY-K-OΠEL-CEV-MAKREINOC-K-M-OΠEL-AN-TΩNEINOC•, Laureate head of Macrinus facing bare-headed bust of Diadumenian.
revers:- VΠ-ΠONTIANOV-MAΡKIANO-ΠOΛEITΩN, Artemis advancing right, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver on her back, hound running right at foot, retrograde E in left field.
exe: Ǝ/-//ΠOΛIT, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 12,38g, axis: 6h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Mushmov-532., Varbanov-.,
a) AMNG I/1, 730 (like ex. 3, 4, 5, Paris, St.Petersburg, Wien)
b) Hristova/Jekov (2013) 6.24.13.3 (same dies)
c) not in Pfeiffer (2013)
Q-001
quadrans
054_Macrinus_(217-218_A_D_),AE-27-Pentassarion__AV_K_OPPE_CEVH__Markianopolis,Moesia_Inf_Mus-554v_Var1214v_Q001_axis-6h_27-28mm_12,38g-s~0.jpg
054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Mushmov-554var., Varbanov-1214var., AE-27, Pentassarion, 62 views054p Macrinus (217-218 A.D.), Moesia, Markianopolis, Mushmov-554var., Varbanov-1214var., AE-27, Pentassarion,
avers:- AY K OΠEL CEVH MAKREINOC, K M OΠEL AN-TΩNEINOC ΔIAΔOYME, Laureate head of Macrinus facing bare-headed bust of Diadumenian.
revers:- VΠ-ΠONTIAN-OV MAΡKIANO-ΠOΛIT, Radiate serpent in in four coils, head right. Є in right field.
exe: -/Є//ΠOΛIT, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 12,38g, axis: 6h,
mint: Moesia, Markianopolis, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: Mushmov-554var., Varbanov-1214var.,
Q-001
quadrans
Faustina-Sr-RIC-394a.jpg
057. Faustina Senior.16 viewsDenarius, after 141 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: DIVA AVG FAVSTINA / Bust of Faustina.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG / Pietas veiled, standing, dropping incense on altar, and holding a box.
3.59 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #394a; Sear #4598.

Faustina died early on in the reign of her husband. Most of her coinage is from the extensive memorial coinage issued in the years after her death. The portrait on this particular coin is exceptionally elegant and dignified.

Visible on the reverse (lower right edge) of this coin is an inclusion of copper that did not get melted and mixed with the silver when the planchet was made. That this coin is probably not a fouree is evidenced by the fact that it weighs a bit more than other denarii of the period.
Callimachus
058_BC-_M_Aemilius_Scaurus_and_P_Plautius_Hypsaeus_AR_Denarius__King_Aretas_of_Nabataea,_Cr422-1b,_Syd_914,_Aemilia9a_Q-001_8h_17,5-18mm_3,73g-s.jpg
058 B.C., M. Aemilius Scaurus and P. Plautius Hypsaeus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 422/1b, Jupiter in quadriga left, #1147 views058 B.C., M. Aemilius Scaurus and P. Plautius Hypsaeus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 422/1b, Jupiter in quadriga left, #1
avers: King Aretas of Nabataea kneeling right by camel, offering the olive branch, M•SCAVR/AED CVR above, EX-S•C to sides, REX ARETAS in exergue.
reverse: Jupiter in quadriga left, scorpion beneath horses' forelegs, P•HVPSAE AED CVR above, C•HVPSAE COS PREIVE in exergue, CAPTV on right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,0mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 8h,
mint: Rome, date: 58 B.C., ref: Crawford 422-1b, Sydenham 914,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Livia_Pergamon_R694.jpg
058 BC - AD 026 - LIVIA DRVSILLA8 viewsLivia

Livia Drusilla was the wife of the Roman emperor Augustus throughout his reign, as well as his adviser.


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
59a.jpg
059a Severus Alexander. AR denarius10 viewsobv: IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r.
rev: VOTIS VICEN NAL-BVS (missing I ) 10th year of reign
hill132
V976.jpg
05a Domitian as Caesar RIC 97684 viewsAR Denarius, 3.35g
Rome mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CERES AVGVST; Ceres stg. l., with corn ears and poppy and sceptre
RIC 976 (C). BMC 323. RSC 30. BNC 285.
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, December 2014.

Vespasian and Titus normally shared reverse types, but rarely with Domitian. Unusually this Ceres type was struck for all three. It possibly was part of an agrarian themed series Vespasian issued towards the end of his reign. These later issues of Vespasian have neat small portrait heads.

The coin features a pleasant looking Domitian with his trademark protruding upper lip, struck on a large flan.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
Nero_RIC_I_15.jpg
06 Nero RIC I 1539 viewsNero. 54-68 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 54 A.D. Oct.-Dec.. (3.43g, 19.1mm, 9h) . Obv: NERO CAESAR AVG IMP, bare head right. Rev: PONTIF MAX TR P IIII PP around oak-wreath enclosing EX SC. RIC I 15 (R2).

A worn but scarce pre-reform denarius from early in Nero’s reign. Despite the wear, the weight of this specimen is quite nice. The EX SC with the oak wreath could allude to the Senate’s awarding of the corona civica to Nero. This specimen also has a very unusual die axis for imperial coinage of the Roman mint from this time.
1 commentsLucas H
SGICTV_5431_Caligula.jpg
06-20 - Reino del Bósforo - GAIUS (CALIGULA 37 - 41 D.C.)16 viewsAE Assarion 21.0 mm 5.7 gr.

Anv: "ΓAIOV KAIΣAROΣ ΓEPMANIKOY" - Busto a cabeza desnuda de Caligula viendo a derecha.
Rev: Cabeza vistiendo diadema de Tiberio Julio Aspurgo Rey del Bosforo viendo a derecha, "BAP" en monograma detrás del busto e "IB" debajo del mentón.

Acuñada 37-38 D.C.
Ceca: Bosforo.

Referencias: RPC I #1904 - SNG Cop #24 - BMC 13 #8-9 Pag.50 - MacDonald #302 - Anokhin #320 - Sear GICTV #5431 Pag.536
mdelvalle
6-Gordian-III-Caes-RIC-1.jpg
06. Gordian III as Caesar / RIC 1.39 viewsDenarius, April - July 238 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: M ANT GORDIANVS CAES / Bust of Gordian.
Reverse: PIETAS AVGG / Sacrificial implements: lituus, knife, vase, simpulum, and sprinkler.
2.64 gm., 19.5 mm.
RIC #1 (Balbinus & Pupienus); Sear #8557.

This denarius was minted near the beginning of the 99 day reign of Balbinus and Pupienus. Denarii of Gordian III as Caesar are quite rare, so it is likely they were minted only to commemorate the occasion of his proclamation as Caesar. When the antoninianus was re-introduced about half way through the reign, none were issued in Gordian's name.

The AVGG in reverse legend refers to Balbinus and Pupienus.
2 commentsCallimachus
Alexander_Severus_AE_24,_Alexandria,Troas__IM_S_ALEXANDER_AV_Laur,_bust_r__COL_AVG-TRO_Horse_grazing_right__SNG_Copenhagen_165v__222-235_AD_Q-001_7h_23-24mm_7,52g-s~0.jpg
062p Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), Troas, Alexandreia, AE-24, SNG Cop 165var., COL AVG TRO, Horse grazing right,103 views062p Alexander Severus ( 221-222 A.D. Caesar, 222-235 A.D. Augustus), Troas, Alexandreia, AE-24, SNG Cop 165var., COL AVG TRO, Horse grazing right,
avers:- IMP S ALEXANDER, Laureate head right.
revers:- COL AVG TRO, Horse grazing right,
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 23-24mm, weight:7,52g, axes: 7h,
mint: Troas, Alexandreia, date: 222-235 A.D., ref:SNG Cop 165var.,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_064jv_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 405b19 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS - (II), Laureate head right
Rev:– MAREI (sic) VICT, Mars advancing right carrying spear and trophy
Minted in Emesa, 194 - 195 A.D.
References:– BMCRE p. 95 note (Citing RD p. 98). RIC 405b.

3.05g, 17.93mm, 0o
maridvnvm
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_08_rev_05.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
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rexesq
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_01_rev_04.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES23 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
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-
2 commentsrexesq
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_09_rev_06.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES17 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
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Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
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rexesq
faustina-jr_AR-Denarius_CERES_00.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES25 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
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2 commentsrexesq
Copy_of_faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_w-quarter_obv_01.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES - with US 25 Cent coin.8 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
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--------------------------------
*US Quarter Dollar (25 cents) to right, for size comparison.
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rexesq
Copy_of_faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_w-quarter_obv_05.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES - with US 25 Cent coin.12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
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-
--------------------------------
*US Quarter Dollar (25 cents) to right, for size comparison.
--------------------------------
rexesq
Galba,_RIC_204.jpg
07 01 Galba RIC 20449 viewsGalba. 8 June 68-15 Jan. 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. (3.22g, 19.3mm, 6 h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, bust, laureate draped right. Rev: ROMA RENASCES, Roma standing left, holding Victory on globe and transverse eagle tipped scepter. RIC 204. Ex HBJ.

Galba’s reign marked the end of the Julio-Claudian’s rule of Rome. Rated R3 in the RIC, this type appears fairly scarce with 2 examples in the Reka Devnia hoard, and only 2 in Berk’s photofile. Galba, the first of the 4 emperors of 69 A.D, was governor of Hispania Tarraconensis during Nero’s reign. He was assassinated after 7 months of rule and succeeded by his former supporter, Otho
3 commentsLucas H
dom_as_caesar_salus_and_snake.jpg
07 Domitian as Caesar RIC-108486 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Salus, stg. r., resting on column, feeding snake out of patera
RIC 1084 (C2). BMC 265. RSC 384. BNC 237.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, July 2008.

A most puzzling reverse type issued during the last months of Vespasian's reign before he died on June 24th. Perhaps a reference to Vespasian's illness and his hopeful recovery.

Worn and average with a good portrait.
vespasian70
Galba_RIC_I_189.jpg
07 Galba RIC I 18937 viewsGalba April 3-Jan. 15, 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint 69 A.D. (3.15g, 18.9m, 6h). Obv: [I]MP SER GALBA CAESAR AVG, laureate and draped bust right. Rev: [DI]VA AVGVSTA, Livia standing left, holding patera and scepter. RIC I 189, RSC 55a. ACCG IV, 59.

Upon Nero’s death, Galba was governor of Hispania Terraconensis, and marched to Rome. His short reign was ended by his murder in a plot hatched by Otho and the Praetorians. Many of his economic measures had been unpopular, including his refusal to “bribe” the Praetorians upon his ascension.
1 commentsLucas H
Follis Focas SB00671.jpg
07-02 - Focas (23/11/602 - 05/10/610 D.C.) 27 viewsAE Follis 26 mm 8.1 gr.

Anv: "O.N. FOCA.NE.PE.AV." - Emperador a la izquierda y la Emperatriz Leontia a la derecha, de pié de frente, él porta "Sphaira/globus cruciger/Orbis" (Globo coronado por una cruz) y ella cetro coronado por cruz. Entre sus cabezas una cruz.
Rev: Gran " m ", "A/N/N/O" a izquierda, " + " arriba y "Signo/II=5/II" (Año reinal) a derecha. " THEUP' " en exergo.

Acuñada Año=7 - 608/9 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia/Theoupolis (Antioquía cambia su nombre luego del gran terremoto del año 528 D.C.)

Referencias: Sear BCTV #671 Pag. 151 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.II #83/9 - B.M.C. #102/10 - Tolstoi M.B. #142/8 - Ratto M.B. #1269/75 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-15 - Hahn M.I.B. #83a-b
mdelvalle
07-Alex-Pella-P250.jpg
07. "Pella": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.31 viewsTetradrachm, ca 315 - 310 BC, "Pella" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Boeotian shield at left, Σ. between the rungs of the throne.
17.24 gm., 26 mm.
P. #250; PROa #135.

Alexander appointed Antipater regent in Macedon during his absence. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, Antipater continued ruling as regent until his own death in 319 BC. Thereafter his son Kassander ruled until 297 BC, eventually taking the title of King in 305 BC. He was notorious for his cruelty, and in 311 BC he killed Alexander's widow and her young son. The silver coinage of Kassander's reign was all issued in the name of Alexander.
Callimachus
074-Philippus-I_AR-Ant_IMP-M-IVL-PHILIPPVS-AVG_FIDES-MILIT_RIC-IV-III-33_Rome_244-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0033, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, FIDES MILIT, Fides standing left, #169 views074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0033, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, FIDES MILIT, Fides standing left, #1
avers:- IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FIDES MILIT, Fides standing left, holding sceptre and standard.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 23,0mm, weight: 4,43g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 244 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-033, p-, RSC 54, Sear 2557,
Q-001
"This coin was issued near the beginning of Philip's reign. The reverse was created to show the loyal devotion of the military for the new Emperor."
quadrans
074-Philippus-I_AR-Ant_IMP-M-IVL-PHILIPPVS-AVG_FIDES-MILITVM_RIC-IV-III-34b_Rome_244-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0034b, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #164 views074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0034b, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, #1
avers:- IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, holding two standard.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 4,30g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date:244 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-033, p-, RSC 58, Sear -,
Q-001
"This coin was issued near the beginning of Philip's reign. The reverse was created to show the loyal devotion of the military for the new Emperor."
quadrans
Republica_AR-Den_S-dot-C_A-dot-CXXIIII_TI-dot-CLAVD-dot-TI-dot-F_A-dot-N_Xx_Xx_Q-001_18mm_3_79g-s.jpg
079 B.C., Ti. Claudius Nero, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 383/1, Rome, Denarius serratus, TI.CLAUD TI.F AP.N TI., A. CXXIIII, Victory in biga right,83 viewsRepublic, TI.CLAUD TI.F AP.N TI. Claudius Nero, 79 BC. Claudia-5,
avers:- Bust of Diana r., draped, with bow and quiver over shoulder; before S dot C, Border of dots.
revers:- Victory in biga right, holding wreath in right hand and reins and palm-branch in left hand; below, control-letter "A" with dot on the right and numeral CXXIIII ; TI dot CLAVD dot TI dot F / AP dot N dot
exe: -/-// TI•CLAVD•TI•F / AP•N•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: 4h,
mint: Rome, date 79 B.C., ref: Crawford 383/1, Sydenham 770a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
J-Domna-RIC-391.jpg
079. Julia Domna.12 viewsDenarius, ca 215 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG / Bust of Domna.
Reverse: VESTA / Vesta seated, holding simpulum and sceptre.
3.23 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #391; Sear #7109.

This coin of Domna was issued during the reign of her son Caracalla. The title PIA FELIX on the coins of Domna minted during her son's reign suggests that she played a definite part in the governing of the Empire.
Callimachus
Otho_RIC_I_3_1.jpg
08 01 Otho RIC I 483 viewsOtho. 15 Jan. to April 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 69 A.D. (3.27g, 18.9mm, 6h). Obv: IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head right. Obv: PAX ORBIS TERRARVM, Pax, draped, standing left, right holding branch, and left caduceus. RIC I 4, RCV 2156, RSC 3. Ex Warren Esty Personal Collection.

At 3 months, Otho had the shortest reign in the Year of the Four Emperors. During much of Nero’s reign, Otho administered Lusitania, and followed Galba when he marched on Rome. Upon Galba’s naming another as his successor to the throne, with some of the rankers of the Praetorian Guard, Otho staged a coup, had Galba murdered, and was declared Emperor.

THis is an odd reverse message for an emperor complicit in the murder of his one-time allie and predecessor Galba, while the legeons of Vitellius were Marching on Rome. PAX ORBIS TERRARVM "Peace on the Earth" is ironic given the civil war going on in Rome at the time.
5 commentsLucas H
Otho_RIC_I_12~0.jpg
08 02 Otho RIC I 1221 viewsOtho. 15 Jan. to April 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 69 A.D. (3.23, 18.5mm, 6h). Obv: IMP M OTHO CAESAR AVG TR P, bare head left. SECVRITAS P R, Securitas standing left, wreath in right, scepter in left. RIC I 12, RSC 19. Ex Forum.

While coins of Otho are fairly rare given the short length of his reign, this issue is perhaps more so with the left facing bust. (RIC 3). Otho supported Galba’s revolt, and then turned on Galba when he wasn't named Galba's heir. He committed suicide after his forces were defeated by those of Vitellius during the Year of the Four Emperors. A nicely centered and well toned coin.
Lucas H
Antíoco IV, Epiphanes.jpg
08-02 - Anti­oco IV, Epiphanes (175 - 164 A.C.)68 viewsAntíoco IV Epífanes (Αντίοχος Επιφανής en griego, 215 adC-163 adC) fue rey de Siria de la dinastía Seléucida desde c. 175 adC-164 adC.
Era hijo de Antíoco III Megas y hermano de Seleuco IV Filopator. Originalmente fue llamado Mitríades, pero adoptó el nombre de Antíoco tras su ascensión al trono (o quizás tras la muerte de su hermano mayor, también Antíoco).
Subió al trono tras la muerte de su hermano Seleuco IV Filopátor que gobernó durante poco tiempo antes que él, hasta que Heliodoro, tesorero suyo, lo mató por ambición. Había vivido en Roma según los términos de la paz de Apamea (188 adC), pero acababa de ser intercambiado por el hijo y legítimo heredero de Seleuco IV, el futuro (Demetrio I Sóter). Antíoco se aprovechó de la situación, y junto con su otro hermano Antíoco, se proclamó rey con el apoyo de Eumenes II de Pérgamo y el hermano de éste, Atalo I. Su hermano Antíoco sería asesinado pocos años después.
Por su enfrentamiento con Ptolomeo VI, que reclamaba Coele-Syria, atacó e invadió Egipto, conquistando casi todo el país, con la salvedad de la capital, Alejandría. Llegó a capturar al rey, pero para no alarmar a Roma, decicidió reponerlo en el trono, aunque como su marioneta. Sin embargo, los alejandrinos habían elegido al hermano de éste, Ptolomeo VII Euergetes como rey, y tras su marcha decidieron reinar conjuntamente. Esto le obligó a reinvadir el país, y así el 168 adC, repitiendo la invasión, con su flota conquistaba Chipre. Cerca de Alejandría se encontró con el cónsul romano Cayo Popilio Laenas, instó a abandonar Egipto y Chipre. Cuando Antíoco replicó que debía consultarlo con su consejo, Popilio trazó un círculo en la arena rodeándole y le dijo: "píensalo aquí". Viendo que abandonar el círculo sin haber ordenado la retirada era un desafío a Roma decidió ceder con el fin de evitar una guerra.
A su regreso, organizó una expedición contra Jerusalén, qué saqueo cruelmente. Según él Libro de los Macabeos, promulgó varias ordenanzas de tipo religioso: trató de suprimir el culto a Yahveh, prohibió el judaísmo suspendiendo toda clase de manifestación religiosa y trató de establecer el culto a los dioses griegos. Pero el sacerdote judío Matatías y sus dos hijos llamados Macabeos consiguieron levantar a la población en su contra y lo expulsaron. La fiesta judía de Jánuca conmemora este hecho.
Antíoco, en campaña contra el Imperio Parto, envió varios ejércitos sin éxito. Mientras organizaba una expedición punitiva para retomar Israel personalmente le sobrevino la muerte. Le sucedió su hijo Antíoco V Eupátor.
Su reinado fue la última época de fuerza y esplendor para el Imperio Seleúcida, que tras su muerte se vio envuelto en devastadoras guerras dinásticas. (Wikipedia)

AE (Canto aserrado) 15 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: Busto velado de Laodicea IV (Esposa de Seleuco IV y Hermana de Antíoco IV) viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Cabeza de elefante a izquierda, proa de galera a izquierda (El elefante simboliza las aspiraciones orientales de los reyes de Seleucia además de ser una de las grandes armas de su arsenal y la proa su importancia como ciudad puerto).

Ceca: Seleucia de Pieria (Costa N. de Siria - Puerto de Antioquía) o Akke Ptolomais

Referencias : B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #3 Pag.43 - SC#1477.2 - Houghton #113 - HGS #684-6 Pag.9 - SNG Spaer #1017-40 - SNG Cop #184 - Hoover #685
1 commentsmdelvalle
A-17_Rep_AR-Den_L_Julius-Bursio_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-M__Victory-in-quadriga-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO_-CXXXXVI_Craw_-352-1_Syd-728_Rome_85-BC_Q-001_axis-11h_19-20,5mm_4,08g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #180 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #1
avers:- Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury and Neptune; behind, trident and control symbol ??? .
revers: - Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exerg: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 19-20,5mm, weight: 4,08g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1, Sydenham 728,
Q-001
quadrans
A-18_Rep_AR-Den_L_Julius-Bursio_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-Mark_Victory-in-quadriga-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO__Crawford-352-1_Syd-728_Rome_85-BC_Q-002_axis-11h_17,5-19mm_4,02g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #291 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #2
avers:- Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury and Neptune; behind, trident and control symbol bust of bird right.
revers: - Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exerg: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 4,02g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1, Sydenham 728,
Q-002
quadrans
085_B_C__L_Julius-Bursio,_Rep_AR-Den,_Head-Apollo-r_-beh-Contr-Mark_Victory-in-quadr_-r_-in-ex-L_IVLI_BVRSIO_,_Crawford-352-1a_Syd-728_Rome_Q-001_8h_19,5-20,0mm_3,24g-s.jpg
085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1a, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #3113 views085 B.C., L. Julius Bursio, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford 352/1a, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, #3
avers:- Male head right, with attributes of Apollo, Mercury and Neptune, behind, trident and control symbol poppy (?).
revers: - Victory in quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; in ex. L•IVLI•BVRSIO•,
exerg: -/-//L•IVLI•BVRSIO•, diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 8h,
mint: Rome, date: 85 B.C., ref: Crawford 352/1a, Sydenham 728,
Q-003
quadrans
A-07_Rep_AR-Den_M_Vergilius_No-legends-Head-Apollo-r__Jupiter-quadriga-r__no-legend_ROMA_Crawford-350-A2_Syd-723_Rome_86-BC_Q-001_axis-11h_19,5-20mm_3,73g-s.jpg
086 B.C., Vergilius, Gargilius and Ogulnius, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-350-A2, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right,96 views086 B.C., Vergilius, Gargilius and Ogulnius, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-350-A2, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right,
avers:- No legends, Laureate head of Apollo right, thunderbolt below.
revers: - No legend or control letters, Jupiter in quadriga right, holding reins and hurling thunderbolt.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date:, ref: Crawford-350-A2, Syd-723, Vergilia,
Q-001
quadrans
V1089sm.jpg
08b Domitian as Caesar RIC-1089181 viewsAR Quinarius, 1.46g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGVST; Victory std. l., with wreath and palm
RIC 1089 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC 243.

An extremely rare quinarius struck for Domitian Caesar in 79. RIC records only one example in Paris (BNC 243) and lists the rarity as 'unique', this specimen then is the second known example. Domitian's COS VI coins most likely date towards the end of Vespasian's reign and the beginning of Titus' rule, indicating the issue was struck uninterrupted after Vespasian's death in June.

Struck in good metal in neat and fine style.
9 commentsDavid Atherton
Elagabalus-RIC-52.jpg
09. Elagabalus year V.11 views Denarius, Jan. 1 - Mar. 11, 222 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Reverse: PM TR P V COS IIII P P / Elagabalus standing, sacrificing over an altar, holding a patera and club. Star in field.
3.49 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #52.

This coin is from the last two and a half months of Elagabalus' reign. The reverse die shows damage due to "die clashing." An outline of the back of Elagabalus' head can be seen under COS IIII.
Callimachus
Rep_AR-Den_C_Vibius-C_f_Pansa_Laur-Head-Apollo-r_-beh_-PANSA-bef_contr_m_Minerva-quadriga-r_-ex-C_VIBIVS_C_F__Cr__342_5b_Syd-684a_Rome_90-BC_Q-001_axis-10h_18,5-19,5mm_3,88g-s.jpg
090 B.C., C Vibius Cf Pansa, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-342-5b, Rome, Minerva in quadriga right, 88 views090 B.C., C Vibius Cf Pansa, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-342-5b, Rome, Minerva in quadriga right,
avers:- PANSA, laureate head of Apollo right, symbol before.
revers: - Minerva in quadriga right, holding spear, reins and trophy, C VIBIVS CF in exergue.
exerg: -/-//C VIBIVS CF , diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,88g, axis: 10h,
mint: Rome, date:090 B.C., ref: Crawford-342-5b, Syd-684a, Vibia 1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_AEQVITAS-AVG_S-r_fields_RIC-r_C-_Rome_-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_19-23mm_2,14g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 159, Rome, Sole Reign, AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left,66 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 159, Rome, Sole Reign, AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust left.
revers:- AEQVITAS -AVG, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia; S in right field.
exerg:-/S//--, diameter: 19,0-23,0mm, weight: 2,14g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 253-268-A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-159, p-144,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_AETERNITAS-AVG_Gamma_RIC-160_C-_Gobl-577a_Rome_-AD_Q-001_6h_19-19,5mm_3,28g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 160, Rome, Sole Reign, AETERNITAS AVG, Sol standing left, #169 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 160, Rome, Sole Reign, AETERNITAS AVG, Sol standing left, #1
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiated head right.
revers:- AETERNITAS-AVG, Radiate Sol standing left, raising right hand and holding globe raised in left. Γ in left field.
exerg: Γ/-//--, diameter: 19-19,5mm, weight: 3,28g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 264-265-A.D. Sole Reign., ref: RIC-V-I-160, p-, C-, Göbl-577a,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_AETERNITAS-AVG_Gamma_RIC-V-I-160_Gobl-577a_Rome_Sole-Reign_260-268-AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-21mm_3,01g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 160, Rome, Sole Reign, AETERNITAS AVG, Sol standing left, #2146 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 160, Rome, Sole Reign, AETERNITAS AVG, Sol standing left, #2
avers: GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiated head right.
revers: AETERNITAS-AVG, Radiate Sol standing left, raising right hand and holding globe raised in left. Γ in left field.
exerg: Γ/-//--, diameter: 18,5-21mm, weight: 3,01g, axes:0h,
mint: Rome, date: 264-265-A.D. Sole Reign., ref: RIC-V-I-160, p-, C-, Göbl-577a,
Q-002
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_MARTI-PACIFERO_A_RIC-V-I-236A_C-614_Gobl-570a_Rome_-AD_Q-001_0h_21,5-24,5mm_6,47ga-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236A, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left, (Very heavy, double thickness !!!)125 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236A, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left, (Very heavy, double thickness !!!)
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiated bust right.
revers:- MARTI-PACIFERO, Mars standing left holding shield on ground in let and olive branch in right, spear behind, H in left field.
exerg: A/-//--, diameter: 21,5-24,5mm, weight: 6,47g!!!, axes: 0h, thickness:2,5mm,
mint: Rome, date: 253-268-A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-236A, p-151, C-614, Gobl-570a
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_MARTI-PACIFERO_H_RIC-V-I-236H-p-151_C-614_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-001_5h_22mm_3,83ga-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236H, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left,109 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236H, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left,
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiated bust right.
revers:- MARTI-PACIFERO, Mars standing left holding shield on ground in let and olive branch in right, spear behind, H in left field.
exerg: H/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,83g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 253-268-A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-236H, p-151,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_SECVRIT-PERPET_H-r_fields_RIC-r_C-_-AD_Q-001_6h_18-20mm_3,15ga-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 260var.(bust), Göbl-595m, Rome, Sole Reign, SECVRIT PERPET, Securitas standing left,71 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 260var.(bust), Göbl-595m, Rome, Sole Reign, SECVRIT PERPET, Securitas standing left,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
revers:- SECVRIT PERPET, Securitas standing left, leaning on column right and holding scepter in right hand, H in right field.
exergo: -/H//--, diameter: 18-20mm, weight: 3,15g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D. ref: RIC-V-I 260var.(bust), p- , Göbl 595m / Cunetio 1249 , 2 coins known by Göbl !!!, Rare !!!
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_LAETITIA-AVG_RICV-I-489var-p-173-NIR_C-_Rome_253-268-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_19mm_1,89g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 489var, Mediolanum, Sole Reign, LAETITIA AVG G, Laetitia left,88 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 489var, Mediolanum, Sole Reign, LAETITIA AVG G, Laetitia left,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiated bust right.
revers:- LAETITIA AVG G, Laetitia left, holding wreath and anchor.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 1,89g, axes: 6h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: 253-268 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 489var2.(489K var (no fieldmark or mintmark)), p-173, C-423,425, Göbl 1093h,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_ORIENS-AVG_RIC-V-I-495_C-_Mediolanum-Sole-reign_264-265-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_19-21,5mm_2,34g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 495, Mediolanum, Sole Reign, ORIENS AVG, Sol left,106 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 495, Mediolanum, Sole Reign, ORIENS AVG, Sol left,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiated bust right.
revers:- ORIENS AVG, Sol standing left, holding globe and raising right hand.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19-21,5mm, weight: 2,34g, axes: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 264-265-A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-495, p-, C-, Göbl 1126h,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_IMP-GALLIENVS-AVG_PIETAS-AVG_P_RIC-V-I-507_C-786_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_21mm_2,47g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 507, Mediolanum, Sole Reign, PIETAS AVG, Pietas left,78 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 507var., Mediolanum, Sole Reign, PIETAS AVG, Pietas left,
avers:- IMP GALLIENVS AVG, Radiated bust right.
revers:- PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing left by altar, hands raised and outspread.
exerg: -/-/P, diameter: 21mm, weight: 2,47g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 253-268-A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-507var., p-175, C-786, Göbl -1263fvar. (avers legend IMP..!, and off letter)
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_FIDEI-PRAET_RIC-568_C-_Siscia_253-268-AD__Q-001_axis-11h_19-20mm_2,81g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 568, Siscia, Sole Reign, FIDEI PRAET, 72 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 568, Siscia, Sole Reign, FIDEI PRAET,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FIDEI PRAET, Legionary eagle (standard) between two standards.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 2,81g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia (Rome ???), date: 253-268 A.D.??, ref: RIC-V-I-568, p-181, Göbl 518,
Q-001
quadrans
Gall-004-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 572-II, Siscia, Sole Reign, FORTVNA RED, Fortuna left,128 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 572-II, Siscia, Sole Reign, FORTVNA RED, Fortuna left,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
revers:- FORTVNA RED, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and Cornucopiae, II in the right field.
exerg: -/II//--, diameter: 20,5-22mm, weight: 3,23g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Siscia, date: 267-68 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 572-II, p-181, C-265-67, Göbl 1475 b.,
Q-001
quadrans
Gall-002-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 572-S, Siscia, Sole Reign, FORTVNA RED, Fortuna left, #1135 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 572-S, Siscia, Sole Reign, FORTVNA RED, Fortuna left, #1
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.,
revers:- FORTVNA RED, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and Cornucopiae, S in the right field.
exerg: -/S//--, diameter: 20,5-21,5mm, weight: 3,93g, axes: 0 h,
mint: Siscia, date: 267-68 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 572-S, p-181, C-265-67, Göbl 1499 b.,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_PAX-AVG_S-I_RIC-V-I-_Göbl-1472b_Siscia_-AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-21,5mm_3,35g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 575-SI, Göbl-1472b, Siscia, S/I//--, Sole Reign., PAX AVG, Pax standing left,65 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 575-SI, Göbl-1472b, Siscia, S/I//--, Sole Reign., PAX AVG, Pax standing left,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiated head right.
revers:- PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch left and long scepter transverse.
exerg: S/I//--, diameter: 18,5-21,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: -A.D. Sole Reign., ref: RIC-V-I-575-SI, p-182, C-, Göbl-1472b,
Q-001
quadrans
Gall-003-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 581, Siscia, Sole Reign, SALVS AVG, Salus left,138 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 581, Siscia, Sole Reign, SALVS AVG, Salus left,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiated, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SALVS AVG, Salus left, feeding snake.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 22-25mm, weight: 4,44g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 260-268 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 581, p-182, C-934, Göbl 1497,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_SALVS-AVG_SPQR_RIC-V-I-657-p-189_C-_Göbl_1547Ac_Cyzicus_-AD_Q-001_6h_20-22mm_3,76g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 675, Cyzicus, -/-//SPQR, Sole Reign, SALVS AVG, Salus standing right,68 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 675, Cyzicus, -/-//SPQR, Sole Reign, SALVS AVG, Salus standing right,
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate draped cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, holding snake in right arm, feeding it from small patera held in left hand.
exerg: -/-//SPQR, diameter: 20-22mm, weight: 3,76g, axes: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 264-265-A.D. Sole Reign., ref: RIC-V-I-657, p-189, C-, Göbl-1547Ac,
Q-001
quadrans
090b_Gallienus,_Roma,_Göbl_353x,_AE-Ant,_GALLIENVS_AVG,_PAX_AVG,_RIC-256var__C-_-AD__Q-001__0h_18,0-20,0mm_2,69g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Rome, Göbl 0353x, RIC V-I 256var., Sole Reign, AE-Antoninianus, -/T//--, PAX AVG, Pax standing left, #195 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Rome, Göbl 0353x, RIC V-I 256var., Sole Reign, AE-Antoninianus, -/T//--, PAX AVG, Pax standing left, #1
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiated cuirassed bust right.
revers:- PAX AVG, Pax standing left, raising branch in right hand and holding long transverse scepter in left. T in right field.
exerg: -/T//--, diameter: 18,0-20,0mm, weight: 2,69g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 260-268-A.D., Sole Reign., ref: RIC V-I 256var., p-182, Göbl-353x,
Q-001
quadrans
090b_Gallienus,_Siscia,_Göbl_1461b,_AE-Ant,_GALLIENVS_AVG,_PROVI_AVG,_RIC-_C-_-AD__Q-001_6h_18,0-18,5mm_3,02g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Siscia, Göbl 1461b, RIC V-I 580K, Sole Reign, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//--, PROVI AVG, Providentia standing left, #190 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Siscia, Göbl 1461b, RIC V-I 580K, Sole Reign, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//--, PROVI AVG, Providentia standing left, #1
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiated head right.
revers:- PROVI AVG, Providentia standing left, holding overflowing cornucopia right and pointing down at globe with baton left.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,0-18,5mm, weight: 3,02g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 260-268-A.D., Sole Reign., ref: RIC V-I 580K, p-182, Göbl-1461b, Cohen 872; Sear 10332 and 10334.,
note: The "Clashed dies" effect visible on the revers side, Gallienus portret up side down.
Q-001
quadrans
090b_Gallienus,_Roma,_Göbl_735b,_AE-Ant,_GALLIENVS_AVG,_APOLLINI_CONS_AVG,_Z,_RIC-V-I-163,_RSC-72,_AD__Q-001,_5h,_19-21,5mm,_3,16g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 163, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Z, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right, #196 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 163, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Z, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right, #1
avers: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking right, one forefoot raised, drawing the bow. Z in exergue.
exergue: -/-//Z, diameter: 19,0-21,5 mm, weight: 3,16g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC V-I 163, p-145, RSC-72, Göbl 735b,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Gall-001-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 164, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//???, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, #1133 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 164, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//???, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, #1
avers: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, holding globe and trophy.
exergue: -/-//???, diameter: 18,5-19,5 mm, weight: 3,59g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 254-268 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 164, p-145, C-73-74,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_APOLLINI_CONS_AVG,_Centaur_H_RIC_V-I_164,_Rome,_AE-Antoninianus,__Q-002_6h_18,6-21mm_2,94g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 164, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//H, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, #2131 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 164, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//H, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, #2
avers: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
reverse: APOLLINI CONS AVG, Centaur walking left, holding globe and trophy.
exergue: -/-//H, diameter: 18,6-21,0 mm, weight: 2,94g, axes:6h,
mint: Rome, date: 254-268 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 164, p-145, C-73-74,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_IMP-GALLIENVS-AVG_APOLLINI-CONS-AVG_Gryphon_Delta_RIC-_Göbl-718z_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-001_6h_17,5-19mm_1,90g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 165, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Δ, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Gryphon walking left., #1,63 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 165, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Δ, APOLLINI CONS AVG, Gryphon walking left., #1,
avers:- IMP-GALLIENVS-AVG, radiate head right.
revers:- APOLLINI-CONS-AVG, Gryphon walking left.
exergo: -/-//Δ, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 1,90g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-165, p-, Göbl-718z,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_IMP-GALLIENVS-AVG_DIANAE-CONS-AVG-(Doe)_E_RIC-_Göbl-728z_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-001_0h_19-20mm_3,15g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 176, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//E, DIANAE CONS AVG, Doe right,111 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 176, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//E, DIANAE CONS AVG, Doe right,
avers:- IMP-GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:- DIANAE-CONS-AVG, Doe standing right, head turned left over shoulder.
exergo:-/-//E, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,15g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 260-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-176, p-, Sear 10199 var. RSC 154.
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_DIANAE-CONS-AVG_XI_RIC-179_C-_Rome_253-268-AD__Q-001_1h_18,5-21mm_2,83g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 179, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//XI, DIANAE CONS AVG, Gazelle walking right,141 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, Gobl 747b, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//XI, DIANAE CONS AVG, Gazelle walking right,
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, radiate head right.
revers:- DIANAE-CONS-AVG, Gazelle walking right, officina mark XI below.
exergo: -/-//XI, diameter: 18-20,5mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-179, p-146, Gobl (747b) and Cunetio (1401),
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_DIANAE-CONS-AVG_XII_RIC-V-I-181,_Rome_AD__Q-001_0h_15,5-18,5mm_1,62g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 181, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//XII, DIANAE CONS AVG, Gazelle walking left,64 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 181, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//XII, DIANAE CONS AVG, Gazelle walking left,
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:- DIANAE-CONS-AVG, Gazelle walking left.
exergo: -/-//XII, diameter: 15,5-18,5mm, weight: 1,62g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-181, Goebl 0750u; Sear --
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_DIANAE-CONS-AVG_Gamma_RIC-181var_C-_Rome_253-268-AD__Q-001_19-20mm_2,84g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 181var., Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Γ, DIANAE CONS AVG, Antelope left, #1150 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 181var., Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Γ, DIANAE CONS AVG, Antelope left, #1
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:- DIANAE CONS AVG, Antelope walking left, right legs forwards.
exergo: -/-//Γ (=3). (officina mark), diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 181var., p-146, Göbl 0716b,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_DIANAE-CONS-AVG_Gamma_RIC-181var_C-_Rome_253-268-AD__Q-002_7h_20mm_2,58g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 181var., Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Γ, DIANAE CONS AVG, Antelope left, #2139 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 181var., Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Γ, DIANAE CONS AVG, Antelope left, #2
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:- DIANAE CONS AVG, Antelope walking left, right legs forwards. Γ in exergo.
exergo: -/-//Γ (=3). (officina mark), diameter: 20mm, weight: 2,58g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-181var., p-146, Göbl 0716b,
Q-002
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_JOVI-CONS-AVG_Szi_RIC-181var_C-_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-0001_11h_20-22mm_3,64ga-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 207, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//ς, IOVI CONS AVG, Goat right, #169 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 207, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//ς, IOVI CONS AVG, Goat right, #1
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:-IOVI CONS AVG, Goat standing or walking right,
exergo:-/-//ς (=). (officina mark), diameter: 20-22mm, weight: 3,64g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 260-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-207, p-, RSC-341, Sear(2005)Vol.III.-10236,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_JOVI-CONS-AVG_Szi_RIC-181var_C-_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-002_11h_19-21mm_3,01ga-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 207, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//ς, IOVI CONS AVG, Goat right, #2126 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 207, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//ς, IOVI CONS AVG, Goat right, #2
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:- IOVI-CONS-AVG, Goat standing or walking right,
exergo:-/-//ς , diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 3,01g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 260-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-207, p-, RSC-341, Sear(2005)Vol.III.-10236,
Q-002
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_DIANAE-CONS-AVG_Gamma_RIC-181var_C-_Rome_253-268-AD__Q-0yx_7h_18-20,5mm_2,56g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 207, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//ς, IOVI CONS AVG, Goat right, #3141 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 207, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//ς, IOVI CONS AVG, Goat right, #3
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:-IOVI CONS AVG, Goat standing or walking right,
exergo:-/-//ς (=). (officina mark), diameter: 18-20,5mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 260-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-207, p-, RSC-341, Sear(2005)Vol.III.-10236, Göbl-0731b,
Q-003
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_LIBERO-P-CONS-AVG-Panther_B_RIC-230_C-_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-001_19-20mm_2,84g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO P CONS AVG, Panther left, #179 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO P CONS AVG, Panther left, #1
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, radiate head right.
revers:- LIBERO-P-CONS-AVG, panther walking left, right legs forwards.
exergo: -/-//B, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-230, p-151,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_LIBERO-P-CONS-AVG-Panther_B_RIC-230_C-_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-003_0h_18,4-19_7mm_2,39g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO P CONS AVG, Panther left, #3133 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO P CONS AVG, Panther left, #3
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, radiate head right.
revers:- LIBERO-P-CONS-AVG, panther walking left, right legs forwards.
exergo: -/-//B, diameter: 18,4-19,7mm, weight: 2,39g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-230, p-151,
Q-003
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_LIBEROdotPdotCONS-AVG-Panther_B_RIC-230_Göbl_713b_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-002_11h_19-21mm_3,82g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO•P•CONS AVG, Panther left, #2,66 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO•P•CONS AVG, Panther left, #2,
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, radiate head right.
revers:- LIBERO•P•CONS-AVG, panther walking left, right legs forwards.
exergo: -/-//B, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 3,82g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-230, p-151, Göbl_713b,
Q-002
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_SOLI-CONS-AVG_Pegazus_Delta_RIC-283var_C-_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-001_9h_18-22mm_2,57ga-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 283, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Δ, SOLI CONS AVG, Pegasus,80 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 283, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//Δ, SOLI CONS AVG, Pegasus,
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiate head right.
revers:- SOLI-CONS-AVG, Pegasus springing right, heavenward.
exergo:-/-//Δ (=4). (officina mark), diameter: 18-22mm, weight: 2,57g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-, p-, Cohen 979; Sear 10362., Cunetio hoard , Minster hoard , Appleshaw hoard ,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
090b_Gallienus,_Roma,_Göbl_712b,_AE-Ant,_GALLIENVS_AVG,_SOLI_CONS_AVG,_A,_RIC-_C-_-AD__Q-001,_0h,_21,5mm,_g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 283var., Göbl 712b, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//A, SOLI CONS AVG, Pegasus,179 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 283var., Göbl 712b, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//A, SOLI CONS AVG, Pegasus,
avers: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
reverse: SOLI CONS AVG, Winged horse/Pegasus leaping right. "A" in exergue.
exergue:-/-//A, diameter: 19,0-21,5mm, weight: g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-283 var (bust type), p-, Göbl 712b, Sear 10362,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
090b_Gallienus,_Rome,_Göbl_0375a,_AE-Ant,_GALLIENVS_AVG,_VIRTVS_AVG,_VI,_RIC_V-I_325,_261_AD,_Q-001,_1h,_19-19,52mm,_3,23ga-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 325, Göbl 0375a, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/VI//--, VIRTVS AVG, Mars standing left, #1125 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 325, Göbl 0375a, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/VI//--, VIRTVS AVG, Mars standing left, #1
avers: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.
reverse: VIRTVS AVG, Mars standing left, resting the right hand on shield at feet left and holding in left hand."VI" in the right field.
exergue: -/VI//--, diameter: 19,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,23g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 261 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 325, p-, Göbl 0375a, Sear -,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
090b_Gallienus,_Antioch,_Göbl_1632c,_AR-Ant,_GALLIENVS_AVG,_MARS_VICTOR,_Palm,_RIC_V-I_649,_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_21-21,5mm,_3,36g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 649, Göbl 1632.c, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, Crescent/-//--, MARS VICTOR, Mars advancing right, #165 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 649, Göbl 1632.c, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, Crescent/-//--, MARS VICTOR, Mars advancing right, #1
avers: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate draped cuirassed bust right.
reverse: MARS VICTOR, Mars advancing right, wearing a helmet, carrying spear and shield. Branch in exergue.
exergue: -/-//Branch, diameter: 21,0-21,5mm, weight: 3,36g, axis: 6h,
mint: Antioch, date: ? A.D., ref: RIC V-I 649, p-, Göbl 1632.c, Sear -,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
090b_Gallienus,_Antioch,_Göbl_1617l,_AR-Ant,_GALLIENVS_AVG,_VIRTVS_AVG,_Crescent,_RIC_V-I_668var_,_AD,_Q-001,_11h,_20,5-21,0mm,_3,49g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 668var., Göbl 1617.l, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, Crescent/-//--, VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, #163 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 668var., Göbl 1617.l, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, Crescent/-//--, VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, #1
avers: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate draped cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, resting the right hand on shield at feet left and holding spear in left hand. Crescent in the left field.
exergue: Crescent/-//--, diameter: 20,5-21,0mm, weight: 3,49g, axis: 11h,
mint: Antioch, date: ? A.D., ref: RIC V-I 668var., p-, Göbl 1617.l, Sear -,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_FIDES-EXERC-VIII_P-r_fields_RIC-748var_C-_Mediolanum_-AD_Q-001_6h_19-19,5mm_3,28ga-s.jpg
090p Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 748var., Mediolanum, Sole Reign, FIDES EXERC VIII, Rare !65 views090p Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 748var., Mediolanum, Sole Reign, FIDES EXERC VIII, Rare !
avers:- GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right.
revers:- FIDES EXERC VIII, Fides standing left, holding upright standard with right hand and transverse standard with left.
exerg: -/P//--, diameter: 19-19,5mm, weight: 3,28g, axes: 6h,
mint: Mediolanum, date: -A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-748var, p-, C-, Göbl 1029r-var "P in the right field in rev."
Q-001
quadrans
Salonina-Billon-Ant_COR-SALONINA-AVG_IVNONI-CONS-AVG_Delta_RIC-16_C-70_Gobl-725,_Sear-10643_Rome_267-268-AD_Q-002_0h_18,5-21,5mm_3,13g-s.jpg
091 Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 016, Rome, IVNONI CONS AVG, Bearded elk standing left, #1199 views091 Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 016, Rome, IVNONI CONS AVG, Bearded elk standing left, #1
avers:- CORN-SALONINA-AVG, Diademed and draped bust right, resting on crescent.
revers:- IVNONI-CONS-AVG, Bearded elk standing left.
exe: -/-//Δ, diameter: 18,5-21,5 mm, weight:3,13 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-16 (Sole reign of Gallienus), p-, C-70, Göbl-725g, Sear 10643,
Q-001
quadrans
Salonina-Billon-Ant_COR-SALONINA-AVG_IVNONI-CONS-AVG_Delta_RIC-16_C-70_Gobl-725,_Sear-10643_Rome_267-268-AD_Q-001_7h_17,5-19,5mm_2,38g-s.jpg
091 Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 016, Rome, IVNONI CONS AVG, Bearded elk standing left, #268 views091 Salonina (? - 268 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 016, Rome, IVNONI CONS AVG, Bearded elk standing left, #2
avers:- CORN-SALONINA-AVG, Diademed and draped bust right, resting on crescent.
revers:- IVNONI-CONS-AVG, Bearded elk standing left.
exe: -/-//Δ, diameter: 17,5-19,5 mm, weight: 2,38 g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-16 (Sole reign of Gallienus), p-, C-70, Göbl-725g, Sear 10643,
Q-002
quadrans
nerva dup-~0.jpg
096-098 AD - NERVA AE dupondius - struck 96 AD62 viewsobv:IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TRP CIS II PP (radiate head right)
rev:CONCORDIA EXERCITVM / S.C. (two hands clasped hads holding legionary eagle resting on prow)
ref:RIC55, C.26(2fr.)
11.11gms
The type of this reverse alludes to the concurrence and union of the forces, both on land and at sea, during the reign of this good prince.
berserker
hierapolis_AE18.jpg
098-217 AD - HIERAPOLIS (Phrygia) AE18 62 viewsobv: - (bare head of Hercules)
rev: IERAPO-LITWN (winged Nemesis standing left, holding bridle, within dotted border)
ref: SNG Cop. 422. Weber, Hierapolis 142, 8
4.43gms, 18mm
Rare
Hierapolis can mean "sacred city", because of the several temples. The city was devastated by an earthquake which took place in 17 A.D. during the reign of Tiberius. In 60 AD, during the rule of emperor Nero, an even more severe earthquake left the city completely in ruins. Afterwards the city was rebuilt in Roman style with the financial support from the emperor. Hierapolis was visited by the Emperor Hadrian in 129 A.D., the Emperor Caracalla in 215 and the Emperor Valens in 370.
On obverse is a typical Hercules head, compare to my CORNELIA 58 denarius.
berserker
Macrinus-RIC-22a.jpg
099. Macrinus.13 viewsDenarius, April - Dec. 217 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Macrinus.
Reverse: PONTIF MAX TR P COS P P / Fides standing, foot on helmet, holding standard in each hand.
3.45 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #22A; Sear #7345.

A case is made in RIC (vol. IV, pt. 2) for assigning coins with the older portrait (as is this coin) to the mint of Antioch, and the younger portrait to the mint of Rome. Recent scholarship, however, favors Rome as the mint for all coins of this reign.
Callimachus
Tituria1DenSabines.jpg
0a Abduction of the Sabines21 viewsL Titurius Sabinus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Head of Tativs, right, SABIN behind
Two Roman soldiers bearing women

Seaby, Tituria 1

When the hour for the games had come, and their eyes and minds were alike riveted on the spectacle before them, the preconcerted signal was given and the Roman youth dashed in all directions to carry off the [Sabine] maidens who were present. The larger part were carried off indiscriminately, but some particularly beautiful girls who had been marked out for the leading patricians were carried to their houses by plebeians told off for the task. One, conspicuous amongst them all for grace and beauty, is reported to have been carried off by a group led by a certain Talassius, and to the many inquiries as to whom she was intended for, the invariable answer was given, "For Talassius." Hence the use of this word in the marriage rites. Alarm and consternation broke up the games, and the parents of the maidens fled, distracted with grief, uttering bitter reproaches on the violators of the laws of hospitality and appealing to the god to whose solemn games they had come, only to be the victims of impious perfidy. The abducted maidens were quite as despondent and indignant. Romulus, however, went round in person, and pointed out to them that it was all owing to the pride of their parents in denying right of intermarriage to their neighbours. They would live in honourable wedlock, and share all their property and civil rights, and - dearest of all to human nature - would be the mothers of freemen. He begged them to lay aside their feelings of resentment and give their affections to those whom fortune had made masters of their persons. An injury had often led to reconciliation and love; they would find their husbands all the more affectionate, because each would do his utmost, so far as in him lay, to make up for the loss of parents and country. These arguments were reinforced by the endearments of their husbands, who excused their conduct by pleading the irresistible force of their passion - a plea effective beyond all others in appealing to a woman's nature.

The feelings of the abducted maidens were now pretty completely appeased, but not so those of their parents.

Livy, History of Rome 1.9-1.10
1 commentsBlindado
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
1Reichspfennig.jpg
1 Reichspfennig13 viewsNazi Germany

1942 AD

Obverse: Deutsches Reich

Reverse: 1 Reichspfennig - F
Pericles J2
1-tessera-roman-Cohen-12-15.jpg
1 tessera roman Cohen 12-15v Mitreus40 viewsAE tessera of C. Mitreius
2.17 g, 15.3 mm, 12 h.
Obv. Clasped hands with pellet above, possibly a poppy.
Rev. Legend illegible. Tripod.
Cohen -, cf. Cohen 12-15. Ex. Mabbott (1969) 5264.
cckk
ANTOSE86a.jpg
1. Aeneas travels from Troy to Italy 47 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Sestertius (24.15g, Ø 33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev.: S C [left and right in field], Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloac, advancing right, carrying Anchises on left shoulder and holding Ascanius by right hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum in left hand. RIC 627[R2], BMCRE 1292, Cohen 761; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali) 373 (4 specimens); Foss 57b.

This sestertius was issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in A.D.147.
The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Ilium, as the Romans called Troy, with Ascanius and Anchises. According to Vergil (Aeneid, Book 2), Aeneas, the son of the goddess Venus and the Trojan Anchises, fled with some remnants of the inhabitants of Troy as it fell to the Greeks, taking with him his son, Ascanius, his elderly father, Anchises, and the Palladium, the ancient sacred statue of Athena. The Trojans eventually made their way west to resettle in Italy. There they intermarried with the local inhabitants and founded the town of Lavinium, and thereby became the nucleus of the future Roman people. One of the descendants of Aeneas' son Ascanius (known now as Iulus) was Rhea Silvia, mother of Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome. The mythological depictions on this coin reinforce the importance of Ilium, not only as the seedbed of the future Roman people, but also as the mother city of the future caput mundi.
Charles S
10Reichspfennig.jpg
10 Reichspfennig13 viewsNazi Germany

1941 AD

Obverse: Deutsches Reich

Reverse: 10 Reichspfennig - D
Pericles J2
10ReisEmp.jpg
10 Reis15 viewsBrazilian Empire

1869 CE

Obverse: PETRUS II D.G.C IMP. ET PERP. BRAS. DEF. 1869
Head of Pedro II facing right, emperor of Brazil between 1831 and 1889

Reverse: Crowned shield.
Pericles J2
Elagabalus-RIC-140.jpg
10. Elagabalus.22 viewsDenarius, 218 - 219 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M AVR ANTONINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Elagabalus.
Reverse: SALVS . ANTONINI . AVG / Salus standing, feeding snake held in her arms.
2.96 gm., 19 mm
RIC #140.

At this time in Roman history, people were already looking back to the reigns of Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius as a Golden Age. Later emperors wanted to be associated with them, and to that end Septimius Severus adopted himself into the Antonine Dynasty. His son Caracalla assumed the name Antoninus as his official name, as did Elagabalus. The reverse of this coin pictures Salus, the goddess of good health and well-being. The legend expresses the wish, roughly translated, "Long live the Antonine Emperors."
1 commentsCallimachus
LarryW1853.jpg
100 Constantius II, AD 337-36172 viewsGold solidus, 20mm, 4.00g, gF
Struck AD 355-360 at Arles
FL IVL CONSTAN-TIVS PERP AVG, helmeted, diademed and cuirassed facing bust, spear across shoulder in right, shield on left arm / GLORIA REI-PVBLICAE, Roma and Constantinopolis enthroned, holding wreath with VOT XXX MVLT XXXX in four lines, */KONSTAN in ex (TAN in monogram). Graffiti on obverse fields
Ex: Forum Ancient Coins
RIC 238
Lawrence Woolslayer
100ReisImperio.jpg
100 Réis10 viewsBrazil Empire

1876 AD

Obverse: IMPÉRIO DO BRAZIL

Reverse: DECRETO Nº 1817 DE 5 DE SETEMBRO DE 1870
Pericles J2
100ReisRepublica.jpg
100 Réis12 viewsBrazil Republic

1889 AD

Obverse: REPÚBLICA DOS ESTADOS UNIDOS DO BRAZIL

Reverse: ORDEM E PROGRESSO 15 DE NOVEMBRO DE 1889
Pericles J2
15319267_10206936956416943_6673180885513755733_n.jpg
1000 Reis, Silver. Brazil 185816 viewsAntonivs Protti
coin215.JPG
101. Nerva40 viewsNerva

Nerva is credited with beginning the practice of adopting his heir rather than selecting a blood relative. Nerva's reign was more concerned with the continuation of an existing political system than with the birth of a new age. Indeed, his economic policies, his relationship with the senate, and the men whom he chose to govern and to offer him advice all show signs of Flavian influence. In many respects, Nerva was the right man at the right time. His immediate accession following Domitian's murder prevented anarchy and civil war, while his age, poor health and moderate views were perfect attributes for a government that offered a bridge between Domitian's stormy reign and the emperorships of the stable rulers to follow.

Denarius. IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR POT II, laureate head right / COS III PATER PATRAE, ladle, sprinkler, jug & lituus. RSC 51.
ecoli
L__Julius_L_f__Caesar_AR-Den_CAESAR_L-IVLI-L-F_Crawford-320-1_Julia-4_Sydenham-593_103_BC_Q-001_axis-7h_19mm_2,99g-s.jpg
103 B.C., L. Julius L.f. Caesar, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 320/1, Rome, Venus in biga of Cupids left,127 views103 B.C., L. Julius L.f. Caesar, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 320/1, Rome, Venus in biga of Cupids left,
avers: Helmeted head of Mars left, behind, CAESAR, above, control mark. The controlmark is retrograde Q which was heretofore unknown (by forarr).
reverse: Venus in biga of Cupids left, holding sceptre and reins, above, control mark, below, lyre, in exergue: L•IVLI•L•F•.
exergue: -/-//L•IVLI•L•F•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,99g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 103 B.C., ref: Crawford 320/1, Sydenham 593a., Julia 4a.,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
coin213.JPG
103. Hadrian19 viewsHadrian

With execution of four power men in the beginning of his reign, his relations with the senate were irrevocably damaged, never really to improve until his death, when the senate hoped to have posthumous revenge. Much was said against him after his death, and by many persons. The senate wished to annul his acts, and would have refrained from naming him "the Deified" had not Antoninus requested it. Antoninus, moreover, finally built a temple for him at Puteoli to take the place of a tomb, and he also established a quinquennial contest and flamens and sodales and many other institutions which appertain to the honour of one regarded as a god. It is for this reason, as has been said before, that many think that Antoninus received the surname Pius.

AR Denarius. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right / P M TR P COS III, Victory flying right with trophy. RSC 1132, RIC 101
ecoli
coin224.JPG
103a. Sabina25 viewsSabina

Vibia Sabina was born in 86 CE was the daughter of Salonia Matidia, daughter of Trajan's sister Marciana, and her first husband Lucius Vibius Sabinus. Hence she was a grand niece of emperor Trajan. By the intervention of Trajan's wife Plotina she married Hadrian in 100 CE, thus reinforcing Hadrian's claim to the throne.

The marriage was not happy and she didn't bear him any children. She did, however, follow Hadrian on his many travels, and she received the title of Augusta in 128 CE. She died in 136 or 137 CE and was dutifully deified after her death

AR denarius. SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG Diademed and draped bust right, hair in plait behind / VES TA Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and scepter. RIC 410, RSC 81.
ecoli
Rep_AR-Den_R__L_SATVRN_Crawford-317-3a_Syd-578_Rome_104-BC_Q-001_axis-0h_19,5mm_3,81g-s.jpg
104 B.C., L. Appuleius Saturnius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 317/3a, Rome, Quadriga right,148 views104 B.C., L. Appuleius Saturnius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 317/3a, Rome, Quadriga right,
avers: Helmeted head of Roma left, border of dots. above, control mark,
reverse: Saturn in quadriga right holding reins in right hand, above, control mark R•, below, in exergue: L•SATVRN.
exergue: -/--//L•SATVRN, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,81g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 104 B.C., ref: Crawford 317/3a, Sydenham 578.,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
coin281.JPG
104. Antoninus Pius37 viewsAntoninus Pius

The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects. Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate.

RI2. Denarius. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIIII, laureate head right / FELIC SAEC COS IIII, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus & leaning on short column. RSC 361. RIC 309
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105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
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106. Commodus32 viewsCommodus

According to Gibbon, the emperor Commodus spent the early years of his reign "in a seraglio of three hundred beautiful women and as many boys, of every rank and of every province." Later, adding bloodshed to his round of pleasures, he launched a career in murder, beginning with the dispatch of the usual senators, ministers and family members and continuing with the slaughter of beasts. Styling himself the Roman Hercules, he went as a performer into the amphitheater, where he cut down before the public a number of ostriches, a panther, a hundred lions, an elephant, a rhinoceros and a giraffe. He then entered the lists as a gladiator. Commodus fought 735 times and paid himself such a high fee for each appearance that a new tax had to be levied. He was strangled by a wrestler while drunk.

Denarius. 192 AD. L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, laureate head right / P M TR P XVII IMP VIII COS VII P P, Fides standing left holding standard & cornucopiae, star right. RSC 583a. RIC 233
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106a. Crispina48 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
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107 - Gallienus Antoninianus - RIC 66733 viewsObv:– GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars (Gobl), Virtus / soldier (RIC/RSC) standing left, holding spear right, leaning on shield left
Mint ed in Antioch. A.D. 260-268
Reference:– Göbl 1617b. Cohen 1235. RIC 667 (Sole reign)
maridvnvm
RI 107q img.jpg
107 - Gallienus Antoninianus - RIC 67030 viewsObv:– GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars(Gobl) / Gallienus (RIC and RSC), laureate, standing right, holding transverse spear and globe right
Mint Antioch. (Branch in exe) A.D. 260-268
Reference:– Göbl 1636c. Cohen 1258. RIC 670 (Sole reign)
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107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
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Medio_Asarion_BRITANICO_Smyrna_en_Ionia.jpg
11-20 - Smyrna en Ionia - BRITANICO (50 - 54 D.C.)18 viewsAE15 - 1/2 Assarión (Provincial)
15 mm 4,05 gr 0 hr.

Tiberio Claudio César Británico en latín Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 de febrero de 41 - 11 de febrero de 55) fue un noble romano, nacido del matrimonio entre el emperador Claudio y su tercera esposa, Valeria Mesalina. En el momento de su nacimiento, sólo un mes después del inicio del reinado de Claudio, fue nombrado heredero del Imperio; no obstante hubo tres factores: la condena a muerte de su madre a causa de bigamia, el matrimonio de Claudio con Agripina y la adopción de Nerón, descendiente del recordado Germánico, que provocaron que los ciudadanos romanos no le consideraran como sucesor imperial. Fue asesinado el día anterior a su decimocuarto cumpleaños. (Fuente Wikipedia)

Anv: "ZMYP" debajo - Busto vestido a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΕΙΚΑΔΙΟ Σ", (Philistos y Eikadios Magistrados), Nike avanzando a derecha, portando un trofeo sobre su hombro.

Acuñada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Smyrna en Ionia

Referencias: Vagi #650 - Lingren #562 - KLDSE XXXI #37 pag.223 - SNG Cop #1351 - SNG Von Aulock #7995 - BMC Vol.16 #284 Pag.270 - RPC I #2476 Pag.419
mdelvalle
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11. "Pella": Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.34 viewsTetradrachm, ca 280 - 275 BC, "Pella" mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Zeus sitting, holding his attendant eagle and sceptre. Monogram under throne, Triton at left.
16.95 gm., 29 mm.
P. #527.

Following the overthrow of Demetrios Poliorketes by Lysimachos in 288 BC, there was a period of about a dozen years where no ruler was able to establish himself for any length of time in Macedonia. In 277 BC, Antigonos Gonatas achieved a victory over Gallic invaders in Thrace, and that enabled him to claim his father's throne. He ruled until 239 BC and the Macedonian kingdom prospered during his reign.
This coin was issued about the time Antigonos became king and established his own coinage. The decade 280 - 270 BC was a troubled one for the area due to the Gallic invasions (279 - 276 BC), and coins in the name of Alexander the Great from this decade are not common.
Callimachus
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1154 - 1189, HENRY II, AR 'Tealby' Penny, Struck 1158 - 1163 at Canterbury (?), England33 viewsObverse: (HE)NRI • R(EX• A -). Crowned facing bust of Henry II, his head facing slightly to the left, holding sceptre tipped with a cross potent in his right hand. Crown has three vertical uprights each topped by a fleur-de-lis.
Reverse: + (ROGI)ER : ON : (C)A(NT) surrounding short cross potent within beaded circle, small cross potents in each quarter. Moneyer: Rogier, cognate with the modern English name of Roger. Mintmark: Cross potent.
Uncommonly clear Class A bust
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 4
Flan chipped and cracked
SPINK: 1337

For the first few years of Henry II's reign the coins of King Stephen continued to be produced, but in 1158, in order to restore public confidence in the currency, a new 'cross and crosslet' coinage was introduced in England which was of sufficient importance for the contemporary chroniclers to record that 'a new money was made, which was the sole currency of the kingdom.' While this coinage was acceptable in terms of weight and silver quality, it is notorious for its ugly appearance, bad craftsmanship and careless execution. In fact the 'Tealby' coinage is among the worst struck of any issue of English regal coinage, so much so that collectors consider it something of a bonus if they are able to make out the name of the moneyer, or the mint, from the letters showing.
The cross and crosslet type coinage of King Henry II is more often called 'Tealby' because of the enormous hoard of these coins which was found in late 1807 at Bayons Manor farm near Tealby in Lincolnshire. This hoard, which originally amounted to over 5,700 pieces, was first reported in the Stamford Mercury of the 6th November 1807, but unfortunately the majority of the coins, more than 5,000 of them, were sent to be melted at the Tower of London and only some 600 pieces were saved for national and important private collections.
A total of 30 mints were employed in the initial 'Tealby' recoinage, however once the recoinage was completed only 12 mints were permitted to remain active and this marks the beginning of the gradual decline in the number of mints which were used to strike English coins.
The 'Tealby' issue continued until 1180 when a new style coin of much better workmanship, the short-cross penny, was introduced.
2 comments*Alex
William_the_lion_AR_penny.JPG
1169 - 1214, William I “the lion”, AR Penny, Struck 1205 - 1230 at Perth or Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: + LE REI WILAM•: Head of William I facing left, wearing crown of pellets, sceptre to left, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: + hVE WALTER: Voided short cross, six pointed star in each angle, within inner circle of pellets. All surrounded by outer circle of pellets. Cross potent in legend. (No mint name on coin. Moneyers: Hue (cognate with the modern English name of Hugh) and Walter, the Edinburgh and Perth moneyers working jointly)
Short cross, phase B. Late William I and posthumous issue struck c.1205 to c.1230.
William I died in 1214 but it would appear that although Alexander II was 16 years old when he came to the throne he continued his father's issues for some 15 years and struck no coins in his own name until around 1230.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 1.3gm | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5029

William I was not known as "the Lion" during his own lifetime, the title was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant on a yellow background which went on to become the Royal Banner of Scotland which is still used today.

William I was crowned on 24th December 1165, he came to the throne when his elder brother Malcolm IV died at the age of 24 on 9th December 1165.
Early in his reign William attempted to regain control of Northumbria which had been lost, in 1157 during the reign of Malcolm IV, to the Anglo-Normans under Henry II. He thereby lent support to the English barons who rebelled against Henry II in 1173. In 1174 however, while actively assisting the rebels at the Battle of Alnwick, William was captured by Henry's forces and taken to Falaise in Normandy. He was forced, under the terms of the Treaty of Falaise which he signed in December, to do homage for the whole of Scotland and also to hand over the castles of Roxburgh, Berwick and Edinburgh. Edinburgh, however, was later returned to him as part of the dowry of Ermengarde, a cousin of Henry II, whom William married in 1186.
The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years until the new English King Richard the Lionheart, needing money for the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 marks. William also attempted to purchase Northumbria from Richard, however his offer of 15,000 marks was rejected due to him wanting all the castles within the lands, something Richard was not willing to concede.
Relations between Scotland and England remained tense during the first decade of the 13th century and in August 1209 King John decided to exploit the weakening leadership of the ageing Scottish monarch by marching a large army to Norham on the south side of the River Tweed. William bought John off with the promise of a large sum of money, and later, in 1212, he agreed to his only surviving son Alexander, marrying John's eldest daughter, Joan.
William I died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey, which he is credited with founding in 1178. He was succeeded by his son, who reigned as Alexander II.
3 comments*Alex
A-02_Rep_AR-Den-Ser_C_Publicius-Malleolus-C_f__C-MALLE-C-F-X-behind_L-LIC-CN-DOM_ROMA_Crawford-282-3_Syd-524_Rome_118-BC_R1_Q-001_11h_19-20mm_3,79g-s.jpg
118 B.C., C. Poblicius Malleolus, L. Licinius and Cn. Domitius, Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L·LIC·CN·DOM., #2154 views118 B.C., C. Poblicius Malleolus, L. Licinius and Cn. Domitius, Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L·LIC·CN·DOM., #2
(L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo118)
avers:- C·MA –L – LE – C ·F Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, X.
revers: - Bearded warrior (Bituitus?) fast biga right, holding shield, carnyx and reins and hurling spear; in exergue, L·LIC·CN·DOM.
exerg: -/-//L·LIC·CN·DOM., diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/3, Sydneham-524, Aurelia
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
A-02_Rep_AR-Den-Ser_C_Publicius-Malleolus-C_f__C-MALLE-C-F-X-behind_L-LIC-CN-DOM_ROMA_Crawford-282-3_Syd-524_Rome_118-BC_R1_Q-001_1h_18-19mm_3,35g-s.jpg
118 B.C., C. Poblicius Malleolus, L. Licinius and Cn. Domitius, Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L·LIC·CN·DOM., (L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo118)194 views118 B.C., C. Poblicius Malleolus, L. Licinius and Cn. Domitius, Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L·LIC·CN·DOM.,
(L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo118)
avers:- C·MA –L – LE – C ·F Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, X.
revers: - Bearded warrior (Bituitus?) fast biga right, holding shield, carnyx and reins and hurling spear; in exergue, L·LIC·CN·DOM.
exerg: -/-//L·LIC·CN·DOM., diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/3, Sydneham-524,
Q-001
quadrans
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1189 - 1199, RICHARD I (the lionheart), AR Denier minted at Melle, Poitou, France44 viewsObverse: +RICARDVS REX. Cross pattée within braided inner circle, all within braided outer circle.
Reverse: PIC / TAVIE / NSIS in three lines within braided circle.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 8008 | Elias: 8

Poitou was an Anglo-Gallic province in what is now west-central France and its capital city was Poitiers, the mint at this time was however located at Melle. Melle was an active centre of minting during the early Middle Ages due to the important silver mines located under and around the city. This is the only coin issue struck during the reign of Richard I to bear his own name and titles as King of England.

Richard I was King of England from 1189 until his death on 6th April 1199. He also ruled several territories outwith England, and was styled as Duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Poitiers, Anjou, Maine, and Nantes, as well as being overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was the third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Duchess Eleanor of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard the Lionheart (Richard Cœur de Lion) because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior when, at the age of 16 and commanding his own army, he had put down rebellions against his father in Poitou.
Richard was a commander during the Third Crusade, and led the campaign after the departure of Philip II of France. However, although he scored several notable victories against the Muslims led by Saladin, he failed to retake Jerusalem from them.
Although Richard was born in England and spent his childhood there before becoming king, he lived most of his adult life in the Duchy of Aquitaine. Following his accession, his life was mostly spent on Crusade, in captivity, or actively defending his lands in France. Rather than regarding England as a responsibility requiring his presence as ruler, he appears to have used it merely as a source of revenue to support his armies. Nevertheless, he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects and he remains one of the few kings of England who is remembered by his epithet rather than by his regnal number, and even today he is still an iconic figure in both England and France.
3 comments*Alex
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1199 – 1216, John, AR Short cross penny, Struck 1205 - 1216 at Winchester, England22 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of the king holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand, bust extending to edge of flan.
Reverse: +ANDREV•ON•WI around voided short cross within circle, crosslets in each quarter. Moneyer: Andrev, cognate with the modern English name of Andrew.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
Class 5b
SPINK: 1351

The class four type short cross pennies of Henry II continued to be struck during the early years of John's reign, but in 1205 a recoinage was begun and new short cross pennies of better style replaced the older issues. Sixteen mints were initially employed for this recoinage but they were reduced to ten later on. All John's coins continued to bear his father's (Henry II) title of henricvs rex.

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
Contemporary chroniclers were mostly critical of John's performance as king, and his reign has been the subject of much debate by historians from the 16th century onwards. These negative qualities have provided extensive material for fiction writers since the Victorian era, and even today John remains a recurring character within popular culture, primarily as a villain in films and stories regarding the Robin Hood legends.
2 comments*Alex
1205_-_1216_John_AR_Penny_Dublin.JPG
1199-1216, John, AR Penny, Struck 1207 – 1211 at Dublin, Ireland10 viewsObverse: IOHANNES REX around triangle enclosing a crowned and draped facing bust of King John holding, in his right hand, a sceptre tipped with a cross pommée which extends through the side of the triangle into the legend. Quatrefoil to right of bust.
Reverse: ROBERD ON DIVE around triangle containing sun over crescent moon and a star in each angle. Cross pattée at apex of each point of the triangle and above legend on each of the three sides. Moneyer: Roberd, cognate with the modern English name of Robin.
Third issue “REX” coinage, struck to the same weight and fineness as the English standard.
This was the only coinage struck by King John in his own name.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 6228

John was King of England from 1199 until his death in 1216. The baronial revolt at the end of John's reign led to the sealing of the first Magna Carta, a document sometimes considered an early step in the evolution of the constitution of the United Kingdom.
John, the youngest of the five sons of Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, was not expected to inherit significant lands which resulted in him being given the nickname John Lackland. However, after the failed rebellion of his elder brothers between 1173 and 1174, John became Henry's favourite child. He was appointed Lord of Ireland in 1177 and given lands in England and on the continent. John's elder brothers William, Henry and Geoffrey died young and when Richard I became king in 1189, John was the potential heir to the throne. John unsuccessfully attempted a rebellion against Richard's administration whilst his brother was participating in the Third Crusade but despite this, after Richard died in 1199, John was proclaimed King of England.
King John contracted dysentery at Lynn in 1216 but, just before his death, he managed to dictate a brief will. This will still survives and as part of it John requested: "I will that my body be buried in the church of St. Mary and St. Wulfstan of Worcester".
Some of King John's favourite hunting grounds were in Worcester, at Kinver and Feckenham, and he had a special affection for Saint Wulfstan, one of the two great Anglo-Saxon saints whose shrines and tombs were also at Worcester. Both Saint Wulfstan and Saint Oswald can be seen in miniature beside the head of the effigy of King John on his tomb.
Medieval effigies usually show the subject in the prime of life, however the effigy on King John's tomb is unique in that not only is it a life-like image of him, it is also the oldest royal effigy in England.
King John's tomb has been opened twice, once in 1529 and again in 1797. At the first opening it was said that John's head was covered with a monk's cowl, however it is now thought that this was probably his coronation cap. When the tomb was opened for the second time the antiquarians responsible discovered that a robe of crimson damask had originally covered the king's body but, by 1797, most of the embroidery had deteriorated. They also found the remains of a sword which lay down the left side of the body along with parts of its scabbard.
3 comments*Alex
Demetrio II, Nicator.jpg
12-02 - Demetrio II, Nicator (1er.Reino 145 - 139 A.C.)56 viewsDemetrio II Nicátor de la dinastía Seléucida, fue rey de Siria en dos períodos: 146 - 139 A.C. y 129 - 126 A.C. Huyó a Creta tras la derrota y muerte de su padre, Demetrio I Sóter, pero regresó después, proclamándose rey. Fue puesto en fuga casi inmediatamente por el general Diodoto, que primero proclamó rey a un hijo de Alejandro Balas, Antíoco VI Dioniso, y luego a sí mismo con el nombre de Trifón. Demetrio marchó en guerra contra el rey de Partia, Mitrídates I, siendo derrotado y capturado en 139 A.C.
En 129 fue puesto en libertad, con la esperanza de provocar una guerra entre él y su hermano Antíoco VII Evergetes. Sin embargo, Antíoco murió antes de que estallara el conflicto, con lo que Demetrio II se proclamó rey de nuevo. Poco después fue derrotado y muerto por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII, que sostenía al usupador Alejandro Zabinas. Le sucedió su hijo Seleuco V Filométor, bajo la regencia de su viuda Cleopatra Tea. (Wikipedia)

AE 18 x 19 mm 4.9 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema de Demetrio II viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY – TYPIΩN (por Tiro)" - Popa de Galera (Simboliza el poderío naval de Tiro Fenicia bajo los Seléucidas).

Acuñación: 145/4 A.C.
Ceca: Seleucia en Tiro - Fenicia

Referencias: Houghton #753 – SNG Spaer #1722 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #20-22 Pag.60 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7070 Pag.661 - SNG Israel #1708.
mdelvalle
17630101_10155133556532232_2292325010736412416_n.jpg
12. Demetrios II Nikator15 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Demetrios II Nikator. Second reign, 129-125 BC. Æ Antioch mint. Struck 129-128 BC. Laureate head of Zeus right / Nike advancing left, holding wreath and palm; Ξ to inner left. SC 2170.1a; HGC 9, 1133.ecoli
Philip-I-RIC-026b.jpg
12. Philip I.17 viewsAntoninianus, 245 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip I.
Reverse: ADVENTVS AVGG / Philip on horseback, raising right hand and holding a sceptre.
4.21 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #26b; Sear #8916.

Coins with this reverse type were often issued at the beginning of a reign to celebrate "the coming of the emperor." Since Philip became emperor in the East during a war with Persia, it was some time before he was able to conclude the war and return to Rome.
Callimachus
Maximianus_Q0x1_h_mm_g-s.jpg
120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Aquileia, RIC VI 076a, AE-Follis, -/-/AQP, FIDES MILITVM AVG G ET CAES S N N, Fides standing, #172 views120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Aquileia, RIC VI 076a, AE-Follis, -/-/AQP, FIDES MILITVM AVG G ET CAES S N N, Fides standing, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right.
reverse: FIDES MILITVM AVG G ET CAES S N N, Fides standing holding standard in each hand.
exergue: -/-/AQP, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Aquileia, date: 2nd reign, 306-307 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-076a, p-467, C-123,
Q-001
quadrans
Henry_III_short_cross_penny.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1217 - 1242 at London, England (Short cross type)2 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry III holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GIFFREI ON LVND. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Giffrei, cognate with the modern English name of Geoffrey.
Issue type 7c, distinguished by the degraded portrait and large lettering.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.1gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 1356C

Henry III was the eldest son of King John and came to the throne at the age of nine. He was king of England from 1216 until his death in 1272, ruling longer than any other English monarch until the reign of George III.
Henry expressed a lifelong interest in architecture and much of what constitutes the Tower of London today is a result of Henry’s work, he added several towers and a curtain wall to expand the White Tower beginning in 1238. Westminster Abbey however, is considered to be Henry's greatest building work. The project began in 1245, when Henry sent his architect Henry de Reynes to visit the French cities of Rheims, Chartres, Bourges and Amiens and Paris’s royal chapel Sainte-Chapelle to learn the Gothic technique that he much admired.
The Westminster Abbey that stood previously on the site had been erected by Edward the Confessor in 1042. Edward the Confessor was a hero of Henry’s, and he probably named his son (the future Edward I) after him. The foundations and crypt are still those of Edward the Confessor’s Abbey, but everything above ground today is the building begun by Henry III. The tomb of Edward the Confessor was moved to a new position of honour in 1269 at the very centre of the new abbey, and when Henry III died in 1272 he was buried beside Edward’s shrine in the exact position the bones of his hero had lain for 200 years.
*Alex
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)45 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
123_B_C_,_M_Fannius_C_f_,_AR-Denarius,_Crawford_275-1,_Rome,_Victory_in_quadriga_right,_M_FAN_CF_,_Q-001_7h_16-17mm_3,81g-s.jpg
123 B.C., M.Fannius C.f., AR-Denarius, Crawford 275/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//M.FAN.CF., 153 views123 B.C., M.Fannius C.f., AR-Denarius, Crawford 275/1, Rome, Victory in quadriga right, -/-//M.FAN.CF.,
avers:- Helmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, ROMA behind.
revers: - Victory in quadriga right, holding reins in left hand and wreath in right hand, line border, in exergo M.FAN.CF.
exerg: -/-// M.FAN.CF., diameter:16,0-17,0 mm, weight: 3,80g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 123 B.C., ref: Crawford-275/1_Sydenham-419, Fannia 1,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
123.jpg
123 Fausta. AE follis. 2.9gm23 viewsobv: FLAV.MAX.-FAVSTA AVG bare-head mantled bust r.
rev: SALVS REI_PVBLICAE Salus std. facing head l. holding two infants in her arms
ex: STR
"2nd wife of Constantine I"
hill132
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland16 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
124a.jpg
124a Helena. AE follis 3.8gm18 viewsobv: FL HELENA_AVGVSTA dia. and mantledbust r., wearing necklace
rev: SECVRITRITAS_ REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l., holding palm and drawing drapery
ex: SMH(EPSOLON)
"Mother of Constantine I and first wife of Constantius I)
hill132
124b.jpg
124b Helena. AE follis 2.9gm20 viewsobv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA dia.and mantled bust r.
rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l. holding olive branch
ex: SMALA
hill132
124c.jpg
124c Helena. AE follis 3.5gm17 viewsobv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA dia. and mantled bust r.
rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l. holding olive branch
ex: PTR(dot in crescent)
hill132
124d.jpg
124d Helena. AE follis24 viewsobv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA dia. and mantled bust r.
rev: SECRITAS REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l. holding olive branch
ex: STRE
hill132
124e.jpg
124e Helena. AE follis 3.0gm19 viewsobv: FL HELENA AVGVSTA dia. and mantled bust r.
rev: SECVRITVS REIPVBLICE Securitas std. l. holding olive branch
ex: .SMANTS
hill132
795_P_Hadrian_RPC.JPG
1259 LYDIA, Julia Gordus Pseudo-autonomous under Uncertain reign, 138-92 AD Mên standing20 viewsReference.
RPC IV, 1259; BMC 5

Obv. ΙƐΡΑ СΥΝΚΛΗΤοc
Draped bust of the Senate (youthful), right

Rev. ΓΟΡΔΗΝΩΝ ΙΟΥΛΙΕΩΝ
Mên standing, l., wearing Phrygian cap, holding patera and long sceptre; behind his shoulders, crescent

5.94 gr
20 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
A-12_Rep_AR-Den_T_Cloelius_Helm-head-Roma-behind-wreath-below-ROMA_Victory-in-biga-r_-ex-T_CLOVLI_Crawford-260-1_Syd-516_Rome_128-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5mm_3,75g-s.jpg
128 B.C., T Cloelius Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 260/1, Rome, Victory in biga right,83 views128 B.C., T Cloelius Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 260/1, Rome, Victory in biga right,
avers: ROMA, helmeted head of Roma right, wreath behind.
reverse: Victory in biga right, holding reins in both hands, below, corn-ears, in exergue, T•CLOVLI.
exergue: -/-//T•CLOVLI, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,75g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 128 B.C., ref: Crawford-260-1, Sydenham-516, Babelon (Cloulia) 1,BMCRR Rome 1079.
Q-001
quadrans
14-Gordian-III-RIC-116.jpg
13. Gordian III / RIC 116.24 viewsDenarius, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI / Hercules standing, resting right hand on hip and left hand club set on rock; lion-skin beside club.
3.58 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #116; Sear #8684.

The chronology of the denarii coinage of Gordian III has been poorly understood because Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) has it mixed up in its listings. For example, it will tell you that 5 denarii (Diana, Pietas, Salus, Securitas, and Venus) were issued in the summer of 241 to commemorate the marriage of Gordian and Tranquillina. Recent thinking tells another entirely different story. The following summary is based on a posting by Curtis Clay, November 25, 2011, on the Forum Ancient Coins Classical Numismatics Discussion Board.
Although antoniniani were issued for a while under Caracalla and Elagabalus, the denarius was the standard silver denomination throughout the reigns of Severus Alexander, Maximinus Thrax, and into the first part of the joint reign of Balbinus & Pupienus. (This, by the way, is when the PIETAS AVGG denarius of Gordian as Caesar was issued.) Sometime during the short reign of Balbinus & Pupienus, the antoninianus supplanted the denarius as the standard silver denomination. When Gordian III became emperor (July 238), his administration continued to follow the then current practice of issuing only antoniniani.

Early in 240, Gordian apparently decided to revert back to the traditional coinage of the Empire and began to issue only denarii. The denarii issued at this time were the following:

P M TR P III COS P P / Horseman
DIANA LVCIFERA
PIETAS AVGVSTI
SALVS AVGVSTI
SECVRITAS PVBLICA
VENVS VICTRIX

No antoniniani exist with these reverse types.

The next issue of denarii was issued in the summer of 240 after Gordian became COS II, and consists of these types:

P M TR P III COS II P P / Emperor standing
P M TR P III COS II P P / Apollo seated
AETERNITATI AVG
IOVIS STATOR
LAETITIA AVG N
VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Within a short time, however, it was decided to go back to having the antoninianus as the standard silver denomination. Antoniniani were issued again, at first with the same reverse types as the second issue of denarii. That is why these reverse types exist on denarii and antoniniani even though they were not issued at the same time.

So the period the mint issued denarii rather than antoniniani as the standard silver denomination lasted from about March through August, 240. This was the last time denarii were issued for general circulation. The antoninianus lasted until Diocletian’s coinage reform of 295, after which Roman coinage was so vastly different that there was no question of returning to the denarius.

The 13 denarii of Gordian III are presented in this album in this order:
Gordian III as Caesar denarius - 1 coin.
First issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Second issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Callimachus
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)94 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.59 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.48 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Edward_2_Crozier.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1311 - 1316 at Durham, England21 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS DVNELM. Long cross, the upper limb of which is in the form of a bishop's crozier, dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 7
Rare
SPINK: 1469

Undated Penny, Class 11a, struck under Bishop Kellawe. Bishop Kellawe was enthroned as Bishop of Durham in 1311 but he died in 1316 so this coin was struck during the five years between those two dates. These coins were sometimes called “poker pennies” because the shape of the crozier on the reverse is reminiscent of an old iron fireside poker. It's an unfortunate nickname considering the reputed manner of the King's death.

Edward II
Edward II was crowned King of England when his father, Edward I, died in 1307. However Edward II caused discontent among the barons by his close relationship with Piers Gaveston and in 1311 the barons pressured the King into agreeing to wide-ranging reforms which included Gaveston being banished. Angered, Edward responded by revoking the reforms and recalling his favourite, but in 1312 a group of barons, led by the Earl of Lancaster, seized and executed Gaveston.
The war with Scotland was not going well either, the English forces were pushed back and in 1314 Edward was decisively defeated by the Scottish King, Robert the Bruce, at the Battle of Bannockburn.
When this was followed by a widespread famine in England opposition to Edward II's reign grew until, in 1325, when Edward's wife, Isabella, was sent to France to negotiate a peace treaty she turned against Edward, allied herself with the exiled Roger Mortimer, and refused to return. In 1326, Mortimer and Isabella invaded England with a small army. Edward's regime collapsed and he fled into Wales, but he was soon captured and in January 1327 he was forced to relinquish his crown in favour of his fourteen-year-old son, Edward III. Edward II died in Berkeley Castle on 21 September the same year, reputedly horrifically murdered on the orders of the new regime by having a red hot poker inserted into his rectum.

Bishop Kellawe, Bishop of Durham
Richard de Kellawe was sub-prior at St. Cuthbert's, Durham, and on the death of Antony Bek in 1311, Kellawe was chosen to replace him as Bishop of Durham by the monks. The palatinate of Durham was at this time in a deplorable condition owing to the Scottish wars, and in 1312 Kellawe even received a papal dispensation for not attending the council at Vienne in consideration of the state of his province. Troubles with the Scots continued after Bannockburn and the Palatinate was now so exhausted that it could not even provide for its own defence and Bishop Kellawe had to purchase peace with a levy of fifteen hundred men and a gift of one thousand marks.
On 10th October 1316, at Middleham, Bishop Kellawe died. He was buried in the chapter-house at Durham. His grandly adorned tomb was destroyed when the chapter house was demolished in 1796.
2 comments*Alex
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England9 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
A-14_Rep_AR-Den_C_Aburius-Geminus_Helm-head-Roma-r_-GEM-behind_Mars-in-quadriga-r_-ex-C_ABVRI-ROMA_Crawford-244-1_Syd-490_Rome_134-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_17,5-18mm_3,76g-s.jpg
134 B.C., C. Aburius Geminus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 244/1, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right,82 views134 B.C., C. Aburius Geminus, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 244/1, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right,
avers: GEM behind of helmeted head of Roma right, * below the chin.
reverse: Mars in quadriga right, holding the spear, shield, trophy and reins, C•ABVRI below, ROMA in exergue.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,76g, axis:7 h,
mint: Rome, date:134 B.C., ref: Crawford-244-1, Sydenham-490, Aburia 1,
Q-001
quadrans
0010-075.jpg
1343 - M. Aemilius Scaurus and P. Plautius Hypsaeus. Denarius73 viewsRome mint, 58 BC
M SCAVR AED CVR In two lines above camel, EX | SC, in exergue REX ARETAS, King Aretas of Nabataea, kneeling right beside a camel, holding an olive branch
P HVPSAEVS AED CVR in two lines, CAPTVM in the right field, C HVPSAE COS PREIVER in two lines, Jupiter driving a quadriga left, holding a thunderbolt
Ref : RCV #379
3 commentsPotator II
Rep_AR-Den_L_Trebanius-Helm-head-of-Roma-r__Jupiter-quadriga-r__L_TREBAVI_ex-ROMA_Crawford-241-1_Syd-456_Rome_135-BC_Q-001_axis-6h_18,5mm_3,46g-s.jpg
135 B.C., L.Trebanius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 241-1a, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right,100 views135 B.C., L.Trebanius, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 241-1a, Rome, Jupiter in quadriga right,
avers: Helmeted head of Roma right, behind, the mark of value X.
reverse: Jupiter in quadriga right, holding sceptre and reins in left hand and hurling thunderbolt with the right hand, below horses, L•TREBANI. In exergue, ROMA.
exergue: -/-//ROMA, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,46g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 135 B.C., ref: Crawford 241-1a, Sydenham 456, Trebania 1, FFC 1161,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
136a.jpg
136a Julian II. AE1 8.9gm25 viewsobv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SECVRITAS REI PVB bull, head facing, std. r. above two stars
ex: CVZB
hill132
137_BC-_M_Baebius_Qf_Tampilus_Denarius__137_BC__TAMPIL,_head_of_Roma_left,_X_before,_Syd_489,_Cr236-1c__Q-001_3h_16,5-18,5mm_3,97g-s.jpg
137 B.C., M. Baebius Q.f. Tampilus, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-236-1, Rome, Apollo in quadriga right,135 views137 B.C., M. Baebius Q.f. Tampilus, Rebublic AR-Denarius, Crawford-236-1, Rome, Apollo in quadriga right,
avers:- TAMPIL, Head of Roma left, X before.
revers: - Apollo in quadriga right holding bow and arrow, reins and branch, ROMA below, M.BAEBI.Q.F in ex.
exerg: -/-//ROMA/M.BAEBI.Q.F, diameter: 16,5-18,5 mm, weight: 3,97g, axis:3 h,
mint: Rome, date: 137 B.C., , ref: Crawford-236-1c, Syd-489, Baebia 12,
Q-001
quadrans
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England7 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
antpius as-concordia.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 140-143 AD62 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III (laureate head right)
rev: CONCORDIA EXERCITVM / S.C. (Concordia standing left, holding Victory and aquila)
ref: RIC III 678, C.140 (2frcs)
10.26gms, 26mm

This reverse symbolises the concord between the emperor and the army. The reign of Antoninus Pius was the most peaceful in the entire history of the Principate; while there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time, the Moors in Mauretania (AD150), the Jews in Iudaea (for seventeen years the Romans didn't allow the Jews to bury their dead in Betar, after the Bar Kokhba revolt), the Brigantes in Britannia (AD 140-145, the Antonine Wall being built ca. 40 miles further north), the different Germanic tribes at the Germania limes, the Alans in Dacia (AD158), and had to put down rebellions in the provinces of Achaia and Egypt (AD154).
berserker
antpius-RIC70.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 140-143 AD26 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (bare head right)
rev: GENIVS POP ROMANI (Genius standing front, head right, with scepter & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC III 70, RSC 405 (6frcs), BMC 207
3.15gms, 18mm

The Roman genius, representing man's natural optimism, always endeavoured to guide him to happiness; that man was intended to enjoy life is shown by the fact that the Roman spoke of indulging or cheating his genius of his due according as he enjoyed himself or failed to do so, when he had the opportunity. The genius publicus Populi Romani - probably distinct from the genius Urbis Romae, to whom an old shield on the Capitol was dedicated, stood in the forum near the temple of Concord, in the form of a bearded man, crowned with a diadem, and carrying a cornucopiae and sceptre. In imperial times the genius of Augustus and of the reigning emperor, as part of the sacra of the imperial family, were publicly worshipped. The reverse probably commemorate this (the scepter as Genius attributum is unusual).
berserker
antpius_RIC143d.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 158-159 AD64 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP (laureate head right)
rev: TEMPLVM DIV AVG REST COS IIII (octastyle temple [8 columns] in which the statues of Augustus and Livia reside)
ref: RIC III 143D (R), Cohen 809 (8frcs)
3.01 gms, 18mm,
Rare

History: The Temple of Divus Augustus was built between the Palatine and Capitoline Hills, behind the Basilica Julia. It is known from Roman coinage that the temple was originally built to an Ionic hexastyle design (see my Caligula sestertius). During the reign of Domitian the Temple of Divus Augustus was destroyed by fire but was rebuilt and rededicated in 89/90 with a shrine to his favourite deity, Minerva. The temple was redesigned as a memorial to four deified emperors, including Vespasian and Titus.
It was restored again in the late 150s by Antoninus Pius, who was perhaps motivated by a desire to be publicly associated with the first emperor. The exact date of the restoration is not known, but the restored temple was an octostyle design with Corinthian capitals and two statues - presumably of Augustus and Livia - in the cella. The pediment displayed a relief featuring Augustus and was topped by a quadriga. Two figures stood on the eaves of the roof, that on the left representing Romulus and the one on the right depicting Aeneas leading his family out of Troy, alluding to Rome's origin-myth. The steps of the temple were flanked by two statues of Victory.
1 commentsberserker
faustina_I_RIC343.jpg
138-161 AD - FAUSTINA Senior AR denarius - struck 150 AD41 viewsobv: DIVA FAVSTINA (draped bust right)
rev: AED DIV FAVSTINAE (front view of temple of six columns on five steps, fencing before, statue of Faustina within)
ref: RIC III 343 (S) (AntPius), RSC 1 (10frcs), BMC 339
3.34gms, 18mm,
Scarce

This coin represents the aedes, or templum, with which, after her death, the elder Faustina was honoured by Antoninus Pius. According to Capitolinus, it was situated in the Via Sacra, and was at first dedicated to Faustina alone. But, after the decease of the husband, religious rites were paid therein to him also. A nice coin with an image of a building which still stands today in Rome.
berserker
138a.jpg
138a Valentinian I. AE3 2.6gm21 viewsobv: DN VALENTINI_ANVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SECVRITAS REI PVBLICAE Victory adv. l. holding wreath and palm
ex: R/R-F//rSISCS.
hill132
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMKGamma-dot_RIC-VII-39-p-649-(12-E10)_Cyzicus_325-6-AD_R4_Q-001_0h_16,5-18mm_3,09g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Cyzicus, RIC VII 039, -/-//SMKΓ•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R4!!!80 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Cyzicus, RIC VII 039, -/-//SMKΓ•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R4!!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, (12,E10), Diademed, draped bust right, with necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMKΓ•, diameter: 16,5-18mm, weight: 3,09g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-039, p-649, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMNDelta_RIC-VII-95-p-615-12-E10_R4_Nicomedia_324-25-AD_Q-001_5h_19mm_3,22ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHΔ, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R3!!!,63 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHΔ, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R3!!!,
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHΔ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 324-25 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-79, p-551,
Q-001
quadrans
139_Helena_Heracleia_RIC-VII_079_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMHB_p-551-12-E10_325-26-AD_S_Q-001,_11h,_18,5-21,5mm,_3,58g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHB, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, 130 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHB, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left,
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHB, diameter: 18,5-21,5mm, weight: 3,58g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-79, p-551, Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
139_Helena_Heracleia_RIC-VII_079_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMHE_p-551-12-E10_325-26-AD_R2_Q-001_11h_17,5-18mm_3,18ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!,98 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 079, -/-//SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!,
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMHE, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 325-26 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-79, p-551, R2 !
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-SMHE_RIC-VII-95-p-554-12-E10_c1_Heracleia_327-29-AD_Q-001_5h_18mm_2,67ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #165 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #1
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergo: -/-//•SMHE, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,67g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 327-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-95, p-554,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-SMH__RIC-VII-95-p-554-12-E10_c1_Heracleia_327-29-AD_Q-002_11h_19mm_3,22ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #262 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Heraclea, RIC VII 095, -/-//•SMHE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C1!, #2
avers:- FL HELENA AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with the right hand.
exergue: -/-//•SMHE, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 327-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-95, p-554,
Q-002
quadrans
139_Helena_Siscia_RIC-VII_204_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-Gamma-SIS-dot_p-450-12-E10_326-27-AD_S_Q-001_0h_18,5-19,8mm_2,84g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ΓSIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, Scarce, #1100 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ΓSIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, Scarce, #1
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ΓSIS•, diameter: 18,5-19,8mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-_-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-204-p-450-12-E10_r1_Siscia_326-27-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_3,21ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #187 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #1
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ESIS•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,21g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, R1,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-E-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-204-p-450-12-E10_r1_Siscia_326-27-AD_Q-002_0h_20mm_3,24ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #265 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #2
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ESIS•, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, R1,
Q-002
quadrans
139_Helena_Siscia_RIC-VII_204_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_dot-E-SIS-dot_p-450-12-E10_326-27-AD_R1_Q-002_1h_18-18,5mm_3,35ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #399 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 204, -/-//•ESIS•, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R1!, #3
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//•ESIS•, diameter: 18-18,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 326-27 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-204, p-450, R1,
Q-003
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_Gamma-SIS-Crescentincrescent_RIC-VII-218-p-453-12-E10_c2_Siscia_328-29-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ΓSIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!,62 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ΓSIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!,
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//ΓSIS Crescent in crescent, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-218, p-453, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_E-SIS-crescent-in-crescent_RIC-VII-218-p-453-12-E10_c2_Siscia_328-29-AD_Q-001_0h_18mm_3,05ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!71 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Siscia, RIC VII 218, -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, C2!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//ESIS Crescent in crescent, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 328-29 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-218, p-453, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMTSA_RIC-VII-159-p-519-12-E10_r2_Thessalonica_326-28-AD_Q-001_0h_19-20mm_3,56g-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSA, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, #1307 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSA, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, #1
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMTSA, diameter:19- 20mm, weight: 3,22g, axis:0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-159, p-519,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_SMTSE_RIC-VII-159-p-519-12-E10_r2_Thessalonica_326-28-AD_Q-001_6h_20mm_3,06ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!66 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Thessalonica, RIC VII 159, -/-//SMTSE, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Diademed, draped bust right, with two-row necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//SMTSE, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 326-28 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-159, p-519, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Helena_FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA_SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA_RIC-VII-202-p-387-12-E10_R2_Ticinium_326-AD__Q-001_11h_19mm_2,84ga-s.jpg
139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Ticinum, RIC VII 202, -/-//Q crescent T, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!66 views139 Helena (? -329 A.D.), AE-3 Follis, Ticinum, RIC VII 202, -/-//Q crescent T, SECVRITAS REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, R2!!
avers:- FL-HELENA-AVGVSTA, 12,E10, Pearl diademed, draped bust right with necklace.
revers:- SECVRITAS-REIPVBLICA, Securitas standing left, lowering branch with left hand, raising robe with right hand.
exergo: -/-//Q crescent T, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 326 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-202, p-387, R2 !!
Q-001
quadrans
139b.jpg
139b Valens. AE3 2.3gm17 viewsobv: DN VALEN_S PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE Victory adv. r. holding wreath and palm
ex: K/P-Q//ASISCR
hill132
Denario_Neron_Salus_RIC_67_Fourree.jpg
14-15 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)41 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA
Denario Forrado 17 mm 1.9 gr.

Anv: " NERO CAESAR - AVGVSTVS" - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: Salus (La Salud) sentada en un trono a izquierda, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido. "SALVS" en el exergo.

Este tipo se refiere a la supresión de la conspiración del Pisonian. El supuesto asesino Fl. Scaevinus, tomó una daga sagrada del templo de Salus en Ferentum para matar a Nerón, pero uno de los libertos de Scaevinus lo traicionó llevando esa misma daga a Nerón como evidencia. Neron dedicó la daga en el templo de Salus en Roma, escribiendo "a Júpiter el Protector". Por este motivo se promovieron con mucha fuerza a Salus y Júpiter Custos en toda la acuñación de Nerón como guardianes del reino..

Acuñada Con posterioridad al 66-67 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #60 Pag.153 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1945 var. (Leyenda del anverso) Pag.384 - BMCRE Vol.I #90 - Cohen Vol.1 #314 Pag.300 - DVM #15 Pag.85 - CBN #237 - RSC Vol. II #314 Pag.15
mdelvalle
tiberius_RIC28.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AR denarius - struck 14-37 AD53 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM (Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; ornate legs to chair)
ref: RIC I 28, RSC 16b (2frcs)
mint: Lugdunum
3,57gms, 18mm

The story of the Tribute Penny may be the best-known Biblical reference to a coin. Tiberius reigned during the ministry of Jesus and it is logical that his silver denarius was the coin used by Christ ("Give unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and give unto the Lord that which is the Lord's"). Although the inscription refers to Tiberius' position as Pontifex Maximus and there are no overt references to Livia, many scholars feel that users of the coins would have associated the figure with Livia and that this association was probably intended by Tiberius. An obligatory issue for collectors.
1 commentsberserker
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the relig