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coin633.jpg
26 viewsIt is a copper lion of Mary Queen of Scots.
It is also known as a "hardhead", they were issued
1555-1560. It contains about 10% silver. they
were valued at three halfpence Scots, and were
equal in value to the french denier. The coin carries
the monogram FM, which appeared on her coinage
after her husband, the Dauphin, became Francis II
of France, on 10th July 1559. Francis died in 1560,
so this was issued within that period. Coin #633

cars100
Großbritannien_25_New_Pence_1977_Silbernes_Thronjubiläum_Queen.jpg
14 viewsGroßbritannien

25 New Pence 1977 (Kupfer-Nickel)

25-jähriges Thronjubiläum der Queen

Gewicht: 28,28g

Erhaltung: zaponiert, unzirkuliert _499
Antonivs Protti
TAMAR_IRREGULAR_COINAGE.jpg
62 viewsGEORGIAN KINGDOM, QUEEN TAMAR (1184-1213 AD) Irregular copper coin. Obv.: Geometric designs, with legends in Georgian; including name T'amar. Rev.: Legends in Arabic letters. dpaul7
TAMAR___DAVIT_Regular_Coinage.jpg
77 viewsGEORGIAN KINGDOM, QUEEN TAMAR, (1184-1213 AD) K'ORONIKON, 420 = 1200 AD; Obv.: Bagratid royal emblem in the form of a standard, to left and right: Initials for T'amar and David; in the corners, Georgian date formula, K'K Ví K (420 of the Paschal cycle = AD 1200). Two Counterstamps. Rev.: Christian inscriptions in arabic script, which reads: 1st line: Malekat al-Malekaat(s) / 2nd line Jellal Al-Dunya Wal Din / 3rd line : Tamar Ibnat Kurki / 4th line : Zahir Al-Massih. Translation: Queen of Queens Glory of the World and Faith T'amar daughter of Giorgi Champion of the Messiah. Reference: LANG # 11.

Reverse inscriptions read :
ملكة الملكات
جلال الدنيا و الدين
تمار ابنة كوركى
ظهير المسيح
dpaul7
13019_81_1.jpg
18 viewsTripura, Amara Manikya, Tanka, 10.61g, Sk 1499, citing Queen Amaravati, similar to previous lot, but standard type 'k', small pellet in front of lion, and Śake divided by lion's front foot (RB. 161; KM. 90)SpongeBob
13019_89_1.jpg
21 viewsTripura, Rajadhara Manikya, Tanka, 10.58g, Sk 1508, citing Queen Satyavati, similar to previous lot but different standard (type 'p'?), and no bead to the left of it (RB. 178; KM. 97)SpongeBob
Tripura_RB-136.jpg
17 viewsTripura, Udaya Manikya, Tanka, 11.16g, Sk 1489, citing Queen Hira, as previous lot, but border of arches on the obverse points right rather than left, no bead in front of lion, none of the date behind lion's back leg; reverse legend arranged slightly differently: Śri Śri Yutoda/ya Manikya/ Deva Śri Hi/ra Maha Devyau (RB. 136; KM. 79)SpongeBob
MARY,_QUEEN_OF_SCOTS_(1542-67).JPG
6 views*Alex
GB-HalfSov-1901-029500.jpg
Great Britain: gold half-sovereign of Queen Victoria, 1901, from the Terner Collection28 viewslordmarcovan
iersab.jpg
Kingdom of JERUSALEM. Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .125 viewsKingdom of Jerusalem . Struck during the siege of Jerusalem by Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem and Balian of Ibelin in 1187 . Bi Denier .
+ TVRRIS DAVIT (legend retrograde), Tower of David
+ SЄPVLChRVM DOMINI, view of the Church of the Holy Sepulcher
Slocum 288; cf. C.J. Sabine, “Numismatic iconography of the Tower of David and the Holy Sepulchre,” NC 1979, pl. 17, 3; N. du Quesne Bird, “Two deniers from Jerusalem, Jordan,” NumCirc LXXIII.5 (May 1965), p. 109; Metcalf, Crusades, p. 77; CCS 51.
Very Rare . Thirteen known example .
The Ernoul chronicle refers to Balian of Ibelin and the patriarch Heraclius of Jerusalem stripped the silver and gold edicule from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher for striking coins to pay those defending the city at it's last stand .
2 commentsVladislav D
973330.jpg
32 viewsBRITISH TOKENS, Tudor. temp. Mary–Edward VI.1553-1558.
PB Token (27mm, 5.29 g). St. Nicholas (‘Boy Bishop’) type. Cast in East Anglia (Bury St. Edmund’s?)
Mitre, croizer to right; all within border
Long cross pattée with trefoils in angles; scrollwork border
Rigold, Tokens class X.B, 1; Mitchiner & Skinner group Ra, 1

Ex Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX.1 (Spring 2014), no. 973330

Britain in the late middle ages played host to a popular regional variant of the ‘Feast of Fools’ festival. Every year on the feast of St. Nicholas, a boy was elected from among the local choristers to serve as ‘bishop.’ Dressed in mitre and bearing the croizer of his office, the young boy paraded through the city accompanied by his equally youthful ‘priest’ attendants. The ‘bishop’ performed all the ceremonies and offices of the real bishop, save for the actual conducting of mass. Though this practice was extinguished with the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1539, it was briefly revived under Queen Mary, who took particular interest in the festival, when the lucky boy was referred to as ‘Queen Mary’s Child.’ The celebration of the boy bishop died out completely early in the reign of Elizabeth.

Evidence of this custom is particularly prevalent in East Anglia, specifically at Bury St. Edmunds. Beginning in the late 15th century, the region produced numerous lead tokens bearing the likeness of a bishop, often bearing legends relating to the festival of St. Nicholas. Issued in sizes roughly corresponding to groats, half groats, and pennies, these pieces were undoubtedly distributed by the boy bishop himself, and were likely redeemable at the local abbey or guild for treats and sweetmeats. Considering the endemic paucity of small change in Britain at the time, it is likely that, at least in parts of East Anglia, these tokens entered circulation along with the other private lead issues that were becoming common.
Ardatirion
2160368.jpg
001a. Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony50 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Chalcis ad Libanum. Mark Antony, with Cleopatra VII. 36-31 BC. Ć 19mm (5.45 g, 12h). Dated RY 21 (Egyptian) and 6 (Phoenician) of Cleopatra (32/1 BC). Draped bust of Cleopatra right, wearing stephane / Bare head of Mark Antony right; dates in legend. RPC I 4771; Rouvier 440 (Berytus); SNG München 1006; SNG Copenhagen 383 (Phoenicia). Near Fine, green patina.

Chalcis was given by Antony to Cleopatra in 36 BC. At the culmination of his spectacular triumph at Alexandria two years later, further eastern territories - some belonging to Rome - were bestowed on the children of the newly hailed “Queen of Kings” (referred to as the “Donations of Alexandria”). Shortly after, Antony formally divorced Octavia, the sister of Octavian. These actions fueled Octavian’s propagandistic efforts to win the support of Rome’s political elite and ultimately led to the Senate’s declaration of war on Cleopatra in 32 BC.

Ex-CNG
ecoli
5514.jpg
005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Ć 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

ecoli
Mary_(1382-1387,_-1395_AD)_Queen_of_Hungary,_(Chronica_Hungarorum)-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria (Mary) of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.), (Chronica Hungarorum)63 views031 Mária, (Maria (Mary) of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.), (Chronica Hungarorum)
quadrans
Maria,_H-565,_C2-113,_U-441,_mARIE_D_R_VnGARIE,_S_LADIS_LAVS_R,_A,_1382_AD,_Q-001,_7h,_14,5-15mm,_0,48g-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-565., S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, Rare!, #1120 views031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, H-565., S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, Rare!, #1
avers: ✠ mARIЄ•D•R VnGARIЄ, Anjou-Hungarian shield in a circle of dots, the lily on each side and above, the border of dots.
reverse: S LADIS LAVS R, Saint Ladislas standing facing, holding halberd and orb, mint-mark on the right side, the border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/A//--, diameter: 14,5-15,0mm, weight: 0,48g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Székesfehérvár(by Pohl), date: 1382 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-565, CNH-2-113, Unger-441., Pohl-111, Rare!
Q-001

Mária (Mary) of Anjou
quadrans
Maria-(1382-1387(1395)_AD)_U-443-l-var-1_C2-116_H-569_cross-mARIA_R_VnGARI_cross-mOnETA_mARIE_S_Q-001_7h_14mm_0,44g-s.jpg
031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-443-l., #01114 views031 Mária, (Maria of Anjou, Angevin)., Queen of Hungary, (1382-1387(1395) A.D.) AR-Denarius, U-443-l., #01
avers: ✠ mOnЄTA•mARIЄ, Patriarchal cross (inside of border of dots) with dots each corner, border, border of dots.
reverse: ✠ mARIA•R•VnGARI, Crown in circle of dots, mint-master's mark (S) below, border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: -/-//S, diameter: 14,0mm, weight: 0,44g, axis: 7h,
mint: Hungary, Syrmien?, (by Pohl), date: 1386-1395A.D.(by Pohl), ref: Unger-443-l., CNH-2-116, Huszár-569, Pohl-114-11,
Q-001

Mária (Mary) of Anjou
quadrans
HENRY_III.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1248 - 1250 at London, England (Long cross type)45 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX : III. Crowned bust of Henry III facing within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Six pointed star.
Reverse: NICOLE ON LVND. Voided long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle. Moneyer: Nicole, cognate with the modern English name of Nicholas. The surname Nicole originates in the Netherlands where it was notable for its various branches, and associated status or influence. The modern given name Nicole is a French feminine derivative of the masculine given name Nicolas.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.3gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 1363

The First Barons' War (1215–1217) was a civil war in England in which a group of rebellious barons led by Robert Fitzwalter and supported by a French army under the future Louis VIII of France, waged war against King John of England. The war resulted from King John's refusal to accept and abide by the Magna Carta, which he had been forced to put his seal to on 15th June 1215, as well as from Louis' own ambitions regarding the English throne.
It was in the middle of this war that King John died leaving his son, the nine year old Henry III (who had been moved to safety at Corfe Castle in Dorset along with his mother, Queen Isabella) as his heir.
On his deathbed John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, requesting that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke. The loyalists decided to crown Henry immediately to reinforce his claim to the throne. William knighted the boy, and Cardinal Guala Bicchieri, the papal legate to England, then oversaw his coronation at Gloucester Cathedral on 28th October 1216. In the absence of the archbishops of either Canterbury or York, Henry was anointed by the bishops of Worcester and Exeter, and crowned by Peter des Roches, bishop of Winchester. During the civil war the royal crown had been lost, so instead, the ceremony used a simple gold corolla belonging to Queen Isabella. In 1217, Henry's forces, led by William Marshal, finally defeated the rebels at the battles of Lincoln and Sandwich.
Henry's early rule was dominated first by Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent and Justiciar of England and Ireland, then by Peter des Roches, and they re-established royal authority after the war. In 1225 Henry promised to abide by the final and definitative version of the Magna Carta, freely authenticated by the great seal of Henry III himself, which protected the rights of the major barons and placed a limit on royal power. It is the clauses of this, the 1225 Magna Carta signed by Henry III, not the King John Magna Carta of 1215, which are on the Statute Books of the United Kingdom today.
4 comments*Alex
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France30 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
James_III_AE_Crux_Pellit_Threepenny_Penny.JPG
1460 – 1488, JAMES III, AE Threepenny Penny struck c.1470–1480 at an unidentified mint, Scotland7 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ‡ DEI ‡ GRA ‡ REX ‡ . Orb with rosette at centre, tilted upwards, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Reverse: + CRVX ‡ PELLIT ‡ OIE ‡ CRI (Crux pellit omne crimen = The cross drives away all sin). Latin cross within quatrefoil with trefoils on cusps, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 5311 Type III
Very Rare

Once regarded as Ecclesiastical and connected to Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews by earlier scholars, these coins are now, after extensive research in the second half of the twentieth century by J E L Murray of the British Numismatic Society, believed to have been a regal issue whose place of mintage has not as yet been certainly identified. During his reign James III took an interest in the coinage and introduced several new denominations. The thistle-head made its first appearance as a Scottish emblem on coins during his reign and a further innovation of his coinage were coins bearing a likeness of the king himself in the new renaissance style which predated similarly styled English coins by several years.
The 'Crux pellit' coins are often known as ‘Crossraguel’ issues, so called after a hoard containing 51 of them was found in a drain at Crossraguel Abbey, Ayrshire in 1919. J E L Murray identified these coins with those referred to in contemporary documents as “three-penny pennies” or “Cochrane's Placks”, which appear to have been greatly devalued in 1482. Cochrane's Placks comes from Robert Cochrane, one of James III's main favourites. Cochrane played a major part in the government during the 1470's and he is said to have advised the king to debase the coinage in order to raise cash.

James III was crowned at Kelso Abbey in 1460 at the age of 9, he was the son of James II and Mary of Guelders. During his childhood, the government was led by successive factions until 1469 when he began to rule for himself. That same year he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. Margaret's father, King Christian I of Denmark and Norway was unable to raise the full amount of her dowry so pledged his lands and rights in Orkney and Shetland as security for the remainder. But Christian I was never able to redeem his pledge, and Orkney and Shetland have remained Scottish possessions ever since.
Soon after his marriage, James faced great difficulties in restoring a strong central government. His preference for the company of scholars, architects and artists coupled with his extravagance and partiality to favourites alienated him from the loyalty of his nobles. Even his own brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Mar regarded him with jealousy verging on hatred. In 1479, James' brothers were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the Crown. John Stewart, the Earl of Mar, died in suspicious circumstances, whilst Alexander Stewart, the Duke of Albany, escaped and fled to England.
The ever-present English threat had been temporarily solved by a truce with Edward IV in 1463 but James' estrangement from his brothers and a strong faction within the Scottish nobility led to the final loss of Berwick.
Although James had tried to settle his differences with Alexander, Duke of Albany, his brother again tried to take his throne in a coup after Edward IV recognised him as Alexander IV of Scotland in 1482. Some minor members of James III's household were hanged, including Robert Cochrane, the king's favourite. But James was removed to Edinburgh Castle where he survived and Alexander was exiled to France.
After his queen's death in 1486, James lived in increasing isolation amidst the growing resentment of the nobility. Finally, in 1488, the Scottish nobles seized James' eldest son, also called James, placed him at their head, and rose against the king. At the Battle of Sauchieburn, three miles from Stirling, James III, defeated, was thrown from his horse as he fled from the field. He was carried into a nearby cottage where he was set upon and stabbed to death.
James III was buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey near Stirling and his son, the figurehead of the revolt against him, was hailed as James IV.
1 comments*Alex
1485_-_1509_Henry_VII_AR_Penny.JPG
1485 - 1509, HENRY VII, AR Penny, Struck 1485 - 1500 under Archbishop Rotherham at York, England24 viewsObverse: HENRIC DI GRA REX AN. Crowned and robed figure of Henry VII holding a lis topped sceptre in his right hand and a globus cruciger in his left, seated facing on throne, the one visible pillar of which is topped with a lis, all except the king's crown within a circle of pellets.
Reverse: CIVITAS EBORACI. Shield bearing coat-of-arms of England and France on cross fourchée, two keys below shield.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.6gms | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 2237

Thomas Rotherham, also known as Thomas (Scot) de Rotherham, was an English cleric and statesman. He served as bishop of several dioceses, most notably as Archbishop of York and, on two occasions as Lord Chancellor. Rotherham was educated at King's College, Cambridge, he graduated as a Bachelor of Divinity and became a Fellow of his college where he lectured on Grammar, Theology, and Philosophy. After his ordination as a priest, he became a prebendary of Lincoln in 1462 and then of Salisbury in 1465. He moved on to powerful positions in the Church, being appointed as Bishop of Rochester in 1468, Bishop of Lincoln in 1472, and then Archbishop of York in 1480, a position he held until his death in 1500.
In 1467, King Edward IV appointed Rotherham as Keeper of the Privy Seal. He was sent as ambassador to France in 1468 and as joint ambassador to Burgundy in 1471, and in 1475 was entrusted with the office of Lord Chancellor. When Edward IV died in April 1483, Rotherham was one of the celebrants of the funeral mass on 20th April 1483 and immediately after Edward's death he sided with the dowager queen, Elizabeth Woodville, in her attempt to deprive Richard, Duke of Gloucester of his role as Lord Protector of her son, the new King Edward V. When Elizabeth sought sanctuary after Richard had taken charge of the king, Rotherham released the Great Seal to her (though he later recovered it and handed it over to Thomas Bourchier, the Archbishop of Canterbury).
Rotherham's mishandling of the seal was perceived as indicative of questionable loyalty and led to his dismissal as Lord Chancellor. He was replaced by John Russell, who earlier had also been his successor as Bishop of Lincoln. On 13th June 1483, Rotherham was charged with being involved in a conspiracy between Lord Hastings and the Woodvilles against Richard and imprisoned in the Tower of London, but he was released a few weeks later, around the middle of July, after Richard's coronation as King Richard III. Rotherham was re-instated as Chancellor in 1485, however he was dismissed shortly afterwards by Henry VII and retired from public work.
Rotherham died of the plague in Cawood near York on 29th May 1500. His remains were transferred to a magnificent marble tomb in York Minster in 1506.
2 comments*Alex
1542_-1548_MARY_Queen_of_Scots_AR_Bawbee.JPG
1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
0023-056.jpg
1633 - Mark Antony, Denarius96 viewsStruck in a travelling mint, moving with Mark Antony in 41 BC
ANT AVG IMP III VI R P C, Head of Mark Antony right
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopiae in left; at feet, stork; below, PIETAS COS
3,82 gr - 20 mm
Ref : Crawford # 516/2, Sydenham # 1174, HCRI # 241, C # 77
Ex. Auctiones.GmbH

The following comment is copied from NAC auction # 52/294 about the very rare corresponding aureus :
The year 41 B.C., when this aureus was struck at a mint travelling in the East with Marc Antony, was a period of unusual calm for the triumvir, who took a welcomed, if unexpected, rest after the great victory he and Octavian had won late in 42 B.C. against Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi. Antony’s original plan of organising an invasion of Parthia was put on hold after he sailed to Tarsus, where he had summoned Cleopatra VII, the Greek queen of Egypt. She was to defend herself against accusations that she had aided Brutus and Cassius before Philippi, but it is generally agreed that the summons was merely a pretext for Antony’s plan to secure aid for his Parthian campaign. Their meeting was anything but a source of conflict; indeed, they found much common ground, including their agreement that it was in their mutual interests to execute Cleopatra’s sister and rival Arsinoe IV, who had been ruling Cyprus. In addition to sharing political interests, the two agreed that Antony would winter in Egypt to share a luxurious vacation with Cleopatra that caused a further postponement of Antony’s designs on Parthia. Thus began another of the queen’s liaisons with noble Romans, a prior having been Julius Caesar (and, according to Plutarch, Pompey Jr. before him). During the course of his stay in Egypt Cleopatra was impregnated, which resulted in twins born to her in 40 B.C. But this care-free period was only a momentary calm in the storm, for trouble was brewing in both the East and the West. Early in 40 B.C. Syria was overrun by the Parthians, seemingly while Antony travelled to Italy to meet Octavian following the Perusine War, in which Octavian defeated the armies of Antony’s wife and brother. The conflict with Octavian was resolved when they signed a pact at Brundisium in October, and Syria was eventually recovered through the efforts of Antony’s commanders from 40 to 38 B.C.{/i]

5 commentsPotator II
0023-070np_noir.jpg
1641 - Mark Antony and Lucius Antonius, Denarius237 viewsDenarius minted in Ephesus in 41 BC
M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM NERVA PROQ P, Bare head of Mark Antony right
L ANTONIUS COS, Bare head of Lucius Antonius right
3.58 gr
Ref : HCRI # 246, RCV #1509, Cohen #2
Following description taken from NAC auction 40, #617, about an other example of the same coin :
"This denarius, depicting the bare heads of Marc Antony and his youngest brother Lucius Antony, is a rare dual-portrait issue of the Imperatorial period. The family resemblance is uncanny, and one wonders if they truly looked this much alike, or if it is another case of portrait fusion, much like we observe with the dual-portrait billon tetradrachms of Antioch on which the face of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII takes on the square dimensions of Marc Antony. When Antony fled Rome to separate himself from Octavian and to take up his governorship in Gaul, Lucius went with him, and suffered equally from the siege of Mutina. This coin, however, was struck in a later period, when Lucius had for a second time taken up arms against Octavian in the west. Marc Antony was already in the east, and that is the region from which this coinage emanates. Since Lucius lost the ‘Perusine War’ he waged against Octavian, and was subsequently appointed to an office in Spain, where he died, it is likely that he never even saw one of his portrait coins."
3 commentsPotator II
William___Mary_Farthing_1694.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE FARTHING8 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.0gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3453

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
*Alex
1694_WILLIAM___MARY_HALFPENNY.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE HALFPENNY16 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 11.1gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3452

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
1 comments*Alex
1713_ANNE_FARTHING.JPG
1713 Anne AE Pattern Farthing5 viewsObverse: ANNA DEI GRATIA. Draped bust of Anne facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA • 1713 •. Britannia seated facing left, left arm holding spear and resting on shield, raised right hand holding olive-branch; exergue blank.
Diameter: 22mm on thick flan. | Weight: 5.1gms. | Die axis: 6h
PATTERN - EXTREMELY RARE

All of Anne's farthings are patterns, no farthings were issued for general circulation during her reign. The portrait of Anne on this example was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.

Although Anne farthings are generally very rare, there are at least six distinct pattern varieties known to exist and there is one variety, dated 1714, of which, according to Peck, between 300 and 500 coins may have been produced. The fact that such a large number of these farthings were released in the last year of Anne's reign may be because the type was about to be produced for general circulation at the time of Anne's death on the 1st of August. Sir Isaac Newton was Master of the Mint, and he had high ideals about the quality of the coinage, and the Anne farthing is certainly vastly superior in striking and design to the pieces of William III. The old figure of Britannia used since Charles II's time was discarded in favour of a sharper high relief design in which the bare leg on the former figure of Britannia is covered up, reportedly on the orders of the Queen.
All the other farthing varieties are certainly patterns, and were never struck as currency for circulation.

This particular coin is of good weight and metal and it appears to be a die match for another Anne pattern farthing, in this instance struck in silver, which was sold at the 12th September 2011 Heritage Long Beach Signature World & Ancient Coins Auction. It was Lot 27289 and, for comparison purposes, I have illustrated it below.
*Alex
LouisXVIMarieAntoinetteBirthofDauphin1781.JPG
1781. Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette, Birth of the Dauphin.162 viewsObv. Conjoined busts of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette LUDOVICO XVI ET M ANT AUSTR FR ET NAV REGI ET REGINAE LUTETIA signed DUVIVIER.
Rev. King and Queen between a kneeling Paris, holding a shield, and Trade (Abundance), holding a cornucopia and Hermes’ staff. SOLEMNIA DELPHINI NATALITIA REGE ET REGINA URBEM INVISENTIBUS XXI. JANU. MDCCLXXXII signed DV.

Commemorates the birth of Louis-Joseph Xavier Francois, Dauphin of France from 1781 to his death in 1789.
1 commentsLordBest
LouisXVIArrivalInParis1789.JPG
1789. Louis XVI Medal. French Revolution, The Arrival of the King in Paris.124 viewsObv. Draped bust right. LOUIS XVI ROI DES FRANCAIS VILLE DE PARIS
Rev. The King, Queen and Dauphin being welcomed by the personification of Paris, building and crowds in background JY FERAI DESORMAIS MA DEMESRE HABITUELLE ARIVEE DU ROI A PARIS LA 6 OCT 1789

Commemorates the arrival in Paris of the King.
1 commentsLordBest
JOHN_OF_GAUNT_1794-circa__LANCASTER_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 (?) Undated AE Halfpenny. Lancaster, Lancashire.41 viewsObverse: IOHN OF GAUNT DUKE OF LANCASTER ★. Bust of John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, facing left.
Reverse: SUCCESS TO THE COMMERCE OF BRITAIN. Britannia standing on the shore facing left, holding a spray of leaves in her outstretched right hand, and a shield and spear in her left; three ships at sea to the left in front of her and another vessel in the distance behind her; two men ploughing the ground behind her to the right. Below, in exergue, lion facing right and sprig of three leaves.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 54
RARE

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham, the dies were engraved by J.G.Hancock.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.
The Britannia design has been copied from a silver medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht by John Croker which was originally struck under Queen Anne in 1713

JOHN OF GAUNT
John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, was a member of the House of Plantagenet, he was the third surviving son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. He was called "John of Gaunt" because he was born in Ghent, then anglicised as Gaunt.
John of Gaunt's legitimate male heirs, the Lancasters, included Kings Henry IV, Henry V, and Henry VI. John fathered five children outside marriage, one early in life by a lady-in-waiting to his mother, and four surnamed "Beaufort" (after a former French possession) by Katherine Swynford, Gaunt's long-term mistress and third wife. The Beaufort children, three sons and a daughter, were legitimised by royal and papal decrees after John and Katherine married in 1396; a later proviso that they were specifically barred from inheriting the throne was inserted with dubious authority by their half-brother Henry IV. The three succeeding houses of English sovereigns from 1399, the Houses of Lancaster, York and Tudor, were descended from John through Henry Bolingbroke, Joan Beaufort and John Beaufort, respectively.
John of Gaunt's eldest son and heir, Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Hereford, was exiled for ten years by King Richard II in 1398. When John of Gaunt died at the age of 58 on 3rd February, 1399, his estates and titles were declared forfeit to the crown because King Richard II named Henry Bolingbroke a traitor and sentenced him to exile for life, but Henry returned from exile to reclaim his inheritance and depose Richard. Henry Bolingbroke then reigned as King Henry IV of England from 1399 to 1413, the first of the descendants of John of Gaunt to hold the throne of England.
John of Gaunt, due to his land grants, was one of the wealthiest men to have ever lived, his estates are estimated to have been worth a modern equivalent of $110 billion.
*Alex
ELIZABETH_I_1794.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester, Sussex15 viewsObverse: QUEEN ELIZABETH •. Three-quarter facing crowned bust of Queen Elizabeth I right, sceptre resting on her right shoulder.
Reverse: CHICHESTER HALFPENNY •. View of Chichester Cross; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT DALLY'S CHICHESTER + + + +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. Little is known about the issuer of the token, seemingly to have been Dally and Son who were drapers in Chichester in the 18th century.

Chichester Cross is an elaborate perpendicular market cross standing at the intersection of the four principal streets in the centre of the city of Chichester, West Sussex. According to the inscription upon it, this cross was built by Edward Story, Bishop of Chichester from 1477 to 1503, but little is known for certain and the style and ornaments of the building suggest that it may date from the reign of Edward IV. It was apparently built so that the poor people should have somewhere to sell their wares, and as a meeting point. An earlier wooden cross had been erected on the same site by Bishop Rede (1369-1385). The stone cross, which underwent repairs during the reign of Charles II and again in 1746, still stands to this day.
3 comments*Alex
1794_Spalding_Halfpenny_.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Spalding, Lincolnshire.47 viewsObverse: SUCCESS TO THE COMMERCE OF BRITAIN. Britannia standing on the shore facing left, holding a spray of leaves in her outstretched right hand, and a shield and spear in her left; three ships at sea to the left in front of her and another vessel in the distance behind her; two men ploughing the ground behind her to the right. Below, in exergue, lion facing right and sprig of three leaves.
Reverse: SPALDING HALFPENNY. A shield edged with sprays containing the initials TJ (for Thomas Jennings) in the form of a cypher; above shield, a couped lion rampant crest; below shield, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT T. JENNING'S SPALDING & HOLBEACH - X -.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 6
RARE

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by J.G.Hancock or Thomas Wyon.
The Britannia design has been copied from a silver medal commemorating the Treaty of Utrecht by John Croker which was originally struck under Queen Anne in 1713.
*Alex
1813_STOCKTON_PENNY_TOKEN_.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Stockton-on-Tees, County Durham.36 viewsObverse: CHRISTOPHER & JENNETT * STOCKTON *, incuse letters on a raised rim. View of the bridge over the Tees being crossed by several small figures including a rider on horse, rowing boat containing two figures in river below; in field above, TEES; in field below, 1813.
Reverse: BRITANNIA * ONE PENNY TOKEN *, incuse letters on a raised rim. Britannia seated facing left on shield, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background at her feet.
Edge: Centre-grained.
Diameter 34mm | Weight 19.7gms
Davis:6 | Withers:1109

The die engraver for this token was Peter Wyon. It was issued by Robert Christopher & Thomas Jennett who were booksellers and printers in Stockton, they were also the Stockton agents for the Sun Fire Office.
Jennett was Christopher's apprentice and on the completion of his indentures, he was taken into partnership. Matching the high standards of his companion, Jennett became well known and much respected, growing to be a man of power and influence. He became a magistrate and was mayor of Stockton three times.

The bridge shown on this token was the first bridge to serve the growing town of Stockton, it was a five arch stone bridge which was completed in 1769. Before the existence of the bridge at this location, the only way of crossing the Tees was by the Bishop’s Ferry. The bridge was subject to rent to the Bishop of Durham and the costs of building it had to be repaid, so a system of tolls was charged. These were supposed to be abolished as soon as the debt was cleared, but they remained in place until, in 1819, the local people took the law into their own hands, throwing two of the bridge gates into the river and burning the third gate in the High Street. Although the bridge was good news for Stockton’s business, it had a devastating impact on Yarm. As ships were growing in size at this time, the building of the bridge prevented many ships reaching Yarm because they were unable to navigate further up the river. This only heightened shipping in Stockton and affirmed its place as the main port on the Tees before the 1800s. The bridge also halted Yarm’s shipbuilding industry and, since Stockton was unaffected, yards sprang up east of the bridge towards the sea. By 1876 the old bridge was inadequate and in 1881 work was begun on a new bridge. This new bridge, named the ‘Victoria Bridge’ in recognition of Queen Victoria, was opened in 1887 and the old stone bridge was demolished.
*Alex
1839_Victoria_fourpence_groat.JPG
1839 VICTORIA AR GROAT (FOURPENCE)4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F:D: Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: FOUR PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; 1839 in exergue.
Diameter 16mm.
SPINK: 3913

This "young head" portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

There are visible indications that this coin was struck from clashed dies.
*Alex
Copy_of_spain_1842_8-maravedis_and_1870_5c_o_02_r_03.JPG
1842 Spain 8 Maravedis - and - 1870 Spain 5 Centimos103 viewsLEFT: Spain, Queen Isabella II, 1842 8 Maravedis.


RIGHT: Spain, One Year Issue, 1870 Cinco Centimos.
~~~~~~~~~~
*Enlarge for full details*
rexesq
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex18 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
VICTORIA_AE_Third-Farthing.JPG
1844 VICTORIA COPPER THIRD FARTHING6 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1844. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID : DEF : Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3952

This portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

This coin was produced exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
Victoria_copper_farthing.JPG
1853 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" FARTHING11 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3950

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small raised "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
1 comments*Alex
1853_VICTORIA__PENNY.JPG
1853 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" PENNY6 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3948

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1854 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" HALFPENNY9 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1854. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3949

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*Alex
1860_Victoria_Farthing.JPG
1860 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING37 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1860 in exergue.
SPINK: 3958

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*Alex
Victoria_BH_halfpence_1862.JPG
1862 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1862 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*Alex
spain_1866_40c-de-escudo_obv_02_rev_01.JPG
1866 Spain Silver 40C de Escudo140 viewsSpain 1866 Silver 40Cent
Queen Isabel II
obv:
ISABEL 2A. POR LA G. DE DIOS Y LA CONST.
.1866.

rev:
REINA DE LAS ESPANAS
* 40 CENTs. DE ESCo. *
rexesq
1875H_VICTORIA_BUN_HEAD_FARTHING_.JPG
1875 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING34 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1875, small "H" below, in exergue.
Diameter: 20mm
SPINK: 3959

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY5 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY9 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1886_VICTORIA_FARTHING.JPG
1886 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING30 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1886 in exergue.
SPINK: 3958

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
gb_1887_1s_01.jpg
1887 Shilling83 viewsQueen Victoria
Jubilee Shilling - 1887
rexesq
england_sixpence_1887_jubilee_obv_07_rev_05.JPG
1887 Sixpence60 viewsQueen Victoria
Jubilee Sixpence - old reverse style.
rexesq
Victoria_Groat_Fourpence_1888.JPG
1888 VICTORIA AR GROAT (FOURPENCE)9 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F:D: Jubilee bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: FOUR PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; 1888 in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3930

This "Jubilee head" portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm (1834 – 1890), this is marked by the initials “J.E.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
Victoria_Penny_1891.JPG
1891 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1891 in exergue.
SPINK: 3954

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
1893_Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1893 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1893 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
Victoria_bronze_farthing_1896.JPG
1896 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" FARTHING3 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1896 in exergue.
SPINK: 3963

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
Victoria_bronze_halfpenny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3962

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
Victoria_bronze_penny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" PENNY2 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
SPINK: 3961

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
EdwardVIICoronationMedal.JPG
1902. Edward VII and Alexandra, Coronation Medal.81 viewsObv. Crowned and robed bust of Edward VII to right, resting on a wreath. EDWARD VII CROWNED 9 AUGUST 1902
Rev. Crowned, veiled and robed bust of Alexandra to right, resting on wreath, unfurled scroll to lower right. ALEXANDRA QUEEN CONSORT, 9 AUGUST 1902 on wreath.
AE55, in original case of issue.

My favourite King of England, known as the Peacemaker. Also fond of good food and women.
LordBest
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1953.JPG
1953 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY6 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRA:BRITT:OMN:REGINA F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1953 in exergue.
SPINK: 4154

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the bust.
Demand for pennies was low on the accession of Queen Elizabeth II, so the only pennies issued were in the coin sets made in time for the Coronation. These sets were often broken up, so 1953 pennies could occasionally be found in change. The next year (1954) all the other denominations were re-designed with a revised inscription which omitted BRITT.OMN, but no more pennies were struck for circulation until 1961.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1967.JPG
1967 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY7 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRATIA.REGINA.F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1967 in exergue.
SPINK: 4157

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the Queen's bust.
This was the last year of issue of the "Britannia" penny (other than a proof version dated 1970) prior to the introduction of decimal coinage in Britain in 1971. It was struck in enormous numbers to satisfy the large, mainly speculative, demand for the coin.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1970.JPG
1970 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY9 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRATIA.REGINA.F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1970 in exergue.
SPINK: 4157 PROOF

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the Queen's bust.
This coin, dated 1970, is a proof issue struck from polished dies, no pennies were issued for general circulation after 1967.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_50_New_Pence_1976.JPG
1976 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi FIFTY PENCE8 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH.II D.G.REG.F.D.1976. Draped bust of Elizabeth II, wearing tiara, facing right.
Reverse: NEW PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies.
Diameter 30mm | Weight 13.5gms
SPINK: 4223 PROOF

This portrait of Elizabeth II was designed by Arnold Machin (1911 - 1999), although his design was approved in June 1964 it was not used for United Kingdom coinage until 1968, after which his portrait of Elizabeth II was used on all British decimal coins until 1984. The tiara which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin had been given to her as a wedding present from her grandmother, Queen Mary.
*Alex
olympic2.jpg
1976 Olympic Canadian Memorial Coin69 viewsA gold 1976 Olympic canadian memorial coin.

OBVERSE: Olympians
REVERSE: Queen Elizabeth
aarmale
Elizabeth_2_50_Pence_1989.JPG
1989 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi LARGE FIFTY PENCE6 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II D.G.REG.F.D.1989. Diademed bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 30mm | Weight 13.5gms
SPINK: 4351 PROOF (Large module)

This "Third Portrait" of Elizabeth II was Raphael Maklouf's first coin design and it was used on the coinage from 1985 to 1997 inclusive. Raphael Maklouf was born in Jerusalem in 1937 and came to the United Kingdom after the Second World War. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_50_Pence_1997.JPG
1997 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi SMALL FIFTY PENCE6 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II D.G.REG.F.D.1997. Diademed bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 27.3mm | Weight 8.0gms
SPINK: 4351 PROOF (Small module)

This "Third Portrait" of Elizabeth II was Raphael Maklouf's first coin design and it was used on the coinage from 1985 to 1997 inclusive. Raphael Maklouf was born in Jerusalem in 1937 and came to the United Kingdom after the Second World War. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.
*Alex
Elizabeth-2_50_Pence_1999.JPG
1999 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi FIFTY PENCE6 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH.II.D.G.REG.F.D.1999. Head of Elizabeth II wearing tiara facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 27.3mm | Weight 8.0gms
SPINK: 4610 PROOF

This portrait was designed by the sculptor Ian Rank-Broadley, it appeared on all UK and Commonwealth coinage from 1998 until it was superseded by a new portrait in 2015. The tiara which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin was given to her as a wedding present by her grandmother, Queen Mary.

This decimal 50 pence was the last British coin to depict the traditional Britannia which had featured on British coinage for more than 300 years, having begun on a farthing under Charles II in 1672. Britannia made her last appearance in 2008 after Gordon Brown personally approved changing the design as one of his last acts as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
*Alex
1__Aretas_IV.jpg
2. King Aretas IV Philopatris 9 BC-40 AD and Queen Shaquilath 67 viewsMint: Petra
Ref: Meshorer Nabataean Coins,type 112,113,114 , SNG ANS 1438–43
Obv: Jugate busts of Aretas IV & Queen Shaquilath, Laureate, facing right.
Rev: Crossed cornucopia;Nabataean script.
Aretas/Shaquilath in three lines; two above and one below cornucopia.
T T R H
Y Q S
T L
Size: AE17mm
2 commentsbrian l
Elizabeth_2_2_Pounds_2015.JPG
2015 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL Bimetallic TWO POUNDS7 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II DEI.GRA.REG.FID.DEF.2015. Diademed head of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: TWO POUNDS. Three quarter helmeted bust of Britannia facing right, shield at her side, right hand holding trident over her shoulder.
Edge: QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO.
Diameter 28.4mm | Weight 15.97gms

This is the fifth portrait of Queen Elizabeth II to be used on circulating UK coinage since she was crowned in 1953. It was designed by (Mr) Jody Clark and was introduced in March 2015 to replace the previous portrait on all circulating UK coins. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.

This 2015 two pound coin welcomed Britannia back onto circulating UK coinage, Britannia having not featured on any UK circulating coin after she was removed from the reverse of 50p coins in 2008. The new portrait of Britannia was designed by sculptor Antony Dofort and is meant to present Britannia in a modern era.
The edge legend of "QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO" meaning "I claim the four seas" first appeared as a reverse legend on coins bearing a Britannia design during the reign of Charles II, but those coins were patterns or prototypes which were never issued for general circulation.
*Alex
1__Malichus_II.jpg
3. Malichus II 40-70 AD and Queen Shuqailat II69 viewsMint: Petra
Ref: Meshorer Nabataean Coins,140A, SNG ANS 1444
Obv: Jugate busts of Malichus II and Shuqailat II-Laureate, facing right.
Rev: Crossed cornucopia;Nabataean script.
Malichus/Shaquilath in three lines; two above and one below cornucopia.
W K L M
Y Q S
T L
Size: AE16mm
1 commentsbrian l
1__Rabbel_II.jpg
4. King Rabbel II Soter 70-106 AD and Queen Gamilath82 viewsMint: Petra
Ref: Meshorer Nabataean Coins type,163,164, SNG ANS 1445-1451
Obv: Jugate busts of Rabbel II & Queen Gamilath,Laureate, facing right.
Rev: Crossed cornucopia; Nabataean script.
Rabbel/Gamilath in two lines between horns.
L B R
T L M G
Size: AE17mm
1 commentsbrian l
coins358.JPG
501. Constantine I London BEATA TRANQVILLITAS26 viewsLondon

Londinium was established as a town by the Romans after the invasion of 43 AD led by the Emperor Claudius. Archaeological excavation (undertaken by the Department of Urban Archaeology of the Museum of London now called MOLAS) since the 1970s has also failed to unearth any convincing traces of major settlement before c.50 — so ideas about Londinium being a military foundation around the Fort that protected London Bridge are now largely discounted.

The name Londinium is thought to be pre-Roman in origin although there is no consensus on what it means. One suggestion is that it derived from a personal name meaning 'fierce'. However, recent research by Richard Coates has suggested that the name derives from pre-Celtic Old European — Plowonida — from 2 roots, "plew" and "nejd", meaning something like "the flowing river" or "the wide flowing river". Londinium therefore means "the settlement on the wide river". He suggests that the river was called the Thames up river where it was narrower, and Plowonida down river where it was too wide to ford. For a discussion on the legends of London and Plowonida see [1]. The story of the settlement being named after Lud is considered unlikely.

Archaeologists now believe that London was founded as a civilian settlement by 50 AD. A wooden drain by the side of the main roman road excavated at No 1 Poultry has been dated to 47 which is likely to be the foundation date.

Ten years later, Londinium was sacked by the Iceni lead by the British queen Boudica. Excavation has revealed extensive evidence of destruction by fire at this date, and recently a military compound has been discovered in the City of London which may have been the headquarters of the Roman fight back against the British uprising.

The city recovered after perhaps 10 years, and reached its population height by about 120 AD, with a population of around 60,000. London became the capital of Roman Britain (Britannia) (previously the capital was the older, nearby town of Colchester). Thereafter began a slow decline; however, habitation and associated building work did not cease. By 375 London was a small wealthy community protected by completed defences. By 410 Roman occupation officially came to an end, with the citizens being ordered to look after their own defenses. By the middle of the 5th century the Roman city was practically abandoned.

RIC VII London 271 R2

ecoli
KSHEMANEW.jpg
521...Kshemagupta 950-951 AD ? Alone16 viewsKshemagupta (Possibly minted in his first year of rule as his queens name is not mentioned)
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm / 5.74gr
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'kshema' to right
Reverse- King standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Gupta' bottom right
Paul R3
Vabalathus-RIC-381.jpg
82. Vabalathus.11 viewsAntoninianus, 270 - 272 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R / Laureate and diademed bust of Vabalathus.
Reverse: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Aurelian.
4.03 gm., 19.5 mm.
RIC (Aurelian) #381; Sear #11718.

Vabalathus was the son of Odenathus and Zenobia, king and queen of Palmyra. His Arabic name was Wahb Allat, meaning "gift of the goddess," and "Vabalathus" is the Latinized form of that name. The goddess is Al-Lat, a pre-Islamic goddess who was one of the three main goddesses of Mecca. She was called "the Great Goddess" and thereby became identified with the Greek goddess Athena. Vabalathus used "Athenodorus" as the Greek form of his name.
Callimachus
DTOGETHER.jpg
91..Diddarani 980-1003 AD (Yashaskara dynasty)16 viewsDiddarani 980-1003 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.62gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Sri to left 'didda' to right
Reverse- Queen standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Diva' bottom right
Paul R3
ddnew.jpg
911..Diddarani 980-1003 AD (Yashaskara dynasty)15 viewsDiddarani 980-1003 AD
Copper Kaserah or Punchshi 18mm (5.90gr)
Obverse- Goddess Ardochsho/Lakshmi seated facing in half lotus position, with Nagari legend 'Sri to left 'didda' to right
Reverse- Queen standing facing and sacrificing at altar holding trident, with Nagari legend 'Diva' bottom right
Paul R3
antpiuscorinth.jpg
Achaea. Corinthia, Corinth. Antoninus Pius AE20. Homonoia52 viewsPeloponnesus. Corinthia, Corinth. Obv. Antoninus Pius laurate bust r. Rev. Homonoia standing l. holding cornucopia and wreath. CLI COR.

Not listed in BCD.

HOMONOIA was the spirit (daimona) of concord, unanimity, and oneness of mind. Her opposite number was Eris (Strife). She was sometimes numbered amongst the goddesses Praxidikai, (Exacters of Justice), who were said to be daughters of an early Theban King named Ogygos. As such Homonoia was probably closely identified with the Theban Goddess-Queen Harmonia (Harmony).
ancientone
myrina~0.jpg
Aeolis, Myrina. Pseudo-autonomous AE17. AD 253-268. Amazon Myrina47 viewsObv: MVPE-INA, draped, turreted bust of Amazon Myrina left.
Rev: ΜVΡEΙΝΑΩΝ, Tyche in long chiton with cornucopia in l. and rudder in r., standing left.

Myrina, mythological queen of the Amazons. According to Diodorus Siculus she led a military expedition in Libya and won a victory over the people known as the Atlantians, destroying their city Cerne; but was less successful fighting the Gorgons (who are described by Diodorus as a warlike nation residing in close proximity to the Atlantians), failing to burn down their forests. During a later campaign, she struck a treaty of peace with Horus, ruler of Egypt, conquered several peoples, including the Syrians, the Arabians, and the Cilicians (but granted freedom to those of the latter who gave in to her of their own will). She also took possession of Greater Phrygia, from the Taurus Mountains to the Caicus River, and several Aegean islands, including Lesbos; she was also said to be the first to land on the previously uninhabited island which she named Samothrace, building the temple there. The cities of Myrina (in Lemnos), possibly another Myrina in Mysia, Mytilene, Cyme, Pitane, and Priene were believed to have been founded by her, and named after herself, her sister Mytilene, and the commanders in her army, Cyme, Pitane and Priene, respectively. Myrina's army was eventually defeated by Mopsus the Thracian and Sipylus the Scythian; she, as well as many of her fellow Amazons, fell in the final battle. -Wikipedia
1 commentsancientone
Aitna_Persephone.JPG
Aitna, Sicily56 views210-150 BC (Roman rule)
AE Hexas (16.5mm, 3.89g)
O: Head of Persephone right, wreathed in grain.
R: Filleted cornucopia; two pellets in upper right, AITNAI−ΩN upward to left.
HGC 2, 70; Calciati III, 152, 11; SNG ANS 1165; SNG München 26; Sear 1019v (pellets to left); BMC 5, 8
ex Forvm Ancient Coins

Demeter and Persephone
"…As Queen of Death, that worship which is Fear,
Henceforth, as having risen from out the dead,
Shalt ever send thy life along with mine…"
~Alfred Lord Tennyson
1 commentsEnodia
artet1.JPG
Alexander III556 viewsAlexander III AR Tetradrachm. ‘Amphipolis’ mint. Struck under Kassander, circa 316-314 BC. Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress / Zeus Aëtophoros seated left; shield in left field, pellet-in-Π below throne. 17.1 g.

Price 136; Troxell, Studies, issue L8.

Thanks for the atribution Lloyd!


Most lifetime issues of Alexander the Great were usualy bulky/thick, which did not alow for the entire design of the die to imprint on the coin. IMO looked better then the wide thin flan. (edit: though this one is Struck under Kassander)

The coin was hand stuck with a die/avil. Dies were usually made of Bronze because it was sofeter and easier to work with then iron, (though some were made of iron as well) then the was anealed to make it stronger and less brittle.

The planchets were made by pouring molten metal into a mold and saved until needed. When it was ready to be used, they heated it just below melting point and placed it between the dies and the punch die was struck with a hammer.


-----------------------------


"Building upon his father's success in Greece, Alexander III (Alexander the Great, reigned 336-323 BC) set about the conquest of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. By the time of his death at the age of 31, he ruled most of the known world from Greece to Afghanistan. Initially Alexander continued to mint Philip's gold and silver coins. Soon, however, the need for a silver coinage that could be widely used in Greece caused him to begin a new coinage on the Athenian weight-standard. His new silver coins, with the head of Herakles on one side and a seated figure of Zeus on the other, also became one of the staple coinages of the Greek world. They were widely imitated within the empire he had forged."

--------------------------------------

"......Alexander seems to have liked Amphipolis, because one of his last plans was to spend no less than 315 ton silver for a splendid new temple in the city that was to be dedicated to Artemis Tauropolus. It was never built, but after Alexander's death on 11 June 323 in Babylon, his wife queen Roxane settled in Amphipolis, which appears to have become one of the residences of the Macedonian royals. In 179, king Philip V died in the town."


------------------

Amphipolis , ancient city of Macedonia, on the Strymon (Struma) River near the sea and NE of later Thessaloníki. The place was known as Ennea Hodoi [nine ways] before it was settled and was of interest because of the gold and silver and timber of Mt. Pangaeus (Pangaion), to which it gave access. Athenian colonists were driven out (c.464 BC) by Thracians, but a colony was established in 437 BC Amphipolis became one of the major Greek cities on the N Aegean. This colony was captured by Sparta, and Brasidas and Cleon were both killed in a battle there in 422 BC After it was returned to Athens in 421 BC, it actually had virtual independence until captured (357 BC) by Philip II of Macedon. He had promised to restore it to Athens, and his retention of Amphipolis was a major cause of the war with Athens. In 148 BC it became the capital of the Roman province of Macedonia. Paul, Silas, and Timothy passed through Amphipolis (Acts 17.1). Nearby is the modern Greek village of Amfípolis."

--------------------------------

"A quick look at the WildWinds database( http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/macedonia/kings/alexander_III/t.html ) indicates that the style and monograms are consistent with an Amphipolis issue, with perhaps a little less care than usual in the engraving of the reverse. The closest I could locate with a quick look is Price 133 (variant), although yours appears to have a shield rather than dolphin in the left field reverse."
16 commentsrandy h2
seleukosIVlaodike.jpg
Antiochus IV Epiphanes. AE16. Queen Laodice147 viewsSELEUKID KINGS of SYRIA. Antiochus IV Epiphanes serrated AE16. 175 - 164 B.C. Seleucia-in-Pieria mint. Veiled bust of Laodice IV r. Border of dots / BASILEWS ANTIOCOU, North African Elephant (Extinct) head left, prow of galley right. Houghton 113

The North African elephant was a possible subspecies of the African bush elephant, or possibly a separate elephant species, that existed in North Africa until becoming extinct in Ancient Roman times.
1 commentsancientone
Antoninus_Pius_denarius_italia.jpg
Antoninus Pius denarius Italia33 viewsAR Denarius
Antoninus Pius, 138-161 CE
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 3.24 grams, Die axis: 7h

Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III
Laureate head to right.

Reverse: ITALIA
Italia towered, seated left on globe, holding cornucopiae and sceptre.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- This coin can be dated between 140 to 143 CE.
- A scarcer issue of Antoninus, alluding to Italian domination over the world. The cornucopiae symoblises the Roman belief in the prosperity and good fortune they had brought the world
- Denarii minted under the reign of Antoninus Pius had a target weight of 3.4 grams and an average silver content of 88%.

Ex Mike Vosper Coins, 2006
1 commentsPharsalos
Arabia,_Nabataea,_Aretas_IV_and_Shugailat,_Meshorer_114,_AE_16,_Jugate_busts,_cornuacopiae,_39-40_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_12,2x15,5mm,_3,18g-s.jpg
Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. (9 B.C.-40 A.D.), Meshorer 114, AE-16, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #165 viewsArabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. (9 B.C.-40 A.D.), Meshorer 114, AE-16, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #1
avers: Jugate busts of King Aretas IV. conjoined with his Queen Shugailat right.
reverse: Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend Aretas and Shugailat in two lines between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 12,2-15,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Aretas IV. date: 9 B.C.-40 A.D.,
ref: Meshorer 114,
Q-001
quadrans
Arabia,_Nabataea,_Rabbell_II_and_Gamilat,_Meshorer_163,_AE_18,_Jugate_busts,_cornuacopiae,_39-40_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_13x16mm,_2,84g-s.jpg
Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. (70-106 A.D.), Meshorer 163, AE-18, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #163 viewsArabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. (70-106 A.D.), Meshorer 163, AE-18, Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend, #1
avers: Jugate busts of king Rabbell II. conjoined with his queen Gamilath right.
reverse: Two crossed cornucopias with Nabataean Aramaic legend Rabbell and Gamilath in two lines between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 13,0-16,0mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arabia, Nabataea, Kings, Rabbell II. date: 70-106 A.D.,
ref: Meshorer 163,
Q-001
quadrans
Aretas-Shuqilat 2.jpg
Aretas IV (9 BC - 40 AD) - AE 1617 viewsConjoined busts of Aretas and Queen Shaqilat
HRTT / ShQY / LT (Aretas - Shaqilat) between two crossed cornucopiae
16 mm
Ginolerhino
Aretas-Shuqilat.jpg
Aretas IV (9 BC - 40 AD) - AE 1718 viewsConjoined busts of Aretas and Queen Shaqilat
HRTT / ShQY / LT (Aretas - Shaqilat) between two crossed cornucopiae
17 mm
Ginolerhino
Aretas 4.jpg
Aretas IV (9 BC - 40 AD) - AE 19 minted in 5 BC66 viewsBust of Aretas right, letters in field
HRTT MLK NBTY ShNT 4 (Aretas king of Nabatea, year 4 = 5 BC) , Queen-mother Huldu (?) standing left wearing long dress, right hand raised, holding uncertain object.
19 mm
Sear 5700
2 commentsGinolerhino
Aretas_IV_5.jpg
Aretas IV ?Queen Huldu-(5)16 viewsobverse: Aretas IV
reverse: 2 crossed cornucopias
Het lower L and R
similar to Meshorer 73?
vacationchick
Nabataean_Aretas_IV_with_Huldu(9).jpg
Aretas IV and Queen Huldu172 viewsobverse: Aretas, het near chin
reverse: crossed cornucopiae, het right and left
vacationchick
4201_(1)_4202_(1)~0.jpg
Aretas IV and Shaquelat, AE17, Double Cornucopiae10 viewsAE17
Aretas IV and Shaquelat
King: 9BC - 40AD
Issued: 40AD
17.0mm 4.60gr
O: NO LEGEND; Jugate busts of Aretas IV (King) and Shaquelat (Queen).
R: NO LEGEND; Double cornucopiae, names of King and Queen in Nabataean Aramaic between them.
Meshorer 114cf; SGI 5699.
zurqieh_dubai 291411235401
3/20/15 4/30/17
Nicholas Z
Aretas.jpg
Aretas IV Nabataea50 viewsAretas IV, 9 BC-40 AD, King of Nabataea, bronze of 18 mm, 3.46 grams.

Obverse: Jugate busts of Aretas and Shuqailait, Nabataean Aramaic letters above heads.

Reverse: Double cornucopias, the names of the King and Queen in Nabataean Aramaic between them.

Reference: cf. Meshorer 114.

Tanit
aretas_IV_queen.jpg
Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D. Bronze AE 12, Shaquilath; Meshorer 1198 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D. Bronze AE 12, Aretas IV facing right, / Queen Shaquilath facing right, Meshorer 119. Podiceps
aretas_IV_foure.jpg
Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., Fouree silver plated drachm4 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., Ancient Counterfeit. Fouree silver plated drachm, cf. Meshorer Nabataean 99 - 111, BMC Arabia 11 - 12, and SGICV 5695 - 6 (official, Petra mint, 20 - 40 A.D.), F, illegal mint, 3.364g, 13.8mm, 45o, after 20 A.D.; obverse Aramaic, 'Aretas, king of the Nabataeans, lover of his people', laureate and draped bust of Aretas right; reverse Aramaic, 'Shuqailat, queen of the Nabataeans, year ?' (date off flan), jugate busts of Aretas and Shuqailat right. Aretas IV was the greatest of the Nabataean kings, ruling S. Palestine, most of Trans-Jordan, N. Arabia, and Damascus. Little is known of him because Nabataeans did not keep records. Paul mentions Aretas in connection with his visit to Damascus (2 Corinthians 11:32). Ex FORVMPodiceps
arsinoe_II.jpg
Arsinoe II; Head of Arsinoe right/ Eagle; Svoronos 35118 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Arsinoe II, c. 273 - 268 B.C. Bronze AE 16, 1/16th drachm?, Svoronos 351; Weiser -; SNG Copenhagen 100, Fair, edge broken, uncertain mint, 2.772g, 15.9mm, 0o, c. 264 BC; obverse veiled and diademed head of Arsinoë II right; reverse PTOLEMAIOY BASILEWS, eagle standing left on thunderbolt; wings open, “DI” above monogram before; rare. Arsinoe II (316 B.C. - July 270 B.C.) was the daughter of king Ptolemy I Soter, the founder of the Hellenistic state of Egypt, and his second wife Berenice I., As the wife of King Lysimachus, she was queen of Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedonia. Later she was co-ruler of Egypt with her brother and husband Ptolemy II. Ex FORVMPodiceps
IMGP4491Art2brcombo.jpg
Artabanos II., 10 - 38 AD15 viewsAE13, 1,37gr., 13,44mm;
Sellw. 63.20, Shore 574;
mint: Ekbatana, axis: 12mm;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem, bow and 2 ribbons; medium-long straight hair, mustache, long beard; 3 layer necklace, earring; dotted border 10 - 13h;
rev.: queen bust, right, w/crown/tiara, 2-layer necklace; complete dotted border;
Schatz
Augustus.jpg
Augustus32 viewsAugustus, AE24, Kingdom of Thrace. BASILEWS ROIMHTALKOU, jugate heads of King Rhoemetalkes & Queen Pythodoris right / KAISAROS SEBASTOU, bare head of Augustus right.Britanikus
Augustus_.jpg
Augustus29 viewsAugustus, AE24, Kingdom of Thrace. BASILEWS ROIMHTALKOU, jugate heads of King Rhoemetalkes & Queen Pythodoris right / KAISAROS SEBASTOU, bare head of Augustus rightBritanikus
604_RR_RPC_1_1711.JPG
Augustus, AE24, Kingdom of Thrace Jugate heads10 viewsReference.
SNG Cop 1190, SGI 5396. RPC 1, 1711

Obv. KAISAROS SEBASTOU
Bare head of Augustus right.

BASILEWS ROIMHTALKOU,
Jugate heads of King Rhoemetalkes & Queen Pythodoris right

6.87 gr
24 mm
h
okidoki
arpci1712OR.jpg
Augustus, RPC I 171222 viewsThracian mint, Augustus, 11 B.C. - 12 A.D. AE, 26mm 10.66g, RPC I 1712
O: BAΣIΛEΩΣ POIMHTAΛKOY, jugate heads of a diademed Rhoemetalkes and his queen Pythodoris right
R: KAIΣAPOΣ ΣEBAΣTOY, bare head of Augustus r.; long necked vase before

casata137ec
Baktria_HermaiosKalliope_SNG-ANS1319.jpg
Baktria, Hermaios & Kalliope12 viewsBaktria, Hermaios & Kalliope. 105-90 BC. AR Drachm (2.44 gm). Jugated and diademed bust of king & queen, r. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩTHPOΣ EPMAIOY-KAΛΛIOΠHΣ / King prancing on horseback. Monogram. Karosthi legend Maharajasa tratarasa Heramayasa Kaliapaya (of Great King Hermaios the Savior [and] Kalliope). VF. SNG ANS 9 #1319ff; Boperachchi Série 2B; HGC 12 #288; Sear Greek 7732.Christian T
nabataean_1.jpg
BCC NC122 viewsNabataean Kingdom - Petra
Rabbel II and Gamilat 70 - 106 CE
(Gamilat, queen 76-102CE)
Obv: Jugate busts of Rabbel II and Queen Shaquilat (!)
Rev:RB’L /GMLT Nabataean inscription in two lines
between crossed cornucopiae.
17x15mm. 1.67gm. Axis:0
This coin is a hybrid of an obverse die from the early part
of Rabbel II’s reign (Meshorer 146), combined with a later
reverse of Rabbel II and Queen Gamilat (Meshorer 163).
Reference: Meshorer 162, Rare.
(Thanks to John Anthony for the attribution)
v-drome
nabataean_2.jpg
BCC NC221 viewsBCC NC2 - Nabataean Kindom - Petra
Rabbel II and Gamilat 70 - 106 CE
(Gamilat, queen 76-102 CE)
Obv: Jugate busts of Rabbel II and (Queen Gamilat)
Rev:RB’L /GMLT Nabataean inscription in two lines
between crossed cornucopiae. Thick, undersize flan.
17x14mm. 2.97gm. Axis:45
Meshorer 163 (style 1)
v-drome
GeorgeIIIJubileeG.JPG
BHM 0644. King George III enters the Fiftieth Year of his Reign, 1809.135 viewsObv. Conjoined, draped busts of Queen Charlotte and George III left, she diademed, he bare head. GEORGIUS III ET CHARLOTTE REX ET REGINA MDCCCIX
Rev. GRAND NATIONAL / JUBILEE / CELEBRATED OCT 25 AD 1809 / IN COMMEMORATION OF THE / ACCESSION OF HIS MAJESTY / KING GEORGE THE THIRD / TO THE THRONE OF THE / IMPERIAL REALMS, OF / GREAT BRITAIN, AND / IRELAND. / OCT. 25, 1760

White Metal 37mm. BHM 644
LordBest
BOSP_KINGDOM_2_HEADS.jpg
BOSPORAN KINGDOM -- Queen Gepaepyris28 viewsBOSPORAN KINGDOM -- Queen Gepaepyris (37-39 AD) AE23 12 Nummi. BACIΛICCHC ΓHΠAIΠYPEΩC, diademed draped bust right / IB, veiled bust of Aphrodite Urania right, wearing calathus. MacDonald 306, Anokhin 326 var. dpaul7
Bramsen 1091.JPG
Bramsen 1091. Le Roi de Rome, 1811.225 viewsObv. Profile busts of the Emperor Napoleon, and the Empress Maria Louisa; the head of the Emperor encircled with a wreath, that of the Empress is adorned with the imperial diadem as worn by the former Queens of France; under the head of Napoleon or exergue, the name of the artist and designer, ANDRIEU F. DENON D.
Rev. Bust of the infant son of Napoleon; on base of the bust, ANDRIEU F.
Legend, NAPOLEON FRANCOIS JOSEPH CHARLES ROI DE ROME.
Exergue, XX MARS MDCCCXI.

Struck to commemorate the birth of Napoleon II in 1811.
LordBest
King George V Medal.JPG
British End of War Medal, King George V60 viewsBritish Civilian medal issued in 1919 to commemorate the end of The Great War.
Obverse: QUEEN MARY- KING / GEORGE / V, Juggate busts of Queen Mary and King George left, both wearing ornate crowns.
Reverse: PEACE-VICTORY / THE GREAT WAR, Victory standing facing holding dove and wreath, scene of farmer plowing left, and soldier with artillary gun right.
Dated 1919
38mm, 18.8gm
1 commentsJerome Holderman
england_1862_half-penny_02_obv_06_rev_04.JPG
Bronze - 1862 Half Penny99 views1862 Half Penny, Queen Victoria.rexesq
england_1862_half-penny_02_obv_04.JPG
Bronze - 1862 Half Penny - Obverse134 views1862 Half Penny, Queen Victoria.rexesq
england_1862_half-penny_02_rev_07.JPG
Bronze - 1862 Half Penny - Reverse104 views1862 Half Penny, Queen Victoria.rexesq
england_1874-H_farthing_obv_04_rev_04.JPG
Bronze - 1874 H Farthing47 viewsGreat Britain 1874-H Farthing. Queen Victoria.rexesq
s-l500_(29).jpg
BUNDI STATE - EDWARD RAMSINGH/VICTORIA QUEEN - ONE RUPEE - RARE SILVER COIN7 viewsWEIGHT : 11.00 GRAM, DIAMETER : 20 MM __1550Antonivs Protti
s-l1600_(47).jpg
BUNDI STATE-VS:1953-VICTORIA QUEEN/RAMSINGH-ONE RUPEE-SILVER COIN _15009 viewsAntonivs Protti
thrace_caesarea.jpg
Caesarea (Pantikapaion), Aphrodite/ ΚΑΙ−ΣΑ/ΡΕ−ΩΝ, scepter topped with pomegranate flower, H (year 8)21 viewsCaesarea (Pantikapaion), Thrace, c. 17 - 4 B.C. Bronze AE 18, RPC I 1936, SNG Fitzwilliam 1275, Anokhin 322, BMC Thrace -, SNG Stancomb -, F, Pantikapaion mint, 6.458g, 21.1mm, 0o, 13 - 12 B.C.; obverse draped and veiled bust of Aphrodite right, wearing calathus; reverse “ΚΑΙ−ΣΑ/ΡΕ−ΩΝ”, scepter topped with pomegranate flower, H (year 8) lower right. The veiled bust is sometimes identified as Livia or as Queen Dynamis but RPC I rejects these identifications as unlikely because it would be inappropriate to depict either of them with kalathos on their head. Ex FORVMPodiceps
olympic1.jpg
Canada Olympic 100$ Coin52 viewsA gold 1976 Olympic canadian memorial coin.

OBVERSE: Flowers
REVERSE: Queen Elizabeth
aarmale
MOD_from_1900-_Cayman_Isl_-3.jpg
Cayman Islands, $250, 19883 viewsObverse: Crowned bust of Queen Elizabeth II facing right

Reverse: Royal Arms of Princess Alexandra

Graded: Proof 69 Ultra Cameo

This coin contains 1.127 troy ounces of silver.

Subject to commemorate the royal visit of Princess Alexandra

This coin belongs to that class of world coins many call NCLT (non-circulating legal tender) or coins whose face value is well below bullion value at the time of its minting. In the U.S. we call these modern commemoratives. We tend to look down on such world coins while embracing our own NCLT. Could you imagine a modern U.S. commemorative with a mintage of only 86? Just because this piece is NCLT that does not mean they should be ignored. I am willing to bet that because such pieces trade at near melt a significant number of these 86 coins may have been melted making this specimen even rarer.
Richard M10
Iceni_moeda_2.jpg
CELTIC, Britain, Iceni, Boudicca, 61 AD29 viewsIceni tribe, Queen Boudicca 61 AD
AR Unit
Weight: 1.19 g
Size: 15 mm
Condition: VF/VF
Obv: Celtized head right.
Rev: Celtized horse right.
Ref: VA 790-1, Hobbs 3556ff
Jorge C
DSC06156.JPG
Ceylon 1870 - one Cent9 views01

Ceylon 1870 - one Cent
Queen Victoria
Bronze.
rexesq
DSC06141_cut_DSC06160_cut.JPG
Ceylon 1870 - one Cent22 views01


Ceylon 1870 - one Cent
Queen Victoria
Bronze.
4 commentsrexesq
DSC06140_cut.JPG
Ceylon 1870 - one Cent 22 viewsCeylon 1870 - one Cent w/ US quarter dollar for size.
Bronze.
Queen Victoria
rexesq
ceylon.JPG
Ceylon 1870 - one Cent18 viewsCeylon 1870 - one Cent w/ US quarter dollar for size.
Bronze.
Queen Victoria
rexesq
chris.jpg
Christina, Queen  of Sweden (1632 - 1654 A.D.)23 viewsBI Solidus
O: CHRISTINA D G R S, Monogram of Christina under crown, Vasa royal crown within monogram.
R: SOLIDVS · CIVI : RIG, Crossed keys in ornamented shield surrounded by legend, 37.
Minted in Riga 1637
16mm
.64g
KM 21
4 commentsMat
Cilicia,_Tarsos,_Syennesis_III_AR_stater.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos, Syennesis III, ca. 425-400 BC, AR Stater 18 viewsSyennesis on horseback right, wearing Persian headdress and cloak.
Nude hoplite kneeling left, wearing crested Corinthian helmet, holding spear and shield.

SNG Paris-226, SNG Levante-61.

(20 mm, 8.3 g, 1h).
Harlan J. Berk 181, November 2012, 393.

The depiction of the hoplite in a defensive posture on the reverse of this coin is most evocative of its time, notwithstanding the miserable corroded state of the coin itself, which is a type of some rarity. The initial reaction to the typology of this coin might be one of surprise at the apparently incongruous pairing of the image of a Persian dynast on horseback on the obverse with that of a Greek hoplite on the reverse. The explanation is to be found in the written historical record. The coin dates to the period of Xenophon's anabasis. Xenophon refers to the role of Syennesis (III) and his wife Epyaxa in the revolt of Cyrus the Younger, in whose employ as a mercenary Xenophon found himself. In view of the historical record left by Xenophon, the pairing of the motifs of a Persian dynast, or tributary king, on one side of this coin with a Greek hoplite on the other now seems particularly poignant, rather than incongruous. During the fifth and fourth centuries BC, the Persian dynasts routinely employed Greek hoplite mercenaries in their armies, so that the reverse typology may simply be a reflection of this reality on coinage destined perhaps for mercenary pay.

All the hereditary kings of Cilicia were termed Syennesis, a royal title more than an actual name. As described in Xenophon’s Anabasis, Syennesis (III) under the influence of his wife and queen, Epyaxa, supported the unsuccessful revolt of Cyrus the Younger against his brother Artaxerxes II in 401 BC. As much as anything this action appears to have been motivated by the desire to prevent Cryrus’ army pillaging and looting during its passage through Cilicia. Syennesis’ support included a body of troops commanded by one of his sons. However, he sent another son, accompanied by a report on Cyrus plans and army to Artaxerxes, so that whatever the outcome he might be aligned with the winning side. Syennesis' actions, however, did little to save Cilicia's autonomy. After 400 BC it became an ordinary satrapy of the Persian Empire, rather than an independent tributary or vassal state, and the role of the hereditary king of Cilicia ceased, replaced by a satrap who was appointed by the Persian king, most frequently a relative of the latter.
n.igma
hetoum & zabel.jpg
CILICIAN ARMENIA - Hetoum I & Zabel71 viewsCILICIAN ARMENIA - Hetoum I & Zabel (1226-1270) AR Tram. Obv: Lion right/Rev.: Queen & king standing on either side of patriarchal cross. dpaul7
Screenshot_2019-06-30_08_01_52.png
Cilician Armenia, Royal Period, King Hetoum I, AR Tram.11 viewsSis 1226-1270 A.D. 2.99g - 21.3mm, Axis 9h.

Obv: +ՎԱԻՈՂՈԻԹ - ԻԻՆUՑՈ I - Queen Zabel and King Hetoum standing facing, holding long cross between them.

Rev: +ՀԷԹՈԻՄ ԹԱԳԱԻՈՐ ՀԱՅ[ՈՑ] - Crowned lion standing right, head facing, left paw raised; long cross behind.

AC 340var (reverse legend).
2 commentsChristian Scarlioli
Screenshot_2019-08-27_16_14_10.png
Cilician Armenia, Royal Period, King Hetoum I, AR Tram.2 viewsSis 1226-1270 A.D. 3.04g - 21.7mm, Axis 8h.

Obv: +ՎԱԻՈՂՈԻԹ - ԻԻՆUՅ I - Queen Zabel and King Hetoum standing facing, holding long cross between them.

Rev: +ՀԷԹՈԻՄ ԹԱԳԱԻՈՐ ՀԱ[ՅՈՑ] - Crowned lion standing right, head facing, left paw raised; long cross behind.

AC 340var (obverse & reverse legends).
Christian Scarlioli
ARM_Hetoum_I_tram.JPG
Cilician Armenia. Hetoum I (1226-1270)79 viewsBedoukian Group III, 1096 var. (reverse legend); cf. Nercessian 337

AR tram/drachm (average weight 2.96 grams; average purity 92%), 2.90 g., 20.10 mm, max, 0°.

Obv: + ԿԱՐՈՂՈ – ԹԻՆ ԱՅ Է (= Garoghout Iun Aye = By the Will of God), Queen Zabel (left and King Hetoum right crowned and wearing royal vestments, standing and facing, both holding a long cross, dot on cross.

Rev: ՀԵԹՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱՒՈ ՀԱ (= Hetoum Takavor Hayots = Hetoum King of the Armenians), crowned lion walking right with left paw raised, cross behind lion.

The obverse showing the king and queen openly acknowledges the fact that Zabel was of royal lineage and that Hetoum was her consort. Although Zabel died in 1252, Hetoum continued to strike coins with this design until his resignation in 1270.

The obverse inscription and long cross are a match for Bedoukian 1095-1098. The final word of the reverse inscription in this sequence becomes progressively shorter, from ՀԱՅՐ (on B. 1095) to ՀԱՅ (on B. 1096) to just Հ (on B. 1098). There is no ՀԱ (this coin) which would correspond to the missing catalog number B. 1097 in the sequence.

The coins are divided by Bedoukian into seven groups (as well as a transitional period), with the numbering of the groups based on the order of issue. Although critical of Bedoukian's classification of the trams of Levon I, Metcalf approves his classification of the Hetoum I trams.
1 commentsStkp
ARM_Hetoum_I_tram_Bedoukian_Group_I.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Hetoum I (1226-1270) 25 viewsBedoukian Group I, 878; cf. Nercessian 332

AR tram (average weight 2.96 grams; average purity 92%), 2.82 g., 20.78 mm, max, 0°.

Obv: ԿԱՐՈՂՈԹ – ԻՆՆ ԱՅ Է (= Garoghout Iun Aye = By the Will of God), Queen Zabel left and King Hetoum right crowned and wearing royal vestments, standing and facing, both holding a long cross, star on cross.

Rev: ՀԵԹՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՈ° (ՈՐ ligate) (= Hetoum Takavor Hayots = Hetoum King of the Armenians), crowned lion standing right holding long cross with left paw.

The obverse showing the king and queen openly acknowledges the fact that Zabel was of royal lineage and that Hetoum was her consort. Although Zabel died in 1252, Hetoum continued to strike coins with this design until his resignation in 1270.

The coins are divided by Bedoukian into seven groups (as well as a transitional period), with the numbering of the groups based on the order of issue. Although critical of Bedoukian's classification of the trams of Levon I, Metcalf approves his classification of the Hetoum I trams.
Stkp
ARM_Hetoum_I_tram_Bedoukian_Group_V.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Hetoum I (1226-1270)17 viewsBedoukian Group V, 1220 ; cf. Nercessian 342

AR tram (average weight 2.91 grams; average purity 83%), 2.82 g., 22.37 mm, max, 0°.

Obv: ԿԱՐՈՂՈԻ – ԹԻՆՆ ԱՅ Է (= Garoghout Iun Aye = By the Will of God), Queen Zabel left and King Hetoum right crowned and wearing royal vestments, standing and facing, both holding a long cross, no dot or star on cross.

Rev: ՀԵԹՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅ (ՈՐ ligate) (= Hetoum Takavor Hayots = Hetoum King of the Armenians), crowned lion walking right with left paw raised, star below lion and cross behind.

The obverse showing the king and queen openly acknowledges the fact that Zabel was of royal lineage and that Hetoum was her consort. Although Zabel died in 1252, Hetoum continued to strike coins with this design until his resignation in 1270.

The coins are divided by Bedoukian into seven groups (as well as a transitional period), with the numbering of the groups based on the order of issue. Although critical of Bedoukian's classification of the trams of Levon I, Metcalf approves his classification of the Hetoum I trams.
Stkp
Nercessian-332.jpg
Cilician Armenia: Hetoum I (1226-1270) AR Tram (Nercessian-332)33 viewsObv: Lion walking right, holding a cross behind. Legend around - ՀԵԹՈՒՄ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՈՑ (Hetowm Tagawor Hayots; Hetoum King of Armenians)
Rev: King Hetoum I and Queen Zabel holding a cross together. Cross with star. Legend around - ԿԱՐՈՂՈԻԹ ԻՒՆՆ ԱՅՈԷ (Karogowt Iwnn Ayoe; By the will of God)
SpongeBob
CLEOIII_ANTIOCHUSVIII.jpg
Cleopatra Thea, queen of Syria (with son, Antiochos VIII).223 viewsAR Tetradrachm (27 mm). Antioch mint, 125-121 BCE.
Obv: Conj. busts r.
Rev: BASILISSHS/ KLEOPATRAS/ KAI/ BASILEWS/ ANTIOXOU, Zeus Nikephoros seated l., holding lotus-tipped scepter; IE outer left, A under throne. SNG Spaer 2437. Cf. Sear 7135.
1 commentsEmpressCollector
Cyprus_14_Piastre_1901_img.jpg
Cyprus, 1/4 Piastre , 190113 viewsObv:- VICTORIA QUEEN, Queen facing left wearing a coronet with a decoration of oak leaves and scrolls; date below.
Rev:- CYPRUS . QUARTER PIASTRE, 1/4 within a circle of beads and in a circle the inscription
Mintage 72000
Engraver - Wyon Leonard Charles at Royal Mint, London

KM 1.20

Part of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.
maridvnvm
Greeeeeeeeeeeekz_005.JPG
Dutch Pulicat Narasimha Type, Malabar Coast Gold Fanam Uniface Vira Raya c.1600's 166 viewsDutch Pulicat Narasimha Type, Malabar Coast Gold Fanam Uniface Vira Raya c.1600's
Gold Coin Size: 9 mm Weight: 0.5 grams Fine Gold
Reference: http://lakdiva.org/coins/medievalindian/hoysalas_fanam_au.html
Obv: Stylistic Lion (Sardula) standing right with large crescent above. The legs represented by 2 rows, each of 4 dots. The lower 4 dots with downward spikes. 4 more dots separated from this group to right. Concave surface
Rev: Stylistic Boar standing right. The legs represented by the 3 rows, each of 4 dots. Convex surface.
Pulicat (Dutch) Gold Fanam Anon. Narasimha Type. Herrli 3.20/3.35.
Dynasty & Reign Acheh Sultans, Sultana Kamalat Shah Zinat al-Din (Queen)
Denomination AV 1/4 Mas or Kupang
Date Struck 1688-1699 Mint Acheh/ Atjeh
Obverse Paduka Seri Sultanah Kamalat Shah
Reverse Zinat al-Din Shah Berdaulat
Weight 0.4 gm Diameter 9 mm Grade GVF to EF, sharp and fully legible
Comments Zinat al-Din Kamalat Shah, born as Putri Raja Setia, was the great-granddaughter of Sultan Mukmin who ruled in the late 16th century. Her brother was married to her predecessor, Sultana Zaquiyat.

The 1886 Elliot description of his 189-192 Viraraya fanams as obv:(?): Transverse bar, sometimes with the end turned up, or simply elongated like a crocodile or saurin above three lines of dots and a reverse design not explained. He says The many varieties of gold fanams, through no longer current are found in considerable numbers, many of them having curious devices, without legends.

Note that this example is probably much more recent than the original Hoysalas fanam illustrated in Mitchiner. The animal figures are more stylistic. The angle between two sets of dots on the obverse in this example is much less than 90 degrees while it is more than that in the Hoysalas fanam. The two groups of dots in the obverse merge in the Viraraya fanam, to 2 arcs, each of 6 dots.

According to Elliot (page 148), small coins were measured or counted by means of a chakram board, a small square wooden plate with a given number of holes the exact size and depth of a chakram. A small handful of coins is thrown on the board, which is then shaken gently from side to side so as to cause a single chakram to fall into each cavity, and the surplus, if any swept off with the hand. A glance at the board, when filled, shows that it contains the exact number of coins for which it was intended. The rapid manipulation of this simple but ingenious implement requires some practice, but the Government clerks and native merchants are exceedingly expert and exact in its performance.
Text from
* 1998 Coinage and history of Southern India, vol. 2: TamilNadu - Kerala. Michael Mitchiner Page 252.

 

1 commentsAntonio Protti
DYNAMIS.jpg
Dynamis, Queen of the Cimmerian Bosphorus?200 viewsBosphorus/Pontus. Agrippias Caesaria ( Phanagoria). AE 8 nummia (19mm, 4.4 g), late 1st century BC.
Obv: Veiled and draped female bust, right.
Rev: AGRIPPEWN, Prow left, mark of value H in field at right.
RPC 1934-5; BMC 1.

RPC lists three possibilities for the Bust on the obverse: Livia, Aphrodite Urania, and Queen Dynamis. Popular opinion seems to be that the bust is that of Livia.
EmpressCollector
EB0309b_scaled.JPG
EB0309 Aretas IV / Cornucopiae3 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV AE15, 9 BC - 40 AD.
Obverse: Jugate busts of Aretas IV and Queen Shuquilat?
Reverse: Crossed cornucopias, Nabataean inscriptions.
References: -.
Diameter: 15mm, Weight: 2.666g.
EB
EB0320b_scaled.JPG
EB0320 Unknown King / Queen Ulfan3 viewsElmais, First indeterminate King (de Morgan's Orodes IV), AE 14, (c. A.D. 200?).
Obverse: Bust left.
Reverse: Bust of Queen Ulfan or Artemis-Tyche (?), left.
References: De Morgan 57; PLV, 22; Sear GIC 5917v.
Diameter: 14.5mm, Weight: 2.498g.
EB
Elizabeth_I_sixpence.jpg
Elizabeth I, 1558 - 160371 viewsEngland, Elizabeth I, 1558 - 1603. Silver sixpence, Spink 2578B, North 2015, tun mintmark, VF, light scratches, toned, Tower mint, weight 2.838g, maximum diameter 27.5mm, die axis 270o, 1592. Obverse: ELIZAB D'G' ANG'FR:ET:HIB REGI, crowned bust left, rose behind; Reverse POSVI DEV ADIVTOREM MEV (I have made God my helper), quartered coat-of-arms (passant lions and fleurs-de-lis) on long cross fourchée, 1592 above shield; ex A.H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd., Autumn Argentum Auction 2009. Ex FORVM.

Elizabeth I, 1558 - 1603
Elizabeth Tudor is considered by many to be the greatest monarch in English history. When she became queen in 1558, she was twenty-five years old, a survivor of scandal and danger, and considered illegitimate by most Europeans. She inherited a bankrupt nation, torn by religious discord, a weakened pawn between the great powers of France and Spain. She was only the third queen to rule England in her own right; the other two examples, her cousin Lady Jane Grey and half-sister Mary I, were disastrous. Even her supporters believed her position dangerous and uncertain. Her only hope, they counseled, was to marry quickly and lean upon her husband for support. But Elizabeth had other ideas.
She ruled alone for nearly half a century, lending her name to a glorious epoch in world history. She dazzled even her greatest enemies. Her sense of duty was admirable, though it came at great personal cost. She was committed above all else to preserving English peace and stability; her genuine love for her subjects was legendary. Only a few years after her death in 1603, they lamented her passing. In her greatest speech to Parliament, she told them, 'I count the glory of my crown that I have reigned with your love.'

http://englishhistory.net/tudor/monarchs/eliz1.html
Edited by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
SA032_Elymais_fac.jpg
Elymais, Van´t Haaff 07.1.1-6, Kamnaskires III with Anzaze 27 viewsKingdom of Elymais
Kamnaskires III with Anzaze
Tetradrachm
Seleukeia on the Hedyphon, circa 82-75 BC
Obv.: Conjoined busts left of Kamnaskires and Queen Anzaze; [monogram above Seleukid anchor behind]; c/m: Nike standing left, within rectangular incuse
Rev.: Zeus seated left, holding sceptre and Nike, who crowns him; BΛCIΛEΩC KΛMNΛIKIPOY KΛI IΛIIΛIICHC ANZAZH (BAΣIΛEΩΣ KAMNΣKIROY KAI BAΣIΛIΣΣHΣ ANZAZHΣ) around, date below (out of flan).
11.88g, 26mm
Ref.: Sunrise 470; Alram 454 and note 548; for c/m, cf. Van't Haaff Type 7.1.1-6.
Ex Roma Numismatics, E-LIVE Auction 3, Lot 367
3 commentsshanxi
ELYMAIS_17_1_1-2_Orodes_IV.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV (ca. 2nd half of 2nd century A.D.)35 viewsvan't Haaff 17.1.1-2; de Morgan 52-53; BMC plate XLII, 5-6; Sear GICV 5912-5913; Alram 488-489

AE drachm, 2.44 g., 13.95 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing broad diadem band, with large hair tufts on top of and on side of head, flowing backward; to left anchor; pellet border.

Rev: Bust of female (Queen Ulfan) left, hair tied above, with long braid falling behind; to left incomplete Aramaic legend (wip'n = Ulfan); pellet border.
1 commentsStkp
ELYMAIS_17_1_1-1_Orodes_IV.jpg
Elymais. Arsacid dynasty. Orodes IV (ca. 2nd half of 2nd century A.D.)19 viewsvan't Haaff 17.1.1-1; de Morgan 52-53; BMC plate XLII, 5-6; Sear GICV 5912-5913; Alram 488-489

AE drachm, 3.19 g., 15.74 mm. max., 0°

Obv: Bust facing left, wearing broad diadem band, with large hair tufts on top of and on side of head, flowing backward; to left Aramaic legend (wrwd MLK = King Orodes); pellet border.

Rev: Bust of female (Queen Ulfan) left, hair tied above, with long braid falling behind; to left incomplete Aramaic legend (wip'n = Ulfan); pellet border.
Stkp
IMGP4810Elbrcombo~0.jpg
Elymais: Queen Ulfan and Orodes IV, 2nd half of 2nd cent. AD45 viewsAE 14, 3,26gr., 14,16mm;
Van’t Haaff 17.1.1-1a,b, Alram 488;
mint: Susa, axis: 12h;
obv.: head of Orodes IV facing left, w/2-strand diadem and 2 ribbons; hair tied in a large bun on top, side hair brushed back, mustache, med.-long pointed beard; necklace; traces of lettering in lower left field; dotted border 6 - 7:30h;
rev.: bust of Queen Ulfan w/hair tied in a long braid, facing left; necklace; garment w/shoulder pads; in left field Aramaic letters meaning ‘Ulfan’; dotted border 7:30 - 14h;
black patina on both sides.
Schatz
dadmary.jpg
ENGLAND - MARY I61 viewsQueen Mary (1553-1558) Silver Groat, 1553-1554. S-2492. Nice, slightly wavy flan. Decent detail on portrait.dpaul7
ANNE.jpg
ENGLAND - QUEEN ANNE - 1702-171447 viewsSilver 4 Pence (Groat), 1713. KM-515.dpaul7
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England, Aethelred II 978 – 1016, Silver Penny24 viewsObv. Diademed bust right, without scepter.

Rev. Hand of providence between alpha & omega, issuing from cloud composed of parallel lines
S-1144 - First hand type

Ćthelred the Unready, or Ćthelred II (c. 968 – 23 April 1016), was king of England (978–1013 and 1014–1016). He was son of King Edgar and Queen Ćlfthryth. Ćthelred was only about 10 (no more than 13) when his half-brother Edward was murdered. Ćthelred was not personally suspected of participation, but as the murder was committed at Corfe Castle by the attendants of Ćlfthryth, it made it more difficult for the new king to rally the nation against the military raids by Danes, especially as the legend of St Edward the Martyr grew. Later, Ćthelred ordered a massacre of Danish settlers in 1002 and also paid tribute, or Danegeld, to Danish leaders from 991 onwards. His reign was much troubled by Danish Viking raiders. In 1013, Ćthelred fled to Normandy and was replaced by Sweyn, who was also king of Denmark. However, Ćthelred returned as king after Sweyn died in 1014.

"Unready" is a mistranslation of Old English unrćd (meaning bad-counsel) – a twist on his name "Ćthelred" (meaning noble-counsel). A better translation would be Redeless - without counsel (Rede).

Purchased on eBay

NGC AU-55 – An exceptional grade

Cost $438
1 commentsRichard M10
Balkerne_Gate%2C_Colchester_-_geograph_org_uk_-_189116.jpg
England, Colchester, Balkerne Gate283 viewsBalkerne Gate, Colchester. The largest Roman arch in Britain. Colchester and its wall were rebuilt by the Romans after Queen Boudica led a rebellion in AD 60 and detroyed the town. Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CamulodunumJoe Sermarini
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England, House of Tudor, Queen Elizabeth I, Silver Penny, 6th Issue. Metal Detecting find from Yorkshire.1 viewsTower 1595-98 A.D. 0.46g - 13.7mm, Axis 1h.

Obv: E • D • G • ROSA • SINE • SPINA - (Key Mintmark) Crowned bust left.

Rev: CIVITAS LONDON - Long cross fourchee over quartered shield of arms.

Spink 2680.
Christian Scarlioli
axoum_ae.jpg
ETHIOPIA, Kingdom of Axum, Anonymous AE, c.5th century AD29 viewsObverse : CΛ X Λ CΛ (?), crowned and draped bust right, holding cross-tipped sceptre. In left field, cross.
Reverse : TOYTO APECH TH XѠPA (May this please the country), cross with gilded centre.
Munro-Hay type 76

The Kingdom of Axum was an isolated and independent Christian kingdom in what is now Ethiopia and Eritrea that survived from the 1st century to circa the 9th century AD. They existed alongside the other empires in their day, Rome, Persia and China. At some point they conquered the Himyarite Confederacy, in what is now Yemen, and absorbed the Sabean culture. Axum maintained strong ties with the Byzantine Empire until they were cut off from that trade by the Arab conquests of the surrounding area, which caused Axum to fall into decline. The Kingdom of Axum is the proposed home of the Ark of the Covenant and the legendary home of the Queen of Sheba. The Axumite Monarchy was established based on a genealogical relationship with King Solomon of Judea and the Queen of Sheba.
ginolerhino2
axoum_ar.jpg
ETHIOPIA, Kingdom of Axum, Anonymous AR, c.4th-5th century AD28 viewsObverse : CΛX ΛCΛ or BΛX ΛBΛ (?), draped bust of king wearing scarf, with necklace and earring.
Reverse : OTYOTAPCEHTHXWPΛ (the Greek letters in the right order would be TOYTO APECH TH XWPA, May this (the Cross) please the country). Gilded cross in circle.
Munro-Hay type 50.

The Kingdom of Axum was an isolated and independent Christian kingdom in what is now Ethiopia and Eritrea that survived from the 1st century to circa the 9th century AD. They existed alongside the other empires in their day, Rome, Persia and China. At some point they conquered the Himyarite Confederacy, in what is now Yemen, and absorbed the Sabean culture. Axum maintained strong ties with the Byzantine Empire until they were cut off from that trade by the Arab conquests of the surrounding area, which caused Axum to fall into decline. The Kingdom of Axum is the proposed home of the Ark of the Covenant and the legendary home of the Queen of Sheba. The Axumite Monarchy was established based on a genealogical relationship with King Solomon of Judea and the Queen of Sheba.
ginolerhino2
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_FALS_3.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan46 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.
dpaul7
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_FALS_2.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan44 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.
dpaul7
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_FALS_1.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan36 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.
dpaul7
GEORGIA_RUSUDAN_No_5.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan41 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Rousoudan (1223-1245) AE Fals. Early Georgian script, letters: RSN (Abreviation of the name Rousoudan) in ornate border; date "In the paschal year 447" (1227) in corners. Rev.: Arabic script, reading: The queen of kings and the queens, Splendour of the world, the empire and religion. Rousoudan, daughter of Thamar, help of the Messiah: May God glorify her victories! Reference: Numismatique de la Georgie au Moyen Age, Victor Langlois, p. 30, #25.dpaul7
GEORIA_-_TAMAR_IRR_WITH_CM.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Tamar27 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Tamar (1184-1213) AE irregular fals. Decorative monogram on obverse; Arabic legends on reverse. With countermark, old Georgian letter "D" - Which Georgian numismatists believe stand for either DAVIT, Tamar's husband, or a location in Georgia where most of these countermarked coins are found. Mitchener #2383.dpaul7
GEORIA_-_TAMAR_IRR_NO_CM.jpg
GEORGIA - Queen Tamar36 viewsGEORGIA - Queen Tamar (1184-1213) AE irregular fals. Decorative monogram on obverse; Arabic legends on reverse. Mitchener #2383.dpaul7
Lang-13.jpg
Georgia: Queen Rusudan (1223-1245) AE fals (Lang-13; Langlois-30)34 viewsObv: In center; Asomtavruli ႰႱႬ (RSN), standing for RuSudaNi, surmounted by the queen’s monogram being a part of the ornamental device. Surrounded by a linear border. Asomtavruli characters ႵႩႬჃႫႦ (K’KNUMZ, standing for the date formula K’oroniKoN UMZ, i.e. 447, which corresponds to 1227, the frozen date) are placed into the right, bottom and left compartments between the ornamental device and the linear border
Rev: name and titles of Rusudan in Arabic in four lines across field surrounded by a beaded or a linear border;

الملكة الملوك والملكات; Queen of Kings and Queens
جلال الدنيا والدين; Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith
روسدان بنت تامار ظهير المسح; Rusudan, daughter of Tamar, Champion of the Messiah
عزالله انصاره; May God increase [her] victories

The Georgian year is encoded using the "Paschal cycle". This dating system is based on the creation date being March 22, 5604 BC. From this date, they ran through a 532-year cycle. So, Year 1 was March 22, 5604 BC for the 1st cycle. And the 13th cycle's Year 1 was March 22, 781 AD. For years 346 to 532, add 780 to obtain the corresponding year in AD. The year starts off at March 22nd for each AD year. So, 420 + 780 = March 22, 1200 AD. For more information, please see Sweeny...

References:

Langlois, Victor, Numismatique de la Géorgie au Moyen Âge, A. Leleux, 1852
Пахомов, Евгений, Монеты Грузии, Мецниреба, 1970 (Pakhomov, Evgeny, Coins of Georgia, Metsnireba, 1970)
Sweeny, James O., Tempus in Nummis, Volume 1, Numismatics International, 1992
Paghava, Irakli, Georgian Coins in the Collection of the National Museum-Náprstek Museum in Prague, 2013
SpongeBob
Georgia_Lang-11.jpg
Georgia: Queen T'amar (1184-1213) AE dirham (Koronikov-420; Lang-11b) w. countermark #423 viewsGeorgia: Queen T'amar (1184-1213) AE dirham (Koronikov-420; Lang-11b)

Obv: Bagratid royal emblem in the form of a standard; Georgian initials to left and right: ႧႰ=ႧამაႰ (T'amar) and ႣႧ=ႣავიႧ (David); Georgian initials on top left and top right: ႵႩ=ႵორონიႩონსა (Koronikonsa/Year); Georgian initials on bottom left and bottom right: ႯႩ=420
Rev: Christian inscriptions in arabic script; countermark #4

ملكة الملكات (Malekat al-Malekaat(s); Queen of Queens)
جلال الدنيا و الدين (Jellal Al-Dunya Wal Din; Glory of the World and Faith)
تامارابنة كوركى (Tamar Ibnat Kurki; T'amar daughter of Giorgi)
ظهير المسيح (Zahir Al-Massih; Champion of the Messiah)

The Georgian year is encoded using the "Paschal cycle". This dating system is based on the creation date being March 22, 5604 BC. From this date, they ran through a 532-year cycle. So, Year 1 was March 22, 5604 BC for the 1st cycle. And the 13th cycle's Year 1 was March 22, 781 AD. For years 346 to 532, add 780 to obtain the corresponding year in AD. The year starts off at March 22nd for each AD year. So, 420 + 780 = March 22, 1200 AD. For more information, please see Sweeny...

References:

Langlois, Victor, Numismatique de la Géorgie au Moyen Âge, A. Leleux, 1852
Пахомов, Евгений, Монеты Грузии, Мецниреба, 1970 (Pakhomov, Evgeny, Coins of Georgia, Metsnireba, 1970)
Sweeny, James O., Tempus in Nummis, Volume 1, Numismatics International, 1992
SpongeBob
Lang-10.jpg
Georgia: Queen T'amar (1184-1213) AE dirham (Lang-10; Pakhomov-56)14 viewsQueen Tamar, 1184-1213 AD Fals (Dirham) 1187, on irregular cast flan of two connected round shapes, each with an impression of the dies, one counter mark. Lang 10 Pakhomov 56
SpongeBob
GEPAEPYRIS.jpg
Gepaepyris, wife of Aspurgus, with stepson, Mithradates.190 viewsBosphorus Kingdom. Ć 12 nummia (24 mm).
Obv: BACILEWC MIQRADATOU, Diad. hd. of Mithradates, r.
Rev: BACILLICCHC GHPAPUREWC, Diad., dr. bust of Queen Gepaepyris, r.; before IB. SNG XI 968. Similar to
Anokhin Bosphorus 331; SGI 5433; BMC 13.51, 5.
EmpressCollector
prussia_1861_thaler_graffiti_obv_03_rev_03.JPG
German State - Prussia 1861 Coronation Thaler225 viewsPrussia 1861 Kroenungsthaler
obv:
WILHELM KOENIG AUGUSTA KOENIGIN V. PREUSSEN
Busts of King and Queen of Prussia.
rev:
SUUM CUIQUE KROENUNGS THALER 1861
Eagle, wings spread, head left. Sceptre and globe held in feet. Letters around, 4 crowns.

*Graffiti: On the obverse of this coin two dates have been carved in the open fields on either side of the busts. They appear to be "27/3/83" and "24/3/83" I don't know whether the '83" in the date is for 1883 or 1983, since this coin was minted in 1861.
rexesq
prussia_1861_thaler_graffiti_obv_01_rev_01.JPG
German State - Prussia 1861 Coronation Thaler305 viewsPrussia 1861 Kroenungsthaler
obv:
WILHELM KOENIG AUGUSTA KOENIGIN V. PREUSSEN
Busts of King and Queen of Prussia.
rev:
SUUM CUIQUE
KROENUNGS THALER 1861
Eagle, wings spread, head left. Sceptre and globe held in feet. Letters around, 4 crowns.

*Graffiti: On the obverse of this coin two dates have been carved in the open fields on either side of the busts. They appear to be "27/3/83" and "24/3/83" I don't know whether the '83" in the date is for 1883 or 1983, since this coin was minted in 1861.
rexesq
GB_1898_Crown.JPG
Great Britain, Victoria, 1837 - 190110 viewsObv: VICTORIA . DEI . GRA . BRITT . REGINA . FID . DEF . IND . IMP, bust of Queen Victoria facing left.

Rev: No legend, St. George on horseback, slaying a dragon, 1898 in exergue.

"Regni LXII"

Silver Crown

27.89 grams, 38.62 mm
SPQR Coins
GB_1892_Crown.JPG
Great Britain, Victoria, 1837 - 190111 viewsObv: VICTORIA D . G . BRITT : REG : F : D, bust of Queen Victoria facing left.

Rev: No legend, St. George on horseback, slaying a dragon, 1892 in exergue

Silver Crown

28.2 grams, 38.55 mm
SPQR Coins
GB_Half_P_1853.JPG
Great Britain, Victoria, 1837 - 190115 viewsObv: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA, young head of Queen Victoria facing left, 1853 below.

Rev: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated right, upon a shield, holding a trident; rose, thistle, and shamrock in exergue.

Half Penny

9.5 grams, 28.11 mm
Matt Inglima
GB_Half_Crown_1845.JPG
Great Britain, Victoria, 1837 - 190115 viewsObv: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA, young head of Queen Victoria facing left, 1845 below.

Rev: BRITANNIARUM REGINA FID: DEF: crowned shield of Great Britain within a laurel wreath; rose, thistle, and shamrock below.

Silver Half Crown

14 grams, 31.93 mm
Matt Inglima
GB_Florin_1873.JPG
Great Britain, Victoria, 1837 - 190117 viewsObv: Victoria d: g: britt: reg: f: d: mdccclxxiii (in Gothic script), young bust of Queen Victoria facing left; die number 218 below.

Rev: One florin - one tenth of a pound (in Gothic script), crowned shields, roses, thistle and shamrock between.

Silver Florin, London Mint, 1873

11.4 grams, 29.84 mm
Matt Inglima
JET_GB_To_Hanover.jpg
Great Britain. To Hanover (Cumberland Jack)12 viewsGame counter, gilded bronze; 21.5 mm., 0°

Obv: VICTORIA -- REGINA, bust of Victoria facing left

Rev: TO HANOVER, figure of monkey riding a horse to the right, leaping over a dragon (in the style of St George slaying the dragon), 1837 in exergue.

Edge: milled

When William IV died in 1837, Victoria was crowned Queen of Great Britain. However she was prevented by Salic law, which barred a female from acceding the throne, from also being crowned Queen of Hanover. There was agitation in Britain for the repeal of Hanover's Salic law, to no avail. Her unpopular uncle, Ernest Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland, who was William's oldest male heir, was sent off to Hanover as king. For the first time since the accession of George I in 1714, the unified British and Hanoverian monarchies were split. Ernest's income as King of Hanover was considerably greater than his modest allowance as Duke of Hanover. He therefore hastened to occupy his new throne, and to collect his revenues.

The gaming tokens (commonly known as "jacks") bearing the words "To Hanover" (commonly known as Cumberland Jacks) are satirical pieces. They are usually found with Victoria's portrait on the obverse and the year 1837, in which she and Ernest acceded to their thrones, in the exergue on the reverse. The reverse design is based on that of St. George slaying the dragon found on Britain's gold sovereigns. Instead, they depict Ernest (usually with the face of a monkey) riding a horse and leaping over the dragon in his haste to claim his throne. They express the sentiment that Britain is pleased to welcome Victoria to the throne but bids good riddance to Ernest. They were produced from around the time of Victoria's ascension in 1837 until their production was made illegal in 1883.
Stkp
bpP1C1Nabat.jpg
GREEK, Nabataea, Aretas IV and Queen Shaqilath48 viewsObv: (Aramaic legend)
Conjoined busts of King Aretas IV (right) and queen Shaqilath.
Rev: (Aramaic inscription in three lines).
Two cornucopiae crossed. between them 'Aretas Shaqilath' in three lines.
4.6 gm 19 mm 9 BC-40 AD. Sear (GIC) 5699
Comment: Nabataea remained a kingdom until the 2nd century AD when Trajan created the Roman Province of Arabia.
Massanutten
Sv1381_GAE916_AE22_7x114g_12h.jpg
GREEK, Ptolemaic Egypt, Ptolemy VI and Kleopatra I199 viewsRare middle-size bronze of the series that has unusual name of Queen Kleopatra I (BASILISES KLEOPATRAS) on the *obverse* in addition to the usual BASILEOS PTOLEMAIOY on the reverse. Svoronos 1381. Full sharp inscriptions, centered. Nice.
Portrait of 'Alexandria' on obverse, open-wing eagle on reverse with PI/A monogram to left.

22mm - 7.114 gram - 12h

Kleopatra I was the daughter of Antiochos III, married off to Ptolemy V at the end of the 5th Syrian war ca 195BC, tying up the turnover and permanent loss of all of Phoenician Ptolemaic territory (Tyre, Sidon, Ake-Ptolemais, etc.) to the Seleukid kingdom. Mother of Ptolemy VI who assumed the throne at age 5 upon the death of Ptolemy V, Kleopatra I was his regent until her death in 176 BC. An unusual series of three sizes of bronze coins (Svoronos 1380, 81, 82) bear her name on the obverse where most Ptolemaic bronzes have no inscription at all. When Antiochos IV attacked Egypt ca. 170 BC and captured Ptolemy VI, ruling for a time with him, it was all in the family. Antiochos IV was the young Egyptian king's uncle, through the earlier marriage of Kleopatra I into the Lagid court of Alexandria. Interesting and historic coin type, unusual layout of inscriptions for a Ptolemaic bronze.
5 commentsPtolemAE
LarryW2209.jpg
GS Sicily, Syracuse, c. 250-215 BC179 viewsSilver 5 litrae, 18.3mm, 4.43g, nice VF
Reign of Hieron II 275-215 BC
Veiled head of Queen Philistis left, palm fond right / BAΣIΛIΣΣAΣ ΦIΛIΣTIΔOΣ Nike driving Biga left, E. in left field. Very dark green patina nearing black and translucent. RCOA
Ex: Private sale; Atlantis; ADM Collection; Ratto, 1929, lot 213
BMC p. 214, #559v; SNG ANS 893 (same dies)
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_C.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)88 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, bust of boy facing within laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 3 (this token).

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.

Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. The most common of the three tokens was apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building, and this token was apparently issued at a later date in connection with a lesser fund drive.
Stkp
JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_B.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)111 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated.

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, bust of boy facing within laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 2 (this token).

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.

Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. The most common of the three tokens was apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building, and this token was apparently issued at a later date in connection with a lesser fund drive.
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JCT_Hebrew_Kindergarten_A.JPG
Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home (New York , N.Y. & Far Rockaway, Queens County, N.Y.)85 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (probably ca. 1923).

Obv: HEBREW KINDERGARTEN & INFANTS HOME and 35 & 37 MONTGOMERY ST. N.Y.C./CENTRAL & PLAINVIEW AVES. FAR ROCKAWAY, along toothed rim, girl standing with outstretched arms within solid laureate wreath in center.

Rev: HAVE A HEART/HELP THE/ORPHANS/ -- AND --/GOD WILL/HELP YOU, within solid laureate wreath, GOOD LUCK COIN along toothed rim, beneath.

Ref: Kaplan, Steven H.. “Great Appeal, Kindergarten Tokens Asked for Support,” The Shekel, XLIV No. 1 (January-February 2011) 49-53, Figure 1 (this token); Meshorer, Coins Reveal 144.

Note: The Hebrew Kindergarten and Day Nursery Association was established in 1905 at 29 Montgomery Street as a nursery for the care of children of working mothers. It purchased 35 and 37 Montgomery Street in 1913 for the construction of a three-story building, which was dedicated in May 1914. In November 1918, it opened a ward for children whose mothers had influenza, and also began to care for children whose mothers had died during the epidemic. By then, there had already been a fund drive in August 1918 to raise $50,000 for an orphanage at Far Rockaway, and another fund drive, to raise $100,000 for the completion of its new building. It was then known as the Hebrew Kindergarten, Day and Night Nursery. It formally changed its name to Hebrew Kindergarten & Infants Home, Inc. in August 1925, although it was apparently using that name as early as 1923. Its infant home in Far Rockaway was at the intersection of Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue/Beach 20th Street, and an address of both 310 Central Avenue and 310 Beach 20th Street. It still operates an early childhood program/day care program for ages pre-kindergarten through kindergarten on a nonsectarian basis at that location.
Note: Three different fundraising tokens were issued, all of which contain the address of the day school on Montgomery Street as well as the addresses of the orphanage on Plainview Avenue and Central Avenue, in Far Rockaway. This is the most common of the three tokens, and apparently issued in connection with the August 1923 fund drive for the completion of that building.
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Home of Old Israel (New York, New York)140 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (but probably minted in 1928).

Obv: תשליכני לצת זקנה אל [Do not cast us off in our old age. (Psalm 71:9)] and 204 HENRY ST., N.Y.C. along toothed rim, TO PITY/IS HUMAN/TO HELP/IS/GODLIKE/HOME OF/OLD ISRAEL, between busts of woman and bearded man.

Rev: HELP US BUILD OUR NEW HOME and 301-2-3 EAST BWAY., N.Y.C. along toothed rim with rosettes between, CONTRIBUTION.ONE DOLLAR, beneath building.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 146; Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 7.

Note: Founded in 1922 by real estate developer Louis Singer as a privately-endowed non-sectarian institution providing free housing, meals, activities and care of the aged, the Home moved from Henry Street to 70 Jefferson Street on March 31, 1929. It relocated to Far Rockaway, Queens in 1965. In the early 1970s the Home merged into the Jewish Association for Services for the Aged.

Note: In 1922, the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (the rabbinical seminary of Yeshiva University) was located at 301-303 East Broadway, and only moved to 186th Street and Amsterdam Avenue in 1928/1929. The Home must not have also occupied the East Broadway address, therefore, until 1928/1929. Thus, the token can be tentatively dated to 1928 (while the Home was still located at Henry Street but after it expanded into East Broadway). It was probably issued in connection with the 1928 fund drive for the Jefferson Street property.
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HUNGARY - Ladislaus IV180 viewsHUNGARY - Ladislaus IV (1270-1290) AR Denar. Dragon (or Griffin)/King and Queen facing under arcase of castle/church; starts above. Husz. #390.dpaul7
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HUNGARY - MARIA160 viewsHUNGARY - Queen Maria (1383-1395) AR Denar. Husz. 569. Obv.: CROWN, "+mARIE D R VGARIE"/Patriarchal cross, "+ mOnETA mARIE R".dpaul7
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Hungary: Ladislaus IV (1272-1290) Denár (Huszár-390)20 viewsObv: Facing king & queen, under arches, tower with cross at center of arches, between two stars
Rev: Dragon facing left
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-1_v_.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-1 var., Unger 443a var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var.13 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .51 g., 14.95 mm. max., 270°.

Obv: + mARIE • D • R • VnGARIE [Gothic-style letters A], crown with interior cross hatching.

Rev: + mO ... n ... mARIE • REI [Gothic-style letters A with interior bar], Patriarchal cross with pellets [overstrike].

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists seven variations among seventeen coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The precise legend combination on this coin cannot be discerned due to the reverse over-strike.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which occurs among two identified coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). Neither the crown nor the cross comport with any recorded by Toma.
Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ. This coin is an unusual variety both in terms of the cross-hatching on the obverse and the style of crown and cross
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-4_Rupp_9.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-4 var., Unger 443d var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., cf. Rupp 43/926 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .40 g., 14.08 mm. max, 180°

Obv: + mOnETA • mARIA • [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], Open crown with CM below

Rev: ...OnETA ... [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar; double-struck], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár 569 was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a Cm below the crown, was struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Craczer in 1385 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of the standard type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among five coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, only one of which, Toma A/b, appears among four coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4). This coin appears to bear the A/b combination.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. Due to the double-striking of the cross side of this coin, most of the legend is undecipherable. From the few letters that can be discerned, that side, like the crown side, appears to read, + mOnETA mARIA (or a variant). If so, this coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas, nor by Toma. It is, however, recorded by Rupp.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-4.JPG
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-4 var., Unger 443d var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., Rupp 42/4-6 Tab XV/430, Toma Exceptional Version A Plate III/15-17 var. (legends)178 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .56 g., 15.24 mm. max, 0°

Obv: + REGInE • VnGARI [Gothic-style letter A], Open crown with CM below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIE [Gothic-style letters A], Patriarchal cross

As both sides of the standard Huszár 569 carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár 569 was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a Cm below the crown, was struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Craczer in 1385 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of the standard type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among five coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, only one of which, Toma A/b, appears among four coins with a Cm (Pohl 114-4). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas. It is also not included in Toma's tabulation of legend variations or design combinations. It was recorded by Rupp with the Cm mark (Pohl 114-4) and viewed by Unger (1974) to be a distinct type, although it is not included in his catalog. Toma notes 16 coins of this variation in the hoard, bearing four privy marks, eleven with this mark but different legend combinations (Toma plate III/15-17). This combination is represented with a different mark from Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz. Toma refers to the side with the patriarchal cross as the obverse, and notes that the design and legend are as per the obverse of Huszár 566. Toma refers to the side with the crown as the reverse, and notes that legend is as per the reverse legend of Huszár 566 but that the design is as per the obverse of Huszár 569. Toma concludes that this variation represents a distinct type, chronologically sandwiched between the earlier Huszár 569 and later Huszár 566.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-5_1.jpg
Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-5 var., Unger 443e var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., Toma plate III/3 var. Probably a contemporary counterfeit.17 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .45 g., 15.88 mm. max., 270°

Obv: +mOnIE...R VnGARIE [unconventional-style letter A and other letters], Open crown with h below

Rev: + mOnETA mARIE [unconventional-style letters A and other letters], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). Coins with a letter h privy mark below the crown were struck in Nagyszeben/Hermannstadt, now Sibiu, Romania, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation among just three coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma. Although many letters are indistinct, the style of many letters is unconventional and the legend on the crown side appears to be bungled. This suggests that the coin is a contemporary counterfeit.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, C/a, occurs aamong coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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Huszár 569 var., Pohl 114-8 var., Unger 443h var., Réthy II 116 var., Frynas H.26.4 var., Rupp 42/4-6 var. (legend and privy mark) Plate XV/430, Toma Exceptional Version A 23 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .54 g., 14.36 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + REGIn... VnGARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Open crown with K below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIE [Gothic-style letters A; letter T stylized to resemble a letter m], Patriarchal cross

As both sides of the standard Huszár 569 carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár 569 was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter K below the crown, was struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia) in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

The letter T on the reverse of this coin is stylized to resemble the letter m. Toma notes that this style of letter T appears on the coins of this type struck at Körmöcbánya, but this apparently occurs only on those bearing the this privy mark (Pohl 114-8) and not on those bearing the Cm mark (Pohl 114-2).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of the standard type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among five coins with a Cm mark (Pohl 114-4).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, Toma A/b, appears on the single coin with this mark (Pohl 114-8). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5. This coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas. It is also not included in Toma's tabulation of legend variations or design combinations. It was recorded by Rupp with the K mark (Pohl 114-8) and viewed by Unger (1974) to be a distinct type, although it is not included in his catalog. Toma notes 16 coins of this variation in the hoard, bearing four privy marks, three with this mark, one which may bear this legend combinations. Toma refers to the side with the patriarchal cross as the obverse, and notes that the design and legend are as per the obverse of Huszár 566. Toma refers to the side with the crown as the reverse, and notes that legend is as per the reverse legend of Huszár 566 but that the design is as per the obverse of Huszár 569. Toma concludes that this variation represents a distinct type, chronologically sandwiched between the earlier Huszár 569 and later Huszár 566.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-1.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-1, Unger 443a, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.438 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .48 g., 15.23 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: + mARIE : D • R • VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], crown with pellet above.

Rev: + mOnETA : mARIE : RE : [antiqua-style letters A with interior bar], Patriarchal cross with pellets.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among two coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The legend combination on this coin is not represented in the hoard.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which occurs among the two identified coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The design combination on this coin is Toma A/a (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b; cross a is linked only with crown A).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-10.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-10, Unger 443k, Réthy II 116 Frynas H.26.4, Toma Plate III/9-10 var. (legends)54 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .48 g., 15.06 mm max. 90°

Obv: + MARIA • ... nGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Open crown with letter n below.

Rev: + M...ETA • MARIA, Patriarchal cross.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the letter n privy mark below the crown, was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among just two coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-10). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, A/b, occurs among coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-10). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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Huszár 569, Pohl 114-13, Unger 443n, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.424 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .51 g., 13.84 mm. max, 0°

Obv: + mARIA • R • vnGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Open crown with letter V below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIA [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the letter V privy mark below the crown, was struck in Nagyvärad/Värad (now Oradea, Romania) in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-13) are not represented in the hoard.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-14.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-14, Unger 443q, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Tomar Plate III/13 var. (legends)29 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .57 g., 13.33 mm. Max., 0°

Obv: + M...D G R VGARIE [antiqua-style letter A without interior bars], Open crown with lily below.

Rev: + MOnETA • MARIE R V [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Patriarchal cross with pellet below.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the lily privy mark below the crown, was struck in Kassa/Kaschau (now Košice, Slovakia) in 1386-1995 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation among ten coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-14), but this coin does not comport with that variation.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, D/d, occurs among the ten coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-14). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma D/d (crown D is linked only with cross d and vive versa), or a variant of cross d with shorter cross arms

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-16~0.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-16, Unger 443p, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Rupp 42/4-6 var. Tab XV/430 (legends and privy mark), Toma Exceptional Version A Plate III/15-17 var. (legends and privy mark)27 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .58 g, 14.6 mm. max, 270°

Obv: + REGIn...V...RIE, Open crown with letter O below

Rev: + MOnE...MARIE [Gothic-style letter A], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The standard Huszár was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with the letter O privy mark below the crown, was struck at an unidentified mint in 1386-1389 (per Pohl). This appears to be a variation of the privy mark.

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-16) are not represented in the hoard.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma B/b.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. This coin is a variation of the type not described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl, Unger and Réthy, or Frynas. It is also not included in Toma's tabulation of legend variations or design combinations. It was recorded by Rupp with the Cm mark (Pohl 114-4) and viewed by Unger (1974) to be a distinct type, although it is not included in his catalog. Toma notes 16 coins of this variation in the hoard, bearing four privy marks, but not this mark (Toma plate III/15-17). Toma refers to the side with the patriarchal cross as the obverse, and notes that the design and legend are as per the obverse of Huszár 566. Toma refers to the side with the crown as the reverse, and notes that legend is as per the reverse legend of Huszár 566 but that the design is as per the obverse of Huszár 569. Toma concludes that this variation represents a distinct type, chronologically sandwiched between the earlier Huszár 569 and later Huszár 566.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-2_2.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-2, Unger 443b, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.431 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .50 g., 14.59 mm. max., 180°.

Obv: [+] mARIA • R • VnGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], crown with antiqua-style letter A without interior bar, below.

Rev: + mOnET... RIA [antiqua-style letters A], Patriarchal cross.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with an antiqua-style letter A without interior bar privy mark below the crown, was struck in Székesfehérvár/Alba Regia in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists seven variations among seventeen coins with this privy mark (Pohl 112-2). The legend combination on this coin appears to be Toma 5.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, three of which occur among fifteen identified coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-2). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma B/b (crown B is linked only with crosses b and c; cross b is linked only with crowns A and B).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-2~0.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-2, Unger 443b, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.423 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .53 g., 15.33 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + mARIE D G R VGARI [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], Open crown with antiqua-style letter A without interior bar, below

Rev: + m ... ARIE R V [antiqua-style letter A], Patriarchal cross, pellet below

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with an antiqua-style letter A without interior bar privy mark below the crown, was struck in Székesfehérvár/Alba Regia in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists seven variations among seventeen coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-2). The obverse legend is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, three of which occur among fifteen coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-2). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma B/c (crown B is linked only with crosses b and c; cross c is linked only with crown B).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-3.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-3, Unger 443c, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.417 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .49 g., 15.12 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + mARIE • R • VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], crown with interior cross hatching. A with an interior crossbar below.

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIA [antiqua-style letters A without interior bar], Patriarchal.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with an antiqua-style letter A with interior bar privy mark below the crown, was struck in Székesfehérvár/Alba Regia in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists just one coin with the A with interior bar privy mark (Pohl 114-3). The legend combination on this coin is not recorded by Toma.
Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which occurs among two identified coins without a privy mark (Pohl 114-1). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/b (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b; cross b is linked only with crowns A and B).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-5_2.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-5, Unger 443e, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Toma plate III/3 var. (legends)21 views
Hungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .55 g., 16.07 mm. max., 90°

Obv: + mARIE • D R VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A without and with interior bars], Open crown with h below

Rev: + mOnETA • mARIE • R • VI [antiqua-style letters A with interior bar], Patriarchal cross with pellets

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter h privy mark below the crown, was struck in Nagyszeben/Hermannstadt, now Sibiu, Romania, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists one variation among just three coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which, C/a, occurs aamong coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-5). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
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HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-6.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-6, Unger 443f, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4, Toma plate III/4 var. (legends)19 views
Hungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .55 g., 15.05 mm. max., 270°

Obv: + mARIE • D • R VnGARIE • [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Open crown with I below

Rev: . . . mOnETA • mAR . . . [antiqua-style letters A without interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter I privy mark below the crown, was struck in an unidentified mint in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists two variations among just three coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6). This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, two of which occur among coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6). The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma A/a (crown A is linked only with crosses a and b).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-7.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-7, Unger 443g, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.415 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .51 g., 15.52 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + mARIE • D • R VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Open crown with iS [retrograde letter s] below.

Rev: . . . OnETA • mARI... [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with letters Is privy mark below the crown, was tentatively struck in Pozsony/Istropolis/Pressburg, now Bratislava, Slovakia, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl). A retrograde letter s within the mark is not recorded by Huszár, Pohl and Unger.

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6) are not represented in the hoard. They are also not represented in Gyöngyössy. This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569_Pohl_114-7_2.jpg
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-7, Unger 443g, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.417 views
Hungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .53 g., 15.46 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + mARIE • D • R VnGARIE [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Open crown with iS below

Rev: + mOnETA mARIE • R • V [antiqua-style letters A with interior bars], Patriarchal cross

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with letters Is privy mark below the crown, was tentatively struck in Pozsony/Istropolis/Pressburg, now Bratislava, Slovakia, in 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Coins with this privy mark (Pohl 114-6) are not represented in the hoard. They are also not represented in Gyöngyössy. This legend variation is not recorded by Toma.

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a (crown C is linked only with cross a).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
Stkp
HUN_Maria_Huszar_569.JPG
Huszár 569, Pohl 114-9, Unger 443j, Réthy II 116, Frynas H.26.4164 viewsHungary. Maria/Mária (1382-1387 solo reign; 1387-1395 with husband Sigismund/Zsigmond of Luxembourg)

AR denar, .43 g., 14.8 mm. max, 0°

Obv: + MARIE • R • VnGARI [Gothic-style letter A], Open crown with m below.

Rev: + MOnETA • MARIE [Gothic-style letter A; letter T stylized to resemble an m], Patriarchal cross.

As both sides carry a titular legend, there is no consensus regarding obverse and reverse. The fullest legend on the side identified by Huszár and Pohl as the obverse (the side with the crown) is + mARIE D G R VnGARIE (although most coins are missing at least the first G). The fullest legend on the side identified by Unger, Réthy, Frynas and Gyöngyössy as the obverse (the side with the patriarchal cross) is + mOnETA mARIE R V. Since the letters R V are so often omitted from the cross side, Toma accepts the crown side as the obverse.

The type was struck in 1384-1395 (per Huszár, with Unger and Frynas agreeing that it incepted in 1384) or in 1385-1395 (per Pohl), and is traditionally viewed as the last of three denarii struck by Maria. More recently, it has been viewed as the second type struck by her (after Huszár 565 and before Huszár 566), in 1383-1385 (per Gyöngyössi and Toma). This coin, with a letter m below the crown, was struck at an unidentified mint ca. 1386-1395 (per Pohl).

The letter T on the reverse of this coin is stylized to resemble the letter m. Toma notes that this style of letter T appears on the Huszár 566 struck at Kassa/Kaschau (now Košice, Slovakia) (Pohl 112-2) and on those of this type struck at Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz (now Kremnica, Slovakia), but this apparently occurs only on those bearing the letter K privy mark (Pohl 114-8) and not on those bearing the Cm mark (Pohl 114-2).

Toma notes fifteen legend variations among 45 coins of this type within the Cluj-Mănăştur Hoard, found in Cluj-Napoca, Romania (formerly, Kolozsvár, Hungary), in 1934. They differ mainly in terms of completeness of legends, spelling of the queen's name, presence of pellets, and the styles of the letter A. Toma lists no coins with this privy mark (Pohl 112-9).

Toma further notes four versions of the crown and four versions of the patriarchal cross on the standard type. There are six obverse/reverse design combinations appearing among 41 coins in the hoard, one of which. The design combination on this coin appears to be Toma C/a.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 5, Frynas rarity C. The legend combination described/depicted in Huszár and Pohl; in Unger and Réthy, and in Frynas, all differ.
Stkp
HUN_Albert_Huszar_592_Pohl_127-10.jpg
Huszár 592, Pohl 127-10, Unger 461s, Réthy II 135B29 viewsHungary. Albert (1437-1439). AR denar, .54 g., 14.80 mm. max., 0°

Obv: m • ALBERTI • – R • VnGARIE •, Patriarchal cross, K–P (privy mark) in fields.

Rev: Central shield with Árpádian stripes, surrounded by three shields bearing (in clockwise order) Austrian stripe, Moravian eagle and Bohemian lion, all within border.

The type was struck in 1438-40 (per Unger and Pohl) or 1439-1440 (per Huszár). This privy mark was struck posthumously in 1440 in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya/now Kremnica, Slovakia, under Queen Elizabeth by Konrad Polnar, kammergraf.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Lajos_II_contemprary_counterfeit.png
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525 (contemporary counterfeit).15 viewsHungary. Louis/Lajos II (1516-1526)

AR (contemporary counterfeit) denar, .33 g., 15.46 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: [LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI] * 1525, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon [bungled and retrograde legend and date].

Rev: [PATRONA] * – * [VNGAR]IE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B in fields [bungled and retrograde legend].

Type struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl, Unger & Gyöngyössy). Officially struck coins bearing this privy mark struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Bernhard Beheim, the kammergraf appointed by Queen Maria in 1524, who continued in office until 1545 (per Pohl).

The silver content of this coin appears to be comparable to that of the inflationary currency referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova” (Huszár 846, Pohl 258, Unger 675, Réthy II 308A). Four hundred denars, each weighing on average 0.49 g., were struck form an Ofner mark of silver and had an average fineness of 0.250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3, Unger value 8 DM (re official emission).
Stkp
HUN_Lajos_II_1525_Huszar_841_Pohl_255-19_K-B.jpg
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525.21 viewsHungary. Louis/Lajos II (1516-1526). AR denar, .55 gr., 15.29 mm. max., 180°.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1525 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Bernhard Beheim, who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545 (per Pohl).
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1526_Pohl_255-19.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1526 53 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGA * 1526 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Bernhard Beheim, who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
Stkp
HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1525_Pohl_255-20.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-20, Unger 673p, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525 49 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1525 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–β (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Bernhard Beheim (who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545) and Johannes Lengyel (who was co-kammergraf, with Beheim, in 1525/1526) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
Stkp
HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1526_Pohl_255-20.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-20, Unger 673p, Réthy II 306A, dated 1526 55 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGAR * 1526 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–β (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Bernhard Beheim (who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545) and Johannes Lengyel (who was co-kammergraf, with Beheim, in 1525/1526) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
Stkp
INDIA_VICTORIA_RUPEE.jpg
INDIA - British19 viewsINDIA - British, Queen Victoria, AR Rupee, 1887. Obv: Victoria facing left; VICTORIA EMPRESS. Rev.: ONE/RUPEE/1887 in ornamental wreath. Reference: KM#492.dpaul7
INDIA_-_EIC_1840_1_RUPEE.jpg
INDIA - East India Company13 viewsINDIA - East India Company (British); AR 1 Rupee, 1840. Obv.: Bust right; VICTORIA QUEEN. Rev.: Denomination in wreath; EAST INDIA COMPANY 1840 around. Reference: KM#458.2.dpaul7
india_didda_rani.jpg
India Kashmir, Didda Rani, 979-1003 Ae stater24 views Obv. Enthroned Ardoxsho facing, Nagari legend: "Shri-Di-[da]"
Rev. Queen Didda Rani standing facing
1 commentsSkyler
Gupta_Empire,_Samudragupta,_Gold_Dinar,_7_9g,_Standard_Type.jpg
INDIA, Gupta Empire - Samudragupta65 viewsGupta Empire, Samudragupta, Gold Dinar, 7.9g, Standard or Sceptre Type

Obv: King, nimbate and wearing fine ornaments, standing facing left and sacrificing at fire altar, holding the royal sceptre (rājadanda) in left hand, Garuda-dhwajja (standard) to the left, Brāhmī legend under left arm: Sa-mu-dra, circular sanskrit legend in Upagati metre inscribed in Brāhmī script around /Samarashatavitatavijayo Jitaripur Ajito Divam Jayati meaning (the emperor) who conquered all his enemies scoring victories in numerous battles wins heaven (thru his good deeds).

Rev: Lakshmi enthroned facing, holding cornucopia and diadem, both feet resting on a dotted cushion, tamgha to left and Brāhmī legend at right: Parākramah (Valour)

The Gupta period is considered the "Golden Age" of classical India. This was a time when great universities flourished in Nalanda and Taxila, and great writers such as the playwright Kalidasa and great scientists such as the mathematician and astronomer Aryabhatta, who is credited with the concept of zero among his many achievements, helped create an atmosphere of tremendous creative impulse. Gupta art is regarded as the high point of classical Indian art, and the coinage is equally regarded as among the most beautiful of ancient India.

Samudra Gupta was a prolific coin issuer and issued seven different types of Gold coins viz. the standard type, archer type, the battle axe (Parashu) type, tiger slayer type, Ashwamedha type, the King-Queen type and the ‘Lyrist’ (Veena player) type. While the archer, battle axe and tiger slayer type's showcase his martial achievements, unique amongst Indian Numismatics (and perhaps the World) is the Lyrist type that exhibits his softer and gentler side.

The standard type coin of Samudragupta is undoubtedly one of the first Gupta coins as it shows a close similarity to the 'standing-king-offering-sacrifice-at-fire-altar' type Kushan coins. The Gold coin of the Kushan ruler, Shaka, might be the actual prototype, as he was mentioned in Samudragupta's Allahabad inscription and must have been his contemporary.
mitresh
Didda_k.jpg
India, Kashmir. Didda Rani, AD 979-1003. 9 viewsĆ Stater, 19mm, 5.5g, 12h.
Obv.: Ardoxsho enthroned facing.
Rev.: Queen standing.
Reference: Mitchiner Non-Islamic 177-8 / 17-98-30
John Anthony
vijdk.jpg
India. Independant Kingdoms. Madurai Nayakas under Vijayanagar ruler Venkata (Pati) Raya, in the name of Queen Minakshi, A.D. 1732 - 1736 Copper 2-kasu ND.15 viewsoneill6217
tanjores.jpg
India. Independant Kingdoms. Madurai Nayakas under Vijayanagar ruler Venkata (Pati) Raya, in the name of Queen Minakshi, A.D. 1732 - 1736 Copper 2-Kasu ND. Rama and Sita seated facing one another / Shivling.27 viewsoneill6217
kannada.jpg
India. Independant Kingdoms. Madurai Nayakas under Vijayanagar ruler Venkata (Pati) Raya, in the name of Queen Minakshi, A.D. 1732 - 1736 Copper Kasu ND. 14 viewsIndia. Independant Kingdoms. Madurai Nayakas under Vijayanagar ruler Venkata (Pati) Raya, in the name of Queen Minakshi, A.D. 1732 - 1736 Copper Kasu ND.

9.7mm
1.8 grams
KM 14
oneill6217
uguhugugtcrcbjnk.jpg
India. Independant Kingdoms. Madurai Nayakas under Vijayanagar ruler Venkata (Pati) Raya, in the name of Queen Minakshi, A.D. 1732 - 1736 Copper kasu ND.8 viewsoneill6217
Isle_of_Man_1_Crown_1979_Millenium_of_Tynwald_(2).jpg
Isle of Man7 viewsIsle of Man

Queen Elisabeth II., seit 1952

1 Crown 1979 (Kupfer-Nickel)

Millenium of Tynwald

Gewicht: 28,28g

Erhaltung: stempelglanz _1082
Antonivs Protti
Isle_of_Man_1_Crown_1979_300_Jahre_eigene_Münze.jpg
Isle of Man9 viewsIsle of Man

Queen Elisabeth II., seit 1952

1 Crown 1979 (Kupfer-Nickel)

300 Jahre eigene Münzen

Gewicht: 28,28g

Erhaltung: stempelglanz _1082
Antonivs Protti
Isle_of_Man_1_Crown_1979_Millenium_of_Tynwald.jpg
Isle of Man11 viewsIsle of Man

Queen Elisabeth II., seit 1952

1 Crown 1979 (Kupfer-Nickel)

Millenium of Tynwald

Gewicht: 28,28g

Erhaltung: stempelglanz _903
Antonivs Protti
Isle_of_Man_1_Crown_1980_80_Geburtstag_Queen_Mum.jpg
Isle of Man11 viewsIsle of Man

1 Crown 1980 (Kupfer-Nickel)

80.Geburtstag von Queen Mum

Gewicht: 28,28g

Erhaltung: unzirkuliert _747
Antonivs Protti
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Pantheon of Marco V Agripa and Hadrian45 viewsPantheon
The Pantheon is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to all the gods of the Roman state religion, but has been a Christian church since the 7th century AD. It is the only building from the Greco-Roman world which is completely intact and which has been in continuous use throughout its history.

History
The original Pantheon was built in 27 BC under the Roman Republic, during the third consulship of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, and his name is inscribed on the portico of the building. The inscription reads M·AGRIPPA·L·F·COS·TERTIUM·FECIT, "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, consul for the third time, built this."

In fact, Agrippa's Pantheon was destroyed by fire in AD 80, and the Pantheon was completely rebuilt in about AD 125, during the reign of the Emperor Hadrian, as date-stamps on the bricks reveal. It was totally reconstructed, with the text of the original inscription (referring to Agrippa) added to the new facade, a common practice in Hadrian's rebuilding projects all over Rome.

Hadrian was a cosmopolitan emperor who travelled widely in the east and was a great admirer of Greek culture. He seems to have intended the Pantheon, a temple to all the gods, to be a sort of ecumenical or syncretist gesture to the subjects of the Roman Empire who did not worship the old gods of Rome, or who (as was increasingly the case) worshipped them under other names.

In AD 609 the Byzantine emperor Phocas gave the building to Pope Boniface IV, who reconsecrated it as a Christian church, the Church of Mary and all the Martyr Saints (Santa Maria ad Martyres), which title it retains.

The building's consecration as a church saved it from the abandonment and spoliation which befell the majority of ancient Rome's buildings during the early mediaeval period. The only loss has been the external sculptures, which adorned the pediment above Agrippa's inscription. The marble interior and the great bronze doors have survived, although the latter have been restored several times.

During the reign of Pope Urban VIII, the Pope ordered the bronze ceiling of the Pantheon's portico melted down. Most of the bronze was used to make bombards for the fortification of Castel Sant'Angelo, with the remaining amount used by the Apostolic Chamber for various other works. (It is also said that the bronze was used by Bernini in creating the baldachin above the main altar of St. Peter's Basilica, but according to at least one expert, the Pope's accounts state that about 90% of the bronze was used for the cannon, and that the bronze for the baldachin came from Venice.[1]) This led to the Latin proverb, "Quod non fecerunt barbari, fecerunt Barberini" ("What the barbarians did not do, the Barberinis [family name of Urban VIII] did").

Since the Renaissance the Pantheon has been used as a tomb. Among those buried there are the painters Raphael and Annibale Caracci, the architect Baldassare Peruzzi and two kings of Italy: Vittorio Emanuele II and Umberto I, as well as Vittorio Emanuele's Queen, Margharita.

Although Italy has been a republic since 1946, volunteer members of Italian monarchist organisations maintain a vigil over the royal tombs in the Pantheon. This has aroused protests from time to time from republicans, but the Catholic authorities allow the practice to continue, although the Italian Ministry of Cultural Heritage [2] is in charge of the security and maintenance. The Pantheon is still a church and Masses are still celebrated in the church, particularly for weddings.

Structure
The building is circular with a portico of three ranks of huge granite Corinthian columns (8 in the first rank and 16 in total) under a pediment opening into the rotunda, under a coffered, concrete dome, with a central opening (oculus), open to the sky. The height to the oculus and the diameter of the interior circle are the same (43 metres), so the whole interior would fit exactly within a cube (alternatively, the interior could house a sphere 43 metres in diameter). The dome is the largest surviving from antiquity, and was the largest dome in western Europe until Brunelleschi's dome of the Duomo of Florence was completed in 1436.

It may well be noted that the proportions of the building are in discord with respect to the classical ideal. Most evident is the rather large pediment, which appears far too "heavy" for the columns supporting it. The reason for this was the expectation that the building would be much taller than it actually is, which would effect larger columns. However, by the time the pediment was built, it was realised that the proposed height was unrealistic, and so the builders had to settle with a building somewhat out of proportion.

The composition of the Roman concrete used in the dome remains a mystery. An unreinforced dome in these proportions made of modern concrete would hardly stand the load of its own weight, since concrete has very low tensile strength, yet the Pantheon has stood for centuries. It is known from Roman sources that their concrete is made up of a pasty hydrate lime; pozzolanic ash from a nearby volcano; and fist-sized pieces of rock. In this, it is very similar to modern concrete. The high tensile strength appears to come from the way the concrete was applied in very small amounts and then was tamped down to remove excess water at all stages. This appears to have prevented the air bubbles that normally form in concrete as the material dries, thus increasing its strength enormously.

As the best preserved example of monumental Roman architecture, the Pantheon was enormously influential on European and American architects from the Renaissance to the 19th century. Numerous city halls, universities and public libraries echo its portico-and-dome structure. Examples of notable buildings influenced by the Pantheon include Thomas Jefferson's Rotunda at the University of Virginia, Low Library at Columbia University, New York, and the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, Australia.

John Schou
Italy- Terracina- part of Via Appia.jpg
Italy- Terracina- part of Via Appia47 viewsAppian way
The Appian Way (Latin: Via Appia) is a famous road built by the Romans. It is the most important among the Roman roads; it was called regina viarum, the queen of the roads.

Its construction was started in 312 BC by the consul Appius Claudius Caecus, restructuring an existing track that connected Rome with the Alban Hills (this road has been supposed to be the one that originally brought Latins from Albalonga to the future capital, at the time of its founding).

The original track of the Appian Way connected Rome (from Porta San Sebastiano in the Aurelian Walls, near the Baths of Caracalla) with Ariccia, Forum Appii, Terracina, Fondi, Formia, Minturnae (Minturno), Sinuessa (Mondragone) and finally Capua.

The road was later extended (190 BC) to Benevento (Beneventum) and Venosa which was founded at that time and populated by 20,000 Roman farmers; in a following epoch it was extended to Taranto (Tarentum) and Brindisi (Brundisium).

The Via Appia Traiana would soon have more linearly connected Benevento with Aecae (Troia), Canusium (Canosa) and Barium (Bari).

In 71 BC six thousand slaves rebelling under Spartacus, having been captured after his final defeat and death, were crucified along this road by Marcus Licinius Crassus.

After the fall of the Roman empire, the road was not as used as before; Pope Pius VI ordered its restoration and brought it into new use.

Wide parts of the original road have been preserved, and some are now used by cars (for example, in the area of Velletri). Along the part of the road closest to Rome, one can see many tombs and catacombs of Roman and early Christian origin. Also the Church of Domine Quo Vadis is in the first mile of the road.

The Via Appia was also the site of the first milestones.

A new Appian Way was built in parallel with the old one in 1784.

John Schou
Great_Britain_-_Jersey_1_13_Shilling_1858_img.jpg
Jersey - 1/13th Shilling - 1858 (Queen Victoria)21 viewsPart of a large, mixed world lot I bought on a whim.

34.10 mm. 17.38 gms.
maridvnvm
jersey_victoria.jpg
JERSEY - Victoria19 viewsJERSEY - 1871 1/26 Shilling, CU. Obv.: Queen Victoria right/Coat of arms. KM #4.dpaul7
JubaII.jpg
Juba II & Cleopatra Selene90 viewsREX IVBA
Diademed and draped bust right, club over shoulder

BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠATPA
Headdress of Isis, with stalks of grain, crescent above

Caesarea mint, 25 B.C. - 24 A.D

12.62g

Bronze AE 27, Alexandropoulos 209, Mazard 351 (RRR), SNG Cop 605, De Luynes 4013

Very Rare! Excellent for the type!

From a very old collection


Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (Daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today.

Sold to Calgary Coin Feb 2017
1 commentsJay GT4
JubaCleo.jpg
Juba II & Cleopatra Selene daughter of Antony63 viewsJuba II of Mauretania and Cleopatra Selene

REX IVBA REGIS IVBA E F R A VI
Head of Juba II left.

BACIΛICCA KΛE - OΠATPA
Cleopatra Selene left

dated year 6 = 20-19 BC.

3.12g

Rare

Ex-D. Loates Fine Arts; Ex-William McDonald Collection; Ex-Geoffrey Bell 2012 Fall Auction lot 273

SNG Cop. 546 ; Mazard 357 ; Sear 6000 ; Müller III, 108, 87

Wildwinds example


Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (Daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today. A partial inscription attributed to her reads:

The moon herself grew dark, rising at sunset,
Covering her suffering in the night,
Because she saw her beautiful namesake, Selene,
Breathless, descending to Hades,
With her she had had the beauty of her light in common,
And mingled her own darkness with her death
Jay GT4
Juba_II.jpg
Juba II and Cleopatra Selene218 viewsREX IVBA
Diademed head right

BACIΛICCA KΛEOΠATPA
Star and crescent.

Caesarea; 25 B.C.-23 A.D
17 mm, 2.62 gm

MAA 85; SNG Copenhagen 590; Mazard 300.
VF, toned
Scarce

Ex-ANE

Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today.
6 commentsJay GT4
Jubaselene.jpg
Juba II and Cleopatra Selene84 viewsJuba II of Mauretania and Cleopatra Selene

REX IVBA REGIS IVBA E F R A VI
Head of Juba II left.

BACIΛICCA KΛE - OΠATPA
Cleopatra Selene left

dated year 6 = 20-19 BC.

3.12g

Rare

Ex-William McDonald Collection

SNG Cop. 546 ; Mazard 357 ; Sear 6000 ; Müller III, 108, 87

Wildwinds example


Juba II was the only son and heir of his father King Juba I. King Juba I was the King of Numidia and ally to Pompey the Great. He fought against Julius Caesar at the battle of Thapsus and lost commiting suicide soon after. His son Juba II was taken away to Rome to be paraded in Caesar's Triumph's. He was then raised in Caesar's houshold and educated in both Latin and Greek excelling in his studies. He was praised as one of Rome's most educated citizens and at age 20 even published a work entitled Roman Archaeology. He became life long friends with Julius Caesar's heir Octavian. He accompanied Octavian on several campaigns during the turbulent times after Caesar's death even fighting at the battle of Actium against his future wifes parents...Antony and Cleopatra VII.

Augustus restored Juba II as the king of Numidia between 29 BC-27 BC and Numidia become one of the most loyal client kings that served Rome. Between 26 BC-20 BC, Augustus arranged for him to marry Cleopatra Selene II (Daughter of Antony and Cleopatra) giving her a large dowry and appointing her queen. She also had been paraded in a Triumph in Rome after the battle of Actium. It was probably due to his services with Augustus in a campaign in Spain that led Augustus to make him King of Mauretania.

Cleopatra is said to have exerted considerable influence on Juba II's policies. Juba II encouraged and supported the performing arts, research of the sciences and research of natural history. Juba II also supported Mauretanian trade. Mauretania traded all over the Mediterranean and exported fish grapes, pearls, figs, grain, wooden furniture and purple dye harvested from certain shellfish, which was used in the manufacture of purple stripes for senatorial robes. Juba II sent a contingent to Iles Purpuraires to re-establish the ancient Phoenician dye manufacturing process.

Cleopatra Selene seems to have inherited the same qualities of both Antony and Cleopatra VII. She was strong willed and maintained her Egyptian/Greek heritage. She seems intent on continuing the Ptolomaic line of strong women rulers using the same titles as her mother. She died sometime before Juba II. The Greek Historian Plutarch describes Juba II as 'one of the most gifted rulers of his time'. Between 2 BC-2, he travelled with Gaius Caesar as a member of his advisory staff to the troubled Eastern Mediterranean. In 21, Juba II made his son Ptolemy co-ruler. Juba II died in 23 AD. He had two children by Cleopatra Selene, Ptolomy of Mauretania (1 BC- 40 AD) and Drusilla of Mauretania (born in 5 AD). He was burried in the Mausolium he constructed for himself and his wife which is still visible today. A partial inscription attributed to her reads:

The moon herself grew dark, rising at sunset,
Covering her suffering in the night,
Because she saw her beautiful namesake, Selene,
Breathless, descending to Hades,
With her she had had the beauty of her light in common,
And mingled her own darkness with her death.
2 commentsJay GT4
judaea_hyrcanusII_Hendin479.jpg
Judaea, Johannes Hyrcanus II, TJC S10 var.56 viewsJohn Hyrcanus II (Yonatan), king 67 BC, ethnarch 63-40 BC
AE - Prutah, 13mm, 1.40g
Jerusalem
obv. Legend in paleo-Hebraic in 4 lines in laurel-wreath:
ינתן ה / כהן גדל / ו חבר ה / יהדי
from r. to l.:
YNTN H / KHN GDL / W (Ch)BR H / YHDY
= Yonatan Ha Kohen Gadol We Chaver Ha Yehud[im]
= Yonatan the High Priest and Council of the Jews
rev. Double cornucopiae, decorated with ribbons, pomegranate between horns, in dotted circle
ref. Hendin 479; AJC type Ha31 var.; TJC S10 var. (without H after ChBR!)
VF, crude style as usual, but complete inscription!
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

This type could have been struck during the reign of his mother, Salome Alexandra, as queen, 76-67 BC, or during his reign as king or ethnarch. Some scientists think that this type has been struck under Alexander Jannaeus at the end of his reign. Usually this type is crude with unreadable letters and incomplete legends.
Jochen
SALONINA-7.JPG
Juno Regina, the Queen of the Gods.242 viewsSalonina, wife of Gallienus. Augusta, 254-268 CE.
Silvered Ć antoninianus (21.1 mm), Uncertain Eastern mint, 260-268 CE.
Obv: SALONINA AVG, diademed & draped bust right on crescent.
Rev: IVNO REGINA, Juno standing left, holding patera and scepter, peacock at her feet.
RIC-92; Cohen-67.

Juno was the chief female divinity in the Roman pantheon. She was the wife of Jupiter and a member of the Capitoline Triad. She had many different aspects, such as Juno Moneta, Juno Sospita and Juno Lucina, but here she is depicted as Juno Regina, "Juno the Queen." Juno is usually shown hoding a patera, scepter or a statuette of Athena, and is often accompanied by a peacock.
EmpressCollector
DSCN5015.jpg
Justin II & Queen Sophia ˝ Follis. 565-578 AD. AE 21mm4 viewsJustin II & Queen Sophia ˝ Follis. 565-578 AD.
Obv. D N IVS- Justin, on left, and Sophia on right
Rev. Large K, ANNO to left, TES beneath.
Lee S
KASHMIR_QUEEN_DIDDA_STATER.jpg
KASHMIR - Queen Didda15 viewsKASHMIR - Queen Didda (979-1003) AE Stater. Enthroned Ardoxsho facing; Nagari legend: "Shri-Didda" / Queen standing. Size: 17 mm. dpaul7
Kashmir_Stater_Didda_Rani.jpg
Kashmir Stater Didda Rani14 viewsDidda Rani (sole reign), Kashmir, Bronze Stater, 979 - 1003 AD, 19.5mm, 5.9g, Mitchiner NIS 177-178
OBV: Enthroned Ardoxsho (Goddess Lakshmi) facing; Nagari legend: 'Sri' left and 'Didda' right.
REV: Queen standing facing. Nagari Rani Deva.
SRukke
diddiranicollection.jpg
Kashmir. Kingdoms of Yashakara and Parvagupta. Didda Rani A.D. 979 - 1003. AE stater.100 viewsKashmir. Kingdoms of Yashakara and Parvagupta. Didda Rani A.D. 979 - 1003. AE stater. Queen Didda Rani (979 - 1003 AD) AE Stater. Enthroned Ardoxsho facing; Nagari legend: 'Sri' left and 'DiDda' right. Queen standing.

Mitchiner NIS 177 - 178v.
1 commentsoneill6217
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King William III and Queen Mary II3 viewsKing William III and Queen Mary II - 1694 - Thick Flan Halfpenny

Obverse: co-joined profile busts with GVLIELMVS ET MARIA legend.

Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding a spear and an olive branch, her left arm rests on a shield decorated with the combined crosses of St. George and St. Andrew; around, BRITANNIA
discwizard
Orodes_IV_and_Ulfan,_AE_drachm,_c_150_AD.JPG
Kingdom fo Elymais - Orodes IV and Ulfan, AE drachm, c 150 AD23 viewsOrodes IV and Ulfan
Kingdom of Elymais
AE drachm – 15mm
c. 150 AD
Diademed and cuirassed bust with forked beard and large bunch of hair on top
Chaldeo-Pahlavi legend to left.
Bust of Queen Ulfan or Artemis-Tyche (?), left; diadem (?) behind.
Partial Chaldeo-Pahlavi legend to left
Alram 488; SGIC 5916v.
Ardatirion
bosporos_gepaepyris_Anokhin326var.jpg
Kingdom of Bosporus, Queen Gepaepyris, Anokhin 326 var.59 viewsGepaepyris, AD 37-39
AE 23 (12 nummi), 8.4g
obv. BACILICCHC GHPAIPYREWC
Bust, draped and diademed, r.
rev . Bust of Aphrodite Urania, wearing kalathos and veil, r.
IB before
MacDonald 306; RPC I, 1907 var., Anokhin 326 var.; (They all have IB behind!)
about VF, brown patina with some green highlights

The chief deity of the whole Bosporan kingdom was no doubt Aphrodite Urania: the centre of her worship was on the east side of the strait where she had a temple in Phanagoria and one called the Apatourou on the south side of Lake Corocondamitis: after this sanctuary she is described in inscriptions as Αpatourias or more often Apatorou Medousa [Minns 1913 p. 618].

For more informations please look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'.
Jochen
Orodes_IV_and_Ulfan,_AE_drachm,_c_150_AD.JPG
Kingdom of Elymais - Orodes IV and Ulfan23 viewsKingdom of Elymais - Orodes IV and Ulfan (C. 140-160 AD?) AE drachm – 15mm. Diademed and cuirassed bust with forked beard and large bunch of hair on top. Chaldeo-Pahlavi legend to left. Rev.: Bust of Queen Ulfan or Artemis-Tyche (?), left; diadem (?) behind. Partial Chaldeo-Pahlavi legend to left. Reference: Alram 488; SGIC 5916v. Ex Ardatirion collection.
dpaul7
Elizabeth I Shilling, 1560-1561 AD, London.JPG
Kingdom of England - Elizabeth I Shilling, 1560-1561 AD, London38 viewsElizabeth I, AD 1558-1603
London mint, 1560-1561 AD
Crowned bust of queen facing left
ELIZABETH D G ANG FRA ET HI REGINA
Square shield on long cross fourchée dividing the legend
POSVI DEV ADIVTOREM MEV
Martlet mm
Spink 2555
Ardatirion
Elizabeth I penny.jpg
Kingdom of England - Elizabeth I, AR penny, 1560-1561 AD37 viewsElizabeth I, AD 1558-1603
London mint, 1560-1561 AD
Queen crowned facing left
E D G ROSA SINE SPINA
Square shield on long cross fourchée dividing the legend, Martlet mintmark
CIVITAS LONDON
Spinks 2558
Ardatirion
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Kingdom of Thrace, Rhoemetalkes; Augustus15 viewsobverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΡΟΙΜΗΤΑΛΚΟΥ, jugate heads of Rhoemetalkes, diademed, and queen Pythodoris, draped, right; reverse KAISAROS SEBASTOU, bare head of Augustus rightecoli
s23~0.JPG
Kingdome of Thrace; Augustus18 viewsAugustus, Ć24, Kingdom of Thrace. BASILEWS ROIMHTALKOU, jugate heads of King Rhoemetalkes & Queen Pythodoris right / KAISAROS SEBASTOU, bare head of Augustus right, ewer before. RPC 1711. No.2512.ecoli
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Kings of Aksum, Ezanas (Struck after his conversion to Christianity in 330 A.D.), BMC Aksum 9060 viewsKings of Aksum, Ezanas (Struck after his conversion to Christianity in 330 A.D.) c 330-350 A.D. AE, 0.60g 12mm, Munro-Hay 52; BMC Aksum 90
O: BACI ΛEΨC, draped bust right wearing headcloth
R: +TOV TO APECH TH XWPA (May This [the cross] Please the Country), small cross in circle (generally the interiors of the circle and cross were gilt with gold, but none is evident on this example)

Aksum was the first civilization anywhere to use the cross of Christ on its coins (Pankhurst 27), even before the Romans. King Ezana (also known as Abreha) was the first to do so around 330 CE (Pankhurst 27). Ezana became king sometime between 320-325 CE and as a child, he and his court, were converted to Christianity by Frumentius (Prouty and Rosenfeld 65). Ezana began to use the coins as propaganda to spread his religion by replacing the crescent symbols with the cross. Later rulers from late 4th and 5th centuries incorporated on the coins phrases such as ‘By the grace of God’ and ‘Christ is with us (Munro-Ray 190-2).’

The establishment of Christianity in Aksum saw the beginning of an active pilgrimage traffic between Ethiopia and the Holy Land. Pilgrims traveled down the Nile valley and then across to Palestine and Jerusalem. The pilgrims of course brought their coins with them, and the overt Christian symbolism appealed to the local communities through which they passed. As a result, Axumite bronze coins and local imitations of them saw considerable circulation in Egypt and Palestine. They have been found at numerous 4th to 6th century sites, circulating alongside the regular Roman and Byzantine nummi. A settlement of Coptic Ethiopian monks remains in Jerusalem to this day, their main shrine being on the roof of the Holy Sepulchre church, the only location permitted them by the more numerous Christian sects.

Aksum is the purported home of the Ark of the Covenant. According to regional tradition, the Ark is housed in the Church of Mary of Zion. The Ark, according to legends, was brought to Aksum by King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba's son and placed under guard. No one but the one guard priest is allowed in, and thus no one can verify the Ark's existence. According to the Kebra Nagast, when Menelik, came to visit his father in Jerusalem, his father gave him a copy of the Ark, and commanded the first-born sons of the elders of his kingdom to go to Ethiopia and settle there. The sons of the elders did not want to live away from the presence of the Ark, so they switched the copy with the original and smuggled the Ark out of the country. Menelik only learned that the original was with his group during the journey home.
2 commentscasata137ec
Lysimachos.jpg
Kings of Thrace. Lysimachos. (Circa 305-281 B.C.)19 viewsAE 18, 4.87 g

Obverse: Helmeted Head of Athena right

Reverse: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΛYΣIMAXOY (Of King Lysimachos), lion leaping right, EAM monogram and caduceus in left field, spear head below.

SNG Copenhagen 1153-4; Müller 76

Lysimachos (360 BC – 281 BC) was a Macedonian officer and diadochus "successor" of Alexander the Great, who became a king in 306 BC, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedon. In 302 BC, when the second alliance between Cassander, Ptolemy and Seleucus was made, Lysimachus, reinforced by troops from Cassander, entered Asia Minor, where he met with little resistance. On the approach of Antigonus he retired into winter quarters near Heraclea, marrying its widowed queen Amastris, a Persian princess. Seleucus joined him in 301 BC, and at the Battle of Ipsus Antigonus was defeated and slain. Antigonus' dominions were divided among the victors. Lysimachus' share was Lydia, Ionia, Phrygia and the north coast of Asia Minor. He was later killed at the battle of Corupedium when fighting another of Alexander's successors, Seleucus, who ruled much of what was formerly Persia.
Nathan P
P1019857.JPG
KINGS of THRACE. Rhoemetalces I & Pythodoris, with Augustus. 11 B.C. - 12 A.D. AE22mm 7 viewsKINGS of THRACE. Rhoemetalces I & Pythodoris, with Augustus. 11 B.C. - 12 A.D.
Obv. BAΣIΛEΩΣ POIMHTAΛKOY, jugate heads of Rhoemetalces I, diademed, and Queen Pythodoris right.
Rev. KAIΣAPOΣ ΣEBAΣTOY, bare head of Augustus right.
Ref. BMC Thrace 4.
Lee S
Persephone_Kyzikos~0.JPG
Kyzikos, Mysia22 viewsCirca 3rd century BC
AE 11 (11mm, 1.16g)
O: Head of Persephone Soteira right, hair in sakkos.
R: Tripod between KY-ZI; tunny below.
SNG Cop 56; SNG France 429-430; Sear 3862
ex David Conners

Although traditionally attributed as Kore Soteira, in my opinion this should more correctly be Persephone Soteira. The epithet Soteira (or ‘Savior’) refers to the Goddess’ role as the bringer of Spring and the return of life-giving crops. As this return must necessarily occur after Her abduction She is no longer Maiden (Kore) but rather Persephone, Queen of the Underworld and consort of Hades.
Enodia
maionia_SNGcop215.jpg
Lydia, Maionia, pseudo-autonomous SNG Cop. 21529 viewsAE 20, 5.58g
struck under the epistrategos Demetrios in the time of Hadrian
obv. MAIO - NWN
bearded bust of Herakles, l.
rev. EPI DHMH - TRIOV
Omphale, advancing r., holding club over l. shoulder and lionskin
SNG Copenhagen 215; SNG von Aulock 3012 var. (rev. legend)
rare, good F

Not so frequent type which cites the famous myth of Heracles being slave of Omphale, Lydian queen, changing clothes with her.

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
Jochen
YHWH.jpg
Maria Di Medici Jeton52 viewsMARIA. D. GR. FRANC. AND. NAVA. REG, 16 NB 08 in exergue.
Coat of arms half of France and quartered of Medici, and of Austria, surrounded by a crown half of laurel and half of palm

SERVAT DATAM 1608 in exergue
Two intertwined hands as a sign of trust between a palm and an olive branch. Above, the name JEHOVAH in Hebrew (YHWH) , whose rays penetrate dense clouds.

5.24g, 28mm

"Mary of God's Grace Queen of France and Navarre"

"He protects those who trust him."

Maria was born at the Palazzo Pitti of Florence, Italy, the sixth daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Archduchess Joanna of Austria. Marie was one of seven children, but only she and her sister Eleonora survived to adulthood.

Maria is not a male-line descendant of Lorenzo the Magnificent but from Lorenzo the Elder, a branch of the Medici family referred to as the 'cadet' branch. She does descend from Lorenzo in the female-line however, through his daughter Lucrezia de' Medici. Nonetheless this 'cadet' branch produced every Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1537 to 1737, and the kings of France from Louis XIII in 1601 to Louis XVI in 1793.

She married Henry IV of France in October 1600 following the annulment of his marriage to Margaret of Valois. The wedding ceremony in Florence, Italy (to which Henry did not turn up, marrying her by proxy) was celebrated with 4,000 guests and lavish entertainments. She brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns. Her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year.

Maria was crowned Queen of France on 13 May 1610, a day before her husband's death. Hours after Henry's assassination, she was confirmed as regent by the Parliament of Paris. She immediately banished his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac, from the court.

Her daughter, Henrietta Maria was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. Henrietta Maria, in turn, was mother of two immediate successors, Charles II and James II.
2 commentsJay GT4
Maria_Bagrationi_Byzantine_Empress.jpg
Maria of Alania Byzantine empress by marriages to emperors Michael VII Doukas and Nikephoros III Botaneiates (aka Maria-Martha of Georgia of Bagrationi royal dynasy)42 viewsMaria of Alania (born Martha, Georgian, 1053-1118) was Byzantine empress by marriages to emperors Michael VII Doukas and Nikephoros III Botaneiates. At the time of her marriage, Georgian Maria was one of only two non-Byzantine princesses to marry a Byzantine heir and the only one to give birth to an heir.

Anna Komnene, in her medieval biographical text Alexiad, describes the beautiful Georgian princess Maria of Alania: "...after Michael Ducas' deposition, when he had advised the latter's successor, Nicephorus Botaniates, to take her in marriage, because she came from another country and had not a crowd of kinsfolk to give the Emperor trouble, and he had told Botaniates a great deal about her family and personal beauty, and often praised her to him. And certainly she was as slender of stature as a cypress, her skin was white as snow, and though her face was not a perfect round, yet her complexion was exactly like a spring flower or a rose. And what mortal could describe the radiance of her eyes? Her eyebrows were well-marked and red-gold, while her eyes were blue. Full many a painter's hand has successfully imitated the colors of the various flowers the seasons bring, but this queen's beauty, the radiance of her grace and the charm and sweetness of her manners surpassed all description and all art. Never did Apelles or Pheidias or any of the sculptors produce a statue so beautiful. The Gorgon's head was said to turn those who looked upon it into stone, but anyone who saw the Queen walking or met her unexpectedly, would have gaped and remained rooted to the spot, speechless, as if apparently robbed of his mind and wits. There was such harmony of limbs and features, such perfect relation of the whole to the parts and of the parts to the whole, as was never before seen in a mortal body, she was a living statue, a joy to all true lovers of the beautiful. In a word, she was an incarnation of Love come down to this terrestrial globe."

See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_of_Alania
Joe Sermarini
38348q00.jpg
Mark Antony107 viewsMark Antony, Triumvir and Imperator, 44 - 30 B.C., Silver denarius, cf. Crawford 544/14, Sydenham 1216, BMCRR 190, and RSC I 27 ff., Fair, Patrae?, 2.818g, 17.7mm, 180o, 32 - 31 B.C.; obverse ANT•AVG / III VIR•R•P•C, galley right with rowers, mast with banners at prow, border of dots; reverse LEG - [...], legionary eagle between two standards, border of dots Ex Forvm


The silver for this issue may have come from the Ptolemaic treasury, and this coin may have been present at the Battle of Actium.

"The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic. It was fought between the forces of Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra VII. The battle took place on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the city of Actium, at the Roman province of Epirus vetus in Greece. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, while Antony's fleet was supported by the ships of Queen Cleopatra of Ptolemaic Egypt.
Octavian's victory enabled him to consolidate his power over Rome and its dominions. To that end, he adopted the title of Princeps ("first citizen") and some years after the victory was awarded the title of Augustus by the Roman Senate. This became the name by which he was known in later times. As Augustus, he would retain the trappings of a restored Republican leader; however, historians generally view this consolidation of power and the adoption of these honorifics as the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire."
3 commentsrandy h2
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MEDIEVAL, England, Aethelred II 978 – 1016, Silver Penny64 viewsObv. Diademed bust right, without scepter.

Rev. Hand of providence between alpha & omega, issuing from cloud composed of parallel lines
S-1144 - First hand type

Ćthelred the Unready, or Ćthelred II (c. 968 – 23 April 1016), was king of England (978–1013 and 1014–1016). He was son of King Edgar and Queen Ćlfthryth. Ćthelred was only about 10 (no more than 13) when his half-brother Edward was murdered. Ćthelred was not personally suspected of participation, but as the murder was committed at Corfe Castle by the attendants of Ćlfthryth, it made it more difficult for the new king to rally the nation against the military raids by Danes, especially as the legend of St Edward the Martyr grew. Later, Ćthelred ordered a massacre of Danish settlers in 1002 and also paid tribute, or Danegeld, to Danish leaders from 991 onwards. His reign was much troubled by Danish Viking raiders. In 1013, Ćthelred fled to Normandy and was replaced by Sweyn, who was also king of Denmark. However, Ćthelred returned as king after Sweyn died in 1014.

"Unready" is a mistranslation of Old English unrćd (meaning bad-counsel) – a twist on his name "Ćthelred" (meaning noble-counsel). A better translation would be Redeless - without counsel (Rede).
Richard M10
Middlesex_995a.jpg
Middlesex 995a15 viewsObv: LOUIS. XVI ET M. ANTOINETTE. ROI ET REINE DE FRANCE, conjoined busts of the King and Queen of France, facing right.

Rev: MUR'D. BY / THE FACTIOUS / LOUIS XVI. JAN. 21 / M: ANTOINETTE / OCT 16 / 1793

Edge: Plain

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Middlesex, National Series 995a
SPQR Coins
England1704Maundy4Pence.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), United Kingdom, Anne, 1704 Maundy 4 Pence (1 Groat).25 viewsEngland 1704 Maundy 4 Pence (1 Groat).

Queen Anne (1702-07/14).
BCNumismatics
tohanover.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), United Kingdom, Victoria, 19th Century Gaming Token, To Hannover 1837/1848124 viewsMost 'To Hanover' counters depict Queen Victoria on the obverse. Victoria became Queen of Great Britain in 1837, but because she was a woman she could not become King of Hanover like her predecessors had also been. Her unpopular uncle the Duke of Cumberland went off to Hanover instead, and these counters celebrate his departure. They were made for over 30 years, mainly in Birmingham. In 1871 a new design was introduced on the gold sovereign which closely resembled the To Hanover pieces. Unscrupulous people began to pass the counters as gold coins and their production became illegal under the Counterfeit Medal Act of 1883.

Reign - Queen Victoria : Material - Brass : Production - 19th century at Birmingham in England
Event - Separation of the monarchy of Hanover from Great Britain (Duke of Cumberland and Queen Victoria)
Reference: Birmingham Museum and Art gallery & Heavenscent
oneill6217
tomis_philippII_serapis_AMNG3591.jpg
Moesia inferior, Tomis, Philipp II & Serapis AMNG 359129 viewsPhilipp II AD 247-249
AE 26, 13.84g
obv. M IOVLIOC FILIPPOC / KAICAR
Confronting busts of Philipp I, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r., and Serapis, draped and wearing kalathos, l.
rev. MHTROP PONT - O - V TOMEWC
Hera, in chiton and himation, stg. l., holding patera in outstretched r. hand and sceptre in her l. hand
AMNG 3591 (1 ex. in Odessa)
rare, VF, circular traces of ancient flan smoothing, nice rev. depiction

On this coin Hera looks more like Aphrodite than the venerable Queen of Heaven. According to Pat Lawrence the reverse could depict a variant of the statue of the Hera Borghese. This statue too was discussed wether it shows Hera or Aphrodite.
Jochen
IMGP2747M_Phrtdr_combo.jpg
MUSA, Parthia: Phraatakes and Musa, 2 BC to $ AD84 viewsBI tdr., 12,56gr, 28,1mm; Sellwood 58.1var.(month), Shore 323, Sunrise 403var.;
mint: Seleukia; axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/broad 4 layer diadem and ribbon; at the ribbon end year date BIT(?)=1 AD; short hair in 2 waves, mustache, medium-long tapered beard; wart; earring, multiple necklace; cuirass w/collar adorned by a suite of opposing dashes; traces of goddess in the right and left upper field; legend: BACI ΛEΩ C BACI ΛEΩ N only partially visible; dotted border 8 to 10:30h;
rev.: female head, right, w/tiara and double diadem below, 2 loops and 2 ribbons; the tiara consists of 5 large pearls in a row, above a row of 8 smaller pearls and above them another row of medium-sized pearls - the remainder of the tiara is off the flan; earrings and a pearl necklace, multiple necklace below, 2 more strings of pearls across the breast, the shoulders are covered by a folded robe; between the diadem ribbons and the neck the letters ΔAI=ΔAIΣIOY (May); legend: Θ EAC O(YPANIAC MOYCHC) BACI
Λ ICHC; dotted border 5 to 10h; very dark patina;

ex: The New York Sale XXXIV (2014)

The Italian slave girl Musa came to Parthia as part of a peace deal between the Emperor Augustus and King Phraates IV in 20 BC. She bore him a son, Phraatakes, and soon rose in his favor from concubine to queen. To rid herself of competition she persuaded the king to send his other sons to Rome for safety. In 2 BC she and her son poisoned Phraates IV, and Phraatakes became king. Much to the shock of the Romans and Greeks, she proceded to marry her son and became co-ruler but the blissful arrangement lasted only six years. The disgusted Parthian nobility deposed the couple in 4 AD. Phraatakes escaped to Syria were he died soon after. Musa was never heard of again.
2 commentsSchatz
aretas_f.JPG
NABATAEA, Aretas IV & Queen Shuqailait, AE19, 9 BC - AD 40. 28 viewsObv: Jugate busts of Aretas IV & Shuqailait.
Rev: Double cornucopias, the names of the King & Queen in Nabataean Aramaic between them.

Meshorer 114; GICV: 5699
anthivs
NABATAEAN_-_ARETAS_IV_SNG_ANS_1435.jpg
NABATAEAN KINGDOM - Aretas IV18 viewsNABATAEAN KINGDOM - Aretas IV (9 BC - 40 AD) AE 15. Standing figure of King Aretas IV as a soldier holding spear in right hand. Reverse.Queen Shaqilit with raised right hand, behind head small wreath.
Ref:SNG ANS 1435. 15.6 mm, 3.63 g.
dpaul7
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Nabataean Kingdom, Nabataean, King Rabbel and Queen Gamilat, AR Drachm. Scarce.13 viewsPetra Year 21 = 90-91 A.D. 3.40g - 12.9mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: Laureate and draped bust of King Rabbel right.

Rev: Laureate, veiled, and draped bust of Queen Gamilat right; date in legend behind head.

Barkay, Coinage 16; Meshorer, Nabataea 153.
1 commentsChristian Scarlioli
obodas.jpg
Nabataean Kingdom, Obodas II, 30-9 BC5 viewsAE 25, 7.78g, 12h; Petra mint, 24/23 BC.
Obv.: Jugate busts right of Obodas II, diademed and draped, and the queen.
Rev.: Two crossed cornucopias; Nabataean legend, "Obodas the king, king of the Nabataeans."
Reference: Meshorer 26
Notes: ex-FORVM
John Anthony
rabbelsela.jpg
Nabataean Kingdom, Rabbel II (70 - 106 AD)5 viewsAR Sela, 16mm, 3.45g; Petra mint, RY 22 (91/92 CE).
Obv.: Laureate and draped bust of Rabbel II right; around, inscription,
22 רבאל מלכא מלך - נבטו שׂנת (Rabbel the king, king of the Nabataeans, Year 22).
Rev.: Veiled and draped bust of Gamilat right; around, inscription,
גמלתּ אחתה מלכת נבטו (Gamilat his sister, queen of the Nabataeans).
Reference: Meshorer 154
John Anthony
nabatean.jpg
NABATAEAN KINGS59 views Aretas IV. AE 18. Petra 9 BC–AD 40. 3.50 grs. Jugate busts of Aretas (laureate) and Queen Shuqailat (veiled) to right / Two crossed cornucopiae with Nabataean inscription, Aretas Shuqailat.
Meshorer 113. SNG ANS 1440.
2 commentsbenito
nabataea,_aretas_IV,_silver.jpg
Nabataean, Aretas IV54 viewsNabataean Kington: Aretas IV. AR Drachm. Obverse: Aramaic "Aretas, king of Nabataea, lover of his people," laureate and draped bust of Aretas right. Reverse: Aramaic "Shuqailat, queen of Nabataea," date off flan, jugate busts of Aretas and Shuqailat right.

Ex Forvm. This is a well worn coin, but I like it for a couple of reasons. First, it was an affordable silver coin from Nabataea. Second, the flan is uniformly thick. Much thicker than the denarii I've put together.
1 commentsLucas H
nabatea_aretasIV_huldu_Meshorer50var.jpg
Nabatean kingdom, Aretas IV & Huldu, Meshorer 50 var.4 viewsAretas IV Philopatris, 9 BC - AD 40
Nabatean: Harithath
AR - Drachm, 4.15g, 15mm
Petra, 8/7 BC
obv. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
חרתת מלכ נבתו מחר חמע
from r. to l. (transcribed):
[H]RTT MLK NBTW [RHM 'MH]
= Harithath Malik Nabatu Rahem Ameh = Harithath, king of the Nabateans, lover of his
people
Bust of Aretas IV, diademed, draped and laureate, r.
in l. and r. field ח - o
rev. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
חלדו מלכת נבתו ב שנת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
[HLDW MLKT - NBTW] SNT 2
= Huldu Malikat Nabatu Shanat 2 = Huldu, queen of the Nabateans, year 2
Bust of Huldu, draped, diademed and veiled, r.
in l. and r. field ח - o
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 50 var. (without o in the fields)
rare, about VF

מחר חמע (RHM 'MH) = lover of his people, is the translation of Greek Philopatris.
Jochen
nabatea_aretasIV_Meshorer54.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Huldu, Meshorer 5413 viewsAretas IV Philopatris, 9 BC - AD 40
Nabatean: Harithath
AR - Drachm, 3.53g, 13.94mm, 0°
Petra, 6/5 BC
obv. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
חרתת מלכ נבתו מחר חמע
from r. to l. (transcribed):
[HRTT M]LK - NBTW RHM '[MH]
= Harithath Malik Nabatu Rahem Ameh = Harithath, king of the Nabateans, lover of his
people
Bust of Aretas IV, diademed, draped and laureate, r.
rev. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
חלדו מלכת נבת נבתו שנת ד
from r. to l. (transcribed):
HLDW MLKT - [NBTW SNT 4]
= Huldu Malikat Nabatu Shanat 4 = Huldu, queen of the Nabateans, year 4
Bust of Huldu, draped, diademed and veiled
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 54
rare, about VF, sand patina

RHM 'MH, lover of his people, is the translation of Greek Philopatris.
Jochen
nabatea_aretasIV_huldu_Meshorer86.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Huldu, Meshorer 8613 viewsAretas IV. Philopatris & Huldu, 9 BC - AD 40
AR - Drachm, 4.52g, 15.74mm, o°
Petra, AD 5/6 (RY 14)
obv. Bust of Aretas IV, diademed and laureate, r., in field r. ח (H)
Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
חרתת מלכ נבתו מחר חמע
from r. to l. (transcribed):
HRTT MLK - [NBTW RHM 'MH]
= Harithah Malik - Nabatu Rahem Amah
= Harithath king of the Nabateans lover of his people
rev. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
חלדו מלכת נבתו יד שנת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
[HLDW MLKT] - NBTW SNT 14 (NBTW nearly unreadable)
= Huldu Malikat - Nabatu Shanat 14
= Huldu queen of the Nabateans year 14
Bust of Huldu, diademed, veiled and draped, r., in field r. ח (H)
ref. Meshorer 86
rare, F, excentric

On rev. lower l. the Nabatean year CX (= 10 4)
Jochen
nabatea_aretasIV_shuqailat_Meshorer112_#2_x.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Shuqailat I, cf. Meshorer 112 (שלמ written-out and X)9 viewsAretas IV Philopatris & Shuqailat I, 9 BC - AD 40
Nabatean: Harithath
AE 16, 2.32g, 16.01mm, 345°
Petra, AD 39/40
obv. Jugate busts of Aretas IV, with moustache, draped and laureate, r., and queen Shuqailat, draped and diademed, r.
above heads שלמ (written out)
transcibed from r. to l. (Sh)LM
= shalom (whole)
rev. 2 crossed filleted cornucopias
between Nabatean legend in 3 lines:
חרתת / שקי / לת below לת X
from r. to l. (transcribed):
HRTT / SQY / LT below LT X
= Harithat / Shuqailat
ref. cf. Meshorer Nabatean 112
F+, black patina, sandy deposits

According to Meshorer Shalom (whole) is the name for a new denomination, which was omitted later when this denomination has been established. According to Schmitt-Korte the X below the crossing of the 2 cornucopias appears on the types with the written-out שלמ
Jochen
nabatea_aretasIV_shuqailat_Meshorer112_#1.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Shuqailat I, Meshorer 112 (שלמ written-out)9 viewsAretas IV Philopatris & Shuqailat I, 9 BC - AD 40
Nabatean: Harithath
AE 18, 3.67g, 17.87mm, 0°
Petra, AD 39/40
obv. Jugate busts of Aretas IV, with moustache, draped and laureate, r., and queen Shuqailat, draped and diademed, r.
above heads שלמ
transcibed from r. to l. (Sh)LM
= shalom (whole)
rev. 2 crossed filleted cornucopias
between Nabatean legend in 3 lines:
חרתת / שקי / לת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
HRTT / SQY / LT
= Harithat / Shuqailat
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 112
VF-, black patina, sandy deposits

According to Meshorer Shalom (whole) is the name for a new denomination, which was omitted later when this denomination has been established.
Jochen
nabatea_aretasIV_shuqailat_Meshorer113_#1.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Shuqailat I, Meshorer 113 #1 ( שלמ as monogram)31 viewsAretas IV Philopatris & Shuqailat I, 9 BC - AD 40
Nabatean: Harithath
AE 18, 3.53g, 18.10mm, 330°
Petra, AD 39/40
obv. Jugate busts of Aretas IV, with moustache, draped and laureate, r., and queen Shuqailat, draped and diademed, r.
above heads שלמ as monogram (Meshorer p.85, #9)
transcibed from r. to l. (Sh)LM
= shalom (whole)
rev. 2 crossed filleted cornucopias
between Nabatean legend in 3 lines:
חרתת / שקי / לת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
HRTT / SQY / LT
= Harithat / Shuqailat
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 113
EF, black patina

According to Meshorer Shalom (whole) is the name for a new denomination, which was omitted later when this denomination has been established.
2 commentsJochen
nabatea_aretasIV_shuqailat_Meshorer113_#3.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Shuqailat I, Meshorer 113 #2 (שלמ as monogram and X)17 viewsAretas IV. & Shuqailat, 9 BC - AD 40
AE 17, 3.53g
Petra, AD 29/30
obv. Jugate busts of Aretas IV, with moustache, draped and laureate, r., and of queen Shuqailat, draped and diademed, r.
Above head Nabatean legend:
שלמ as monogram (Meshorer p. 85, #9)
from r. to l. transcribed (Sh)LM
= shalom (whole)
rev. 2 crossed cornucopias, in between Nabatean legend in 3 lines:
חרתת / שקי / לת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
HRTT / SQY / LT
= Harithat / Shuqailat
below שקי X
ref. cf. Meshorer Nabatean 113
VF, black patina with sandy deposits

According to Meshorer שלמ (= whole) is a denomination, which then was ommitted because this denomination has well been established. The X above the crossing of the cornucopias is not mentioned by Meshorer.

"Now further variants of these bronze coins have been found (nos. 80, 81) which show the same sign X as the silver issue of year 29. We believe that this sign marks year 4 of queen Shaqilat and that this was the year of the currency reform when the new bronze type was introduced. In order to mark the changes, several features on the new coins were altered. Aretas wears a moustache, Shaqilat has a love-lock (as opposed to an earring), and the numeral 4 was added on both silver and bronze coins in the first year of the new issues. If 29 is the fourth year of Shaqilat then the marriage between Aretas and Shaqilat fell in his 25th year, which corresponds to ad 16."

Karl Schmitt-Korte, "Nabataean Coinage—Part II. New Coin Types and Variants", The Numismatic Chronicle Vol. 150 (1990), pp. 105-133.
1 commentsJochen
nabatea_aretasIV_Meshorer114cf.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Shuqailat I, Meshorer 114128 viewsAretas IV Philopatris, 9 BC - AD 40
Nabatean: Harithath
AE 18, 3.45g, 18.10mm, 330°
Petra, AD 23-40
obv. Jugate busts of Aretas IV and queen Shuqailat, draped and laureate, r.
in l. field ח (for Harithath), in r. field ש (for Shuqailat)
rev. 2 crossed filleted cornuacopiae
between Nabatean legend in 3 lines:
חרתת / שקי / לת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
HRTT / SQY / LT
= Harithat / Shuqailat
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 114; SNG ANS 1438
EF, superb sand patina

The Nabatean name of Aretas was Harithath. Originally he was named Aeneas. His 1st wife was Huldu (AD 1-16), his 2nd wife his sister Shuqailath (since AD 23). Under his reign the Nabatean kingdom reached its largest expansion. He was called Aretas the Great. He is not related to Aretas III. The Nabatean is the origin of the Arabic script.
3 commentsJochen
nabatea_aretasIV_Meshorer97.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Shuqailat I, Meshorer 9714 viewsAretas IV Philopatris, 9 BC - AD 40
AE 15, 2.21g, 15.49mm, 180°
Petra, AD 18/19
obv. Aretas IV, laureate, stg. frontal, looking l., holding spear in raised l. hand and grasping with r. hand at
his sword hanging in scabbard at his girdle; his hair falling down over his neck
in l. field palm branch, in upper r. field monogram 4 (חר for Harithath)
rev. Shuqailat in long robe, veiled, stg. r., raising palm of her hand
in l. field wreath, in r. field Nabatean legend in 3 lines:
שק / יל / ת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
SQ / YL / T
= Shuqailat
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 97
F+, sandy incrustations

Probably struck for his marriage where Shuqailat was made queen.
Jochen
nabatea_aretasIV_Meshorer98.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Shuqailat I, Meshorer 9828 viewsAretas IV Philopatris, 9 BC - AD 40
Nabatean: Harithath
AR - Drachm, 4.62g, 15.82mm, 315°
Petra, AD 16/17
obv. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
חרתת מלכ נבתו מחר חמע
from r. to l. (transcribed):
[HRT]T MLK - [NBTW RHM 'MH]
= Harithath Malik Nabatu Rahem Ameh
= Harithath, king of the Nabateans, lover of his people
Bust of Aretas IV, diademed, draped and laureate, r.
rev. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
שקילת מלכת נבתו שנת ךח
from r. to l. (transcribed):
SQYLT MLKT - [NBTW SNT 28]
= Shuqailat Malikat Nabatu Shanat 28
= Shuqailat, queen of the Nabateans, year 28
Bust of Shuqailat I, draped, diademed and veiled
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 98
rare, about VF, excentrically struck

RHM 'MH, lover of his people, is the translation of Greek Philopatris.
Jochen
nabatea_aretasIV_shuqailat_Meshorer99-111.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Aretas IV & Shuqailat, Meshorer 99-1119 viewsAretas IV Philopatris, 9 BC - AD 40
Nabaean: Harithath
AR - Drachm, 3.79g, 16.25mm, 0°
Petra, AD 20-40
obv. Nabatean legende (counterclockwise):
חרתת מלכ נבתו מחר חמע
from r. to l. (transcribed):
[HRTT MLK NBTW] - RHM 'MH
= Harithath Malik Nabatu Rahem Ameh
= Harithath, king of the Nabataeans, lover of his people
Bust of Aretas IV, diademed, draped and laureate, r.
rev. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
שקילת מלכת נבתו שנת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
SQYLT MLKT - [NB]TW SNT ?
= Shuqailat Malikat - Nabatu Shanat ?
= Shuqailat, queen of the Nabataeans, year ?
Jugate busts of Aretas, laureate, and Shuqailat, draped, r.
ref.: Meshorer Nabatean 99-112
rare, about VF

מחר חמע (RHM 'MH), lover of his people, is the translation of Greek Philopatris
Jochen
nabatea_malichusII_shuqailatII_Meshorer136-139.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Malichus II & Shuqailat II, Meshorer 136-13924 viewsMalichus II & Shuqailat II, AD 40-70
AR - Drachm, 3.68g, 12.85-14.46mm, 0°
Petra, year 20-23 (= AD 59/60- 62/63)
obv. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
מלכא מלכו - מלכ נבתו שנת [date]
transcribed:
MLKW MLK' - MLK NBTW (Sh)NT [date]
= Maliku Malik' - Malik Nabatu Shanat [date]
= Malichus the king - king of the Nabateans [date]
Bust of Malichus II, draped and laureate, hairs falling down to neck
rev. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
גמלת אחתה - מלכת נבתו
transcribed:
(Sh)QLT A(Ch)TH - MLKT NBTW
= Shuqailat Achatha - Malikat Nabatu
= Shuqailat his sister - queen of Nabateans
Bust of Shuqailat II, veiled and draped, r.
Ref. Meshorer Nabatean 136-139
F+, complete legends!

You can read 20 as date. Then it could be 21, 22 or 23
2 commentsJochen
nabatea_maliichusII_Meshorer140Acf_#2.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Malichus II & Shuqailat II, Meshorer 140A36 viewsMalichus II & Shuqailat II, AD 40-70
Nabatean: Maliku
AE 16, 2.61g, 16.26mm, 0°
Petra, AD 64/65
obv. joined busts of Malichus II and his queen Shuqailat II
rev. 2 crossed cornucopias
with Nabatean legend in 3 lines:
מלכו / שקי / לת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
MLKW / SQY / LT
= Maliku / Shuqailat
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 140A; SNG ANS, 1444
about VF, legends well readable
Jochen
nabatea_obodasIII_Meshorersupp3.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Obodas III & Hagru I, Meshorer Supp. 329 viewsObodas III & Hagru, 30-9 BC
Nabatean: Abadat
AR - Drachm, 4.46g, 17.7mm, 0°
Petra, 19-10 BC
obv. Joined busts of Obodas III and his queen Hagru, diademed and draped, r.
behind ח
rev. Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
אבדת מלכ נבתו
from r. o l. (transcribed):
ABDT MLK NBTW
= Abadat Malik Nabatu
= Abadat king of the Nabateans
Laureate head of Obodas III. r.
behind ח (heth) and date (outside the flan)
ref. cf. Huth 55; Hoover & Barkay 23; Meshorer Nabatea Sup. 3; BMC Arabia, p.4, 2-3
very rare, VF, some areas of flat strike
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

Obodas' reign was an era of cultural flowering for the Nabatean kingdom. Most of its temples were built during his reign, including the temple of Avdat. During his reign the Romans attempted to discover the sources of the perfume and spice trade (FAC).
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nabatea_obodasIII_39A.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Obodas III, Meshorer 39A18 viewsObodas III, 30-9 BC
Nabatean: Abadat
AE 19, 4.52g, 18.82mm, 330°
Petra, 10/9 BC
obv. Head of Obodas, diademed, r.
in l. field ח, in r. field o
rev. Nabatean legend from upper l. counterclockwise:
אבדת מלכ נבתו מלכ - שנת ח 20
from r. to l. (transcribed):
ABDT MLK NBTW - SNT H 20
= Abadat Malik Nabatu - (Sh)anat H 20
= Abadat king of the Nabateans - year H 20
Female figure (queen?), in long mantle and girded, stg. l., holding palm branch in raised r. hand
in l. field o, (ח in r. field between שנת and date)
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 39A
rare, S+, impressive sand patina
2 commentsJochen
nabatea_rabbelII_Meshorer147cf.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Rabbel II & Gamilat, Meshorer 147 cf. (#1)8 viewsNabatean Kingdom, Rabbel II. & Gamilat, AD 70-106
AR - Drachm, 3.52g, 13.36mm, 0°
Petra, AD 75/76 - 101/102
obv. Bust of Rabbel, laureate, r.
Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
רבאל מלכא - מלכ נבתו שנת [date]
transcribed:
RB'L MLK' - MLK NBTW (Sh)NT [date]
= Rab'el Malik' - Malik Nabatu Shanat [date]
= Rabbel the king - king of the Nabateans [date]
rev. Bust of Gamilat, veiled and draped, r.
Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
גמלת אחתה - מלכת נבתו
transcribed:
GMLT A(Ch)TH - MLKT NBTW
= Gamilat Achatha - Malikat Nabatu
= Gamilat his sister . Queen of Nabateans
Ref. Meshorer Nabatean 147-161
F/F+, rev. with complete legend!

This type has been struck from AD 75/76 until AD 101/102 each with the corresponding date of year. This date is sadly not identifiable on the coin.
Jochen
nabatea_rabbelII_gamilat_Meshorer147-161_#2.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Rabbel II & Gamilat, Meshorer 147 cf. (#2)11 viewsNabatean Kingdom, Rabbel II. & Gamilat, AD 70-106
AR - Drachm, 3.33g, 13.66mm, 315°
Petra, AD 75/76 - 101/102
obv. Bust of Rabbel, laureate, r.
Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
רבאל מלכא - מלכ נבתו שנת [date]
transcribed:
RB'L MLK' - M[LK NBTW (Sh)NT date]
= Rab'el Malik' - Malik Nabatu Shanat [date]
= Rabbel the king - king of the Nabateans [date]
rev. Bust of Gamilat, veiled and draped, r.
Nabatean legend (counterclockwise):
גמלת אחתה - מלכת נבתו
transcribed:
GMLT A(Ch)[TH - MLKT NBTW]
= Gamilat Achatha - Malikat Nabatu
= Gamilat his sister - Queen of Nabateans
Ref. Meshorer Nabatean 147-161
F+, both names clearly readable!

This type has been struck from AD 75/76 until AD 101/102 each with the corresponding date of year. This date is sadly not identifiable on the coin.
Jochen
nabatea_rabbelII_Meshorer163.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Rabbel II & Gamilat, Meshorer 16327 viewsRabbel II, AD 70-106
Nabatean: Rab'el
AE 17, 2.76g, 16.62mm, 330°
Petra, AD 101/102
obv. joined busts of Rabbel II and his queen Gamilat
rev. 2 crossed cornucopias, within Nabatean legends in 2 lines:
רבאל / גמלת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
RB'L / GMLT
= Rab'el / Gamilat
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 163; BMC Arabia 3-7; SNG ANS 1450
about VF, complete legends
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nabatea_rabbelII_gamilat_Meshorer163-164.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Rabbel II & Gamilat, Meshorer 163-1648 viewsRabbel II, AD 70-106
Nabatean: Rab'el
AE 14, 2.27g, 13.89mm, 0°
Petra, AD 101/102
obv. joined busts of Rabbel II and his queen Gamilat
rev. 2 crossed cornucopias, within Nabatean legends in 2 lines:
[רבאל / [גמלת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
[RB'L] / GMLT
= [Rab'el] / Gamilat
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 163-164
about VF, legend incomplete
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nabatea_rabbelII_Meshorer164.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Rabbel II & Hagru II, Meshorer 16420 viewsRabbel II Soter, AD 70-106
Nabatean: Rab'el
AE 15, 2.78g, 14.86mm, 0°
Petra, AD 106
obv. Jugate busts of Rabbel II & his queen Hagru II
rev. 2 crossed cornucopias, in between Nabatean legend in 2 lines:
רבאל / גמלת
from r. to l. (transcribed):
RB'L / HGRW
= Rab'el / Hagru
ref. Meshorer Nabatean 164
rare, about VF, small flan, sand patina

Hagru eventually was a daughter of Shuqailat II, and thus the sister of Rabbel.
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nabatea_rabbelII_gamilat_Meshorer163Avar_.jpg
Nabatean Kingdom, Rabbell II & Gamilat, Meshorer 163A var.7 viewsRabbel II, AD 70-106
Nabatean: Rab'el
AE 17, 3.11g, 17.23mm, 0°
Petra, AD 101/102
obv. joined busts of Rabbel II and his queen Gamilat
rev. 2 crossed cornucopias, within Nabatean legends in 2 lines:
רבאל / גמל (sic!)
from r. to l. (transcribed):
RB'L / GML (sic!)
= Rab'el / Gamilat
ref. Meshorer 163A var.
about VF, complete legends, small flan

Legend error: T of GMLT omitted!
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JCT_Jewish_Orphanage_at_Norwood_1953.JPG
Norwood Jewish Orphanage (London Borough of Lambeth, England, U.K.)43 viewsAE medal, 35 mm., 1953.

Obv: JEWISH / ORPHANAGE / NORWOOD / JUNE 2ND 1953, Jewish star below, PATRON below star, H • M • THE QUEEN around rim.

Rev: • CORONATION • OF • ELIZABETH II • along rim, head facing right, flower below neck.

Ref: None known. But see generally, “The Jewish Orphanage at Norwood,” The Shekel, XXXVII No. 2 (March to April 2004), pp. 32-33.

Note: In 1795 financiers Abraham and Benjamin Goldsmid invited subscriptions for the foundation of a Jew’s Hospital, which opened at Miles End in 1807 under the name Neveh Zedek (Abode of Righteousness). By 1860 that building had become overcrowded, and Barnett and Isabella Meyers presented the organization with eight acres of land in West Norwood in South London. A building that accommodated 220 children was erected, and in 1861 Sir Anthony Rothchild laid the foundation stone. In 1877, the Jew’s Hospital amalgamated with the Jews’ Orphan Asylum (founded in 1831 in East End) at the Norwood site under the name Jews’ Hospital and Orphan Asylum. It obtained royal patronage in 1901. In 1928 it was renamed Norwood Jewish Orphanage, and in 1956 it again changed its name to Norwood Home for Jewish Children.
Stkp
Perinthos_Demeter.JPG
Perinthos, Thrace 38 viewsPseudo-autonomous
Circa 3rd century AD
AE26 (6.56g)
O: Veiled bust of Demeter right, gazing at poppy in hand.
R: Artemis Tauropolis (Hekate?) advancing right, holding two torches; ΠEPINTIΩN, ΔIΣNEΩKOPON around.
Moushmov 4386v
ex Civitas Galleries

"At the heart of all great art is an essential meloncholy"
~ Federico Garcia Lorca

"But when the tenth enlightening dawn had come, Hekate, with torches in her hands, met her, and spoke to her and told her news: "Queenly Demeter, bringer of seasons and giver of good gifts, what god of heaven or what mortal man has rapt away Persephone and pierced with sorrow your dear heart? For I heard her voice, yet saw not with my eyes who it was. But I tell you truly and shortly all I know."
So, then, said Hekate."
~ Homeric Hymn to Demeter
Enodia
PolemoII.jpg
Polemo II-Mark Antony's great grandson479 views Silver drachm

BACΙΛΕΩC ΠΟΛΕΜΩΝΟC
diademed head of Polemo right

ETOYC - K (year 20)
laureate head of Nero right;

57 - 58 A.D.
3.645g

18.1mm, die axis 180o

RPC I 3832, SNG Cop 242, BMC Pontus 7 - 8, SNG von Aulock 6691

Ex-Forum

Marcus Antonius Polemon Pythodoros, also known as Polemon II of Pontos and Polemon of Cilicia is the only known direct descendant of Mark Antony who bares his name. Through his maternal grandmother he was a direct descendant of Mark Antony and his second wife Antonia Hybrida Minor. Antony and Antonia Hybrida were first paternal cousins. He was Antony’s second born great grandson. Through Antony, he was a distant cousin to Roman Client King Ptolemy of Mauretania and Drusilla of Mauretania. He was also a distant cousin to Roman Emperors Caligula, Claudius and Nero and Roman Empresses Valeria Messalina, Agrippina the Younger and Claudia Octavia.

Polemon II’s father Polemon Pythodoros King of Pontos died in 8 BC. His mother then married King Archelaus of Cappadocia, and the family moved to the court of his stepfather. In 17 AD Archelaus died and Polemon II and his mother moved back to Pontus. From 17 until 38, Polemon II assisted his mother in the administration of Pontos. When his mother died in 38, Polemon II succeeded her as the sole ruler of Pontus, Colchis and Cilicia.

Around 50 AD, Polemon II met the Judean princess Julia Berenice in Tiberias during a visit to King Agrippa I. Berenice was widowed in 48 AD when her second husband and paternal uncle Herod of Chalcis, died. She had two sons by him, Berenicianus and Hyrcanus. Berenice set the condition that Polemon II had to convert to Judaism before marriage, which included undergoing the rite of circumcision. Polemon II complied, and the marriage went ahead but it did not last long. Berenice left Pontus with her sons and returned to the court of her brother. Polemon II abandoned Judaism and, according to the legend of Bartholomew the Apostle, accepted Christianity, only to become a pagan again.

In 62, Nero compelled Polemon II to abdicate the Pontian throne. Pontos and Colchis became a Roman province. From then until his death, Polemon II only ruled Cilicia. He never remarried and had no children that are known.

Polemon's sister Antonia Tryphaena's Royal lineage goes all the way down to Nana Queen of Iberia, who died in 363 AD. Truly Antony may have lost the battle of Actium but won the war of genetics!
8 commentsJay GT4
England15806Pence.jpg
Post Medieval, England, Elizabeth I, 1580 6 Pence.28 viewsEngland 1580 6 Pence.

Mintmark - Latin Cross.

Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603).
BCNumismatics
EnglandND1Groat2.jpg
Post Medieval, England, Mary Tudor, (1553-54) 1 Groat (4 Pence).20 viewsEngland N.D. (1553-54) 1 Groat (4 Pence).

Queen Mary I.

The coins of Queen Mary I prior to her marriage to King Philip II of Spain are an extremely rare series.I am fortunate that this coin came my way a few years ago over here in New Zealand.
BCNumismatics
Ireland15571Groat.jpg
Post Medieval, Ireland, Philip & Mary 1557 1 Groat (4 Pence).17 viewsIreland 1557 1 Groat (4 Pence).

Queen Mary I of England & King Philip II of Spain (1554-58).
BCNumismatics
ScotlandND1Bawbee1.jpg
Post Medieval, Scotland, Mary I, (1542-58) 1 Bawbee (6 Pence).29 viewsScotland N.D. (1542-58) 1 Bawbee (6 Pence).

Queen Mary I (1542-67).

Queen Mary I of Scotland is best remembered as the ill-fated Mary, Queen of Scots who was deposed & forced into exile in England,where she was detained until she was executed at Fotheringay Castle in 1587.
BCNumismatics
Guatemala_Copador_Polychrome_Olla.jpg
Pre-Columbian, Guatemala and Southern Mexico, Mayan Late Classic Period, Copador, (ca. 700-900 CE) Copador Polychrome Olla9 viewsA corseted olla decorated with deep, earthy red bands at rim, shoulder, and carinated lower body, demarcating a band of pseudo-glyphs beneath the rim and a sequence of artistic depictions of seated humans and animals. This is one of the finer examples of Copador painting I have seen, and the figures painted around the center are rich in detail and seem to include monkeys, gods, kings, and queens, each unique, alongside decapitated heads and well-drawn furniture. A really remarkable piece if you like finely-rendered, ornate painting!

Size: 5.6" W x 4.75" H (14.2 cm x 12.1 cm)

ex Donick Cary Collection
Quant.Geek
Maya_Poison_Jar.jpg
Pre-Columbian, Guatemala, Maya Late Classic Period (ca. 550-900 CE) Poison Jar14 viewsA fantastic example of a molded "poison jar" depicting a seated scribe on either side of its flattened body in an inset disc. Each decorated side is colored with red cinnabar pigment in the lower profile areas. The scribe has a speech sign emerging from his mouth, and wears a long headdress, necklace, and spooled earring. Shown in profile, the figure is expertly molded to fit within the disc border. The undecorated sides have raised ridges that lead upward to the flared spout. Scribes played a vital role in the Mayan world, and they were minor royalty, with the ability to read and write. They had the power to immortalize a king or queen through their writing, documenting battles, religious favor, and political skill.

Size: 1.6" L x 2.95" W x 3.1" H (4.1 cm x 7.5 cm x 7.9 cm)

ex Donick Cary Collection

Quant.Geek
Mayan_Territories_Rattle-Legged_Tripod_Plate.jpg
Pre-Columbian, Southern Mexico and Northern Central America, Mayan Territories, Late Classic (ca. 550-900 CE) Rattle-Legged Tripod Plate13 viewsA classic example of a rattle-legged tripod plate from the Mayan period, with a band of glyphs around the flared rim and a lordly figure - possibly a scribe - depicted in tondo. The plate stands on tall, open legs with small clay balls inside of each to create a rattling sound. The seated figure has a headdress of very long, grey and orange feathers, and sits with his legs crossed, one foot up on his knee, leaning on one arm and reaching forward with the other as if to paint the sides of the bowl. Beside/underneath him is a basket containing what looks like eggs but could be any number of objects. The figure is painted with red, black, orange, and the rarer grey pigment. Scribes played a vital role in the Mayan world, and they were minor royalty, with the ability to read and write. They had the power to immortalize a king or queen through their writing, documenting battles, religious favor, and political skill.

Size: 12.55" W x 3.75" H (31.9 cm x 9.5 cm)

ex Donick Cary Collection
Quant.Geek
PRINCE EDW ISLAND.jpg
PRINCE EWARD ISLAND20 viewsPRINCE EWARD ISLAND - Queen Victoria. AE 1-Cent, 1871. KM#4.dpaul7
Ptolemaic_Kingdom_1d_img.jpg
Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy VI Philometor, 180-145 B.C., Tetradrachm, Svoronos 1489150 viewsObv:– Diademed head of Ptolemy I right wearing aegis
Rev:- PTOLEMAIOY BASILEOS, eagle standing left, head left, on thunderbolt, wings closed
Minted in Alexandria, B.C. 180-145
Reference:– Svoronos 1489, SNG Cop 262

Ex Forum

14.031g, 27.3m, 0o

Additional comments from Forum - "Ptolemy VI became king in 180 B.C. at the age of about 6 and ruled jointly with his mother, Cleopatra I, until her death in 176 BC. From 170 to 164 B.C., Egypt was ruled by Ptolemy, his sister-queen and his younger brother Ptolemy VIII Physcon. In 170 BC, the Seleukid King Antiochus IV invaded and was even crowned king in 168, but abandoned his claim on the orders from Rome. In 164 Ptolemy VI was driven out by his brother. He went to Rome and received support from Cato. He was restored the following year. In 152 BC, he briefly ruled jointly with his son, Ptolemy Eupator, but his son probably died that same year. In 145 B.C. he died of battle wounds received against Alexander Balas of Syria. Ptolemy VI ruled uneasily, cruelly suppressing frequent rebellions."
9 commentsmaridvnvm
cleopatra_vii_bk_res.jpg
PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM--CLEOPATRA VII49 viewsPTOLEMAIC KINGDOM
CLEOPATRA VII THEA NEOTERA
b. 69 BC d. 30 BC
(Queen of Egypt 51-30 BC)
AE 80 drachms 27mm 15.47g
O: DIADEMED HEAD OF CLEOPATRA VII RIGHT, HAIR IN BUN
R: EAGLE STANDING LEFT ON THUNDERBOLT, DOUBLE CORNUCOPIA IN LEFT FIELD
SVORONOS 1871, SNG COP. 419-21
ALEXANDRIA
(ex Sayles & Lavender)
2 commentslaney
Pythodorus.jpg
Pythodoris, queen of Thrace. Wife of Rhoemetalkes I, 11 BCE-12 CE.184 viewsThrace. Ć (24 mm, 6.88 g).
Obv: AUTOKRATOROS KAISAROS SEBASTOU. Bare head of Tiberius, r.
Rev: BASILEWS ROIMHTALKOU, Jugate busts, r., of her nephew, Rhoemetalkes II and Pythodoris.
Youroukova 201; Forrer 207; SGI 5405; BMC 3. 209, 3.
EmpressCollector
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Queen Anne one shilling Silver 21 viewsQueen Anne (1702-1714) one shilling Silver Dated-1711

Obverse : Bust of Anne left; around, ANNA DEI GRATIA

Reverse: Crowned shields - with arms of England and Scotland impaled at top and bottom, Ireland at left and France at right, forming a cross shape with the badge of the Star of the Garter at the centre; around, MAG BRI FR ET HIB REG 1711, the date being divided by a crown.

26 mm (Diameter) 5.875 g (Weight)
discwizard
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Queen ELIZABETH I3 viewsQueen ELIZABETH I (1558-1603) SILVER HAMMERED THREE HALF PENCE dated 1575

Obverse:Crowned bust left. Obverse inscription: EDG ROSA SINE SPINA PORTRAIT LEFT Elizabeth:

Reverse:POSVI DEVM ADJUTOREM MEVM (I have made God my helper) by date, Straight sided shield with 1575 above. Reverse inscription: CIVITAS LONDON.

Grade:Fair Size:15mm
discwizard
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Queen Elizabeth II 2 Cent bronze4 viewsAUSTRALIAN: Queen Elizabeth II 2 Cent bronze dated 1971

Obverse: crowned head of Elizabeth II facing right, around, ELIZABETH II AUSTRALIA 1971

Reverse: frilled lizard with neck frill extended and mouth open

Grade:Fair Size:21.6mm
discwizard
3~14.PNG
Queen Elizabeth II 20 Cents copper nickel4 viewsAUSTRALIAN: Queen Elizabeth II 20 Cents copper nickel dated 1968

Obverse: Diademed bust of Elizabeth II right; around, ELIZABETH II AUSTRALIA 1968

Reverse: A platypus swimming. The denomination numeral 20 is above the head of the mammal and the artist's initials SD are within the swirl of water around its right forepaw.

Grade:Fair Size:28.65
discwizard
DSC05477.JPG
Queen Elizabeth II Gold Sovereign1034 views1964
Obv. Right Facing Queen Elizabeth, REGINA:\ F.D.:ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA
Rev. St. George on horseback slaying dragon
CGPCGP
Queen_Lilavati.jpg
Queen Lilavati AD 1127-1200 / 1209-1210 / 1211-121221 viewsSeated Queen, SRI RA JA LI LA VA TI in Brahmi in two vertical lines in the left field / Queen standing, small altar in the left field, various dots and decorations in fields. Mitchiner NIS 837-839. 1 commentsPaul R3
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Queen Victoria20 viewsQueen Victoria (1837 to 1901) silver Threepence dated 1898

Obverse:VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP: OLD HEAD

Reverse:Crown above value, all in wreath

Grade:Fine with hole Size:16mm
discwizard
3~3.PNG
Queen Victoria5 viewsQUEEN Victoria (1837-1901) Half Penny 1893

Obverse:VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1893 - By the Grace of God Victoria: YOUNG HEAD

Reverse:BRITANNIAR : REG: FID : DEF : - Queen of all Britain and Defender of the Faith
discwizard
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Queen Victoria7 viewsQueen Victoria (1837 to 1901) silver Threepence dated 1881

Obverse:VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP:YOUNG HEAD

Reverse:Crown above value, all in wreath

Grade:Fair Size:16mm
discwizard
3~2.PNG
Queen Victoria6 viewsQueen Victoria (1837-1901) Farthing Dated 1853

Obverse: Head of the Queen facing left, hair bound in double fillet gathered behind in a knot from which a loose curl; on neck truncation raised, W.W. (for William Wyon, who designed and engraved the dies); around, VICTORIA DEI GRATIA; below, 1853

Reverse:Britannia seated facing right on a rock holding a trident and resting her right hand on an oval shield which bears the three crosses of the Union Flag; around, BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF:; in exergue, a rose, thistle and shamrock combined.
discwizard
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Queen Victoria6 viewsQueen Victoria (1837 to 1901) 1 penny Date-1862

Obverse:VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP: Young HEAD

Reverse:BRITANNIAR

Grade:Fair Size:30mm
discwizard
WC51837.jpg
Queen Victoria (1819 - 1901)73 viewsAR British Crown
O: Crowned and veiled (Jubilee) bust left.
R: St. George on horseback right, slaying dragon.
28.18g
39mm
KM#765
4 commentsMat
douflor.jpg
Queen Victoria (1819 - 1901)17 viewsAR Double Florin
O: Crowned and veiled (Jubilee) bust left.
R: Sceptres divide crowned arms at corners.
22.6g
36mm
KM# 763
Mat
20_Victoria.jpg
Queen Victoria (A.D. 1837 - 1901)4 viewsFarthing, 1885, London, 20mm, 2.81g, 0°, KM 753.
Obv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT: REG: F:D:. Laureate bust left.
Rev: Seated Britannia facing right, holding a shield and trident, FARTHING above; date in ex.
Marti Vltori
eng1.jpg
Queen Victoria 184634 views1 commentsrandy h2
13528899_1132024050203053_7343109708134358914_n.jpg
Queen Victoria British Silver "Widow Head" Florin 12 viewsType: Queen Victoria British Silver "Widow Head" Florin
Origin: Great Britain Cat. Num.: KM# 781
Era / Ruler: Victoria Face Value: 1 Florin
Issued from: 1893 Issued until: 1901
Alignment: Medal M Desgr. / Engr.: Thomas Brock, Edward Poynter
Obverse: Victoria mature veiled bust left
Reverse: Crowned shields of England, Scotland and Ireland
Edge: Reeded
Composition: Silver
Fineness: 0.9250
Weight(g): 11.3104g
Weight(Oz): 0.36 Oz
Net Content: 0.34 Oz (10.46g)
Bullion Value: $6.58
Diameter: 28.00mm
The British two shilling coin, also known as the florin, was issued from 1849 until 1967. It was worth one tenth of a pound, or twenty-four old pence. It should not be confused with the medieval gold florin, which was nominally worth six shillings.
In 1968, in the run-up to decimalisation, the two shilling coin was superseded by the decimal ten pence coin, which had the same value and initially the same size and weight. It continued in circulation, alongside the ten pence, until 1993, when the ten pence was reduced in size.
Antonivs Protti
Rabbel-Gamilat.jpg
Rabbel II (71 - 106 AD) - AE 1527 viewsConjoined busts of Rabbel and Queen Gamilat right
RB'L / GMLT (Rabbel, Gamilat) between two crossed cornucopiae.
15 mm
1 commentsGinolerhino
Rabbel-Gamilat 4.jpg
Rabbel II (71-106 AD) - AE 1520 viewsConjoined busts of Rabbel and Queen Gamilat right
[RB'L] / GMLT (Rabbel - Gamilat) between two crossed cornucopiae
15 mm
Ginolerhino
Rabbel-Gamilat 3.jpg
Rabbel II (71-106 AD) - AE 1519 viewsConjoined busts of Rabbel and Queen Gamilat right
[RB'L] / GMLT (Rabbel - Gamilat) between two crossed cornucopiae
15 mm
Ginolerhino
Rabbel-Gamilat 2.jpg
Rabbel II (71-106 AD) - AE 1624 viewsConjoined busts of Rabbel and Queen Gamilat right
[RB'L] / GMLT (Rabbel - Gamilat) between two crossed cornucopiae
16 mm
Ginolerhino
rabbel_ii_brokage.jpg
Rabbel II, AD 70-106, Brokage13 viewsĆ Unit, 17x15mm, 2.5g, Petra mint, AD 70-106.
Obv.: Jugate portraits of Rabbel II and Gamilat (Queen off flan).
Rev.: Incuse image of Rabbel II.
Reference.: Meshorer 163, SNG ANS 6: 1446.
Notes: ex-Zurquieh, electronic sale, 3/17/15, 34.
John Anthony
0166_0167.jpg
Rabbell II, AE16, Two Crossed Cornucopia1 viewsAE16
16.0mm 3.02gr
Rabbell II
71 - 106AD
O: NO LEGEND; Bust of King Rabbell II, conjoined with his Queen Gamilath.
R: Aramaic Legend: Names of Rabbell II and Gamilath in two lines. Two crossed cornucopiae.
SGI 5706
zurqieh-dubai 391390717490
2/24/16 1/21/17
Nicholas Z
011.JPG
Rhoemetalkes & Augustus, Æ24, 11 BC-12AD20 viewsRhoemetalkes & Augustus, Ć24, 11BC- 12AD
Obv. BASILEWS ROIMHTALKOU, jugate heads of King Rhoemetalkes & Queen Pythodoris right
Rev, KAISAROS SEBASTOU, bare head of Augustus right, ewer before.
8,32g.,25mm, green patina
Antonio Protti
rhometalkes-augustus.jpg
Rhoemetalkes I & Queen Pythodoris, Augustus, AE24, Client Kingdom of Thrace, circa 11 BC - 12 AD16 viewsRoman Provincial, Rhoemetalkes I & Queen Pythodoris, Augustus, AE24, Client Kingdom of Thrace, circa 11 BC - 12 AD, 8.6g, 24mm

Obverse: BAΣIΛƐΩΣ POIMHTAΛKOY, Jugate heads of King Rhoemetalkes & Queen Pythodoris right.

Reverse: KAIΣAPOΣ ΣƐBAΣTOY, Bare head of Augustus right.

Reference: RPC 1711, SNGCop 1190, SGI 5396

Ex: Gerhard Rohde
Gil-galad
Aurelian_RESTITVTORIENTIS.JPG
Roman Empire, AURELIAN. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Mediolanum. Struck A.D.272 - 27333 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORIENTIS. Female figure standing facing right presenting wreath to Aurelian who is standing facing left and holding sceptre; in exergue, S.
RIC V i : 140.

Struck after the defeat of Vabalathus and Queen Zenobia this coin commemorates the re-absorption of the Palmyran territories into the Roman Empire.
1 comments*Alex
bpS1O5Gallienus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus44 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate head right.
Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG
Stag walking right.
Antoninianus, 3.6 gm, 20.6 mm, Rome RIC 179
History (As sole Augustus, 266-268, Part II): In the East, the rampages of Shapur I were largey repelled and kept in check by the Palmyran King, Odaenathus who was rewarded with titles including "Ruler of the Romans" and "Governor of the East". In 266 he extended his influence by advancing into Dacia to check another of the Gothic invasions. An extremely important and powerful ally of Rome who never contended for Imperial power, he was murdered in 267 in a domestic quarrel and succeeded by his wife, Queen Zenobia. Gallienus was in almost continuous defense of Gothic intrusions over the Danube in 266-267. In 268, however, the Goths joined by the Heruli staged a massive invasion through the Balkans and into Greece. Leaving Aureolus at Milan to deflect any incursion by Postumus into the homeland, Gallienus won a great victory at Naissus. At this point, Aureolus staged his second rebellion by defecting to Postumus and shortly after declaring himself Emperor. This forced Gallienus to immediately return to Italy to face the expected invasion. He quickly managed a victory over Aureolus at Pontirolo and then laid siege to him at Milan. Before he could bring this to its expected conclusion, Gallienus was betrayed by his military staff who murdered the emperor in front of his own tent after luring away his guards.
Massanutten
0023-070.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORS, MARK ANTONY and LUCIUS ANTONIUS denarius132 viewsEphesus mint, 41 BC
M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM NERVA PROQ P, Bare head of Mark Antony right
L ANTONIUS COS, Bare head of Lucius Antonius right
3.58 gr
Ref : RCV #1509, Cohen #2
Lucius Antonius was the youngest brother of Mark Antony, and Consul in 41 BC
His coinage is rare, one type of aureus, two types of denarius
Following description taken from NAC auction 40, #617, about an other example of the same coin :
"This denarius, depicting the bare heads of Mark Antony and his youngest brother Lucius Antony, is a rare dual-portrait issue of the Imperatorial period. The family resemblance is uncanny, and one wonders if they truly looked this much alike, or if it is another case of portrait fusion, much like we observe with the dual-portrait billon tetradrachms of Antioch on which the face of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII takes on the square dimensions of Mark Antony. When Antony fled Rome to separate himself from Octavian and to take up his governorship in Gaul, Lucius went with him, and suffered equally from the siege of Mutina. This coin, however, was struck in a later period, when Lucius had for a second time taken up arms against Octavian in the west. Mark Antony was already in the east, and that is the region from which this coinage emanates. Since Lucius lost the ‘Perusine War’ he waged against Octavian, and was subsequently appointed to an office in Spain, where he died, it is likely that he never even saw one of his portrait coins."
5 commentsPotator II
coin010.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L Thorius Balbus : 105BC - AR Denarius18 viewsObv: Head of Juno of Lanuvium r., wearing goat-skin; on left I.S.M.R
Rev: Bull charging r.; below, L. THORIVS / BALBUS; above, control mark V.
3.89g - 20mm - s.192

I.S.M.R "Juno. Sispes. Mater. Regina." meaning, Juno, Savior, Mother and Queen. Her statue, clad in a goat-skin, stood in Lanuvium, a Latin town 35km to the south of Rome, and from whence came the family of L Thorius Balbus.
jerseyjohnjames
JMaesa01_publish.jpg
Roman, Julia Maesa166 viewsRIC 263 (3,1 gm, 20 mm).
Mint of Rome, 220 AD.
Wide & sharp specimen -
rare for this queen!
2 commentsneander
matilda-bricmer-1.jpg
S.1326 Matilda38 viewsPenny of Matilda, queen of England (disputed) 1139-1148
Mint: Cardiff
Moneyer: Bricmer
S.1326
N.936
O: [MATI]LLIS IMP
R: [+BRIC]MER:CAIE[RDI]

This coin, cracked and somewhat crudely repaired by the Cardiff Museum, is from the famous Coed-y-Wenallt hoard found in 1980. This hoard tripled the number of coins of Matilda known up to that time. THe best of the hoard went to museums. Some of the coins were sold by Spink in 1982, many ended up in institutional collections. A good number of them were cracked and repaired by the museum.

Matilda was ultimately unsuccessful in her invasion and war against Stephen, but her son would become king Henry II and one of the most successful English monarchs.

Ex- DNW 3 Jul 2019 (lot 431), M Lessen, P Withers, Seaby Coins, Spink Auction 20 (lot 26), Coed-y-Wenallt hoard
Nap
mary-1a.jpg
S.2492 Mary I47 viewsGroat of Mary I (1553-1558)
First issue (1553-1554)
Mintmark: Pomegranate
O: MARIA D G ANG FRA Z HIB REGI
R: VERITAS TEMPORIS FILIA

Mary, daughter of Henry VIII by his first wife Catherine of Aragon, is a controversial figure in English history because of her religious persecutions against Protestants. She gets the moniker "Bloody Mary" because under her watch several hundred Protestants were burned at the stake. Mary's husband, Philip II of Spain, was also unpopular in England. Mary died childless and her sister Elizabeth undid pretty much all of her political and religious changes.

Coins of Mary take two flavors- in just her name prior to her marriage to Philip, and after 1554 with Philip's name. This coin belongs to the earlier issue. These coins frequently demonstrate large scratches across the queen's face, done intentionally as Mary was not liked in her time. This particular example is remarkable free of surface marks.

Ex- Heritage auction 3073 (lot 31062), Spink 11039 (lot 345), F Brady, Seaby, R Carlyon-Britton, WC Boyd
2 commentsNap
salonina_92.jpg
Salonina, Göbl 161924 viewsCornelia Salonina, killed AD 268, wife of Gallienus
Billon Antoninianus, 3.37g, 23.12mm, 0°
struck in Antiochia, time of Gallienus' sole-reign
obv. [SAL]ONINA AVG
Bust, draped and with stephane, on crescent, r.
rev. IVNO REGINA
Juno, in long clothes, wearing polos, stg. half left, holding patera in outstretched r. hand
and resting with l. hand on her sceptre; at her feet peacock stg. l.
ex. star (for Antiochia)
RIC V/1, 92; C.67; Göbl 1619
scarce, VF

Here Juno wears a real polos belonging rightly to her as queen of heaven.
Jochen
Cleopatra_Thea___Antiochus_VIII.jpg
Seleucid - Cleopatra Thea & Antiochus VIII Grypos (125-121 BCE)7 viewsMetal/Size: AE19; Weight: 6.2 grams; Denomination: Unknown; Mint: Antioch; Date: 125-121 BCE; Obverse: Radiate head of Antiochus right. Reverse: Owl facing front and standing on amphora - BASILIEUS CLEOPATRAS KAI BASILEWS ANTIOXOY (Queen Cleopatra Thea King Antiochus). References: SNG Cop. #376; SNGIs #244 lff.museumguy
SC-1407.jpg
Seleukid Empire: Antiochos IV Epiphanes (175-164 BCE) Ć Serrate, Antioch on the Orontes (SC 1407; SNG Spaer 969)5 viewsObv: Veiled and diademed bust of Queen Laodice IV right
Rev: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY; Head of elephant left; tripod behind
Quant.Geek
antio_iv_elephant_res.jpg
SELEUKID KINGDOM--(04) ANTIOCHOS IV EPHIPANES28 views175-164 BC
AE 15 mm, 3.78 g
O: Veiled and diademed bust of Queen Laodice IV right
R: Head of elephant left
laney
Siglos_Artaxerxes_I_-_Darius_III.jpg
Siglos Artaxerxes I - Darius III27 viewsPersian Empire, Lydia, Artaxerxes I - Darius III, c. 450 - 330 B.C. Silver siglos, SGCV II 4683, banker's marks, 5.153g, 14.75mm, c. 450 - 330 B.C.;
O: Kneeling-running figure of the Great King right, dagger in right, bow in left, bearded, crowned.
R: Oblong patterned punch with countermarks

A coin that circulated around the time of King Ahaseurus and Queen Esther. This denomination is 1/3 of a persian Shekel. This amount is probably what Nehemia was refering to when he asked for a 1/3 shekel Temple donation, i.e. 1/3 of a Persian shekel was exactly the same weight as 1/2 of a Judaean shekel (Machazit HaShekel) at the time.
Nemonater
slavonia_bela_iv.jpg
SLAVONIA - BELA IV45 viewsSLAVONIA - BELA IV (1235-1270). Marten left with stars above & below; rev.: Creoss at center, king & queen portraits facing each side of cross; dots left & right of cross arms (identifying marks). This style is made during 2 reigns; however the ligature on obverse legend is unique to Bela IV. EHSZ#2.dpaul7
Ferdinand_and_Isabella_lead_seal.jpg
Spain - Ferdinand and Isabella17 viewsFerdinand & Isabella (1469-1504)
Lead Seal ND, 91mm, 330.45g, Fine, corroded, rim dents.
An unusual item, bearing separate titles of Ferdinand and Isabella on each side; one with a portrait of the King on horseback, the other with the Queen seated facing on a Gothic throne supporting the arms of the Catholic Monarchs.
Ex-Heritage
Sosius
Ferdinand_and_Isabella_lead_seal~0.jpg
Spain - Ferdinand and Isabella - 330 grams!231 viewsFerdinand & Isabella (1469-1504)
Lead Seal ND, 91mm, 330.45g, Fine, corroded, rim dents.
An unusual item, bearing separate titles of Ferdinand and Isabella on each side; one with a portrait of the King on horseback, the other with the Queen seated facing on a Gothic throne supporting the arms of the Catholic Monarchs.
Ex-Heritage
3 commentsSosius
iszi.jpg
Spain Isabell II KM # 615.230 viewsSpain. Isabel II. POR LA GRACIA DE DIOS Y LA CONST. 1861, Head of Queen Isabel II right / REINA DE LAS ESPANAS, U-Ncll0, 25 CENT. DE REAL KM # 615.2oneill6217
AUREL_ORIENS.JPG
Struck A.D.272 - 273. AURELIAN. Silvered AE Antoninianus of Mediolanum5 viewsObverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Aurelian facing right.
Reverse: RESTITVT ORIENTIS. Female figure standing facing right presenting wreath to Aurelian who is standing facing left and holding sceptre; in exergue, S.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.0gms | Die Axis: 12
RIC V i : 140.

Struck after the defeat of Vabalathus and Queen Zenobia this coin commemorates the re-absorption of the Palmyran territories into the Roman Empire.
*Alex
Louis_XIII_and_Anne_of_Austria_AE_(Brass)_Jeton.JPG
Struck c.1615 - 1616, Louis XIII and Anne d'Autriche. AE (Brass) Jeton8 viewsObverse: LVDO•XIII D G FR•ET•NA•ANNA•AVSTR•HISPAN. Crowned jugate busts of Louis XIII and Anne facing right, both wearing ruffs.
Reverse: Crown and two branches above two hearts, between which are the scrolled words CARITAS / *SPES* / *FIDES* in three lines above * L * - * A * (for Louis and Anne) either side of facing eagle. Below, scroll bearing the words •HANS•LAVFER•; in exergue H – L (for Hans Laufer) either side of floral device.

Struck at Nuremburg, Germany
Die engraver: Hans Laufer
Dimensions: 27.1mm | Weight: 3.87gms | Die Axis: 12
Ref. M: 3714 | Feuardent: 12329

Hans Laufer became Guild master at Nuremburg in 1611, though he had been responsible for issuing jetons from 1607. He died in 1632.

Louis XIII became king of France and Navarre in 1610, shortly before his ninth birthday, after his father Henry IV was assassinated. He ruled France until he died of Tuberculosis in 1643. Anne was betrothed to him at the age of eleven and, on 24th November 1615, they were married by proxy in Burgos. The marriage following the tradition of cementing military and political alliances between France and Spain that had begun with the marriage of Philip II of Spain to Elisabeth of Valois in 1559 as part of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. Anne and Louis, both fourteen years old, were pressured to consummate their marriage in order to forestall any possibility of future annulment, but this was ignored and Louis' mother, Marie de Medici, continued to conduct herself as Queen of France, without showing any deference to her daughter-in-law. However, in 1617, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, Duke of Luynes, to dispense with his mother's influence and she was ousted in a palace coup d'état which also saw her favourite, Concino Concini, assassinated. Louis turned now to Cardinal Richelieu as his advisor but Anne was opposed to Richelieu and became embroiled in several intrigues against him. This inevitably created tension between Louis and Anne. But despite this, and after having endured several stillbirths, in 1638 Anne finally gave birth to a son, the future Louis XIV, and the Bourbon line was further secured when in 1640 she gave birth to a second son, Philippe.
*Alex
90058-Syracuse.jpg
Syracuse 38 viewsSyracuse Litrae
27 mm 13.38 gm
O: Veiled head of Queen Philistis left
R: Nike in quadriga right
Koffy
Sicily_Syracuse_SNG-ANS5_884_gf.jpg
Syracuse, Hieron II8 viewsSicily, Syracuse, Hieron II. 274-216 BC. AR 16 Litra (13.44 gm) struck c. 240-216 BC. Veiled and diademed head of Queen Philistis l., torch behind. / Fast quadriga driven r. by Nike, ΒΑΣΙΛΑΙΣΣΑΣ above, E (magistrate) below horses, ΦΙΛΙΣΤΙΔΟΣ in ex. EF. Pegasi 123 #42. SNG ANS 5 #884 (same dies) #886-887 (same obv. die); Burnett SNR 62, pl. 3 #47 (same dies); Cahn Basel #533; Caltabiano et al Siracusa #37 (D11/R-); Gulbenkian 355; HGC 2 #1553 (same obv. die) /1554; SNG Cop 1 #823. cf. Triton X #102, Nomos 15 #32. 1 commentsAnaximander
Pyrrhic_AE.JPG
Syracuse, Reign of Pyrrhus9 views278-276 BC
Ć24 (24mm 11.98g)
O: Veiled head of Phthia left, wearing oak wreath; ΦΘΙΑΣ to left, Athena Parthenos facing behind, all within dotted border.
R: Thunderbolt; ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ above, ΠΥΡΡΟΥ below, all within dotted border.
SNG ANS 835v (obverse symbol); Calciati II pg. 328, 184 Ds; Sear 1215v (obverse symbol)
Rare
ex Praefectus Coins

Phthia of Epirus was a Thessalian queen, daughter of Menon of Pharsalus and mother of Pyrrhus.
A rare coin not listed in HGC 2, SNG Cop, SNG Morcom, etc.
Enodia
thailand_1968_150-baht_in-flip_obv_03_rev_02.JPG
Thailand Gold 150 Baht - Queen Sirikit38 viewsStruck at the Royal Mint, Bangkok.
Thailand 150 Baht - Commemorating the 36th Birthday of Queen Sirikit.
3.75 grams - .900 fine Gold - .1085 oz AGW
rexesq
thailand_1968_300-baht_in-flip_obv_04_rev_05.JPG
Thailand Gold 300 Baht, Queen Sirikit22 viewsStruck at the Royal Mint, Bangkok.
Thailand 300 Baht - Commemorating the 36th Birthday of Queen Sirikit.
7.5 grams - .900 fine Gold - .2170 oz AGW
rexesq
thailand_1968_300-baht_in-flip_obv_01_rev_01.JPG
Thailand Gold 300 Baht, Queen Sirikit25 viewsStruck at the Royal Mint, Bangkok.
Thailand 300 Baht - Commemorating the 36th Birthday of Queen Sirikit.
7.5 grams - .900 fine Gold - .2170 oz AGW
rexesq
Battle_of_Actium.jpg
The Battle of Actium, by Lorenzo A. Castro, 1672.29 viewsThe Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between Mark Antony and Octavian (Caesar Augustus). It was fought on September 2, 31 BC, near the Roman colony of Actium in Greece (near the modern-day city of Preveza), on the Ionian Sea. Octavian's fleet was commanded by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Antony's fleet was supported by the fleet of his lover, Cleopatra, queen of Ptolemaic Egypt. The battle was won by the forces of Octavian, whose victory led him to be titled the Princeps Augustus, and eventually to be considered the first Roman Emperor; for this reason the date of the battle is often used to mark the end of the Roman Republic and the beginning of the Roman Empire.

Cleisthenes
R2745.jpg
The Dioscuri43 viewsIn Greek mythology, Castor (or Kastor) and Pollux (sometimes called Polydeuces) were the twin sons of Leda and the brothers of Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra. They are known as the Gemini, Latin for twins. According to Liddell and Scott's Lexicon, kastor is Greek for "beaver", and poludeukeis means "very sweet".

Polydeuces was a powerful boxer, and Castor a great horseman.

In Roman mythology, Castor was venerated much more often than Polydeuces. He was known as Castore.

When Theseus and Pirithous kidnapped their sister Helen and carried her off to Aphidnae, the twins rescued her and counter-abducted Theseus' mother, Aethra. They also accompanied Jason on the Argo; during the voyage, Polydeuces killed King Amycus in a boxing match.

When Astydameia, queen of Iolcus, offended Peleus, the twins assisted him in ravaging her country.

Castor and Polydeuces abducted and married Phoebe and Hilaeira, the daughters of Leucippus. In return, Idas and Lynceus, nephews of Leucippus (or rival suitors), killed Castor. Polydeuces was granted immortality by Zeus, and further persuaded Zeus to share his gift with Castor. (In some accounts, only Polydeuces was fathered by Zeus, while Leda and her husband Tyndareus conceived Castor. This explains why only Polydeuces was granted immortality.) Accordingly, the two spend alternate days as gods on Olympus and as deceased mortals in Hades.

Their festival was on July 15. They had their own temple in the Roman Forum: see Temple of Castor and Pollux.

Compare with Amphion and Zethus of Thebes, with Romulus and Remus of Rome, the Alcis of Germanic Mythology and with the Asvins of Vedic Mythology. Some have supposed a general Indo-European origin for the myth of the divine twins.

The constellation Gemini is said to represent these twins, and its brightest stars Castor and Pollux (α and β Geminorum) are named for them. There are also ancient sources which identify them with the morning and evening stars
ecoli
Augustus_R695_fac.jpg
Thrace, Kings of Tharce, Rhoemetalkes I and Pythodoris with Augustus6 viewsKings of Thrace, Rhoimetalkes I and Augustus
Ć24. Circa 11 BC- AD 12.

Obv.: ΚΑΙΣΑΡΟΣ ΣΕΒΑΣΤΟΥ, bare head of Augustus right.
Rev.: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΡΟΙΜΕΤΑΛΚΟΥ, Jugate heads of Rhoimetalkes I, diademed, and Queen Pythodoris right

Ć , 11.41g, 24mm, 6h.

Ref.: SNG Stancomb 905 (this coin); RPC I, 1711; Yourokova 204. 11.41g, 24mm, 6h.

Ex A. H. Baldwin & Sons Ltd., March 1976.
Ex William Stancomb Collection; this coin published in Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, Great Britain, Volume XI, The William Stancomb Collection of Coins of the Black Sea Region (Oxford, 2000)
Ex Roma Numismatics, AUCTION XVIII, Lot 282
shanxi
Rhoemetalkes_001.jpg
Thrace, Kings of Tharce, Rhoemetalkes I and Pythodoris with Augustus14 viewsKings of Tharce
Rhoemetalkes I and Pythodoris with Augustus
Circa 11 BC-AD 12
Obv.: KAIΣAΡOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΥ, Bare head of Augustus right.
Rev.: BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΡOIMHTAΛKOΥ, Jugate heads of Rhoemetalkes and his queen Pythodoris right.
AE, 10.61g, 23.9mm
Ref.: RPC 1711
Ex Pecunem 10, Lot 284
shanxi
philippopolis_commodus_Varbanov943.jpg
Thracia, Philippopolis, Commodus, Varbanov 94327 viewsCommodus, AD 180-192
AE 31, 17.89g
struck under governor Caecilius Servilianus
obv. AV KAI M AV L KOMODOC
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. HGE KAI CEROVEILIANOV FILIPPOPOLEITWN
Bearded river-god (Hebron), nude to hips, leaning l. on rocks(?), holding waterplant in l. hand and
resting with l. arm on turned vase from which water flows; the lowered l. hand rests on prow of ship;
a tree stg. behind with several twigs and fruits
Varbanov (engl.) 943
Extremely rare, about VF, wonderful rev.

Pat Lawrence: That is one beautiful Philippopolis, queen of mints issuing large river-gods, and this is one of its bests.
Jochen
Daric.jpg
Time of Darius I - Xerxes II133 viewsACHAEMENID PERSIAN EMPIRE. Time of Darius I - Xerxes II Circa 485-420 B.C.E. AV daric. 16mm, 8.36g. O:Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, holding spear and bow. R: Incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B (pl. XIII, 27).

In 550 BC Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Persian Empire by amalgamating the Iranian tribes of the Medes and the Persians. Cyrus then looked to the west. His army defeated the Lydians and their king Croesus in 547 BC and in the following year the Persian army marched into the kingdoms of Ionia, Caria and Lykia, on what is now the west coast of Turkey.

It was there that the Persians first came into contact with coinage. From here it spread over the next century throughout the Persian Empire as far as Afghanistan and Egypt. After conquering Lydia in 547 BC, the Persians adopted the Lydian tradition of minting coins. Soon the local 'lion and bull' croesid coins were replaced by a new Achaemenid coinage.

The gold daric, named after the Persian king Darius I (521-486 BC), and the silver siglos (or shekel) were the main denominations. An archer, representing the Persian king, appeared on the obverse (front) of the coin. The reverse consisted of a rectangular punch. These coins were minted in the western part of the Achaemenid Empire. Their production continued long after the death of Darius, until the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great at the end of the fourth century BC. (Comments from britishmuseum.org)

After the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah, the Jews were taken into the seventy-year Babylonian captivity. When ancient Persia took control of Babylon, Haman, the royal vizier, convinced King Ahasuerus to destroy all the Jews. Esther, Ahasuerus's queen and, unknown to him, a Jew, interceded on behalf of her people. By law the King could not rescind the order to slaughter the Jews, so he issued a second decree that permitted the Jews to defend themselves with armed force.

The King replaced Haman with Mordecai, a palace official, cousin and foster parent of Esther. The Jews defeated Haman, killing his ten sons that were leading the attacks, and then hanged Haman. The day after the battle was designated as a day of feasting and rejoicing. Scholars identify King Ahasuerus as the historical king Xerxes I, 486 - 465 BCE. Xerxes is the Greek version of his name but the Babylonians knew him as Khshayarsha. The Hebrew name Ahasuerus, appears to be derived from Khshayarsha, with the letter A added at the beginning.
3 commentsNemonater
titus_venus1.JPG
Titus RIC 53107 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome mint, 79 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P VIIII IMP XV COS VII P P; Venus stg. r. leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 53 (R). BMC 25. RSC 286. BNC 20.
Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection.

Venus is an ironic choice for a reverse for Titus in light of his tragic romance with the Jewish Queen Berenice, who he had to banish because of her unpopularity with the Roman people. The BMCRE instead speculates the reverse echoes the classic reverses issued by Julius Caesar and Augustus, thus aligning Titus to an imperial tradition.

The coin itself is in excellent condition and features a classic portrait. Even the Venus is rendered wonderfully well.

2 commentsDavid Atherton
TitusTramplingEnemy.jpg
TITUS, as Caesar133 viewsTITUS, as Caesar. 69-79 AD. Rome Mint AE Sestertius (36mm, 26.62 g). Struck 72 AD. O: Laureate head right, T CAES VESPASIAN IMP PON TR POT COS II R: Titus in military dress, cloak flying behind him, his horse rearing as he attacks prostrate Jew who is armed with sword and shield. SC in exergue. RIC 430, Hendin 1524, Ex Harry N. Sneh Collection Gemini Auction X, ex Goldberg 41, part of lot 2841 (Alan Levin Collection)

It is likely this coin refers to a battle recorded in Josephus Wars Book V Chapter 2, where Titus was ambushed by Jews who “leaped out suddenly at the towers called the "Women's Towers," through that gate which was over against the monuments of queen Helena.”

Cut off from his men, the account goes on, “So he perceived that his preservation must be wholly owing to his own courage, and turned his horse about, and cried out aloud to those that were about him to follow him, and ran with violence into the midst of his enemies, in order to force his way through them to his own men. And hence we may principally learn, that both the success of wars, and the dangers that kings are in, are under the providence of God; for while such a number of darts were thrown at Titus, when he had neither his head-piece on, nor his breastplate, (for, as I told you, he went out not to fight, but to view the city,) none of them touched his body, but went aside without hurting him; as if all of them missed him on purpose, and only made a noise as they passed by him. So he diverted those perpetually with his sword that came on his side, and overturned many of those that directly met him, and made his horse ride over those that were overthrown.
4 commentsNemonater
Tripura_RB-185.jpg
Tripura: Rajadhara Manikya (1586-1599) AR Tanka, citing Queen Satyavati (RB-185; KM#97)23 viewsObv: lion facing left, standard (type o) above, date below, all within circle and outer border of circles with pellets
Rev: in four lines: Śri Śri Yuta Raja/dhara Manikya De/va Śri Satyava/ti Maha Devyau within square with ornaments outside

ex-Nicholas Rhodes Collection
SpongeBob
RB-133.jpg
Tripura: Udaya Manikya (1567- 1573) Tanka (RB-133, KM-79), citing Queen Hira38 viewsObv: lion facing left, standard above, date below, but 89 of the date is behind the lion's back leg, within a circle and border of sloping arches
Rev: in four lines: Śri Śri Yutoda/ya Manikya/ Deva Śri Hira/ Maha Devyau within square with ornaments outside

ex-David Fore Collection
1 commentsSpongeBob
normal_victoria_florin_res_blk.jpg
UNITED KINGDOM--QUEEN VICTORIA19 views1837 - 1901
struck 1898
Silver 28.5 mm 11.18 g Florin
Queen Victoria Old Veiled Bust Silver Florin
O: Old veiled bust
R: three shields within garter, edge milled
laney
victoria_half_crown_1891.jpg
UNITED KINGDOM--QUEEN VICTORIA13 views1891
Silver Half Crown
O: Bust with Jubilee Crown
R: Crowned Royal shield with 4-folded arms
laney
A_and_V_Antioch_1st_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 1st Officina15 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, A in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 1st; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 2.73g; Diameter: 20.5mm; Die axis: 0ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3102; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 6, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_2nd_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 2nd Officina 12 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, B in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 2nd; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.855g; Diameter: 20.5mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3103; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_3rd_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 3rd Officina17 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, Γ in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 3rd; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.146g; Diameter: 21.2mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3105; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and__V_Antioch_4th_Wkshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 4th Officina10 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, Δ in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 4th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.563g; Diameter: 21.8mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3106; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_5th_WKshp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 5th Officina14 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, ϵ in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 5th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.262; Diameter: 20.3mm; Die axis: 315ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3107; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_6th_Wksp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 6th Officina19 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, S in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 6th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 2.812g; Diameter: 21.3mm; Die axis: 150ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3108; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_7th_Wksp_Large.jpg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 7th Officina23 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, laureate, diademed, draped and curiassed, facing right, seen from behind.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the front, Z in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 7th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 4.137g; Diameter: 20.3mm; Die axis: 0ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3110; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
1 commentsTracy Aiello
A_and_V_Antioch_8th_Wksp.jpeg
Vabalathus and Aurelian Antioch 8th Officina22 viewsVabalathus: 270 - 272 AD; Aurelian: 270 - 275 AD
Julius Aurelius Septimius Vabalathus Athenodorus (Wahb Allat), son of Septimius Odaenathus and Septimia Zenobia. Palmyrene Empire.
Obv: VABALATHVS V C R IM D R1; Bust of Vabalathus, draped and curiassed, facing right.
Rev: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG; Bust of Aurelian, radiate and curiassed, facing right, from the rear, H in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 8th; Issue: 1st; Date: Nov. 270 - Mar. 272; Weight: 3.96g; Diameter: 21mm; Die axis: 180ş; References, for example: RIC V v.1 381 correc; MER - RIC 3113; SRCV III 11718

Notes:

1VABALATHVS V[IR] C[LARISSIMUS] R[EX] IM[PERATOR] D[UX] R[OMANORUM]. See for example, Bland (2011), pp. 135, 141 and Estiot, p. 118, esp. note 462. Although Potter, page 267 and footnote 24 postulates V[IR] C[ONSULARIS] for the mint at Antioch I would certainly side with Bland and Estiot.

Which side of this coin is the obverse and which side is the reverse?
Webb in RIC V, v.1 puts great weight on the titulature of Aurelian and mentions that mint marks on the obverse of coins were not unknown at Antioch. He considers the coin to have been struck as a sign of vassalage instead of having been struck as an insult. Webb states that Aurelian’s bust is on the obverse of the coin (p. 260). Robertson, pp. cxix and 142 also considers Aurelian’s bust to be on the obverse of the coin, but does not state an explicit reason for her position. Mattingly (1936) holds that the mint mark is the determining factor, and therefore believes that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin. In SRCV III, p. 442 Sear follows the reasoning of Mattingly and although Vagi agrees that Aurelian’s bust is on the reverse of the coin (p. 403) he does not explicitly state his reason for believing so. Estiot states that the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian clearly indicates that his portrait is on the reverse of the coin (p. 118). Bland (2011) follows suit. When discussing this issue from Antioch he states that the officina mark is always placed on the reverse of coins. He notes that the placement of the officina mark sent a signal that Aurelian was “...being accorded a lower status than Vabalathus, although he was given his correct titles of Imperator and Augustus, and he wore a radiate crown, also traditionally associated with the senior Augustus” (p. 142 - 3). Watson argues that Queen Zenobia’s assertion of Palmyrene independence from Rome took place gradually (pp. 67 - 9). Bland believes that the placement of the officina mark under the bust of Aurelian on this coin was just another step in that assertion of independence.

Photo credits: Aegean Numismatics

Sources

Bland 2011: Bland, Roger. “The Coinage of Vabalathus and Zenobia from Antioch and Alexandria" in Numismatic Chronicle, 171 (2011): 133 - 186.
Estiot, Sylviane. Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian ŕ Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothčque nationale de France, 2004.
Mattingly 1936: Mattingly, Harold. “The Palmyrene Princes and the Mints of Antioch and Alexandria.” The Numismatic Chronicle and Journal of the Royal Numismatic Society, fifth Series, vol. 16, no. 62 (1936): pp. 89 - 114.
MER - RIC: Maison de l’Orient et la Méditerranée: Monnaies de l’Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage AD 268-276. Accessed March 7, 2019. http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/home.
Potter, David S. The Roman Empire at Bay: AD 180 - 395. New York: Routledge, 2004
RIC V v.1: Webb, Percy. The Roman Imperial Coinage, Vol. V, Part 1: Valerian to Florian, edited by Harold Mattingly and Edward Sydenham. London: Spink & Son, 1927.
Robertson, Anne. Roman Imperial Coins in the Hunter Coin Cabinet, Vol. IV Valerian I to Allectus. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978.
SRCV III: Sear, David. Roman Coins and Their Values, Vol. III: Maximinus I to Carinus. London: Spink, 2005.
Vagi, David. Coinage and History of the Roman Empire, Volume One: History. Sidney, Ohio: Coin World, 1999.
Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. New York: Routledge, 1999.
Tracy Aiello
4320157.jpg
Varhran II with queen and prince8 viewsex CNG Rarearash p
1850_Bible.jpg
Victorian Holy Bible129 viewsDate: AD 1850
Size: 5-1/4 x 3-1/2 in.

The Holy Bible containing the Old and New Testaments: Translated out of the original tongues; and with the former traslations diligently compared and revised, by His Majesty's Special Command.
Appointed to be read in churches.
LONDON: Printed by G.E. Eyre ad W. Spottiswoode, priters to the Queen's most Excellent Majesty, and sold at their warehouse, 189 Fleet Street.
M.DCCC.L.

CONDITION: Near Fine. The binding is intact with some signs of inner splitting. The hardcover is cobalt blue in color with a gilt rectangle design pattern on both the front and back. All page edges are gilt. A functional metal clasp keeps the Bible shut.
2 commentsNoah
Manuel1ComAR_Sear2601.jpg
[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)313 viewsEmpire of Trebizond: Manuel I, Komnenos, Silver Asper, Sear-2601, struck 1238-1263, 2.9 grams, 21.9 mm. Nice VF; Obverse: St. Eugenius standing facing, holding a long cross; Reverse: Manuel standing facing, holding labarum and akakia, Manus Dei in upper right field. Nicely centered with technically 'mint state' surfaces, but a touch of strike unevenness and irregular toning. Ex Glenn Woods.

Manuel I Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1218 – March 1263), Emperor of Trebizond from 1238 to 1263, surnamed the "Great Captain", was the second son of Alexios I, the first emperor of Trebizond, and Theodora Axouchina. He succeeded his brother, John I Axouchos. In spite of his alleged military abilities, Trebizond became or remained a vassal to the Seljuk Turks and, after the Battle of Köse Dag in 1243, to the Mongols of Persia. Trapezuntine forces served in the battle as Seljuk tributaries. The Seljuk forces were shattered in the defeat and the Sultanate of Iconium began to decline.

In 1253, Manuel negotiated for a dynastic alliance with King Louis IX of France, by which he hoped to secure the help of the Crusaders against the Seljuks and Laskarids of Nicaea, but Louis advised him to seek a wife from the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Jean de Joinville testifies to Manuel's wealth, saying he sent Louis: "various precious things as a gift; amongst others, bows made of the wood of the service tree, whose arrow-notches screwed into the bow, and when they were released, one saw that they were very sharp and well made."

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 revived the trade route running north from Armenia and the upper Euphrates valley to Erzerum and then through the Zigana Pass to Trebizond. This trade route caused the beginnings of Trebizond's commercial prosperity, because goods from the Silk Road were now transported to Trebizond and the Black Sea, instead of to the Mediterranean. Although some bronze coins have been attributed to Alexios I, and silver aspers were certainly coined by John I, Manuel struck both bronze coins and a large silver currency. Trapezuntine coins circulated widely outside the empire, especially in Georgia.

Manuel rebuilt the Hagia Sophia monastery in Trebizond between 1250 and 1260. Eastmond describes Manuel's church as 'the finest surviving Byzantine imperial monument of its period.' When Michael VIII Palaiologos recaptured Constantinople from the Latin Empire in 1261 he unsuccessfully demanded that Manuel abandon his claim to the Byzantine succession.

Manuel married three times and left several children, four of whom reigned after him. By his first wife, Anna Xylaloe, a Trapezuntine noblewoman he had:
• Andronikos II, who succeeded as emperor.

By his second wife, the Iberian princess Rusudan, he had:
• Theodora

By his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, another Trapezuntine noblewoman, he had four children:
• George
• Anonymous daughter, who married King Demetre II of Georgia
• Anonymous daughter
• John II.

The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τής Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. Queen Tamar of Georgia provided troops to her nephew Alexios I, who conquered the Pontic Greek city of Trebizond, Sinope and Paphlagonia. It is often known as "the last Greek Empire."

Foundation
When Constantinople fell in the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to the Western European and Venetian Crusaders, the Empire of Trebizond was one of the three smaller Greek states that emerged from the wreckage, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus. Alexios, a grandson of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, son of Rusudan daughter of George III of Georgia, made Trebizond his capital and asserted a claim to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire.

The Byzantine Emperor Andronikos I had been deposed and killed in 1185. His son Manuel was blinded and may have died of his injuries. The sources agree that Rusudan, the wife of Manuel and the mother of Alexios and David, fled Constantinople with her children, to escape persecution by Isaac II Angelos, Andronikos' successor. It is unclear whether Rusudan fled to Georgia or to the southern coast of the Black Sea where the Komnenos family had its origins. There is some evidence that the Comnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state centred on Trebizond before 1204.

The rulers of Trebizond called themselves Grand Komnenos (Megas Komnenos) and at first claimed the traditional Byzantine title of "Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans." After reaching an agreement with the Byzantine Empire in 1282, the official title of the ruler of Trebizond was changed to "Emperor and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians and the Transmarine Provinces" and remained such until the empire's end in 1461. The state is sometimes called The Komnenian Empire because the ruling dynasty descended from Alexios I Komnenos.

Trebizond initially controlled a contiguous area on the southern Black Sea coast between Soterioupolis and Sinope, comprising the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rise and Artvin. In the thirteenth century, the empire controlled Perateia which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. David Komnenos expanded rapidly to the west, occupying first Sinope, then Paphlagonia and Heraclea Pontica until his territory bordered the Empire of Nicaea founded by Theodore I Laskaris. The territories west of Sinope were lost to the Empire of Nicaea by 1206. Sinope itself fell to the Seljuks in 1214.

Prosperity
While Epirus effectively disintegrated in the 14th century, and the Nicaean Empire succeeded in retaking Constantinople and extinguishing the feeble Latin Empire, only to be conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire, Trebizond managed to outlive its competitors in Epirus and Nicaea.

Trebizond was in continual conflict with the Sultanate of Iconium and later with the Ottoman Turks, as well as Byzantium, the Italian republics, and especially the Genoese. It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkmen rulers of interior Anatolia.

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 made Trebizond the western terminus of the Silk Road. The city grew to tremendous wealth on the Silk Road trade under the protection of the Mongols. Marco Polo returned to Europe by way of Trebizond in 1295. Under the rule of Alexios III (1349–1390) the city was one of the world's leading trade centres and was renowned for its great wealth and artistic accomplishment.

Climax and Civil War
The small Empire of Trebizond had been most successful in asserting itself at its very start, under the leadership of Alexios I (1204–1222) and especially his younger brother David Komnenos, who died in battle in 1214. Alexios' second son Manuel I (1238–1263) had preserved internal security and acquired the reputation of a great commander, but the empire was already losing outlying provinces to the Turkmen, and found itself forced to pay tribute to the Seljuks of Rum and then to the Mongols of Persia, a sign of things to come. The troubled reign of John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. Trebizond reached its greatest wealth and influence during the long reign of Alexios II (1297–1330). Trebizond suffered a period of repeated imperial depositions and assassinations from the end of Alexios' reign until the first years of Alexios III, ending in 1355. The empire never fully recovered its internal cohesion, commercial supremacy or territory.

Decline and Fall
Manuel III (1390–1417), who succeeded his father Alexios III as emperor, allied himself with Timur, and benefited from Timur's defeat of the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Ankara in 1402. His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) married two of his daughters to Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and to Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu; while his eldest daughter Maria became the third wife of the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. Pero Tafur, who visited the city in 1437, reported that Trebizond had less than 4,000 troops.

John IV (1429–1459) could not help but see his Empire would soon share the same fate as Constantinople. The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. While Mehmed II was away laying siege to Belgrade in 1456, the Ottoman governor of Amasya attacked Trebizond, and although defeated, took many prisoners and extracted a heavy tribute.

John IV prepared for the eventual assault by forging alliances. He gave his daughter to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia.

After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power and misused these alliances. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues, and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother.

Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. He led a sizeable army from Brusa, first to Sinope whose emir quickly surrendered, then south across Armenia to neutralize Uzun Hasan. Having isolated Trebizond, Mehmed quickly swept down upon it before the inhabitants knew he was coming, and placed it under siege. The city held out for a month before the emperor David surrendered on August 15, 1461.

With the fall of Trebizond, the territory of "the Last Greek Empire" was extinguished.


List of Trapezuntine Emperors

• Alexios I Megas Komnenos (1204–1222)
• Andronikos I Gidos (1222–1235)
• John I Axouchos Megas Komnenos (1235–1238)
• Manuel I Megas Komnenos (1238–1263)
• Andronikos II Megas Komnenos (1263–1266)
• George Megas Komnenos (1266–1280)
• John II Megas Komnenos (1280–1284)
• Theodora Megale Komnene (1284–1285)
• John II Megas Komnenos (restored, 1285–1297)
• Alexios II Megas Komnenos (1297–1330)
• Andronikos III Megas Komnenos (1330–1332)
• Manuel II Megas Komnenos (1332)
• Basil Megas Komnenos (1332–1340)
• Irene Palaiologina (1340–1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (1341)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (restored, 1341–1342)
• John III Megas Komnenos (1342–1344)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (restored, 1344–1349)
• Alexios III Megas Komnenos (1349–1390)
• Manuel III Megas Komnenos (1390–1416)
• Alexios IV Megas Komnenos (1416–1429)
• John IV Megas Komnenos (1429–1459)
• David Megas Komnenos (1459–1461)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_I_of_Trebizond
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_of_Trebizond


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
JohnHyrcanusAntiochos7Lily.jpg
[18H451] Judaean Kingdom, John Hyrcanus I (Yehohanan), 134 - 104 B.C., for the Seleukid King Antiochos VII106 viewsJohn Hyrcanus [for Antiochos VII]; Lily, AE, Hendin 451, 15mm, 2.92 grams; VF, Jerusalem; 182-180 B.C. This interesting coin was the precursor to the "prutah" which would subsequently be minted in Israel. Struck by John Hyrcanus, King of Judaea, in the name of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII, Euergetes (Sidetes). Ex Zuzim Judaea.

Johanan [John] Hyrcanus
(d. 104 BCE)

Grandson of Mattathias of Modein and chief architect of Judean dominance of Palestine. The youngest and only surviving son of Simon Thassi succeeded his father as high priest in 134 BCE. He was the fourth Hasmonean to rule Jerusalem. But his tenure began with a year-long Syrian siege that forced him to agree to tear down the city's fortifications and renew a tribute to the Greek emperor [133 BCE].

Within a few years, however, he took advantage of political turmoil in Syria following the death of Antiochus VII [129 BCE] to rebuild his forces, reclaim independence and extend Judean control over Palestine and Jordan. On the southern front he forced Judah's neighbors in Idumea [descendents of the Edomites] to accept Judaism and on the northern front he destroyed the rival temple at Shechem in Samaria.

Such triumphs made him the probable subject of messianic tributes by his fellow Judeans. But his own preference for Greek culture made him controversial in Jerusalem. When Pharisees challenged his right to be high priest, he switched his allegiance to the aristocratic Sadducee [Zadokite] party. Still, the Dead Sea Scrolls suggest that other Zadokites probably rejected his leadership and left Jerusalem, labeling him the "wicked priest," who persecuted the priest whom they regarded as the "Teacher of Righteousness."

Copyright 2007, The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Published on The Jewish Virtual Library; http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/index.html


John Hyrcanus
John Hyrcanus (Yohanan Girhan) (reigned 134 BCE - 104 BCE, died 104 BCE) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader of the 2nd century BC. Apparently the name "Hyrcanus" was taken by him as a regnal name upon his accession to power. His taking a Greek regnal name was a significant political and cultural step away from the intransigent opposition to and rejection of Hellenistic culture which had characterised the Maccabaen revolt against Seleucid rule, and a more pragmatic recognition that Judea had to maintain its position among a millieu of small and large states which all shared the Hellenistic culture and communicated in Greek.

Life and work
He was the son of Simon Maccabaeus and hence the nephew of Judas Maccabaeus, Jonathan Maccabaeus and their siblings, whose story is told in the deuterocanonical books of 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees, and in the Talmud. John was not present at a banquet at which his father and his two brothers were murdered, purportedly by his brother-in-law Ptolemy. He attained to his father's former offices, that of high priest and king (although some Jews never accepted any of the Hasmoneans as being legitimate kings, as they were not lineal descendants of David).

His taking a Greek regnal name - "Hyrcanus" - was a significant political and cultural step away from the intransigent opposition to and rejection of Hellenistic culture which had characterised the Maccabaen revolt against Seleucid rule. It reflected a more pragmatic recognition that Judea, once having attained independence, had to maintain its position among a milieu of small and large states which all shared the Hellenistic culture. All subseqent Hashmonean rulers followed suit and adopted Greek names in their turn.

Achievements
John Hyrcanus apparently combined an energetic and able style of leadership with the zeal of his forebears. He was known as a brave and brilliant military leader. He is credited with the forced conversion of the Idumeans to Judaism, which was unusual for a Jewish leader; Judaism was not typically spread by the sword. He also set out to resolve forcibly the religious dispute between the Jews and the Samaritans; during his reign he destroyed the Samaritan temple on Mount Gerizim (although their descendants still worship among its ruins), which served further to deepen the already-historic hatred and rivalry between the two groups. Many historians believe that the apocryphal book of Jubilees was written during his reign; some would suggest even at his behest. Some writers, particularly Christian ones, have dated the division of Judaism into the parties of Pharisees and Sadducees to his era; most Jewish writers and some Christian ones suggest that this split actually well predates him. Some historians would go so far as to identify him, as a priest, predominantly with the Sadducee party, which was closely associated with the Temple worship and the priestly class.

Peak and decline of the kingdom
John Hyrcanus represented in some ways the highest point of the Hasmonean Dynasty. The restored Jewish "kingdom" approached its maximum limits of both territory and prestige. Upon his death, his offices were divided among his heirs; his son Aristobulus succeeded him as high priest; his wife as "Queen regnant". The son, however, soon came to desire the essentially unchecked power of his father; he shortly ordered his mother and his brothers imprisoned. This event seems to mark the beginning of the decline of the Hasmonean Dynasty; in just over four decades they were removed from power by the Roman Republic and none of them ever began to approach the level of power or prestige that had pertained to John Hyrcanus or his predecessors.

Modern Commemoration
Tel Aviv has a Yochanan Hyrcanus Street (רחוב יוחנן הורקנוס), as do several other cities in contemporary Israel. In the ealy decades of the 20th century, the Zionist historical perception of the Jewish past tended to approve of and revere strong warrior kings of both Biblical and later periods, and Hyrcanus' exploits earned him a place in that pantheon.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Hyrcanus


John Hyrcanus was the son of Simon the Maccabee and nephew of the folk hero Judah Maccabee. Not long after Hyrcanus assumed power, the Seleukid kingdom marched on Jerusalem. The Seleukid king, Antiocus VII, and Hyrcanus I negotiated a treaty that left Hyrcanus a vassal to the Syrian king. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/roman-and-greek-coins.asp?vpar=922&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Ardashir1Gobl10sm.jpg
[1901a] Ardashir I, The Great (AD 224-241) 1471 viewsSASANIAN EMPIRE. Ardashir I, 224-241 AD. AR Drachm; Göbl 10; 4.27 gm; Toned VF. Obverse: Crowned draped bust; Reverse: Fire-altar. Ex Pegasi.

Ardashir I, The Great (AD 226-241)

Ardashir I (early Middle Persian Arđaxšēr "Who has the Divine Order as his Kingdom"), also known as Ardashīr-i Pāpagān "Ardashir, son of Pāpağ" Ardeshiri Babakan, and as Artaxerxes, was ruler of Persia (226–241) and the founder of the Sassanid dynasty (226–651). Other variants of his name appear as Artaxares, Artashastra, Ardaxshir, Ardasher, Artashir and Artakhshathra.

Early Years
Ardashir I was born in the late 2nd century in Istakhr, (located today in Iran) a vassal kingdom of the Parthian Empire. His father Pāpağ (sometimes written as Pāpak or Babak) deposed the previous king, Gochihr, and took his throne. His mother may have been named Rodhagh. During his father's reign, Ardashir I ruled the town of Darabjird and received the title of "argbadh". Upon Pāpağ's death, Ardashir I's elder brother Šāpūr ascended to the throne. However, Ardashir I rebelled against his brother and took the kingship for himself in 208.

Ardashir I rapidly extended his territory, demanding fealty from the local princes of Fars and gaining control over the neighboring provinces of Kerman, Isfahan, Susiana, and Mesene. This expansion brought the attention of the Arsacid Great King Artabanus IV (216–224), Ardashir I's overlord and ruler of the Parthian Empire, who marched against him in 224. Their armies clashed at Hormizdeghan, and Artabanus IV was killed. Ardashir I went on to invade the western provinces of the now-defunct Parthian Empire. This led to a confrontation between Kurds and Aradshir I which is recorded in a historical text named "Book of the Deeds of Ardashir son of Babak". It is written in Pahlavi script. In this book, the author explains the battle between King of the Kurds, "Madig" and Ardashir I.

Crowned in 226 as the sole ruler of Persia, and taking the title Šāhānšāh "King of Kings" (his consort Adhur-Anahid took the title "Queen of Queens"), Ardashir I finally brought the 400 year-old Parthian Empire to an end and began four centuries of Sassanid rule.
Over the next few years, Ardashir I further expanded his new empire to the east and northwest, conquering the provinces of Sistan, Gorgan, Khorasan, Margiana (in modern Turkmenistan), Balkh, and Chorasmia. Bahrain and Mosul were also added to Sassanid possessions. Furthermore, the Kings of Kushan, Turan, and Mekran recognized Ardashir as their overlord. In the West, assaults against Hatra, Armenia and Adiabene met with less success.

Religion and State
According to historian Arthur Christensen, the Sassanid state as established by Ardashir I was characterized by two general trends which differentiated it from its Parthian predecessor: a strong political centralization and organized state sponsorship of Zoroastrianism.

The Parthian Empire had consisted of a loose federation of vassal kingdoms under the suzerainty of the Great King. Ardashir I, perhaps seeing from his own successes the weaknesses of such decentralized authority, established a strong central government by which to rule Persia. The empire was divided into cantons, the dimensions of which were based on military considerations. These cantons were designed to resist the influence of hereditary interests and feudal rivalries. Local governors who descended from the ruling family bore the title of shāh. In an attempt to protect royal authority from regional challenges, the personal domains of the Sassanids and branch families family were scattered across the empire. While the old feudal princes (vāspuhrs) remained, they were required to render military service with their local troops (for the most part peasant levies). The lesser nobility was cultivated as a source of military strength, forming the elite cavalry of the army, and the royal household found a useful (and presumably reliable) military force through the hiring of mercenaries.

Zoroastrianism had existed in the Parthian Empire, and its holy text, the Avesta, had likely been compiled during the years of the Arsacid dynasty. The Sassanids could trace their heritage to the Temple of Anahita at Staxr, where Ardashir I's grandfather had been a dignitary. Under Ardashir I, the Zoroastrian (sometimes called Mazdean) religion was promoted and regulated by the state. The Sassanids built fire temples and, under royal direction, a new and official version of the Avesta was compiled by a cleric named Tansār. The government officially backed the Zurvanist doctrine of the religion, which emphasized the concept of time as the "original principle", over the competing doctrine of Vayism, which stressed the importance of space over time. Despite this state backing of a particular sect, it appears that other religious practices were tolerated so long as they did not interfere with the political authority of the Sassanids.

In other domestic affairs, Ardashir I maintained his familial base in Fars, erecting such structures as the Ghal'eh Dokhtar and the Palace of Ardashir. Despite these impressive structures, he established his government at the old Parthian capital of Ctesiphon on the Tigris River. He also rebuilt the city of Seleucia, located just across the river, which had been destroyed by the Romans in 165, renaming it Veh-Ardashir. Trade was promoted and important ports at Mesene and Charax were repaired or constructed.

War with Rome
In the latter years of his reign, Ardashir I engaged in a series of armed conflicts with Persia's great rival to the west – the Roman Empire.

Ardashir I's expansionist tendencies had been frustrated by his failed invasions of Armenia, where a relative of the former Arsacid rulers of Parthia sat on the throne. Given Armenia's traditional position as an ally of the Romans, Ardashir I may have seen his primary opponent not in the Armenian and Caucasian troops he had faced, but in Rome and her legions.

In 230 Ardashir I led his army into the Roman province of Mesopotamia, unsuccessfully besieging the fortress town of Nisibis. At the same time, his cavalry ranged far enough past the Roman border to threaten Syria and Cappadocia. It seems that the Romans saw fit to attempt a diplomatic solution to the crisis, reminding the Persians of the superiority of Roman arms, but to no avail. Ardashir I campaigned unsuccessfully against Roman border outposts again the following year (231). As a result, the Roman emperor Alexander Severus (222–235) moved to the east, establishing his headquarters at Antioch, but experienced difficulties in bringing his troops together and thus made another attempt at diplomacy, which Ardashir I rebuffed.

Finally, in 232, Severus led his legions in a three-pronged assault on the Persians. However, the separate army groups did not advance in a coordinated fashion, and Ardashir I was able to take advantage of the disorder and concentrate his forces against the enemy advancing through Armenia, where he was able to halt the Roman advance. Hearing of the Roman plans to march on his capital at Ctesiphon, Ardashir I left only a token screening force in the north and met the enemy force that was advancing to the south, apparently defeating it in a decisive manner. However, one can discern that the Persians must have suffered considerable losses as well, as no attempt was made to pursue the fleeing Romans. Both leaders must have had reason to avoid further campaigning, as Severus returned to Europe in the following year (233) and Ardashir I did not renew his attacks for several years, probably focusing his energies in the east.

On 237 Ardashir I, along with his son and successor Shapur I (241–272), again invaded Mesopotamia. This effort resulted in successful assaults on Nisibis and Carrhae and the shock this caused in Rome led the emperor to revive the Roman client-state of Osroene. In 241, Ardashir I and Shapur finally overcame the stubborn fortress of Hatra. Ardashir I died later in the year.

Final Assessment
Ardashir I was an energetic king, responsible for the resurgence of Persia, the strengthening of Zoroastrianism, and the establishment of a dynasty that would endure for four centuries. While his campaigns against Rome met with only limited success, he achieved more against them than the Parthians had done in many decades and prepared the way for the substantial successes his son and successor Shapur I would enjoy against the same enemy.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ptolemy1soterLG.jpg
[301a] Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy I Soter, 305 - 283 B.C.187 viewsPTOLEMY I SOTER AR silver tetradrachm. Alexandria, 290-289 BC. Eagle standing on thunderbolt.

PTOLEMY I SOTER AR silver tetradrachm. 27mm, 13.9g. Struck at Alexandria, 290-289 BC. VF. Obverse: Diademed head of Ptolemy I right; Reverse; PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, eagle standing left on thunderbolt, P and PTY monogram to left. Svoronos 259, SNG Cop 72. Banker's mark and some graffito in the reverse fields. Ex Incitatus.

Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaios Soter, i.e. Ptolemy the Savior, 367 BC—283 BC) was a Macedonian general who became the ruler of Egypt (323 BC—283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. In 305 BC he took the title of king.
He was the son of Arsinoe of Macedonia - either by her husband Lagus, a Macedonian nobleman, or by her lover, Philip II of Macedon (which would make him the half-brother of Alexander the Great if true). Ptolemy was one of Alexander the Great's most trusted generals, and among the seven "body-guards" attached to his person. He was a few years older than Alexander, and his intimate friend since childhood. He may even have been in the group of noble teenagers tutored by Aristotle. He was with Alexander from his first campaigns, and played a principal part in the later campaigns in Afghanistan and India. At the Susa marriage festival in 324, Alexander had him marry the Persian princess Atacama. Ptolemy also had a consort queen in Thaďs, the famous Athenian hetaera and one of Alexander's companions in his conquest of the ancient world. Thaďs became his queen in Egypt, and even after he divorced her, she reportedly remained his friend, and kept the title of queen while in Memphis.

When Alexander died in 323, Ptolemy is said to have instigated the resettlement of the empire made at Babylon. Through the Partition of Babylon, he was now appointed satrap of Egypt, under the nominal kings Philip Arrhidaeus and the infant Alexander IV; the former satrap, the Greek Cleomenes, stayed on as his deputy. Ptolemy quickly moved, without authorization, to subjugate Cyrenaica.

By custom, kings in Macedonia asserted their right to the throne by burying their predecessor. Probably because he wanted to pre-empt Perdiccas, the imperial regent, from staking his claim in this way, Ptolemy took great pains in getting his hands on the body of Alexander the Great, placing it temporarily in Memphis (a major element for The First War of The Diodochi) . Ptolemy then openly joined the coalition against Perdiccas. Perdiccas appears to have suspected Ptolemy of aiming for the throne himself, and maybe decided that Ptolemy was his most dangerous rival. Ptolemy executed Cleomenes for spying on behalf of Perdiccas — this removed the chief check on his authority, and allowed Ptolemy to obtain the huge sum that Cleomenes had accumulated.
In 321, Perdiccas invaded Egypt. Ptolemy decided to defend the Nile, and Perdiccas's attempt to force it ended in fiasco, with the loss of 2000 men. This was a fatal blow to Perdiccas' reputation, and he was murdered in his tent by two of his subordinates. Ptolemy immediately crossed the Nile, to provide supplies to what had the day before been an enemy army. Ptolemy was offered the regency in place of Perdiccas; but he declined. Ptolemy was consistent in his policy of securing a power base, while never succumbing to the temptation of risking all to succeed Alexander.

In the long wars that followed between the different Diadochi, Ptolemy's first goal was to hold Egypt securely, and his second was to secure control in the outlying areas: Cyrenaica and Cyprus, as well as Syria, including the province of Judea. His first occupation of Syria was in 318, and he established at the same time a protectorate over the petty kings of Cyprus. When Antigonus One-Eye, master of Asia in 315, showed dangerous ambitions, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him, and on the outbreak of war, evacuated Syria. In Cyprus, he fought the partisans of Antigonus, and re-conquered the island (313). A revolt in Cyrene was crushed the same year.

In 312, Ptolemy and Seleucus, the fugitive satrap of Babylonia, both invaded Syria, and defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes ("sieger of cities"), the son of Antigonus, in the Battle of Gaza. Again he occupied Syria, and again—after only a few months, when Demetrius had won a battle over his general, and Antigonus entered Syria in force—he evacuated it. In 311, a peace was concluded between the combatants. Soon after this, the surviving 13-year-old king, Alexander IV, was murdered in Macedonia, leaving the satrap of Egypt absolutely his own master. The peace did not last long, and in 309 Ptolemy personally commanded a fleet that detached the coastal towns of Lycia and Caria from Antigonus, then crossed into Greece, where he took possession of Corinth, Sicyon and Megara (308 BC). In 306, a great fleet under Demetrius attacked Cyprus, and Ptolemy's brother Menelaus was defeated and captured in another decisive Battle of Salamis. Ptolemy's complete loss of Cyprus followed.
The satraps Antigonus and Demetrius now each assumed the title of king; Ptolemy, as well as Cassander, Lysimachus and Seleucus I Nicator, responded by doing the same. In the winter of 306 BC, Antigonus tried to follow up his victory in Cyprus by invading Egypt; but Ptolemy was strongest there, and successfully held the frontier against him. Ptolemy led no further overseas expeditions against Antigonus. However, he did send great assistance to Rhodes when it was besieged by Demetrius (305/304),. Once rescued, the Rhodians instituted a festival to worship Ptolemy as Soter ("saviour").

It is widely accepted by modern scholars that as a result of lifting the siege of Rhodes, Ptolemy I had the name Soter ("saviour") bestowed upon him by the grateful people but this account is found only in the writings of Pausanius who has proven to be inaccurate on other points related to the Ptolomies. Rhodian inscriptions related to the cult of king Ptolemy do not mention it until the first century BC and Diodorus' writings, which are favourable to Ptolemy, do not either. The first mention of the title Soter is by Ptolemy II in 256 BC when he issued coins calling himself “King Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy Soter”. Prior to this date coins had read “King Ptolemy son of Ptolemy”. It is speculated that he used the title Soter as propaganda after a series of defeats prior to its first use.

When the coalition against Antigonus was renewed in 302, Ptolemy joined it, and invaded Syria a third time, while Antigonus was engaged with Lysimachus in Asia Minor. On hearing a report that Antigonus had won a decisive victory there, he once again evacuated Syria. But when the news came that Antigonus had been defeated and slain by Lysimachus and Seleucus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301, he occupied Syria a fourth time.

The other members of the coalition had assigned all Syria to Seleucus, after what they regarded as Ptolemy's desertion, and for the next hundred years, the question of the ownership of southern Syria (ie, Judea) produced recurring warfare between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties. Henceforth, Ptolemy seems to have mingled as little as possible in the rivalries between Asia Minor and Greece; he lost what he held in Greece, but reconquered Cyprus in 295/294. Cyrene, after a series of rebellions, was finally subjugated about 300 and placed under his stepson Magas.

In 285, Ptolemy abdicated in favour of one of his younger sons by Berenice - Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who had been co-regent for three years. His eldest (legitimate) son, Ptolemy Ceraunus, whose mother, Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater, had been repudiated, fled to the court of Lysimachus. Ptolemy I Soter died in 283 at the age of 84. Shrewd and cautious, he had a compact and well-ordered realm to show at the end of forty years of war. His reputation for bonhomie and liberality attached the floating soldier-class of Macedonians and Greeks to his service, and was not insignificant; nor did he wholly neglect conciliation of the natives. Ptolemy also founded the cult of Serapis, an Egyptian god who was "recreated" in such a fashion that he was acceptable to the Greeks and Macedonians. Ptolemy initiated the building of the lighthouse off the coast of Alexandria on the island of Pharos. This was to become one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

He was a ready patron of letters, founding the Great Library of Alexandria. He himself wrote a history of Alexander's campaigns that has not survived. This used to be considered an objective work, distinguished by its straightforward honesty and sobriety. However, Ptolemy may have exaggerated his own role, and had propagandist aims in writing his History. Although now lost, it was a principal source for the surviving account by Arrian of Nicomedia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_I_Soter

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
Ptolemy_I_Soter.jpg
[301b] Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy I Soter, 305 - 283 B.C.108 viewsBronze AE 30, cf. Svoronos 271, et al., VF/F, Alexandria mint, weight 12.946g, maximum diameter 30.3mm, die axis 0o, obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse [PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS], eagle standing left on thunderbolt, wings open, head left, unidentifiable monogram(s) in left field; nice style Zeus. Ex FORVM.

Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaios Soter, i.e. Ptolemy the Savior, 367 BC—283 BC) was a Macedonian general who became the ruler of Egypt (323 BC—283 BC) and founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty. In 305 BC he took the title of king.
He was the son of Arsinoe of Macedonia - either by her husband Lagus, a Macedonian nobleman, or by her lover, Philip II of Macedon (which would make him the half-brother of Alexander the Great if true). Ptolemy was one of Alexander the Great's most trusted generals, and among the seven "body-guards" attached to his person. He was a few years older than Alexander, and his intimate friend since childhood. He may even have been in the group of noble teenagers tutored by Aristotle. He was with Alexander from his first campaigns, and played a principal part in the later campaigns in Afghanistan and India. At the Susa marriage festival in 324, Alexander had him marry the Persian princess Atacama. Ptolemy also had a consort queen in Thaďs, the famous Athenian hetaera and one of Alexander's companions in his conquest of the ancient world. Thaďs became his queen in Egypt, and even after he divorced her, she reportedly remained his friend, and kept the title of queen while in Memphis.

When Alexander died in 323, Ptolemy is said to have instigated the resettlement of the empire made at Babylon. Through the Partition of Babylon, he was now appointed satrap of Egypt, under the nominal kings Philip Arrhidaeus and the infant Alexander IV; the former satrap, the Greek Cleomenes, stayed on as his deputy. Ptolemy quickly moved, without authorization, to subjugate Cyrenaica.

By custom, kings in Macedonia asserted their right to the throne by burying their predecessor. Probably because he wanted to pre-empt Perdiccas, the imperial regent, from staking his claim in this way, Ptolemy took great pains in getting his hands on the body of Alexander the Great, placing it temporarily in Memphis (a major element for The First War of The Diodochi) . Ptolemy then openly joined the coalition against Perdiccas. Perdiccas appears to have suspected Ptolemy of aiming for the throne himself, and maybe decided that Ptolemy was his most dangerous rival. Ptolemy executed Cleomenes for spying on behalf of Perdiccas — this removed the chief check on his authority, and allowed Ptolemy to obtain the huge sum that Cleomenes had accumulated.
In 321, Perdiccas invaded Egypt. Ptolemy decided to defend the Nile, and Perdiccas's attempt to force it ended in fiasco, with the loss of 2000 men. This was a fatal blow to Perdiccas' reputation, and he was murdered in his tent by two of his subordinates. Ptolemy immediately crossed the Nile, to provide supplies to what had the day before been an enemy army. Ptolemy was offered the regency in place of Perdiccas; but he declined. Ptolemy was consistent in his policy of securing a power base, while never succumbing to the temptation of risking all to succeed Alexander.

In the long wars that followed between the different Diadochi, Ptolemy's first goal was to hold Egypt securely, and his second was to secure control in the outlying areas: Cyrenaica and Cyprus, as well as Syria, including the province of Judea. His first occupation of Syria was in 318, and he established at the same time a protectorate over the petty kings of Cyprus. When Antigonus One-Eye, master of Asia in 315, showed dangerous ambitions, Ptolemy joined the coalition against him, and on the outbreak of war, evacuated Syria. In Cyprus, he fought the partisans of Antigonus, and re-conquered the island (313). A revolt in Cyrene was crushed the same year.

In 312, Ptolemy and Seleucus, the fugitive satrap of Babylonia, both invaded Syria, and defeated Demetrius Poliorcetes ("sieger of cities"), the son of Antigonus, in the Battle of Gaza. Again he occupied Syria, and again—after only a few months, when Demetrius had won a battle over his general, and Antigonus entered Syria in force—he evacuated it. In 311, a peace was concluded between the combatants. Soon after this, the surviving 13-year-old king, Alexander IV, was murdered in Macedonia, leaving the satrap of Egypt absolutely his own master. The peace did not last long, and in 309 Ptolemy personally commanded a fleet that detached the coastal towns of Lycia and Caria from Antigonus, then crossed into Greece, where he took possession of Corinth, Sicyon and Megara (308 BC). In 306, a great fleet under Demetrius attacked Cyprus, and Ptolemy's brother Menelaus was defeated and captured in another decisive Battle of Salamis. Ptolemy's complete loss of Cyprus followed.
The satraps Antigonus and Demetrius now each assumed the title of king; Ptolemy, as well as Cassander, Lysimachus and Seleucus I Nicator, responded by doing the same. In the winter of 306 BC, Antigonus tried to follow up his victory in Cyprus by invading Egypt; but Ptolemy was strongest there, and successfully held the frontier against him. Ptolemy led no further overseas expeditions against Antigonus. However, he did send great assistance to Rhodes when it was besieged by Demetrius (305/304),. Once rescued, the Rhodians instituted a festival to worship Ptolemy as Soter ("saviour").

It is widely accepted by modern scholars that as a result of lifting the siege of Rhodes, Ptolemy I had the name Soter ("saviour") bestowed upon him by the grateful people but this account is found only in the writings of Pausanius who has proven to be inaccurate on other points related to the Ptolomies. Rhodian inscriptions related to the cult of king Ptolemy do not mention it until the first century BC and Diodorus' writings, which are favourable to Ptolemy, do not either. The first mention of the title Soter is by Ptolemy II in 256 BC when he issued coins calling himself “King Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy Soter”. Prior to this date coins had read “King Ptolemy son of Ptolemy”. It is speculated that he used the title Soter as propaganda after a series of defeats prior to its first use.

When the coalition against Antigonus was renewed in 302, Ptolemy joined it, and invaded Syria a third time, while Antigonus was engaged with Lysimachus in Asia Minor. On hearing a report that Antigonus had won a decisive victory there, he once again evacuated Syria. But when the news came that Antigonus had been defeated and slain by Lysimachus and Seleucus at the Battle of Ipsus in 301, he occupied Syria a fourth time.

The other members of the coalition had assigned all Syria to Seleucus, after what they regarded as Ptolemy's desertion, and for the next hundred years, the question of the ownership of southern Syria (ie, Judea) produced recurring warfare between the Seleucid and Ptolemaic dynasties. Henceforth, Ptolemy seems to have mingled as little as possible in the rivalries between Asia Minor and Greece; he lost what he held in Greece, but reconquered Cyprus in 295/294. Cyrene, after a series of rebellions, was finally subjugated about 300 and placed under his stepson Magas.

In 285, Ptolemy abdicated in favour of one of his younger sons by Berenice - Ptolemy II Philadelphus, who had been co-regent for three years. His eldest (legitimate) son, Ptolemy Ceraunus, whose mother, Eurydice, the daughter of Antipater, had been repudiated, fled to the court of Lysimachus. Ptolemy I Soter died in 283 at the age of 84. Shrewd and cautious, he had a compact and well-ordered realm to show at the end of forty years of war. His reputation for bonhomie and liberality attached the floating soldier-class of Macedonians and Greeks to his service, and was not insignificant; nor did he wholly neglect conciliation of the natives. Ptolemy also founded the cult of Serapis, an Egyptian god who was "recreated" in such a fashion that he was acceptable to the Greeks and Macedonians. Ptolemy initiated the building of the lighthouse off the coast of Alexandria on the island of Pharos. This was to become one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.

He was a ready patron of letters, founding the Great Library of Alexandria. He himself wrote a history of Alexander's campaigns that has not survived. This used to be considered an objective work, distinguished by its straightforward honesty and sobriety. However, Ptolemy may have exaggerated his own role, and had propagandist aims in writing his History. Although now lost, it was a principal source for the surviving account by Arrian of Nicomedia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy_I_Soter

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
     
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