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Search results - "Princ"
TEODATm1D+R.jpg
253 viewsTHEODAHATVS AD 534-536
Follis - Mint Roma
d/ DN THEODAHATVS REX
r/ VICTORIV PRINCIPIM
mm 27
4 commentsRugser
CONTINE2-2.jpg
53 viewsConstantinus II - AE3 - Mint of Siscia - 330/337 A.D.
Ob.: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB CAES; laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP VOT P R; two Victories place over a column a shield inscribed VOT P R
gs. 2,3 mm. 20,7
Cohen 222
1 commentsMaxentius
TRAIAN-6.jpg
41 viewsTRAJAN - Denarius - 107 AD.
Obv.: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust right
Rev.:COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Victory, standing left holding wreath and palm.
Gs. 3,4 mm. 18,5
Cohen 74, RIC 128
Maxentius
TRAIAN-8.jpg
34 viewsTRAJAN - Denarius - 104/110 AD.
Obv.:IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust right
Rev.:COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, trophy of arms
Gs. 2,6 mm. 18,6
Cohen 98, RIC 147
Maxentius
TRAIAN-10.jpg
45 viewsTRAJAN - Denarius - 103/112 AD.
Obv.:IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder
Rev.:COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Dacia mourning, seated on pile of captured arms, DAC CAP in ex.
Gs. 3,3 mm. 18,4
Cohen 118, RIC 98
Maxentius
TRAIAN-1.JPG
56 viewsTRAJAN - Dupondius - 104/110 AD.
Obv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V PP - Radiate head right.
Rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, in ex. S C - Trajan riding horse right, spearing enemy to right.
Gs. 10,9 mm. 26,9
Cohen 506, RIC 538
1 commentsMaxentius
00170-Macrinus.JPG
125 viewsMacrinus Denarius
20 mm 3.05 gm
O: IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG
Bust draped and cuirassed right.
R: FIDES MILITVM PRINC IVVENTVTI
Fides standing front, head right, right foot on helmet, holding standard in each hand.
2 commentsJohn Campbell
CarinusPrincipiIvvent.jpg
58 views2 commentsmarandnumiz
Bohemond_III.JPG
31 viewsCrusader coin from the Principality of Antioch. Bohemond III. 1163-1201, Billon denier, Antioch Mint Jon the Lecturer
abm_tetricus_princ_iuvent.jpg
12 viewsAdrianus
ABM_Postumus.jpg
81 viewsPostumus, Principal Mint, sestertius, 260

IMP C M CASS LAT POST[...],Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, feeding snake held in arms
Weight 15.49g

A very rare early issue with Postumus' full name given on the obverse - normally this only occurs on radiate double-sestertii. This is struck from the same obverse die as a gold medallion in Paris with a SALVS PROVINCIARVM reverse.
Adrianus
Philip_II_with_captive_on_reverse.jpg
73 viewsPHILIPPUS II; Issue 3; 245-247
AR Antoninianus (3.27 g.)
Obverse: M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES;Bust of Philip r.
Reverse: PRINCIPI I-VVENT;Philip, spear, globe, captive.
RIC 219var. (standard instead of spear). C. 57.
2 commentspaul1888
Postumus_sestertius_helmeted_bust.jpg
49 viewsPostumus, Principal Mint, double sestertius
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, spurning captive
Weight 20.07g

A very rare obverse type - this coin from the same obverse die as the examples illustrated in Bastien
2 commentsAdrianus
Postumus_VIRTVS_AVG.jpg
30 viewsPostumus, Principal Mint, sestertius

IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing right
Weight 17.35g
Adrianus
Ancient_Counterfeits_Trajan_Limes_Falsum_Fortuna.jpg
63 viewsTrajan Limes Falsum?
Imitating a Dupondius, RIC 502 or RIC 591
Obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V (VI?) P P
Apparently a double strike, which means that the coin was struck, not cast.
Rev: S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI
Fortuna standing l., holding rudder and cornucopiae
28mm, 3.31g
klausklage
Constantine_I_OBVERSE.jpg
15 viewsOBVERSE - IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
high-crested helmet, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder

REVERSE - VICTORIAE LAETE PRINC PERP
TWO VICTORIES RESTING SHIELD, INSCRIBED VOT P R ON ALTAR - CONCAVE ROUND TOP ALTAR, WITH GARLAND AND TOP DOT OF GARLAND JUST UNDER ROUND TOP.
UNKNOWN IN EX. ?? UNKNOWN MINT ??

DIMENSION = 19mm
WEIGHT = 3 grams
MATERIAL = BRONZE ?

SIMON C2
Philip_II_prince.jpg
56 viewsPHILIPPUS II; Issue 3; 245-247
AR Antoninianus (3.27 g.)
Obverse: M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES;Bust of Philip r.
Reverse: PRINCIPI I-VVENT;Philip, spear, globe, captive.
RIC 219var. (standard instead of spear). C. 57.
1 commentspaul1888
Sis_17_.jpg
20 viewsAE 3; 20mm, struck c. 319 AD

Con/ VF; brown patina.
Obv/ LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES; laur., dr. and cuir. bust r.
Rev/ VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP; two Victories stg. facing each other, together holding a shield inscribed VOT PR on an altar inscribed with the letter S. Gamma SIS pellet in exergue.
Ref/ RIC VII 70 = Rare 3
Mayadigger
maximusprincCrow.jpg
102 viewsMaximus Crowvs
Maximus (Caesar, 235/6-238). AR Denarius Rome mint, 236-7.
O: MAXIMVS CAES GERM; Rvssell Crowvs Bareheaded and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS; Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear; two signa to right
- RIC IV ?
8 commentsNemonater
6s.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII 213, 319 CE Trier. 31 viewsObverse:IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, laureate, helmeted and cuirassed bust right
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT PR over altar. Altar type Helv. 5a2 (a star).
Mintmark dot-STR. 3.6 g, 17.7 mm
RIC VII Trier 213
NORMAN K
altar1s.jpg
Constantine the Great, RIC VII 73 Siscia, 319 CE33 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate helmet & cuirassed.
Reverse:VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP [ Joyous victory to the eternal
Prince] two Victories standing, facing one another, together holding shield
inscribed VOT PR [VOTA POPULI ROMANI (vows of the Roman people)]on altar.
gamma SIS dot in ex. RIC VII Siscia 73, 18.9 mm 2.6 g. rare
NORMAN K
Screen_Shot_2017-05-09_at_12_17_39_PM.png
2 Augustus33 viewsAugustus. 27 B.C.-A.D. 14 AR denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, 2 B.C.-A.D. 12. From the Joseph Donzanti Collection.
Augustus. 27 B.C.-A.D. 14 AR denarius (18.40 mm, 3.91 g, 11 h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint, 2 B.C.-A.D. 12. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT C L CAESARES, Caius and lucius caesars togate stand facing, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on left a simpulum right and on right a lituus left. RIC 207; RSC 43; Lyon 82. aEF, area of minor flat strike.

From the Joseph Donzanti Collection. Ex Agora Auctions, 5/9/17
2 commentsSosius
conI79.jpg
CONSTANTINE I, RIC VII 79 Lugdunum mint.29 viewsStruck 320 AD.
Obverse: CONS-TANTINVS AVG, cuirassed bust right, wearing high crested helmet
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR in two lines over altar; P(two captives seated back to back)L.
RIC VII 79; Bastien 19. VF, well centered, Green patina.
Æ Follis (18mm – 3.1 g).
NORMAN K
Trajan_Den.jpg
14 Trajan16 viewsTrajan
Silver denarius, Rome mint
weight 3.150g, maximum diameter 19.3mm, die axis 180o
112 - 114 A.D.
IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, laureate and draped bust right / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Felicitas standing left, caduceus in right, cornucopia in left; uneven toning
RIC II 271, RSC II 404, BMCRE III 424, Fine
Purchased from FORVM
RI0115
Sosius
Trajan_RIC_503.jpg
14 Trajan AE As25 viewsTRAJAN
AE As, Rome mint
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Pax standing left, olive branch in right, cornucopia in left, right foot on Dacian captive
RIC 503
RI0125
Sosius
Trajan_RIC_119.jpg
14 Trajan Denarius16 viewsTRAJAN
AR Denarius
IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust right, draped far shoulder / COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Aequitas seated left holding cornucopiae & scales.
Sear 3123, RIC 119, RSC 86, BMC 288; aVF, Ex-Littleton Coin Co.
RI0123
Sosius
Trajan_Dupon_RIC_520.jpg
14 Trajan Dupondius17 viewsTRAJAN
Æ Dupondius, Struck ~103 AD.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, radiate bust right, drapery on far shoulder / S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, S C across field, Spes walking left, holding flower and raising skirt.
Sear 3222; RIC II 520; BMCRE 895; Cohen 461; Fine, reverse cleaning scratches
RI0121
Sosius
Trajan_Dupondius_RIC_538.jpg
14 Trajan Dupondius15 viewsTRAJAN
AE Dupondius
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V PP, laureate head right / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI S-C, Trajan riding right spearing Dacian enemy.
Cohen 506, RIC 538
RI0119
Sosius
Trajan_RIC_534.jpg
2 Trajan Sestertius15 viewsTRAJAN
AE Sestertius. 103-111 AD.

O: laureate head right

R: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI S-C, Trajan riding right spearing Dacian enemy before horse.

Cohen 503, RIC 534, sear5 #3204

VG - Lots of wear....handled by many, many hands
RI0126
Sosius
Constantius_I_Siscia_42.jpg
3 Constantius I (Posthumous)28 viewsCONSTANTIUS I
Half Follis, Siscia Mint
By Constantine I, 317-318 AD

DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI, Veiled laureate bust r. / REQVIES OPTIMOR-VM MERITORVM, Constantius seated, raising right hand and holding scepter, SIS in ex.

Siscia RIC VII Siscia 42 (R3); F/VF
Sosius
Valerian_II_RIC_49.jpg
6.5 Valerian II24 viewsVALERIAN II
BI Antoninianus, 256 - 8 A.D.
Antioch or Samosata mint

O: VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES, Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust r.

R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Valerian, shield on ground and spear in left hand, crowning trophy of arms with r. hand

RIC V 49, RSC IV 67

Sosius
Carinus_RIC_160.jpg
8 Carinus34 viewsCARINUS
AE Antoninianus, Rome mint
283-285 A.D.
M AVR CARINVS CAES, radiate and cuirassed bust r. / PRINCIPI IVVENT, Carinus standing left, standard in right hand, scepter in left hand, KA epsilon in ex.
RIC 160
Sosius
Licinius_Sear_3800.jpg
8 Licinius25 viewsLICINIUS I
Æ Follis, Rome, 308-324 AD

IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust r. / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Legionary eagle between two standards; in exergue, RP.

Sear 3800, Fine.
Sosius
rjb_car1_01_08.jpg
948cf33 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “PRINCIPI IVVENTVS”
Emperor standing left holding vertical sceptre and branch
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 948)
mauseus
rjb_tra1_08_06.jpg
9836 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD
AE sestertius
Obv "IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TRP COS V PP"
Laureate bust left
Rev "SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC"
Emperor on horseback right spearing Dacian in front of horse
Rome mint
RIC 535
mauseus
rjb_tra2_08_06.jpg
9845 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD
AE sestertius
Obv "........NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER..........."
Laureate, nude "heroic" bust left.
Rev "SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC"
Ceres stg left holding corn ears and torch, modius to left
Rome mint
RIC 478
2 commentsmauseus
rjb_traj2_06_09.jpg
9859 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TRP COS V PP"
Laureate bust right with aegis on left shoulder
Rev "SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI"
Dacia seated right on shield in mournful attitude, curved sword below
Rome mint
RIC 216
3 commentsmauseus
rjb_2014_02_07a.jpg
9833 viewsTrajan
Denarius
Obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP
Laureate and draped bust right
Rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI
Trajan's Column
Rome mint
RIC 292
1 commentsmauseus
451s.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII 194 Arles24 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG - Helmeted laureate bust right, cuirassed
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP - Two Victories facing and inscribing VOT PR on shield placed on altar type Helvetica 2d (diamond with dot in centre, in a rectangle with a dot in each corner. )
Exe: PARL Arles mint AD 318-319 = RIC VII, 194 , 19.15 mm, 2.6 g.
NORMAN K
_Macedon_c.jpg
Macedon9 viewsCoins of the ancient Greek cities and Kings of Macedon, and some celtic imitations thereof. Includes the Hellenistic kings of Macedon and Roman successors. Principal mints: Akanthos, Amphipolis and Pella. 1 commentsAnaximander
sear1966clipped.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196666 viewsObverse: IC-XC (bar above) in field, Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, seated upon throne without back; holds gospels in left hand.
Reverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOT or var, MP OV bar above in upper right field, Full-length figure of emperor, bearded on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and jewelled loros of simplified type; holds in right hand labarum-headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.
four main varieties:
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1167-1183?
Sear 1966 Var d, Fourth coinage; H 16.14,15; 17.1-4
rev: Jewel within circle on loros waist
16mm .89gm
As discussed in the Byzantine forumThese are the "neatly clipped" trachies.
During the reign of Manuel I the silver content of the trachy was dropped from c.6% to c.3%, but later types were sometimes issued with the higher silver content.
In Alexius III's time these high silver types were clipped down to half size, probably officially, presumably so as to match the lower silver content of the later issues.
Of course this would only have worked as long as the populace accepted the idea that the clipped coins were all high silver versions to start with. Once smarties started clipping ordinary coins these types would soon have have fallen out of favour and been withdrawn.

Ross G.


During the reign of Alexius III were reused coins of previous releases, clipping its border in a very regular mode and thus reducing to half their weight. Regularity of shearing and the fact that they were found to stock uniforms, suggesting that this clipping is a formal issuance of mint. Based on the stocks found in Constantinople , some of which consist only of clipped coins, it may safely be dated between 1195 and 1203.
Hendy and Grierson believe that this shearing was a consequence of the devaluation of trachy mixture during the reign of Isaac II and Alexius III. They reduced by half the already low silver content of this coin: shearing coins of previous emperors, still widely in circulation, made their trachy consistent with the intrinsic value of current emissions. Of course, this does not justify the clipping of coins already degraded of Isaac II and Alexius III. Therefore, reason for their declassification is not understood. I think that reason of Ross is right!
The structure of their dispersion in hoards indicates that, however, were made after the other emissions. Clipped trachys appear in small amounts along with regular trachy in hoards, represents a rarity. Were clipped trachys of Manuel I, Andronicus I, Isaac II and Alexius III, and perhaps of John II; those of Manuel are less scarce. In principle, we must believe that all trachys after Manuel I have been clipped, although many have not yet appeared.

Antvwala
wileyc
Ptolmaic_Egypt_.jpg
Ptolemaic Kingdom13 viewsHellenistic coinage of the Ptolemies, after Alexander the Great. Principal mints include Alexandria in Egypt, Paphos and Sidon in Cyprus, and Sidon and Tyre in Phoenicia. 1 commentsAnaximander
coin526.jpg
Trajan AR Quinarius RIC 196.17 viewsRIC 196 Trajan AR Quinarius. 15mm, 1.15gr. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate head right / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Victory walking right with wreath & palm. RSC 43.
Coin #526
cars100
DSC_0193.jpg
80 viewsINDONESIA, Sultanate of Palembang. Circa AD 1790's-1821
Tin Cash (20mm, 0.61 g)
Palembang mint
Shi Dan Li Bao in Hànzì
Blank
T.D. Yih, "Tiny Pitis Inscribed 'Shi-Dan' (Sultan) from Palembang," in ONS Newsletter 204 (Summer 2010), type I-1

Found in Palembang

Hang Li Po first appears in the Malay Annals as a Chinese princess sent to be the fifth bride of sultan Mansur Shah of Malacca. However, there is no reference to this event in official Ming documents. Li Po may merely be a beautiful concubine given to the Sultan. Alternatively, she may be the daughter of an otherwise unknown Chinese ruler in the area, to whom this coin may perhaps be attributed.
1 commentsArdatirion
Licinius I AE3, Siscia, 319-320 AD.jpg
146 viewsROME. Licinius I. AD 308-324.
Æ Follis (20mm, 3.1 g)
Siscia mint, 1st officina. Struck AD 319-320.
IMP LICINIVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR in two lines over altar; I on altar; ASIS*
RIC VII 96 var. (bust type)
Ardatirion
tetricus1-princ-ivvent.JPG
RIC.115var Tetricus I: antoninianus (Princ Ivvent)11 viewsTetricus, Gallic emperor (usurper) (271-274)
Antoninianus: Princ Ivvent (5th emission, 274, Trèves)

Billon, 3.02 g, diameter 18 mm, die axis 1h

A/ IMP C TETRIC[VS P F AVG]; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ [PRINC] IV-VENT; Tetricus II standing left holding baton and scepter

EG.279
Droger
trajan_salus_snake_r.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN50 views98 - 117 AD
Struck 104 - 107 AD
AE DUPONDIUJS 26 mm 11.04 g
O: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V PP
RAD BUST RIGHT
R: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI
SALUS ENTHRONED L FEEDING SNAKE FROM PATERA
SC IN EXE.
laney
trajan_aeq_res2.jpg
(0098) TRAJAN61 views98-117 AD
AE 26 mm 9.40 g
O: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS III, Laureate head right
R: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI S-C, Aequitas standing left holding cornucopia and scales
RIC 498
1 commentslaney
augustus_dena.jpg
(02) AUGUSTUS74 views27 BC - 14 AD
struck 2 BC - 4 AD
AR DENARIUS 3.81 g
O: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE Laureate head of Augustus, right
R: C L CAESARES, AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT Togate figures of Gaius and Lucius standing facing, holding spear and shield between them. Lituus on left, facing right; and simpulum on right, facing left
Lugdunum, RIC (I) 210.
(this is the scarcer mirror-image version of this reverse type, and shows the lituus on the left; and Gaius, with his shield in front of Lucius’ shield and the ladle by his head on the right)

3 commentslaney
const_chlor_post.jpg
(0293) CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS (POSTHUMOUS)31 viewsAugustus: 305 - 306 AD
struck ca.
AE Fractional 15.5 mm 1.73 g
O: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI , laureate veiled bust right
R: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM , Constantius I seated left on curule chair
Dot TS Dot B Dot in exe
Thessalonica
RIC VII 25 a
Note: unlisted in RIC, which does not include officinae B (or A or D; the listed officinae are Rare (R5)
laney
galerius_concordia_070210.jpg
(0293) GALERIUS44 viewsGalerius as Caesar (293 - 305 AD; AVG 305 - 311 AD)
Struck ca 296 AD
AE 20 mm 3.18 g, Post-reform Radiate
O: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: CONCORDIA MILITVM, the prince standing right receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter, star over Gamma between
ANT in ex. Antioch
laney
LICINIUS_2_VICT.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I18 views308 - 324 AD
AE 18 mm 2.29 g
O: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, Laur dr cuir bust right
R: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, 2 Victories facing each other, holding shield reading VPT/PR over altar
Delta SIS Dot in exe.
Siscia
RIC VII 62 (R3) Rare
laney
crispus_princ.jpg
(0317) CRISPUS50 views317 - 326 AD
struck 317 AD.
AE 17.5 mm 3.25 g
O: CRISPUS NOB CAES, laureate, draped bust facing right.
R: PRINCIPIA IVVENTVTIS, Mars standing right, chlamys over right shoulder, holding scepter in right hand, leaning on shield.
R S in fields
ARLES MINT, (rare) cf. RIC VII 132-133
laney
domitian_denar_blk_copy.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN44 views81 - 96 AD
Struck as Caesar under Titus 80 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm 2.31 g
O: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII Laureate head right
R: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Minerva advancing right with javelin and shield
Rome RCV 2674
laney
domitian_denar_minerva_caesar.jpg
(12) DOMITIAN as Caesar14 views81 - 96 AD
Struck as Caesar under Titus 80 AD
AR Denarius 18 mm 2.31 g
O: CAESAR DIVI F DOMITIANVS COS VII Laureate head right
R: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Minerva advancing right with javelin and shield
Rome RCV 2674
laney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.157 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
rjb_2011_09_04.jpg
(VI)11118 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
Emperor standing left holding two standards
-/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 111
mauseus
rjb_lon7_05_06.jpg
(VI)21519 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
Emperor standing left holding two standards
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) 215
mauseus
rjb_lond_09_07.jpg
(VI)21522 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
Emperor standing left holding two standards
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) 215
mauseus
rjb_2011_09_03.jpg
(VI)26520 viewsConstantine I
CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
Emperor standing right holding spear and globe
star/-//PLN
RIC (VI) 265
mauseus
rjb_2010_01_04~0.jpg
(VII)15618 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Helmeted, cuirassed bust left holding globe and spear
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Two victories with inscribed shield on a short column
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 156
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_14~0.jpg
(VII)15710 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG
Laureate helmeted, cuirassed bust right
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Two victories with inscribed shield on a diamond patterned altar
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 157
mauseus
rjb_2014_01_06.jpg
(VII)16912 viewsConstantine I
IMP CONSTANTINVS AG
High crest helmeted, cuirassed bust left with spear over shoulder
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Two victories with inscribed shield on an altar decorated with a wreath
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 169
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_13.jpg
(VII)17413 viewsCrispus
FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Two victories with inscribed shield on an altar decorated with a wreath
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 174
mauseus
rjb_2010_10_15~0.jpg
(VII)181corr13 viewsConstantine II
FL CL CONSTANTINVS IVN N C
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left seen from rear
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Two victories with inscribed shield on an altar decorated with a wreath
-/-//PLN
RIC (VII) 181corr

mauseus
elymais.jpg
*Parthia. Second indeterminate king (de Morgan's Prince 'A') (c. A.D. 210?)34 viewsAE Drachm, 1.52 g, 13 mm
Mint/ unknown, undated
Obv/ diademed, bearded bust left.
Rev/ Artemis standing right with bow and arrow
ancientone
Maximus_44.jpg
*SOLD*16 viewsMaximus Caesar As

Attribution: RIC IV 10, Cohen 13, rare
Date: AD 236
Obverse: C IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, bare-headed, draped bust as seen from behind (scarcer obverse inscription)
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Maximus stg. l. holding baton in r.hand & transverse spear in l., to r. behind, two legionary standards, S C in r. and l. fields
Size: 25 mm
Weight: 9.6 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
V539.jpg
00 Domitian as Caesar RIC 53991 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMITIAN COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: No legend; Domitian on horse l.; cloak flying out behind, r. hand raised, sceptre in l.
RIC 539 (R). BMC 122. RSC 665. BNC -.
Acquired from NumisCorner, June 2018.

This is the first denarius struck at Rome for Domitian as Caesar. Fittingly, it commemorates Domitian's appearance at Vespasian and Titus' joint Jewish War Triumph - 'while taking part in the Judaean triumph, he rode on a white horse' (Suetonius, Domitian, ii), which was the normal conduct for a young prince on such occasions. The type was struck in three variants: firstly, with a clockwise obverse legend and DOMITIAN fully spelled out, as we see here. Secondly, it was shortened to DOMIT, with the legend still running clockwise. Lastly, the legend direction was changed to counter clockwise with DOMIT. The first two variants are quite rare, the last relatively common. On this coin we see a cloak flying out from behind Domitian. This interesting detail only appears on a few coins from the first variant and does not show up on subsequent issues of the type. Most likely this variant with the cloak was the earliest version of the type which was then quickly simplified by dropping the cloak all together.

Well centred in good early style.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
0002.jpg
0002 - Denarius Augustus 2BC-14AC35 viewsObv/CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, Augustus laureate head r.
Rev/AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES in exergue. Gaius and Lucius Caesar, on l. and r., standing front, each togate and resting hand on shield; behind each shield, a spear; above, on l., a simpulum r., and on r., lituus l.

Ag, 18.5mm, 3.81g
Mint: Lugdunum.
RIC I/207 [C] - RCV 1597 - BMCRE 519 - RSC 43 - Calicó 855
ex-van Alsenoy
dafnis
RI_001b_img.jpg
001 - Augustus denarius - RIC 20750 viewsObv:– CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, Laureate head right
Rev:– C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Caius and Lucius Caesars togate stand facing, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on left a simpulum right and on r. a lituus left
Minted in Lugdunum. B.C. 2 to A.D. 4.
Ref:– BMC 533. RIC I Augustus 207

Ex-Forvm
2 commentsMartin Griffiths
coins286.JPG
001b. Crispus Siscia VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP12 viewsIVL CRISPVS NOB CAESAR
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP

RIC VII Siscia 63 R4 for eSiSdot
ecoli
coin363~0.JPG
001b. Crispus Siscia VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP8 viewsRIC VII Siscia 97 R2ecoli
coin377.JPG
001b. Crispus Siscia VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP Siscia11 viewsRIC VII 97 R3 Sisciaecoli
Augustus_AR-Den_CAESAR-AVGVSTVS-DIVI-F-PATER-PATRIAE_AVGVSTI-F-COS-DESIG-PRINC-IVVENT-C-L-CAESARES_RIC-207_C-43_Lugdunum_2BC-4AD_Q-001_axis-7h_xxmm_x,xxxg-s.jpg
002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), RIC I 207, Lugdunum, AR-Denarius, AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES, Gaius and Lucius standing front,342 views002 Augustus (63 B.C.-14 A.D.), AR-Denarius, RIC I 207, Lugdunum, AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT C L CAESARES, Gaius and Lucius standing front,
avers:-CAESAR-AVGVSTVS-DIVI-F-PATER-PATRIAE, Laureate head right.
revers:- AVGVSTI-F-COS-DESIG-PRINC-IVVENT-C-L-CAESARES, Gaius and Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, and in field above, a lituus right and simpulum left (in "b9"-like formation).
exerg: -/-//C L CAESARES, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 2 B.C.-4 A.D., ref: RIC-207, C-43,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
005.jpg
002 AUGUSTUS AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT18 viewsEMPEROR: Augustus
DENOMINATION: Denarius
OBVERSE: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right
REVERSE: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left (in "b9"-like formation)
DATE: 2 BC - ca 13 AD
MINT: Lugdunum
WEIGHT: 3.63 g
RIC: I.207 (C)
Barnaba6
coin282.JPG
002. Augustus (31 BC- 14 AD)48 viewsAugustus

He suffered but two severe and ignominious defeats, those of Lollius [15 B.C.] and Varus [9 A.D.], both of which were in Germany. Of these the former was more humiliating than serious, but the latter was almost fatal, since three legions were cut to pieces with their general, his lieutenants, and all the auxiliaries. In fact, they say that he was so greatly affected that for several months in succession he cut neither his beard nor his hair, and sometimes he would dash his head against a door, crying: "Quintilius Varus, give me back my legions!" And he observed the day of the disaster each year as one of sorrow and mourning.

Lyons mint, 2 BC - ca 13 AD. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE. laureate head right / AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ("b9"). BMC 533, RSC 43

This is one of my first 12 caesar coins. I got this from an all text list from M&R coins.
ecoli
0022.jpg
0022 - Denarius Domitian 80 AC115 viewsObv/CAESAR DIVI F DOMOTIANVS COS VIII, Domitian laureate head r.
Rev/PRINCEPTS (IVV)ENTVTIS, goat standing l. in laurel-wreath.

Ag, 19.1mm, 3.30g
Mint: Rome.
RIC IIa/267 [C] - RCV 2675 - BMCRE 88 - RSC 390
ex-Meister & Sonntag, auction S2, lot 219
6 commentsdafnis
mynt081211.jpg
003 - Crispus (Caesar 317-326 AD) AE 3 - RIC 20 (rare)26 viewsObv: CRISPVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: PRINCIPIA IVVENTVTIS, soldier standing right, holding spear in right hand, shield on gruond at left.
Minted in Thessalonica (.TS.gamma. in exe), officina 3, 317-318 AD.
Rated in RIC as R4
pierre_p77
Philip1.jpg
004 - Philip II (as caesar 244-247 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 118d39 viewsObv: M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philip II standing left, holding globe and inverted spear.
Minted in Antioch 244-246 AD
pierre_p77
coin345.JPG
004. Caligula 41 viewsGAIUS (CALIGULA). 37-41 AD.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior.

Æ As (28mm, 10.19 gm). Rome mint. Struck 37-38 AD. Bare head left / Vesta seated left, holding patera and sceptre. RIC I 38; Cohen 27. Near VF, dark brown surfaces. Ex-CNG
ecoli
0041~0.jpg
0041 - Denarius Trajan 113 AC13 viewsObv/IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP, Trajan head laureate r., draped.
Rev/SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Genius standing l., holding patera and ears of grain.

Ag, 19.6mm, 3.10g
Mint: Rome.
RIC II/275 [C]
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils, auction 92, lot 225
dafnis
4140400.jpg
006a. Claudia16 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Nero, with Claudia. AD 54-68. BI Tetradrachm (22mm, 10.74 g, 12h). Dated RY 3 (AD 56/57). Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Claudia Octavia right; L Γ (date) below chin. Köln 122-4; Dattari (Savio) 190; K&G 14.7; RPC I 5202; Emmett 127.3. Near VF. Ex - CNG

Furthermore, the carefully contrived marriage between Octavia and Nero was a disaster on a personal level. Nero soon embarked on a serious relationship with a freedman named Acte, and more importantly developed an active dislike for his wife. "Quickly feeling aversion to intimacy with Octavia, he replied to his friends who were finding fault with him that she ought to be satisfied with the outward trappings of a wife." This antipthy was not likely to produce offspring who would unite the Julian and Claudian lines. By 58 Nero was becoming involved with a freeborn mistress, Poppaea, whom he would want to make his empress in exchange for Octavia. But the legitimacy of his principate derived from his relationship with his predecessor, and he was not so secure that he could do without the connection with Claudius provided through his mother and his wife. In 59 he was able to arrange for Agrippina's death, but it was not until 62 that he felt free to divorce Octavia and marry Poppaea. The initial grounds for putting Octavia aside was the charge that she was barren because she had had no children. But a more aggressive attack was needed when opposition arose from those who still challenged Nero's prncipate and remained loyal to Octavia as the last representative of her family. With the connivance of Poppaea, charges of adultery were added, Octavia was banished to Campania and then to the island of Pandataria off the coast, and finally killed. Her severed head was sent to Rome.
2 commentsecoli
99101.jpg
007. Galba (68 AD - 69 AD)154 viewsGALBA. 68-69 AD.

Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards.

AR Denarius (18mm, 2.97 gm). Rome mint. Bare head right / Legend in three lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167; RSC 287. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
1__Trajan_162_.jpg
007.Trajan 98-117 AD 20 viewsAR Denarius
Mint: Rome, Date: 103-104 AD
Obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P- laureate bust right with aegis.
Rev: S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI- Mars standing front with spear & shield.
Size: 19mm;2.95gms
Ref: RIC 162
2 commentsbrian l
0072~0.jpg
0072 - Denarius Trajan 112-14 AC24 viewsObv/IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP, laureate bust of Trajan r., togate.
Rev/SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan's column surmounted with statue of the emperor; at base, two eagles.

Ag, 20.2mm, 3.32g
Mint: Rome.
RIC II/292 [C]
ex-Pegasi Numismatics, auction XXIII, lot 477
1 commentsdafnis
Trajan_denar1.jpg
008 - Trajan (98-117 AD), denarius - RIC 17256 viewsObv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, laureate bust right, draped on left shoulder.
Rev: S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia, altar at feet.
Minted in Rome 103-111 AD.
pierre_p77
Trajan_denar2.jpg
009 - Trajan (98-117 AD), denarius - RIC 9857 viewsObv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust draped on left shoulder.
Rev: COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC around and DAC CAP in exe, dacian seated left on pile of arms, mourning. Around him two curved swords, two spears and an oblong shield.
Minted in Rome [date?]
2 commentspierre_p77
0093.jpg
0093 - Denarius Valeria 82 BC30 viewsObv/ Draped bust of Victory r., wearing pendant earring and necklace, (control letter behind).
Rev/ C VAL FLA (VAL in ligature) on l., IMPERAT on r., EX SC across lower fields, aquila between signa exhibiting vexilla marked H (for hastati) and P (for principes).

Ag, 18.2 mm, 3.47 g
Moneyer: C. Valerius Flaccus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 365/1a [dies o/r: 36/39 (var. 1a --> 1c)] - Syd. 747a
ex-Tintinna, auction e9, lot 1108
1 commentsdafnis
trajan_AR-denarius_aeternitas-holding-heads-of-sol-and-luna_o_02_r_02.JPG
01 - Trajan Silver Denarius - AET AVG - Head of Sol and Luna64 viewsRoman Empire, Emperor Trajan (98 - 117 A.D.)
Silver Denarius, Rome Mint. 3.2 Grams.
-----
obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P - Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
rev: COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC - Aeternitas standing facing, head left holding the head of Sol (the Sun god) in her right hand and the head of Luna (the Moon Goddess) in her left hand.
AET AVG - across fields on either side of Aeternitas.
---------
RIC 91, RSC 3
4 commentsrexesq
trajan_AR-denarius_aeternitas-holding-heads-of-sol-and-luna_o_03_r_03.JPG
01 - Trajan Silver Denarius - AET AVG - Head of Sol and Luna48 viewsRoman Empire, Emperor Trajan (98 - 117 A.D.)
Silver Denarius, Rome Mint. 3.2 Grams.
-----
obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P - Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
rev: COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC - Aeternitas standing facing, head left holding the head of Sol (the Sun god) in her right hand and the head of Luna (the Moon Goddess) in her left hand.
AET AVG - across fields on either side of Aeternitas.
---------
RIC 91, RSC 3
1 commentsrexesq
trajan_AR-denarius_aeternitas-holding-heads-of-sol-and-luna_rev_03.jpg
01 - Trajan Silver Denarius - AET AVG - Head of Sol and Luna. Reverse.15 viewsRoman Empire, Emperor Trajan (98 - 117 A.D.)
Silver Denarius, Rome Mint. 3.2 Grams.
-----
obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P - Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
rev: COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC - Aeternitas standing facing, head left holding the head of Sol (the Sun god) in her right hand and the head of Luna (the Moon Goddess) in her left hand.
AET AVG - across fields on either side of Aeternitas.
---------
RIC 91, RSC 3
rexesq
trajan_AR-denarius_aeternitas-holding-heads-of-sol-and-luna_rev_04.jpg
01 - Trajan Silver Denarius - AET AVG - Head of Sol and Luna. Reverse.17 viewsRoman Empire, Emperor Trajan (98 - 117 A.D.)
Silver Denarius, Rome Mint. 3.2 Grams.
-----
obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P - Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
rev: COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC - Aeternitas standing facing, head left holding the head of Sol (the Sun god) in her right hand and the head of Luna (the Moon Goddess) in her left hand.
AET AVG - across fields on either side of Aeternitas.
---------
RIC 91, RSC 3
rexesq
Denarius Augusto, Cayo y Lucio.jpg
01- 01 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)92 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a derecha y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a Izquierda. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #207 Pag.55 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 Pag.317 - BMCRE #533 - RSC Vol.1 #43 Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #42 Pag.69 - DVM #51b Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
RIC_207_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 01 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.)39 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a derecha y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a Izquierda. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #207 Pag.55 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 Pag.317 - BMCRE #533 - RSC Vol.1 #43 Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #42 Pag.69 - DVM #51b Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
Denarius Augusto, Cayo y Lucio 2.jpg
01- 02 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 103 viewsAR Denario 17 x 16 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a izquierda y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a derecha, "X" debajo. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #211 Pag.56 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 var Pag.317 - BMCRE #537 - RSC Vol.1 #43a Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #43 Pag.69 - DVM #51c Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
RIC_211_Denario_Octavio_Augusto.jpg
01- 02 - AUGUSTO, CAYO y LUCIO (27 A.C. - 14 D.C.) 29 viewsAR Denario 17 x 16 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE" - Busto laureado a derecha.
Rev: "AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT" - Cayo y Lucio sus nietos de pié enfrentados c/u descansando su mano en un escudo redondo y lanza. En el campo centro superior Lituus (Báculo o cayado usado por los augures) a izquierda y Simpulum (Copa pequeña) a derecha, "X" debajo. "C L CAESARES" en exergo.

Acuñada 2 A.C. a 4 D.C.
Ceca: Lungdunum - Lyon Francia
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #211 Pag.56 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1597 var Pag.317 - BMCRE #537 - RSC Vol.1 #43a Pag.134 - Cohen Vol.1 #43 Pag.69 - DVM #51c Pag.67 - CBN #1651
mdelvalle
0108.jpg
0108 - Denarius Trajan 103-11 AC14 viewsObv/ IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P, laureate bust of T. r. with bare chest showing, drapery on l. shoulder.
Rev/ COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Vesta seated l., holding palladium in r.h., transverse scepter in l.; VESTA in ex.

Ag, 19.5 mm, 2.66 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC II/108 [C]
ex-Numismatik Lanz – eBay, art. #370501543828
1 commentsdafnis
coin287.JPG
011. Titus 79-81 AD28 viewsTitus. 79-81 AD.

Titus was the beneficiary of considerable intelligence and talent, endowments that were carefully cultivated at every step of his career, from his early education to his role under his father's principate. Cassius Dio suggested that Titus' reputation was enhanced by his early death. [[17]] It is true that the ancient sources tend to heroicize Titus, yet based upon the evidence, his reign must be considered a positive one. He capably continued the work of his father in establishing the Flavian dynasty and he maintained a high degree of economic and administrative competence in Italy and beyond. In so doing, he solidified the role of the emperor as paternalistic autocrat, a model that would serve Trajan and his successors well.

AR Denarius (3.44 gm). Laureate head right/Radiate figure on rostral column. RIC II 16a; BMCRE 29; RSC 289. Fine. Scarce and interesting reverse type. Ex-CNG
ecoli
0133.jpg
0133 - Nummus Constantine I 307-10 AC17 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ PRINCIPI IV-VE-NTVTIS, C. in military outfit, held l., holding a standard on each hand; PLN in ex.

AE, 25.5 mm, 6.24 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/111 [S]
ex-Numismatik Lanz, eBay jul 2011 - art. #300571161041
dafnis
0134.jpg
0134 - Nummus Constantine I 319-20 AC28 viewsObv/ IMP CONSTANTIN-VS AVG, helmeted bust of C. l., cuirassed and with spear on r. shoulder.
Rev/ VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories standing face to face, holding vota shield, with VOT / PR inscribed within; diamond mint mark inside altar, PLN in ex.

AE, 17.5 mm, 2.92 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VII/158 var. [S]
ex-Numismática Hinojosa, eBay jul 2011 - art. #280702971071
1 commentsdafnis
Augustus-RIC-350.jpg
019. Caesar Augustus.21 viewsDenarius, 2 BC - 4 AD, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE / Laureate bust of Augustus.
Reverse: C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT / Caius and Lucius, each holding spear and shield. Lituus and Simpulum above.
3.85 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #350; RSC 43c; Sear #1597.

The reverse of this coin is unusual in that the Lituus is on the left and the Simpulum is on the right. Most coins have it the other way around.
Callimachus
domitian as caesar horseback1.jpg
01a Domitian as Caesar RIC 680267 viewsAR Denarius, 3.15g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: No legend; Domitian on horse l.; r. hand raised, sceptre in l.
RIC 680 (C). BMC 129. RSC 664. BNC 105.
Ex Berk 146, 29 November 2005, lot 363.

A reverse type issued only for Domitian, most likely a reference to his part in the Judaean triumph of Vespasian and Titus.

"while taking part in the Judaean triumph, he rode on a white horse, the conventional mount for young princes on such occasions." (Suetonius, Domitian, ii)

A scarce coin of Domitian's part in a very important event in Flavian history. Nice portait with some of the beard still intact and a lively horse on the reverse!
1 commentsVespasian70
philip-II_as-caesar_frontal-bust-dr_cuir_13_03grams_ex-Hendin.jpg
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front45 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
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ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
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Seller photo. Great 'Frontal Bust' portrait and very large flan!
4 commentsrexesq
DSC07485_DSC07499.JPG
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front31 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
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-
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ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
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5 commentsrexesq
DSC07494_philip-II_as-caesar_01.JPG
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front.14 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
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ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
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*Shown next to a US 25 cent piece (quarter-dollar) for size comparison.*
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rexesq
augustus.jpg
02 02 Augustus. Caius and Lucius47 viewsAugustus. 27 B.C. to 14 A.D. AR Denarius. Lyons Mint. c. 2 B.C.- 4 A.D. 3.68 g./20 mm. Obverse: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, Laureate head right. Reverse: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES in exergue, Caius and Lucius Caesars standing facing, shield and spears between, simpulum and and lituus above. RIC 207. 1 commentsLucas H
Augustus denarius.jpg
02 B.C. - 4 A.D Augustus Denarius124 viewsSilver denarius, S 1597, RIC 207, BMC 533, EF, Lugdunum mint, 3.876g, 19.2mm, 180o, 2 B.C. - 4 A.D.;
obverse CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right;
reverse C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Caius and Lucius Caesars togate stand facing, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on l. a simpulum r. and on r. a lituus l.;
lustrous, nice portrait, reverse slightly off center
jimwho523
dom as caesar spes.jpg
02 Domitian as Caesar RIC 788157 viewsAR Denarius, 3.36g
Rome mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVT; Spes, draped, advancing l., holding up flower in r. hand and with l. holding up her skirt.
RIC 788 (C). BMC 156. RSC 375. BNC 135.
Ex Harlan J Berk 155, 31 July 2007, lot 247.

During Vespasian's reign, Domitian was given the honorary title PRINCEPS IVVENTVT or 'Prince of Youth', celebrated here on this denarius from 74 AD. The title is one that was often given to young princes who were marked out as chosen heirs.

Spes, the personification of hope, is seen here on the reverse advacing left, holding a budding flower. The flower is a symbol of future well being.

Domitian's coinage during Vespasian's rule was unique. While Titus followed closely the types of his father, Domitian struck out on his own. One wonders how much of an input the young prince had on his own series.

A very likeable coin with a good portrait and excellent centring.


2 commentsVespasian70
Antíoco I, Soter.jpg
02-02 - Antioco I Soter (281 - 261 A.C.)42 viewsDespués de la muerte de Alejandro Magno, sus generales se repartieron el imperio, siendo protagonistas durante veinte años de grandes luchas y peleas por obtener el poder. Fueron los llamados diádocos, (διάδοχοι) o sucesores. La lucha entre ellos para obtener el poder y la hegemonía duró casi cincuenta años, hasta el 281 adC en que murió el último de los diádocos, Seleuco I Nikátor. Después de estos antiguos generales gobernaron los llamados epígonos (επίγονοι), que significa los nacidos después.
Antíoco I Sóter (que quiere decir 'salvador') (324 adC-261 adC) era hijo del fundador de la dinastía Seléucida, Seleuco I Nicátor y de Apame, princesa sogdiana y nieta de Espitamenes. Se casó con su madrastra, Estratónice. Era uno de estos epígonos a que se refiere la Historia. Se le conoce sobre todo por su triunfo frente a los gálatas en Asia Menor (pueblo galo procedente de Europa que se asentó aquí en el siglo III adC), cuya invasión supo detener a tiempo. Los gálatas venían de una expedición contra los griegos y habían sido vencidos por ellos. Pero al amparo de esta invasión frustrada se fueron formando pequeños Estados independientes que se irán consolidando durante los reinados de los reyes sucesores de Antíoco. Fue enemigo de otro de los epígonos, Ptolomeo II de Egipto y en las luchas que mantuvo contra él Antíoco perdió grandes extensiones de terreno además de que el rey egipcio consiguiera también la hegemonía sobre el mar Mediterráneo. Murió en combate durante la guerra que mantuvo contra Eumenes I, gobernador del reino de Pérgamo en Asia Menor. A Antíoco I le sucedió su hijo Antíoco II Teos (el dios).(Wikipedia)
AE 17 mm 5.8 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema viendo a derecha.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Zeus de pié de frente viendo a izquierda sosteniendo estrella ? en mano derecha extendida y cetro en izquierda.

Ceca: Antioquía en Orontes
Referencias:
mdelvalle
0206_RICII_100.jpg
0206 - Denarius Trajan 103-11 AC19 viewsObv/ IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P, laureate and draped bust of T. r.
Rev/ COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Danubius l. reclined on rocks; above, floating cape; arm resting on urn and hand on bow of boat; DANUVIVS in ex.

Ag, 20.5 mm, 3.60 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC II/100 [S] – BMCRE III/395
ex-Naville Numismatics, auction 16, lot 502.
1 commentsdafnis
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR_AVG-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VI_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-246-new-45D-80-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_18,5mm_3,18g-s.jpg
024a Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 1081, RIC II(1962) 0246D (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Clasped hands, #1315 views024a Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 1081, RIC II(1962) 0246D (Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Clasped hands, #1
avers:- CAESAR_AVG-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VI, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Clasped hands holding a legionary eagle on prow.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 1081, RIC II(1962) 0246D (Vespasian), RSC 393, BMC 269,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
RICa_1084,_RIC_II(1962)_0243(Vesp_),_024_Domitian_AR-Den,_CAESAR_AVG_F_DOMITIANVS_COS_VI,_PRINCEPS_IVVENTVTIS,_Roma,_79-AD,_Scarce,_Q-001,_6h,_17-18mm,_3,17g-s.jpg
024a Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 1084, RIC II(1962) 0243(Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Salus standing right, Scarce!, #1135 views024a Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 1084, RIC II(1962) 0243(Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Salus standing right, Scarce!, #1
avers: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, Laureate head of Domitian right.
reverse: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Salus standing right, leaning on column and feeding snake.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 3,17g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 79 A.D., ref: RIC 1084, RIC II(1962) 0243(Vespasian) p-43, C 384, BMC 265,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
RICc_1087,_RIC_II(1962)_0244(Vesp),_024_Domitian,_AR-Den,_CAESAR_AVG_F_DOMITIANVS_COS_VI,_PRINCEPS_IVVENTVTIS,_Roma,_79-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_17-17,5mm,_2,89g-s.jpg
024a Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 1087, RIC II(1962) 0244(Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Vesta seated left, Scarce!, #1139 views024a Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 1087, RIC II(1962) 0244(Vespasian), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Vesta seated left, Scarce!, #1
avers: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, Laureate head of Domitian right.
reverse: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Vesta seated left, holding palladium and sceptre.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,0-17,5mm, weight: 2,89g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 79 A.D., ref: RIC 1087, RIC II(1962) 0244(Vespasian) p-43, C 378, BMC 262,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR_AVG-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC--new-96-_Q-001_axis-5h_17,5mm_3,09g-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0096, RIC II(1962) 0045(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Clasped hands, #1209 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0096, RIC II(1962) 0045(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Clasped hands, #1
avers:- CAESAR_AVG-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Clasped hands holding a legionary eagle on prow.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,09g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0096, RIC II(1962) 045(Titus) p-121, RSC 395, BMC 85,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-II-50(Titus)_RIC-new-266_80-AD_Q-001_7h_17-18mm_2,93gx-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0266, RIC II(1962) 0050(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, lighted and garlanded altar, #1126 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0266, RIC II(1962) 0050(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, lighted and garlanded altar, #1
avers:- CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Lighted and garlanded altar.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 2,93g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0266, RIC II(1962) 0050(Titus) p-122, RSC 397a, BMC 92,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-dot-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS_IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-267-new-49_(Titus)_C-390_80-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-_h__-_mm__g-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0267, RIC II(1962) 0049(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left, Scarce!, #1131 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0267, RIC II(1962) 0049(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left, Scarce!, #1
avers:- CAESAR•DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Cretan goat standing left within laurel wreath.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0267, RIC II(1962) 0049(Titus) p-122, RSC 390, BMC 88,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-II-51_RIC-new-271_80-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_17,5-18mm_3,31g-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #1188 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #1
avers:- CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 3,31g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus) p-122, RSC 399a, BMC 98,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Domitian_AR-Den_CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII_PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS_Roma-RIC-II-51_RIC-new-271_80-AD_Q-002_5h_17,7-18,6mm_2,89ga-s.jpg
024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #2100 views024b Domitian (69-81 A.D. Caesar, 81-96 A.D. Augustus), RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus), AR-Denarius, Rome, PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar, #2
avers:- CAESAR-DIVI-F-DOMITIANVS-COS-VII, Laureate head of Domitian right.
revers:- PRINCEPS-IVVENTVTIS, Helmet on altar.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,7-18,6mm, weight: 2,89g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 80 A.D., ref: RIC 0271, RIC II(1962) 0051(Titus) p-122, RSC 399a, BMC 98,
Q-002
quadrans
augustus_RIC207.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 2 BC-ca. 13 AD85 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE (laureate head right)
rev: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below (Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ["b9"])
ref: RIC I 207, BMC 533, RSC 43
mint: Lugdunum
3.35gms, 18mm

This type was struck to celebrate Gaius and Lucius Caesars, the sons of Marcus Agrippa, as heirs to the imperial throne. Gaius became Princeps Iuventutis in 5 BC and Lucius in 2 BC. They died in 4 AD and 2 AD respectively, thus promoting Tiberius to heir apparent. An obligatory issue for collectors.
berserker
augustus_RIC381.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AVGVSTVS AE dupondius - struck by Cnaeus Piso Cn F moneyer (15 BC)53 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST in wreath
rev: CN PISO CN IIIVIR A A A F F around large SC
ref: RIC I 381 (R), Cohen 378 (2frcs)
mint: Rome
10.33gms, 25mm
Rare

Augustus was awarded all the powers of the tribunate (tribunitia potestas) in addition to the governing authority of the consulate, cementing him as a supreme individual princeps, or emperor.
berserker
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP_COS-V-P-P-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC_DAC-CAP_RIC-98_Q-001_7h_17-18,5mm_2,96ga-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0098, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, -/-//DAC CAP, Dacia seated left, 110 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0098, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, -/-//DAC CAP, Dacia seated left,
avers:- IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P, Laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- COS-V-P-P-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC, Dacia mourning, seated on pile of captured arms, DAC CAP in ex.
exerg: -/-//DAC CAP, diameter: 17-18,5mm, weight:2,96g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-098-p-, BMCRE-390, RSC-120a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP_COS-V-P-P-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC_DAC-CAP_RIC-99_Q-001_7h_18,5mm_3,12ga-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0099, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, -/-//DAC CAP, Dacia standing left, 85 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0099, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, -/-//DAC CAP, Dacia standing left,
avers:- IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P, Laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- COS-V-P-P-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC, Dacia standing with bound hands before pile of arms, DAC CAP in exergue.
exerg: -/-//DAC CAP, diameter: 18,5mm, weight:3,12g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-099-p-251, BMCRE-, RSC-121a,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
RIC-100_Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P_COS-V-PP_SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC_DANVVIVS_RIC-100_19x19_Sc_107AD_Q-001_7h_17-18,5mm_2,85g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0100, Rome, AR-Denarius, SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, -/-//DANVVIVS, The Danube reclining on rocks, Scarce!,87 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0100, Rome, AR-Denarius, SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, -/-//DANVVIVS, The Danube reclining on rocks, Scarce!,
avers: IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P, Laureate head right, draped (Aegis?) bust left shoulder.
revers: COS-V-P-P-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC/DANVVIVS, The Danube reclining on rocks, right hand on prow of ship, reeds over arm.
exerg: -/-//DANVVIVS, diameter: 17-18,5mm, weight:2,85g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-II-100-p-251, RSC 136, BMC 395,
Q-001
quadrans
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP_COS-V-PP-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC_RIC-128-p-_103-112-AD_Q-001_6h_18,5mm_3,06g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0128, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing left, 88 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0128, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing left,
avers:- IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P, Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- COS-V-PP-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC, Victory standing left holding wreath and palm.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight:3,06g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-112 A.D., ref: RIC-II-128-p-, BMCRE-328, RSC-74,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP_COS-V-P-P-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC_RIC-129_Q-001_7h_17,5-18,5mm_3,01g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0129, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing left on shields, 146 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0129, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing left on shields,
avers:- IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P, Laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- COS-V-P-P-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC, Victory standing left on shields, half draped and holding wreath and palm.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight:3,01g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 106 A.D., ref: RIC-II-129-p-, BMCRE-, RSC-76,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Traianus_AR-Den,_IMP_TRAIANO_AVG_GER_DAC_P_M_TR_P,_COS_V_P_P_S_P_Q_R_OPTIMO_PRINC,_DA-CI-CA,_RIC-II_130,103-111-AD_Q-001_7h_17,5-19,0mm_3,15g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0130, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing right, #1115 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0130, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing right, #1
avers:- IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing right inscribing DA/CI/CA on shield set on palm.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19,0m, weight: 3,15g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-130-p-, BMCRE 322, RSC-80,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP_COS-V-PP-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC_RIC-142_Q-001_axis-h_0,00mm_3_27g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0142, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Arabia, 81 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0142, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Arabia,
avers:- IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP, Laureate head right.
revers:- COS-V-PP-SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINC, Arabia standing left, holding branch and cinnamon sticks; ostrich to left.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight:3,27g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 106 A.D., ref: RIC-II-142-p253, C-89,
Q-001
quadrans
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_RIC-222_103-111-AD_Q-001_6h_17mm_3,12g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0222, Rome, AR-Denarius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, -/-//--, Dacia seated right, 102 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0222, Rome, AR-Denarius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, -/-//--, Dacia seated right,
avers: IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers: S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Dacia seated right at foot of trophy.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight:3,12g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-222-p-,
Q-001
quadrans
Traianus_AR-Den_RIC-243_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0243, Rome, AR-Denarius, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, -/-//ALIM ITAL, Abundantia standing left, 96 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0243, Rome, AR-Denarius, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, -/-//ALIM ITAL, Abundantia standing left,
avers:- IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-VI-P-P, Laureate, draped bust right left shoulder.
revers:- SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Abundantia standing left, holding grain ears over child and cornucopia.
exerg: -/-//ALIM ITAL, diameter: mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-II-243-p-261, BMC-472, S-3117,
Q-001
quadrans
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP-COS-VI-PP_S_P_Q_R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_RIC-II-271-p-263_112-114-AD_Q-001_6h_18-19,4mm_3,22g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0271, Rome, AR-Denarius, S•P•Q•R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Felicitas standing left,83 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0271, Rome, AR-Denarius, S•P•Q•R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Felicitas standing left,
avers:- IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-VI-P-P, Laureate, draped bust right.
revers:- S•P•Q•R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopia.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19,4mm, weight:3,22g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 112-114 A.D., ref: RIC-II-271-p-263, RSC-404,
Q-001
quadrans
Traianus_AR-Den_IMP-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-PMTRP-COS-VI-P-P_S_P_Q_R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_RIC-291v_112-114AD_S_Q-001_7h_18-19mm_3,01ga-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0291, Rome, AR-Denarius, S•P•Q•R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan on horseback left, Scarce ! #176 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0291, Rome, AR-Denarius, S•P•Q•R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan on horseback left, Scarce ! #1
avers:- IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, Laureate, draped bust right left shoulder.
revers:- S•P•Q•R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan on horseback left, holding small Victory and spear.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18-19mm, weight:3,01g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 112-114 A.D., ref: RIC-II-291-p-, BMC-445, RSC-497, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Traianus_AR-Den,_IMP_TRAIANO_AVG_GER_DAC_P_M_TR_P_COS_VI_P_P,_S_P_Q_R_OPTIMO_PRINCIPI,_RIC-291v,112-114AD_,S,_Q-002_6h_17,5-18,5mm_2,84g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0291, Rome, AR-Denarius, S•P•Q•R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan on horseback left, Scarce ! #2115 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0291, Rome, AR-Denarius, S•P•Q•R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan on horseback left, Scarce ! #2
avers:- IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P, Laureate, draped bust right left shoulder.
revers:- S•P•Q•R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Trajan on horseback left, holding small Victory and spear.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 112-114 A.D., ref: RIC-II-291-p-, BMC-445, RSC-497, Scarce!
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Traian_AE-AS_IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_S-C_RIC-503a-C-408_Rome-103-111-AD_Q-001_6h_25-26,5mm_9,27ga-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0503a, Rome, AE-As, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, S-C, Pax standing left, 76 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0503a, Rome, AE-As, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, S-C, Pax standing left,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate head right, aegis on left shoulder.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Pax standing left, stepping on captive, holding branch and cornucopia.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 25-26,5mm, weight: 9,27g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-503a-p-, C-408,
Q-001
quadrans
Traian_AE-Dup_IMP_CAES_NERVAE_TRAIANO_AVG_GERM_P_M_TR_P_COS_V_P_P_SPQR_OPTIMO_PRINCIPI_S-C_RIC-505_BMC-891_Rome-AD_Q-001_6h_28-29mm_13,24g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0505var., Woytek 206cB, Rome, AE-Dupondius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI /S-C, Pax standing left, Rare!180 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0505var., Woytek 206cB, Rome, AE-Dupondius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI /S-C, Pax standing left, Rare!
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GERM-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate head right, with Aegis on the left shoulder.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Pax standing left, holding olive branch and cornucopia, her foot on the shoulder of a captive Dacia.
exerg: S/C//--, diameter: 28-29mm, weight: 13,24g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-II-505var.-p-, C-, Woytek 206cB, (6 specimens!!), Rare !
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Traian_AE-Sest_IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_S-C_RIC-510-p-281_C-419_Rome-103-111-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0510, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Pax seated left on throne, 174 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0510, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Pax seated left on throne,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Pax seated left, holding branch, kneeling Dacian with arms raised at her feet to left.
exerg: -/-//SC, diameter: mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-510-p-281, C-419,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Traian_AE-Sest_IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_S-C_RIC-515-C-485_Rome-103-111-AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0515, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Salus seated left on ornate throne, 109 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0515, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Salus seated left on ornate throne,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Salus seated left on ornate throne, feeding from patera a serpent coiled around an altar.
exerg: -/-//SC, diameter: mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-515-p-, C-485,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Traian_AE-Sest_IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_S-C_RIC-523-p-281_C-445_Rome-103-111-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0523, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Victory standing left, 76 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0523, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Victory standing left,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Victory standing left, holding palm and erecting trophy.
exerg: -/-//SC, diameter: mm, weight:g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-523-p-281, C-445,
Q-001
quadrans
Traian_AE-AS_IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_S-C_RIC-540-C-_Rome-103-111-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_27,5-28mm_10,77g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0540, Rome, AE-As, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI /S-C, Trajan riding right,143 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0540, Rome, AE-As, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI /S-C, Trajan riding right,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate, head right with aegis.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Trajan riding right spearing Dacian enemy.
exerg: -/-//S-C, diameter: 27,5-28mm, weight: 10,77g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-540-p-, C-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Traian_AE-Dup_IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_S-C_RIC-540-C-_Rome-103-111-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_27,5-28mm_14,01g-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0540, Rome, AE-Dupondius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI /S-C, Trajan riding right,359 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0540, Rome, AE-Dupondius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI /S-C, Trajan riding right,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-V-P-P, Laureate, head right with aegis.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Trajan riding right spearing Dacian enemy.
exerg: -/-//S-C, diameter: 27,5-28mm, weight: 14,01g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 103-111 A.D., ref: RIC-II-540-p-, C-,
"Woytek, MIR 208cB, 15 specimens in his photofile, c. 105-7 A.D." by Curtis Clay, thank you!
Q-001
8 commentsquadrans
Traian_AE-Sest_IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-VI-P-P_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_S-C_ALIM-ITAL_RIC-604-C-11_Rome-112-17-AD_Q-001_6h_33mm_26,46ga-s.jpg
027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0606, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, S/C//ALIM ITAL, Abundantia standing left, 357 views027 Traianus (98-117 A.D.), RIC II 0606, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, S/C//ALIM ITAL, Abundantia standing left,
avers:- IMP-CAES-NERVAE-TRAIANO-AVG-GER-DAC-P-M-TR-P-COS-VI-P-P, Laureate bust right, draped left shoulder.
revers:- S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI, Abundantia standing left, holding grain ears over child and cornucopia.
exerg: S/C//ALIM ITAL, diameter: 33mm, weight:26,46g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 112-117 A.D., ref: RIC-II-604-p-, C-11,
Q-001
7 commentsquadrans
27b.jpg
027b Trajan. AR Denarius 3.4gm21 viewsobv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P laur. bust r. drp. on far shoulder
rev: COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC trophy with Dacian arms stacked below
hill132
27c.jpg
027c Trajan. AE AS 10.8gm37 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIANO AVG DAC PM TRP COS V PP
laur. bust r.drp. on far shoulder
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI Dacia std. l. in attitude of mourning on
shield and arms, before her trophy
ex: SC
1 commentshill132
03-Constantius-The-25.jpg
03. Constantius I: Thessalonica fractional.21 viewsAE3 fractional (half follis?), 317-18, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: DIVO CONSTANTIO PIO PRINCIPI / Veiled bust of Constantius I.
Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMORVM MERITORVM / Emperor seated on curule chair, raising right hand and holding sceptre.
Mint mark: . T . SB .
1.78 gm., 16 mm.
RIC #25; PBCC #908; Sear unlisted.

Around the years 317 - 318, Constantine issued commemorative coins honoring three deified emperors: Claudius II Gothicus, Constantius I, and Maximian. It is not real clear when these coins were issued, but RIC assigns them to the years 317-18 saying there is evidence they were issued near or at the end of the Sol coinage. They are small AE3 in size (16 mm), but on flans that are much thinner and weigh significantly less than other coins of the period. Therefore they are generally regarded as fractionals. They were minted at Treveri, Arelate, Rome, Aquileia, Siscia, and Thessalonica.

Why these three emperors? Constantine claimed Claudius II Gothicus was one of his ancestors (probably not true). Constantius I was Constantine's father, and Maximian was the father of Constantine's wife, Fausta.

Callimachus
035.jpg
030 PHILIP II6 viewsEMPEROR: Philip II, as Ceasar
DENOMINATION: Anotninianus
OBVERSE: M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, radiate draped bust right
REVERSE: PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philip II standing left with globe & spear; captive at feet
DATE: 247 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 3.83 g
RIC: 219
Barnaba6
037.jpg
032 HERENNIUS ETRUSCUS8 viewsEMPEROR: Herennius Etruscus, as Ceasar
DENOMINATION: Antoninianus
OBVERSE: Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, radiate and draped bust right
REVERSE: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Herennius standing left, holding rod and spear
DATE: 251 AD
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 4.02 g
RIC: 147c
Barnaba6
RI_035f_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Denarius (as Caesar under Vespasian) - RIC II (Old) 24430 viewsObv:– CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI, Laureate head right
Rev:– PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS, Vesta seated left, holding Palladium and sceptre
Minted in Rome. A.D. 79
Reference:– RIC II (old) 244. RSC 378
maridvnvm
Ant-As_ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-COS-IIII__SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI-RIC-827a_Rome-145-61-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_24,5-25mm_8,89g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0827, Rome, AE-As, SPQR/OPTIMO/PRINCIPI/S-C, in wreath,132 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0827, Rome, AE-As, SPQR/OPTIMO/PRINCIPI/S-C, in wreath,
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-COS-IIII, Laureate head right.
revers:- SPQR/OPTIMO/PRINCIPI/S-C, in wreath.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 24,5-25mm, weight: 8,89g, axes: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 145-161 A.D., ref: RIC III 827, p-130, C-791-3,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI_039a_img.jpg
039 - Trajan denarius - RIC 11842 viewsObv:– IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P, Laureate head right, light drapery on far shoulder
Rev:– COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Aequitas Standing left holding scales and cornucopia
Minted in Rome A.D. 108
Reference RIC 118
maridvnvm
RI_039g_img.jpg
039 - Trajan Denarius - RIC 16327 viewsObv:– IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P, Laureate head right, drapery over left shoulder
Rev:– S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Mars standing facing, head right, holding spear and resting hand on shield
Minted in Rome. A.D. 103-104
Reference:– RIC II 163
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Trajan-RIC-147.jpg
045. Trajan.15 viewsDenarius, 103-111 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P / Laureate bust of Trajan.
Reverse: COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC / Trophy of arms: two shield, one round, one oval; at base: two swords, two javelins, and two shields.
3.28 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #147.

The conquest of Dacia, the most important military enterprise of Trajan's reign, occupied two campaigns: 101 - 102 AD, and 105 - 106 AD. This coin commemorates the victories of the second of these campaigns.
Callimachus
Geta_AR-Den_P-SEPT-GETA-CAES-PONT_PRINC-IVVENT_RIC-IV-I-16b-p-_C-157_Roma-200-AD_Q-001_1h_18-19,5mm_2,62ga-s.jpg
053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 016b, Rome, AR-Denarius, PRIN IVVENT, Geta, in military attire, standing left, 74 views053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 016b, Rome, AR-Denarius, PRIN IVVENT, Geta, in military attire, standing left,
avers:- P-SEPT-GETA-CAES-PONT, Bare-headed, draped bust right, seen from the back .
revers:- PRIN-IVVENT, Geta, in military attire, standing left, holding branch and reversed spear, trophy of shields and arms behind.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 2,62g, axis:1h,
mint: Rome, date: 200 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-016b-p-, C-157,
Q-001
quadrans
053_Geta_RIC_IV-I_018_AR-Den_P-SEPT-GETA-CAES-PONT_PRINC-IVVENTVTIS_RIC-IV-I-18-p-_RSC-157_Roma-200-2-AD_Q-001_1h_18,2-19,2mm_3,41g-s.jpg
053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 018, Rome, AR-Denarius, PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Geta, in military attire, standing left, 146 views053 Geta (209-211 A.D.), RIC IV-I 018, Rome, AR-Denarius, PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Geta, in military attire, standing left,
avers:- P-SEPT-GETA-CAES-PONT, Bare-headed, draped bust right, seen from the back .
revers:- PRINC-IVVENTVTIS, Geta, Geta, in military dress, standing left with baton & scepter, trophy behind.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 18,2-19,2mm, weight: 3,41g, axis:1h,
mint: Rome, date: 200-202 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-018-p-, RSC-157,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
055_Diadumenian_(217-218_AD),_RIC_107,_AR-Denar,_Rome,_M_OPEL_ANT_DIADVMENIAN_CAES,_PRINC_IVVENTVTIS,_Q-001,_6h,_19mm,_3,0g-s.jpg
055 Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. as Caesar, 218 A.D. as Augustus), RIC 107, Rome, AR-Denar, PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing left,117 views055 Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. as Caesar, 218 A.D. as Augustus), RIC 107, Rome, AR-Denar, PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing left,
avers: M OPEL DIADVMENIANVS CAES, Bare-headed, draped bust right, seen from behind.
reverse: PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing left, holding baton and scepter, two standards to right.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,0mm, weight: 3,00g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 217-218 A.D., ref: RIC 107, RSC ,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
055_Diadumenian_(217-218_A_D__Caesar,_218_A_D__Augustus),_Nicopolis_ad_Istrum,_4_assaria,_HHJ-08_25_01_16,_Moushmov_1348,_Moesia_Inferior-Q-001_2h_26,0-26,5mm_10,01g-s~0.jpg
055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. Caesar, 218 A.D. Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.25.01.16, 4 Assaria (AE-26), Eagle with wings spread,120 views055p Diadumenian (217-218 A.D. Caesar, 218 A.D. Augustus), Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, HrHJ (2012) 08.25.01.16, 4 Assaria (AE-26), Eagle with wings spread,
avers:- M OΠEΛ ΔIAΔO MENIANOC K, Bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- VΠ CTA ΛONΓINOV NIKOΠOΛITΩN ΠPO/CI, Eagle with wings spread, holding wreath in its beak.
exe: -/-//CI, diameter: 26,0-26,5mm, weight: 10,01g, axis: 2h,
mint: Moesia, Nicopolis Ad Istrum, Governor:Statius Longinus, date: 218 A.D., ref: Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2012) 08.25.01.16, Moushmov 1348, Varbanov (Eng.) Vol.1, No. 3710, AMNG I, p. 473, no. 1871,
"Consular legate Statius Longinus , (Governor) of the residents of Nikopolis on the (river) Istrus – A prince (Diadumenian) crowned by the gods"
Q-001
quadrans
Domitian_as_caesar_legionary_standard.jpg
06 Domitian as Caesar RIC-1081113 viewsAR Denarius, 3.45g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Clasped hands holding legionary eagle set on prow
RIC 1081 (C2). BMC 269. RSC 393. BNC 240.
Acquired from Beast Coins, April 2007.


The reverse represents 'Concordia Militum', harmony of the troops. Domitian quite possibly was plotting against Titus after Vespasian's death by appealing to the troops with a double donative. This coin might provide numismatic evidence of such. Suetonius states: " On the death of his father he hesitated for some time whether to offer a double largess to the soldiers, and he never had any compunction about saying that he had been left a partner in the imperial power, but that the will had been tampered with."

A nice coin with average wear and an interesting history behind it.


Vespasian70
RI 064dn img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 415 var28 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– SPQR OPTIMO PBINCIPI, Septimius on horseback left, holding spear in right hand
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– Cohen 376. RIC 415 var. This errored spelling is far more common than the correct PRINCIPI.
maridvnvm
067_Maximus,_(235-238_A_D__as_Caesar),_AE-Sest_,_MAXIMVS_CAES_GERM,_PRINCIPI_IVVENTVTIS,_S-C,_Rome,_BMCRE_213_,_RIC_13_,_235-38_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_29-30mm,_18,73g-s.jpg
067 Maximus (235-238 A.D. as Caesar), RIC IV 13, AE-Sestertius, Roma, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar standing left in military attire, #170 views067 Maximus (235-238 A.D. as Caesar), RIC IV 13, AE-Sestertius, Roma, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar standing left in military attire, #1
avers: MAXIMVS CAES GERM, Bare, draped bust right.
reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar standing left in military attire, holding short scepter and transverse spear, two standards behind.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29,0-30,0mm, weight: 18,73g, axis: 0h,
mint: Roma, date: 235-238 AD., ref: RIC IV 13, BMCRE 213, Cohen 14, BMC 213, RCTV 8411,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Commodus-RIC-617.jpg
067. Commodus.14 viewsDenarius, 175-176 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM / Bust of Commodus.
Reverse: PRINC IVVENT / Commodus standing, holding sceptre and branch. Trophy at right.
3.52 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #617; Sear #5547.

Commodus is shown on this coin as an adolescent of about 14 or 15 years of age. The trophy refers to a victory over the Sarmatians about September 175. This victory resulted in the assumption of the title Sarmaticus by both Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.
Callimachus
RI 068n img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 015b 20 viewsObv:– P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, Draped , cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PRINC IVVENT, Geta standing left holding branch and spear
References:– RIC 15b (Scarce), RSC 159a
maridvnvm
RI 068f img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 01839 viewsObv:– P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, Bare headed bust facing right
Rev:– PRINC INNENTVTIS, Geta standing left holding branch and spear; trophy behind
Minted in Rome, A.D. 200
Reference(s) – RIC 18, RCV02 7196, RSC 157
maridvnvm
RI_068as_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 0187 viewsObv:– P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, Bare headed, draped bust right
Rev:– PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Geta standing left holding branch and spear, trophy behind
Minted in Rome. A.D. 200
Reference:– RIC 18. RSC 157
maridvnvm
dom_as_caesar_salus_and_snake.jpg
07 Domitian as Caesar RIC-108486 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Salus, stg. r., resting on column, feeding snake out of patera
RIC 1084 (C2). BMC 265. RSC 384. BNC 237.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, July 2008.

A most puzzling reverse type issued during the last months of Vespasian's reign before he died on June 24th. Perhaps a reference to Vespasian's illness and his hopeful recovery.

Worn and average with a good portrait.
vespasian70
90Hadrian__RIC725.jpg
0725 Hadrian AS Roma 132-34 AD Indulgentia25 viewsReference.
RIC 725; C. 849; BMC S. 462; Strack 817

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev. INDVLGENTIA – AVG COS III P P in ex
Indulgentia seated l., extending r. hand and holding sceptre.

10.78 gr
27 mm
6h

Note.
Indulgentia. Clemency, lenity, grace, favour. -This word is used on Roman coins to denote either some permission given, some privilege bestowed, or some tribute remitted. -In inscriptions of a very early date, princes are called indulgentissimi.
(FORVM)
okidoki
076-Philippus-II_AE-Sest_M-IVL-PHILIPPVS-CAES_PRINCIPI-IVVENT_S-C_RIC-IV-(Phil-I_)-256a_Rome_244-7AD_Q-001_0h_29mm_g-s.jpg
076a Philippus II. (244-7 A.D., Caes, 247-9 A.D. Aug.), RIC IV-III 256a, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S/C//--, PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philip II standing left, #1133 views076a Philippus II. (244-7 A.D., Caes, 247-9 A.D. Aug.), RIC IV-III 256a, Rome, AE-Sestertius, S/C//--, PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philip II standing left, #1
avers:- M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, Bare-headed and draped bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philip II, in military outfit, standing left, holding globe in extended right hand and reversed spear in left hand.
exergo: S/C//--, diameter: 29mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 244-247 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-256a, Pink III, pg. 34, Banti 9, Hunter 14, Cohen 49, Sear 2659,
Q-001
quadrans
IMG_4285~0.jpg
078. Geta (211-212 A.D.)16 viewsAv.: SEPT GETA CAES PONT
Rv.: PRINC IVVENTVTIS

AR Denarius Ø18 / 3.2g
RIC IV 18 Rome, Cohen 157
Juancho
07a-Constantine-Lug-273.jpg
07a. Constantine: Lugdunum follis.25 viewsFollis, Autumn 307 - Summer 308, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS / Constantine standing, in military dress, holding standard in each hand.
Mint mark: PLG
7.44 gm., 26 mm.
RIC #273; PBCC #259; Sear #16027.
Callimachus
V1085.jpg
07b Domitian as Caesar RIC 108588 viewsAR Denarius, 3.08g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Salus, stg. r., resting on column, feeding snake out of patera
RIC 1085 (R2). BMC p. 47 note. RSC 385. BNC 238.
Acquired from eBay, 10 June 2018.

A rare left portrait variant of the common Salus type struck for Domitian Caesar under Vespasian. The reverse may be an illusion to Vespasian's ill health preceeding his death on 24 June 79. No specimens in the BM's collection, citing the Paris collection. A double die match with the RIC plate coin.

Good style and well centred.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
07c-Constantine-Tre-841a.jpg
07c. Constantine: Treveri follis.16 viewsFollis, 309, Treveri mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS / Constantine standing, in military dress, holding transverse spear and globe. T in left field; F in right field.
Mint mark: PTR
8.25 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #841a; PBCC #153; Sear #16024.
Callimachus
domit_as_caesar_vesta_lg.jpg
08 Domitian as Caesar RIC-108778 viewsAR Denarius, 3.54g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Vesta, std. l., with palladium and sceptre
RIC 1087 (C2). BMC 262. RSC 378. BNC 233.
Acquired from Amphora Coins, July 2008.

Vesta is supposed to be holding a palladium in her right hand, but on this example the legend covers up the palladium completely. It is barely visible (if at all) under the legend. Most examples of the type clearly show it in her out-stretched hand. A note for an aureus of the type in the BM (#261) notes - 'palladium hardly visible, sceptre nearly vertical'. There is no illustration of the specimen, so I'm guessing mine is similar.
vespasian70
Herenius-Etr_AR-Ant_Q-HER-ETR-MES-DECIVS-NOB-C_PRINCIPI_IVVENTVTIS_RIC-146_C-_Q-001_axis-0h_21-22mm_3,80g-s.jpg
081 Herennius Etruscus (251 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 146, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Rare!, #1,86 views081 Herennius Etruscus (251 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 146, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Rare!, #1,
avers:- Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting elbow on lyre.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21-22 mm, weight: 3,80 g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 251 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-146, p-139, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Etruscus_Q-HER-ETR-MES-DECIVS-NOB-C_PRINCIPI-IVVENTVTIS-RIC-146_C-_Rome_251-AD__Q-001_21mm_3_48g-s.jpg
081 Herennius Etruscus (251 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 146, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Rare!, #2,66 views081 Herennius Etruscus (251 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 146, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Rare!, #2,
avers:- Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Apollo seated left, holding branch and resting elbow on lyre.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,48g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 251 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-146, p-139, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Hostilian_AR-Antoninianus_C-VALENS-HOSTIL-MES-QVINTVS-N-C_PRINCIPI-IVVENTVTIS_RIC-181d-Tr_Dec__C-33_Rome_251-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_20mm_3,56g-s.jpg
082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 181d, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Scarce!,73 views082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 181d, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Scarce!,
avers:- C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C, radiate, draped bust right,
revers:- PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Hostilian standing left, holding spear & standard.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 20 mm, weight: 3,56 g, axis: 6 h,
mint: Rome, date: 251 A.D., ref: RIC-181d , p-144 ,C-34, Scarce,
Q-001
quadrans
Hostilian_AR-Antoninianus_C-VAL-HOS-MES-QVINTVS-N-C_PRINCIPI-IVVENTVTIS_RIC-_C-_Rome_251-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_21-23mm_3_67g-s.jpg
082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III ???, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Very Rare!, Not in RIC!!!,77 views082 Hostilian (250-251 A.D. Caesar, 251 A.D. Augustus), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III ???, Rome, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar, Very Rare!, Not in RIC!!!,
avers:- C VAL HOS MES QVINTVS N C, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
revers:- RINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Apollo seated left, holding branch
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 3,67g, axis: h,
mint: Rome ?, date: 251 A.D.? ref: RIC- ,C- ,??, Very rare!, Not in RIC!!!,
Q-001
"A similar coin, overstruck on an earlier denarius of Geta in Decius' operation to convert circulating denarii into antononiani, was shown on Forvm by Hispanorvm, May 2005.
I wrote the coin into my RIC, but it did not turn up in a Forvm search for "Hostilian Geta" now, so it has perhaps been deleted.
For readers without easy access to RIC, this rev. type is well known for Hostilian Caesar with the longer legend
C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C,
but is not in RIC with the more abbreviated legend of Quadrans' coin,
C VAL HOS MES QVINTVS N C." by Curtis Clay. Thank you Curtis Clay.
quadrans
84a.jpg
084a Soloninus. AR antoninianus20 viewsobv: SAL VALERIANVS CS rad. drp. bust r. seen from behind
rev: PRINC IVVENT prince std. l. holding batoned spear to r. ensign
hill132
V1088.jpg
08a Domitian as Caesar RIC-108886 viewsAR Denarius, 3.14g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Vesta std. l., with Palladium and sceptre
RIC 1088 (R3). BMC p. 46 note. RSC 379. BNC -.
Ex Den of Antiquity (eBay), October 2012.

A very rare (4th known) left facing portrait of the common Vesta and Palladium reverse. It is listed in Cohen as 379 (citing lot 784 of the de Moustier Sale of 1872) , although the new RIC states it is unverified (?). The lone example cited by RIC is in G. Mazzini's Monete imperiali romane, vol. 1. Also, Curtis Clay has a specimen, same die pair as mine. Left facing portraits of Domitian are extremely rare, especially those as Caesar.

Worn but all the major devices are visible.

Thanks to Curtis Clay for additional attribution help!
David Atherton
RI_092l_img.jpg
092 - Philip II Antoninianus - RIC 21910 viewsAntoninianus

Obv:- M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, radiate draped bust right
Rev:- PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philip II standing left with globe & spear; captive at feet
Minted in Rome. A.D. ???
Reference(s) – RIC 219, RSC 57

4.13 gms, 22.16 mm. 0 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_092f_img.jpg
092 - Philip II, AE Sestertius - RIC 256a20 viewsObv:– M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, draped bust right
Rev:– PRINCIPI IVVENT S-C, Philip II standing left with globe & spear
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– Cohen 49. RIC IV 256a.

27.60g, 33.82mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI 092c img.jpg
092 - Phillip II Antoninianus - RIC 216c33 viewsObv:– M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philip II, in military dress, standing right, holding globe and transverse sceptre
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 216c. RSC 48.
maridvnvm
Ri 092a img~0.jpg
092 - Phillip II Antoninianus - RIC 218d27 viewsObv:– M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philip II standing left, holding globe and inverted spear
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– RIC 218d. RSC 88.
maridvnvm
IMG_4759.JPG
092. Maximus Caesar (235-238 A.D.)21 viewsAv.: MAXIMVS CAES GERM
Rv.: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS / S-C

AE Sestertius Ø30 / 17.7g
RIC IV 13 Rome, Cohen 14
Juancho
093_Saloninus,_Bi-Ant_,_RIC_V-I_036,_Samosata,_SALON_VALERIANVS_NOB_CAES,_SPES_PVBLICA,_256-260AD,_Q-001,_5h,_20-21mm,_3g-s.jpg
093 Saloninus (258-260 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 036, Samosata, SPES PVBLICA, Prince in military dress and Spes,100 views093 Saloninus (258-260 A.D. Caesar), AR-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 036, Samosata, SPES PVBLICA, Prince in military dress and Spes,
avers: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Saloninus right.
reverse: SPES PVBLICA, Prince in military dress standing right, holding scepter and receiving a flower from Spes, walking left, lifting hem of skirt, star between.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20,0-21,0mm, weight: 3,00g, axis: 5h,
mint: Samosata, date: 256-260 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 36, p-, C-41,
Q-001
quadrans
nerva dup-~0.jpg
096-098 AD - NERVA AE dupondius - struck 96 AD62 viewsobv:IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TRP CIS II PP (radiate head right)
rev:CONCORDIA EXERCITVM / S.C. (two hands clasped hads holding legionary eagle resting on prow)
ref:RIC55, C.26(2fr.)
11.11gms
The type of this reverse alludes to the concurrence and union of the forces, both on land and at sea, during the reign of this good prince.
berserker
trajan as2.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE as - struck 103-111 AD46 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS V PP (laureate head right, draped far shoulder)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Pax standing left holding branch & cornucopiae, foot on Dacian captive), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 503, C.408(2frcs)
8.76gms, 25mm
berserker
traian as4.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE as - struck 103-111 AD49 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS II PP (laureate head right)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Annona standing left, holding grain ears and cornucopiae; modius with grain ears and prow at her feet), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 492, C.470(3frcs)
11.63gms, 26mm
berserker
trajan dup-trophy.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE dupondius - struck 103-111 AD40 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVA ET TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS V PP (radiate head right)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (trophy, two shields at base), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 587, C.574(3frcs), BMC906
12.54gms, 27mm
berserker
trajan dup-SPQR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE dupondius - struck 104-110 AD64 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS V PP (radiate head right)
rev: SPQR / OPTIMO / PRINCIPI / S.C. in wreath
ref: RIC II 477, C.584(2frcs)
11.12gms, 26,5mm
berserker
trajan sest2.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 104-110 AD43 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PMTRP COS V PP (laureate head right)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Spes standing left with flower & raising hem of skirt), S-C in field
ref: RIC II 519, Cohen 459(4frcs)
27.14gms, 33mm
berserker
trajan RIC564.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE sestertius - struck 104-110 AD94 viewsobv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP (laureate head right, drapery at left shoulder)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Dacia, in attitude of mourning, seated left on pile of arms; trophy before), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC II 564, Cohen 534(4frcs), BMC 785
24.33gms, 33mm
1 commentsberserker
trajan RIC98.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AR denarius - struck 103-111 AD54 viewsobv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P (laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder)
rev: COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC (Dacia seated left in mourning on pile of arms), DAC CAP in exergue.
ref: RIC II 98 (C); BMCRE 390; RSC 120
2.98gms, 18mm
Scarce

DACia CAPta = conquest of Dacia
berserker
trajan_RIC243.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AR denarius - struck 112-114 AD127 viewsobv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI PP (laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Abundantia standing left, holding cornucopiae and grain ears; at her feet, a child holding a roll), in ex. ALIM ITAL [Alimenta Italiae]
ref: RIC II 243, C.9 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
2.91gms, 19mm

The Alimenta was a welfare program for poor children and orphans. Credit for designing the program is usually attributed to Nerva, but it was increased and formally organized under Trajan. The Alimenta was funded from several sources. Probably, money from the Dacian Wars was used to initially underwrite the program; however, the long-term existence of the program was insured through 5% interest paid by wealthy landowners on loans and estate taxes. Philanthropy was also encouraged and contributed to the total funding.
Under Alimenta, boys of freemen received 16 sesterces monthly, girls received 12, while children borne out of wedlock received a bit less. The Alimenta was supplemented with a special young girls foundation initiated by Antoninus Pius in honor of his deceased wife Faustina. Municipal magistrates administered the alimentary funds and in turn were supervised by imperial clerks who had the status of knights.
1 commentsberserker
traian quinar02.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AR quinar (fouree) - struck 103-111 AD 50 viewsobv: IMP.TRAIANO.AVG.GER.DAC.P.M.TR.P
rev: COS.V.P.P.SPQR.OPTIMO.PRINC
ref: RIC133, C.79
1.15g, 14mm
Rare
berserker
V1496lg.jpg
09e Domitian as Caesar-RIC 1496110 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS IIII; Winged caduceus
RIC 1496 (R2). BMC 489. RSC 369. RPC 1469 (2 spec.). BNC 377.
Acquired from Britaly Coins, April 2016.

The small series struck under Vespasian this coin comes from is quite mysterious. The mint is not known for certain, although Ephesus is a prime suspect. K. Butcher and M. Ponting in The Metallurgy of Roman silver Coinage analysed the Ephesian and 'o' mint series and their data shows both issues are made from the same bullion. Not definitive proof the two series are from the same mint, but good evidence of a strong link. Unlike the Ephesian series, the 'o' issue is full of blundered legends and mules. This denarius struck for Domitian Caesar has a PON MAX reverse legend, an impossible title for the young prince. However, what the mint masters lacked in competency, the engravers made up for in their stylish portraits.

A wonderful portrait struck on a large flan. An obverse die match with my RIC V1494.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
Aemilia10.jpg
0ac Conquest of Macedonia13 viewsPaullus Aemilius Lepidus, moneyer
109-100 BC

Denarius

Veiled head of Concord, right, PAVLLVS LEPIDVS CONCORDIA
TER above trophy, L. Aemelius Lepidus on right, Perseus and his two sons as prisoners on left, PAVLLVS in ex.

Seaby, Aemelia 10

L. Aemelius Paullus defeated the Macedonians in 168 BC and brought Perseus and his sons to Rome to adorn his triumph.

Three days after the battle Perseus arrived at Amphipolis, and from that city he sent heralds with a caduceus to Paulus. In the meanwhile Hippias, Midon, and Pantauchus, the principal men among the king's friends who had fled from the field of battle to Beroea, went and made their surrender to the Roman consul. In the case of others also, their fears prompted them, one after another, to do the same. The consul sent his son Q. Fabius, together with L. Lentulus and Q. Metellus, with despatches to Rome announcing his victory. He gave the spoils taken from the enemy's army lying on the field of battle to the foot soldiers and the plunder from the surrounding country to the cavalry on condition that they were not absent from the camp more than two nights. The camp at Pydna was shifted to a site nearer the sea. First of all Beroea, then Thessalonica and Pella, and almost the whole of Macedonia, city by city, surrendered within two days.

Livy, History of Rome, 44.45
Blindado
2750063-1.jpg
1) Julius Caesar24 viewsIMPERATORIAL ROME
Julius Caesar
AR Denarius (16mm, 2.97 g, 11h)
42 BC. Posthumous issue. Rome mint. L. Mussidius Longus, moneyer.

Laureate head right / Rudder, cornucopia on globe, winged caduceus, and flamen’s cap.

Crawford 494/39b; CRI 116; Sydenham 1096c; RSC 29. Fine, porous, bankers’ marks on obverse.

Property of Princeton Economics acquired by Martin Armstrong. Ex Stack’s (3 December 1996), lot 769.

Ex CNG
RM0008
1 commentsSosius
Diadumenian-RIC-102.jpg
101. Diadumenian.39 viewsDenarius, April 217 - April 218 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: M OPEL ANT DIADVMENIAM CAES / bust of Diadumenian.
Reverse: PRINC IVVENTVTIS / Diadumenian standing, holding standard and sceptre. Two more standards at right.
3.23 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #102; Sear #7449.
1 commentsCallimachus
TrajSe51.JPG
102 AD: Triumph of Trajan in the first Dacian war and dedication of triumphal arch to Jupiter Optimus Maximus 340 viewsorichalcum sestertius (20.83g, 33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 103-104.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate head of Trajan facing right.
S·P·Q·R·OPTIMO PRINCIPI [r.b.,] S C [in ex.] monumental richly decorated triumphal arch; in the panel above pediment inscribed IOM (= Iovi Optimo Maximo)(nearly invisible on this specimen)
RIC 572 [R]; BMC 844; Cohen 547; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 100:18
Ex CNG eAuct. 266; ex Deyo Collection
1 commentsCharles S
IMG_5848~0.JPG
102. Philipp II (247–249 A.D.)25 viewsAv.: M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES
Rv.: PRINCIPI IVVENT

AR Antoninian Ø21 / 3.9g
RIC 218 d var. Rome, Cohen 48
var.= None of the four standard references
refer the left facing reverse with a scepter.
Juancho
coin218.JPG
102. Trajan40 viewsTrajan

Hadrian saw to it that Trajan received all customary honors: the late emperor was declared a divus, his victories were commemorated in a great triumph, and his ashes were placed in the base of his column. Trajan's reputation remained unimpaired, in spite of the ultimate failure of his last campaigns. Early in his principate, he had unofficially been honored with the title optimus, "the best," which long described him even before it became, in 114, part of his official titulature. His correspondence with Pliny enables posterity to gain an intimate sense of the emperor in action. His concern for justice and the well-being of his subjects is underscored by his comment to Pliny, when faced with the question of the Christians, that they were not to be sought out, "nor is it appropriate to our age."

Denarius. IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM, laureate head right / P M TR P COS II P P, Vesta seated left, veiled, holding patera & torch. RSC 203.
1 commentsecoli
coin219.JPG
105. Marcus Aurelius41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

The joint succession may have been motivated by military exigency. During his reign Marcus Aurelius was almost constantly at war with various peoples outside the Empire. Germanic tribes and other peoples launched many raids along the long European border, particularly into Gaul — Germans, in turn, may have been under attack from more warlike tribes farther east. In Asia, a revitalized Parthian Empire renewed its assault. A highly authoritative figure was needed to command the troops, yet the emperor himself could not defend both fronts at the same time. Neither could he simply appoint a general to lead one assault; earlier popular military leaders like Julius Caesar and Vespasian had used the military to overthrow the existing government and install themselves as supreme leaders.

Marcus Aurelius solved the problem by sending Verus to command the legions in the East. He was authoritative enough to command the full loyalty of the troops, but already powerful enough that he had little incentive to overthrow Marcus. The plan succeeded — Verus remained loyal until his death on campaign in 169. This joint emperorship was faintly reminiscent of the political system of the Roman Republic, which functioned according to the principle of collegiality and did not allow a single person to hold supreme power. Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.

Virtus

In Roman mythology, Virtus was the god of bravery and military strength. His Greek equivalent was Arete. The word, "Virtus" is commonly used in mottos of universities and other entities.

Marcus Aurelius, as Caesar, Denarius. 155-156 AD. AVRELIVS CAES ANTON AVG PII F, bare head right / TR POT X COS II, Virtus, helmeted, standing left, holding parazonium & spear. RSC 703. RIC 468
ecoli
TrajSe45.jpg
106 AD: Annexation of Arabia by Trajan242 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (25,41g, 33mm, 6:30h). Rome mint. Struck AD 106-111.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate bust of Trajan facing right, draped over left shoulder
SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around edge] ARAB ADQVIS [in ex.] S C [in field] Arabia standing facing, with her head turned left and holding a branch and a bundle of cinnamon sticks. At her feet, a camel.
RIC 466 [scarce]; Cohen 32; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 102:46b
VF with beautiful smooth natural yellow brown river patina with minor adhesions
2 commentsCharles S
trajse18-2.jpg
106 AD: Trajan triumph in the second Dacian war222 viewsorichalcum sestertius (24.9g, 35mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 106-111.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V PP laureate bust of Trajan with aegis (note the detail of the Medusa head on Trajan's chest)
SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [/] S C [in field] Winged Victory standing right, holding shield insribed VIC DAC against a palm tree
RIC 528 [common]; C 454; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 101-31b
1 commentsCharles S
trajse23-2.jpg
109 AD: Improvement of the water supply of Rome under Trajan205 viewsOricalchum sestertius (24.4g, 33mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 110.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS V P P laureate head of Trajan right
AQVA / TRAIANA [in ex.] SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around edge] S C [left and right in ex.] River god reclining l. in arched grotto supported by two columns; left arm resting on urn; reed in right hand.
RIC 463 [S]; Cohen 20; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 103:53

This type celebrates the construction of the Aqua Traiana which was dedicated on 20 June 109 constructed to improve the water supply of Rome. A branch of the Anio Novus was carried over the valley between the Caelian and the Aventine.
A lofty arcade was built upon the 'agger' of Servilius Tullius and passing over the Via Appia and the Porta Capena to the Piscina Publica. Terra-cotta water pipes with the name of Trajan and a leaden pipe inscribed AQVA TRAIANA have been found in excavations.
Charles S
Trajse32-2.jpg
109 AD: Road construction by Trajan193 viewsorichalcum sestertius (26.3g, 33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 112-114.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DACPM TR P COS VI P P laureate draped bust of Trajan
VIA TRAIANA [in ex.] SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around] S C [below] woman reclining left holding a wheel and a branch
RIC 637 [S]; BMC 988; Foss (Roman Historical Coins): 103/54
ex CNG mail bid sale 57

This type records the construction of a road at the Emperor's expense in AD 109 from Beneventum to Brundisium.
1 commentsCharles S
RI_110b_img.jpg
110 - Saloninus, Antoninianus - RIC 03525 viewsObv:– P COR SAL VALERIANVS CAES, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– DII NVTRITORES, Jupiter presenting to prince a small Victory
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 257-258
Reference:– RIC 35. RSC 21.
maridvnvm
Trajse31-2.jpg
114 AD: Trajan's comprehensive political settlement in the East256 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (25.16g, 34mm, 6h) Rome mint. Struck AD 116.
IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC PARTHICO PM TRP COS VI PP laureate draped bust, rricht
REGNA ADSIGNATA / S C [in ex.] Trajan seated left on platform, prefect and soldier standing; three kings standing before
RIC 666 [R]; Cohen 325; BMC 1043; Foss (Roman Historic Coins) 104/67

Trajan assigns kingdoms to client princes in the East in AD 114. The three kings are presumably of Armenia, Mesopotamia and Parthia
4 commentsCharles S
Numerianus_AE-Ant_RIC-V-II-362_p-188_Rome_7th-off-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
114 Numerianus (283-284 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 362, Rome, -/-//KAΔ, PRINCIPI IVVENT, Numerian standing left,85 views114 Numerianus (283-284 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 362, Rome, -/-//KAΔ, PRINCIPI IVVENT, Numerian standing left,
avers:- M-AVR-NVM(M)ERIA(N)VS-C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. LEGEND ERROR !!!.
revers:- PRINCIPI-IVVENT, Numerian standing left, holding wand and scepter.
exerg: -/-//KAΔ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, 7th officinae, date: 283-284 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 362, p-188,
Q-001
quadrans
Numerianus_AE-Ant_M-AVR-NVMERIANVS-NOB-C_PRINCIPI-IVVENTVT_KAS_RIC-V-II-363_p-188_Rome_2nd-off_282-AD_Q-001_1h_21,5mm_4,06g-s.jpg
114 Numerianus (283-284 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 363, Rome, -/-//KAS, PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian standing left,154 views114 Numerianus (283-284 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 363, Rome, -/-//KAS, PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian standing left,
avers:- M-AVR-NVMERIANVS-NOB-C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- PRINCIPI-IVVENTVT, Numerian standing left, holding Globe and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//KAS, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 4,06g, axes: 1h,
mint: Rome, 2nd. officinae, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 363, p-188,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_V-II_366A_Numerianus,_Ticinum,_AE-Ant,_M_AVR_NVMERIANVS_NOB_C,_PRINCIPI_IVVE_NTVT,_VXXI,_2nd__em,_282_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_22,5-24mm,_3,96g-s.jpg
114 Numerianus (283-284 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 366A, Ticinum, -/-//VXXI, PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian standing left, #164 views114 Numerianus (283-284 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 366A, Ticinum, -/-//VXXI, PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian standing left, #1
avers: M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: PRINCIPI IVVE NTVT, Numerian standing left, holding wand and scepter.
exergue: -/-//VXXI, diameter: 22,5-24,0mm, weight: 3,96g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 2nd. emission, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 366A,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_V-II_158C_Carinus_AE-Ant_M-AVR-CARINVS-NOB-CAES_PRINCIP-I-IVV-ENTVT_EKA_RIC-V-II-158C_p-158-1st-emiss_Rome_282-AD_Q-001_11h_20-21mm_3,08g-s.jpg
115 Carinus (282-283 A.D. Caesar 283-285 A.D. Augustus), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 158C, Rome, -/-//EKA, PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Prince standing left, #184 views115 Carinus (282-283 A.D. Caesar 283-285 A.D. Augustus), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 158C, Rome, -/-//EKA, PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Prince standing left, #1
avers: M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers: PRINCIP I IVV ENTVT, Prince standing left holding ensign and scepter.
exerg: -/-//EKA, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 3,08g, axes:11h,
mint: Rome, 2nd. emiss, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 158C, p-158,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_V-II_158C_Carinus,_AE-Ant,_M_AVR_CARINVS_NOB_CAES,_PRINCI_PI_IV_VENTVT,_EKA,_p-158-2nd_-emiss_Rome_282-AD_Q-002_6h_21,5-22,5mm_3,52ga-s.jpg
115 Carinus (282-283 A.D. Caesar 283-285 A.D. Augustus), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 158C, Rome, -/-//EKA, PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Prince standing left, #297 views115 Carinus (282-283 A.D. Caesar 283-285 A.D. Augustus), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 158C, Rome, -/-//EKA, PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Prince standing left, #2
avers: M AVR CARINVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers: PRINCI PI IV VENTVT, Prince standing left holding ensign and scepter.
exerg: -/-//EKA, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 3,52g, axes:6h,
mint: Rome, 2nd. emiss, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 158C, p-158,
Q-002
quadrans
RIC_V-II_197F_Carinus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-CARINVS-NOB-C-(F)_PRINCIP-I-IVVENT_T_XXI_RIC-V-II-197v_-p-162-2nd-emiss_Siscia_282-AD_Q-001_5h_20,5-22mm_3,49g-sx~0.jpg
115 Carinus (282-283 A.D. Caesar 283-285 A.D. Augustus), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 197F, Siscia, -/T//XXI, PRINCIPI IVVENT, Carinus standing left, #1107 views115 Carinus (282-283 A.D. Caesar 283-285 A.D. Augustus), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 197F, Siscia, -/T//XXI, PRINCIPI IVVENT, Carinus standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-CARINVS-NOB-C, Radiate and cuirassed bust right (F).
revers: PRINCIP-I-IVVENT, Carinus standing left with Baton and Spear. "T" in the right field.
exerg: -/T//XXI, diameter: 20,5-22mm, weight: 3,49g, axes: 5h,
mint: Siscia, 2nd.em., date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II-197F, p-162,
Q-001
quadrans
hadrian_RIC42.jpg
117-138 AD - HADRIAN AR denarius - struck 118 AD52 viewsobv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG (laureate bust right, cuirassed, draped far shoulder)
rev: P M TR P COS II (Justice is seated on the curule chair, as on a tribunal: with the insignia of the hasta pura and the extended patera she displays her care for religion), IVSTITIA in ex.
ref: RIC II 42, RSC 877
mint: Rome
3.25gms, 19mm

Rare cuirassed bust, RIC not describes (c - not in RIC). Unfortunately the reverse is burned, but still valuable.
The reverse perhaps refer to the edictum perpetuum or Pretorian edict, what was an annual declaration made by the praetor urbanus in which he laid out the principles by which he would exercise his jurisdiction for his year in office. Under Hadrian, the edict became fixed and unchangeable.
And there's an other fact that can refer this reverse. When Hadrian arrived in Rome in July 118 to a hostile reception on the part of the senate, because of the death of the four consulars. The four men were Cornelius Palma, governor of Syria, Avidius Nigrinus, governor of Dacia, Publilius Celsus and Lusius Quietus, governor of Judaea, they were all Trajan's men, and their elimination certainly made Hadrian's course easier. But an Emperor had right everytime, and he was the justice.
berserker
Maximianus_AE-Ant_Q-005_h_mm_g-s.jpg
120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Alexandria, RIC VI 046b, AE-Ant., B//ALE, CONCORDIA MILITVVM, Emperor and Jupiter,89 views120a Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Alexandria, RIC VI 046b, AE-Ant., B//ALE, CONCORDIA MILITVVM, Emperor, and Jupiter,
avers: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: CONCORDIA MI LITVM, Prince standing right on left, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter to right, holding scepter.
exergue: B//ALE, diameter: 21,5-22mm, weight: 3,20g, axes: 6h,
mint: Alexandria, date: , ref: RIC VI 046b, ,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
121f.jpg
121f Constantine I. AE follis 3.4gm17 viewsobv: CONSTA_NTINVS AVG laur. helm. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICT.LAETAE PRINC PERP/ two victories std. facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR, I in alter
ex: .BSIS.
hill132
121h.jpg
121h Constantine I. AE follis 3.1g16 viewsobv: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG laur. helm. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP two victories std. facing together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR S in alter
ex: (delta)SIS.
hill132
121l.jpg
121l Constantine I. AE follis 3.4gm20 viewsobv: IMP CONSTANTIVS PF AVG helm. and cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP two Victories holding shield inscribe VOT/PR alter below
ex: BSIS*
hill132
121p.jpg
121p Constantine I. AE follis 3.0gm28 viewsobv: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG helm. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP two victories holding shield inscribe VOT/PR, * in alter
ex: ASIS
hill132
121u.jpg
121u Constantine I. AE follis 2.4gm25 viewsobv: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG laur. helm. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP two victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR * in alter
ex: STR
1 commentshill132
126d.jpg
126d Crispus. AE follis 3.3gm22 viewsobv: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB C rad. cuir. bust r.
rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP two victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR
ex: C//PT
hill132
1305_-1306_Edward_I_LONDON_PENNY.JPG
1272 - 1307, EDWARD I, AR Penny, Struck 1305 - 1306 at London, England14 viewsObverse: + EDWAR ANGL DNS HYB. Crowned bust of Edward I facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Undated Penny, type 10cf1
Diameter: 18.5mm | Weight: 1.2gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 1410

Edward I began a major recoinage in 1279 which consisted not only of pennies and new round half-pennies and farthings, but also introduced a new denomination, a fourpenny piece called the "Groat".

Edward I was King of England from 1272 – 1307. He was the eldest surviving son of Henry III and Eleanor of Provence. The contests between his father and the barons led by Simon de Montfort called Edward early into active life when he restored the royal authority within months by defeating and killing de Montfort at the battle of Evesham in 1265. He then proceeded to Palestine, where no conquest of any importance was achieved. After further campaigns in Italy and France he returned to England on his father's death and was crowned at Westminster Abbey in 1274.
Edward was popular because he identified himself with the growing tide of nationalism sweeping the country, displayed later in his persecution and banishment of the Jews which was the culmination of many years of anti-semitism in England.
Edward now turned his attention to the mountainous land to the west which had never been completely subdued. So, following a revolt in the Principality of Wales against English influence, Edward commenced a war which ended in the annexation of the Principality to the English Crown in 1283. He secured his conquest by building nine castles to watch over it and created his eldest son, Edward the Prince of Wales in 1301.
Edward's great ambition, however, was to gain possession of Scotland, but the death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, who was to have been married to Edward's son, for a time frustrated the king's designs. However the sudden death of the King of Scotland, Alexander III, and the contested succession soon gave him the opportunity to intervene. He was invited by the Scots to arbitrate and choose between the thirteen competitors for the Scottish throne. Edward's choice, John Balliol, who he conceived as his puppet, was persuaded to do homage for his crown to Edward at Newcastle but was then forced to throw off Edward's overlordship by the indignation of the Scottish people. An alliance between the French and the Scots now followed, and Edward, then at war with the French king over possession of Gascony, was compelled to march his army north. Edward invaded Scotland in 1296 and devastated the country, which earned him the sobriquet 'Hammer of the Scots'. It was at this time that the symbolic Stone of Destiny was removed from Scone. Edward's influence had tainted Balliol's reign and the Scottish nobility deposed him and appointed a council of twelve to rule instead. Balliol abdicated and was eventually sent to France where he retired into obscurity, taking no more part in politics. Scotland was then left without a monarch until the accession of Robert the Bruce in 1306.
Meanwhile Edward assumed the administration of the country. However the following summer a new opposition to Edward took place under William Wallace whose successes, notably at Stirling Bridge, forced Edward to return to Scotland with an army of 100,000 men. Although he defeated Wallace's army at Falkirk, and Wallace himself was betrayed, Edward's unjust and barbaric execution of him as a traitor in London made Wallace a national hero in Scotland, and resistance to England became paramount among the people. All Edward's efforts to reduce the country to obedience were unravelling, and after the crowning of Robert Bruce, Earl of Carrick, as Robert I of Scotland in 1306 an enraged Edward assembled another army and marched yet again against the Scots. However, Edward only reached Burgh-on-Sands, a village near Carlisle, when he died. His body was taken back to London and he was buried at Westminster Abbey.
Edward I was married twice: to Eleanor of Castile, by whom he had sixteen children, and Margaret of France by whom he had three. Twelve memorials to his first wife stood between Nottingham and London to mark the journey taken by her funeral cortege. Three of those memorials, known as “Eleanor Crosses”, can still be seen today at Geddington, Hardingstone near Northampton and Waltham Cross. London's Charing Cross is also named after one, but the original was demolished in 1647 and the monument seen there today is a Victorian replica.
1 comments*Alex
12a-Constantine-Rom-350a.jpg
12a. Constantine: Rome follis.19 viewsFollis, Oct. 312 - 313, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI / Legionary eagle between two vexilla.
Mint mark: RQ
3.83 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #350a; PBCC #470; Sear #16128.
Callimachus
12c-Constantine-Ost-094.jpg
12c. Constantine: Ostia follis.23 viewsFollis, Oct 312 - May 313, Ostia mint.
Obverse: IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI / Legionary eagle between two vexilla.
Mint mark: MOSTT
3.49 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #94; PBCC #631; Sear #16129.
Callimachus
Trajan 1.jpg
13 Trajan32 viewsDenarius. 103-111 AD. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate head right, draped far shoulder / COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory standing left, naked to hips, holding wreath & palm. RSC 74., RIC 128, BMC 328.

mix_val
Trajan_Legionary_RIC_294~0.jpg
13 Trajan RIC 29542 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD. Ar Denarius. Rome Mint. 112-114 AD. Obv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC PM TR P COS VI PP, Laureate draped bust right. Rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Legionary eagle between standard and vexillum.
BMC 458 ; RIC 295; RSC 577
3 commentsPaddy
trjd3.jpg
130 Trajan 56 viewsTrajan Denarius. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder / COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Arabia standing left, holding a branch and a bundle of canes, camel at feet. RIC 142, RSC 89.4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
tj1.jpg
130 Trajan 32 viewsTrajan Denarius. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate bust right, draped far shoulder / COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC, Aequitas seated left holding cornucopiae & scales. Ref Trajan AR Denarius, RIC 119, RSC 86, BMC 2882 commentsRandygeki(h2)
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)93 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.57 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxHercRIC5iiRome.jpg
1302a, Maximian, 285 - 305, 306 - 308, and 310 A.D.47 viewsMaximianus AE Antoninianus. RIC V Part II 506 Bust Type C. Cohen 355; VF; Minted in Rome A.D. 285-286. Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right; Rverse: IOVI CONSERVAT AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding thunderbolt & scepter, XXIZ in exergue. Ex maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Max.jpg
1302b, Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great (Siscia)55 viewsMaximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D., commemorative issued by Constantine the Great. Bronze AE3, RIC 41, VF, Siscia, 1.30g, 16.1mm, 0o, 317-318 A.D. Obverse: DIVO MAXIMIANO SEN FORT IMP, laureate and veiled head right; Reverse: REQVIES OPTIMO-RVM MERITORVM, Emperor seated left on curule chair, raising hand and holding scepter, SIS in exergue; scarce (R3).


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maximian, 285-305, 306-308, and 310 A.D.

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Perhaps born ca. 249/250 A.D. in Sirmium in the area of the Balkans, Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Maximianus Herculius (Maximian), had been a soldier before he put on the purple. A fellow soldier with the Emperor Diocletian, he had served in the military during the reigns of Aurelian and Probus.

When the Emperor Diocletian determined that the empire was too large for one man to govern on his own, he made Maximian his Caesar in 285/6 and elevated him to the rank of Augustus in perhaps the spring of 286. While Diocletian ruled in the East, Maximian ruled in the West. In 293, in order to maintain and to strengthen the stability of the empire, Diocletian appointed Constantius I Chlorus to serve Maximian as a Caesar in the West, while Galerius did the same job in the East. This arrangement, called the "Tetrarchy", was meant not only to provide a stronger foundation for the two emperors' rule, but also to end any possible fighting over the succession to the throne once the two senior Augusti had left the throne--a problem which had bedeviled the principate since the time of the Emperor Augustus. To cement the relationship between Maximian and his Caesar, Constantius married Maximian's elder daughter Theodora. A decade later, Constantius' son Constantine would marry Maximia's younger daughter Fausta.

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximian, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple. Their resignations seem largely due to the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian seems to have forced his colleague to abdicate. In any case, Herculius had sworn an oath at the temple of Capitoline Jupiter to carry out the terms of the abdication. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Diocletian's retirement was at Salonae in Dalmatia, while Herculius' retreat was either in Lucania or Campania.

Maximian's retirement, however, was of short duration because, a little more than a year later on 28 October 306, his son Maxentius was proclaimed emperor at Rome. To give his regime an aura of legitimacy, Maximian was forced to affirm his son's acclamation. When Galerius learned of Maxentius' rebellion, he sent Severus against him with an army that had formerly been under his father's command. Maxentius invested his father with the purple again to win over his enemy's troops, a ruse which succeeded. Perhaps to strengthen his own position, in 307 Maximian went to Gaul and married his daughter Fausta to Constantine. When Constantine refused to become embroiled in the civil war between Galerius and Maxentius, Maximian returned to Rome in 308 and attempted to depose his son; however, he did not succeed. When Maximian was unable to convince Diocletian to take up the purple again at a meeting in Carnuntum in late 308, he returned to his son-in-law's side in Gaul.

Although Maximian was treated with all of the respect due a former emperor, he still desired to be more than a figurehead. He decided to seize the purple from Constantine when his son-in-law least expected it. His opportunity came in the summer of 310 when the Franks revolted. When Constantine had taken a small part of his army into enemy territory, Maximian proclaimed himself again emperor and paid the soldiers under his command a donative to secure their loyalty. As soon as Constantine received news about Maximian's revolt in July 310, he went south and reached Arelate before his father-in-law could mount a defense of the city. Although Maximian fled to Massilia, his son-in-law seized the city and took Maximian prisoner. Although he was deprived of the purple, he was granted pardon for his crimes. Unable to endure the humiliation of his defeat, he attempted to have Constantine murdered in his bed. The plot failed because he tried to get his daughter Fausta's help in the matter; she chose to reveal the matter to her husband. Because of this attempt on his son-in-law's life Maximian was dead by the end of July either by his own hand or on the orders of his intended victim.

Eutropia was of Syrian extraction and her marriage to Maximian seems to have been her second. She bore him two children: Maxentius and Fausta. An older daughter, Theodora, may have been a product of her first marriage. Fausta became the wife of Constantine I , while her sister Theodora was the second spouse of his father Constantius I Chlorus . Eutropia apparently survived all her children, with the possible exception of her daughter Fausta who seems to have died in 326. Eutropia is also said to have become a Christian.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Edward_II_AR_Penny_Bury_St_Edmunds.JPG
1307 - 1327, EDWARD II, AR Penny, Struck 1307 at Bury St. Edmunds, England2 viewsObverse: + EDWAR R ANGL DNS hYB. Crowned and draped bust of Edward II facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattee in legend.
Reverse: VILL SCI EDMVNDI. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of inner circle.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.37gms | Die Axis: 12
Rare mint
SPINK: 1465

Class 11c penny with angular backs to C and E's in legends.

Edward II was born on 25 April 1284, the fourth son of Edward I of England and when Edward I died in July 1307 Edward II became king because his three elder brothers were already dead. Edward II was the first English prince to hold the title prince of Wales, which was bestowed on him by his father in 1301.
Unfortunately Edward II had few of the qualities that made a successful medieval king. He surrounded himself with favourites, the best known being Piers Gaveston who he recalled from exile, Edward I having banished him to France due to his bad influence on his son. Furthermore, Edward II gave Gaveston the earldom of Cornwall, a title which had previously only been conferred on royalty.
Opposition to the king and his favourite began almost immediately, and in 1311 the nobles issued the 'Ordinances', in an attempt to limit royal control of finance and appointments. Gaveston was twice exiled at the demand of the barons, only for him to return to England shortly afterwards. However, in 1312, he was captured by the barons and executed.
In 1314, Edward invaded Scotland where he was decisively defeated by Robert the Bruce at Bannockburn. So bad was this for Edward's rule that by the following year parts of England had fallen into anarchy and power was in the hands of the barons headed by Edward's cousin Thomas of Lancaster, who had virtually made himself the real ruler of England.
By 1318, Edward and Lancaster had been partly reconciled, but the king now had two new favourites, Hugh le Despenser and his son. When Edward supported the two Despensers' ambitions in Wales the barons banished both father and son. This prompted Edward to fight back and he defeated Lancaster at Boroughbridge in March 1322, Lancaster was executed him and the Despensers were called back to Edward's court.
But now, Edward's wife, Isabella of France, emerged as a focus of opposition. In 1325, she was sent on a diplomatic mission to France where she met and became the mistress of Roger Mortimer, an exiled opponent of Edward. In September 1326, Isabella and Mortimer invaded England. There was virtually no resistance and the Despensers were captured and executed. Defeated, Edward was made to renounce the throne in favour of his son Edward who was crowned Edward III in January 1327.
Edward II was imprisoned at Berkeley Castle and later murdered there.
*Alex
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
RI 132um img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 318 Bust type C (Ticinum) (PTI)46 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear
Rev:– PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Probus standing left holding globe and spear
Minted in Ticinum (//PTI) Emission 1 Officina 1. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 318 Bust type C (Rare)
maridvnvm
Licinius-l__IMP-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_R-Q_RIC-VI-349c-p-390_Rome_3a-B_312-13-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_21-24mm_3,85g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 349c, -/-//R Q, AE-2 Follis, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Standard,198 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 349c, -/-//R Q, AE-2 Follis, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Standard,
avers:- IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Three standards surmounted by hand, eagle and wreath.
exerg: -/-//R Q, diameter: 21-24mm, weight: 3,85g, axes: 5h,
mint:Rome , date: 312-313A.D., ref: RIC-VI-349c, p-390,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-l__AE-3-silvered_IMP-LIC-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP__-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-62-p-433-r4-2-B5_319-AD-Siscia_Q-002_axis-1h_19-20mm_3,11g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 062, -/-//Δ SIS •, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R4!!!, #1167 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 062, -/-//Δ SIS •, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R4!!!, #1
avers:- IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, 2, B5, Laureate and cuirassed bust right, .
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on altar.
exergo: -/-//Δ SIS •, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,11g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-62, p-433, r4, altar typ: ?,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-l__AE-3-silvered_IMP-LIC-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP___SIS_RIC-VII-62-p-433-r4-2-B5_C-_-AD-Siscia_Q-001_axis-6h_19-20mm_3,46g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 062, -/-//εSIS•, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R4!!!, #272 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 062, -/-//εSIS•, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R4!!!, #2
avers:- IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, 2, B5, Laureate and cuirassed bust right, .
revers:- VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on altar.
exergo: -/-//εSIS•, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-62, p-433, r4, altar typ: a?,
Q-002
quadrans
Edward_III_AR_Penny.JPG
1327 - 1377, EDWARD III, AR Penny, Treaty Period, struck 1361 – 1369 at London, England7 viewsObverse: + EDWARDVS REX ANGLI. Crowned bust of Edward III facing within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross dividing legend into quarters, trefoil and annulet in each quarter of inner circle.
This coin was struck during the period of the Treaty of Brétigny under which Edward III renounced his claim to the French throne.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.0gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 1630

Edward III was King of England from January 1327 until his death. He is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. During his long reign Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His reign also saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, though it also saw the ravages of the Black Death.
Edward was crowned at the age of fourteen after his father was deposed by his mother, Isabella of France, and her lover Roger Mortimer. But at the age of seventeen he led a successful coup d'état against Mortimer, whom he executed, and began his personal reign.
In 1337, after a successful campaign in Scotland, Edward declared himself the rightful heir to the French throne which started what was to become known as the Hundred Years' War. Following some initial setbacks, the first part of this war went exceptionally well for England, the victories at Crécy and Poitiers led to the highly favourable Treaty of Brétigny in which, though Edward renounced his claim to the French throne, England made great territorial gains. However Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.
Around 29 September 1376 Edward fell ill with a large abscess and, after a brief period of recovery, the king died of a stroke at Sheen on 21 June. He was succeeded by his ten-year-old grandson, King Richard II, since the Black Prince, Edward's son and Richard's father, had predeceased Edward on 8 June 1376.
2 comments*Alex
133_Licinius_II_,_Siscia_RIC_VII_098,_AE-3,_IMP_LICINIVS_IVN_NOB_C,_VICT_LAETAE_PRINC_PERP,_ASIS_star,__317-24_AD,R3_Q-001,_7h,_18,5-19mm,_2,92g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 098, -/-//ASIS*, AE-3 Follis, VICT LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories, VOT/PR, R3!!!105 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 098, -/-//ASIS*, AE-3 Follis, VICT LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories, VOT/PR, R3!!!
avers: LICINIVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VICT LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar decorated with a letter I.
exergue: -/-//ASIS*, diameter:18,5-19,0mm, weight:2,92g, axis:7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 317-324 A.D., ref: RIC VII 098, R3!!!
Q-001
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Licinius-II__AE-Follis-Sivered_LICINIVS-IVN-NOB-C_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_T-T_VOT_PR_C_RIC-VII-94-p-373_Ticinum_319-AD_R4_Q-001_6h_18-18,4mm_2,98g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 094, C//TT, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield, VOT/PR, R4!!!103 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 094, C//TT, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield, VOT/PR, R4!!!
avers: LICINIVS IVN NOB C, 6a, B4, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT PR over altar with C inscribed, T T in exergue.
exergo: C//TT, diameter:19-20mm, weight:2,34g, axis:1h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-094, p-373, R4!!!
Q-001
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RI_136p_img.jpg
136 - Numerian Ant. - RIC 356 Bust Type C (As Caesar) 18 viewsObv:– M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Prince standing left holding globe and inverted spear
Minted in Lugdunum (Retrograde C in left field) Emission 4 Officina 3. 1st Quarter A.D. 283
References:– Cohen 72. RIC V part 2 356 Bust Type C. Bastien 517 (6 examples)
Martin Griffiths
136_Constantinus_I__Lugdunum_RIC_VII_079,_AE-Follis_CONS_TANTINVS_AVG,_VICTORIAE_LAET_PRINC_PERP,_P-captives-L,_320-AD,_Q-001,_h,_18-19mm,_g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Lugdunum, RIC VII 079, AE-2 Follis, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, 2 Victories, standing, 120 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Lugdunum, RIC VII 079, AE-2 Follis, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, 2 Victories, standing,
avers:- CONS TANTINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust right wearing a high-crested helmet.
revers:- VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, 2 Victories, standing, facing each other, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR in two lines over the plain altar.
exerg: -/-//P-left-facing seated captive-right facing seated captive L., diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 320 A.D., ref:RIC VII 079, p-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I_AE-2-Folis_IMP-CONSTANTINVS-PF-AVG_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_R-Q_RIC-VI-349a-p-390_Rome_312-13AD_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 349a, AE-2 Follis, -/-//RQ, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Legionary eagle between two vexilla,62 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 349a, AE-2 Follis, -/-//RQ, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Legionary eagle between two vexilla,
avers:- IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust right.
revers:- S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Legionary eagle between two vexilla.
exe: -/-//RQ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 312-13 A.D., ref: RIC VI 349a, p-390,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I_AE-2-Folis_IMP-CONSTANTINVS-PF-AVG_S-P-Q-R-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_R-S_RIC-VI-350a-p-390_Rome_312-13AD_Q-001_axis-6h_21,5-23,5mm_4,07g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 350a, AE-2 Follis, -/-//RS, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Legionary eagle between two vexilla,198 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC VI 350a, AE-2 Follis, -/-//RS, S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Legionary eagle between two vexilla,
avers:- IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate draped bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Legionary eagle between two vexilla.
exe: -/-//RS, diameter: 21,5-23,5mm, weight: 4,07g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date: 312-13 A.D., ref: RIC VI 350a, p-390,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-3-Silv_IMP-CONSTANTINVS-PF-AVG-_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-_VOT-PR_ESISstar_RIC-VII-47-p-431-alt-typ-w_Siscia_318-AD_R4_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 047, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ESIS*, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R4!!!65 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 047, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ESIS*, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R4!!!
avers:- IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, 1a, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, D6, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus, altar type-w.
exergo: -/-//ESIS*, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 318 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-47, p-431, altar typ:w, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-3-Silv_IMP-CONSTANTINVS-P-F-AVG(1b,D6)_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_BSIS_RIC-VII-53-p-431-alt-typ-u_Siscia_318-9AD_R1_Q-001_7h_18-19mm_3,22g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 053, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS, VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, R1, #188 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 053, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS, VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, R1, #1
avers:- IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, 1b, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, D6, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus.
exergo: -/-//BSIS, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,22g, axis:7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VII 53, p431, altar typ: u, R1,
Q-001
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Constantinus-I__AE-3-silvered_IMP-CONST-ANTINVS-AVG_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-VOT_PR_A-SIS_RIC-VII-54-p-431-1c-D6_C-x_Siscia_318-319-AD__altar-l_Q-001_axis-7h_19mm_2,99g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 054, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIS, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, 109 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 054, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIS, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP,
avers:- IMP CONS TANTINVS AVG, 1c, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, D6, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus.
exergo: -/-//ASIS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,99g, axis:7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VII 54, p431, T-A, altar typ: l,
Q-001
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Constantinus-I__AE-3-Silvered_IMP-CONS-TANTINVS-AVG_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-VOT_PR_A-SIS_RIC-54_C-x_Siscia_318-319-AD__Q-001_19mm_3,88g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 054v, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIS, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, 178 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 054v, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ASIS, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP,
avers:- IMP CONS TANTINVS AVG, 1c, D6, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus.
exergo: -/-//ASIS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,88g, axis:1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VII 54var, S-T Not in RIC, p-431, altar typ: x,
Q-001
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Constantinus-I__AE-3_IMP-CONSTANT-INVS-AVG-1c_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-H11l__VOT-PR_Delta-SIS_RIC-VII-55-p-432_Altar-type-x_Siscia_318-9-AD_Rx_Q-001_6h_17-19,5mm_2,97g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 055v, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSIS, Not in RIC this Officina-Δ !!!, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Rare !!!81 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 055v., AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSIS, Not in RIC this Officina-Δ !!!, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Rare !!
avers:- IMP CONS TANT INVS AVG, 1c, H11l., High-crested helmeted, cuirassed bust right, spear across right shoulder.
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus.
exergo: -/-//ΔSIS, diameter: 17-19,5mm, weight: 2,97g, axis:6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VII 55var., T-I, Not in RIC this Officina-Δ, p-432, altar typ: x,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Constantinus-I_AE-3-Silvered_IMP-CONS-TANTINVS-AVG-1a_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-D6_VOT-PR_Delta-SIS-Dot_RIC-059-altar-typ-x_Siscia_319-AD_R2_Q-001_axis-1h_18,5-19,5mm_3,04g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 059, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSIS•, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R2!!,120 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 059, AE-3 Follis, -/-//ΔSIS•, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R2!!,
avers:- IMP CONS TANTINVS AVG, 1a, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, D6, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus.
exergo: -/-//ΔSIS•, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,04g, axis:1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC VII 59, p431, altar typ: x,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTANT-INVS-AVG_VICT_LAETAE-PRINC-CAES_VOT-PR-I_B-SIS-star_RIC-VII-95-p-436-1-H12_Siscia_2th_-off__319-20-AD_R3_Q-001_axis-h_19mm_x,xxg-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 095, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS*, VICT•LAETAE PRINC PERP, R3!!!133 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 095, AE-3 Follis, -/-//BSIS*, VICT•LAETAE PRINC PERP, R3!!!
avers:- IMP CONS TANTINVS AVG, 1,H12-l, High crested, helmeted,cuirassed head left, spear across right shoulder, shield on left arm.
rever:- VICT•LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus, I on altar.
exergo: -/-//BSIS*, diameter: xxmm, weight: x,xxg, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 319-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 95, p436, altar I,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-3-Silvered_IMP-CONSTAN-TINVS-MAX-AVG-_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-D6_VOT-PR_P-T_C-in-altar_RIC-VII-082-p-372_Ticinum_319-AD_R1_Q-002_0h_17-17,5mm_3,94g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VII 082, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PT, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, R1!!,74 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VII 082, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PT, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, R1!!,
avers:- IMP CONSTAN TINVS MAX AVG, 1a,D6, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus, nothing in altar.
exergo: -/-//PT, diameter: 17-17,5mm, weight: 3,94g, axis: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-082, p-372, nothing in altar, R1!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-3-Silvered_IMP-CONSTAN-TINVS-MAX-AVG-_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-D6_VOT-PR_P-T_C-in-altar_RIC-VII-082-p-372_Ticinum_319-AD_R1_Q-003_6h_17-18mm_3,21gx-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VII 082, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PT, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, R1!!, #365 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VII 082, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PT, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, R1!!, #3
avers:- IMP CONSTAN TINVS MAX AVG, 1a,D6, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus, nothing in altar.
exergo: -/-//PT, diameter: 17-18mm, weight: 3,21g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-082, p-372, nothing in altar, R1!!,
Q-003
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-3-Silvered_IMP-CONSTANT-INVS-AVG-1b_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-H11l__VOT-PR_P-T_RIC-VII-83-p-372-_Ticinum_318-319-AD_R2_Q-001_11h_17,5-18mm_3,41g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VII 083, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PT, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, R2!!,68 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VII 083, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PT, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, R2!!,
avers:- IMP CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1b,H11l., High-crested helmet, cuirassed bust left, holding spear across the right shoulder.
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus, altar.
exergo: -/-//PT, diameter: 17,5-18mm, weight: 3,41g, axis: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-083, p-372, , R2!!,
Q-001
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Constantinus-I__AE-3-Silvered_IMP-CONSTAN-TINVS-MAX-AVG-_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-D6_VOT-PR_P-T_C-in-altar_RIC-VII-090-p-373_Ticinum_319-AD_R2_Q-001_axis-6h_18mm_3,53g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VII 090, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PT, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, R2!!,123 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VII 090, AE-3 Follis, -/-//PT, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, R2!!,
avers:- IMP CONSTAN TINVS AVG, 1a, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus, C in altar.
exergo: -/-//PT, diameter: 18mm, weight: 3,53g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-090, p373, C in altar, R2!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AE-3-Silvered_CONS-TANTINVS-MAX-AVG-1c_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-D6_VOT-PR_STR_-p-183-star_in_altar_Trier_319-AD_R3_Q-001_axis-0h_16,5-17mm_2,61g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 216, AE-3 Follis, -/-//STR, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R3!!!79 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII 216, AE-3 Follis, -/-//STR, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R3!!!
avers:- IMP CONS TANTINVS AVG, 1c, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right.
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP,D6, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on cippus, star in altar.
exergo: -/-//STR, diameter: 17mm, weight: 2,61g, axis: 0h,
mint: Trier, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-216, p183, * in altar, R3!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Constantinus-I__AR-Argenteus_IMP-CONSTANTI-NVS-AVG_VICTORIA-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP-VOT_PR_PTR_RIC-not_C-not_Trier_318-319-AD__Q-001_19mm_2,73g-s.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII ???, AR-Argenteus, -/-//PTR, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Not in RIC !!!161 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Trier, RIC VII ???, AR-Argenteus, -/-//PTR, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, Not in RIC !!!
avers:- IMP CONSTANTI NVS AVG, bust l., high-crested helmet, cuir., dr., spear across r. shoulder..
rever:- VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories stg. facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar. PTR in exergue.
"UNLISTED ISSUE. This issue is listed erroneously in RIC VII as regular follis (TRIER 208A, p. 181), but in fact it is "billon argenteus" (c. 25% of silver) and belongs to the group of TREVERI 825-826 in RIC VI. Note that only PTR mark is correct, because of only one officina working at that time at Treveri. Note also that the bust type is similar to H11 from RIC VII, but there are also a few differences: bust is usually larger, half-length, and could be described as cuirassed and draped. Coin should be listed after TREVERI 826. See: Bastien, P., "L’émission de monnaies de billon de Treves au début de 313", Quaderni Ticinesi (Numismatica e Antichità Classiche) 1982, XI, p. 271-278. See: CORRIGENDA, VOL. VII, p. 181, CORRIGENDA, VOL. VI, p. 224" by Lech Stepniewski, in "Not in RIC" , thank you Lech Stepniewski,
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/notinric/6tre-826.html
exergo: -/-//PTR, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,73g, axis: h,
mint: Trier, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC VI Trier 825-6?, RIC VI, "TREVERI [after 826], CONSTANTINE I, UNLISTED ISSUE" by Lech Stepniewski,
Q-001
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RI 137h img.jpg
137 - Carinus - RIC V part II Lugdunum 150 Bust Type C17 viewsObv:– CARINVS NOBIL CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Prince standing left holding globe and inverted spear
Minted in Lugdunum (Retrograde C in left field). Emission 4, Officina 3. 1st Quarter A.D. 283
Reference:– Cohen 92. Bastien 516 (9 examples cited). RIC 150 Bust type C
maridvnvm
RI 137i img.jpg
137 - Carinus - RIC V part II Lugdunum 152 Bust Type C9 viewsObv:– CARINVS NOBIL CAES, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SAECVLI FELICITAS, Prince standing right holding spear and globe
Minted in Lugdunum (D in right field). Emission 4, Officina 4. 1st Quarter A.D. 283
Reference:– RIC 152 Bust type C
maridvnvm
137-C1 VLLP Lyons, RIC 79.JPG
137-C1 VLLP Lyons, RIC 7941 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Lyons mint, 320 AD.
Obv: CONSTANTINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust right, wearing high crested helmet.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
P(two captives)L in exergue.
Lyons mint, RIC 79.
18mm, 2.5 gm.
jdholds
Richard_II_halfpenny.JPG
1377 - 1399, Richard II, AR Halfpenny struck at London, England6 viewsObverse: + RICARD : REX : ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Richard II within circle of pellets. Cross pattée in legend.
Reverse: CIVITAS LONDON. Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Type II, intermediate style, lombardic n's in 'LONDON'
Diameter: 13mm | Weight: 0.55gms | Die Axis: 1
SPINK: 1699 | North: 1331b

Richard II was King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Edward III's heir, Edward the Black Prince, was Richard's father but he died in 1376, leaving Richard as heir apparent. When Edward III died the following year, the 10-year-old Richard succeeded to the throne.
During Richard's first years as king the government was in the hands of a series of regency councils which were under the control of Richard's uncles John of Gaunt and Thomas of Woodstock. England then faced various problems, most notably the Hundred Years' War. Another major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, a crisis which the young king played a central part in suppressing.
Richard sought to restrain the power of the aristocracy and this caused so much discontent that, in 1387, a group of aristocrats known as the Lords Appellant took control of the government. But by 1389 Richard had regained control and for the next eight years governed in apparent harmony with his former opponents. However, in 1397, Richard took his revenge on the Appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who he had previously exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV.
Henry had agreed to let Richard live after his abdication but this all changed when Henry discovered that Lord Despenser, the earls of Huntingdon, Kent and Salisbury, and possibly also the Earl of Rutland, who had all been demoted from the ranks they had been given by Richard, were conspiring to murder him and restore Richard to the throne. Although averted, the plot highlighted the danger of allowing Richard to live and he is reported to have been starved to death in captivity in Pontefract Castle on or around 14 February 1400.
Richard's body was then taken south from Pontefract and displayed in the old St Paul's Cathedral, London until the 6th of March after which it was taken for burial in King's Langley Priory, Hertfordshire. Sometime later, by the order of King Henry V, Richard's body was moved from the Priory to Westminster Abbey.
1 comments*Alex
antpius as-concordia.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE as - struck 140-143 AD62 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS III (laureate head right)
rev: CONCORDIA EXERCITVM / S.C. (Concordia standing left, holding Victory and aquila)
ref: RIC III 678, C.140 (2frcs)
10.26gms, 26mm

This reverse symbolises the concord between the emperor and the army. The reign of Antoninus Pius was the most peaceful in the entire history of the Principate; while there were several military disturbances throughout the Empire in his time, the Moors in Mauretania (AD150), the Jews in Iudaea (for seventeen years the Romans didn't allow the Jews to bury their dead in Betar, after the Bar Kokhba revolt), the Brigantes in Britannia (AD 140-145, the Antonine Wall being built ca. 40 miles further north), the different Germanic tribes at the Germania limes, the Alans in Dacia (AD158), and had to put down rebellions in the provinces of Achaia and Egypt (AD154).
berserker
138-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 48.JPG
138-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 4833 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Siscia mint.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
(gamma) SIS in exergue.
Siscia mint, RIC 48.
20mm, 2.2 gm.
jdholds
drusus as.jpg
14-37 AD - DRUSUS memorial AE As - struck under Tiberius (23 AD)50 viewsobv: DRVSVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N (bare head left)
rev: PONTIF TRIBVN POTEST ITER around large S-C
ref: RIC I 45 (Tiberius), C.2 (2frcs)
10.14gms, 29mm

Drusus (also called Drusus Junior or Drusus the Younger), the only son of Tiberius, became heir to the throne after the death of Germanicus. One of his famous act connected to the mutiny in Pannonia, what broke out when the death of Augustus (19 August 14) was made known. Drusus left Rome to deal with the mutiny before the session of the Senate on the 17 September, when Tiberius was formally adopted him as princeps. He have reached the military camp in Pannonia in the time for the eclipse of the moon in the early hours of the 27 September wich so daunted the mutineers. He was also governor of Illyricum from 17 to 20 AD. Ancient sources concur that Livilla, his wife poisoned him.
berserker
140-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 55.JPG
140-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 5561 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, 319-320 AD
Obv: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust left wearing high crested helmet and holding spear.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar.
BSIS in exergue. Siscia mint
19mm, 3.1 gm.
RIC 55
2 commentsjdholds
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
ConstansVot.jpeg
1405a, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Alexandria)39 viewsBronze AE 4, RIC 37, gVF, Egypt, Alexandria, 1.54g, 15.0mm, 180o, 345-347 A.D. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed head right; Reverse: VOT XX MVLT XXX in wreath, SMALA• in exergue.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion UniversityPublished: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Constans.jpg
1405n, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Siscia)56 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 241, S 3978, VM 69, VF, Siscia, 2.32g, 18.3mm, 180o. Obverse: D N CONSTANS P F AVG, pearl diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Phoenix radiate, standing on rocky mound, GSIS and symbol in ex; nice green patina.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1OVDKUXTA.jpeg
1405t, Constans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D. (Thessalonica )39 viewsConstans, 9 September 337 - 19 January 350 A.D., Bronze AE 3, unattributed; Thessalonica mint, 2.25g, 18.9mm, 0; aVF.

Flavius Julius Constans, third and youngest son of Constantine I and Fausta, was born between 320 and 323 A.D. Primary sources for the life and reign of Constans I are scarce. To reconstruct his life and career, one must draw on a variety of references in both fourth century and later works. Raised as a Christian, he was made a Caesar on 25 December 333 A.D. Constans I and his two brothers, after the death of their father on 22 May 337 and the subsequent "massacre of the princes" in which many other relatives were purged, met in the first part of September 337 in Pannonia to re-divide the empire among themselves. There they were acclaimed Augusti by the army. Constans' new realm included Italy, Africa, Illyricum, Macedonia, and Achaea. Shortly before his father's death, Constans' engagement to Olympias, the daughter of the Praetorian Prefect Ablabius, was announced; although the match was never solemnized because of political reasons.

It would appear that Constans was successful in the military sphere. Following his accession to the purple in 337, he seems to have won a victory over the Sarmatians. In 340 Constans was able to beat back an attempt by his brother Constantine II to seize some of his realm. The latter died in a battle fought near Aquileia and Constans absorbed his late brother's territory. In 341 and 342 he conducted a successful campaign against the Franci. He also visited Britain in 343, probably on a military campaign.

As an emperor Constans gets mixed reviews. In what may be a topos, sources suggest that the first part of his reign was moderate but in later years, however, he became overbearing. The emperor apparently attempted to obtain as much money as he could from his subjects and sold government posts to the highest bidder. His favorites were allowed to oppress his subjects. Sources also condemn his homosexuality. He did have some military success and, in addition to other military threats, he had to deal with Donatist-related bandits in North Africa.

Like his father Constantine I and his brother Constantius II, Constans had a deep interest in Christianity. Together with Constantius II he issued (or perhaps re-issued) a ban against pagan sacrifice in 341. The next year, they cautioned against the destruction of pagan temples. Unlike his brother Constantius II, who supported the Arian faction, he stood shoulder to shoulder with Athanasius and other members of the Orthodox clique. In fact, it is due to his request that the Council of Serdica was called to deal with the ecclesiastical squabble between Athanasius of Alexandria and Paul of Constantinople on one side and the Arian faction on the other.

When Magnentius was declared emperor in Gaul during January 350, Constans realized his reign was at an end. When he learned of the revolt, he fled toward Helena, a town in the Pyrenees. Constans was put to death by Gaeso and a band of Magnentius' assassins, who dragged their victim from a temple in which he had sought refuge.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University and Robert Frakes, Clarion University.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
Lugdunum_RIC_VII_074,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES-5b-B4_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_2capts_p127_R3_319-20-AD_Q-001_18mm_2_59ga-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 074, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,105 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 074, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,
avers:- DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES, 5b,B4, Laurate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo.
exergo: -/-//two captives back, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,59g, axis:11h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 319-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-74, p127, R4, altar mint: d,
Q-001
quadrans
Lugdunum_RIC_VII_075,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES-5b-B5_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_2captives_p127_R4_319-320-AD_Q-001_0h_18mm_2_91ga-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 075, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,107 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 075, AE-3 Follis, -/-//two captives back, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R4!!!,
avers:- DN-CRISPO-NOB-CAES, 5b,B5, Laurate, curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo.
exergo: -/-//two captives back, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,91g, axis: 0h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 319-320 AD., ref: RIC-VII-075, p-127, R4, altar mint: c,
Q-001
quadrans
Lugdunum_RIC_VII_086,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_CRISPVS-NOB-CAES-_VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_P-2captives-L_-p-128_R5_320-AD_Q-001_7h_17-19mm_2,74g-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 086, AE-3 Follis, -/-//P-two captives back-L, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R5 !!!,115 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VII 086, AE-3 Follis, -/-//P-two captives back-L, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R5 !!!,
avers:- CRISPVS-NOB-CAES, 5b,B4, Laurate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar two captives back in exergo and P-L.
exergo: -/-//P-two captives back-L, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,74g, axis:7h,
mint: Lugdunum, (Lyon), date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-86, p-128, R5 !!!, altar mint: e,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Ticinum_RIC_VII_093,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C-5-C3_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_C_PT_p-373_R3_319-AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 093, AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #187 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 093, AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #1
avers:- FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C,, 5,C3, Radiate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar, C on altar.
exergo: C//PT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-093, p-373, altar mint: C, R3!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Ticinum_RIC_VII_093,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C-5-C3_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_VOT-PR_C_PT_p-373_R3_319-AD_Q-002_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 093, AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #285 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 093, AE-3 Follis, C//PT, VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two victories facing one another, R3!!!, #2
avers:- FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-C,, 5,C3, Radiate, draped and curiassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAET-PRINC-PERP, Two victories facing one another, holding shield inscribed VOT/PR over altar, C on altar.
exergo: C//PT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-093, p-373, altar mint: C, R3!!!
Q-002
quadrans
Treveri_RIC_VII_139,_142_Crispus_AE-3-Follis_FL-IVL-CRISPVS-NOB-CAES-5b-B4_PRINCIPI-I-VVENTVTIS_T-F_BTR_p175_317-AD_Q-001_5h_19,5-20,5mm_3_27g-s.jpg
142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Treveri, RIC VII 139, AE-3 Follis, T/F//BTR, PRINCIPI•I VVENTVTIS, Crispus, laureate, in military dress right, #1113 views142 Crispus (317-326 A.D.), Treveri, RIC VII 139, AE-3 Follis, T/F//BTR, PRINCIPI•I VVENTVTIS, Crispus, laureate, in military dress right, #1
avers:- FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES (5b,B4), Laureated, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- PRINCIPI•I VVENTVTIS, Crispus, laureate, in military dress, cloak spread, standing right holding transverse spear and globe.
exerg: T/F//BTR, diameter: 19,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,27g, axis: 5h,
mint: Treveri, date: 317 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-139, p-175,
Q-001
quadrans
142-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 47.JPG
142-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 4729 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Siscia mint. 318 AD
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
BSIS* in exergue.
Siscia mint, RIC 47.
20mm, 2.8 gm.
jdholds
144-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 190.JPG
144-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 190-227 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Arelate mint, 319 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PARL in exergue.
Arelate mint, RIC 190.
18mm, 2.6 gm.
jdholds
Constantinus-II__AE-3-Follis_CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C(7,C2)_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_VOT_PR_C_PT_RIC-VII-95_1st-off_Ticinum_319-AD_R4_Q-001_11h_18,5mm_3,11g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VII 095, AE-3 Follis, VOT/PR/C//PT, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two Victories standing facing, R4!109 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Ticinum, RIC VII 095, AE-3 Follis, VOT/PR/C//PT, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two Victories standing facing, R4!
avers:- CONSTANTINVS-IVN-NOB-C-(7-C2), Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP, Two Victories standing facing each other, holding a shield inscribed VOT/PR on a cippus, "C" on altar.
exe: VOT/PR/C//PT, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,11g, axis: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 319A.D., ref: RIC-VII-95, p-373, R4!
Q-001
quadrans
James_III_AE_Crux_Pellit_Threepenny_Penny.JPG
1460 – 1488, JAMES III, AE Threepenny Penny struck c.1470–1480 at an unidentified mint, Scotland6 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ‡ DEI ‡ GRA ‡ REX ‡ . Orb with rosette at centre, tilted upwards, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Reverse: + CRVX ‡ PELLIT ‡ OIE ‡ CRI (Crux pellit omne crimen = The cross drives away all sin). Latin cross within quatrefoil with trefoils on cusps, within pelleted circle. Cross hummetty in legend.
Diameter: 20mm | Weight: 1.9gms | Die Axis: 9
SPINK: 5311 Type III
Very Rare

Once regarded as Ecclesiastical and connected to Bishop James Kennedy of St Andrews by earlier scholars, these coins are now, after extensive research in the second half of the twentieth century by J E L Murray of the British Numismatic Society, believed to have been a regal issue whose place of mintage has not as yet been certainly identified. During his reign James III took an interest in the coinage and introduced several new denominations. The thistle-head made its first appearance as a Scottish emblem on coins during his reign and a further innovation of his coinage were coins bearing a likeness of the king himself in the new renaissance style which predated similarly styled English coins by several years.
The 'Crux pellit' coins are often known as ‘Crossraguel’ issues, so called after a hoard containing 51 of them was found in a drain at Crossraguel Abbey, Ayrshire in 1919. J E L Murray identified these coins with those referred to in contemporary documents as “three-penny pennies” or “Cochrane's Placks”, which appear to have been greatly devalued in 1482. Cochrane's Placks comes from Robert Cochrane, one of James III's main favourites. Cochrane played a major part in the government during the 1470's and he is said to have advised the king to debase the coinage in order to raise cash.

James III was crowned at Kelso Abbey in 1460 at the age of 9, he was the son of James II and Mary of Guelders. During his childhood, the government was led by successive factions until 1469 when he began to rule for himself. That same year he married Princess Margaret of Denmark. Margaret's father, King Christian I of Denmark and Norway was unable to raise the full amount of her dowry so pledged his lands and rights in Orkney and Shetland as security for the remainder. But Christian I was never able to redeem his pledge, and Orkney and Shetland have remained Scottish possessions ever since.
Soon after his marriage, James faced great difficulties in restoring a strong central government. His preference for the company of scholars, architects and artists coupled with his extravagance and partiality to favourites alienated him from the loyalty of his nobles. Even his own brothers, Alexander, Duke of Albany and John, Earl of Mar regarded him with jealousy verging on hatred. In 1479, James' brothers were arrested on suspicion of conspiring against the Crown. John Stewart, the Earl of Mar, died in suspicious circumstances, whilst Alexander Stewart, the Duke of Albany, escaped and fled to England.
The ever-present English threat had been temporarily solved by a truce with Edward IV in 1463 but James' estrangement from his brothers and a strong faction within the Scottish nobility led to the final loss of Berwick.
Although James had tried to settle his differences with Alexander, Duke of Albany, his brother again tried to take his throne in a coup after Edward IV recognised him as Alexander IV of Scotland in 1482. Some minor members of James III's household were hanged, including Robert Cochrane, the king's favourite. But James was removed to Edinburgh Castle where he survived and Alexander was exiled to France.
After his queen's death in 1486, James lived in increasing isolation amidst the growing resentment of the nobility. Finally, in 1488, the Scottish nobles seized James' eldest son, also called James, placed him at their head, and rose against the king. At the Battle of Sauchieburn, three miles from Stirling, James III, defeated, was thrown from his horse as he fled from the field. He was carried into a nearby cottage where he was set upon and stabbed to death.
James III was buried at Cambuskenneth Abbey near Stirling and his son, the figurehead of the revolt against him, was hailed as James IV.
1 comments*Alex
147-C1 VLLP London, RIC 158.JPG
147-C1 VLLP London, RIC 15825 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, London mint, 319-320 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Cuirassed bust left, wearing high crested helmet and carrying spear.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PLN in exergue.
London mint, RIC 158.
18mm, 2.9 gm.
jdholds
148-C1 VLLP , Arelate, RIC 190-2.JPG
148-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 190-323 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Arelate mint, 319 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PARL in exergue.
Arelate mint, RIC 190.
17mm, 3.7 gm.
jdholds
1488-1513_JAMES_IV_PLACK.JPG
1488 - 1513, James IV, Billon Plack (Groat), Struck 1488 - 1513 at Edinburgh, Scotland24 viewsObverse: + IACOBVS ★ 4 : DEI ★ GRACIA ★ REX ★ SCOTTO. Crowned shield bearing lion rampant within a tressure of four arcs, crown on each side of the shield and fleur-de-lis in all the spandrels. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Reverse: + VILLA ★ DE EDINBVRG. Floriate cross fourchée with a saltire in the centre. Crown in each quarter of the cross. Star stops and old English lettering in legend.
Type IV issue. Scarce
Diameter: 25mm | Weight: 2.4gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5352

James IV was the King of Scotland from June 1488 until his death in battle at the age of 40 on the 9th September, 1513.
James IV's mother, Margaret of Denmark, was more popular than his father, James III, and though somewhat estranged from her husband she raised their sons at Stirling Castle until she died in 1486. Two years later, a rebellion broke out, where the rebels set up the 15-year-old Prince James as their nominal leader. The rebels fought James III at the Battle of Sauchieburn where, on 11th June 1488, the king was killed. Prince James assumed the throne as James IV and was crowned at Scone on 24th of June. However he continued to bear an intense guilt for the indirect role which he had played in the death of his father.
James maintained Scotland's traditional good relations with France, and this occasionally created diplomatic problems with England, but James recognised nonetheless that peace between Scotland and England was in the interest of both countries, and established good diplomatic relations with England as well. First he ratified the Treaty of Ayton in 1497, then, in 1502 James signed the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with Henry VII which was sealed by his marriage to Henry's daughter Margaret Tudor the next year. Anglo-Scottish relations generally remained stable until the death of Henry VII in 1509.
James saw the importance of building a fleet that could provide Scotland with a strong maritime presence, he founded two new dockyards and acquired a total of 38 ships for the Royal Scots Navy. These including the “Great Michael” which, built at great expense, was launched in 1511 and was at that time the largest ship in the world.
When war broke out between England and France, James found himself in a difficult position as an ally by treaty to both countries. But relations with England had worsened since the accession of Henry VIII, and when Henry invaded France, James reacted by declaring war on England.
James sent the Scottish navy, including the “Great Michael”, to join the ships of Louis XII of France and, hoping to take advantage of Henry's absence at the siege of Thérouanne, he himself led an invading army southward into Northumberland. However, on 9th September 1513 at the disastrous Battle of Flodden James IV was killed, he was the last monarch in Great Britain to be killed in battle. His death, along with many of his nobles including his son the archbishop of St Andrews, was one of the worst military defeats in Scotland's history and the loss of such a large portion of the political community was a major blow to the realm. James IV's corpse was identified after the battle and taken to Berwick, where it was embalmed and placed in a lead coffin before being transported to London. Catherine of Aragon, wife of Henry VIII, sent the dead king's slashed, blood-stained surcoat to Henry, who was fighting in France, with the recommendation that he use it as a war banner.
James IV's son, James V, was crowned three weeks after the disaster at Flodden, but he was not yet two years old, and his minority was to be fraught with political upheaval.
2 comments*Alex
149-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-3.JPG
149-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-328 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3
Obv: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Helmeted, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
ST in exergue.
17mm , 3.5 gm.
RIC 82 , Ticinum.
jdholds
150-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-4.JPG
150-C1 VLLP Ticinum, RIC 82-422 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3
Obv: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Helmeted, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PT in exergue.
17mm , 3.0 gm.
RIC 82 , Ticinum.
jdholds
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)69 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)78 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
151-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 54.JPG
151-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 5429 viewsAE3, Siscia mint
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Helmeted ,Laureate, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing Shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar.
ASIS in exergue.
RIC54, R3
jdholds
152-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 54-2.JPG
152-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 54-227 viewsAE3, Siscia mint
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Helmeted ,Laureate, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing Shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar.
ESIS in exergue.
RIC54, R3
17mm , 3.3 gm.
jdholds
153-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 53.JPG
153-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 5325 viewsAE3, Siscia mint, 318-319 AD
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Helmeted ,Laureate, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing Shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar. 7W altar
ESIS in exergue.
RIC53, R3
18mm , 2.8 gm.
jdholds
154-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 53-2.JPG
154-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 53-222 viewsAE3, Siscia mint, 318-319 AD
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Helmeted ,Laureate, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing Shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar. 7W altar
ESIS in exergue.
RIC53, R3
17mm , 3.4 gm.
jdholds
1542_-1548_MARY_Queen_of_Scots_AR_Bawbee.JPG
1542 - 1567, Mary I “Queen of Scots”, AR billon Bawbee (sixpence), Struck 1542 - 1558 at Edinburgh, Scotland20 viewsObverse: +MARIA•D•G•R•SCOTORVM. Crowned thistle, M to left, R to right, beaded circles and legend surrounding. Greek cross in legend.
Reverse: OPPIDVM•EDINBVRGI, retrograde N in legend. Crown over voided saltire cross, cinquefoil on either side, beaded circles and legend surrounding, fleur-de-lis within legend above.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 1.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 5433

First period issue, before Mary's marriage to the French Dauphin, Francis. The cinquefoils refer to the Earl of Arran who acted as Regent until Mary came of age.

Mary I is one of the most well known, romantic and tragic figures in Scottish history. She was the only surviving child of King James V of Scotland and became queen on the death of her father when she was only six or seven days old. Mary was brought up in the Catholic faith and educated in France along with the French royal children, while Scotland was ruled in her name by regents, principally the Earl of Arran. In 1558 Mary married the French Dauphin, Francis, and following his accession in 1559 she became Queen consort of France and he King consort of Scotland. However, when Francis died in 1560 Mary was devastated and in 1561 she returned to Scotland. Four years later, in 1565, she married her half-cousin, Lord Darnley and the following year she bore him a son, who would later become James I of England. When in 1567, Darnley's house in Edinburgh was destroyed by an explosion and he was found murdered in the grounds, suspicion implicated Mary and her favourite, the Earl of Bothwell. When later that same year Mary married Bothwell those suspicions were not allayed, and following an uprising against her, she was imprisoned in Loch Leven Castle and forced to abdicate in favour of her one year old son. After an unsuccessful attempt to regain her throne and defeat at the battle of Langside in 1568, Mary fled south to England, only to be imprisoned by Elizabeth I who perceived her as a threat to the throne of England. For over eighteen years Elizabeth had Mary confined in various castles and manor houses throughout England until, in 1587, after being accused of numerous intrigues and plots against Elizabeth, Mary was beheaded at Fotheringhay Castle.
3 comments*Alex
155-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 191.JPG
155-C1 VLLP Arelate, RIC 19126 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Arelate mint, 319 AD.
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, helmeted, Cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing , placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
PARL in exergue.
Arelate mint, RIC 191.
19mm, 2.2 gm.
jdholds
156-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 54-2.JPG
156-C1 VLLP Siscia, RIC 54-326 viewsAE3, Siscia mint
Obv:IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, Helmeted ,Laureate, and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing Shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar.
ESIS in exergue.
RIC 54
17 mm, 2.9 gm.
jdholds
157-C1 VLLP Trier, RIC 221.JPG
157-C1 VLLP Trier, RIC 22122 viewsConstantine The Great, AE3, Trier mint
Obv: IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Helmeted, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on altar.
STR in exergue.
17mm , 3.3 gm.
RIC 221 , Trier
jdholds
RI_160ff_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - AE3 - RIC VII Ticinum 08727 viewsObv:- IMP CONSTAN-TINVS MAX AVG, Laureate helmeted cuirassed bust right
Rev:- VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT PR over Altar. Star on Altar
Minted in Ticinum, (//ST). A.D. 319
Reference:- RIC VII Ticinum 87 (Rated R4)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 160ab img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Arles 19439 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate, helmeted, and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two victories placing shield inscribed VOT P R on an altar
Minted in Arles, PARL in exe. A.D. 319
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 194 (R4) (SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160bs img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Lugdunum 06512 viewsObv:– CONS-TANTINVS AVG, High crested helemeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev:–. VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT P R on an altar
Minted in Lugdunum (//two captives). A.D. 321
Reference:– RIC VII 65 (R1). Bastien XI 3 (23 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 160l img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Siscia 05436 viewsObv:– IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Helmeted laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT P R on an altar
Minted in Siscia. ASIS in exe. A.D. 318-319
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 54 (SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 160f img.JPG
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VII Trier 21672 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, Laureate, helmeted, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other and holding a shield inscribed VOT | PR on altar inscribed with *.
Minted in Trier. STR in exe. A.D. 319
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 216 (R3) (SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI_165z_img.jpg
165 - Crispus - Follis - RIC VII Trier 141 16 viewsAE3
Obv:– FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Crispus standing right holding spear and globe
Minted in Trier (T | F //dot ATR).
Reference(s) – RIC VII Trier 141 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI 165g img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Lugdunum 08319 viewsObv:–DN CRISPO NOB CAES, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT PR on altar
Minted in Lugdunum (P Two bound captives L in exe). A.D. 320
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 83 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI 165k img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Lugdunum 08318 viewsObv:–DN CRISPO NOB CAES, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT PR on altar
Minted in Lugdunum (P Two bound captives L in exe). A.D. 320
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 83 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI 165c img.jpg
165 - Crispus - RIC VII Siscia 09720 viewsObv:– IVL CRISPVS NOB C, Laureate, cuirassed, draped, bust right
Rev:– VICT LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing shield inscribed VOT PR on altar, S inscribed on altar
Minted in Siscia. ESIS* in exe. A.D. 319 - 320
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 97 (R3)
(SOLD)
maridvnvm
166- Const II, VLLP , Lyons RIC 90-1.JPG
166- Const II, VLLP , Lyons RIC 90-120 viewsAE3 , 320 AD
Obv: DN CONSTANTINO IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on alter.
P(two captives) L in exergue,Lyons mint, RIC 90
18mm, 2.4 gm.
jdholds
commodus as-.jpg
166-177 AD - COMMODUS Caesar AE As - struck 175-176 AD49 viewsobv: COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM (draped bust right)
rev: SPES PVBLICA (Spes walking left holding flower & raising hem of skirt), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1544 (M.Aurelius), C.710
mint: Rome
8.92gms, 25mm
Scarce

Commodus is known to have been at Carnuntum, Marcus Aurelius’s headquarters during the Marcomannic Wars, in 172. It was presumably there that, on 15 October 172, he was given the victory title Germanicus in the presence of the army. The title suggests that Commodus was present at his father’s victory over the Marcomanni. Even the title of Sarmaticus he was given in 175.
During the preparations for the campaign against Cassius in Syria, the prince assumed his toga virilis on the Danubian front on July 7, 175, thus formally entering adulthood.
berserker
RI 168x img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Lugdunum 09021 viewsObv:– DN CONSTANTINO IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other and holding a shield inscribed VOT | PR on altar.
Minted in Lugdunum (C | R / P Two Captives L). A.D. 330-333
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 90 (R5). Bastien XIII 27 (15 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_168as_img.JPG
168 - Constantine II - RIC VII Trier 17330 viewsAe3
Obv:– FL CL CONSTANTINVS IVN N C, Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, The prince in military dress standing right with spear & orb
Minted in Trier (F | T /BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 173
1 commentsmaridvnvm
171- Crispus, VLLP, Siscia , RIC 87-1.JPG
171- Crispus, VLLP, Siscia , RIC 66-225 viewsAE3, Siscia mint, 319 AD
Obv:CRISPVS NOB CAES , Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing Shield inscribed VOT/PR on alter.
(gamma)SIS in exergue.
19mm , 4.0 gm.
jdholds
172- Crispus, VLLP, Siscia , RIC 97.JPG
172- Crispus, VLLP, Siscia , RIC 9718 viewsAE3, Siscia mint, 319-320 AD
Obv:IVL CRISPVS NOB C , Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICT LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing Shield inscribed VOT/PR on alter.
ASIS* in exergue.
RIC97
19mm , 2.7 gm.
jdholds
StUrbainLeopoldILorraineBridge.JPG
1727. Leopold I: Reconstruction Of The Bridge In The Forest Of Haye. 71 viewsObv: Leopold to right, in peruke, wearing armor and the Order of the Golden Fleece LEOPOLDVS. I. D.G. DVX. LOT. BAR. REX. IER
Rev: A traveling horseman going over bridge toward Abundance in countryside. In background landscape a herm of Mercury PROVIDENTIA. PRINCIPIS
Exergue: VIAE. MVNITAE MDCCXXVII Signed: SV.
AE64mm. Ref: Forrer V, p. 309, #6; Slg. Florange 171; Molinari 40/120; Europese Penningen # 1739

Leopold Joseph Charles (Leopold I) (1679-1729), Duke of Lorraine and Bar (1697), was the son of Charles V, Duke of Lorraine and Bar. This medal commemorates further the many reconstruction projects that Leopold I, Duke of Lorraine and Bar, fostered during his reign, in this case, the reconstruction of the bridge in the forest of Haye. The reverse alludes to the fact that the bridge increased commerce (Mercury) in Lorraine and led to more abundance for its inhabitants.
A herm, referred to in this medal, is a statue consisting of the head of the Greek god Hermes mounded on a square stone post. Hermes is the god of commerce, invention, cunning and theft, who also serves as messenger and herald for the other gods.
LordBest
173- Crispus, VLLP, Siscia , RIC 87-2.JPG
173- Crispus, VLLP, Siscia , RIC 8719 viewsAE3, Siscia mint, 319 AD
Obv:IVL CRISPVS NOB C , Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICT LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories placing Shield inscribed VOT/PR on alter.
BSIS in exergue.
RIC87
18mm , 2.6 gm.
jdholds
commodus_RIC74.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 183-184 AD34 viewsobv: M.COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS (laureate head right)
rev: TRP VIIII IMP VI COS IIII PP (Felicitas standing left holding caduceus & cornucopiae, modius at foot left)
ref: RIC III 74, RSC 445
3.01gms, 16mm

Commodus was inaugurated in 183 as consul (IV) with Aufidius Victorinus for a colleague and assumed the title 'Pius'. The adoption of the title Pius by Commodus looks like a direct appeal to the memory of the beloved Antoninus.
Felicity's image occurs on almost all the imperial series coins; because the senate professed to wish that all princes should consider it their duty to promote public happiness, and also because those princes themselves were peculiarly desirous of having it regarded as a blessing attached to their own reign.
berserker
1793_Newton_farthing.JPG
1793 AE Farthing, London, Middlesex.87 viewsObverse: Ic • NEWTON. Bare headed bust of Isaac Newton facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia, helmeted and draped, facing left seated on globe, shield at her side, holding olive-branch in her extended right hand and spear in her left; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “Plain".
Diameter : 21mm
Dalton & Hamer : 1160 | Cobwright : I.0010/F.0050 (listed as an evasion piece)

The die engraver for this token was most likely Thomas Wyon but the manufacturer is uncertain.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus and also made seminal contributions to optics. He built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.
Newton's “Principia” formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which came to dominate scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society and became Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He became Master of the Royal Mint in 1699 and was very instrumental in developing techniques to try and prevent the counterfeiting of English coinage.
*Alex
1794_Chichester___Portsmouth_Halfpenny.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester and Portsmouth, Sussex.29 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F•R•S PHILANTHROPIST•. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: CHICHESTER AND PORTSMOUTH • / HALFPENNY; Arms of the town of Portsmouth; the sun and moon over a triple-towered castle, with the arms of Chichester above the gateway below the central tower, 1794 in exergue.
Edge: PAYABLE AT SHARPS PORTSMOUTH AND CHALDECOTTS CHICHESTER.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 19

This token was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. The issuers of this token were John Chaldecott, a silversmith and cutler in Chichester and Thomas Sharp, a mercer in Portsmouth. Chaldecott was also a partner in the Chichester Old Bank and the Portsmouth, Portsea and Hampshire Bank. The two men were probably relations or close friends and they issued joint tokens in both Portsmouth and Chichester in the 18th century.

This token was struck in the name of John Howard who was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
ELIZABETH_I_1794.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Chichester, Sussex13 viewsObverse: QUEEN ELIZABETH •. Three-quarter facing crowned bust of Queen Elizabeth I right, sceptre resting on her right shoulder.
Reverse: CHICHESTER HALFPENNY •. View of Chichester Cross; in exergue, 1794.
Edge: PAYABLE AT DALLY'S CHICHESTER + + + +.
Diameter 29mm | Die Axis 6
Dalton & Hamer: 15

This token was manufactured by Peter Kempson in Birmingham and the dies were engraved by Thomas Wyon. Little is known about the issuer of the token, seemingly to have been Dally and Son who were drapers in Chichester in the 18th century.

Chichester Cross is an elaborate perpendicular market cross standing at the intersection of the four principal streets in the centre of the city of Chichester, West Sussex. According to the inscription upon it, this cross was built by Edward Story, Bishop of Chichester from 1477 to 1503, but little is known for certain and the style and ornaments of the building suggest that it may date from the reign of Edward IV. It was apparently built so that the poor people should have somewhere to sell their wares, and as a meeting point. An earlier wooden cross had been erected on the same site by Bishop Rede (1369-1385). The stone cross, which underwent repairs during the reign of Charles II and again in 1746, still stands to this day.
3 comments*Alex
1795_GLAMORGAN_HALF-PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Glamorgan, South Wales.63 viewsObverse: JESTYN • AP • GWRGAN • TYWYSOG • MORGANWG • 1091•. Crowned and robed bust of Jestyn ap Gwrgan facing left, wearing a small shield bearing the St George's cross suspended on a chain round his neck.
Reverse: Y • BRENHIN • AR • GYFRAITH •. Britannia facing left, seated on a globe, her right hand pointing to a ship, her left supporting a shield and a spear; behind her a cippus with a crown on top and a laurel branch leaning against it; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: "GLAMORGAN HALFPENNY" in raised letters, followed by three leaves.
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer:3b (Glamorganshire)

This token is thought to have been engraved and manufactured by John Stubbs Jordan, a Birmingham ironfounder for his father, William Jordan, who had returned to South Wales, possibly to Merthyr Tydfil. The Jordens were of Welsh descent and had come to Staffordshire earlier in the century. The father, William Jorden, a victualler from Weaman Street, Birmingham, retired and moved back to South Wales in the early 1780s and in 1794 his son, John Stubbs Jorden, who had remained back in Birmingham, made this Welsh token for his father as a private piece.
This is the only eighteenth century token with Welsh legends.

Jestyn ap Gwrgan, or Gwrgant, was the last Prince and Lord of Glamorgan of British blood. He was of the royal house of Morganwg, which had a lineage stretching back over five centuries to Tewdrig (c.550-584 C.E.). The members of this royal house had links to the other royal houses of Wales through marriage, and were descendants of the celebrated Rhodri Mawr. Jestyn ap Gwrgan's base is believed to have been at Dinas Powis, south of Cardiff. He probably ruled Glamorgan for a little less than a decade around 1081-1090 C.E.
The popular version of historical events is that Jestyn, following a dispute with his rival Einion ap Collwyn, invited the Norman ruler Robert Fitzhamon, lord of Gloucester, and his twelve knights into the region to settle the matter. Once invited in, the Normans refused to leave, Jestyn was deposed and Fitzhamon, having established a lordship based in Cardiff, subsequently conquered the lowlands of Glamorgan, which was parcelled out to his followers. The undesirable mountainous parts of Glamorgan Fitzhamon left in Welsh control. However this story, dating from at least the 15th century, where it touches known historical facts, is demonstrably wrong.
Nowadays there are many people living in South Wales with the surname of Williams who claim to be descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan. This is not impossible because Jestyn ap Gwrgan had a large family. Notable people who may have been descended from Jestyn ap Gwrgan are the Tudor Monarchs of England, Oliver Cromwell (whose real surname was Williams) and also, being of Welsh descent, Winston Churchill, Princess Diana and several Presidents of The United States of America.
1 comments*Alex
1795_John_Howard_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Portsmouth, Hampshire.71 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F.R.S. PHILANTHROPIST •. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦”
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 57b

The dies for this token were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
The Fitzwilliam Museum regards Liverpool as an alternative possibility for the place of issue.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

John Howard was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
1797_Halfpenny_Token_Middlesex_(Mule).JPG
1797 AE Halfpenny, Middlesex County.39 viewsObverse: FREDk. DUKE OF YORK. Bare headed bust of Frederick Augustus, Duke of York, facing right; HALFPENNY 1795 in two lines below.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia seated on globe facing left, left arm resting on shield and holding laurel-branch, right hand holding spear, ship's masts in front of her in background; 1797 in exergue.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 27mm | Die Axis: 6h | Obverse die flaw.
Dalton & Hamer: 990. Cobwright No: F.0010/R.0010. Not in Atkins.

Manufactured by William Lutwyche, Birmingham.
In the 18th century, token manufacturers often used their dies to their own advantage by striking “mules”, solely with the object of creating rare varieties which were sold to the collectors of the day.

Prince Frederick Augustus, Duke of York and Albany, was born on16th August 1763. He was the second eldest child, and second son, of King George III. Thrust into the British army at a very young age he was appointed a colonel by his father on 4th November 1780 when he was only 17 years old. He was created Duke of York and Albany on 27th November 1784.
On 26th May 1789 he took part a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him; Lennox missed and Prince Frederick honourably refused to return fire.
On 12th April 1793 he was promoted to a full general and sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent destined for the invasion of France. Frederick's command fought under extremely trying conditions and though he won several notable engagements, he was defeated at the Battle of Hondschoote in September 1793. Then, in the 1794 campaign, he was successful at the battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing later that month.
Promoted to the rank of field marshal, on 3rd April 1795 he became effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst and went with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. A number of disasters befell the allied forces however and, on 17th October, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar, by which the allied expedition withdrew after giving up its prisoners.
These military setbacks led to Frederick being mocked in the rhyme "The Grand Old Duke of York":
The grand old Duke of York,
He had ten thousand men.
He marched them up to the top of the hill
And he marched them down again.
And when they were up, they were up.
And when they were down, they were down.
And when they were only halfway up,
They were neither up nor down.
However, Frederick's experience in the Dutch campaign had demonstrated the numerous weaknesses of the British army after years of neglect so he carried through a massive programme of reform and he was the person most responsible for creating the force which served in the Peninsular War.
Frederick died of dropsy and apparent cardioid-vascular disease at the home of the Duke of Rutland on Arlington Street, London, on 5th January, 1827. After lying in state in London, his remains were interred in St. George's Chapel, at Windsor.
*Alex
17e-Constantine-Tre-209.jpg
17e. Constantine: Treveri.26 viewsAE3, 318-319, Treveri mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG / Helmeted and laureate bust of Constantine.
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP / Two Victories resting shield on altar. Shield is inscribed VOT P R.
Mint mark: STR
2.90 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #209; PBCC #188; Sear #16297.
Callimachus
17g-Constantine-Lon-156.jpg
17g. Constantine: London.18 viewsAE3, 318 - 320, Londinium mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG / Helmeted bust of Constantine facing left, spear across his left shoulder.
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP / Two Victories resting shield on altar. Shield is inscribed VOT P R.
Mint mark: PLN
2.95 gm., 17.5 mm.
RIC #156; PBCC #78; Sear unlisted.
Callimachus
17o-Crispus-Aqu-009.jpg
17o. Crispus: Aquileia.17 viewsAE3, 317, Aquileia mint.
Obverse: CRISPVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Crispus.
Reverse: PRINCIPIA IVVENTVTIS / Crispus standing, helmeted and in military dress, cloak over shoulder, resting his shield on ground, holding spear.
Mint mark: AQT
3.71 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #9; PBCC #748; Sear 16709.

The reverse legend of this coin is unique in all of Roman coinage. It can not be a simple spelling error -- PRINCIPIA (military headquarters) for PRINCIPI (Prince) -- because it exists on coins from several different mints. Thus it has got to be taken as referring to the military training given to Crispus and his commission to Gaul in 317 - 318.
Callimachus
Walthamstow_Brutus_Halfpenny.JPG
1809 - 1810 "BRUTUS" Undated AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.153 viewsObverse: BRUTUS. Bare head of Lucius Junius Brutus facing left.
Reverse: Britannia seated left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC (British Copper Company) on the ground below; all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm
Bowman: 24 | Withers: 621

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830).

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London. The copper was smelted in "Landore" near Swansea in South Wales and brought by barge around the south coast up the Thames and the Lea to the mill. The copper ingots were then rolled into thin sheets which were sent all over the country to be stamped into coins. The main purpose of the BCC would have been to sell its copper, whether in the form of tokens, or sheets of metal. These penny and half penny tokens were not issued exclusively for use in Walthamstow, the halfpennies in particular do not bear the name of a place where they could have been redeemed except the very tiny BCC found on the ground by Britannia's shield. The copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow were converted into a pumping station in the 1860s and were later incorporated, by Thames Water, into a large water treatment works.

Lucius Junius Brutus, one of the first two consuls of Rome, was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins, he thus became a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
Walthamstow_Mercury_Halfpenny.JPG
1809 - 1810 "MERCURY" Undated AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.65 viewsObverse: No legend. Head of Mercury wearing Petasus facing left, caduceus behind.
Reverse: Britannia seated left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC (British Copper Company) on the ground below; all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 28mm
Davis 36 | Coxall type 3

The principal die engraver was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). About 1796, Thomas went into business in Birmingham with his brother Peter as a general die-engraver. From 1800, he carried on his business from London, where he engraved many dies for tokens, and in 1816 he was appointed chief engraver of the seals. He died on 18th October, 1830.

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.
*Alex
Walthamstow_VINCIT_Halfpenny.JPG
1811 "VINCIT AMOR" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.38 viewsObverse: VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ 1811. Small laureate bust of Lucius Junius Brutus facing right.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC bottom right of shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter: 28mm.
Davis 17, Coxall type 10

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). It was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, erected copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

'Vincit amor patriæ' is a quotation from Virgil, though what Virgil wrote was vincet, in the future tense (Aeneid 6.823). The context is the visit of Aeneas to the underworld, where he sees a vision of the future of Rome, and the lines describe one of the first pair of consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins. So it appears that Lucius Junius Brutus was chosen for this token as a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
1811_Vincit_Large_head.JPG
1811 "VINCIT AMOR" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.32 viewsObverse: VINCIT AMOR PATRIÆ 1811. Large laureate bust of Lucius Junius Brutus facing right.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, BCC bottom right of shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Grained.
Die damage, a common feature of these tokens, is visible at 10 o'clock on the obverse.
Diameter: 28mm.
Davis 17

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). It was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, erected copper rolling mill buildings at Walthamstow beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.

'Vincit amor patriæ' is a quotation from Virgil, though what Virgil wrote was vincet, in the future tense (Aeneid 6.823). The context is the visit of Aeneas to the underworld, where he sees a vision of the future of Rome, and the lines describe one of the first pair of consuls, Lucius Junius Brutus, who was said to have killed two of his sons who were plotting to restore the monarchy of the Tarquins. So it appears that Lucius Junius Brutus was chosen for this token as a hero for patriotism and freedom.
*Alex
1812_HULL_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1812 AE Penny Token. Hull, Yorkshire.21 viewsObverse: No legend. View of Hull lead works with smoking chimneys in background; 1812 in exergue.
Reverse: PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENG.D OR HULL NOTES BY I.K.PICARD • around ONE PENNY / HULL / LEAD / WORKS in four lines with ornament below.
Edge: Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 7
Davis: 82

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday and it was manufactured by Edward Thomason.
The token was issued by John Kirby Picard, who had practised as an attorney-at-law in Trinity House-lane, become a barrister and been chosen as a Deputy-Recorder of Hull before he entered into the lead business of his father. He was a man of considerable wealth and frequently visited London on business and for pleasure. He mixed with the 'high' society of the period but became addicted to gambling. Picard used his tokens for the gambling parties he held in his house and after they gained the attention of the Prince Regent, the later George IV, he was invited to show them at court.
No mention of Picard has been found in any of the London Directories, but the 'London Gazette', on February 13th, 1827, announced that J. K. Pickard (sic), white lead merchant, Russell Street, Covent Garden, had been declared bankrupt. Picard died in reduced circumstances in 1843.

The legend “PAYABLE IN BANK OF ENGLAND NOTES” was placed on this token due to an Act of Parliament which was passed in 1809 requiring issuers of local tokens to meet claims for repayment in Bank of England notes. The government having seen the widespread use of private coinage in the form of tokens realised how much money was not being controlled by it, so by passing this act it effectively made these tokens into defacto currency.
*Alex
1813_Walthamstow_Halfpenny_Token.JPG
1813 "LION" AE Halfpenny, Walthamstow, Essex.31 viewsObverse: HALFPENNY. A lion walking left; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: Britannia seated facing left holding olive branch and trident, a shield at her side, small BCC below shield, all within an oak-wreath.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 28mm
Withers: 610

The principal die engraver for this token was Thomas Wyon the elder (1767–1830). About 1796, Thomas went into business in Birmingham with his brother Peter as a general die-engraver. From 1800, he carried on his business from London, where he engraved many dies for tokens, and in 1816 he was appointed chief engraver of the seals. He died on 18th October, 1830.

This token was issued by the British Copper Company, a Welsh based company who, in 1808, bought the Walthamstow site beside the River Lea. Walthamstow is now a suburb of north east London.
*Alex
1813_FLINT_LEAD_WORKS_PENNY.JPG
1813 AE Penny Token. Flint, Flintshire.22 viewsObverse: FLINT LEAD WORKS. View of the lead works, smoking away in full production; 1813 below in exergue.
Reverse: ONE POUND NOTE FOR 240 TOKENS • around ONE PENNY TOKEN in centre.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 34mm | Die Axis 6
Withers: 1313 | Davis: 12
SCARCE

The dies for this token were engraved by Thomas Halliday. The manufacturer of the token is unknown but it would in all probability have been struck in Birmingham. It was issued by George Roskell at the Flint Lead Works in Flintshire.

The Flint Lead Smelting Works was the only issuer of tokens in North Wales in the 19th century. The company produced lead from ore obtained from mines on the nearby Halkyn mountain. George Roskell (1777-1847) of Garstang, Lancashire, came to Flintshire as a shareholder in the Milwr Mine, and later became the senior partner in the Flint Smelting Works. In 1805, he married Mary Ann, only child of James Potts of Stokyn, near Holywell. His eldest son, George Potts Roskell succeeded to the Stokyn estate. In 1852 the Flint Lead Works became absorbed in the more extensive Alkali Works of Muspratt Bros. and Huntley, which by 1885 was one of the largest chemical works in Britain.

The town of Flint has its origins in the turbulent times of Edward I in the13th century when he invaded Wales for the complete subjugation of the Welsh princes and the people of Wales. Edward I picked the only suitable spot on the marshy shore, where an outcrop of rock jutted out some fifty yards into the river, on which to build the castle and town of Flint. The castle was built on the rock and joined by a drawbridge to the town. The town was built in the form of a Roman encampment, with a double ditch and earthen banks crowned by timber ramparts and four regular gates.
*Alex
1813_PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Hull, Yorkshire.32 viewsObverse: VIMIERA•TALAVERA•BADAJOZ•SALAMANCA•VITTORIA •. Bust of Duke of Wellington facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY TOKEN. Britannia seated on shield facing left, holding olive branch in her right hand and trident in left; 1813 in exergue.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 34mm
Withers:1507 | Davis Yorkshire No: 93 | Charlton No: WE-12
VERY RARE.

The inscription on the obverse of this token is a list of battles fought in the Peninsular War. The dies were engraved by Thomas Halliday (c.1780 – 1854) and the token was manufactured by Edward Thomason. The type was one of several issued by J.K.Picard in his “Peninsular” series which were struck for use by the Duke of Wellington's army in Portugal and Spain. These tokens bear the portrait of Wellington, who was a good friend of the Prince Regent, the future George IV, on the obverse.

This token was issued by John Kirby Picard, the owner of the Hull Lead Works. Picard spent a lot of his time in London and became friendly with the Prince of Wales' circle of aquaintances. He gambled heavily, and became bankrupt in 1827 after eventually gambling his fortune away. He died in reduced circumstances in 1843.
*Alex
EdwardVIIasPoW1874.JPG
1874. Edward VII, as Prince of Wales. Royal Horticultural Buildings. Taylor 180b105 viewsObv. Head of Edward left ALBERT EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES PRESIDENT, G MORGAN SC, on truncation BOEHM
Rev. The Royal Horticultural Buildings LONDON ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF ALL FINE ARTS INDUSTRIES AND INVENTIONS on scroll below central medallion MDCCCLXXIV

AE51. Taylor 180b.

This medal is arguably the most complex architectural medal ever undertaken, and in my opinion the most accomplished. The depth of view is truly astounding, though this does not come accross to well in the picture. The depiction of the buildings is used as the cover art of Taylor's "The Architectural Medal: England in the Nineteenth Century", British Museum Publication, 1978.

LordBest
Stotinka.jpg
1887-1918 AD - Ferdinand I - Bulgarian Stotinka101 viewsPrince: Ferdinand I (r. 1887-1918 AD (Tsar after 1908 AD))
Date: 1905 AD
Condition: Mediocre
Denomination: 1 Stotinka

Obverse: Cyrillic Legend
Bulgarian Coat of Arms.

Reverse: 1 STOTINKA (in Cyrillic) 1905 within wreath.

0.75g, 15.0mm, 180°
Pep
dime_1929_dr-martin_obv_03_rev_02.JPG
1929 Dime - Dark Toning7 views~
~~
USA, 1929 'Mercury Dime'. Struck at the Philadelphia Mint in Pennsylvania.
A gift from an elderly man I worked for who collected coins and was a professor of the classics at Princeton University. You can see quite a bit of good detail on this coin remaining, the dark toning kinda makes it less noticeable, but I really like this little guy!
~~
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rexesq
dime_1929_dr-martin_obv_02_rev_01_a.JPG
1929 Dime - Dark Toning5 views~
~~
USA, 1929 'Mercury Dime'. Struck at the Philadelphia Mint in Pennsylvania.
A gift from an elderly man I worked for who collected coins and was a professor of the classics at Princeton University. You can see quite a bit of good detail on this coin remaining, the dark toning kinda makes it less noticeable, but I really like this little guy!
~~
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rexesq
George-5_Farthing_1936.JPG
1936 GEORGE V AE FARTHING10 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1936 in exergue.
SPINK: 4061

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

Numismatic note
On January 20th 1936, King George V died, his death hastened by his physician who administered a lethal injection to him. George V was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII, but in December Edward signed an instrument of abdication and his brother, Prince Albert, became King, reigning as King George VI.
No coins were issued for Edward VIII, the types bearing the portrait of George V continued to be struck throughout 1936 and up until the coronation of George VI in 1937.
*Alex
PCrassusDenAmazon~0.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus17 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps; a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus34 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)
The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2~1.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus35 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
2 commentsBlindado
CaligulaAsVesta.jpg
1ao Caligula30 views37-41

As
Bare head, left, C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT
Vesta std, VESTA SC

RIC 38

The son of Germanicus, modern research suggests, was not as bad a ruler as history generally supposes, but the winners write the history, and Caligula had the dubious honor of being the first loser to die in the purple at the hand of assassins.

Suetonius recorded: Gaius Caesar (Caligula) was born on the 31st of August AD12, in the consulship of his father, Germanicus, and Gaius Fonteius Capito. The sources disagree as to his place of birth. Gnaeus Lentulus Gaetulicus claims it was Tibur (Tivoli), Pliny the Elder, says it was among the Treveri in the village of Ambitarvium, above Confluentes (the site of Koblenz) at the junction of the Moselle and Rhine. . . . His surname Caligula (‘Little Boot’) was bestowed on him affectionately by the troops because he was brought up amongst them, dressed in soldier’s gear.

Caligula accompanied his father, Germanicus, to Syria (in AD 19). On his return, he lived with his mother, Agrippina the Elder until she was exiled (in 29 AD), and then with his great-grandmother Livia. When Livia died (in 29 AD), he gave her eulogy from the rostra even though he was not of age. He was then cared for by his grandmother Antonia the Younger, until at the age of eighteen Tiberius summoned him to Capreae (Capri, in AD 31). On that day he assumed his gown of manhood and shaved off his first beard, but without the ceremony that had attended his brothers’ coming of age.

On Capraea, though every trick was tried to lure him, or force him, into making complaints against Tiberius, he ignored all provocation, . . . behaving so obsequiously to his adoptive grandfather, Tiberius, and the entire household, that the quip made regarding him was well borne out, that there was never a better slave or a worse master.

Even in those days, his cruel and vicious character was beyond his control, and he was an eager spectator of torture and executions meted out in punishment. At night, disguised in wig and long robe, he abandoned himself to gluttony and adulterous behaviour. He was passionately devoted it seems to the theatrical arts, to dancing and singing, a taste in him which Tiberius willingly fostered, in the hope of civilizing his savage propensities.

And came near to assuming a royal diadem at once, turning the semblance of a principate into an absolute monarchy. Indeed, advised by this that he outranked princes and kings, he began thereafter to claim divine power, sending to Greece for the most sacred or beautiful statues of the gods, including the Jupiter of Olympia, so that the heads could be exchanged for his own. He then extended the Palace as far as the Forum, making the Temple of Castor and Pollux its vestibule, and would often present himself to the populace there, standing between the statues of the divine brothers, to be worshipped by whoever appeared, some hailing him as ‘Jupiter Latiaris’. He also set up a special shrine to himself as god, with priests, the choicest sacrificial victims, and a life-sized golden statue of himself, which was dressed each day in clothes of identical design to those he chose to wear.

He habitually committed incest with each of his three sisters, seating them in turn below him at large banquets while his wife reclined above. . . . His preferred method of execution was by the infliction of many slight wounds, and his order, issued as a matter of routine, became notorious: ‘Cut him so he knows he is dying.’
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NervaAsLibertas.jpg
1bb Nerva27 views96-98

As
Laureate head, right, IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II
Liberty stg, LIBERTAS PVBLICA SC

The perfect propaganda reverse for the successor to a tyrant. I guess he had a nose for these things.

RIC 86

Eutropius recorded: IN the eight hundred and fiftieth year from the foundation of the city, in the consulship of Vetus and Valens, the empire was restored to a most prosperous condition, being committed, with great good fortune, to the rule of meritorious princes. To Domitian, a most murderous tyrant, succeeded NERVA, a man of moderation and activity in private life, and of noble descent, though not of the very highest rank. He was made emperor at an advanced age, Petronius Secundus, the praefect of the praetorian guards, and Parthenius, one of the assassins of Domitian, giving him their support, and conducted himself with great justice and public spirit.1 He provided for the good of the state by a divine foresight, in his adoption of Trajan. He died at Rome, after a reign of one year, four months, and eight days, in the seventy-second year of his age, and was enrolled among the gods.
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TrajanSestCeres~0.jpg
1bc Trajan48 views98-117

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP
Roma and kneeling Dacian, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC

RIC 485

Eutropius enthused: To [Nerva] succeeded ULPIUS CRINITUS TRAJANUS, born at Italica in Spain, of a family rather ancient than eminent for his father was the first consul in it. He was chosen emperor at Agrippina, a city of Gaul. He exercised the government in such a manner, that he is deservedly preferred to all the other emperors. He was a man of extraordinary skill in managing affairs of state, and of remarkable courage. The limits of the Roman empire, which, since the reign of Augustus, had been rather defended than honourably enlarged, he extended far and wide. He rebuilt some cities in Germany; he subdued Dacia by the overthrow of Decebalus, and formed a province beyond the Danube, in that territory which the Thaiphali, Victoali, and Theruingi now occupy. This province was a thousand miles in circumference.

He recovered Armenia, which the Parthians had seized, putting to death Parthamasires who held the government of it. He gave a king to the Albani. He received into alliance the king of the Iberians, Sarmatians, Bosporani, Arabians, Osdroeni, and Colchians. He obtained the mastery over the Cordueni and Marcomedi, as well as over Anthemusia, an extensive region of Persia. He conquered and kept possession of Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Babylon, and the country of the Messenii. He advanced as far as the boundaries of India, and the Red Sea, where he formed three provinces, Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia, including the tribes which border on Madena. He afterwards, too, reduced Arabia into the form of a province. He also fitted out a fleet for the Red Sea, that he might use it to lay waste the coasts of India.

Yet he went beyond his glory in war, in ability and judgment as a ruler, conducting himself as an equal towards all, going often to his friends as a visitor, either when they were ill, or when they were celebrating feast days, and entertaining them in his turn at banquets where there was no distinction of rank, and sitting frequently with them in their chariots; doing nothing unjust towards any of the senators, nor being guilty of any dishonesty to fill his treasury; exercising liberality to all, enriching with offices of trust, publicly and privately, every body whom he had known even with the least familiarity; building towns throughout the world, granting many immunities to states, and doing every thing with gentleness and kindness; so that during his whole reign, there was but one senator condemned, and he was sentenced by the senate without Trajan's knowledge. Hence, being regarded throughout the world as next to a god, he deservedly obtained the highest veneration both living and dead. . . .

After having gained the greatest glory both in the field and at home, he was cut off, as he was returning from Persia, by a diarrhoea, at Seleucia in Isauria. He died in the sixty-third year, ninth month, and fourth day of his age, and in the nineteenth year, sixth month, and fifteenth day of his reign. He was enrolled among the gods, and was the only one of all the emperors that was buried within the city. His bones, contained in a golden urn, lie in the forum which he himself built, under a pillar whose height is a hundred and forty-four feet. So much respect has been paid to his memory, that, even to our own times, they shout in acclamations to the emperors, "More fortunate than Augustus, better than Trajan!"
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TrajanDupColumn.jpg
1ca Conquests of Trajan: Dacia10 viewsTrajan
98-117

Dupondius

Portrait, right, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP
Trajan's column, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC

Trajan's Column records the military history of the emperor's conquest of Dacia in 104.

RIC 603
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TrajanDenArabia.jpg
1cb Conquests of Trajan: Arabia9 viewsTrajan
98-117

Denarius

Portrait, right, IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P
Arabia and camel, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI

Trajan annexed the Nabatean kingdom of Petra in 106.

RIC 245

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MaximusSestPrinc.jpg
1ci Maximus15 viewsCaesar 235-238

Sestertius

Bare-headed draped bust, right, MAXIMVS CAES GERM

Maximus stg. w/ spear & rod, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS SC

Son of Maximinus, he died with dad.

RIC 13
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PhilipIIAntPrinc.jpg
1cp Philippus II20 views247-249

Antoninianus

Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right, M IVL PHILIPPUS CAES
Attendant leaning on spear behind Philip II standing right holding globe, PRINCIPI IVVENT

RIC 217
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TrebGallusAEVim.jpg
1cu Trebonianus Gallus24 views251-253

AE Viminacium

Laureate, draped bust, right, IMP C GALLVS P FELIX AVG
Moesia standing facing, head left, hands outstretched over a bull and a lion at her sides, PMS COL VIM

Moushmov 56

For Gallus' perfidy against Decius, see the Decius entry. Zosimus reports regarding Gallus' reign: Gallus, who declared his son Volusianus his associate in the empire, published an open declaration, that Decius and his army had perished by his contrivance. The Barbarians now became more prosperous than before. For Callus not only permitted them to return home with the plunder, but promised to pay them annually a sum of money, and allowed them to carry off all the noblest captives; most of whom had been taken at Philippopolis in Thrace.

Gallus, having made these regulations, came to Rome, priding himself on the peace he had made with the Barbarians. And though he at first spoke with approbation of Decius's mode of government, and adopted one of his sons, yet, after some time was elapsed, fearing that some of them who were fond of new projects might recur to a recapitulation of the princely virtues of Decius, and therefore might at some opportunity give the empire to his son, he concerted the young man's destruction, without regard either to his own adoption of him, or to common honour and justice.

Gallus was so supine in the administration of the empire, that the Scythians in the first place terrified all the neighbouring nations, and then laid waste all the countries as far by degrees as the sea coast; not leaving one nation subject to the Romans unpillaged, and taking almost all the unfortified towns, and many that were fortified. Besides the war on every side, which was insupportably burdensome to them, the cities and villages were infested with a pestilence, which swept away the remainder of mankind in those regions; nor was so great a mortality ever known in any former period.

At this crisis, observing that the emperors were unable to defend the state, but neglected all without the walls of Rome, the Goths, the Borani, the Urugundi, and the Carpi once more plundered the cities of Europe of all that had been left in them; while in another quarter, the Persians invaded Asia, in which they acquired possession of Mesopotamia, and proceeded even as far as Antioch in Syria, took that city, which is the metropolis of all the east, destroyed many of the inhabitants, and carried the remainder into captivity, returning home with immense plunder, after they had destroyed all the buildings in the city, both public and private, without meeting with the least resistance. And indeed the Persians had a fair opportunity to have made themselves masters of all Asia, had they not been so overjoyed at their excessive spoils, as to be contented with keeping and carrying home what they had acquired.

Meantime the Scythians of Europe were in perfect security and went over into Asia, spoiling all the country as far as Cappodocia, Pesinus, and Ephesus, until Aemilianus, commander of the Pannonian legions, endeavouring as much as possible to encourage his troops, whom the prosperity of the Barbarians had so disheartened that they durst not face them, and reminding them of the renown of Roman courage, surprised the Barbarians that were in that neighbourhood. Having destroyed great numbers of them, and led his forces into their country, removing every obstruction to his progress, and at length freeing the subjects of the Roman empire from their ferocity, he was appointed emperor by his army. On this he collected all the forces of that country, who were become more bold since his successes against the Barbarians, and directed his march towards Italy, with the design of fighting Gallus, who was as yet. unprepared to contend with him. For Gallus had never heard of what had occurred in the east, and therefore made only what accidental preparations were in his reach, while Valerianus went to bring the Celtic and German legions. But Aemilianus advanced with great speed into Italy, and the armies were very near to each other, when the soldiers of Gallus, reflecting that his force was much inferior to the enemy both in number and strength, and likewise that he was a negligent indolent man, put him and his son to death, and going over to the party of Aemilianus, appeared to establish his authority.
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GallienusAntVirtus.jpg
1cy Gallienus17 views253-268

Bronze antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, GALLINVS AVG
Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand, P in right field, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 317

Gallienus oversaw a period of disintegration of the empire and lost control over the East, Gaul, Spain, and Britain.

Zosimus observed: [When Valerian left for the East] As the Germans were the most troublesome enemies, and harrassed the Gauls in the vicinity of the Rhine, Gallienus marched against them in person, leaving his officers to repel with the forces under their command any others that should enter Italy, Illyricum, and Greece. With these designs, he possessed himself of and defended the passages of the Rhine, at one time preventing their crossing, and at another engaging them as soon as they had crossed it. But having only a small force to resist an immense number, he was at a loss how to act, and thought to secure himself by a league with one of the German princes. He thus not only prevented the other Barbarians from so frequently passing the Rhine, but obstructed the access of auxiliaries.

Eutropius recorded: Gallienus, who was made emperor when quite a young man, exercised his power at first happily, afterwards fairly, and at last mischievously. In his youth he performed many gallant acts in Gaul and Illyricum, killing Ingenuus, who had assumed the purple, at Mursa, and Regalianus. He was then for a long time quiet and gentle; afterwards, abandoning himself to all manner of licentiousness, he relaxed the reins of government with disgraceful inactivity and carelesness. The Alemanni, having laid waste Gaul, penetrated into Italy. Dacia, which had been added to the empire beyond the Danube, was lost. Greece, Macedonia, Pontus, Asia, were devastated by the Goths. Pannonia was depopulated by the Sarmatians and Quadi. The Germans made their way as far as Spain, and took the noble city of Tarraco. The Parthians, after taking possession of Mesopotamia, began to bring Syria under their power.

Zosimus resumes: Gallienus in the mean time still continued beyond the Alps, intent on the German war, while the Senate, seeing Rome in such imminent danger, armed all the soldiers that were in the city, and the strongest of the common people, and formed an army, which exceeded the Barbarians in number. This so alarmed the Barbarians, that they left Rome, but ravaged all the rest of Italy. At this period, when Illyricum groaned under the oppression of the Barbarians, and the whole Roman empire was in such a helpless state as to be on the very verge of ruin, a plague happened to break out in several of the towns, more dreadful than any that had preceded it. The miseries inflicted on them by the Barbarians were thus alleviated, even the sick esteeming themselves fortunate. The cities that had been taken by the Scythians were thus deserted.

Gallienus, being disturbed by these occurrences, was returning to Rome to relieve Italy from the war which the Scythians were thus carrying on. It was at this time, that Cecrops, a Moor, Aureolus and Antoninus, with many others, conspired against him, of whom the greater part were punished and submitted. Aureolus alone retained his animosity against the emperor.

The Scythians, who had dreadfully afflicted the whole of Greece, had now taken Athens, when Gallienus advanced against those who were already in possession of Thrace, and ordered Odonathus of Palmyra, a person whose ancestors had always been highly respected by the emperors, to assist the eastern nations which were then in a very distressed condition. . . .

While affairs were thus situated in the east, intelligence was brought to Gallienus, who was then occupied in the Scythian war, that Aurelianus, or Aureolus, who was commander of the cavalry posted in the neighbourhood of Milan to watch the motions of Posthumus, had formed some new design, and was ambitious to be emperor. Being alarmed at this he went immediately to Italy, leaving the command against the Scythians with Marcianus, a person of great experience in military affairs. . . . Gallienus, in his journey towards Italy, had a plot formed against him by Heraclianus, prefect of the court, who communicated his design to Claudius, in whom the chief management of affairs was vested. The design was to murder Gallienus. Having found a man very ready for such an undertaking, who commanded a troop of Dalmatians, he entrusted the action to him. To effect it, the party stood by Gallienus at supper and informed him that some of the spies had brought intelligence, that Aureolus and his army were close at hand. By this they considerably alarmed him. Calling immediately for his horse and arms, he mounted, ordering his men to follow him in their armour, and rode away without any attendance. Thus the captain finding him alone killed him.
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SaloninusAntSacrImplts.jpg
1db Saloninus37 views259

Son of Gallienus

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Sacrificial implements, PIETAS AVG

RIC 9

Zosimus recorded Saloninus' fate: After this, Posthumus, who commanded the Celtic army, was also inclined towards innovation, and accompanied some soldiers that revolted at the same time to Agrippina, which is the principal city on the Rhine, in which he besieged Saloninus, the son of Gallienus, threatening to remain before the walls until he was given up to him. On this account the soldiers found it necessary to surrender both him and Silvanus, whom his father had appointed his guardian, both of whom Posthumus put to death, and made himself sovereign of the Celtae.
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Billon antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust, right, IMP C FVL MACRIANVS PF AVG
Aequitas standing left holding scales & cornucopiae, star to left, AEQVTAS AVGG

RIC 5

Macrianus did not rule in Rome. He and his brother Quietus took command of the army after the Persians captured Valerian but were defeated by one of Gallienus' generals when they marched west. According to the Historia Augusta: After the capture of Valerian, long a most
noble prince in the state, then a most valiant emperor, but at the last the most unfortunate of all men (either because in his old age he pined away among the Persians or because he left behind him unworthy descendants), Ballista, Valerian's prefect, and Macrianus, the foremost of his generals, since they knew that Gallienus was worthy only of contempt and since the soldiers, too, were seeking an emperor, withdrew together to a certain place, to consider what should be done. They then agreed that, since Gallienus was far away and Aureolus was usurping the imperial power, some emperor ought to be chosen, and, indeed, the best man, lest there should arise some pretender. . . . Ballista, perceiving that Macrianus, in so speaking, seemed to have in mind his own two sons, answered him as follows : "To your wisdom, then, we entrust the commonwealth. And so give us your sons Macrianus and Quietus, most valiant young men, long since made tribunes by Valerian, for, under the rule of Gallienus, for the very reason that they are good men, they cannot remain unharmed."

And so, with the consent of all the soldiers, Macrianus was made emperor, together with his two sons Macrianus and Quietus, and he immediately proceeded to march against Gallienus, leaving affairs in the East in whatever state he could. But while he was on the march, having with him a force of forty-five thousand soldiers, he met Aureolus in Illyricum or on the borders of Thrace, and there he was defeated and together with his son was slain. Then thirty thousand of his men yielded to Aureolus' power.
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AE Antoninianus

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG
Pax walking left, holding olive-branch and sceptre, PAX AVG

RIC 55

According to the Historia Augusta: When the elder Postumus saw that Gallienus was marching against him with great forces, and that he needed the aid not only of soldiers but also of a second prince, he called Victorinus, a man of soldierly energy, to a share in the imperial power, and in company
with him he fought against Gallienus. Having summoned to their aid huge forces of Germans, they protracted the war for a long time, but at last they were conquered. Then, when Lollianus, too, had been slain, Victorinus alone remained in command. He also, because he devoted his time to seducing the wives of his soldiers and officers, was slain at Agrippina l through a conspiracy formed by a certain clerk, whose wife he had debauched ; his mother Vitruvia, or rather Victoria, who was later called Mother of the Camp, had given his son Victorinus the title of Caesar, but the boy, too, was immediately killed after his father was slain at Agrippina. [Scholars doubt that Postumus raised Victorianus to the purple, they he was one of his generals, and suggest a held power later during the time of Claudius.]
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AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG
Virtus standing left with shield & spear, VIRTVS AVGG

RIC 148

According to the Historia Augusta: After Victorinus and his son were slain, his mother Victoria (or Vitruvia) urged Tetricus, a Roman senator then holding the governorship of Gaul, to take the imperial power, for the reason, many relate, that he was her kinsman; she then caused him to be entitled Augustus and bestowed on his son the name of Caesar. But after Tetricus had done many deeds with success and had ruled for a long time he was defeated by Aurelian, and, being unable to bear the impudence and shamelessness of his soldiers, he surrendered of his own free will to this prince most harsh and severe. . . . Aurelian, nevertheless, exceedingly stern though he was, overcome by a sense of shame, made Tetricus, whom lie had led in his triumph, supervisor over the whole of Italy,' that is, over Campania, Samnium, Lucania, Bruttium, Apulia, Calabria, Etruria and Umbria, Picenum and the Flaminian district, and the entire grain-bearing region, and suffered him not only to retain his life but also to remain in the highest position, calling him frequently colleague, sometimes fellow-soldier, and sometimes even emperor.
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AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR CARVS P F AVG
Emperor standing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, G between, XXI in ex, CLEMENTIA TEMP

RIC 118

The Historia Augusta recorded: Let us, rather, pass on to Carus, a mediocre man, so to speak, but one to be ranked with the good rather than the evil princes, yet a better ruler by far, had he not left Carinus to be his heir. . . . In regard to Cams' birthplace there is such divergence of statement among the various writers that by reason of the very great difference among them I am unable to tell what it really was. . . . He, then, after rising through the various civil and military grades, as the inscriptions on his statues show, was made prefect of the guard by Probus, and he won such affection among the soldiers that when Probus, that great emperor, was slain, he alone seemed wholly worthy of the imperial power. I am not unaware that many have suspected and, in fact, have put it into the records that Probus was slain by the treachery of Carus. This, however, neither the kindness of Probus toward Carus nor Carus' own character will permit us to believe, and there is the further reason that he avenged the death of Probus with the utmost severity and steadfastness. . . .

[Zonaras adds: Another war against Galienus was incited by Macrinus, who, having two sons, Macrianus and Quintus, attempted a usurpation. Because he was lame in one leg, he did not don the imperial mantle, but clad his sons in it.]

And so. . . , as soon as he received the imperial power, by the unanimous wish of all the soldiers he took up the war against the Persians for which Probus had been preparing. He gave to his sons the name of Caesar, planning to despatch Carinus, with some carefully selected men, to govern the provinces of Gaul, and to take along with himself Numerian, a most excellent and eloquent young man. . . . [H]e conquered Mesopotamia and advanced as far as Ctesiphon; and while the Persians were busied with internal strife he won the name of Conqueror of Persia. But when he advanced still further, desirous himself of glory and urged on most of all by his prefect, who in his wish to rule was seeking the destruction of both Carus and his sons as well, he met his death, according to some, by disease, according to others, through a stroke of lightning.

Zonaras wrote: He was a Gaul by ancestry, but brave and accomplished in matters of warfare. The account of his death has been variously composed by those who have done historical research. Some say that, having campaigned against the Huns, he was killed there. Others say that he was encamped by the River Tigris and that there, in the place where his army had thrown up a palisade, his tent was struck by lightning, and they record that, along with it, he too was destroyed.
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
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AE3

Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Gratian standing right, holding labarum with Chi-rho on banner, and holding captive by hair, GLORIA ROMANORVM; Q to left, K over P to right, DSISCR in ex.

RIC 14c

Zosimus reports: [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death.
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AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
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AR siliqua

Bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust rightt, DN EVGENIVS PF AVG
Roma seated left on cuirass, MDPS below, VIRTVS ROMANORVM

RIC 32c

Zosimus reports: Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound. To this audacious action the soldiers quietly submitted, not only because he was so brave and warlike a person, but because they were attached to him through his contempt of riches. As soon as he had performed this action, he declared Eugenius emperor, and infused into them the most favourable hopes that he would prove an excellent ruler, since he possessed such extraordinary qualifications. . . .

[Theodosius marched against Eugenius.] The emperor (having mourned for [his just deceased wife] a whole day, according to the rule of Homer), proceeded with his army to the war, leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. This prince being young, his father, in order to amend the defects of his nonage, left with him Rufinus, who was prefect of the court, and acted as he pleased, even as much as the power of sovereignty enabled the emperor himself to do. Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed : Eugenius being astonished at seeing him there whom he so little expected. But as he was arrived there, and consequently was under the necessity of engaging, he judged it most prudent to place the Barbarian troops in front, and to expose them first. He ordered Gaines with the troops under his command to make the first attack, and the other commanders of Barbarian soldiers to follow him, either cavalry, horse archers, or infantry. Eugenius then drew out his forces. When the two armies were engaged, so great an eclipse of the sun happened, that for more than half the time of the action it appeared rather to be night than day. As they fought therefore a kind of nocturnal battle, so great a slaughtor was made, that in the same day the greater part of the allies of Theodosius were slain, with their commander Bacurius, who fought very courageously at their head, while the other commanders escaped very narrowly with the remainder. When night came on and the armies had rallied, Eugenius was so elated with his victory, that he distributed money among those who had behaved with the greatest gallantry in the battle, and gave them time to refresh themselves, as if after such a defeat there was no probability of another engagement As they were thus solacing themselves, the emperor Theodosius about break of day fell suddenly on them with his whole forces, while they were still reclined |129 on the ground, and killed them before they knew of the approach of an enemy. He then proceeded to the tent of Eugenius, where he attacked those who were around him, killing many of them, and taking some of them in their flight, among whom was Eugenius. When they had got him in their power, they cut off his head, and carried it on a long spear around the camp, in order to shew those who still adhered to him, that it was now their interest to be reconciled to the emperor, inasmuch as the usurper was removed.
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The Walhalla was conceived in 1807 by Crown Prince Ludwig I of Bavaria, when he had become King, and was built between 1830 and 1842 by the architect Leo von Klenze.
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201- Constantine Arelate RIC 18520 viewsAE3, 319 AD, Arelate mint.
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201a. Julia Domna66 viewsIn Rome, when the worship of Cybele, as Magna Mater, was formally initiated in 203 BC, Rome was embroiled in the Second Punic War. The previous year, an inspection had been made of the Sibylline Books, and some oracular verses had been discovered that announced that if a foreign foe should carry war into Italy, he could be driven out and conquered if the Mater Magna were brought from Pessinos to Rome. Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica was ordered to go to the port of Ostia, accompanied by all the matrons, to meet the goddess. He was to receive her as she left the vessel, and when brought to land he was to place her in the hands of the matrons who were to bear her to her destination, the Temple of Victory on the Palatine Hill. The day on which this event took place, 12 April, was observed afterwards as a festival, the Megalesian. (Livy, History of Rome, circa AD 10)

In Rome, her Phrygian origins were recalled by Catullus, whose famous poem on the theme of Attis includes a vivid description of Cybele's worship: "Together come and follow to the Phrygian home of Cybele, to the Phrygian forests of the goddess, where the clash of cymbals ring, where tambourines resound, where the Phrygian flute-player blows deeply on his curved reed, where ivy-crowned maenads toss their heads wildly."

Roman devotion to Cybele ran deep. Not coincidentally, when a Christian basilica was built over the site of a temple to Cybele, to occupy the site, it was dedicated as the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore.

The worship of Cybele penetrated as far as Mauretania, where, just outside Setif, the ceremonial "tree-bearers" and the faithful (religiosi) restored the temple of Cybele and Attis after a disastrous fire in AD 288. Lavish new fittings paid for by the private group included the silver statue of Cybele and the chariot that carried her in procession received a new canopy, with tassels in the form of fir cones. (Robin Lane Fox, Pagans and Christians, p 581.)

Today, a monumental statue of Cybele can be found in one of the principal traffic circles of Madrid, the Plaza de Cibeles (illustration, upper right).

In Roman mythology, Magna Mater deorum Idaea ("great Idaean mother of the gods") was the name for the originally Phrygian goddess Cybele, as well as Rhea.

Her cult moved from Phrygia to Greece from the 6th century to the 4th. In 205 BC, Rome adopted her cult.

Julia Domna Denarius. 212 AD. IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped bust right / MATRI DEVM, Cybele standing left, leaning on column, holding drum & scepter, lion at foot. RSC 137. RIC 382
1 commentsecoli
202-Constantine-Arlate-RIC 194.JPG
202-Constantine-Arelate-RIC 19426 viewsAE3, 319 AD , Arelate mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTA-NTINVS AVG, Helmeted , laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories, facing , holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on alter.
TARL in Exergue, Arelate mint, RIC 194
2.8 gm , 18mm
Jerome Holderman
coin228.JPG
202b. Geta84 viewsGeta, as Caesar,

Publius Septimius Geta was the younger son of the emperor Septimius Severus. Geta's rivalry with his older brother, Caracalla, culminated in Geta's murder less than a year after Severus' death. Tradition soon idealized this victim of fratricide as a gentle prince taken by treachery far too soon. Critics of Caracalla looked back wistfully at the murdered prince, who came to be described as a lamb devoured by his ferocious, lion-like brother. The little reliable evidence about Geta's personality does not seem to support the idealized picture of a gentle prince, but the shocking nature of his death at the instigation of his brother transformed Geta's life into legend.

Denarius. P SEPT GETA CAES PONT, draped bust right / PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Geta, in military dress, standing left with baton & scepter, trophy behind. RIC 18, RSC 157
ecoli
203-Constantine-London- RIC158.JPG
203-Constantine-London- RIC15821 viewsAE3, 319 AD , London mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTANT-INVS AVG, Helmeted , laureate, cuirassed bust left.
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories, facing , holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on alter.
PLN in Exergue, London mint, RIC 158
3.0 gm , 17mm
Jerome Holderman
204-Constantine- Ticinum- RIC82.JPG
204-Constantine- Ticinum- RIC8227 viewsAE3, 319 AD , Ticinum mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTA-NTINVS MAX AVG, Helmeted , laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories, facing , holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on alter.
PT in Exergue, Ticinum mint, RIC 82
2.8 gm , 18mm
Jerome Holderman
205-Constantine- Siscia-RIC 59.JPG
205-Constantine- Siscia-RIC 5920 viewsAE3, 319 AD , Siscia mint.
Obverse: IMP CONSTA-NTINVS PF AVG, Helmeted , laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories, facing , holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on alter.
ASIS(pellet) in Exergue, Siscia mint, RIC 59
2.7 gm , 20mm
Jerome Holderman
coin233.JPG
205. Severus Alexander27 viewsSeverus Alexander

A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Denarius. IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate head right / VICTORIA AVG, Victory standing left with wreath. RSC 556.
ecoli
206-Licinius II- Siscia RIC70.JPG
206-Licinius II- Siscia RIC7031 viewsAE3 , 319 AD, Siscia mint
Obv: LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on alter.
ESIS(dot) in exergue, Siscia mint, RIC 70
20mm, 2.5 gm.
Jerome Holderman
008.JPG
217 Philip II45 viewsPhilip II, as Caesar, AR Antoninianus. M IVL PHILPPVS CAES, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENT, Philip ii standing left, holding globe & spear. RIC 218d, RSC 48.

2.8 g
3 commentsRandygeki(h2)
diadumenian_RIC216.jpg
217-218 AD - DIADUMENIAN AE As36 viewsobv: M OPEL DIADVMENIANVS CAES (bare-headed, draped bust right)
rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS (Diadumenian standing left, holding wand and scepter; two standards to right), S-C in ex.
ref: RIC IVii 216 (R), Cohen 13 (20frcs)
mint: Rome
10.31gms, 24mm (Better in hand than the picture allows.)

Marcus Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus or Diadumenian was the son of Roman Emperor Macrinus, who served his father briefly as Caesar from May, 217 to 218, and as Augustus in 218. He had little time to enjoy his position or to learn anything from its opportunities because the legions of Syria revolted and declared Elagabalus ruler of the Roman Empire. When Macrinus was defeated on June 8, 218, at Antioch, Diadumenian followed his father's death at the end of June.
This coin was found near a little village on plough-land where probably missed a fugitive citizen who fed up with the succession Sarmatian attacks.
berserker
rjb_2013_10_16a.jpg
21828 viewsDiadumenian, as Caesar
Denarius
Rome mint
Obv: M OPEL DIADVMENIAN CAES
Bare-headed and draped bust right
Rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS
Diadumenian standing left holding baton and long sceptre, two grounded standards right
RIC 107
1 commentsmauseus
22116.jpg
22116 Domitian/Vesta Reverse19 viewsDomitian/Vesta struck under Vespasian 79 AD
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI
Head of Domitian, laureate, right
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS
Vesta, draped, hooded, seated left on throne, holding palladium in ext right hand and transverse sceptre in left
Mint: Rome 17mm., 3,14g
RIC II, Part 1 (second edition) Vespasian 1087
Ex: Savoca Auction 16th Blue Auction
1 commentsBlayne W
761Hadrian_RIC225var_.jpg
227 var. Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian & Roma standing26 viewsReference.
Strack 218; RIC cf 227; C.cf 94; BMCR cf 584

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right

Rev. ADVENTVS AVGVSTI
Roma standing left, holding spear, and parazonium on hip?? and clasping hands with Hadrian standing right, holding a roll.

3.35 gr
18 mm
7h

Note.
Strack saw two similar coins in Vienna and Sofia with same die pair.

This denarius was Rome struck during the latter part of Hadrian’s reign, and which fall into three classes or categories: 1) a series of coins commemorating the visit or arrival (adventus) of the emperor to each province; 2) another series which commemorates the restoration (restitutor) of the province by the emperor; and 3) an additional series which commemorates the military strength (exercitus) of province, for those provinces which had legions stationed within them. In addition to these three categories of commemorative issues that are collectively known as Hadrian’s ‘travel’ series, there are a further two related groups of coins. The first is quite extensive and simply commemorates the various provinces, with the provinces of Egypt, Africa, Hispania and Gallia being the most common. Then there is a much smaller issue which commemorates the emperor’s final return (adventus) to Rome, after his subjugation of the Jewish zealots under Simon Bar Kochba led to the pacification of the province of Judaea, of which this coin is a particularly handsome specimen. After spending more than half his reign on the road, and especially after having just inflicted such a crushing defeat on the recalcitrant Jews, Hadrian’s homecoming was a momentous occasion in the capital which was warmly welcomed by the citizens. The reverse shows the city of Rome personified as the goddess Roma, helmeted and draped in military attire, holding a spear and clasping the hand of the now elderly emperor who is depicted togate and holding a roll in the guise of a citizen, standing before her. The legend which appears on the obverse of this coin was only employed ca. A.D. 134-138. As Hadrian returned to Italy during A.D. 136 and died not two years later, this coin belongs to the very last issue of coinage struck at Rome during his principate.
1 commentsokidoki
Trajano_denario.jpg
24-02 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.23 gr.

Anv: "IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha, leve ropaje en hombro trasero.
Rev: "COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC" - Dacia sedente a izquierda y acongojada sobre un escudo, a su alrededor una pila de armas. "DAC CAP "en exergo
Refiere a la conquista de Dacia

Acuñada 108 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #98 Pag.251 - SRCTV Vol. II #3136 var. Pag. 101 - RSC Vol.II #120 Pag. 87 - BMCRE Vol.III #390 - Cohen Vol.II #120 Pag.31 - DVM #9/2 Pag.119 - UCR #486 - St. #156
mdelvalle
RIC_98_Denario_trajano.jpg
24-02 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.)23 viewsAR Denario 19 mm 3.23 gr.

Anv: "IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha, leve ropaje en hombro trasero.
Rev: "COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC" - Dacia sedente a izquierda y acongojada sobre un escudo, a su alrededor una pila de armas. "DAC CAP "en exergo
Refiere a la conquista de Dacia

Acuñada 108 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #98 Pag.251 - SRCTV Vol. II #3136 var. Pag. 101 - RSC Vol.II #120 Pag. 87 - BMCRE Vol.III #390 - Cohen Vol.II #120 Pag.31 - DVM #9/2 Pag.119 - UCR #486 - St. #156
mdelvalle
RIC_243_Denario_trajano.jpg
24-04 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.)25 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha, leve ropaje en hombro trasero.
Rev: "SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI" - Abundantia (La Abundancia) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando espigas de maiz en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda. A sus pies un niño parado sosteniendo un panecillo. "ALIM ITAL"
Refiere a los Programas de caridad de Trajano para los niños pobres de Italia

Acuñada 112 - 117 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #243 Pag.261 - RSC Vol.II #9 Pag. 83 - BMCRE #469 - Cohen Vol.II #9 Pag.18 - DVM #33 Pag.121 - St. Vol.I #172
mdelvalle
Denario TRAJANO RIC 243.jpg
24-05 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.)65 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha, leve ropaje en hombro trasero.
Rev: "SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI" - Abundantia (La Abundancia) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando espigas de maiz en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda. A sus pies un niño parado sosteniendo un panecillo. "ALIM ITAL"
Refiere a los Programas de caridad de Trajano para los niños pobres de Italia

Acuñada 112 - 117 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #243 Pag.261 - RSC Vol.II #9 Pag. 83 - BMCRE #469 - Cohen Vol.II #9 Pag.18 - DVM #33 Pag.121 - St. Vol.I #172
mdelvalle
RIC_293_AR_Denario_TRAJANO_FORUM_b.jpg
24-05 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.) 13 viewsAR Denario 21 mm 3,22 gr. 6 hr.

Anv: "IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha, leve ropaje en hombro izquierdo.
Rev: "SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI" - Columna de Trajano

La Columna de Trajano fue la gloria suprema del Foro Traiani, construido con el botín de las Guerras de Dacia. Cubierto por un continuo friso de los acontecimientos de la guerra, la columna fue coronada con una estatua heroica dorada del emperador, mientras que una inscripción en la base relataba la proeza de la ingeniería en la construcción del foro. Después de la muerte de Trajano, la columna se convirtió en el depósito de sus cenizas.

Acuñada 112 - 114 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #293 Pag.264 - RSC Vol.II #558a Pag. 100 - BMCRE #451 Pag.94 - Cohen Vol.II #558 var Pag.76 - DVM #32/30 Pag.121 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #3106 var Pag.98 - Hill #618 - Bauten Roms #50 - MIR #425b - CBN #746
mdelvalle
Dupondio TRAJANO RIC 505.jpg
24-22 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.)77 viewsAE Dupondio 29 x 27 mm 12.5 gr.

Anv: "[IMP CAES NERVAE] TRAIANO AVG GE[R DAC P M T]R P COS V [P P]" - Busto radiado con Aegis viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S P Q R O[PTIMO] PRINCIPI - S C" - Pax (La Paz) de pié a izquierda, sosteniendo rama de olivo en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda. Su pié derecho sobre un cautivo de Dacia.

Acuñada 103 - 111 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #402 Pag.273 - Cohen Vol.II #410 Pag.60 - BMCRE # 891 - DVM #63/4 Pag.123
mdelvalle
RIC_402_Dupondio_Trajano.jpg
24-22 - TRAJANO (98 - 171 D.C.)16 viewsAE Dupondio 29 x 27 mm 12.5 gr.

Anv: "[IMP CAES NERVAE] TRAIANO AVG GE[R DAC P M T]R P COS V [P P]" - Busto radiado con Aegis viendo a derecha.
Rev: "S P Q R O[PTIMO] PRINCIPI - S C" - Pax (La Paz) de pié a izquierda, sosteniendo rama de olivo en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda. Su pié derecho sobre un cautivo de Dacia.

Acuñada 103 - 111 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #402 Pag.273 - Cohen Vol.II #410 Pag.60 - BMCRE III #891 Pag.189 - DVM #63/4 Pag.123
mdelvalle
rjb_host2_02_09.jpg
251a26 viewsHostilian 251 AD
AR antoninianus
Obv "C VALENS HOSTIL MES QVINTVS N C"
Radiate and draped bust right
Rev "PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS"
Hostilian standing left holding standard and vertical sceptre
Rome mint
RIC 181d
1 commentsmauseus
100_7405.JPG
252 Saloninus 32 viewsSaloninus AR Antoninianus. Antioch mint. SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES, radiate draped bust right / SPES PVBLICA, Spes presenting flower to prince. RIC 36, Cohen 95. Sear Roman Coins and their Values [1988 edition] s3083
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
rjb_val8_02_09.jpg
25614 viewsValerian II, caesar 256-58 AD
AR antoninianus
Samosata mint
Obv "VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "PRINC IVVENTVTIS"
Prince standing left placing wreath on trophy
RIC 49; Gobl 1694
mauseus
SalV28.jpg
256/8-260 AD - Saloninus - RIC V 28 - PRINC or PRINCIPI IVVENT44 viewsProbable Caesar: Saloninus (Caes: late 250s AD)
Date: 257-258 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES
Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus Noble Caesar
Bust right; radiate and draped

Reverse: PRINC or PRINCIPI IVVENT
First among the Young Men.
Prince standing left, holding ensign and spear or sceptre, captive at foot.
"P" in right field

Rome mint
RIC V Saloninus 28; VM 9
1.86g; 20.8mm; 345°
Pep
SalV36.jpg
256/8-260 AD - Saloninus as Caesar - RIC V 36 - SPES PVBLICA29 viewsCaesar: Saloninus (Caes: late 250s AD)
Date: 256 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: SALON VALERIANVS NOB CAES
Saloninus Valerianus Noble Caesar
Bust right; radiate and draped

Reverse: SPES PVBLICA
Hope of the public.
Spes presenting flower to prince.

Antioch mint
RIC V Saloninus 36
3.35g; 22.0mm; 165°
Pep
diadumen.jpg
27 Diadumenian68 viewsDenarius. May-July 217 AD. M OPEL DIADVMENIANVS CAES, draped bust right, seen from behind / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Diadumenian standing facing, head right, holding standard and sceptre; two standards right. RSC 6. Weight 3.35 g. Die axis 6 hr. Max dia 19.1 mm1 commentsmix_val
NumV366.jpg
282-283 AD - Numerian as Caesar - RIC V 366 - PRINCIPI IVVENTVT29 viewsCaesar: Numerian (Caes. 282-283 AD)
Date: 282-283 AD
Condition: EF
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C
Marcus Aurelius Numerian Noble Caesar
Bust right; radiate, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVT
First among the Young Men.
Numerian standing left, holding baton and scepter.
Exergue: VXXI (Ticinum mint, fifth officina)

RIC V Carus And His Family 366; VM 15
3.31g; 24.2mm; 180°
Pep
rjb_num1_10_07.jpg
28316 viewsNumerian 283-4 AD
AE antoninianus
Rome Mint
M AVR NVMERIANVS C
Radiate,draped and cuirassed bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENT
Numerian standing left
-/-//KAΔ
RIC 362
1 commentsmauseus
carinus RIC150.jpg
283-285 AD - CARINUS (as Caesar) antoninianus16 viewsobv: CARINVS.NOBIL.CAES (radiate & cuirassed bust right)
rev: PRINCIPI.IVVENTVT (Carinus standing left, holding globe and spear), officina letter C (= 3) in left field
ref: RIC150, C.92
mint: Lugdunum, struck 282-283 AD
3.24gms, 22mm
Rare
berserker
MaxVICyz15b.jpg
286-305 AD, 306-308 AD - Maximianus - RIC VI Cyzicus 15b - CONCORDIA MILITVM49 viewsEmperor: Maximianus (r. 286-305, 306-308 AD)
Date: ca. 295-299 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Light Radiate Fraction

Obverse: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Imperator Consul Marcus Aurelius Maximianus Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; radiate and cuirassed

Reverse: CONCORDIA MI-LITVM
Unity of the Army.
Prince standing right in military dress receiving small Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, left leaning on sceptre.
"KE" in center field (Cyzicus mint, fifth officina)

RIC VI Cyzicus 15b; VM 45
2.31g; 21.6mm; 195°
Pep
Traianorevden.jpg
3.86 Trajan Denarius56 viewsTrajan
AR Denarius
Rome Mint, 107 AD

rev. COS V PP SPQR OPTIMO PRINC
Zam
coin238.JPG
304b. Philip II22 viewsPhilip II, as Caesar, AR Antoninianus. M IVL PHILPPVS CAES, Radiate,draped & cuiressed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENT, the prince standing left, holding globe & standard. RIC 218d, RSC 48ecoli
coin241.JPG
305b. Herennius Etruscus24 viewsQuintus Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius (c. 227 - July 1, 251), was Roman emperor in 251, in a joint rule with his father Trajan Decius. Emperor Hostilian was his younger brother.

Herennius was born in Pannonia, during one of his father's military postings. His mother was Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla, a Roman lady of an important senatorial family. Herennius was very close to his father and accompanied him in 248, as a military tribune, when Decius was appointed by Philip the Arab to deal with the revolt of Pacatianus in the Danube frontier. Decius was successful on defeating this usurper and felt confident to begin a rebellion of his own in the following year. Acclaimed emperor by his own troops, Decius marched into Italy and defeated Philip near modern Verona. In Rome, Herennius was declared heir to the throne and received the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth).

From the beginning of Herennius' accession, Gothic tribes raided across the Danube frontier and the provinces of Moesia and Dacia. At the beginning of 251, Decius elevated Herennius to the title of Augustus making him his co-emperor. Moreover, Herennius was chosen to be one of the year's consuls. The father and son, now joint rulers, then embarked in an expedition against king Cniva of the Goths to punish the invaders for the raids. Hostilian remained in Rome and the empress Herennia Etruscilla was named regent. Cniva and his men were returning to their lands with the booty, when the Roman army encountered them. Showing a very sophisticated military tactic, Cniva divided his army in smaller, more manageable groups and started to push back the Romans into a marshy swamp. On July 1, both armies engaged in the battle of Abrittus. Herennius died in battle, struck by an enemy arrow. Decius survived the initial confrontation, only to be slain with the rest of the army before the end of the day. Herennius and Decius were the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle.

With the news of the death of the emperors, the army proclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but in Rome they were succeeded by Hostilian, who would die shortly afterwards in an outbreak of plague.

Herennius Etruscus AR Antoninianus. Q HER ETR MES DECIVS NOB C, radiate draped bust right / CONCORDIA AVGG, clasped hands. RIC 138, RSC 4
1 commentsecoli
coin197.JPG
305c. Hostilian23 viewsGaius Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus (died 251), was Roman emperor in 251. Hostilian was born in an unknown date, after 230, as the son of the future emperor Trajan Decius by his wife Herennia Cupressenia Etruscilla. He was the younger brother of emperor Herennius Etruscus.

Following his father's accession to the throne, Hostilian received the treatment of an imperial prince, but was always kept in the shade of his brother Herennius, who enjoyed the privileges of being older and heir. In the beginning of 251, Decius elevated his son Herennius to co-emperor and Hostilian succeeded him in the title of princeps iuventutis (prince of youth). These dispositions were made previous to a campaign against king Cniva of the Goths, to punish him over the raids on the Danubian frontier. Hostilian remained in Rome due to his inexperience, and empress Herennia was named regent.

The campaign proved to be a disaster: both Herennius and Decius died in the Battle of Abrittus and became the first two emperors to be killed by a foreign army in battle. The armies in the Danube acclaimed Trebonianus Gallus emperor, but Rome acknowledged Hostilian's rights. Since Trebonianus was a respected general, there was fear of another civil war of succession, despite the fact that he chose to respect the will of Rome and adopted Hostilian. But later in 251, plague broke out in Rome and Hostilian died in the epidemic. He was the first emperor in 40 years and one of only 13 to die of natural causes. His timely death opened the way for the rule of Trebonianus with his natural son Volusianus.

Hostilian. Moesia Superior. Viminacium AE 25 mm. 11.7 g. Obverse: C VAL HOST M QVINTVS CAE. Draped bust right. Reverse: P M S COL VIM AN XII. Moesia standing left between lion and bull.
ecoli
ConVIISis47.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Siscia 047 - VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP22 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 318 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: AE3

Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Imperator Constantine Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; laureate helmet, cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Joyful victories of the long-lived princes.
Two standing Victories facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar.
Exergue: ΔSIS* (Siscia mint, fourth officina)

RIC VII Siscia 47; VM 90
2.79g; 19.6mm; 225°
Pep
ConVIISis59.jpg
307-337 AD - Constantine I - RIC VII Siscia 059 - VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP21 viewsEmperor: Constantine I (r. 307-337 AD)
Date: 319 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG
Imperator Constantine Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Bust right; laureate, helmeted, and cuirassed

Reverse: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP
Joyful victories of the long-lived princes.
Two standing Victories facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar.
Exergue: ΓSIS● (Siscia mint, third officina)

RIC VII Siscia 59; VM 90
2.08g; 20.2mm; 195°
Pep
coin245.JPG
308. Valerian I23 viewsRIC 209 Valerian I 253-260 AD AR Antoninianus of Moesia. Radiate draped bust/Aequitas standing holding balance and cornucopia.

Publius Licinius Valerianus (ca. 200-260), known in English as Valerian, was Roman emperor from 253 to 260. His full Latin title was IMPERATOR · CAESAR · PVBLIVS · LICINIVS · VALERIANVS · PIVS FELIX · INVICTVS · AVGVSTVS — in English, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Valerianus Pious Lucky Undefeated Augustus."

Unlike the majority of the usurpers of the crisis of the third century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional Senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana who gave him two sons: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor is known.

In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as Emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the Emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own.

Valerian's first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal, Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the Empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.

By 257, Valerian had already recovered Antioch and returned the Syrian province to Roman control but in the following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa, but an outbreak of plague killed a critical number of legionaries, weakening the Roman position. Valerian was then forced to seek terms with Shapur I. Sometime towards the end of 259, or at the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by the Persians (making him the only Roman Emperor taken captive). It is said that he was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human stepladder by Shapur when mounting his horse. After his death in captivity, his skin was stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the chief Persian temple. Only after Persian defeat in last Persia-Roman war three and a half centuries later was his skin destroyed.
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309b. Valerian II (AD 256-258)104 viewsCornelius Licinius Valerianus, also known as Valerian II, was the eldest son of the Roman emperor, Gallienus.

Valerian was raised to the title of Caesar shortly after his father was raised to co-emperor with his father, Valerian. He was killed somewhere around the year 257, possibly by Ingenuus who had been charged with his education.

Valerian II (AD 256-258)
AE Antoninianus (AD 255)
OB: Radiate, draped bust, right
VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES.
REV: Prince standing left, holding shield and spear, and crowning trophy
PRINC. IVVENTVTIS
RIC, Vol. V, Part 1, #49
Antioch mint
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313a. Tetricus II31 viewsTetricus II was the son of Tetricus I and had exactly the same name as his father: C. Pius Esuvius Tetricus. His date of birth as well as the name of his mother are unknown. In 273 AD Tetricus II was elevated by his father to the rank of Caesar and given the title of princeps iuventutis. On 1 January 274 AD he entered in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) upon his first consulship, which he shared with his father.

After the defeat in autumn of 274 AD near Châlons-sur-Marne and subsequent surrender of his father Tetricus I to the emperor Aurelian, Tetricus II was put on display in Rome together with his father during Aurelian's triumph, but then pardoned. All literary sources agree on the fact that his life was spared; according to Aurelius Victor and the Scriptores Historiae Augustae, he even retained his senatorial rank and occupied later on many senatorial offices

Tet II obverse muled with his father's COMES AVG reverse.
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316-319 AD Constantine I - AE3 - Victories - Siscia mint94 viewsIMPCONSTANTINVSPFAVG - Helmeted, Laureate, curaissed bust right
VICTORIAELAETAEPRINCPERP in exe. (Delta)SIS - Two victories facing, inscribing VOT/PR on shield placed on altar, X on cippus.

Siscia mint, Ric 53, 18 mm, 2.85 gms, 45 degrees
slightly rough surfaces, Great detail, Dark green patina, aEF ....
jimwho523
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316-326 AD - Crispus - RIC VII Arles 235 - CAESARVM NOSTRORVM29 viewsCaesar: Crispus (Caes. 316-326 AD)
Date: 321 AD
Condition: Very Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: CRISPVS - NOB CAES
Crispus Noble Caesar
Bust right; laureate

Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM
VOT / V in laurel wreath.
The Prince of our people offers vows so that he may serve for a prosperous five years.
Exergue: TA (Arles mint, third officina)

RIC VII Arles 235; VM 9
3.44g; 19.6mm; 0°
Pep
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316-326 AD - Crispus - RIC VII Siscia 181 - CAESARVM NOSTRORVM25 viewsCaesar: Crispus (Caes. 316-326 AD)
Date: 321-324 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IVL CRIS-PVS NOB C
Julius Crispus Noble Caesar
Bust right; laureate
Possible damnatio mark

Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM
VOT X in two lines inside laurel wreath.
The Prince of our people offers vows so that he may serve for a prosperous ten years.
Exergue: ASIS (Siscia mint, first officina)

RIC VII Siscia 181; VM 10
2.84g; 19.4mm; 195°
Pep
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316-337 AD - Constantine II as Caesar - RIC VII Thessalonica 128 - CAESARVM NOSTRORVM31 viewsCaesar: Constantine II (Caes. 316-337 AD)
Date: 324 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE3

Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C
Constantine Junior Noble Caesar
Bust left; laureate, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM
Laurel wreath enclosing VOT / X.
The Prince of our people offers vows so that he may serve for a prosperous ten years.
Exergue: TSBVI (Thessalonica mint, second officina)

RIC VII Thessalonica 128; VM 32
2.66g; 18.9mm; 345°
Pep
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31834 viewsCrispus, Caesar 317-326 AD
AE Follis
Obv: CRISPVS NOB CAES
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: PRINCIPIA IVVENTVTIS
Mars standing left, holding vertical spear and leaning on shield
C/S//QARL
Arelate Mint
RIC (VII) Arles 143
mauseus
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318-330 AD., Constantinus I., Trier mint imitative type, barbarous Follis, RIC p. 224.91 viewsConstantinus (Constantine) I., Trier mint imitative type, officina 1, 318-330 AD.,
Follis / Æ3 (16-17 mm / 3,05 g),
Obv.: IMP CONSTANT - INVS AVG , cuirassed bust left, high crested helmet, spear in right hand over shoulder.
Rev.: [VIC]TORIAE LAETA PRINC IPF / STR (in exergue) , two Victories standing, facing each other and holding a shield inscribed VOT / PR on plain altar.
cf. http://www.beastcoins.com/Topical/VLPP/Coins/Imitative/VLPP-Trier-PTR-237.jpg ; cf. http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/barb2 .

Imitative Folles or "barbarous" bronze coins from this series are plentiful and range from extremely crude to nearly official in appearance. RIC footnotes as "irregular" or "semi-barbarous". On p. 224, Appendix to Trier, RIC describes and lists a number of "irregular" coins for the purpose of "illustrating the wide range of varieties known".

my ancient coin database
2 commentsArminius
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319. Probus59 viewsAt an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the emperors Valerian, Aurelian and Tacitus. He was appointed governor of the East by the emperor Tacitus, at whose death he was immediately proclaimed his successor by the soldiers. Florianus, who had claimed to succeed his half-brother Tacitus, was put to death by his own troops, and the Senate eagerly ratified the choice of the army. The reign of Probus was mainly spent in successful wars by which he re-established the security of all the frontiers, the most important of these operations being directed to clearing Gaul of German invaders.

Probus had also put down three usurpers, Saturninus, Proculus and Bonosus. One of his principles was never to allow the soldiers to be idle, and to employ them in time of peace on useful works, such as the planting of vineyards in Gaul, Pannonia and other districts. This increase of duties was naturally unpopular, and while the emperor was urging on the draining of the marshes of his native place he was attacked and slain by his own soldiers. Scarcely any emperor has left behind him so good a reputation; his death was mourned alike by senate and people, and even the soldiers repented and raised a monument in his honour.

Obv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– RESTITVT ORBIS, Female standing right, presenting wreath to emperor standing left, holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Siscia (* in centre field, XXIQ in exe) Emission 5 Officina 4. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 733 Bust type F
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322. Numerian30 viewsMarcus Aurelius Numerius Numerianus was the younger son of the later emperor Carus, born in about AD 253.
Numerian and his elder brother Carinus were raised to the rank of Caesar in AD 282, soon after their father became emperor.

In AD 282 Numerian accompanied his father to the Danube to defeat the Sarmatians and the Quadi.
Then in December AD 282 or January AD 283 Carus took Numerian with him on his expedition against the Persians to re-conquer Mesopotamia. Meanwhile Carinus stayed in Rome to rule the west.

When Carus died, Numerian succeeded him, thereby becoming joint emperor with his brother Carinus who had been granted the rank of Augustus shortly before Carus' death.

At first, immediately after his father's death, Numerian sought to continue the Persian campaign.
Apparently this was much favoured by Arrius Aper, the prefect of the praetorians and suspect in Carus' death. Conditions for war were favourable. The Persian side was still thought to be weak. But Numerian's initial efforts were not followed by success.
Numerian was to all effect appeared more of an intellectual than a man of war. He wrote poetry, some of which won him critical acclaim in his day.
This lack of ruthless military talent might well have been the reason why Carinus alone had been promoted Augustus, while Numerian remained Caeasar (junior emperor).
And so, after these initial setbacks, Numerian decided it unwise to continue the war.
He sought instead to return back to Rome and the army was not displeased to pull back into Syria were it spent the winter of AD 283.
Thereafter the army set out on its march back west through Asia Minor (Turkey).
Numerian fell ill near Nicomedia, suffering from an eye disease, which he might have caught while still on campaign in Mesopotamia with his father. The illness was explained with severe exhaustion (Today it is believed this was a serious eye infection. This left him partly blind and he had to be carried in a litter.

Somewhere at this time it is believed Arrius Aper, Numerian's own father in-law, had him killed. It;s widely believed that Aper hoped that it would be assumed that Numerian had simply succumbed to his illness and that he, the praetorian prefect, would succeed to the throne in his place.
But why he should have kept up the charade that Numerian was still alive remains a mystery. Perhaps he was waiting for he right moment.
For several days the death went unnoticed, the litter being carried along as usual. Soldiers inquired about their emperor's health and were reassured by Aper, that all was well and that Numerian simply was too ill to appear in public.

Eventually though the stench of the corpse became too much. Numerian's death was revealed and the soldiers realized that Rome had lost yet another emperor (AD 284).

Had it been Aper who hoped to fill the vacancy, then it was Diocletian (still known as Diocles at the time), commander of the imperial bodyguard, who emerged the victor. It was Diocletian who was made emperor by the troops after Numerian's death. It was he who sentenced Aper to death and even executed the sentence himself. Therefore it was he who, benefited most from the deaths of Carus and Numerian. And in his role as body guard he held a key position, enabling him to prevent or enable any action against the emperor. Hence it is unlikely that Diocletian did not have anything to do with the murder of Numerian.

Numerian Antoninianus / Numerian with globe and spear

Attribution: RIC 361
Date: 282-283 AD
Obverse: M AVR NVMERIANVS NOB C, radiate bust r.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Numerian l. holding globe and spear
Size: 22.39 mm
Weight: 3.5 grams
Description: A nice ant of a scarcer emperor while serving as Caesar
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353.jpg31 viewsRemi in Gallia, Région de Reims, ca. 60-40 BC.,
Æ 21 (19-21 mm / 5,45 g), bronze, axes irregular alignment ↑↖ (ca. 320°),
Obv.: [AT]ISOS (downwards before) / [RE]MOS (downwards behind) , beardless head facing left, four-pointed floral ornament behind - Tête à gauche, un torque au cou. Légende devant et derrière la tête. Fleur à quatre pétales derrière la nuque, grènetis.
Rev.: lion at bay left, dolphin below - Anépigraphe. Lion élancé à gauche, la queue entre les pattes et enroulée jusqu'au-dessus du dos. Une esse au-dessus de la croupe, grènetis.
DT. 596 ; LT. 8054 var. ; BMC Celtic 71 ; Scheers 147 ; Allen 'Coins of the Celts', illustrated as nos. 446 and 447 .

thanks to Alan ("Manzikert") for the id

Les Rèmes étaient l'un des peuples les plus puissants de la Gaule et les fidèles alliés des Romains. Le territoire des Rèmes s'étendait sur l'actuelle Champagne, le long de l'Aisne. Ils avaient pour voisins les Atuatuques, les Trévires, les Médiomatriques, les Lingons, les Suessions, les Bellovaques et les Nerviens. Ils dénoncèrent à César la coalition des peuples belges de 57 avant J.-C. dont faisaient partie, les Suessions qui partageaient les mêmes lois et les mêmes magistrats. Leur principal oppidum était Bibrax. La capitale de la civitas à l'époque gallo-romaine était Durocortorum (Reims).

The Remi were a Belgic people of north-eastern Gaul (Gallia Belgica). The Romans regarded them as a civitas, a major and influential polity of Gaul, The Remi occupied the northern Champagne plain, on the southern fringes of the Forest of Ardennes, between the rivers Mosa (Meuse) and Matrona (Marne), and along the river valleys of the Aisne and its tributaries the Aire and the Vesle.
Their capital was at Durocortum (Reims, France) the second largest oppidum of Gaul, on the Vesle. Allied with the Germanic tribes of the east, they repeatedly engaged in warfare against the Parisii and the Senones. They were renowned for their horses and cavalry.
During the Gallic Wars in the mid-1st century BC, they allied themselves under the leadership of Iccius and Andecombogius with Julius Caesar. They maintained their loyalty to Rome throughout the entire war, and were one of the few Gallic polities not to join in the rebellion of Vercingetorix.
Arminius
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4) Antony and Julius Caesar57 viewsMark Antony and Julius Caesar
AR Denarius (18mm, 3.84 g, 6h).
Autumn 43 BC. Military mint traveling with Antony in Cisalpine Gaul.

Bare head of Mark Antony, bearded, right; lituus behind / Bare head of Julius Caesar right; capis behind.

Crawford 488/2; CRI 123; Sydenham 1166; RSC 3.

VF, lightly toned, bankers’ marks.

Property of Princeton Economics acquired by Martin Armstrong. Ex Stack’s (3 December 1996), lot 769.

Ex CNG
RM0009
4 commentsSosius
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40. Philip II as Caesar.33 viewsAntoninianus, ca 244 - 246 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: M IVL PHILIPPVS CAES / Radiate bust of Philip II.
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENT / Philip standing, holding globe and spear. Captive at his feet.
3.91 gm., 24 mm.
RIC #219; Sear 9241.
1 commentsCallimachus
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408. Maxentius34 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, alth ough there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politcally astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started usi ng the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge af