Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "Portrait"
5.jpg
30 viewsPOPPAEA
Neros Wife
Perinthus in thrace

Poppaea (Nero's wife) from Perinthus in Thrace; on the left is a head dress in a wreath (rotated in your picture) and on the right her portrait.

+Alexios
FaustinaVeiled.jpg
92 viewsFaustina I, denarius with veiled portrait bust, PIETAS AVG reverse.3 commentsmarandnumiz
Gordian_Antioch.jpg
32 viewsGordian III. A.D. 238-244. AR antoninianus. Antioch, A.D. 238/9. Superb EF, spectacular portrait nicely centered on a large flan with nearly full borders and excellent metalpaul1888
_DSCCC3710.jpg
18 viewsivus Augustus (died AD 14). Orichalcum dupondius (30mm, 15.45 gm, 6h). Rome, under Claudius, AD 42-50. DIVVS AVGVSTVS, radiate head of the deified Augustus left between S – C /A, Livia seated to left holding grain ears in right hand and long torch wrapped in left arm. RIC (Claudius) 101 (R2). BMCRE (Claudius) 224. Cohen 93. Rare! Boldly struck on a large, heavy flan, from dies of exceptional style. Fantastic portrait and natural chocolate brown patina. Choice Extremely Fine. From The Lexington Collection. Ex UBS 78 (Basel, 9 September 2008), lot 1377. One of the first acts of Claudius, after his accession as emperor, was to propose that the late Livia, wife of Augustus, be deified. The Senate granted this honor in AD AD 42, 13 years after her death, and the appropriate celebrations were made. This attractive coin could be viewed as commemorating the event, depicting the long-deified Augustus along new, with his newly elevated wife. The work of cutting the dies was obviously considered important enough to be given to a master engraver, as both the portrait of Augustus and the graceful image of Livia are of outstanding quality.1 commentsRonald
Philip_I_antelope_right_VI_june_22_2018.jpg
25 viewsSilver antoninianus, RIC IV 22 (R2), RSC IV 188, SRCV III 8959 var. (antelope left), Hunter III 48 var. (same), Choice aEF, excellent centering on a broad flan, excellent portrait, light toning, some luster, strike slightly soft/flat, some die wear, 6th officina, Rome mint, weight 4.402g, maximum diameter 23.8mm, die axis 0o, 248 A.D.; obverse IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SAECVLARES AVGG, antelope walking right, VI in exergue; very rare with antelope right (only two on Coin Archives and one sold for $700!; ex Beast Coins; Ex Forum coin and picture1 commentspaul1888
HENRY_VI_from__National_portrait_gallery.JPG
3 views*Alex
Zy4o5EnCf2EqKSe3w9Ft77mQBN8sG6.jpg
7 viewsC. 328-329 AD

Reverse: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, camp gate, SMNΓ in ex.

Toned with a super portrait and good metal.

Ref: RIC 153

3.13g

20mm
paul1888
gaul.jpg
31 viewsC. 200-49 BC

Obverse: Bust of Artemis right, monogram before.

Reverse: Lion walking right, MAΣΣA above.

Grey tone with a nice portrait and good metal. – Old collection ticket included.

Ref: SNG Cop 786

Weight: 2.54g

17mm
3 commentspaul1888
Scipio_Bronze.jpg
Scipio Africanus31 viewsSCIPIO AFRICANUS
Æ15, Spain, Carthago Nova, (2.4g) c. 209 B.C.

Male Roman style head left, probably Scipio Africanus before he was given title Africanus / Horse head right

SNG Cop. 298, Lindgren Eur. Mints 6. Toynbee p. 18-19. VF, green patina, encrust.

This coin may be the earliest depiction of a living Roman. Carthago Nova also produced rare likely portraits of Hannibal.
RR0029
Sosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_10_45_56_AM.png
15 Hadrian31 viewsHadrian. A.D. 117-138. AE sestertius. Rome mint, struck A.D. 119.
Hadrian. A.D. 117-138. AE sestertius (35.51 mm, 26.94 g, 7 h). Rome mint, struck A.D. 119. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIA-NVS AVG P M TR P COS III, laureate, bare-chested "heroic" bust right, drapery on left shoulder / PROVIDENTIAE DEORVM S - C, Hadrian, togate, standing facing, head left, right hand receiving scepter borne by eagle descending from sky on left and scroll (?) in left hand. RIC 589; BMC 1203. good VF/VF, fantastic sensitive portrait on heroic bust, green patina with spots of red, particularly on reverse. Ex Agora Auctions 5/9/2017
1 commentsSosius
Roman_Prov.jpg
26 Geta?23 viewsNever nailed this one down. It was discussed here:

http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=70693.msg443086#msg443086

From FORVM member Pscipio:
"Probably Geta as Caesar rather than Caracalla, cf. SNG Aulock 7165 for what looks like an obverse die match (different reverse type). Note that a similar left facing portrait also exists for Caracalla, but laureate, thus as Augustus: SNG Aulock 7162, which is clearly from the same hand and therefore probably belongs to the same emission.

The countermark appears to be Howgego 68."
Sosius
Sev_Alex_SGI_3390_.jpg
30 Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea29 viewsSEVERUS ALEXANDER & JULIA MAMAEA
AE27, Edessa, Mesopotamia

Confronting portraits of Severus Alexander and Julia Mamaea / City-goddess seated left, holding small temple; River-god swimming beneath her

SGI 3390
Sosius
001590_l.jpg
32 Gordian I Africanus34 viewsGORDIAN I AFRICANUS
AE Sestertius, Rome Mint
27-29 mm, 17.75 g
March 19 to April 9, 238 A.D.
IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind / VICTORIA AVGG, S-C, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
RIC IV, 2, p. 161, 12. Very rare. Good portrait and fully readable name. Very fine.
Ex-Auctiones

Gordian I, an 80-year-old senator, was proclaimed as emperor during a revolt in Africa but commited suicide after his son and co-ruler Gordianus II was defeated by Maximinus' legate. Their rule only lasted for 20 days, hence the rarity of their coins.
Sosius
Maxentius_RIC_Rome_258.jpg
7 Maxentius29 viewsMAXENTIUS
AE Follis, Rome Mint

IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG, laureate bust of Maxentius right / CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated in temple, RET in ex.

RIC 258 Rome. aVF, very strong portrait in great style.
2 commentsSosius
45448q00.jpg
Gallic 3 Marius, May - August or September 269 A.D.27 viewsBronze antoninianus, Schulzki AGK 8a, Mairat 238, SRCV III 11123, RIC V 17, aEF, rev a bit weak, 2.822g, 19.5mm, 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, 2nd emission; obverse IMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICT-O-R-IA AVG, Victory standing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left; nice portrait, nice dark sea-green patina, slightly irregular flan; scarce

Purchased from FORVM
1 commentsSosius
lu2l.jpg
Lucilla RIC 1756, 164-169 CE.45 viewsLucilla, wife of Lucius Verus
Obverse - LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG FB, draped bust right.
Reverse – PIETAS, Pietas standing left, right hand over lighted altar and holding box of incense in left. SC in field
30 mm diam. 19.8g. RIC 1756
Reverse clearly shows an inverse portrait caused by a clashed die
sold 1-2018
1 commentsNORMAN K
Lysimachos_Alexander_the_Great_Portrait_Coin~0.JPG
Lysimachos Alexander the Great Portrait Coin128 viewsLysimachos, Portrait of Alexander the Great, Kingdon of Thrace, Silver tetradrachm, (Posthumous issue c. 280 - 200 BC), 16.675g, 30.6mm, die axis 0o, Müller 460, Thompson -, SNG Cop -, SNG UK -, uncertain mint,
OBV: Diademed head of Alexander the Great wearing the horn of Ammon
REV: BASILEWS LUSIMACOU, Athena enthroned left, holding Nike crowning name with wreath in right,
resting left arm on shield at side, transverse spear behind, bow case inner left

EX: Heritage Long Beach Signature Sale (18 Sep 2008), lot 20015; EX: Forum Ancient Coins
3 commentsRomanorvm
IMG_2204_-_____.JPG
Phoenicia, Akko-Ptolemais Valerian I. 253-260 AD. AE 2664 viewsValerian I. 253-260 AD. AE 26 . Phoenicia, Akko-Ptolemais.
Obv: IMP C P L - [VALERIANVS] AVG Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, seen from front.
Rx: COL - P - T - OL Sacred tree between serpents rising from two altars or baskets; to right, winged caduceus. Rare: this type missing in BM, Lindgren, Berk photofile, and Wildwinds. CoinArchives includes a specimen from the same reverse die, but with radiate portrait on obverse: Heritage 357, Long Beach, 9 September 2004, lot 12092. Cohen 374 (de Saulcy Collection). Adjustment marks on obverse.
1 commentsMaritima
phraatesIV.jpg
Phraates IV (38 -2 BC) AR Tetradrachm 286 SE /26 BC52 viewsObv: Phraates diademed and cuirassed bust left with long pointed beard - no royal wart on forehead.
Rev: The king enthroned r. being presented with a palm branch by Tyche, standing l. before him holding cornucopiae with pellet above arm. Seleucid date 286 (C Pi Sigma) above palm. Greek inscription in 7 lines BASILEOS/BASILEON; on r. ARSAKOY/EUERGETOY' below [DIKAOY]; on l. EPIPHANOUS/PHILELLANOS; month off flan below
Wt 14.1 gm, 26.3 mm, Sellwood type 55

The coin could be that of Tiridates I who also ruled for a few months in 26 BC. The features of the king on this coin are much closer to that of Phraates than of much rarer Tiridates I according to a reclassification of Sellwood types by deCallatay and this is the most believable. The lower lines of the inscription would also settle the issue but are lost on this coin.
Early coins of the Parthian empire showed strong Greek empahasis on classical Greek forms and humanism which is gradually lost as the empire matured and finally decayed. The coins become schematic and emphasize suface ornament rather than sculptural quality. One senses from the portrait of Phraates that brutality was a prerequisite for Parthian kings who routinely bumped off fathers and brothers in their rise to power. Like the Spartans, they had a powerful empire in their time but its contribution to civilization was limited in the long term.
1 commentsdaverino
0191-a00.JPG
Plautilla, overview297 viewsThere are five main types of portrait for Plautilla’s denarii at the Rome mint :

A - With a draped bust right, hair coiled in horizontal ridges and fastened in bun in high position. Her facial expression is juvenile
B - Hair being coiled in vertical ridges, with bun in low position. Plautilla looks here more like a young beautiful woman
C - The third bust shows a thinner face of Plautilla with hair in vertical ridges and no bun but braids covering her neck
D - The fourth type has a similar appearance with the former, but the vertical ridges disappear, hair being plastered down, still showing the right ear
E - Plautilla appears with mid long hair plastered down and covering her ears

In the mean time there are seven different reverses :

1 - CONCORDIAE AETERNAE
2 - PROPAGO IMPERI
3 - CONCORDIA AVGG
4 - CONCORDIA FELIX
5 - PIETAS AVGG
6 – DIANA LVCIFERA

Not every combination exists, but some of the above reverses can be shared by several obverse portraits. Noticeable also is an evolution of the obverse legend, being PLAVTILLAE AVGVSTAE (a) in 202, and becoming PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA (b) soon after

You can see the evolution of this interesting coinage in my Plautilla's gallery.
3 commentsPotator II
Pupeinus ric 10a.jpg
RIC-10(a) Pupienus Clasped Hands832 viewsIMP CAES M CLOD PVPIENVS AVG - Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
CARITAS MVTVA AVGG - (Mutual Clarity of the Emperors), clasped hands

This is the scarcer variant of RIC 10. Superb portrait. David Sear ANCCS certified.
From Forum ancient Coins
12 commentsjimwho523
101n.jpg
Λ (or possibly Δ)199 viewsCILICIA. Adana (?). Elagabalus. Æ 34. A.D. 218-222. Obv: AVKMAVPANTΩNEINOCCEΓ (or similar), Π-Π on either side of portrait. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on head. Rev: AΔAN-EΩN (?). Zeus seated left on throne, holding staff in left hand and patera right hand, right arm extended. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 165°. Weight: 22.31 g. CM: Λ (or possibly Δ) in circular punch, 5 mm. Howgego -. Note: Deeply recessed countermark. Collection Automan.Automan
00013x00.jpg
36 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 2.71 g, 12 h)
Imperial issue (?)
Venus Victrix standing right, resting arm on cippus and holding transverse scepter and clasping hands with Mars, standing left
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Rostowzew 153, pl. III 2; München 16-7; Kircheriano 572, 582, 738, and 741

Rostowzew places this with the "Tesserae capitibus et nominibus imperatorum signatae" on the basis of type. In my studies, I have noticed that many of the types bearing Imperial portraiture or names are much more finely engraved, often with a centering dot and pronounced rims.
Ardatirion
00004x00~5.jpg
63 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.53 g, 12h)
Victory standing right, foot on helmet, inscribing shield set on palm tree
Apex; palm frond to left
M. & B. Overbeck, “Romische Bleimarken als Zeugnis des Ersten Jüdischen Krieges,” in Helas und der Grechen Osten, p. 211-216, 1; Rostovtsev 1840, pl. VII, 37; BMC 802-4

The similarities between the obverse of this piece and the Judaea Capta issues of Caesarea Maritima cannot be overstated. This type, as well as a few others that bear the portrait of Vespasian or palm trees, undoubtedly played some role in the triumph that followed the conclusion of the First Jewish War.
2 commentsArdatirion
woman1.JPG
24 viewsIONIA, Ephesos
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.28 g)
Female head right
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç - (but cf. 183 and 184 for other female portraits)
Ardatirion
quadrans.jpg
107 viewsROME. temp. Hadrian-Antoninus Pius. Circa AD 120-161
Æ Quadrans (16mm, 2.94 g, 7h)
Rome mint
Petasus
Winged caduceus; S C flanking
Weigel 18; RIC II 32; Cohen 36

Weigel reconsiders the anonymous quadrantes as a cohesive group. The seriesportrays a pantheon of eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules. Types are primarily a portrait of the god, with an attribute on the reverse and are usually influenced by (but not directly copied from) earlier designs, primarily from the Republic. He updates the series to the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus.
5 commentsArdatirion
00030x00~0.jpg
25 viewsVolusian. AD 251-253
Æ Antoninianus? (17mm, 1.83 g)
Copying an uncertain issue
Radiate, [draped, and cuirrassed] bust right
Blank

A most curious piece. The attribution to Volusian is suggested by the shape of the facial hair and the generally youthful portrait.
1 commentsArdatirion
00022x00.jpg
55 viewsROME. temp. Domitian-Antoninus Pius. Circa AD 81-160
Æ Quadrans (16mm, 3.99 g, 12 h)
Rome mint
Griffin seated left, paw on wheel
Tripod; S C flanking
Weigel 15; RIC II 28; Cohen 38

Weigel reconsiders the anonymous quadrantes as a cohesive group. The seriesportrays a pantheon of eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules. Types are primarily a portrait of the god, with an attribute on the reverse and are usually influenced by (but not directly copied from) earlier designs, primarily from the Republic. He updates the series to the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus.
Ardatirion
ytyyyyyyyy.jpg
(741-775) Sizilien Follis Constantin Leo20 viewsConstantin V. mit Leo IV., 741-775

CONSTANTIN V et LÉON IV
(6/06/751-14/09/775)
Sur les monnaies de Constantin V, le portrait du fondateur de la dynastie isaurienne, Léon III (720-741) figure souvent au revers. Cette dynastie devait durer presque cent ans jusqu'à la déposition d'Irène, femme de Léon IV, mère de Constantin VI qu'elle fit aveugler pour régner seule.
Ségusiaves
caracalla_ar-tet_12_9gr_sara-mizrahi_BIN_185_50%.JPG
0 - Caracalla - Antioch, Syria Tetradrachm #438 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Caracalla (198 - 217 AD)
Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. - #4

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate head of Emperor facing right.
rev: Eagle standing facing, head left, tail left, holding wreath in beak. Prow of ship between legs.

Weight: 13.0 Grams
Size: 28 mm
--------------------------------------------------------
*Note: Wonderful portrait of the emperor on the obverse and the eagle on the reverse, I am very proud of this coin.
4 commentsrexesq
Macrinus_4drachm_01_cut_portrait.JPG
0 - Macrinus Tetradrachm - Beroea Mint, Syria.16 viewsRoman Empire, Syro-Phoenician 4 Drachm.
SYRIA, Cyrrhestica. Beroea.
Emperor Macrinus (217-218 AD). Silver Tetradrachm.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate, and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing facing holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left; Palm leaf in upper left field.
Winged Animal (Possibly a Phoenix) between eagle's legs; 'B-E' flanking either side, one letter under each one of the eagle's feet.

14.4 Grams
27 / 26.5 mm
------
Bust, cut.
rexesq
_AR-Tet_feb2012.jpg
0 - Roman Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria435 views~~~
Ancient Roman Empire

Silver Tetradrachm of Antioch, Syria. RARE type.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust of Emperor facing right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: Eagle standing with body facing right, head and tail facing left, holding wreath in beak.
Greek letters to either side of eagle's head.
~~~~~
*notes: AMAZING PORTRAIT!!! Very Rare type, I have only ever seen ONE other example with this bust style.
~~~
~
1 commentsrexesq
vespasian_clasped-hands-caduceus-poppies-wheat_00.JPG
000 - Vespasian AR Denarius - Clasped Hands97 viewsVespasian Silver Denarius - Clasped Hands
Rome Mint, AD 73
obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS IIII CEN - Laureled head right.

rev: FIDES PVBL - Clasped hands holding wheat ears, opium poppies and caduceus.
------------
A bit off-center, but a beautiful portrait of the Emperor, and great detail on the poppy heads.
------------
**
**More photos of this Vespasian Denarius below, in Alphabetical order...
4 commentsrexesq
vespasian_silver-denarius_clasped-hands-caduceus-poppies-wheat_obv_09_rev_08_95%.JPG
000 - Vespasian AR Denarius - Clasped Hands 30 viewsVespasian Silver Denarius - Clasped Hands
Rome Mint, AD 73
obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG PM COS IIII CEN - Laureled head right.

rev: FIDES PVBL - Clasped hands holding wheat ears, opium poppies and caduceus.
------------
A bit off-center, but a beautiful portrait of the Emperor, and great detail on the poppy heads.
------------
** These photos slightly bright and off-color due to lighting
**More photos of this Vespasian Denarius below, in Alphabetical order...
1 commentsrexesq
Philip-II_frontal-bust-armored_AR-tet_antioch_001.JPG
001 - Philip II - AR Tetradrachm, Antioch, Syria - Frontal bust, armored; RARE Bust.23 viewsAncient Roman Empire

Philip II ( 244 - 249 AD ). Silver Tetradrachm, from Antioch, Syria.

( titles in Greek )
obv: Laureate bust facing left, rare cuirassed/armored portrait, seen from the front.
rev: Eagle facing left, wreath in beak, standing above city name over " S C ", wings open.
11.3 Grams, 28mm
2 commentsrexesq
coin179.JPG
002a. Agrippa 55 viewsAgrippa

A close friend of Octavian (later Emperor Augustus), he won a name in the wars in Gaul before becoming consul in 37 He organized Octavian's fleet and is generally given much credit for the defeat (36 ) of Sextus Pompeius in the naval battles at Mylae and Naulochus (N Sicily). Agrippa took part in the war against Antony, and his naval operations were the basis of Octavian's decisive victory at Actium in 31 He was perhaps the most trusted of all Augustus' lieutenants and rendered many services, notably in putting down disorders in both the East and West. His third wife was Augustus' daughter Julia.

AS. M AGRIPPA L F COS III Head left, wearing rostral crown. / Neptune standing, head left, S C at sides.

It seems like the quality and price of Agrippa coins run the whole spectrum...I think a decent example can be had for as little as $20. This is a bit more than that but I am happy with the quality of the metal and portrait.
ecoli
NeroDECVRSIOSestertiusRome.JPG
005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm201 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
VespasianRSC366RIC90~0.jpg
009. Vespasian, 69-79AD. AR Denarius.62 viewsVespasian 69-79. Rome mint, AR Denarius. Struck in 75A.D.
Obv. Laureate head right IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG
Rev. Pax seated left, holding branch PON MAX TRP COS VI

19.5mm, 2.84g. RSC 366, RIC 90.

A very craggy Vespasianic portrait. Pax appears to be bared to the waist, unusual.
1 commentsLordBest
V541.jpg
00a Domitian as Caesar RIC 541339 viewsAR Denarius, 3.46g
Rome mint, 73 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: No legend; Domitian on horse l.; r. hand raised, sceptre in l.
RIC 541 (R2). BMC 129 var. RSC 664. BNC 105 var.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, lot 701. = Helios, ebay, 29 November 2010 (A. Lynn Collection).

This is an extremely rare denarius of Domitian as Caesar, the second earliest minted at Rome. Here the legend is clockwise, the much more common Domitian on horseback type has the legend anticlockwise. The reverse may allude to Domitian's participation in Vespasian and Titus' joint triumph where he rode a 'magnificent' steed. The obverse is a die match with the RIC plate coin from Oxford.

The early portrait on this one is quite outstanding.
18 commentsDavid Atherton
gordian-III_tet_ram-below-eagle_14_76gr_mar2012_amphora.jpg
01 - Gordian III Tetradrachm #3 - Ram leaping left beneath Eagle, head reverted, Crescent Moon above ram27 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Gordian III ( 238 - 244 AD ) Silver Tetradrachm.
Struck at the Roman Mint at Antioch, Syria.

(Titles in Greek)
obv: Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: Eagle standing, holding laurel wreath in beak, head facing left.
BELOW: Ram leaping left, head turned facing behind (right), with Crescent Moon above head of Ram, all between the legs of the Eagle.

Weight: 14.76 Grams

~~~~
::Great detail on the head and beak of the Eagle, as well as on the Emperor's portrait, very nice coin, good weight for the type too. ::
~~~

*ex Amphora Ancient Coins, with photo-authenticity COA signed by David Hendin, author of Guide to Biblical Coins.
~~
~
5 commentsrexesq
V669a.jpg
01 Domitian as Caesar RIC 66927 viewsÆ As, 11.05g
Rome mint, 73-74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIAN COS II; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PAX AVGVST; S C in field; Pax stg. l., leaning on column, with caduceus and branch
RIC 669 (C). BMC -. BNC 699.
Acquired from Musa Numismatics, August 2019.

The propaganda value of Pax for the Flavian dynasty after the Civil War, the revolt of Civilis, and the Jewish War cannot be underestimated. In her various guises she is one of the most popular types on Vespasian's coinage and shows up quite frequently during the reign on the coins struck for both himself and his sons. This As struck for Domitian as Caesar shows Pax leaning on a column, which likely copies a well known cult image of the goddess.

Tellingly, less than a decade later, Pax would not feature so prominently on Domitian's own coinage as Emperor.

Fine style early portrait.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
T387a.jpg
01 Julia Titi RIC 387140 viewsAR Denarius, 3.22g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA T AVG F•; Bust of Julia Titi, draped and diademed, r., hair in long plait
Rev: VENVS AVG; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 387 (R). BMC 140. RSC 12. BNC 103.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, February 2017.

A rare variant of the common Venus type for Julia Titi with shortened obverse and reverse legends. NB: Julia's denarii were not struck in plentiful numbers.

Lovely portrait in good metal.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
144286.jpg
010. Vespasian36 viewsVespasian. AD 69-79. AR Denarius (20mm, 2.96 g). Ephesos mint. Struck AD 71. Laureate head right / Turreted and draped female bust right. RIC II 327 var.; BMCRE 450 var. ; RPC II 828 var.; RSC 293a var. This issue is normally accompanied by a mint mark below the bust on the reverse. No mintmark can be seen on this specimen, but striking weakness could have prevented it from being fully struck in this area. The obverse portrait is almost certainly from the same hand as RPC II 828, an issue marked with a BY monogram. Ex-CNGecoli
philip-II_as-caesar_frontal-bust-dr_cuir_13_03grams_ex-Hendin.jpg
02 - 01 - Philip II as Caesar (244 - 247 AD) AR Tetradrachm - Bare head, draped and cuirassed, seen from the Front45 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Philip II as Caesar (Prince) - Large Silver Tetradrachm
Struck in Antioch, Syria between 244 and 247 AD.

(titles in Greek)
obv: Bare head of Philip II facing right. Draped and cuirassed. Bust seen from the front.

rev: Eagle standing on Palm branch facing, wings open holding wreath in beak, head and tail facing left.
'S C' Below.

Weight: 13.03 Grams
Size: 26.3 mm* - *(at the narrowest part)
---
-
---
ex Amphora Coins

with Photo Certificate of Authenticity signed by Author of "Guide to Biblical Coins" David Hendin.
-----
Seller photo. Great 'Frontal Bust' portrait and very large flan!
4 commentsrexesq
Augustus denarius.jpg
02 B.C. - 4 A.D Augustus Denarius124 viewsSilver denarius, S 1597, RIC 207, BMC 533, EF, Lugdunum mint, 3.876g, 19.2mm, 180o, 2 B.C. - 4 A.D.;
obverse CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right;
reverse C L CAESARES AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, Caius and Lucius Caesars togate stand facing, each resting hand on a round shield with spear behind, above center on l. a simpulum r. and on r. a lituus l.;
lustrous, nice portrait, reverse slightly off center
jimwho523
dom as caesar spes.jpg
02 Domitian as Caesar RIC 788157 viewsAR Denarius, 3.36g
Rome mint, 74 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAES AVG F DOMIT COS III; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVT; Spes, draped, advancing l., holding up flower in r. hand and with l. holding up her skirt.
RIC 788 (C). BMC 156. RSC 375. BNC 135.
Ex Harlan J Berk 155, 31 July 2007, lot 247.

During Vespasian's reign, Domitian was given the honorary title PRINCEPS IVVENTVT or 'Prince of Youth', celebrated here on this denarius from 74 AD. The title is one that was often given to young princes who were marked out as chosen heirs.

Spes, the personification of hope, is seen here on the reverse advacing left, holding a budding flower. The flower is a symbol of future well being.

Domitian's coinage during Vespasian's rule was unique. While Titus followed closely the types of his father, Domitian struck out on his own. One wonders how much of an input the young prince had on his own series.

A very likeable coin with a good portrait and excellent centring.


2 commentsVespasian70
T388aa.jpg
02 Julia Titi RIC 388104 viewsAR Denarius, 3.09g
Rome mint, 80-81 AD (Titus)
Obv: IVLIA AVGVSTA TITI AVGVSTI F•; Bust of Julia Titi, draped and diademed, r., hair in long plait
Rev: VENVS AVGVST; Venus stg. r., leaning on column, with helmet and spear
RIC 388 (C2). BMC 142. RSC 14. BNC 106.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, August 2017.

The most 'common' variant of Julia Titi's Venus denarii. However, I think RIC's frequency rating of 'C2' overstates the case. The same reverse type is also shared with Titus. Stylistic note - many of Julia's portraits have the facial features of either Titus or Domitian Caesar, this example is no exception.

Struck on a large flan in decent style.

8 commentsDavid Atherton
RI 020b img.jpg
020 - Nero AE As - RIC 543 59 viewsAE As
Obv:– IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P (separated with dots), Bare head right with globe at tip
Rev:– -, Victory flying left holding shield inscribed S P Q R, S - C
Minted in Lugdunum. Circa A.D. 66
Reference:– BMCRE 381. RIC Vol I Nero 543

A decent example with a broken patina, a decent portrait, clear legends with the dots in the legends clearly visible.

Please click on the image to see a larger photograph.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Vespasianus-portrait.jpg
020 Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), AR-Denarius, Portrait, 316 viewsVespasian (69-79 A.D.), AR-Denarius, Portrait, 3 commentsquadrans
KnidosARdrachm.jpg
020a, CARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm.66 viewsCARIA, Knidos. Circa 465-449 BC. AR Drachm - 16mm (6.06 g). Obverse: forepart of roaring lion right; Reverse: archaic head of Aphrodite right, hair bound with taenia. Cahn 80 (V38/R53); SNG Helsinki 132 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen 232 (same dies). Toned, near VF, good metal. Ex Barry P. Murphy.

While this coin falls within the time frame that numismatists call "Classical" Greek coinage, I have chosen to place it in both the "Archaic" (coin 020a) and "Classical" Greek sections of my collection. This specimen is one of those wonderful examples of transition--it incorporates many elements of the "Archaic" era, although it is struck during the "Classical" Greek period and anticipates characteristics of the later period.

As noted art historian Patricia Lawrence has pointed out, "[this specimen portrays] A noble-headed lion, a lovely Late Archaic Aphrodite, and [is made from]. . . beautiful metal." The Archaic Aphrodite is reminiscent of certain portraits of Arethusa found on tetradrachms produced in Syracuse in the first decade of the 5th century BC.

Knidos was a city of high antiquity and as a Hellenic city probably of Lacedaemonian colonization. Along with Halicarnassus (present day Bodrum, Turkey) and Kos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindos, Kamiros and Ialyssos it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.

The city was at first governed by an oligarchic senate, composed of sixty members, and presided over by a magistrate; but, though it is proved by inscriptions that the old names continued to a very late period, the constitution underwent a popular transformation. The situation of the city was favourable for commerce, and the Knidians acquired considerable wealth, and were able to colonize the island of Lipara, and founded a city on Corcyra Nigra in the Adriatic. They ultimately submitted to Cyrus, and from the battle of Eurymedon to the latter part of the Peloponnesian War they were subject to Athens.

In their expansion into the region, the Romans easily obtained the allegiance of Knidians, and rewarded them for help given against Antiochus by leaving them the freedom of their city.

During the Byzantine period there must still have been a considerable population: for the ruins contain a large number of buildings belonging to the Byzantine style, and Christian sepulchres are common in the neighbourhood.

Eudoxus, the astronomer, Ctesias, the writer on Persian history, and Sostratus, the builder of the celebrated Pharos at Alexandria, are the most remarkable of the Knidians mentioned in history.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cnidus

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Tiberius_RIC_I_4.jpg
03 01 Tiberius RIC 454 viewsTiberius 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum Mint, 15-16 A.D. (3.74g, 17.6mm, 6h). Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: [TR POT X]VII. IMP [VII] in exergue, Tiberius, laur. And cloaked, stg. In slow Quadriga r., holding laurel branch and eagle tipped scepter. RIC I 4 (R2), BMC 7, RSC 48.

For an emperor with relatively long reign, Tiberius’ silver coinage was remarkably unvaried with the ubiquitous “tribute penny” making up the bulk of his denarii. This is a decent example of, perhaps, the second most common silver coin. Although the reverse legends are largely off the flan, the obverse has a decent portrait and legend.
2 commentsLucas H
V920sm.jpg
03 Domitian as Caesar RIC 920102 viewsAR Denarius, 2.96g
Rome mint, 76-77AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Minerva stg. r. on prow, with spear and shield; to r., owl
RIC 920 (R). BMC spec. acquired 1947. RSC 45b. BNC -.
Ex Private Collection.

The first appearance of Minerva on a denarius struck for Domitian as Caesar under Vespasian. His devotion to the goddess came early in life, so it comes as no surprise he wished to honour her on the coins minted in his name. This denarius is a clear indication Domitian had some say in what reverse types were struck for him under Vespasian. The Minerva on prow is an early prototype of one of the four standard Minerva types (M2) Domitian would later extensively strike on his own denarii as Augustus. An extremely rare type for him as Caesar.

A pleasing coin with a Vespasian-like portrait.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
RI 030g img.jpg
030 - Vespasian Dupondius - RIC 481 var.73 viewsObv:– IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG COS III, Radiate head right, globe on neck
Rev:– VICTORIA NAVALIS S - C, Victory standing right on prow, holding wreath and palm
Minted in Lugdunum. A.D. 70-71
References:– Cohen -. RIC II 481 var (Not listed in RIC with this bust and legend combination)

Additional comments coutesy of Curtis Clay:-

“A coin like yours, from the same obv. die, was in M&M's Voirol Sale of 1968, lot 385, ex Hall Sale, 1950, lot 1203. A second spec. from that same die pair is publ. by Giard, Lyon, 42/1a, pl. XLIII, Coll. Gricourt.
BMC 809 pl. 38.7 has obv. CAESAR not CAES and a broader portrait on shorter neck.
Paris doesn't have this type on a COS III dup. of Vesp. at Lugdunum, but their As, Paris 812 pl. LXVII, is from the same rev. die as your dupondius!
Obviously quite a scarce item, and an attractive specimen!”
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Sabina_AE-As_SABINA-AVGVSTA-HADRIANI-AVG-PP_CONCORDIA-AVG_S-C_RIC-1037_128-136-AD_Q-001_axis-h_x,xxmm_x,xxgg-s.jpg
033 Sabina (???-136 A.D.), RIC II 1037, Rome, AE-As, CONCORDIA AVG, -/-//S-C, Concordia seated left, #1137 views033 Sabina (???-136 A.D.), RIC II 1037, Rome, AE-As, CONCORDIA AVG, -/-//S-C, Concordia seated left, #1
avers:- SABINA-AVGVSTA-HADRIANI-AVG-PP, Her bust draped right wreathed in grain with hair fastened in a small knot at back. RARE portrait type depicting the empress with hair tied back and wreathed in grain.
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVG/S-C, Concordia seated left holding patera and leaning left elbow on figure of Spes, cornucopiae below chair.
exerg: -/-//S-C, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Roma, date: 128-136 A.D., ref: RIC-II 1037,
Q-001
quadrans
Sabina_AE-As_SABINA-AVGVSTA-HADRIANI-AVG-P-P_CONCORDIA-AVG_S-C_RIC-1037_128-136-AD_Q-002_7h_26,5-27,5mm_9,30g-s.jpg
033 Sabina (???-136 A.D.), RIC II 1037, Rome, AE-As, CONCORDIA AVG, -/-//S-C, Concordia seated left, #2136 views033 Sabina (???-136 A.D.), RIC II 1037, Rome, AE-As, CONCORDIA AVG, -/-//S-C, Concordia seated left, #2
avers:- SABINA-AVGVSTA-HADRIANI-AVG-P-P, Her bust draped right wreathed in grain with hair fastened in a small knot at back. RARE portrait type depicting the empress with hair tied back and wreathed in grain.
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVG/S-C, Concordia seated left holding patera and leaning left elbow on figure of Spes, cornucopiae below chair.
exerg: -/-//S-C, diameter: 26,5-27,5mm, weight: 9,30g, axes: 7h,
mint: Roma, date: 128-136 A.D., ref: RIC-II 1037,
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
RI_035l_img.jpg
035 - Domitian Ae AS - RIC II 385a79 viewsObv:- IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VIII CENS PER P P, Laureate head right
Rev:- COS XIIII LVD SAEC FEC - SC, Domitian , togate,standing left, sacrificing from patera over garlanded altar, on the other side of which are two flute players facing the emperor, one of which is partly obscured by the altar, hexastyle temple of Jupiter Capitolinus in background.

This variety, not distinguished in the catalogues, where the second musician's lower body is obscured by the large altar. see BMC pl. 79.3, with obv. portrait left, is from the same rev. die. On other dies, apparently the normal variety, the altar is narrower and you see the second musician's legs descending to the ground.

Celebrates the Secular Games
4 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_035n_img.jpg
035 - Domitian denarius - RIC II new p. 128, 958 (Vespasian)37 viewsObv:- CAESAR AVG F [D]OMITIANV[S], Laureate head of Domitian to left
Rev:- Horseman galloping to right, right hand raised; below, COS V
Minted in Rome. A.D. 77-78
Reference:– RIC II new p. 128, 958 (Vespasian) (R3)

Rare with left facing portrait.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
Antonia_03_portrait.jpg
036 BC - AD 037 - ANTONIA15 viewsAntonia

Antonia 36 BC - 37 was the younger of two daughters of Mark Antony and Octavia Minor. She was a niece of the Emperor Augustus, sister-in-law of the Emperor Tiberius, paternal grandmother of the Emperor Caligula and Empress Agrippina the Younger, mother of the Emperor Claudius, and both maternal great-grandmother and paternal great-aunt of the Emperor Nero

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
deciussestpannonia~0.JPG
036. Trajan Decius, 249-251AD. AE Sestertius. 33 viewsAE Sestertius. Rome mint..
Obv. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG

Rev. The two Pannoniae standing left holding military standards. PANNONIAE SC

RIC 124a, Cohen 87.

Beautiful patina, wonderful portrait. gVF.
LordBest
dom as caesar pegasus.jpg
03a Domitian as Caesar RIC 921166 viewsAR Denarius, 3.12g
Rome mint, 76-77 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS IIII; Pegasus, standing r.
RIC 921 (C2). BMC 193. RSC 47. BNC 169.
Acquired from Nilus Coins, March 2007.

The reverse copies an Augustan one and might possibly allude to Domitian's foray into poetry. (BMCRE xl)

Unlike most of the crude Domitian portraits of the time from the Rome mint, this one has a great beauty and nobility to it that few of his contemporary denarii strive to achieve. Was it a minor slight that most of the better die engravers were used for Vespasian and Titus' coins? Thankfully one slipped through to create a wonderful portrait of the young caesar.

Despite some minor flaws, this is a wonderful coin that I'm happy to add to my collection.
2 commentsVespasian70
V932.jpg
03c Domitian as Caesar RIC 93260 viewsÆ As, 10.65g
Rome mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS IIII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: S C in field; Spes stg. l., with flower
RIC 932 (C). BMC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Ken Dorney, January 2019.

Spes, the goddess of hope, is seen here as an 'heir apparent' type. She is represented on Roman coins as a young girl, reminiscent of earlier Greek statures depicting Elpis. H. Mattingly in BMCRE II says 'the flower held by Spes is an opening bud, she is raising her skirt in order to hasten forward'. Spes occurs quite commonly throughout the Flavian coinage and is frequently paired up with the young Domitian Caesar, likely expressing a hope or expectation for future dynastic success. It is very Ironic that Spes is often associated with Domitian Caesar on the coinage, considering he would later be the family member most responsible for the dynasty's downfall in 96. Surprisingly, this common Spes type is not in the BM.

The obverse features a quintessential Flavian portrait - unflattering hook nose with full and heavy facial features. Pleasant dark green patina.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
domitian as caesar rider on horse.jpg
04 Domitian as Caesar RIC 957160 viewsAR Denarius, 3.44g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS V; Horseman, helmeted, in military dress, cloak floating behind him, on horse prancing r., with r. hand thrown upwards and back
RIC 957 (C2). BMC 234. RSC 49. BNC 207.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, September 2007.

Issued at a time when Domitian was aspiring to an Eastern command against the Alani, Mattingly attributes this type to that cause: The rider is Mars calling Rome to the field of battle.

Other theories suggest the rider is either Domitian or a soldier. Curtis Clay has also proposed the idea that this type may well be of a commemorative nature, since much of Vespasian's coinage are copies of past popular types.

A lovely coin in hand, the portrait was the reason this one found a home in my collection.
1 commentsVespasian70
magniaurbica.jpg
040. Magnia Urbica58 viewsMagnia Urbica. AE Antoninianus. Lugdunum mint.

Obv. Draped and diademed bust right on crescent MAGNIA VRBICA AVG.

Rev. Venus Genetrix standing left holding gapple and sceptre, shield at feet VENVS GENETRIX, D in left field.

RIC V pt. 2, 337.gVF, R2.

A coin ive been looking for for a long time, Magnia Urbica has by far the finest portraits of any post-Severan empress
LordBest
aurelianant.JPG
045. Aurelian, 270-275AD. BI Antoninianus.43 viewsBI Antoninianus. Unattributed mint.
Obv.Radiate and cuirassed bust right IMP AVRELIANVS AVG
Rev. Female figure presenting the emperor with wreath RESTITVT ORBIS

RIC 399, Cohen 192.

A bit dirty, significant silvering left. A great portrait and reverse..
LordBest
V958.jpg
04a Domitian as Caesar RIC 958143 viewsAR Denarius, 3.12g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: COS V; Horseman, helmeted, in military dress, cloak floating behind him, on horse prancing r., with r. hand thrown upwards and back
RIC 958 (R3). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, September 2015.

Second known specimen of this type with left facing portrait. A die match with the unique RIC plate coin. Left facing portraits of Domitian are quite rare and highly prized by collectors.

In fine style with honest wear. The portrait is outstanding!
8 commentsDavid Atherton
domitian as caesar wolf and twins.JPG
05 Domitian as Caesar RIC 961149 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS V; She-wolf and twins l. : in ex., boat
RIC 961 (C2). BMC 240. RSC 51. BNC 208.
Ex eBay, February 2007.

The first instance of the she-wolf and twins reverse as a type on Roman Imperial coins. Domitian Caesar, unlike Titus Caesar, used different reverse types than his father Vespasian. The she-wolf and twins is unique to Domitan's coinage. One wonders how much leverage Domitian had for choosing his own reverse designs.

A wonderful coin with good metal and a pleasing portrait. The picture does not reflect this very well however.

2 commentsVespasian70
RI_051p_img.jpg
051 - Marcus Aurelius Denarius - RIC III Pius 456a30 viewsObv:– AVRELIVS CAESAR ANTONINI AVG PII FIL, bare head right
Rev:– TR POT VI COS II / CLEM, Clementia standing right, head left, holding patera and drawing out drapery from legs
Minted in Rome mint. A.D. 151-152
Reference:– BMCRE (Pius) 70. Cohen 25a. RIC III Pius 456a.
19mm. 3.16g.
Wonderfully high relief on the portrait.

Ex. Wayne G. Sayles
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 053a img.jpg
053 - Lucius Verus Denarius - Unlisted with this bust type62 viewsObv:– IMP L AVREL VERVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– CONCORD AVG TR P / COS II, Concordia seated left holding patera
Unlisted.
Notes - with many thanks to Curtis Clay for his help with the following information on this coin.
This is a somewhat scarce type for Verus on denarii. The RD hoard lists 9 specimens without TR P in the reverse legend and 6 specimens like this with TR P. Of the 6 RD coins with TR P, 4 showed head bare, 1 head bare with fold of cloak on shoulders, 1 bust draped with head bare. The last two were new variants, the first had been reported in Rivista ital. di num. 1907. New specimens of this coin can easily show new bust variants and this is one of them.
BMC lists ten different right-facing portrait types for Verus on aurei and denarii of 161, plus three left-facing types!
maridvnvm
Faustina-Sr-RIC-394a.jpg
057. Faustina Senior.16 viewsDenarius, after 141 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: DIVA AVG FAVSTINA / Bust of Faustina.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG / Pietas veiled, standing, dropping incense on altar, and holding a box.
3.59 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #394a; Sear #4598.

Faustina died early on in the reign of her husband. Most of her coinage is from the extensive memorial coinage issued in the years after her death. The portrait on this particular coin is exceptionally elegant and dignified.

Visible on the reverse (lower right edge) of this coin is an inclusion of copper that did not get melted and mixed with the silver when the planchet was made. That this coin is probably not a fouree is evidenced by the fact that it weighs a bit more than other denarii of the period.
Callimachus
V976.jpg
05a Domitian as Caesar RIC 97687 viewsAR Denarius, 3.35g
Rome mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: CERES AVGVST; Ceres stg. l., with corn ears and poppy and sceptre
RIC 976 (C). BMC 323. RSC 30. BNC 285.
Acquired from Forvm Ancient Coins, December 2014.

Vespasian and Titus normally shared reverse types, but rarely with Domitian. Unusually this Ceres type was struck for all three. It possibly was part of an agrarian themed series Vespasian issued towards the end of his reign. These later issues of Vespasian have neat small portrait heads.

The coin features a pleasant looking Domitian with his trademark protruding upper lip, struck on a large flan.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
normal_RI_064da_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -31 viewsObv:–IMP CAE L SEP SE . V PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right (Longhead portrait)
Rev:– FORTVN R-EDVCI, Fortuna (pax?), with modius on head, seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:- RIC -

3.36g, 19.07mm, 0o

Black toning.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ev_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -26 views064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 386 var
Obv:–IMP CAE L SEP SE . V PERT AVG COS I-I, Laureate head right (Longhead portrait)
Rev:– FORTVNA REDVCI, Fortuna (pax?), with modius on head, seated left holding branch and cornucopia
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 195
Reference:- RIC - (cf. RIC 386 which has a different reverse legend for this type FORTVN REDVC)
maridvnvm
RI_064qq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP I-I, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT R-DEVC, Fortuna seated left holding rudder and cornucopiae
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference(s) – BMC W Page 108 * var (citing Cohen 168 though Cohen 168 is PERT). RIC 451 var (451 listed for PERT and noted for PERET (RD)). RSC 168 var (PERET for PERT)

Lamination issue that has left a lump of silver missing on the portrait.
maridvnvm
RI_064sz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 00722 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– LEG III ITAL, TR P COS in exergue, legionary eagle between two standards. Capricorns on standards.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 193
Reference:– BMCRE 10, RIC 7. RSC 262

The portrait seems quite Antonine in nature.
maridvnvm
RI_064gw_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 34426 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– AEQVITAS II, Aequitas standing left, holding scales in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Alexandria, A.D. 194
References:– RIC 344 (Rare), BMCRE 319, RSC 18

3.12g. 17.70mm. 0o

I have other examples. This one is off-centre and not all the legends or devices are visible. I can forgive all these because I love this Alexandrian portrait.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064ez_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 36642 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG II CO, Laureate head right
Rev: – [BONA]E SPEI, Spes standing holding flower and lifting skirt
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– Cohen 60. BMC W341. RIC 366 (Rated Scarce)

3.06g, 17.96mm, 180o

A nice portrait from the scarce "AVG II CO" obverse variety, but a shame about the off-centre reverse strike.
maridvnvm
RI 064dv img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 417 var.19 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right (Long head portrait)
Rev:– [S]AECVI CE [LIC]IT,Crescent and seven stars (Supposed to be SAECVL FELICIT)
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference(s) – RIC IV 417 var (Odd legend variation)
maridvnvm
RI_064rt_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 42823 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE-V PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right (Long head portrait)
Rev:– VICTOR SEVE-R AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath in right hand, palm in left
Minted in Emesa. Early A.D. 194
Reference(s) – Cohen 749. BMCRE 399. RIC IV 428 (S). RSC 749

Harshly cleaned but bought because I have a few obverse die matches. This reverse legend is thought to be relatively early in the series and thus helps place this obverse die in the chronology.
maridvnvm
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PROVIDENTIA-AVG_RIC_13,_RSC_77,_BMC_15_Q-001_0h_19,5-20mm_2,99g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 013, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #165 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 013, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, early portrait resembling Severus Alexander.
reverse: PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, with cornucopia and wand pointed at the globe at the foot.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 19,5-20,0mm, weight: 2,99g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 235-236 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 13, p-141,
Q-002
quadrans
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_PROVIDENTIA-AVG_RIC-IV-II-13d_p-141_Q-001_axis-6h_20mm_2,65g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 013d, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #1263 views065 Maximinus I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 013d, Rome, AR-Denarius, PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, #1
avers: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, early portrait resembling Severus Alexander.
reverse: PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia standing left, holding the wand over globe and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20mm, weight: 2,65g, axis:6h,
mint: Rome, date: 235-236 A.D., ref: RIC IV-II 13d, p-141,
Q-001
quadrans
GI_066h_img.jpg
066 - Caracalla Tetradrachm - Berytus - Prieur 129323 viewsObv:- ΑΥΤ ΚAI AN-ΤΩΝΙΝΟC CΕ, Laureate head right with slight drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- ∆ΗΜΑΡΧ ΕΞ ΥΠΑΤΟCΤΟ ∆, Eagle standing facing, head left, wings open, wreath in beak, prow right between legs
Minted in Berytus (modern day Beirut, Lebanon). A.D. 215-217 (Prieur)
Reference:- Prieur 1293 (67 examples cited)

A nice stern portrait of Caracalla.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 069a img.jpg
069 - Macrinus Denarius - RIC 002115 viewsObv:– IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PONTIF MAX TR P P P, Jupiter, nude, standing front, head left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre
Minted in Rome, September 217 A.D.
References:– RIC 2, RSC 70
Titles PONTIF MAX TR P P P (no COS) are rare on denarii. No specimens of this coin in Reka Devnia hoard, for example. Combined with medium beard length of portrait increases interest. Macrinus was letting his beard grow and the same coin can also be found with either short or long beard! This is second issue, date c. Sept. 217
maridvnvm
dom_as_caesar_salus_and_snake.jpg
07 Domitian as Caesar RIC-108487 viewsAR Denarius, 3.28g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Salus, stg. r., resting on column, feeding snake out of patera
RIC 1084 (C2). BMC 265. RSC 384. BNC 237.
Acquired from Aegean Numismatics, July 2008.

A most puzzling reverse type issued during the last months of Vespasian's reign before he died on June 24th. Perhaps a reference to Vespasian's illness and his hopeful recovery.

Worn and average with a good portrait.
vespasian70
Galba_RIC_I_168_Clashed_Dies.jpg
07 Galba RIC I 168 Clashed dies25 viewsGalba. AR Denarius. Rome Mint July 68- Jan. 69 A.D. (3.29g, 19.6m, 11h). Obv: IMP SER GALBA AVG, laureate head right. Rev: [SPQR/OB]/CS in three lines in oak-wreath. Reverse clashed dies. RIC I 168 (R). RSC 287a.

With complete obverse legends and a high relief portrait, the obverse is worn and the coin is on an oblong flan. The reason I added this to my collection is the reverse. I initially thought the reverse was an obverse brockage, which had been restruck. A more experienced collector pointed out it was produced by clashed dies. An interesting oddity.
Lucas H
780_P_Hadrian_RPC728.jpg
0728 THRACE, Bizya, Hadrian 117-19 AD City gate 32 viewsReference.
RPC III, 728; Jurukova Bizye, pl. 1, 3; 6 (same dies) 1A; Price-Trell p. 247, 83; Varbanov 1421 var.

Magistrate Maec- Nep- (presbeutès and antistrategos)

Obv. ΑΥΤΟ ΤΡΑΙΑΝΟС ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ СΕΒ ΓΕΡ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. ΕΠΙ ΜΑΙ ΝΕΠ ΠΡΕСΒ ΚΑΙ ΑΝΤ ΒΙΖΥΗΝΩΝ
City gate, flanked by two towers, surmounted by a figure in quadriga, r.

18.00 gr
31 mm
6h

Note.
The portrait of Hadrian is based on the features of Trajan, as were the earliest coins of Hadrian in Rome.

ex Numismatik Lanz auction 160, lot 414
ex FORVM
okidoki
V1085.jpg
07b Domitian as Caesar RIC 108589 viewsAR Denarius, 3.08g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Salus, stg. r., resting on column, feeding snake out of patera
RIC 1085 (R2). BMC p. 47 note. RSC 385. BNC 238.
Acquired from eBay, 10 June 2018.

A rare left portrait variant of the common Salus type struck for Domitian Caesar under Vespasian. The reverse may be an illusion to Vespasian's ill health preceeding his death on 24 June 79. No specimens in the BM's collection, citing the Paris collection. A double die match with the RIC plate coin.

Good style and well centred.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
V1088.jpg
08a Domitian as Caesar RIC-108886 viewsAR Denarius, 3.14g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Vesta std. l., with Palladium and sceptre
RIC 1088 (R3). BMC p. 46 note. RSC 379. BNC -.
Ex Den of Antiquity (eBay), October 2012.

A very rare (4th known) left facing portrait of the common Vesta and Palladium reverse. It is listed in Cohen as 379 (citing lot 784 of the de Moustier Sale of 1872) , although the new RIC states it is unverified (?). The lone example cited by RIC is in G. Mazzini's Monete imperiali romane, vol. 1. Also, Curtis Clay has a specimen, same die pair as mine. Left facing portraits of Domitian are extremely rare, especially those as Caesar.

Worn but all the major devices are visible.

Thanks to Curtis Clay for additional attribution help!
David Atherton
09-Alex-Alexandria.jpg
09. Alexandria: Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great.123 viewsTetradrachm, ca 310 - 305 BC, Alexandria (Egypt) mint.
Obverse: Head of Alexander with Horn of Ammon, wearing elephant skin headdress.
Reverse: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ / Athena carrying shield and hurling spear. Also small eagle sitting on thunderbolt at right. Two monograms: one at left, one at right.
15.10 gm., 26 mm.
S. #7749; BMC 6.6, 46.

You may have noticed that I refer to the obverse portraits on the Alexander the Great coins as "Head of Alexander as Herakles." Much has been written about these portraits as to whether or not they really portray Alexander's likeness. There can be no doubt, however, that the portrait on this coin was intended to be that of Alexander. Ptolemy issued this coin in the name of Alexander while he was Satrap of Egypt. The elephant skin headdress was probably inspired by the lion's skin headdress on Alexander's own coins. It likely refers to Alexander's conquests in India where he defeated an Indian army with 200 elephants. Beneath the elephant skin headdress, right above his ear, Alexander wears the Horn of Zeus Ammon. The priests of Zeus Ammon recognized Alexander as divine when he visited Egypt in 331 BC.
4 commentsCallimachus
Macrinus-RIC-22a.jpg
099. Macrinus.14 viewsDenarius, April - Dec. 217 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG / Laureate bust of Macrinus.
Reverse: PONTIF MAX TR P COS P P / Fides standing, foot on helmet, holding standard in each hand.
3.45 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #22A; Sear #7345.

A case is made in RIC (vol. IV, pt. 2) for assigning coins with the older portrait (as is this coin) to the mint of Antioch, and the younger portrait to the mint of Rome. Recent scholarship, however, favors Rome as the mint for all coins of this reign.
Callimachus
V1492.jpg
09b Domitian as Caesar RIC-1492112 viewsAR Denarius, 3.10g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: COS IIII across field; Eagle stg. facing on garlanded base, wings open, head r.
RIC 1492 (R). BMC 487. RSC 45c. RPC 1466 (3 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Gemini X, 13 January 2013, Harry N. Sneh Collection, group lot 806.

A delightful Domitian as Caesar denarius from the rare 'o' mint. RIC speculates the mysterious mint is Ephesus based on the use of the 'o' mint mark which was also used at that mint in its last known series in 74.

This reverse type of Eagle on garlanded base is known from Rome for Vespasian and Titus. A wonderful portrait accompanies this large flan specimen.


5 commentsDavid Atherton
V1495.JPG
09d Domitian as Caesar- RIC 1495125 viewsAR Denarius, 3.26g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: FIDES PVBL; Hands clasped over caduceus, two poppies and two corn ears
RIC 1495 (R). BMC 491. RSC -. RPC 1467 (4 spec.). BNC -.
Ex Solidus, eBay, 29 November 2013.

In 76 AD a mysterious series of denarii appeared in Asia Minor for Vespasian and his sons two years after Ephesus stopped minting denarii. The reverse types were copied from those contemporaneously produced at Rome and featured many mules and blundered legends. Often an 'o' mint mark is visible below the busts, giving rise to the theory that these may be the product of Ephesus. The style is also similar to the last series known from that mint.

Here is a rare reverse type for Domitian as Caesar. At Rome this type is only known for Vespasian and Titus. BMC 491 is listed as no mint mark below bust. A fine style portrait struck on a large flan. Same obverse die as my V1492.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
V1496lg.jpg
09e Domitian as Caesar-RIC 1496110 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Ephesus (?) mint, 76 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r. 'o' mint mark below neck
Rev: PON MAX TR P COS IIII; Winged caduceus
RIC 1496 (R2). BMC 489. RSC 369. RPC 1469 (2 spec.). BNC 377.
Acquired from Britaly Coins, April 2016.

The small series struck under Vespasian this coin comes from is quite mysterious. The mint is not known for certain, although Ephesus is a prime suspect. K. Butcher and M. Ponting in The Metallurgy of Roman silver Coinage analysed the Ephesian and 'o' mint series and their data shows both issues are made from the same bullion. Not definitive proof the two series are from the same mint, but good evidence of a strong link. Unlike the Ephesian series, the 'o' issue is full of blundered legends and mules. This denarius struck for Domitian Caesar has a PON MAX reverse legend, an impossible title for the young prince. However, what the mint masters lacked in competency, the engravers made up for in their stylish portraits.

A wonderful portrait struck on a large flan. An obverse die match with my RIC V1494.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar161 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
coin210.JPG
103. Hadrian32 viewsAe As, RIC 616 portrait right; Reverse: Pax facing left, holding cornucopia;

ecoli
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_obv_01_rev_02.JPG
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 19926 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse.
1 commentsrexesq
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_obv_03.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 199 - obv 0317 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse.
rexesq
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_obv_04.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 199 - obv 04 - *Better Lighting*21 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse.
rexesq
AD199_septimius-severus_AR-denarius_victory_2_16gr_rev_04.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 199 - rev 0424 viewsSeptimius Severus Denarius. 199 AD.

obv: L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX - Laureate head right.

rev: VICTORIAE AVGG FEL - Victory flying left holding open wreath in both hands over round shield set on low base.

2.16 Grams, 21.5mm.
---------------
Great, very expressive portrait of the Emperor.
Small flan crack @ 9 o'clock on the obverse. Photo slightly off color due to camera troubles.
2 commentsrexesq
septimius-severus_AR-denarius_VICT-PART-MAX_00.jpg
11 - Septimius Severus AR Denarius - AD 202 - 'Total Victory in Parthia'26 viewsRoman Empire, Severan Dynasty.
Emperor Septimius Severus (193 - 211 AD) Silver Denarius.
VICT PART MAX -'Total Victory in Parthia'
"My victory in Parthia was complete"
Struck in AD 202 at the Rome Mint.

obv: SEVERUS PIUS AVG - Laureate head right.
rev: VICT PART MAX - Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.

2.0 Grams, 20.5 mm.
---------
Nice portrait, nice bit of obverse toning, well centered.
2 commentsrexesq
RI 115m img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 076 A35 viewsObv:- IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust R.
Rev:- NEPTVNO REDVCI, Neptune standing left with dolphin and trident.
Ref:- RIC 76 Bust Type A, attributed to Lugdunum

Nice strong portrait and reasonable reverse strike even though the legends are a bit weak.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 115l img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 089 C47 viewsObv:- IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev:- VICTORIA AVG, Victory, walking left, holding wreath and palm, at foot captive.
Ref:- RIC 89 Bust Type C, attributed to Lugdunum

Very strong portrait and somewhat weak reverse strike as it typical of the type.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
12_caes_portraits_coll_res_lt.jpg
12 CAESARS PORTRAITS165 viewsObverse images from my collection.
R 1: Julius, Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula
R 2: Claudius, Nero, Galba, Otho
R 3: Vitellius, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian
2 commentslaney
Henry_III_short_cross_penny.JPG
1216 – 1272, Henry III, AR Penny, Struck 1217 - 1242 at London, England (Short cross type)3 viewsObverse: HENRICVS REX around central circle enclosing a crowned, draped and bearded facing bust of Henry III holding a sceptre tipped with a cross pommee in his right hand.
Reverse: + GIFFREI ON LVND. Voided short cross dividing legend into quarters, crosslets in each quarter of inner circle. Cross pattée in legend. Moneyer: Giffrei, cognate with the modern English name of Geoffrey.
Issue type 7c, distinguished by the degraded portrait and large lettering.
Diameter: 19mm | Weight: 1.1gms | Die Axis: 4
SPINK: 1356C

Henry III was the eldest son of King John and came to the throne at the age of nine. He was king of England from 1216 until his death in 1272, ruling longer than any other English monarch until the reign of George III.
Henry expressed a lifelong interest in architecture and much of what constitutes the Tower of London today is a result of Henry’s work, he added several towers and a curtain wall to expand the White Tower beginning in 1238. Westminster Abbey however, is considered to be Henry's greatest building work. The project began in 1245, when Henry sent his architect Henry de Reynes to visit the French cities of Rheims, Chartres, Bourges and Amiens and Paris’s royal chapel Sainte-Chapelle to learn the Gothic technique that he much admired.
The Westminster Abbey that stood previously on the site had been erected by Edward the Confessor in 1042. Edward the Confessor was a hero of Henry’s, and he probably named his son (the future Edward I) after him. The foundations and crypt are still those of Edward the Confessor’s Abbey, but everything above ground today is the building begun by Henry III. The tomb of Edward the Confessor was moved to a new position of honour in 1269 at the very centre of the new abbey, and when Henry III died in 1272 he was buried beside Edward’s shrine in the exact position the bones of his hero had lain for 200 years.
*Alex
1280_-1286_Alexander_III_AR_Penny_SCOTLAND.JPG
1249 - 1286, Alexander III, AR Penny, Struck 1280 - 1286 at Roxburgh, Scotland18 viewsObverse: + ALEXANDER DEI GRA . Crowned head of Alexander III facing left within circle of pellets; sceptre topped with fleur-de-lis before. Cross potent in legend.
Reverse: REX SCOTORVM +. Long cross pattée dividing legend into quarters, with three pierced mullets of six points and one mullet of seven points in quarters of inner circle. The total of 25 points is indicative of the mint of Roxburgh.
Class Mb with unbarred “A”, wider portrait and cross potent mintmark in legend.
Roxburgh only accounts for some 9% of Alexander's second coinage so issues from this mint are quite rare.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 1.0gm | Die Axis: 3
SPINK: 5054

Alexander III's reign saw the introduction of the round halfpenny and farthing to Scottish medieval coinage.
Following the English recoinage of Edward I in 1279, Alexander introduced his second coinage which began in 1280 and ended when he died in 1286. This coin was therefore struck between those dates.

Alexander III was born at Roxburgh, he came to the throne when he was just 7 years old following the death of his father, Alexander II.
At the age of ten, in 1251, Alexander married Margaret, daughter of Henry III of England. Henry seized the opportunity to demand from his son-in-law homage from the Scottish kingdom. Alexander did not comply but In 1255, after a meeting between the English and Scottish kings at Kelso, he was compelled to consent to the creation of a regency representative of both monarchs.
The early years of Alexander III’s reign were dominated by a power struggle between the two factions, but when he reached the age of 21 he was able to rule in his own right. His first action was to claim control of the Western Isles which were then under the domination of Norway. The Norwegian King Haakon rejected the claim, and in 1263, responded with a formidable invasion force which sailed around the west coast of Scotland and halted off the Isle of Arran. Alexander craftily delayed negotiations until the autumn storms began which resulted in the Norwegian ships being greatly damaged. Haakon, losing patience, attacked the Scots at Largs, but the battle proved indecisive and his position became hopeless. The Norwegians set sail for home but Haakon died en route, on Orkney, towards the end of the year. In 1266, at the Treaty of Perth, Norway formally ceded the Western Isles and the Isle of Man to Scotland in return for a monetary payment.
Alexander, when only 44 years old, met his end on the night of 19th March 1286. After entertaining guests at Edinburgh Castle he decided that night that he would return home to his wife near Kinghorn. His aides advised against it because there was a storm and the party would have to travel in darkness for many miles along a treacherous coastal path. Alexander was determined to travel anyway and ignored his advisors. It is not clear what happened, but it seems he got separated from the rest of his group and his horse lost its footing in the dark. The following day Alexander's body, and that of his horse, was found on the shore at the foot of the cliffs, the King's neck was broken. In 1886, a monument to him was erected in Kinghorn, on the side of the cliffs, at the approximate location of Alexander's death.
Alexander had no heirs, which ultimately led to a war with England that lasted almost thirty years.
1 comments*Alex
RI_130ad_img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 049 53 viewsObv:– IMP C CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVID DEOR, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopia; at foot, globe
Minted in Lugdunum (no marks), Emission 1, from October to December A.D. 275
References:– Cohen 64. Bastien 41. RIC 49 Bust Type C

A youthful portrait of this elderly senator (75 years old) promoted to Emperor by the Senate.
2 commentsMartin Griffiths
Constantius1_silvered_follis.jpg
1304a, Constantius I, May 305 - 25 July 306 A.D.52 viewsSilvered follis, RIC 20a, S 3671, VM 25, gVF, Heraclea mint, 10.144g, 27.7mm, 180o, 297 - 298 A.D. Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right; Reverse GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over shoulder, cornucopia in left, pouring liquor from patera, HTD in exergue; some silvering, nice portrait, well centered.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Constantius I Chlorus (305-306 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Constantius' Early Life and Marriage

Born March 31st, Emperor Flavius Valerius Constantius may have come into the world ca. 250. His family was from Illyricum. In the army he served as a protector, tribunus, and a praeses Dalmatiarum. During the 270s or the 280s, he became the father of Constantine by Helena, his first spouse. By 288 he was the Praetorian Prefect of the western emperor Maximianus Herculius.

Constantius' Reign as Caesar

On 1 March 293 Diocletian appointed Galerius as his Caesar (junior emperor) in the east and Constantius as the Caesar of Maximianus Herculius. Caesar in the west. Both Caesars had the right of succession. In order to strengthen the dynastic relationship between himself and Herculius., Constantius put aside his wife Helena and married Theodora, the daughter, or perhaps stepdaughter, of Maximianus Herculius.. The union was fruitful and of it there were six issue: Flavius Dalmatius, Julius Constantius, Hannibalianus, Constantia, Anastasia, and Eutropia. To strengthen his bond with Galerius and Diocletian in the east, Constantius allowed Galerius to keep his son Constantine as a hostage for his good behavior.

In the remainder of the time that he was a Caesar, Constantius spent much of his time engaged in military actions in the west. In the summer of 293 Constantius expelled the troops of the usurper Carausius from northern Gaul; after Constantius' attack on Bononia (Boulogne), Carausius was murdered. At the same time he dealt with the unrest of the Germans. In 296 he invaded Britain and put down the revolt of the usurper Allectus. Between 300 and 305 A.D. the Caesar campaigned successfully several times with various German tribes. It is worth noting in passing, that while his colleagues rigidly enforced the "Great Persecution in 303," Constantius limited his action to knocking down a few churches.

Constantius as Augustus and His Untimely Death

On 1 May 305 Diocletian, at Nicomedia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum (Milan), divested themselves of the purple, probably because of the almost fatal illness that Diocletian contracted toward the end of 304. Diocletian forced Maximianus to abdicate. They appointed as their successors Constantius and Galerius, with Severus and Maximinus Daia as the new Caesars. The retired emperors then returned to private life. Constantius, as had his predecessor, ruled in the west, while Galerius and Daia ruled in the east. Almost as soon as he was appointed Augustus, he crossed to Britain to face incursions by the Picts where he died at York on 25 July 306 with his son (Constantine I, known to history as “The Great”) at his side.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
RI 132by img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 401 var - Bust Type C (Ticinum) (VIXXT)50 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen half from the back
Rev:– RESTITVTOR SAEC, Emperor standing left, holding globe and sceptre, crowned by Victory holding palm.
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT in exe) Early Emission 2, Officina 6. A.D. 276
Reference:– RIC 401 var Bust type C (Unlisted obverse legend with this type)
It is a variant of RIC 401, with unlisted full spelling of RESTITVTOR.
This is a coin from the very beginning of the second emission of Ticinum (276 CE), before the portrait transitions to Probus proper. Coins from the later part of the emission and already much less Tacitus/Florian in likeness, while not quite 100% Probus himself.
The style is typical for that period, but these coins are scarce, so you do not see them often.
maridvnvm
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
RI_141br_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Follis - RIC VI Trier 677a (corr. Cyzicus)70 viewsObv:– D N DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, branch upward in right hand, vertical sceptre in left
Minted in Cyzicus (not Trier) ( S | F / KS //PTR)
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 677a (R) (see notes)
Notes:- This is perhaps one of the most unusual issues in the entire follis series. It is nearly always attributed to Trier (Treveri), but a comparison of portrait styles and an examination of follis hoards reveals that this issue was not struck in Trier but in Cyzicus. Two officinae struck this issue, and the KS in the field between the two figures is actually the mintmark, not the PTR. A look at the coins of Cyzicus (RIC 22-23) shows that the same two officinae struck this issue without the PTR also. The Senior Augustus issues of Diocletian and Maximianus were struck at every mint currently in operation. Apparently, the first coins of this type were prepared at Trier and examples were sent to the various mints for the individual mints to copy. At Cyzicus, the die engravers copied everything, including the Trier mintmark and put their own mintmark in the field. Eventually someone soon realized the mistake and new dies were prepared with the mintmark in its proper location.

Nicely silvered with little / no visible wear.
maridvnvm
Henry_VI_AR_Halfpenny.JPG
1422 - 1461, HENRY VI (First Reign), AR Halfpenny, Struck 1430 - 1434 at Calais, France31 viewsObverse: HENRICVS (pinecone) REX (mascle) ANGL. Crowned facing bust of Henry VI within circle of pellets. Mintmark: Cross patonce in legend.
Reverse: VIL(mascle)LA CALISIE (pinecone). Long cross pattée dividing legend around inner circle of pellets into quarters, trefoil in each quarter of circle.
Diameter: 15mm | Weight: 0.45gms
SPINK: 1885

This issue of coins is known as the pinecone-mascle issue because these symbols are incorporated in the obverse and reverse legends. This issue was struck between 1430 and 1434 at the mints of London and Calais.

Henry VI was King of England from 1422 to 1461 and again from 1470 to 1471. The only child of Henry V, he succeeded to the English throne at the age of nine months when his father died.
This was during the period of the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453) and Henry is the only English monarch to also have been crowned King of France (as Henri II), in 1431. During his early reign several people were ruling for him and by the time Henry was declared fit to rule in 1437 he found his realm in a difficult position, faced with setbacks in France and divisions among the nobility at home. Henry is described as timid, shy, passive, well-intentioned, and averse to warfare and violence; he was also at times mentally unstable. Partially in the hope of achieving peace, Henry married the ambitious and strong-willed Margaret of Anjou in 1445. The peace policy failed and the war recommenced with France taking the upper hand such that by 1453 Calais was Henry's only remaining territory on the continent.
With Henry effectively unfit to rule, Queen Margaret took advantage of the situation to make herself an effective power behind the throne. Starting around 1453 Henry began suffering a series of mental breakdowns and tensions mounted between Margaret and Richard of York, not only over control of the incapacitated king's government, but over the question of succession to the throne. Civil war broke out in 1459, leading to a long period of dynastic conflict, now known as the Wars of the Roses. Henry was deposed on 29th March 1461 after a crushing defeat at the Battle of Towton by Richard of York's son, who took the throne as Edward IV. Margaret continuing to resist Edward, but Henry was captured by Edward's forces in 1465 and imprisoned in the Tower of London.
Queen Margaret, who was first exiled in Scotland and then in France, was still determined to win back the throne on behalf of her husband and son. So, when Edward IV fell out with two of his main supporters, Richard Neville the Earl of Warwick and George the Duke of Clarence, Margaret formed a secret alliance with them backed by Louis XI of France. Warwick returned with an army to England, forced Edward IV into exile, and restored Henry VI to the throne on 30th October 1470, though Henry's position was nominal as Warwick and Clarence effectively ruled in his name.
But Henry's return to the throne lasted less than six months. Warwick overreached himself by declaring war on Burgundy, whose ruler responded by giving Edward IV the assistance he needed to win back his throne by force. Edward retook power in 1471, killing Warwick at the Battle of Barnet and Henry's only son at the Battle of Tewkesbury. Henry was again imprisoned in the Tower where, during the night of 21st May he died, possibly killed on Edward's orders.
2 comments*Alex
Edward_VI_AR_Shilling.JPG
1547 - 1553, EDWARD VI, AR Shilling, Struck 1551 - 1553 at London, England46 viewsObverse: EDWARD:VI:D:G:AGL:FRA:Z:HIB(:R)EX•Y: Crowned facing bust of Edward VI head turned slightly to left. Tudor rose to left of bust and XII to right; mintmark Y, in legend after REX above.
Reverse: POSV(I) DEV:ADIVTORE:MEVM:Y. Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; mintmark Y, in legend after MEVM.
Diameter: 33mm | Weight: 5.8gms | Die Axis: 2 | Holed
SPINK: 2482

In 1551 Edward VI issued a new fine silver coinage, his previous silver issues having been very debased. The sixpence denomination was first introduced at this time. It was similar to the new shilling above in having a facing portrait of the king with a tudor rose to the left, but the denomination value to the right of the King's portrait was VI on the sixpence instead of the XII seen on the shilling.
3 comments*Alex
1594_Elizabeth_I_Sixpence.JPG
1558 - 1603, ELIZABETH I, AR Sixpence struck in 1594 at London, England17 viewsObverse: ELIZAB•D•G•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•REGI• Crowned bust of Elizabeth I of England facing left. Tudor rose behind bust and mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Reverse: POSVI DEV:ADIVTOREM:MEV: Square topped shield, bearing the arms of England and France, quartered by long cross fourchee; 1594 above; mintmark (woolpack) in legend above.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.5gms | Die Axis: 2
SPINK: 2578A

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
1 comments*Alex
159_Valentinianus-II_(375-392_A_D_),_sum-1-m.jpg
159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Bust and Portrait variation's88 views159 Valentinianus II. (375-392 A.D.), Bust and Portrait variation's2 commentsquadrans
RI_160dk_obva.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - RIC VI Lugdunum 287 (Portrait - FULL SIZE)30 viewsObv:– IMP C CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped bust right (seen from the rear)
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, wearing modius and chlamys, sacrificing from patera on flaming altar and holding cornucopiae
Minted in Lugdunum (CI | H/S / PLC) A.D. Autumn A.D. 308 to start A.D. 309 (Bastien)
Reference:– Bastien 509 (75 examples cited). RIC VI 287 (though Bastien groups both Modius and Towered versions into one group)
6.35 gms. 25.67 mm.

Click on the image to see this portrait full size.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
James_I_AR_Sixpence.JPG
1603 - 1625, JAMES I (JAMES VI of Scotland), AR Sixpence struck in 1605 at London2 viewsObverse: IACOBVS•D:G:MAG:BRIT:FRA:ET•HIB:REX. Crowned and armoured bust of James I of England facing right, VI in field behind bust and mintmark (Rose) in legend above.
Reverse: •QUAE•DEVS•CONIVNXIT•NEMO•SEPARET• Square topped shield bearing the arms of England, Scotland and Ireland; 1605 above. Mintmark (rose) in legend.
Second coinage (1604 – 1619) and fourth bust with long square cut beard.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 2.8gms | Die Axis: 10
SPINK: 2658

The sixpence was first introduced during the reign of Edward VI in 1551, it had a facing portrait of the king with a rose to the left and the denomination VI to the right.
With the accession of James VI of Scotland to the throne of England, reigning there as James I, the royal titles and the coat of arms were altered on the coinage. The Scottish lion rampant and the Irish harp now made their appearance in the second and third quarters of the royal coat of arms of the newly formed United Kingdom and, from 1604, MAG BRIT replaced ANG SCO in the King's titles.

The infamous “Gunpowder Plot” took place on November the fifth in the year this coin was struck. The plot, to blow up the English Houses of Parliament, was foiled when a Justice of the Peace, Sir Thomas Knyvet, was secretly informed of a Catholic plot and, after giving orders for a search of the area, discovered Guy Fawkes in a cellar below the Parliament building. Thirty-six barrels of gunpowder were found and Guy Fawkes was arrested for treason and charged with trying to kill King James along with the members of Parliament who were scheduled to sit together next day.
Guy Fawkes, also known as Guido Fawkes, was tortured and questioned over the next few days and eventually confessed. He was sentenced to being hung, drawn and quartered. However, immediately before his execution on the 31st of January 1606 he fell from the scaffold where he was about to be hanged and broke his neck, so avoiding the agony of the mutilation that followed.
Guy Fawkes has become synonymous with the Gunpowder Plot which has been commemorated in Britain on the 5th of November ever since. His effigy is traditionally burned on a bonfire, usually accompanied by a fireworks display.
When I was young, on the run-up to “bonfire night”, children used to make their own “Guy” and then tout it through the streets with cries of “Penny for the Guy” something like today's Hallowe'en “trick or treat”. But this has pretty much died out now having been replaced by officially staged events.
*Alex
0023-070np_noir.jpg
1641 - Mark Antony and Lucius Antonius, Denarius240 viewsDenarius minted in Ephesus in 41 BC
M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM NERVA PROQ P, Bare head of Mark Antony right
L ANTONIUS COS, Bare head of Lucius Antonius right
3.58 gr
Ref : HCRI # 246, RCV #1509, Cohen #2
Following description taken from NAC auction 40, #617, about an other example of the same coin :
"This denarius, depicting the bare heads of Marc Antony and his youngest brother Lucius Antony, is a rare dual-portrait issue of the Imperatorial period. The family resemblance is uncanny, and one wonders if they truly looked this much alike, or if it is another case of portrait fusion, much like we observe with the dual-portrait billon tetradrachms of Antioch on which the face of the Egyptian queen Cleopatra VII takes on the square dimensions of Marc Antony. When Antony fled Rome to separate himself from Octavian and to take up his governorship in Gaul, Lucius went with him, and suffered equally from the siege of Mutina. This coin, however, was struck in a later period, when Lucius had for a second time taken up arms against Octavian in the west. Marc Antony was already in the east, and that is the region from which this coinage emanates. Since Lucius lost the ‘Perusine War’ he waged against Octavian, and was subsequently appointed to an office in Spain, where he died, it is likely that he never even saw one of his portrait coins."
3 commentsPotator II
COMMONWEALTH_HALFGROAT.JPG
1649 - 1660, THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND, AR Half-groat, Struck 1651 - 1653 at London, England18 viewsObverse: No legend. Shield bearing the Cross of Saint George between palm branch to left and laurel branch to right.
Reverse: • II • above two conjoined shields side by side, that on the left bearing the Cross of Saint George, that on the right bearing the Harp of Ireland.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0.9gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3221

The Commonwealth coinage was once referred to as "breeches money", because the reverse design of two conjoined shields was reminiscent of the shape of a pair of the breeches which were worn at the time. This coinage was minted in England after a period of civil war which culminated in the execution of King Charles I in London in 1649. Commonwealth coins bear no portrait of a monarch because after Charles I was beheaded there wasn't one, instead the coins have a simple puritan design. The language of the legends on the coins also changed, traditionally it was in Latin, giving the name of the monarch and their titles, but now this was replaced with ‘THE COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND’ on the obverse and ‘GOD WITH US’ on the reverse. These simple statements not only did away with all references to royal power, they also replaced the Catholic-sounding Latin with Protestant English laying claim to God’s favour and support in true Puritan style.
There appear to be no surviving records of the exact amount of Commonwealth coinage which was produced. Although Samuel Pepys in his Diaries suggested that during the Commonwealth period from 1649 to 1660 some 750,000 pounds worth of coins were minted in total and that after the restoration in 1660 much of this, some 650,000 pounds, was recovered and melted down. This leaves an outstanding 100,000 pounds which it is believed was exported as bullion.
It seems, too, that during the Commonwealth Period 46.8% of the silver coinage from the mint was produced between December 1651 and November 1653, which would tally with the treasure trove which was captured from foreign ships and brought to London during that period. A second coining period occurred in 1656 when more foreign ships were captured by the navy, brought to London and their precious metal offloaded to the Tower.
This particular coin denomination is undated, but it has been suggested that the coin above can probably be attributed to the first coinage period on stylistic grounds.
1 comments*Alex
1673_Charles_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1673 CHARLES II AE HALFPENNY12 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; 1673 in exergue.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3393

This portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The copper coinage of King Charles II, beginning in 1672, was the first modern coinage to show Britannia. The representation was adapted from a figure of Britannia on a sestertius of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D.138 to 161. Frances Teresa Stewart, who became Duchess of Richmond, is reputed to have been the model for this figure. Charles II was infatuated with her despite her refusal to be his mistress. It has also been said that the model may have been Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was another one of King Charles II's lady associates.
*Alex
1675_Charles_II_AE_farthing.JPG
1675 CHARLES II AE FARTHING8 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; 1675 in exergue.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.2gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3394

This portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The copper coinage of King Charles II, beginning in 1672, was the first modern coinage to show Britannia. The representation was adapted from a figure of Britannia on a sestertius of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D.138 to 161. Frances Teresa Stewart, who became Duchess of Richmond, is reputed to have been the model for this figure. Charles II was infatuated with her despite her refusal to be his mistress. It has also been said that the model may have been Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was another one of King Charles II's lady associates.
*Alex
CHARLES_II_AR_Farthing_Pattern_1676.JPG
1676 Charles II AR "Pattern Farthing"40 viewsObverse: CAROLVS•A•CAROLO•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of Charles II with long hair facing left, 1676 below.
Reverse: QVATVOR•MARIA VINDICO•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear; BRITANNIA in exergue. No pellet between MARIA and VINDICO.
Diameter: 26mm | Weight: 5.9gms | Die Axis: 12h
Peck : 492
PATTERN OR MEDALET - RARE

This periwigged portrait of Charles II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700).
The legend, "Quatuor Maria Vindico," means "I claim the four seas," which Peck explains was "intended to give prominence to the king's pride and interest in the navy." The reason this legend never appeared on circulating coinage was probably because the legend was thought to be too provocative to the King of France.

It was Montagu who called this a Roettier pattern farthing of Charles II which, until the discovery in 1903 of 89 specimens in the cabinet of the Marquis of Ailsbury, had hitherto been considered the rarest of the “pattern farthings” of this type.
Peck, however, rejected Montagu's idea that these were patterns and wrote that it was much more likely that they were official medalets. In support of this view it should be noted that not only was this issue struck on a broader flan than usual, it was produced some four years after the issue of regular farthings had begun. It is perhaps also significant that this issue is unknown in copper and that it's die orientation is 12h (medallic orientation), against the 6h orientation which is the norm for the regular farthing coinage of the period. Incidentally, the silver value of this "farthing" would have been equivalent to one shilling and sixpence, that is 72 times the face value of a farthing at the time.
3 comments*Alex
JAMES-2_TIN_HALFPENNY_1687.JPG
1687 JAMES II TIN HALFPENNY10 viewsObverse: IACOBVS • SECVNDVS. Laureate and draped bust of James II facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia seated facing left, holding laurel branch and spear.
Edge: NVMMORVM * FAMVLVS * 1687 * in raised letters.
Diameter: 29mm | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3419

This portrait of James II was designed by Jan (John) Roettier (1631 - 1700). In 1684, the production of farthings was changed from copper to tin with a copper centre plug. This was done to not only alleviate the critical state of the Cornish tin mining industry, but also to recoup the King's losses by giving the Crown an even greater profit margin. As there was great concern about the potential for forgery, in addition to the copper plug as a security feature, the tin coins were also produced with a lettered edge inscription which translates as "The servant of the coinage", presumably meaning that it also serves to protect the coinage from forgery. In 1685, under James II, tin halfpennies, also with a copper centre plug, were introduced. The reverse designs were identical to the previous ones of Charles II.

These tin coins had an alarming rate of wear from circulation, and furthermore, because tin was far too reactive a metal to be used for coins, the tin coinage has readily corroded when exposed to the elements. The values of extremely rare high grade examples are thus at a premium.
*Alex
William___Mary_Farthing_1694.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE FARTHING8 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.0gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3453

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
*Alex
1694_WILLIAM___MARY_HALFPENNY.JPG
1694 WILLIAM & MARY AE HALFPENNY16 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•ET•MARIA•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III, jugate with Queen Mary, facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1694.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 11.1gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3452

This portrait of the conjoined busts of William III and Mary was originally designed by George Bower (1664 - 1689).
1 comments*Alex
1697_WILLIAM_III_FARTHING.JPG
1697 WILLIAM III AE FARTHING9 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•TERTIVS•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1697.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3557

This portrait of William III was designed under John (Jan) Roettier (1631-c.1700) and his sons, Norbert and James. The Roettiers were medallists from a family whose members had distinguished themselves in the art for nearly two centuries. John was born in Antwerp, the eldest son, he learned the art of medal engraving and stone cutting from his father, Philip Roettiers who was a medallist and goldsmith. At an early age John was an assistant at the Antwerp Mint, but left in 1661 to go to London at the invitation of Charles II. In 1670 he became Chief engraver at the royal Mint, London, and remained at that post until 1698. Norbert Roettiers (1665-1727) was the third son of John Roettiers, with whom he apprenticed. In 1690 he was appointed Assistant Engraver at the Royal Mint, together with his brother James. James, however, was removed from his office at the mint in consequence of the theft of dies from the Tower of London and he died in 1698 after falling from his horse.
*Alex
1699_WILLIAM_III_FARTHING~0.JPG
1699 WILLIAM III AE FARTHING12 viewsObverse: GVLIELMVS•TERTIVS•. Laureate and cuirassed bust of William III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA•1699. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.3gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3558

This portrait of William III was designed under John (Jan) Roettier (1631-c.1700) and his sons, Norbert and James. The Roettiers were medallists from a family whose members had distinguished themselves in the art for nearly two centuries. John was born in Antwerp, the eldest son, he learned the art of medal engraving and stone cutting from his father, Philip Roettiers who was a medallist and goldsmith. At an early age John was an assistant at the Antwerp Mint, but left in 1661 to go to London at the invitation of Charles II. In 1670 he became Chief engraver at the royal Mint, London, and remained at that post until 1698. Norbert Roettiers (1665-1727) was the third son of John Roettiers, with whom he apprenticed. In 1690 he was appointed Assistant Engraver at the Royal Mint, together with his brother James. James, however, was removed from his office at the mint in consequence of the theft of dies from the Tower of London and he died in 1698 after falling from his horse.
*Alex
1713_ANNE_FARTHING.JPG
1713 Anne AE Pattern Farthing5 viewsObverse: ANNA DEI GRATIA. Draped bust of Anne facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA • 1713 •. Britannia seated facing left, left arm holding spear and resting on shield, raised right hand holding olive-branch; exergue blank.
Diameter: 22mm on thick flan. | Weight: 5.1gms. | Die axis: 6h
PATTERN - EXTREMELY RARE

All of Anne's farthings are patterns, no farthings were issued for general circulation during her reign. The portrait of Anne on this example was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.

Although Anne farthings are generally very rare, there are at least six distinct pattern varieties known to exist and there is one variety, dated 1714, of which, according to Peck, between 300 and 500 coins may have been produced. The fact that such a large number of these farthings were released in the last year of Anne's reign may be because the type was about to be produced for general circulation at the time of Anne's death on the 1st of August. Sir Isaac Newton was Master of the Mint, and he had high ideals about the quality of the coinage, and the Anne farthing is certainly vastly superior in striking and design to the pieces of William III. The old figure of Britannia used since Charles II's time was discarded in favour of a sharper high relief design in which the bare leg on the former figure of Britannia is covered up, reportedly on the orders of the Queen.
All the other farthing varieties are certainly patterns, and were never struck as currency for circulation.

This particular coin is of good weight and metal and it appears to be a die match for another Anne pattern farthing, in this instance struck in silver, which was sold at the 12th September 2011 Heritage Long Beach Signature World & Ancient Coins Auction. It was Lot 27289 and, for comparison purposes, I have illustrated it below.
*Alex
George-1_Farthing_1719.JPG
1719 GEORGE I AE Farthing8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS • REX •. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George I facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA •. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1719.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3662

This portrait of George I was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*Alex
1724_George_I_Halfpenny.JPG
1724 GEORGE I AE Halfpenny8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George I facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1724.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 8.7gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3660

This portrait of George I was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*Alex
1734_George_II_AE_Halfpenny.JPG
1734 GEORGE II "Young Head" AE Halfpenny12 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1734.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 10.2gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3717

This portrait of George II was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*Alex
George_II_AE_Farthing.JPG
1735 GEORGE II "Young Head" AE Farthing6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1735.
Weakly struck reverse.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 3720

This portrait of George II was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.
*Alex
1747_GEORGE_II_Halfpenny.JPG
1747 GEORGE II "Old Head" AE Halfpenny9 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1747.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 9.8gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3719

This portrait of George II was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775). Tanner started engraving the designs for the copper coinage in 1740 and became Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint on the death of John Croker in 1741.
*Alex
1754_George_II_Farthing.JPG
1754 GEORGE II "Old Head" AE Farthing7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.II.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George II facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on shield and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1754.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 5.1gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3722

This portrait of George II was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775). Tanner started engraving the designs for the copper coinage in 1740 and became Chief Engraver at the Royal Mint on the death of John Croker in 1741.
*Alex
George-3_halfpenny_1771.JPG
1771 GEORGE III AE Halfpenny11 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.III.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, shield at her side, and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1771.
Diameter: 29mm | Weight: 9.6gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3774

This portrait of George III was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775).
*Alex
1774_George_III_Farthing.JPG
1774 GEORGE III AE Farthing6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS.III.REX. Laureate and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, shield at her side, and holding spear and olive-branch. In exergue, 1774.
Diameter: 23mm | Weight: 4.9gms | Die Axis: 6h
SPINK: 3775

This portrait of George III was designed by John Sigismund Tanner (1705 - 1775).
*Alex
George_3_Cartwheel_Penny_1797.JPG
1797 GEORGE III AE "CARTWHEEL" PENNY10 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA 1797. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 36mm
SPINK: 3777

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K." in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

This was the year that the first copper penny was struck, it was also the first time that the figure of Britannia was portrayed seated amid the waves and holding a trident instead of a spear. The coin was struck by Matthew Boulton at the Soho Mint, Birmingham but, weighing a full one ounce (28.3g) and with a diameter of 36mm, it was rather heavy for the pocket and was soon discontinued. Many have survived though, battered and worn, having been used as weights for kitchen scales.
*Alex
George_3_Twopence_1797.JPG
1797 GEORGE III AE "CARTWHEEL" TWOPENCE10 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. 1797. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 41mm. Weight: 56.7gms.
SPINK: 3776

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K." in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

The figure of Britannia was portrayed seated amid the waves and holding a trident instead of a spear for the first time on the Cartwheel twopences and pennies of this year. This mighty coin was struck in Birmingham by Matthew Boulton at his Soho Mint, but, since it weighed a full two ounces (56.7gms) and measured 5mm thick with a diameter of 41mm, it was a bit heavy for the pocket and was soon discontinued. Many have survived though, battered and worn, having been used as weights for kitchen scales. Some of these twopence coins, because they were so big, were even turned into patch boxes.
*Alex
1799_George_3_farthing.JPG
1799 GEORGE III AE FARTHING6 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX 1799. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. 1 . FARTHING, small tudor rose and thistle at either side, in exergue. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 24mm
SPINK: 3779

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810). Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*Alex
George_III_HALFPENNY_1799.JPG
1799 GEORGE III AE HALFPENNY6 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA 1799. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident, small ship in left background; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Edge: Centre grained.
Diameter: 30mm.
SPINK: 3778

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810). Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*Alex
George_III_Bank_of_England_Dollar_1804.JPG
1804 GEORGE III AR BANK OF ENGLAND DOLLAR 48 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III DEI GRATIA REX. Laureate and draped bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BANK OF ENGLAND 1804. Britannia, seated left, holding a branch and spear, her left arm resting on a shield which in turn rests on a cornucopia, a beehive is in the background to the left; all within a garter inscribed FIVE SHILLINGS DOLLAR. The garter is surmounted by a castellated "crown" of five circular stone turrets.
On this coin there are enough traces of the host coin discernible on the reverse, near the edge between 'BANK' and 'OF', and on the obverse below the bust to make an accurate identification of the undertype possible. It was overstruck on a Spanish Colonial 8 Reales minted at Potosi in Bolivia which bore the date 1806.
Spink 3768; Obverse die A, Reverse die 2
Diameter: 41mm | Weight: 26.7gms | Die Axis: 11
SPINK: 3768

This portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by C. H. K. in raised letters on the truncation at the king's shoulder. The reverse, which was also designed by Kuchler has the raised initial K in the triangular space between the shield, cornucopia, and Britannia's dress. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.

Note on George III Bank of England Silver Dollars
Although George III reigned for sixty years from 1760 to 1820, the only crowns issued were in the last three years of his reign, apart from these Bank of England dollars issued as an emergency measure.
There had been a persistent shortage of silver coins throughout most of George's reign, and the Bank of England attempted to alleviate this by counter-marking Spanish colonial 8-Reale pieces (the “pieces of eight” of pirate legend) with a punch bearing the head of George III. When this counter-mark was enthusiastically counterfeited, the bank resorted to counter-stamping the entire coin. Most survivors were struck on Mexican or Peruvian 8-Reale pieces, though a few have been found to be struck on issues from Spain proper. Although these Bank of England dollars are all dated 1804, they were issued every year until 1811, and occasionally the dates of Spanish 8 Reales minted after 1804 can be discerned on them. In 1811, to take account of the increase in the value of silver, the Bank of England dollar coins were revalued at 5s6d and they stayed at this value until they were withdrawn from circulation in 1817, by which time a massive silver re-coinage was being undertaken.
2 comments*Alex
George_III_farthing_1806.JPG
1806 GEORGE III AE Farthing6 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. 1806. Laureate bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in background to left; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 22mm | Weight: 4.6gms
SPINK: 3482

The portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K" in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. The reverse of this coin was also designed by Kuchler, this is indicated by a small "K" to the bottom left of Britannia's shield. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*Alex
George-3_halfpenny_1806.JPG
1806 GEORGE III AE Halfpenny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. 1806. Laureate bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in background to left; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 28m | Weight: 9.6gms
SPINK: 3781

The portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K" in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. The reverse of this coin was also designed by Kuchler, this is indicated by a small "K" to the bottom left of Britannia's shield. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*Alex
George_3_Penny_1806.JPG
1806 GEORGE III AE Penny10 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS III • D : G • REX. 1806. Laureate bust of George III facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIA. Britannia seated facing left, holding olive branch and trident. Small ship in background to left; mint-mark SOHO below shield.
Diameter: 34mm | Weight: 19.2gms
SPINK: 3780

The portrait of George III was designed by Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (c.1740 - 1810), this is marked by a small "K" in the drapery at the base of the King's bust. The reverse of this coin was also designed by Kuchler, this is indicated by a small "K" to the bottom left of Britannia's shield. Kuchler moved to Birmingham in 1795 and designed many of the coins and medals which were struck at Matthew Boulton's SOHO mint.
*Alex
1813_PENNY_TOKEN.JPG
1813 AE Penny, Hull, Yorkshire.32 viewsObverse: VIMIERA•TALAVERA•BADAJOZ•SALAMANCA•VITTORIA •. Bust of Duke of Wellington facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY TOKEN. Britannia seated on shield facing left, holding olive branch in her right hand and trident in left; 1813 in exergue.
Edge: Centre Grained.
Diameter 34mm
Withers:1507 | Davis Yorkshire No: 93 | Charlton No: WE-12
VERY RARE.

The inscription on the obverse of this token is a list of battles fought in the Peninsular War. The dies were engraved by Thomas Halliday (c.1780 – 1854) and the token was manufactured by Edward Thomason. The type was one of several issued by J.K.Picard in his “Peninsular” series which were struck for use by the Duke of Wellington's army in Portugal and Spain. These tokens bear the portrait of Wellington, who was a good friend of the Prince Regent, the future George IV, on the obverse.

This token was issued by John Kirby Picard, the owner of the Hull Lead Works. Picard spent a lot of his time in London and became friendly with the Prince of Wales' circle of aquaintances. He gambled heavily, and became bankrupt in 1827 after eventually gambling his fortune away. He died in reduced circumstances in 1843.
*Alex
George_IV_Halfpenny_1826.JPG
1826 GEORGE IV AE HALFPENNY6 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm | Weight 9.32gms
SPINK: 3824

This portrait of George IV, used on his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
1826_GEORGE_IV_Penny.JPG
1826 GEORGE IV AE PENNY3 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: . Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3823

This portrait of George IV, used on his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
George-4_Third_Farthing_1827.JPG
1827 GEORGE IV AE THIRD FARTHING5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1827 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3827

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings and fractions facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquires a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.

This coin was produced in 1827 exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. The grano, a coin dating from before British rule, was valued at a twelfth of a penny so the decision was made to coin the equivalent in a British denomination. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
George-4_farthing_1828.JPG
1828 GEORGE IV AE FARTHING7 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA • 1826 •. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3825

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
With the issues of George IV, Britannia now appears on pennies, halfpennies and farthings facing right instead of left, she would remain that way until 1967. She also acquired a helmet, recalling Roma and, before that, Athena.
*Alex
George_IV_Half-Farthing_1828.JPG
1828 GEORGE IV AE HALF FARTHING5 viewsObverse: GEORGIUS IV DEI GRATIA 1828. Laureate head of George IV facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 18mm | Axis 12
SPINK: 3826

This portrait of George IV, used on all his later coinage, was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

The half-farthing was first issued in 1828, a year later than the third farthing, for use exclusively in Ceylon. However, it is usually considered to be part of the British coin series as Ceylon used British currency at that time.
*Alex
William_IV_Halfpenny_1831.JPG
1831 William IV AE HALFPENNY7 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3847

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck.
*Alex
William_IV_penny_1831.JPG
1831 William IV AE PENNY7 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1831. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3845

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is sometimes marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck. This coin, however, is one of those that do not bear Wyon's initials.
*Alex
William_IV_Farthing_1835.JPG
1835 William IV AE FARTHING7 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1835. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3848

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the King's neck.
*Alex
1835_WILLIAM_IV_THIRD_FARTHING.JPG
1835 William IV AE THIRD FARTHING4 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII DEI GRATIA 1835. Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REX FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3850

William IV's portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

This coin was produced exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
1836_William_IV_Groat.JPG
1836 WILLIAM IV AR GROAT (FOURPENCE)6 viewsObverse: GULIELMUS IIII D:G: BRITANNIAR: REX F:D: Bare head of William IV facing right.
Reverse: FOUR PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; 1836 in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3837

The portrait of William IV used on his coinage was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).
*Alex
1839_Victoria_fourpence_groat.JPG
1839 VICTORIA AR GROAT (FOURPENCE)5 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F:D: Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: FOUR PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; 1839 in exergue.
Diameter 16mm.
SPINK: 3913

This "young head" portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

There are visible indications that this coin was struck from clashed dies.
*Alex
VICTORIA_AE_Third-Farthing.JPG
1844 VICTORIA COPPER THIRD FARTHING6 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1844. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID : DEF : Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3952

This portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851).

This coin was produced exclusively for use in Malta, but it is considered to be part of the British coinage as at that time Malta was considered more as a part of Britain than a colony. Because the cost of living was lower in Malta than in Britain it was not considered necessary to introduce the third-farthing coin into Britain itself.
*Alex
Victoria_copper_farthing.JPG
1853 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" FARTHING12 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 22mm
SPINK: 3950

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small raised "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
1 comments*Alex
1853_VICTORIA__PENNY.JPG
1853 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" PENNY7 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1853. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 34mm
SPINK: 3948

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*Alex
Leopold_20centimes1.jpg
1853: Twenty centimes of Leopold I17 viewsKing Leopold I. 20 Centimes. 1853.

Coat of arms of Belgium, surrounded by foliage, surrounded by the legend L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE ("Strength through Union") 1853 / Neoclassical portrait of Leopold I, left, surrounded by legend LEOPOLD PREMIER - ROI DES BELGES.
Belisarius
Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1854 VICTORIA COPPER "YOUNG HEAD" HALFPENNY10 viewsObverse: VICTORIA DEI GRATIA 1854. Young head of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIAR: REG: FID: DEF: Britannia seated facing right, right arm resting on shield, left arm holding trident. Shamrock, Rose and Thistle (indicative of Ireland, England and Scotland respectively) in exergue.
Diameter 28mm
SPINK: 3949

Victoria's "young head" portrait was designed by William Wyon (1795 - 1851), this is marked by a small incuse "WW" at the base of the Queen's neck on this coin.
*Alex
ChambersSomersetHouseMedal~0.JPG
1857. Sir William Chambers and Somerset House. Taylor 52a.77 viewsObv. Bust of William chambers to right. CHAMBERS 1725-1796 Signed B WYON AFTER WESTMACOTT
Rev. Elevation of Somerset House to the Strand, featuring nine bayed entrance block. SOMERSET HOUSE 1781 SIR WILLIAM CHAMBERS RA ARCHITECT. Signed B WYON. Edge inscription: ART UNION OF LONDON 1857.
AE55. Taylor 52a.

Issued as one of the Art Union series. The medal gives an incorrect date of birth to chambers, 725 as opposed to 1723. The portrait is based on a bust displayed at the Royal Academy in 1797 by Sir Richard Westmacott, this is now in Sir John Soanes museum.
Built under an act of 1775, as a great new administrative centre to house official and academic bodies. Designed by Sir William Chambers, the Surveyor- General, and completed in the nineteenth century by Sir Robert Smirke (eastern extension to Kings College) and Sir James Pennethorne (western extension to Waterloo Bridge). Chambers decided on a central courtyard, approached through a block of narrow frontage, which was to house the learned societies, including the Royal Academy and Society of Antiquaries. It is the Strand façade of this entrance block which is shown on the medal, it was complete by 1781 and incorporated sculpture by fellow Academicians Bacon, Carlini and Wilton.
LordBest
1860_Victoria_Farthing.JPG
1860 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING38 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1860 in exergue.
SPINK: 3958

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*Alex
Victoria_BH_halfpence_1862.JPG
1862 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY5 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with youthful features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1862 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
*Alex
5fr.jpg
1869: Five franks of Leopold II13 viewsKing Leopold II. Silver 5 Francs. 1869

Coat of arms of Belgium, surrounded by foliage, surrounded by the legend L'UNION FAIT LA FORCE ("Strength through Union") 1869 / Neoclassical portrait of Leopold II, surrounded by legend LEOPOLD II ROI - DES BELGES.
Belisarius
1875H_VICTORIA_BUN_HEAD_FARTHING_.JPG
1875 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING35 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1875, small "H" below, in exergue.
Diameter: 20mm
SPINK: 3959

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
Victoria_Halfpenny_1876H.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY6 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3957

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1876H_Victoria_Penny.JPG
1876 "H" VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY10 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1876, small H below, in exergue.
SPINK: 3955

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.

On 1st April 1850 the auction was announced of equipment from the defunct Soho Mint, created by Matthew Boulton around 1788. At the auction, on 29th April, Ralph Heaton II bought Boulton's four steam-powered screw presses and six planchet presses for making blanks from strip metal. These were installed at Heaton's Bath Street works, and his Birmingham Mint began to strike trade tokens for use in Australia. In 1851 copper planchets were made for the Royal Mint to make into pennies, halfpennies, farthings, half-farthings and quarter-farthings.
In 1853 the Royal Mint was overwhelmed with producing silver and gold coins and so Ralph Heaton and Sons won their first contract to strike finished coins for Britain, these coins had no mintmark to identify them as from Birmingham.
In 1860 the firm bought a 1-acre plot on Icknield Street and constructed a three storey red brick factory. Completed in 1862 and employing 300 staff, it was at this time the largest private mint in the world.
From 1874 the Birmingham Mint began striking bronze pennies, halfpennies and farthings for the Royal Mint. This time though, the Birmingham Mint issues are distinguished by an H (for Heaton) mintmark below the date on the reverse. Victorian British coins bearing the H mintmark were produced in 1874, 1875, 1876, 1881 and 1882.
*Alex
1886_VICTORIA_FARTHING.JPG
1886 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" FARTHING31 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1886 in exergue.
SPINK: 3958

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
Victoria_Groat_Fourpence_1888.JPG
1888 VICTORIA AR GROAT (FOURPENCE)9 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITANNIAR: REGINA F:D: Jubilee bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: FOUR PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; 1888 in exergue.
Diameter 16mm
SPINK: 3930

This "Jubilee head" portrait of Queen Victoria was designed by Sir Joseph Edgar Boehm (1834 – 1890), this is marked by the initials “J.E.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
Victoria_Penny_1891.JPG
1891 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" PENNY4 viewsObv: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:FID:DEF: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Rev: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1891 in exergue.
SPINK: 3954

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
Columbian_Expo_History_Medal.JPG
1893 Columbian Exposition "Discovery of America" Medal18 viewsObv: SIGNING OF DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE - JULY 4TH 1776, a scene of the Signing taking place in Independence Hall; a banner inscribed: "WORLD'S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION;" an eagle, with spread wings, atop a shield; to the left is a portrait of COLUMBUS, to the right is a portrait of WASHINGTON; CHICAGO below.

Rev: DISCOVERY OF AMERICA, a scene of Columbus's landing; a banner inscribed: "OCTOBER 1492;" a scene of the Pilgrims landing at Plymouth; DEC. 1620; LANDING OF THE PILGRIMS.

Designed by Charles Reinsch; Struck by S. D. Childs & Co., Chicago.

White metal; Diameter: 58.44 mm

HK-157 (WM), Eglit 36 (WM)
Matt Inglima
1893_Victoria_Halfpenny.JPG
1893 VICTORIA BRONZE "BUN HEAD" HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA D:G: BRITT:REG:F:D: "Bun head" bust of Queen Victoria with elderly features facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, her right hand resting on shield, her left holding a trident; in left background, a lighthouse and in right background, a ship; 1893 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3956

Victoria's "bun head" portrait was designed by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826 - 1891), he was the eldest son of William Wyon, who had previously designed the "young head" portrait of the Queen. The letters L C WYON are incuse amongst the ornamentation of the Queen's dress.
From 1881 heraldic colouring was added to Britannia's shield on the reverse.
*Alex
Victoria_bronze_farthing_1896.JPG
1896 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" FARTHING4 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1896 in exergue.
SPINK: 3963

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
Victoria_bronze_halfpenny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" HALFPENNY5 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3962

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
Victoria_bronze_penny_1901.JPG
1901 VICTORIA BRONZE "OLD HEAD" PENNY2 viewsObverse: VICTORIA.DEI.GRA.BRITT.REGINA.FID.DEF.IND.IMP. Veiled bust of Queen Victoria facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1901 in exergue.
SPINK: 3961

Victoria's "veiled head" portrait was designed by Thomas Brock (1847 - 1922), this is marked by a small "T.B." below the Queen's bust.
*Alex
1902_Edward_VII_halfpenny.JPG
1902 EDWARD VII AE HALFPENNY4 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; in exergue, 1902.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 3991

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
*Alex
1902_Edward_VII_One_penny.JPG
1902 EDWARD VII AE PENNY7 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident. 1902 in exergue.
SPINK: 3990

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
*Alex
1902_EDWARD_VII_FLORIN.JPG
1902 EDWARD VII AR FLORIN4 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII D: G: BRITT: OMN: REX F: D: IND: IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: ONE FLORIN - TWO SHILLINGS. Britannia standing on galley, facing right, left hand gripping top of shield, right hand holding trident; 1902 on galley in exergue.
Diameter 28.5mm
SPINK: 3981

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
*Alex
Edward_7_Farthing_1903.JPG
1903 EDWARD VII AE FARTHING5 viewsObverse: EDWARDVS VII DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of Edward VII facing right.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; in exergue, 1903.
Diameter 20mm | Die Axis 12
SPINK: 3992

Edward VII's portrait was designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), this is marked by a small "De S" below the King's neck.
All Edward VII farthings were darkened artificially at the mint to avoid confusion with half sovereigns. An acid gas, sodium thiosulphate was used to react with the surface of the farthings after they had been struck, permanently altering their appearance chemically by turning them black. This coin still retains some of it's original black appearance.
*Alex
George_5_H_Penny_1912.JPG
1912 "H" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1912 and small "H" (for Heaton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4052
SCARCE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The Heaton Mint in Birmingham was founded in 1850 by Ralph Heaton Junior using second-hand equipment purchased from Matthew Boulton's old Soho Mint. Ralph Heaton pioneered the modern mill striking of bronze coins, and in 1860 he was contracted by the Royal Mint to assist it in striking Britain's new bronze penny, half-penny and farthing issues. The Birmingham Mint continued striking these bronze issues for the Royal Mint off and on until the 1880s.
In 1912, the Royal Mint once again subcontracted the Birmingham Mint to strike enough British pennies to meet the demand, and those pennies carry a small 'H' (for Heaton) mintmark to the left of the date on the reverse. During the First World War, the Birmingham Mint was employed in other aspects of metalwork, producing brass and copper tubing for bullets and artillery rounds, but was again contracted to strike more Heaton pennies in 1918 and 1919.
*Alex
George_5_KN_Penny_1918.JPG
1918 "KN" GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1918 and small "KN" (for Kings Norton) in exergue.
SPINK: 4053
VERY RARE

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

The “King's Norton Metal Company” (King's Norton being an area south of central Birmingham) was registered as a Limited Company in 1890 and was a general manufacturer of small metal goods. Minting did not become part of its business until 1912 when the Royal Mint placed an order for bronze blanks which were then used to strike coins. Minting was only a sideline part of the business and the company only struck coins for Britain in 1918 and 1919 after being awarded with a contract to strike George V Pennies. The pennies struck by the Kings Norton Metal Company can be identified by a small “KN” next to the date on the reverse.
*Alex
George_5_halfpenny_1920.JPG
1920 GEORGE V "Large head" AE Halfpenny3 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1920 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 4056

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.
*Alex
George_V_1920_Penny.JPG
1920 GEORGE V "Large head" AE Penny7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1920 in exergue. Weakly struck reverse.
SPINK: 4051

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.
*Alex
4c~0.jpg
1920C ALEXIUS METROPOLITAN TETARTERON S-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 24 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Size 17/16mm

Weight 3.9 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital.

This particular coin grades as aF/aVF , this has the most interesting portrait of Alexius, seems to be much older in age than other examples.

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm
CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
i3~1.jpg
1920d ALEXIUS Constantinople Tetarteron SBCV-1920 DOC 33 CLBC 2.4.1 Grierson 1042 1 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion holding gospels (open) in left hand.

REV Alexius bust facing wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece and paneled loros of simplified type and holds in r. hand labarum-headed scepter and in l. hand Globus crucifer.

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% ( 3.84 is recorded by Hendy) and were also issued more than likely with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Metropolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. This would make them a separate denomination. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues. Grierson thought them to be for ceremonial use only, I disagree, it was a denomination used in the Capital

Size 18mm

Weight 3.8gm

This coin has an excellent portrait of Christ, I would grade the coin EF/F

DOC catalog lists 13 examples with weights ranging from 2.9 gm to 4.7 gm and size from 17mm to 21mm
CLBC Lists weights from 2.93 to 4.80gm. Die Diameter 16mm
Simon
George_V_1927_Penny.JPG
1927 GEORGE V "Modified Large head" AE Penny6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1927 in exergue. Some original mint lustre.
SPINK: 4054

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

No pennies were struck from 1923 to 1925 while the mint made an effort to stop the ghosting which plagued the earlier George V penny issues. Ghosting is when the design from one side of a coin shows through on the opposite side, in this case it is the portrait's outline which can be seen on the reverse. The first attempt at a solution, in 1926, had been to alter the bronze alloy from 95% Copper, 4% tin and 1% Zinc to 95.5% Copper, 3% tin and 1.5% Zinc but this, coupled with modifications to the portrait, proved unsuccessful in addressing the ghosting problem. In 1927, in a further attempt to address the problems of ghosting, both the King's portrait on the obverse and Britannia on the reverse were modified so that the details were more clearly defined and struck in slightly lower relief. However, the ghosting problem was not completely resolved until 1928 when the portrait of the King was reduced in size.
*Alex
s-1932-2c.jpg
1932C ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1932 DOC 45 CLBC 2.4.8 28 viewsOBV Patriarchal cross on two steps.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros and in r. hand holding jeweled scepter and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 14/12mm

Weight 1.0gm


DOC lists 42 examples with weights ranging from .59gm to 3.22gm and sizes ranging from 13mm to 18mm

I have many of these coins that very much vary in their design, I do not believe these coins came from one mint but many different mints. The cross design changes in many different ways. This is an easy coin to acquire, the trick is finding the nice ones and with a denomination so small little effort was put into minting perfect coins

This example I have always admired, the portrait of Alexius is so simple it is beautiful. Reminds me of a Guy Fox mask.
Simon
George_V_Halfpenny_1935.JPG
1935 GEORGE V "Small head" AE HALFPENNY8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: HALF PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1935 in exergue.
Diameter 25mm
SPINK: 4058

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

In common with the pennies, from 1928, the King's portrait was reduced in size to finally solve the problem of ghosting which had plagued earlier George V issues.
*Alex
George_5_1935_One_Penny.JPG
1935 GEORGE V "Small head" AE PENNY6 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1935 in exergue.
SPINK: 4055

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.
*Alex
George-5_Farthing_1936.JPG
1936 GEORGE V AE FARTHING10 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS V DEI GRA:BRITT:OMN:REX FID:DEF:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George V facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident; 1936 in exergue.
SPINK: 4061

George V's portrait was designed by Bertram Mackennal (1863 - 1931), this is marked by a small "BM" on the King's neck.

Numismatic note
On January 20th 1936, King George V died, his death hastened by his physician who administered a lethal injection to him. George V was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII, but in December Edward signed an instrument of abdication and his brother, Prince Albert, became King, reigning as King George VI.
No coins were issued for Edward VIII, the types bearing the portrait of George V continued to be struck throughout 1936 and up until the coronation of George VI in 1937.
*Alex
Edward_8_Medal_1937.JPG
1937 EDWARD VIII AE CORONATION MEDAL11 viewsObverse: • HIS • MAJESTY • KING • EDWARD • VIII •, Crowned bust of Edward VIII facing right, wearing ceremonial robes, the legend in raised letters on a raised border with each word separated by a rose.
Reverse: CROWNED – A. D. 1937. Britannia standing facing within a distyle arch, holding crown aloft with her right hand and union flag on pole in her left, in background to left, battleship and to right, London riverside scene in which St Paul's Cathedral can be discerned.
Diameter: 45mm

No coins were issued for Edward VIII who became King on the death of his father, George V, on 20th January 1936. Edward's coronation never took place because he abdicated the throne on 11th December that same year after a reign lasting only 326 days.
As Edward VIII was never crowned the coin types bearing the portrait of George V continued to be struck throughout 1936 and up until the coronation in 1937 of Edward's younger brother Albert, who reigned as George VI.

This unsigned medal was struck in 1936 in anticipation of the proposed Coronation of Edward VIII on 12th May, 1937. The same reverse dies were subsequently reused on coronation medals for George VI.
*Alex
George_6_1947_Penny.JPG
1947 GEORGE VI AE PENNY7 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS VI D:G:BR:OMN:REX F:D:IND:IMP: . Bare head of George VI facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1947 in exergue.
SPINK: 4114

George VI's portrait was designed by Thomas Humphrey Paget (1893 - 1974), this is marked by a small "HP" below the King's neck.
*Alex
George_6_1949_Penny.JPG
1949 GEORGE VI AE PENNY8 viewsObverse: GEORGIVS VI D:G:BR:OMN:REX FIDEI DEF. Bare head of George VI facing left.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1949 in exergue.
SPINK: 4117

George VI's portrait was designed by Thomas Humphrey Paget (1893 - 1974), this is marked by a small "HP" below the King's neck.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1953.JPG
1953 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY6 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRA:BRITT:OMN:REGINA F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1953 in exergue.
SPINK: 4154

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the bust.
Demand for pennies was low on the accession of Queen Elizabeth II, so the only pennies issued were in the coin sets made in time for the Coronation. These sets were often broken up, so 1953 pennies could occasionally be found in change. The next year (1954) all the other denominations were re-designed with a revised inscription which omitted BRITT.OMN, but no more pennies were struck for circulation until 1961.
*Alex
Republican_Centennial_Medal_1954.JPG
1954 Official Republican Centennial Medal27 viewsObv: REPUBLICAN CENTENNIAL 1854 - 1954, Conjoined busts of Abraham Lincoln and Dwight Eisenhower facing right.

Rev: Two lighted torches, quotes between: "WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE, WITH CHARITY FOR ALL, WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT, AS GOD GIVES US TO SEE THE RIGHT, LET US STRIVE ON TO FINISH THE WORK WE ARE IN" -Abraham Lincoln. "IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH PEOPLE, BE LIBERAL, BE HUMAN. IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH THE PEOPLE'S MONEY OR THEIR ECONOMY, OR THEIR FORM OF GOVERNMENT, BE CONSERVATIVE." Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Engraver: Gilroy Roberts

Mint: Medallic Art Company, Date: 1954, Bronze, Diameter: 63.6 mm

Note: Gilroy Roberts was already the chief engraver of the United States Mint when he designed this medal. He would go on to design the portrait on the John F. Kennedy half dollar.
Matt Inglima
1955.jpg
1955 JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 23 viewsOBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.22gm

Great portrait of John II.

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
s-1955-3a.jpg
1955A JOHN II AE HALF TETARTERON S-1955 DOC 17 CLBC 3.4.6 61 views
OBV Bust of St. Demetrius beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic, breastplate, and saigon. Holds in r. hand sword and l. shield.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16mm

Weight 2.22gm

Great portrait of John II.

DOC lists 13 examples with weights from 1.05gm to 2.92gm and sizes from 15mm to 18mm
Simon
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1967.JPG
1967 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY7 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRATIA.REGINA.F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1967 in exergue.
SPINK: 4157

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the Queen's bust.
This was the last year of issue of the "Britannia" penny (other than a proof version dated 1970) prior to the introduction of decimal coinage in Britain in 1971. It was struck in enormous numbers to satisfy the large, mainly speculative, demand for the coin.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_Penny_1970.JPG
1970 ELIZABETH II AE PENNY9 viewsObverse: + ELIZABETH.II.DEI.GRATIA.REGINA.F:D:. Laureate bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: ONE PENNY. Britannia seated facing right, right hand resting on shield, left hand holding trident, lighthouse in background to left; 1970 in exergue.
SPINK: 4157 PROOF

Elizabeth II's "young head" portrait was designed by Mary Gillick (1881 - 1965), this is marked by a small "MG" below the Queen's bust.
This coin, dated 1970, is a proof issue struck from polished dies, no pennies were issued for general circulation after 1967.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_50_New_Pence_1976.JPG
1976 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi FIFTY PENCE8 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH.II D.G.REG.F.D.1976. Draped bust of Elizabeth II, wearing tiara, facing right.
Reverse: NEW PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies.
Diameter 30mm | Weight 13.5gms
SPINK: 4223 PROOF

This portrait of Elizabeth II was designed by Arnold Machin (1911 - 1999), although his design was approved in June 1964 it was not used for United Kingdom coinage until 1968, after which his portrait of Elizabeth II was used on all British decimal coins until 1984. The tiara which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin had been given to her as a wedding present from her grandmother, Queen Mary.
*Alex
g7.jpg
1982 MANUEL AE HALF TETARTERON S-1982 DOC 25 CLBC 4.4.10 18 views

OBV Radiate cross on three steps

REV Half length figure of emperor, bearded, wearing stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

Size 14/16mm

Weight 2.0gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron.The half tetartera at 1/1728 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.
DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 1.26 gm to 2.24 gm with sizes from 16mm to 19mm.

This example is excellent , one of the few tetartera that can be listed as EF The portrait of Manuel on this coin is exceptional, especially considering its size.
Simon
1c~3.jpg
1987 ANDRONICUS AE TETARTERON S-1987 DOC 6 CLBC 5.4.2 58 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin nimbate orans, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision, and sagion; holds in r. hand labarum headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger.

Size 22mm

Weight 5.9gm

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

A really nice example much heaver than norm, beautiful portrait of Virgin.

DOC lists 6 examples with weights ranging from 2.54 gm to 4.91 gm with sizes from 20mm to 23mm.
1 commentsSimon
Elizabeth_2_50_Pence_1989.JPG
1989 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi LARGE FIFTY PENCE6 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II D.G.REG.F.D.1989. Diademed bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 30mm | Weight 13.5gms
SPINK: 4351 PROOF (Large module)

This "Third Portrait" of Elizabeth II was Raphael Maklouf's first coin design and it was used on the coinage from 1985 to 1997 inclusive. Raphael Maklouf was born in Jerusalem in 1937 and came to the United Kingdom after the Second World War. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.
*Alex
Elizabeth_2_50_Pence_1997.JPG
1997 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi SMALL FIFTY PENCE6 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II D.G.REG.F.D.1997. Diademed bust of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 27.3mm | Weight 8.0gms
SPINK: 4351 PROOF (Small module)

This "Third Portrait" of Elizabeth II was Raphael Maklouf's first coin design and it was used on the coinage from 1985 to 1997 inclusive. Raphael Maklouf was born in Jerusalem in 1937 and came to the United Kingdom after the Second World War. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.
*Alex
1997-161-167_ProbusMarsVictor-Forum.jpg
1997.161.16716 viewsLugdunum (Lyon), 3.04 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: MARS VICTOR; II; Mars advancing right, carrying transverse spear in right and trophy in left, over left shoulder.
Ref: RIC 37; Rhodes 167; Bastien 166 [The difference is stated by Bastien on pp. 52-4: nos. 164-173 have portraits resembling Florian, while nos. 176-182 have proper Probus portraits, no longer resembling Florian. Translation complement of Curtis Clay]
gordian_guy
Elizabeth-2_50_Pence_1999.JPG
1999 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL CuNi FIFTY PENCE6 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH.II.D.G.REG.F.D.1999. Head of Elizabeth II wearing tiara facing right.
Reverse: FIFTY PENCE. Britannia seated facing right, left hand holding laurel branch, right holding trident and resting on shield; recumbent lion behind at her feet; 50 in exergue.
Proof issue struck from polished dies with frosted highlights.
Diameter 27.3mm | Weight 8.0gms
SPINK: 4610 PROOF

This portrait was designed by the sculptor Ian Rank-Broadley, it appeared on all UK and Commonwealth coinage from 1998 until it was superseded by a new portrait in 2015. The tiara which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin was given to her as a wedding present by her grandmother, Queen Mary.

This decimal 50 pence was the last British coin to depict the traditional Britannia which had featured on British coinage for more than 300 years, having begun on a farthing under Charles II in 1672. Britannia made her last appearance in 2008 after Gordon Brown personally approved changing the design as one of his last acts as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
*Alex
MarcAntDenOctavian.jpg
1ae Marc Antony and Octavian43 viewsFormed the Second Triumvirate, 43-33 BC, , along with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Antony killed himself in 30 BC.

Denarius
41 BC

Marc Antony portrait, right, M ANT IMP AVG III VIR RPCM BARBAT QP
Octavian portrait, right, CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR RPC

RSC 8

Plutarch described Antony thusly: Antony grew up a very beautiful youth, but by the worst of misfortunes, he fell into the acquaintance and friendship of Curio, a man abandoned to his pleasures, who, to make Antony's dependence upon him a matter of greater necessity, plunged him into a life of drinking and dissipation, and led him through a course of such extravagance that he ran, at that early age, into debt to the amount of two hundred and fifty talents. . . . He took most to what was called the Asiatic taste in speaking, which was then at its height, and was, in many ways, suitable to his ostentatious, vaunting temper, full of empty flourishes and unsteady efforts for glory. . . . He had also a very good and noble appearance; his beard was well grown, his forehead large, and his nose aquiline, giving him altogether a bold, masculine look that reminded people of the faces of Hercules in paintings and sculptures. It was, moreover, an ancient tradition, that the Antonys were descended from Hercules, by a son of his called Anton; and this opinion he thought to give credit to by the similarity of his person just mentioned, and also by the fashion of his dress. For, whenever he had to appear before large numbers, he wore his tunic girt low about the hips, a broadsword on his side, and over all a large coarse mantle. What might seem to some very insupportable, his vaunting, his raillery, his drinking in public, sitting down by the men as they were taking their food, and eating, as he stood, off the common soldiers' tables, made him the delight and pleasure of the army. In love affairs, also, he was very agreeable: he gained many friends by the assistance he gave them in theirs, and took other people's raillery upon his own with good-humour. And his generous ways, his open and lavish hand in gifts and favours to his friends and fellow-soldiers, did a great deal for him in his first advance to power, and after he had become great, long maintained his fortunes, when a thousand follies were hastening their overthrow.
1 commentsBlindado
LiviaAE23Tyche.jpg
1aj Livia17 viewsDied 29 AD

AE23 of Cilicia, Augusta
23–24 AD

ΙΟΥΛΙΑ [Σ]ΕΒΑΣΤΗ, Portrait, right
ΑΥΓΟΥCTA—NW—N, Tyche std., river god Saros at feet

This is one of my favorite pieces because I picked it up for a couple of bucks from a market stall in an Aegean country.

RPC I 4013-4014
Same design as RPC 4009v, but larger

According to Suetonius, "The last words [Augustus] spoke were to his wife: ‘Livia, keep the memory of our marriage alive, and farewell!’ and died the very moment he was kissing her."
Blindado
NeroTetPoppaea.jpg
1as Poppaea38 viewsWife of Nero, died 65 AD

Tetradrachm

Radiate head, right, NERW LKAU KAIS SEB GER AV
Poppaea, portrait right, POPPAIA SEBASTH, LIA to rt

Milne 209

Poppaea Sabina (AD 30-65) after AD 63 known as Poppaea Augusta Sabina and sometimes referred to as Poppaea Sabina the Younger to differentiate her from her mother of the same name, was the second wife of the Emperor Nero from AD 62. Prior to this she was the wife of the future Emperor Otho. Suetonius noted, "He married two wives after Octavia. The first was Poppaea Sabina (from AD 62), daughter of an ex-quaestor, married at that time to a Roman knight. . . . Nero doted on Poppeia, whom he married twelve days after divorcing Octavia, yet he caused her death by kicking her when she was pregnant and ill, because she complained of his coming home late from the races. She had borne him a daughter, Claudia Augusta, who died in infancy."
Blindado
VitelliusDenVesta.jpg
1av Vitellius42 views69

Denarius
Portrait, right, A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P
Vesta std., PONT MAX

RIC 107

According to Suetonius: Lucius’s son Aulus, the future emperor, was born on the 24th of September 15AD, or according to some authorities on the 7th, during the consulship of Drusus Caesar and Norbanus Flaccus. . . . His boyhood and early youth were spent on Capreae (Capri) among Tiberius’s creatures, he himself being marked by the nickname of ‘Spintria’ (sex-token) throughout his life, and suspected of having secured his father’s first promotion to office by surrendering his own chastity. As he grew older, though contaminated by every kind of vice, Vitellius gained and kept a prominent place at court, winning Caligula’s friendship by his devotion to chariot-racing and Claudius’s by his love of dice. With Nero he was even closer. . . .

Honoured, as these emperors’ favourite, with high office in the priesthood, as well as political power, he governed Africa (under Nero, in 60/61AD) as proconsul, and was then Curator of Public Works (in 63AD), employing a contrasting approach, and with a contrasting effect on his reputation. In his province he acted with outstanding integrity over two successive years, since he served as deputy also to his brother who succeeded him (61/62AD) yet during his administration of the City he was said to have stolen various temple offerings and ornaments, and substituted brass and tin for the gold and silver in others. . . .

Contrary to all expectations, Galba appointed Vitellius to Lower Germany (in 68AD). Some think it was brought about by Titus Vinius, whose influence was powerful at that time, and whose friendship Vitellius had previously won through their mutual support for the ‘Blues’ in the Circus. But it is clear to everyone that Galba chose him as an act of contempt rather than favour, commenting that gluttons were among those least to be feared, and Vitellius’s endless appetite would now be able to sate itself on a province. . . .

He entered Rome to the sound of trumpets, surrounded by standards and banners, wearing a general’s cape, sword at his side, his officers in their military cloaks also, and the men with naked blades. With increasing disregard for the law, human or divine, he then assumed the office of High Priest on the anniversary of the Allia (18th July), arranged the elections for the next ten years, and made himself consul for life. . . .

Vitellius’s worst vices were cruelty and gluttony. . . . By the eighth month of his reign (November 69AD) the legions in Moesia and Pannonia had repudiated Vitellius, and sworn allegiance to Vespasian despite his absence, following those of Syria and Judaea who had done so in Vespasian’s presence. . . .

The vanguard of Vespasian’s army had now forced its way into the Palace, unopposed, and the soldiers were ransacking the rooms, in their usual manner. They hauled Vitellius, unrecognised, from his hiding place, asked his name and where the Emperor might be. He gave some lying answer, but was soon identified, so he begged for safe custody, even if that meant imprisonment, claiming he had important information for Vespasian regarding his security. However his arms were bound behind him and a noose flung over his head, and he was dragged along the Sacred Way to the Forum, amid a hail of mockery and abuse, half-naked, with his clothes in tatters. His head was held back by the hair, like a common criminal and, with a sword-point under his chin so that he was forced to look up and reveal his face, he was pelted with filth and dung, denounced as arsonist and glutton, and taunted with his bodily defects by the crowd. For, Vitellius was exceptionally tall, and his face was usually flushed from some drinking bout. He had a huge belly, too, and one thigh crippled by a blow from a four-horse chariot which struck him when he was in attendance on Caligula who was driving. At last, after being tormented by a host of cuts from the soldiers’ swords, he was killed on the Gemonian Stairs, and his body dragged with a hook to the Tiber.
1 commentsBlindado
AeliusAsAnnona.jpg
1bg Aelius29 viewsCaesar, 136-138

As

Bare head, right, AELIVS CAESAR
Pannonia standing and holding a standard, PANNONIA SC

RIC 1071

According to the Historia Augusta (note: scholars view this biography in the text as among those particularly suspect regarding veracity): Aelius Verus was adopted by Hadrian at the time when, as we have previously said, the Emperor's health was beginning to fail and he was forced to take thought for the succession. He was at once made praetor and appointed military and civil governor of the provinces of Pannonia ; afterwards he was created [in AD 136] consul, and then, because he had been chosen to succeed to the imperial power, he was named for a second consulship. . . . [I]n the province to which he had been appointed he was by no means a failure ; for he carried on a campaign with
success, or rather, with good fortune, and achieved the reputation, if not of a pre-eminent, at least of an
average, commander.

Verus had, however, such wretched health that Hadrian immediately regretted the adoption, and since he often considered others as possible successors, he might have removed him altogether from the imperial family had Verus chanced to live longer. . . .

Verus was a man of joyous life and well versed in letters, and he was endeared to Hadrian, as the malicious say, rather by his beauty than by his character. In the palace his stay was but a short one; in his private life, though there was little to be commended, yet there was little to be blamed. Furthermore, he was considerate of his family, well-dressed, elegant in appearance, a man of regal beauty, with a countenance that commanded respect, a speaker of unusual eloquence, deft at writing verse, and, moreover, not altogether a failure in public life.

This sad little flan looks a bit tubercular, like the subject of the portrait.
Blindado
DiadumenProv.jpg
1by Diadumenianus17 views218

AE Nikopolis

Bare head, right, Portrait, right, M OPELLIOC ANTWNEINOC K

Hygieia standing left holding serpent patera, VP CTATI LONGINOV NIKOPOLITWN PROC ICTP

Son of Macrinus. I picked this out of a junk coins bowl many years ago.

Varbanov 3681
Blindado
TrajanDupColumn.jpg
1ca Conquests of Trajan: Dacia10 viewsTrajan
98-117

Dupondius

Portrait, right, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP
Trajan's column, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC

Trajan's Column records the military history of the emperor's conquest of Dacia in 104.

RIC 603
Blindado
TrajanDenArabia.jpg
1cb Conquests of Trajan: Arabia9 viewsTrajan
98-117

Denarius

Portrait, right, IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI P P
Arabia and camel, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI

Trajan annexed the Nabatean kingdom of Petra in 106.

RIC 245

Blindado
TrajanSestMesopotamia.jpg
1cd Conquests of Trajan: Armenia and Mesopotamia4 viewsTrajan
98-117

Sestertius

Portrait, right, IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTI]MO AVG GER DAC PARTHICO PM [TR P COS VI PP]
Armenia in attitude of mourning at Trajan's feet right, Euphrates and Tigris reclining, SC

RIC 642
Blindado
HannibalianusEuphratesAE4.jpg
1eg2 Hannibalianus32 viewsKing of Mesopotamia
335-337

AE 4

Diademed portrait right, FL HANNIBALLIANO REGI
Euphratus SE-CVRITAS PVBLICA

RIC 147

Blindado
JulianIIAE1Bull.jpg
1i Last Bid to Revitalize Pagan Religion8 viewsJulian II
360-363

AE1

Portrait, right, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Bull, eagle, and two stars, SECVRITAS REIPVB, PCONST in ex.

Julian "the Apostate" issued this coin with the symbols of Jupiter on the reverse as part of his campaign to breath life back into pagan faith.

RIC 318
Blindado
J-Maesa-RIC-264.jpg
20. J. Maesa antoninianus.14 viewsAntoninianus, 218 - 219 AD, Branch mint.
Obverse: IVLIA MAESA AVG / Bust of Julia Maesa on crescent.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG / Pietas standing, holding incense box and raising hand over lighted altar.
4.80 gm., 22 mm.
RIC #264; S #7748.

The coinage of Julia Maesa is fairly extensive. Coins with her portrait were minted at Antioch (and/or other Eastern mints) from the beginning of Elagabalus' reign until that mint was closed in 220. The mint at Rome minted her coins for the entire four year period of his reign, and possibly even into the reign of Severus Alexander as well.

There is only one type of antoninianus listed for Julia Maesa, and this is it. This coin was minted early in the reign of Elagabalus, before the denomination was discontinued. Although RIC lists this coin as being minted in Rome, it may well have been minted by a mint that traveled with Elagabalus on his journey to Rome 218 - 219 AD.
Callimachus
0030-405.jpg
2000 - Octavian & Agrippa, AE Dupondius 82 viewsArausio mint (Orange), 30-29 BC (Colonia Firma Julia Secundanorum Arausio)
IMP DIVI F (IMPerator DIVI Filii), bare heads of Augustus (right) and Agrippa (left), back to back
Prow of galley right, ram's head (?) enclosed in a medaillion above
17.61 gr - 28 mm.
Ref : RPC # 533
Ex. CNG e-auction #181/28, from the Patrick Villemur collection

Following comment taken from http://www.asdenimes.com/ :

Un très bel exemplaire du dupondius d'Orange. Têtes adossées d'Agrippa (à gauche) et Octave (à droite). Très beaux reliefs.
L’as (ou dupondius) d’Orange est très rare et nombre d'exemplaires connus (quelques dizaines) sont souvent de médiocre conservation. Le dupondius d'Orange préfigure le dupondius de Nîmes frappé à partir de 28/27 av. J.-C. et qui reprendra l’avers quasiment à l’identique (y compris les légendes), avec les profils d’Octave devenu Auguste et d’Agrippa. Le revers sera interprété de façon parodique sur l’as de Nîmes, puisque la galère sera remplacée par le crocodile qui garde à peu près la forme générale du vaisseau et dont l’oeil prophylactique (pas visible sur cet exemplaire : voir les as de Vienne page suivante) deviendra l’oeil du crocodile. On y ajoutera la palme pour former le mat et quelques autres accessoires tout aussi symboliques.
La tête de bélier représentée dans le médaillon du revers serait l’emblème des vétérans de la légio II Gallica qui a fondé la colonie d’Arausio vers 35 av. J.-C.
On distingue 2 types de dupondius d'Orange : ceux dont les portraits occupent la plus grande partie de l'avers et ceux qui montrent des têtes plutôt petites.
1 commentsPotator II
Elizabeth_2_2_Pounds_2015.JPG
2015 ELIZABETH II DECIMAL Bimetallic TWO POUNDS7 viewsObverse: ELIZABETH II DEI.GRA.REG.FID.DEF.2015. Diademed head of Elizabeth II facing right.
Reverse: TWO POUNDS. Three quarter helmeted bust of Britannia facing right, shield at her side, right hand holding trident over her shoulder.
Edge: QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO.
Diameter 28.4mm | Weight 15.97gms

This is the fifth portrait of Queen Elizabeth II to be used on circulating UK coinage since she was crowned in 1953. It was designed by (Mr) Jody Clark and was introduced in March 2015 to replace the previous portrait on all circulating UK coins. The Royal diadem which the Queen is shown wearing on this coin is the one she wears on her way to and from the State Opening of Parliament.

This 2015 two pound coin welcomed Britannia back onto circulating UK coinage, Britannia having not featured on any UK circulating coin after she was removed from the reverse of 50p coins in 2008. The new portrait of Britannia was designed by sculptor Antony Dofort and is meant to present Britannia in a modern era.
The edge legend of "QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO" meaning "I claim the four seas" first appeared as a reverse legend on coins bearing a Britannia design during the reign of Charles II, but those coins were patterns or prototypes which were never issued for general circulation.
*Alex
s-2015c.jpg
2015c ALEXIUS III ANGELUS-COMNENUS AE TETARTERON S-2015 DOC 5 CLBC 8.4.3 17 viewsOBV Bust of St. George , beardless and nimbate , wearing tunic, breastplate wearing tunic, breastplate, and sagion; holds spear in r. hand resting on l. shoulder and in l. scroll or hilt of sword.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. Globus cruciger.

All examples of Alexius tetartera are difficult to obtain these days, however DOC has many examples in their collection. This one has a dark black patina obscuring a very interesting portrait of Saint George.

Size 17.84mm

Weight 3.7gm

DOC lists 22 examples with weights from 1.91gm to 4.55gm and sizes from 17mm to 22mm
Simon
coins123.JPG
202a. Plautilla62 viewsVenus

The Roman goddess of love and beauty, but originally a vegetation goddess and patroness of gardens and vineyards. Later, under Greek influence, she was equated with Aphrodite and assumed many of her aspects. Her cult originated from Ardea and Lavinium in Latium. The oldest temple known of Venus dates back to 293 BCE, and was inaugurated on August 18. Later, on this date the Vinalia Rustica was observed. A second festival, that of the Veneralia, was celebrated on April 1 in honor of Venus Verticordia, who later became the protector against vice. Her temple was built in 114 BCE. After the Roman defeat near Lake Trasum in 215 BCE, a temple was built on the Capitol for Venus Erycina. This temple was officially opened on April 23, and a festival, the Vinalia Priora, was instituted to celebrate the occasion.

Venus is the daughter of Jupiter, and some of her lovers include Mars and Vulcan, modeled on the affairs of Aphrodite. Venus' importance rose, and that of her cult, through the influence of several Roman political leaders. The dictator Sulla made her his patroness, and both Julius Caesar and the emperor Augustus named her the ancestor of their (Julian) family: the 'gens Julia' was Aeneas, son of Venus and the mortal Anchises. Ceasar introduced the cult of Venus Genetrix, the goddess of motherhood and marriage, and built a temple for her in 46 BCE. She was also honored in the temple of Mars Ultor. The last great temple of Venus was built by the emperor Hadrianus near the Colusseum in 135 CE.

Roman statues and portraits of Venus are usually identical to the Greek representations of Aphrodite.

AR Denarius. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet. RSC 25.
ecoli
Caracalla-Hercules.jpg
213 AD - Caracalla 198-217 AD - Hercules297 viewsANTONINVSPIVSAVGBRIT - laureate head right
PMTRPXVICOSIIIIPP - Hercules, naked, standing left, holding branch, club, and lionskin

Rome mint, AD 213, reference RIC IV, part 1, pg 241, 206(a), Cohen 220, BM-48

Beautiful portrait of this "mad" emperor, with a wonderful depiction of hercules. Ex HJB
3 commentsjimwho523
Project1~0.jpg
216 Otacilia Severa96 viewsOtacilia Severa, Augusta February or March 244 - September or October 249 A.D.

Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 9158, RIC IV 130, RSC IV 43, Choice gVF, 4.523g, 23.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 247 A.D.; obverse OTACIL SEVERA AVG, draped bust right set on crescent; reverse PIETAS AVGVSTAE, Pietas, veiled, standing left, extending right, box of incense in left; full circles strike, bold portrait.

"Pietas in traditional Latin usage expressed a complex, highly valued Roman virtue; a man or woman with pietas respected his or her responsibilities to other people, gods and entities (such as the state), and understood his or her place in society with respect to others."
9 commentsRandygeki(h2)
23-Lysimachos.jpg
23. Lysimachos.111 viewsTetradrachm, 287 - 282 BC, Pergamum mint.
Obverse: Diademed head of Alexander, wearing the Horn of Ammon. K under bust.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΛΥΣΙΜΑΧΟΥ / Athena seated, with spear and shield, holding Nike. A crescent and archaic xoanon at left, ΘΞ monogram in exergue.
17.29 gm., 30 mm.
Thompson #221; S. #6816 var.

The mint at Pergamum was open for only 5 years from 287 - 282 BC. This coin was issued by Philetareus who was Lysimachus' governor at Pergamum. One of the most striking portraits on Greek coinage !
4 commentsCallimachus
24e-Constantine-Her-092.jpg
24e. Constantine: Heraclea.18 viewsAE3, 327 - 329, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: CONSANTINVS AVG / Diademed bust of Constantine, "Eyes to God."
Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG / Laurel wreath enclosing VOT XXX.
Mint mark: .SMHB
3.42 gm., 18.5 mm.
RIC #92; LRBC #887; Sear #16231.

Eusebius stated that Constantine had himself depicted in the attitude of prayer on his coins. Since early Christians prayed looking up to Heaven, this obverse portrait is the one which Eusebius saw. Thus the phrase "Eyes to God" became associated with this portrait. We have no proof that Eusebius' statement is true; indeed the portrait could have been based on the way various Hellenistic kings portrayed themselves on their own coins. However, Eusebius' statement likely reflected the popular opinion of his time.

The "Eyes to God" portrait was used intermittently on gold and silver coinages from 324 to 337. It's use on the bronze coinage is limited to just three mints: Constantinople (Daphne coinage, 328), Cyzicus (Campgate coinage 328-29), and Heraclea (VOT XXX coinage, 325-26, 327-329).
Callimachus
Posthumus-victory.jpg
260 AD - POSTUMUS - 260-268 AD - RIC 089136 viewsIMPCPOSTVMVSPFAVG - Postumus Radiate draped and curaissed right
VICTORIA AVG Victory advancing left, captive seated at her feet.

AR Antoninianus Rome Mint, 260-1 AD, 4.02g. Cunetio-2381 (770 sg. Cunetio-23pec), RIC-89.

Nice portrait !!!!
jimwho523
Aurelianus-2.jpg
270-275 AD - Aurelianus - Jupiter -121 viewsIMP AVRELIANVS AVG - Radiate draped, Curraissed bust right
IOVI CONSER - Emperor, with chalmys and transversescepter receiving globe from naked jupiter with chalmys and spear. P in exe

I love the portrait on this one, almost EF, and to me quite lifelike!
jimwho523
1168Hadrian_RIC28.jpg
28 Anonymous issues. Time of Hadrian to Antoninus Pius. Rome Quadrans 117-161 AD15 viewsReference.
RIC 28; C. 38

Obv.
Griffin seated left

Rev. S-C
Tripod.

2.43 gr
15 mm
6h

Note.
The series of Imperial-era anonymous quadrantes portrays eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules, as well as the Four Seasons. They invariably depict either a portrait on the obverse and an attribute of the deity on the reverse, or otherwise an attribute on either side. These designs appear to be influenced, but not directly copied from, earlier designs of the Republican period.
okidoki
27-Antiochos-VII.jpg
28. Antiochos-VII.27 viewsTetradrachm, 138-129 BC.
Obverse: Diademed head of Antiochos VII.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ / Athena standing, holding Nike, spear, and shield. Monogram and A at left, O at right.
16.81 gm., 27 mm.

This coin was purchased in 1997 as a tetradrachm of Antiochus VII before the posthumous tetradrachms of Antiochus VII were identified. 

In 2002 a tetradrachm was discovered that bore a portrait of Antiochus VII but was in the name of Ariarathese VII of Cappadocia.  Research eventually die-linked tetradrachms of Antiochus VII to those of Ariarathese VII, and concluded that numerous tetradrachms in the name of Antiochus VII were actually issued by Ariarathese VII around 104-102 BC. This research was published as Cappadician Tetradrachms in the Name of Antiochus VII by Catharine Lorber and Arthur Houghton (NC 166, 2006).

Recently Elke Krengle and Catharine Lorber published Early Cappadocian Tetradrachms in the Name of Antiochus VII.  This is a more in-depth look at these tetradrachms, and this coin is listed there:

See table 1 on p. 65, and plate 11:
Mint II, Emission 5: control mark O, #117-171. All the dies are not illustrated, so I do not know exactly which number between 117 and 171 is actually this coin.
Callimachus
28-Antiochos-VIII.jpg
29. Antiochos-VIII.27 viewsTetradrachm, 119/18 BC.
Obverse: Diademed head of Antiochos VIII.
Reverse: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΟΣ ΑΝΤΙΟΧΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ / Zeus standing, holding star and sceptre, crescent above his head. AP and monogram at left, ΔQP in exergue.
16.43 gm., 28 mm.
Houghton #854 var; S. 7143 var.

Compared with other coins of this man, this coin has a very sensitive and stylish portrait.
Callimachus
nerotet2TN.jpg
3. Nero, Syrian Silver Tetradrachm, 63 AD126 viewsAlexandrian Tetradrachm of Nero; young portrait
Obv. SEBASTOS NEPON KAISAP, young portrait of Nero
Rev. BIP (year 112 in Ceasarean era, 63 AD) Eagle clutching palm branch
1 commentsZam
coin240.JPG
305a. Herennia Etruscilla32 viewsHerennia Etruscilla was the wife of the emperor Trajan Decius. She was the mother of Herennius Etruscus and Hostilian, both of who became Roman Emperors during the reign of their father. Little else is known of her life, though coins with her portrait are numerous and easy to obtain. Either not much was written about this period or very little of what was written survives today. This is especially true in the case of the women of the times.

Herennia Etruscilla Antoninianus. HER ETRVSCILLA AVG, diademed, draped bust right on crescent / PVDICITIA AVG, Pudicitia seated left with scepter & right hand drawing veil. RIC 59b
3 commentsecoli
coin252.JPG
312a. Marius28 viewsMarius. AD 269. AE antoninianus.

Marcus Aurelius Marius was emperor of the Gallic Empire in 268.

According to later tradition, he was a blacksmith by trade who rose through the ranks of the Roman army to become an officer. After the death of Postumus he seized power, reportedly for two or three days, before being killed by a sword of his own manufacture.

This tradition is probably partially or entirely incorrect. Based upon the number of coins he issued, a more accurate length for his reign would be at least two or three months. Marius is listed among the Thirty Tyrants in the Historia Augusta.

Denomination : Bronze Antoninianus. Mint : Cologne.

Reference : RIC 5, part 2, page 377 #9. Sear-3155

Size : 16.9 x 18.0 mm Weight : 3.12 grams.

Grade : VF slightly off-centre.

Obverse : Radiate bust of Marius right, with IMP C M AVR MARIVS P F AVG around (the first half of the inscription is off the flan, but IVS P F AVG is clear.

Reverse : Felicitas standing left holding a caduceus and cornucopiae, with SAEC FELICITAS around.

At a glance one could confuse this coin with Postumus, as both Postumus and Marius have similar portraits and the part of the obverse inscription visible could be MVS P F AVG with the first part of the M off the flan. However, Postumus never issued this reverse type, so the coin can only be a Marius. (Description/Coin - Ex- Calgary Coins)
ecoli
35-Constantius-II-Sis-291.jpg
35. Constantius II / Hoc Signo. . .21 viewsMaiorina (larger AE 2), Mar. - Dec. 350, Siscia mint.
Obverse: DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Constantius II; A behind bust, star in front.
Reverse: HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS / Emperor standing, in military dress, holding standard with ChiRho, and spear. To the right stands Victory crowning him with a wreath and holding a palm branch. A in left field.
Mint mark: . ASIS*
5.55 gm., 22.5 mm.
RIC # 291; LRBC #1177; Sear #18203.

The reverse type on this coin refers to the vision Constantine the Great had before the Battle of the Milvian Bridge in 312. He saw a cross and the words HOC SIGNO VICTOR ERIS, which translate "By this sign you will be victorious."

Vetranio used this reverse type on coins minted in his name and the name of Constantius II during the 9 months he was emperor. RIC says, "This . . . evocation of the vision of Constantine before his victory over Magnentius is the clearest possible indication of Vetranio's loyalty to Constantius, and his expectation of the latter's triumph (over Magnentius)." (RIC VII, p. 344-45.)

On Roman coins, if an emperor is depicted on the reverse, it is usually the emperor whose name and portrait appears on the obverse of the coin. On this particular coin, it would not be out of place to have Constantius II represented on the reverse, especially because the coin was issued in advance of a coming battle with a pagan usurper (Magnentius). However, given the reverse legend, it is thought by many that the emperor depicted on this reverse is Constantine the Great himself.
Callimachus
SevAlex-RIC-165.jpg
35. Severus Alexander.15 viewsDenarius, ca 223 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: PAX AETERNA AVG / Pax standing, holding branch and sceptre.
2.24 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #165; Sear #7886.

Issued early in the reign of Severus Alexander, the reverse of this coin promises that the new reign will be one of eternal peace.

Notice that on the reverse sides of this coin, there is sort of an upside-down shadow of the portrait on the other side. This is an example of "clashed dies" -- the two dies were struck together without a flan in between them. The reverse die was damaged, and this damage showed up on any coins that were subsequently struck from it.
Callimachus
innoc_xii_M_28.jpg
4 Innocent XII 1699 Half Piastre M 28107 viewsAn amazingly frank portrait of this elderly and ailing pope who died the next year. The reverse features Noah's ark landing on Mt Ararat with water gushing out from below as it makes landfall. The reverse translates " His place is made in peace" and is an abbreviation of Ps 75:5.1 commentsstlnats
Caesar~4.jpg
44 BC Julius Caesar Lifetime Portrait denarius437 viewsCAESAR DICT PERPETVO
laureate head of Julius Caesar right

L BVCA
Venus seated right holding Victory on extended right hand, transverse scepter in left

Struck Feb - Mar 14th, 44 BC.

3.58g

RCV 1410, RSC 24.

Venus seated' only appears on this one type of Caesar's 'lifetime' issues, on the remainder she is standing.

Lucius Aemilius Buca was a distant relative of the dictator Sulla. This coin was struck within a month of Caesar's murder.

Ex-Incitatus, Ex-CNG Electronic Auction 223, lot 393
6 commentsJay GT4
46-Richard-I.jpg
46. Richard I.19 viewsPenny, London mint.
Obverse: HENRICVS REX / Crowned bust, facing, with sceptre at left.
Reverse: +STIVENE . ON . LVN / Short cross voided, with quatrefoil in each angle.
Moneyer: Stivene.
1.36 gm., 19 mm.
North #968; Seaby #1348A (old #1348).

Classification from North, Vol.1, p. 163-64, 170, Addendum; and Seaby 1994:
- The moneyer Stivene coined types 2 - 4b.
- Types 2 and 3 can be eliminated because the beard consists of small curls.
- Type 4 has beard consisting of pellets (as does this coin).
- Type 4b has a much coarser portrait and letters; the pellets in the crown run into one line.

North (1963) assigns type 4 to John, but later works (Seaby 1994, for example) assign 4a-4b to Richard. It appears that Stivene coined only for Richard. The difficulty in attribution stems from the fact that both Richard and John kept the name of their father (Henry II) on their coins.

Callimachus
Philip-II-tet-yr-5.jpg
49. Philp II, year 5.10 viewsTetradrachm, Year 5 (247 / 248 AD), Alexandria, Egypt.
Obverse: A K M IOΥ ΦIΛIΦΦOC E / Bust of Philip II.
Reverse: L E / Homonoia (Concordia) standing, hand extended, holding double cornucopiae.
13.97 gm.,
22.5 mm.

During the last few years of the reign of Philip I, both father and son shared the same titles. Coin portraits of father and son can often be distinguished from each other since Philip I is usually portrayed with a beard and Philip II is not. This coin was purchased as a tetradrachm of Philip I, but is being attributed here as a coin of Philip II since there is no trace of a beard on the portrait.
Callimachus
Lepidus_and_Octavian.jpg
495/2a Lepidus and Octavian23 viewsLepidus and Octavian. Military mint traveling with Lepidus in Italy. 43 B.C., late. AR Denarius.(3.35g, 16mm, 6h). Obv:LEPIDVS•PONT•MAX•III•VIR•R•P•C•, bare head of Lepidus right Rev: CAESAR•IMP•III•VIR•R•P•C•, bare head of Octavian right. Cf Crawford 495/2a 2c-d; Syd. 1323; Cf RSC 2-2a; 2c-d. “From Group SGF”

I’ve sought a coin with a portrait of Lepidus, and while worn, the obverse portrait is clearly identifiable. 43 B.C. saw the establishment of the Second Triumvirate giving Lepidus, Antony, and Octavian dictatorial powers over the Roman State.
1 commentsLucas H
Antoninus Pius portrait.jpg
5. Anotoninus Pius, Silver Denarius, 159-160 AD118 viewsgVF, Rome Mint, 159-160 AD,
Obv. ANTONINVS AUG PIUS PP TRP XXIII
Rev. ROMA COS IIII Roma seated left holding spear and figure
Zam
486_P_Hadrian_Emmett960_2.jpg
5017 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 117-18 AD Hadrian in quadriga54 viewsReference.
Emmett 960.2; RPC III, 5017 Köln 757; Dattari (Savio) 1585 var.

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑIΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate bust right No Beard, slight drapery

Rev. L B (date ry 2)
Emperor (Hadrian) standing in quadriga, right, laureate-headed, wearing toga, holding eagle-tipped sceptre and branch.

21.80 gr
34 mm
12 h

From the Syracuse Collection.

Note CNG.
Hadrian’s portraits on his early coins in Alexandria more closely resemble Trajan, as the engravers in the provinces waited for an official Imperial model or bust to be sent out. In this case, by Hadrian’s regnal year 2, the engravers might have had access to or knowledge of what Hadrian looked like, as the portrait on the present coin is beginning to morph into a more accurate representation of Hadrian’s Imperial image.
1 commentsokidoki
Philip-II-RIC-256-bust.jpg
51. Philip II as Caesar.24 viewsA comparison of the portrait of Philip II on the previous sestertius, and the marble bust of Philip II in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.Callimachus
Anthony_Octavian.jpg
517/2 Octavian and Antony106 viewsMarcus Antonius and Octavian. AR Denarius. Ephesus Mint, Spring-Summer 41 B.C. (3.42g, 19.1m, 0h)). Obv: M ANT IMP AVG III VIR R PC M BARBAT Q P, bare head of Antony r., Rev: CAESAR IMP PONT III VIR [R P C], bare head of Octavian r. Craw. 517/2, RSC 8a, RCV 1504.

A duel portrait of two of the three triumvirs. This example has fairly complete legends, and high relief portraits. This coin was minted before the Treaty of Brundisium, where the empire was apportion between the triumvirs.
1 commentsLucas H
POSTUME-paxaug-portraitàgauche-700px.jpg
5e Emission - 1er Phase - (268) - Trèves - PAX AVG21 viewsPOSTVMVS AVG
PAX AVG
EG 91
CUNETIO 2446
RIC 319
ELMER 564
AGK 52b
de Witte 179
Cohen 218
PYL
876_P_Hadrian_RPC657.jpg
657 MACEDONIA, Amphipolis Hadrian AE 25 Amphipolis17 viewsReverence.
RPC III, 657; AMNG 67; SNG ANS 155. Varnanov 3128; Lindgren 966

Issue Coinage without imperial portrait

Obv. ΚΑΙСΑΡ СΕΒΑСΤΟС
Emperor in military dress standing l., holding spear in r. hand and parazonium in l.

Rev. ΑΜΦΙΠΟΛΕΙΤωΝ
Amphipolis turreted seated l., holding patera in extended r. hand and her garment in her left hand.

10.62 gr
25 mm
6h

Note from Leu
RPC assigns this issue to the time of Hadrian based upon fabric, types and letter forms.
okidoki
Vespasian r103.jpg
69-79 AD Vespasian RIC-103106 viewsIMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG - Laureate head left
COS VIII - Mars standing holding spear and trophy, victory on right shoulder

Pleasing portrait on a scarce coin
1 commentsjimwho523
Philip-II-RIC-238var.jpg
70. Philip II as Augustus.58 viewsAntoninianus, 249 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip II facing right.
Reverse: PM TR P VI COS P P / Radiate lion walking right.
4.40 gm., 21.5 mm.
RIC 238 / 239 var; Sear 9272 / 9273 var.

This is an apparently unpublished coin. The RIC / Sear numbers above refer to coins with the bust facing left & the lion walking right; or the bust facing right & the lion walking left. Roger Bland, in his unpublished listing of Roman imperial coins from Antioch, lists a coin with bust right & lion walking right (#97); however Curtis Clay at Harlan J Berk Ltd. feels there is an error in the listing of #97 and that it refers to a coin in Paris with a left-facing bust. Details can be found at the web site of Forum Ancient Coins (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=47620.0).

The portrait on this coin is a superbly engraved portrait, but it is not the portrait of a 11 or 12 year old boy. A radiate lion is a symbol not often seen on Roman imperial coinage. It is associated with solar cults of the East and likely has the same meaning as the radiate crown on the emperor's portrait: the power and authority of the emperor is equated with the power and authority of the sun god. The radiate lion on this coin was certainly the invention of the mint of Antioch since the prototype on which this reverse is based -- the millennium coin with a lion on the reverse, RIC 12 -- is not a radiate lion.
1 commentsCallimachus
AugustusAE19Sardeis.jpg
702a, Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.40 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. AE 19mm (5.98 gm). Lydia, Sardeis. Diodoros Hermophilou. Obverse: head right. Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing facing holding scepter and eagle. RPC I, 489, 2986; SNG von Aulock 3142. aVF. Fine portrait. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.74 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.67 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.138 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
LarryW2285.jpg
7274 Nikomedes III, Euergetes, 128-94 BC157 viewsSilver tetradrachm, 37.6mm, 16.83g, Choice EF
Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKOMHΔOY. Zeus standing left holding wreath and lotus-tipped sceptre, eagle on thunderbolt over monogram and date I(Z)OP (year 177 or 122 BC) in inner left field.
Ex: Ronald Cohen Collection
Sear 7274v; BMC Pontus, pg. 213, #4var, and Pl. XXXIX, #1; De Callatay page 54 (D30/R1); Waddington [RG] page 230v. Rare variety: De Callatay cites one specimen.
Note: This coin struck with a slightly glancing blow, creating a great portrait at expense of weak areas on the reverse.
2 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
LarryW2235.jpg
7276 Nikomedes IV, Philopator, 94-74 BC134 viewsSilver tetradrachm, 34.4mm, 15.61g, EF
Diademed head right / BAΣIΛEΩΣ EΠIΦANOYΣ NIKOMHΔOY, Zeus standing left holding wreath and sceptre, eagle on thunderbolt over monogram and date EΣ (year 205 or 94 BC) in inner left field.
Ex: Forvm Ancient Coins
Sear 7276; BMC Pontus, page 215, #1; SNG von Aulock 265; SNG Cop 650
My personal favourite of this small collection because of the finely detailed portrait, 'perfect' toning, and minor imperfections like small die breaks that for me, add 'character.'
Note (courtesy Joe Sermarini): During the first year of his reign, Mithradates, king of Pontus, expelled him and placed his younger brother Socrates on the throne. The next year he was restored by the Roman army under Aquilius. Aquilius was later defeated and killed and in 88 BC, Mithradates destroyed Nikomedes' army forcing him to flee to Italy. Nikomedes' throne was again restored when Rome defeated Mithradates in 84 BC. He died childless and his will left his kingdom to Rome.
Lawrence Woolslayer
76-George-II.jpg
76. George II.12 viewsShilling, 1736, younger portrait.
Obverse: GEORGIVS II DEI GRATIA / Laureate young bust, left.
Reverse: M B F ET H REX F D B ET L D S R I A T ET E 1736 / Four crowned shields with roses and plumes in the angles.
5.98 gm., 25 mm.
Seaby #3699.
Callimachus
Aurelian-RIC-248.jpg
78. Aurelian.10 viewsAntoninianus, 270 - 275 AD, possibly minted in Siscia.
Obverse: AVRELIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Aurelian.
Reverse: ORIENS AVG / Sol standing, right hand raised, left hand holding globe; captive at his feet. S in exergue.
3.97 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #248.

Attribution: There are three coins listed in RIC that have the correct obverse legend (5), portrait (F), and reverse type: RIC 135 Milan, RIC 248 Siscia, and RIC 277 Serdicia. The characteristics of coins from Siscia found on this coin are busts with long necks, and square A and V. I have tentatively attributed this coin to Siscia based on these characteristics.
Callimachus
Domitian-r166.jpg
81-96 AD Domitian - RIC 166144 viewsIMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XI - Laureate head right
IMP XXI COS XVI CENS P P P - Minerva advancing right brandishing spear and shield
Rome mint 92 AD
Excellent portrait with some mint lustre.
1 commentsjimwho523
Macedonia-AE25-M7223.jpg
90. Koinon of Macedonia.25 viewsAE 25, ca mid 3'rd century AD, Beroea.
Obverse: AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ / Head of Alexander as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress.
Reverse: KOINON MAKEΔONΩN NEΩ / Horseman galloping right, holding spear, mantle waving behind.
12.72 gm., 25 mm.
Moushmov #7223.

Minted some 550+ years after his death, The portrait of Alexander on this coin was obviously copied from Alexander's own coinage.
Callimachus
Macedonia-AE25-M7206.jpg
91. Koinon of Macedonia.34 viewsAE 25, ca mid 3'rd century AD, Beroea.
Obverse: AΛEΞANΔΡO&Upsilon / Diademed head of Alexander.
Reverse: KOINON MAKEΔONΩN B NE / Soldier standing, holding a spear and a parazonium.
9.66 gm., 25 mm.
Moushmov #7206.

Minted some 550+ years after his death, The portrait of Alexander on this coin was likely copied from a coin of Lysimachos.
1 commentsCallimachus
49-Licinius-II-Sis-162.jpg
95 Licinius II: Siscia AE3.11 viewsAE3, 320-21, Siscia mint.
Obverse: LICINIVS IVN NOBC / Laureate bust of Licinius II.
Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM / Laurel wreath enclosing VOT V.
Mint mark: ΔSIS *
3.55 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #162; PBCC #832; Sear #15441.

Most of the mints under Constantine's control produced a small number of coins in the names of the Licinii to give the appearance of a united Empire. However, quite suddenly in early 321 the Licinii were excluded from coins produced at Constantine's mints. This was a visible sign of the deteriorating relations between Constantine and Licinius which eventually broke out into a civil war in 324. This coin is from the last group of coins from the mint of Siscia to show the portrait of Licinius Jr.
Callimachus
Darth_Vader.jpg
A long time ago in a galaxy far far away...37 viewsA NEW HOARD

The coin was allegedly found on the desert planet Tatooine among the ruins of Mos Eisley inside a ruined structure that appears to have been a cantina. Also inside was found the skeletal remains of a humanoid who scientists have named “Greedo” and appears to have been shot first, perhaps by a smuggler or some other scoundrel.

The obverse of the coin is a portrait of a helmeted head facing. Archeologists have named him “Darth Vader”, who at one time may have been a ruler or a “Lord” of some kind.

The reverse has the words “STAR WARS”, with the moneyer's mark below, which appears to be some sort of advertisement or propaganda and might suggest that the people of this particular “Empire” were a war like society...
2 commentsWill J
Alexandria_Tray_1_obv.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 1: Obverses, Claudius through Sev. Alexander43 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
Alexandria_Tray_2_rev.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 1: Reverses, Claudius through Sev. Alexander17 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
Alexandria_Tray_2_obv.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 2: Obverses, Philip I through Constantius I39 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
Alexandria_Tray_2_rev~0.jpg
A) Roman Egypt Portrait Gallery 2: Reverses, Philip I through Constantius I18 views+


CLICK ON IMAGE FOR A MUCH LARGER VIEW


+
Sosius
getaparium.jpg
aa Mysia, Parium. Geta. AE15. 61 viewsPRO: MYSIA
PO : PARIUM
PZ : Between 198 and 209
TIL: C / G / I / H
Obverse
VSL: SEP GETAS CAI
VT : PORTRAIT MAN R / GETA
VA : CLOTHES
Reverse
RSL: C G I H PA
RT : MAN PLOUGHING R / WITH / ANIMALS 2 / BULLS
Technical details
M : AE
GEW: 1.88(1)
Bibliographical references
ZIT: SNG AUL 1341(1)
Additional remarks
FR : VS: SEP GETAS CAI RS: C G I H PA
1 commentsancientone
R4916_souvignyabotts1080_1213_19mm83g.jpg
Abbots of Souvigny 1080-1213 AR denier 14 viewsObv SILVIMIA.CO cross
Rev. SES.MAIOLNS facing portrait of saint Maieur
Mint:Souvigny
Date: 1080-1213
19mm
.83g
Roberts 4916
wileyc
Lincoln_WF_Medallion.jpg
Abraham Lincoln Columbian Expo Medal 189322 viewsObv: 1809 * ABRAHAM * LINCOLN * 1865, portrait of a young, beardless Lincoln, facing, head turned right. Artist's name H. ZEARING in field above left shoulder.

Rev: A shield with lance heads separated with circles in borders; WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE - WITH CHARITY FOR ALL - WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT AS GOD GIVES VS TO SEE THE RIGHT LET VS STRIVE ON * * * LET VS HAVE FAITH THAT RIGHT MAKES MIGHT AND IN THAT FAITH LET VS TO THE END DARE TO DO OVR DVTY AS WE VNDERSTAND IT. (Excerpts from Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address on March 4th, 1865 and the Cooper Union Speech on February 27, 1860)

Engraver: Henry H. Zearing

Medal was made for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.

Bronze, Diameter: 45.4 mm, Axis: 0°

References: King 504, Eglit 85
Matt Inglima
Lincoln_Medallion.jpg
Abraham Lincoln Medal24 viewsObv: 1809 * ABRAHAM * LINCOLN * 1865, portrait of a young, beardless Lincoln, facing, head turned right. Artist's name H. ZEARING in field above left shoulder.

Rev: A shield with lance heads separated with circles in borders; WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE - WITH CHARITY FOR ALL - WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT AS GOD GIVES VS TO SEE THE RIGHT LET VS STRIVE ON * * * LET VS HAVE FAITH THAT RIGHT MAKES MIGHT AND IN THAT FAITH LET VS TO THE END DARE TO DO OVR DVTY AS WE VNDERSTAND IT. (Excerpts from Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address on March 4th, 1865 and the Cooper Union Speech on February 27, 1860)

Engraver: Henry H. Zearing

Medal was made for the World's Columbian Exposition in 1893.

Bronze, Diameter: 45.4 mm, Axis: 0°

References: King 504, Eglit 85
Matt Inglima
R656_Julia_Titi_portrait.jpg
AD 064-091 - IVLIA TITI FLAVIA12 viewsJulia Flavia

Julia Flaviawas the daughter and only child to Roman Emperor Titus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
R_667_Vitellia_Portrait.jpg
AD 069 - VITTELIA7 viewsVitellia


Vitellia was the daughter of Roman Emperor Vittelius.


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
R_667_Vitellius_Portrait.jpg
AD 069 - VITTELIUS6 viewsVitellius

Vitellius was Roman Emperor for eight months, from 16 April to 22 December 69 AD.


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
R_667_Vitellius_Germanicus_Portrait.jpg
AD 069 - VITTELIUS GERMANICVS6 viewsVitellius Germanicus


Vitellius Germanicus was the son of Roman Emperor Vittelius.



for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
R658_Domitia_portrait.jpg
AD 082-096 - DOMITIA12 viewsDomitia Longina

Domitia Longina (c. AD 53-55–c. AD 126-130) was a Roman empress and wife to the Roman emperor Domitian.


for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Plotina_R681_Portrait.jpg
AD 112-117 - PLOTINA6 viewsPlotina

Pompeia Plotina Claudia Phoebe Piso was a Roman Empress and wife of Roman Emperor Trajan.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Sabina_R675_portrait.jpg
AD 128-137 - SABINA4 viewsVibia Sabina (83–136/137) was a Roman Empress, wife and second cousin to Roman Emperor Hadrian.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Faustina_I_R674_portrait.jpg
AD 138-141 - FAVSTINA I6 viewsAnnia Galeria Faustina was a Roman empress and wife of the Roman emperor Antoninus Pius.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here

shanxi
Antoninus_Pius_R617_portrait.jpg
AD 138-161 - ANTONINVS PIVS9 viewsAntoninus Pius

Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, 19 September 86 – 7 March 161, was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. He was one of the "Five Good Emperors".

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Faustina_II_15_portrait.jpg
AD 147-176 - FAVSTINA II10 viewsFaustina II

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (130 - winter 175 or spring of 176]) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Lucilla_02_portrait.jpg
AD 166-169 - LVCILLA9 viewsLucilla

Annia Aurelia Galeria Lucilla (148 or 150 – 182) was the second daughter and third child of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius and Roman Empress Faustina II. She was the wife of her father's co-ruler Lucius Verus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
R652_Crispina_portrait.jpg
AD 178-191? - CRISPINA10 viewsCrispina

Roman Empress from 178 to 191? as the consort of Roman Emperor Commodus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Didia_Clara_01_portrait.jpg
AD 193 - DIDIA CLARA3 viewsDidia Clarawas a daughter and only child to the Roman Emperor Didius Julianus and Empress Manlia Scantilla.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Julia_Domna_04_portrait.jpg
AD 193–211 - IVLIA DOMNA4 viewsJulia Domna (AD 160–217) was a Roman empress and wife of Septimius Severus.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Plautilla_03_portrait.jpg
AD 202-205 - PLAVTILLA5 viewsPublia Fulvia Plautilla was the wife of the Roman emperor Caracalla.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Julia_Mamaea_R696_portrait.jpg
AD 225–235 - IVLIA MAMAEA3 viewsJulia Avita Mamaea was a Syrian noble woman and a Roman regent of the Severan dynasty. She was the mother of Roman Emperor Severus Alexander and served as regent of Rome during his reign.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Volusian_01_Portrait.jpg
AD 251-253 - VOLVSIANVS11 viewsVolusianus was a Roman Emperor from November 251 to August 253.



for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
2 commentsshanxi
R662_Postumus_portrait.jpg
AD 260-269 - POSTVMVS6 viewsPostumus

Marcus Cassianius Latinius Postumus was a Roman commander of Batavian origin who ruled as emperor in the west "founding" the "Gallic Empire".

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Lg007_quad_sm.jpg
AE provincial, Saitta, Lydia (Sidas Kaleh, Turkey), Senate/River-God (mid-2nd to early 3d century AD) 5 viewsIЄΡA - [CYNKΛHTOC], bare-headed youthful draped bust of Senate right / CAIT[THNΩN] + [ЄPMOC] in exergue, River-God Hermos reclining left, holding reed and cornucopiae, resting arm on urn (hydria) from which waters flow.

Ӕ (base metal yellow, orichalcum?), 22 mm, 5.68 g, die axis 6.5h (coin alignment)

It is difficult to read the name of the river. I think that ЄPMOC is more likely, but VΛΛΟС is also possible, representing the other important local river, Hyllos.

Possible catalog references are BMC Lydia 25 (or 26-27?), SNG Copenhagen 398, SNG München 439.
For the Hyllos reverse, Leypold 1153.

To emphasize the autonomy of certain Hellenistic polises, even under the Roman rule they sometimes used allegorical figures of Senate or Demos on obverses of their coins instead of imperial portraits. Saitta was issuing similar-looking coins with busts of emperors and their family as well, but in this issue the town Senate is honoured as the ruler. IЄΡA CYNKΛHTOC = Holy Senate. CAITTHNΩN = Saitta, ЄPMOC = Hermos, the name of the river and its god.

River-Gods or Potamoi (Ποταμοί) were the gods of the rivers and streams of the earth, all sons of the great earth-encirling river Okeanos (Oceanus) and his wife Tethys. Their sisters were the Okeanides (Oceanids), goddesses of small streams, clouds and rain, and their daughters were the Naiades, nymphs of springs and fountains. A River-God was depicted in one of three forms: as a man-headed bull; a bull-horned man with the tail of a serpentine-fish in place of legs; or as a reclining man with an arm resting upon a pitcher pouring water, which we see in this case. The addition of cornucopia symbolizes the blessings that a particular river bestows on those who live near it.

Saitta or Saittae (Σαίτται, Ptolemy 5.2.21: Σέτται, Σάετται) was a polis in eastern Lydia (aka Maeonia), in the rivers' triangle between the upper Hyllus (modern Demirci Çayı, c. 12 km to the west) and the Hermus or Hermos (modern Gediz Nehri, c. 20 km to the south). In Roman imperial times it belonged to the "conventus" of Sardis in the Roman province of Asia (conventus was a territorial unit of a Roman province, mostly for judicial purposes).

Now its ruins are known now as Sidas Kaleh or Sidaskale in Turkey, near the village of İçikler (İcikler Mahallesi, 45900 Demirci/Manisa). They were never excavated, so are little known or cared for. Ruins of a stadium and a theatre survive, together with remains of some temples and tombs.

Not much is known about it. It was a regional centre for the production of textiles. In 124 AD the town was probably visited by emperor Hadrianus. During the Roman period the cult of the moon god Mēn Axiottenus was very popular in the city. Because of its reference to "angels" (both literally as the Greek word and by their function as god's messengers) it was possibly close to the more general Asia Minor cult of Theos Hypsistos, Θεος ὕψιστος, "the highest god" (200 BC – 400 AD), which in turn was perhaps related to the gentile following of the Second Temple in Jerusalem.

Known Roman provincial coins issued by this city feature portraits of emperors from Hadrian to Gallienus, thus covering the period from 117 to 268 AD, with the peak around the Severan dynasty. The semi-autonomous issues are usually dated from mid-2nd to mid-3d century AD.

Later Saittae was the seat of a Byzantine bishopric. Bishop Limenius signed the Chalcedon Creed, while Bishop Amachius spoke at the Council of Chalcedon. Although an Islamic area now, Saittae remains a titular see of the Roman Catholic Church.
Yurii P
Aeqvitas_Cldcf_red.jpg
Aequitas Cldcf97 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed, front view
Reverse: AEQVITAS_AVGVSTI, SC left and right, very low in field
Aequitas draped, standing front, head left holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left, fold of drapery over left arm
BMC 333-6 (are draped, side view), RIC 547
Weight, 20.92g; die axis, 11h
An unusual portrait variety in a sestertius from year 226 (issue 6) that became the standard portrait for draped and cuirassed portraits from 231 AD (issue 14) on.
1 commentsmix_val
Agathokles_Lion_2b.jpg
Agathokles * Lion and Club, Period II - 317-289 BC. Æ 22125 views
Agathokles * Lion and Club, Period II * Æ 22.

Obv: Portrait head of Agathokles, hair bound with tainia, right-facing.
Rev: Male lion running right, olive branch club above.

Exergue: Γ (or ligate Γ and T)

Mint: Syracuse
Struck: 310-304 BC.

Size: 22.64 x 20.93 mm.
Weight: 8.21 grams
Die axis: Near 180°

Condition: Beautiful coin, much nicer than photo. Exquisite olive-gold patina. Well-centered and moderately forceful strike. Although the dealer addressed an "area of weak strike" on the reverse, I don't see it, unless it be the area of the exergue, though this looks more like wear to me. In all, a truly lovely coin.

Refs:*
Calciati II, S. 291, Em. 151.

Most descriptions I've seen of this coin-type, identify the obverse head as (the juvenile) Herakles. I stick with my conventional sensibilities, unable to see this beardless and 'realistic' portrait as such, but rather regard it as depicting Agathokles himself.

Ex-Harlan J. Berk.
1 commentsTiathena
Agrippina-Ses-Ob-_-Rev~4.jpg
Agrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)1193 viewsAgrippina the Elder (ca. 14 B.C.-33 A.D)
Sestertius
Daughter of Julia and Marcus Agrippa, wife of Germanicus and mother of Emperor Caligula. The most beautiful woman of all Caesars in the most incredible condition. The finest known specimen originally from the Morreti Collection.
Obv.Posthumous portrait ordered by Caligula to commemorate his mother who had tragically died in exile. Rev.The carpentum drawn by two mules, the vehicle reserved for the use of the women of the imperial family in the city.
Cohen 1 ; RIC 42
10 commentsPetitioncrown
079M.jpg
Alexander (Tyrannus) of Carthage34 viewsAlexander of Carthage. Usurper, AD 308-310.
Æ Follis (21.5mm, 5.26 g, 6h). Carthago (Carthage) mint.
IMP ALEXANDER P F AVG, laureate head right
[S P Q R OPT]IMO PRINCIPI, aquila between two signa, one on left surmounted by hand, one on right surmounted by wreath; PK.
RIC VI 72 (R3); Salama type X, portrait style G. VF, green patina, earthen encrustation. Very rare reverse type.

CNG Coins Triton XXII Auction, Lot 1170.
3 commentsMark Z
LarryW2215.jpg
Alexander III, 336-323 BC; Lampsakos 328-323 BC48 viewsAR drachm, 16.9mm, 4.29g, Nice VF
Head Herakles right wearing lion skin knotted at neck / AΛEΞANΔPOY Zeus seated left holding eagle and sceptre, feet forward resting on stool. Club in left field. Early lifetime issue, featuring a youthful portrait.
Price 1347; Müller 136; Thompson 8, series II
For Sale
Lawrence Woolslayer
AlexSev.jpg
Alexander Severus Roman Provincial Tetradrachm ( ALex. Mint)22 viewsAlexander Severus, struck AD 222/223 (year 2)

Metal: Bronze
Diam: 25 mm.
Weight: 8.8 gr.

OBV: Young A.S. Bust draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, bare-headed, facing right.
OBV-LEGEND: Not Visible
Marks-OBV: None

REV: Tyche, wearing kalathos, stg. l., holding rudder and cornucopiae, in l. field LB
REV-LEGEND : None visible
Marks-REV: L B Top-Left i front of Tyche’s face

Source : Alexandria, Egypt Catacombs when was young
Age: 222 A.D.
Mint: Alexandria ( Egypt)

Ref :Dattari cf. 4373 (different portrait); SNG Copenhagen 616; Köln (coll. Geissen) 2413
Michel C2
alxmecu.jpg
Alexander the Great16 viewsPortrait of Alexander the Great done in mosaic that is housed at the Museo Nazionale, Naples, Italy. Dated from the late 2nd century. B.C., copy of a painting dated to c. 300 B.C.

Traditionally this scene reresents the turning-point at Issus when Darius fled the battle; but Philoxenus, the artist from whose painting the mosaic was copied, may have incorporated elements from other battles. Alexander's personal moment of peril seems borrowed from the Granicus, and the confrontation also has echoes of Gaugamela.

This mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

See:http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
Alexander_III_4d.jpg
Alexander the Great * Colophon, Ionia, 337 to 323 BC. Silver drachm154 views
Alexander III * Colophon, Ionia, Macedonian Kingdom * AR drachm

Obv: Portrait head of Alexander right, wearing the lion's skin in style of Herakles.
Rev: Zeus enthroned seated left, holding a scepter in left hand, arm raised, and eagle in his right hand, arm extended to front, with [A]ΛEXANΔΡOY vertical in left field. Interesting set of mint marks: Male lion's head left-facing in left field, above ornate Φ - ornate pentagram below the throne.

Exergue: (None)

Mint: Colophon
Struck: 301-297 BC.
* Posthumous issue
* Issued under Lysimachos

Size: 17.34 x 17.18 mm.
Weight: 4.11 grams
Die axis: 180°

Condition: Apparent in photo which is quite faithful to the coin in hand. Very lovely bright and clear silvery luster.

Refs:*
Price 1836d

1 commentsTiathena
Alexander_III_Herakles-Weapons.jpg
Alexander the Great * Macedonia, 337 to 323 BC. Bronze drachm158 views
Obv: Alexander III guised as Herakles in lion skin headdress, right-facing, enclosed within ornamental dotted circle.
Rev: (Top to bottom) * Lighting bolt, knotted Olive-branch club right-facing, AΛEXANΔΡ[OY], Unstrung bow in ornamented traveling/storage case, Monogram Δ.

Exergue: (N/A) Monogram Δ present in undefined exergual space.

Mint: (Pella?)
Struck: 337-323 BC.

Size: 18.50 mm.
Weight: 6.38 gms.
Die axis: 360°

Condition: XF. Exceptionally lovely coin, more-so in hand. Superb high relief and all details distinct and present.
Beautiful tone, rather dark-golden in the higher relief’s contrast delightfully against a yet-darker gold background in the lower areas of the flan. The flat area around the portrait and within the dotted circle is a strong, accentuating black-olive (not well-communicated by the present image).
Exquisite example of the type.

Refs:*
Not found in Sear GCATV.
Sear 6739, is an Æ 20. Partially descriptive.
4 commentsTiathena
ATGmosaic.jpg
Alexander the Great, The Battle of Issus River24 viewsThis mosaic depicts a battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian king Darius, probably the Battle of the Issus River in November of 333 B.C. It is in opus vermiculatum, with over one and a half million tesserae, none larger than 4 mm., in four colors: white, yellow, red, and black. The minuteness of the tesserae enables incredibly fine detail and painterly effects, including remarkable portraits of Alexander and Darius.

The border of this huge mosaic consists of large stones in a dentate pattern . In the corners are rosettes. Within the border along the bottom of the picture is a blank brown stripe, which some consider to be part of the picture, balancing the white expanse of sky at the top, while others argue that it is simply part of the frame.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by the two protagonists: On the left, Alexander, with his head uncovered, rushes forward on his horse Bucephalus. He holds a spear with which he has skewered a Persian soldier, who has rushed to the defence of Darius. With Alexander appear his helmeted Macedonian soldiers, although little remains of them due to damage of the left side of the mosaic. On the right Darius, wearing a Persian cap, stretches out his hand to his wounded defender, while his charioteer whips the horses to flee toward the right. Around him are his Persian soldiers who mill in confusion in the background, their faces filled with fear and determination. One Persian, however, to the right of the dying defender of Darius, is intent upon Alexander, and holds his sword in his hand, ready to attack.

There are many details which emphasize the terror and confusion of the battle. The horse of the Persian defender of Darius collapses beneath him while he writhes in agony on Alexander's spear. Below Darius in his chariot, a Persian soldier, staring in horror at this scene, attempts to hold a rearing horse. The hindquarters of this horse project into the middle ground of the picture, giving it a sense of depth. To the right, a soldier is being crushed under the wheels of Darius' chariot. His face is reflected in the shield which he holds. Further to the right appear the terrified horses of the chariot team, trampling upon another unfortunate Persian.

The composition of the mosaic is dominated by diagonals. The center is dominated by the intersecting diagonals of the Persian speared by Alexander and the Persian restraining the rearing horse. Two other sets of intersecting diagonals are provided by the figures of Darius and his charioteer and by Alexander and the wounded Persian. The lances in the background of the picture also carry on the diagonal motif.

The setting of the battle is very stylized. In the background appears a tree with bare twisted limbs whose diagonals continue the unifying compositional motif of the mosaic. The tree also serves as a formal vertical counterweight to the Persian king and his charioteer, who rise above the battle fray. In the foreground are discarded weapons and rocks, which serve to define the space between the viewer and the battle scene.

The Alexander mosaic is thought to be based on a painting which Philoxenus of Eretria created for King Cassander of Macedonia. The painting is described by Pliny the Elder as representing "the battle of Alexander with Darius." Certain inconsistencies in the mosaic point to its derivation from another source. In the center of the composition appears a helmeted head to the right of the rearing horse. Two lance shafts come from the left and abruptly stop behind this he‡d. To the right of the same head appears a head of a horse and beneath this are the hindquarters of another horse, neither of which is logically completed. Among the four horses of Darius' chariot there are parts of a white horse which do not fit together anatomically. Above these horses is a Persian soldier who appears to have two right hands, one on his head and the other raised in the air. These details provide evidence that the mosaicist misunderstood details of the original.

Nevertheless, the overall effect of the mosaic is masterful. The expert blending of the colors of the tesserae and the careful control of the overall composition create a scene which comes to life with all the horror and confusion of battle. The Alexander mosaic is a truly great work, unmatched in the history of Roman art.

See: http://www.hackneys.com/alex_web/pages/alxphoto.htm
Cleisthenes
394po.jpg
ALFOLDI 027.6027 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: CONSERVAT AVG
BUST TYPE: E1 (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//XXIQ
WEIGHT 3.97g / AXIS: 1h / WIDTH 22mm
RIC 670
ALFOLDI 027.60
COLLECTION NO. 174
EX S.L. COLLECTION
NOTE: VERY UNUSUAL STYLE OF EMPEROR'S PORTRAIT
Barnaba6
1205~0.jpg
ALFOLDI 076.15815 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: SOLI INVICTO
BUST TYPE: A2 = Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIVII
WEIGHT 3.53g / AXIS: h / WIDTH:23mm
MINT: SISCIA
RIC: 767
ALFOLDI 076.158
COLLECTION NO. 1205
Note: This coin was struck in the 7th workshop which opened in 280 A.D. and was operated by an engraver who came from Serdica. The style of the emperor's portrait and the lettering is clearly that of Serdica. The mint at Serdica temporarily closed in 280 A.D. and its scalptores went to open the 7th workshop at Siscia and the 9th workshop at Antioch - see S. Estiot, L’Empereur et l’usurpateur: un 4e atelier oriental sous Probus"; 2015, p. 264-265.
Barnaba6
allectus_76~0.jpg
Allectus RIC V, 76188 viewsAllectus 293 - 296, British Empire
AR - Antoninianus, 3.97g, 22.6mm
Camulodunum 293 - 296
obv. IMP C ALLECTVS PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, radiate head r.
rev. LAETI - T [A]VG
Laetitia standing l., holding wreath r. and anchor l.
field: S and P
exergue: C
RIC V, 76; C.16
about VF, portrait!
from Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
added to www.wildwinds.com

ANCHOR, because the power of Allectus based on his fleet
5 commentsJochen
untitled5.png
Alpha Bank17 viewsThis is an exact copy of a Tetradrachm from the Alpha Bank numismatic collection.This Tetradrachm of Lysimachus bear the most popular portrait of Alexander the Great.Grant H
s-l1600_(8).jpg
ANCIENT INDIA - GADHAYA DYNASTY - KINGS PORTRAIT - SILVER 9 viewsWeight : 4.03 gm.
Diameter : 17 mm
_7.50
Antonivs Protti
s-l1600_(14).jpg
ANCIENT INDIA - GADHAYA DYNASTY - KINGS PORTRAIT - SILVER 14 viewsWeight : 4.18 gm.
Diameter : 16 mm
_8.50
Antonivs Protti
Portraits2.jpg
Ancient portraits212 viewsEmpresses and Emperors from Ancient Roman Empire6 commentsTibsi
25810_Claudius_II_antoninianus,_RIC_V_18,_VF,_Rome.jpg
ANNONA AVGG, RIC V 18 Rome21 viewsClaudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D. Silvered antoninianus, RIC V 18, VF, Rome mint, 2.132g, 20.6mm, 180o, obverse IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse ANNONA AVG, Annona standing left, holding stalks of grain and cornucopia, right foot on prow; uneven strike, tough guy portrait. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
antioch_cm.jpg
Antioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Roman Provincial Syria, Apollo or Cleopatra Countermark. AE 2411 viewsAntioch c. 47 - 41 B.C., Roman Provincial Syria, Apollo or Cleopatra Countermark. Bronze AE 24, SGCV 5855 - 5856; RPC 4218 ff., coin and countermark VG, Antioch mint, 11.797g, 24.4mm, 0o, c. 47 - 41 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right, countermarked; reverse “ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ΤΗΣ ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩΣ”, Zeus enthroned left holding Nike and scepter, uncertain date in ex; brown patina. RPC notes this countermark as "Head of Apollo" but it may be Cleopatra. The bun behind the head and the piece of hair dangling behind the neck are similar to portraits of Cleopatra on bronze coins from Chalkis and Cyprus and tetradrachms from Syria. Perhaps it was countermarked by the mint that struck the Cleopatra / Antony tetradrachms. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Four_Cons_Ob.JPG
Antioch mint Portrait Style665 viewsFour coins from Anitoch mint. Typical 'hook-nosed' portraits.Kevin_S
ppsectetORweb.jpg
Antioch, Revised Posthumous Philip, RPC 413656 viewsAntioch Mint, revised posthumous Philip, year = 19 (31/30 B.C.) AR, 26mm 14.39g, RPC 4136, Newell, no. 23
O: Diademed head of Philip Philadelphus, r.
R: BAEILEWE FILIPPOY EPIFANOYE FILADELFOY, Zeus, seated l., holding Nike and scepter
EX: THI
* "In the early fifties, the Romans revived the coinage of King Philip Philadelphus to be their coinage of Syria, copying his types (portrait of Philip/Zeus seated l.), though in a debased style. The coinage lasted from then until the reign of Augustus, and was discussed most recently by H.R. Baldus (in CRWLR, pp. 127-30, with earlier references for H. Scying, E. T. Newell, A. R. Bellinger and C. M. Kraay). The first issues were made with the monogram of Gabinius (57-55 BC), Crassus (54/53 BC) and Cassius (52/51 BC). There after the establishment of a Caesarian era at Antioch in 44/48 BC, their monogram was replaced by one standing for Antioch )or ‘autonomous’: see Wr. 21) and the coins were dated in the exergue by the years of this era. Year 3-12 and, then with a new style (see E. T. Newell, NC, 1919, pp. 69ff.; Baldus, p. 150, n. 14) 19-33 are known.
It may seem odd that the Romans chose the Tetradrachm of Philip (92-83 BC) to revive, rather than those of the last king, Antiochus XII; it is true that the last substantial issue of Seleucid tetradrachms was made by Philip, so that his would have comprised a most important proportion of the currency (so Newell, pp 80-4; M. J. Price ap. Baldus, op. cit., p. 127), but it is hard to see that this provides a sufficient reason, and it is possible that some other consideration might be relevant. While Antiochus (c. 69-65 BC) was away campaigning against the Arabs, the people of Antioch revolted and put forward, as king, Philip, the son of Philip Philadelphus. As the claims of Antiochus were rejected by Pompey when he formed the province, the Roman view may have been that Philip was the last legitimate Seleucid king, and, if so, his coins would naturally have been chosen as the prototype of the Roman coinage in Syria.
The Philips were interrupted from year 12 until year 19, and it seems that in this gap the tetradrachms of Cleopatra and Antony were produced. The evidence for their production at Antioch, however, does not seem sufficient, and they have been catalogued elsewhere, under ‘Uncertain of Syria’ (4094-6). It is certain, however, that a unique drachm portraying Antony was produced at Antioch during this period, as it bears the ethnic ANTIOXEWN MHTPOPOLEWS. See also addenda 4131A.
After the defeat of Antony, the coinage of posthumous Philip was revived in 31/30 BC, though it is not clear whether this represents a conscious decision to avoid putting Octavian’s portrait on the coinage, as happened in Asia and Egypt (similarly, the portrait does not appear on city bronzes of Syria before the last decade BC) or whether it is just the simple reinstatement of the previous type, after the new type of Antony and Cleopatra became unacceptable. At any rate the coinage continued until at least year 33 (= 17/16 BC). Current evidence does not permit us to be sure that it continued any later, to the year 36 (= 14/13 BC), as Newell thought, though this is not impossible."

RPC I, pp. 606-607
casata137ec
AntiochosVII_tetradrachm_AR29-32_16_29g.jpg
Antiochos VII (in the name of) tetradrachm, c. 130 - 80 BC85 views29-32mm, 16.29g
obv: diademed head right
rev: Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate ∆Ι / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border
From FORVM Ancient coins: Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

CLICK PICTURE FOR A HIGHER-QUALITY VERSION
1 commentsareich
Antiochus_2b.jpg
Antiochus I (Soter) * Apollo, 280-261 BC68 views
Antiochus I * Apollo,* 280-261 BC
Æ hemidrachm (?)

Obv: Diademed head of Antiochus right
Rev: Apollo seated on omphalos (Delphi), holding arrow in right hand, leaning on strung bow with his left hand, left-facing.
BASILEOS to the right, [A]NTIOXOY to the left. Monograms to left and right, omitted by strike from the right, effaced by wear from the left.

Weight: ca. 4.0 grams
Die axis: 190 degs.

Patina: Quite lovely 'desert-patina.'

Sear, GCATV * (SG) Number 6866v (This example appears to be bronze, not silver: I have been unable to date to find any reference to an Æ variant of SG #6866).
BMC, 4.9, 10


This coin bears portrait of the middle-aged Antiochus I 'Soter,' from the time of his sole reign (280-261 BC.), following the death of his father, Seleukos I.
The reverse depicts Delphian Apollo holding a single arrow, as opposed to the two arrows as seen on the coins dating from his joint-reign with his father.

* Olympian

Tiathena
clown_3_illisible.jpg
Antoninianus Gordian III Imitation "Barbarous" VIRTVS AVG ????28 viewsIMP CAES MANT GORDIANVS AVG
????? maybe VIRTVS or VICTORIA

Weight : 2,90 gr

Fourree

A very unusual style. The portrait is very strange and typical.
The style is touching and a bit clumsy.

I think it's the same celator as for this other imitations (from my collection ) :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58496
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58496
Chut
Anto_FIDES_MILITVMs_FAC.jpg
Antoninianus Gordian III Imitation FIDES MILITVM41 viewsIMP CAES MANT GORDIANVS
FIDES MILITVM

RIC : No number, but the prototype is RIC 1

Coin : fourree

Weight : 3,46gr

A very unusual style. The portrait is very strange and typical. The reverse is also strange : FIDES looks like a man with a crown.

I think it's the same celator as for this other imitations (also from my collection ) :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58496
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58585
1 commentsChut
anto_clown_virtus_FAC.jpg
Antoninianus Gordian III Imitation VIRTVS AVG41 viewsIMP CAES MANT GORDIANVS AVG
VIRTVS AVG

This coin was fourree.
Weight : 3,57 gr

RIC: No number but the Prototype is RIC 6

A very unusual style. The portrait is very strange and typical.
The style is touching and a bit clumsy.

I think it's the same celator as for this other imitations (from my collection ) :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58496
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58585
Chut
philip_I_48b.jpg
Antoninianus; SECVRIT ORBIS, RIC IV 48b11 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, first half of 244 - end of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8966, RIC IV 48b, RSC IV 215, gVF, Rome mint, 2.957g, 23.6mm, 0o, 244 - 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse SECVRIT ORBIS, Securitas seated left, scepter in right, propping head on left hand; sharp portrait, tone. Ex FORVMPodiceps
piaur2.jpg
Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD) AR Denarius ca 140 D26 viewsObverse: Laureate head of Pius right; ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P COS III
Reverse: Bare head of Marcus Aurelius right; AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS
RIC 415a (ref. Wildwinds) weight 3.5 grams

Two nice imperial portraits of Pius and his adoptive son M. Aurelius on the same coin. Not rare but scarce.
daverino
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_441a.jpg
Antoninus Pius - [RIC 441a]94 viewsSilver Denarius, 3.25g, 17mm, 165 degree, Struck Under Marcus Aurelius 162 A.D.

Obv. - DIVVS ANTONINVS, bare head right, drapery on left shoulder with fold behind neck and wrapped around neck

Rev. - DIVO PIO, square altar with double doors

Excellent centering, full legends, great portrait, and fine alter
___________

Purchased from Newgate Numismatics on vcoins.com

Ex. Dwayne Clark Collection
3 commentsrenegade3220
antonisu_pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius Denarius Contemporary Imitation55 viewsAntoninus Pius Denarius. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right / COS IIII, Annona standing left, holding two corn ears and resting left hand on modius, filled with corn ears, set on prow. RSC 291. Great Portrait for imitation.tiberiusjulius
12_Caesar_portraits.jpg
Antony & The 12 Caesars260 viewsA variation on my other virtual coin trays. This one includes a lifetime portrait of Julius Caesar. It's difficult choosing which coin to include in this set, in some cases I only had one (Galba, Otho) but others I had many more to choose from. I do have better portraits of some but I thought these had more interesting reverse types or portrait styles:

Marcus Antonius denarius
Julius Caesar denarius
Augustus denarius
Tiberius denarius
Caligula AE As
Claudius AE As
Nero Dupondius
Galba AE As
Otho Tetradrachm
Vitellius denarius
Vespasian denarius
Titus denarius
Domitian denarius

Image is clickable for larger size.
To see the coins individually see them in my gallery.
9 commentsJay GT4
Antony___the_Caesars.jpg
Antony & the Caesar's137 viewsSince most of the 12 Caesar's were more closely related to Antony than to Augustus I thought it was appropriate to include Antony in my 12 Caesar's group shot. Individual coins can be seen in my galleries. While I have better portraits of some Emperor's I chose these for their interesting reverses and styles.

Clickable for a larger photo.
6 commentsJay GT4
prnbzw~0.jpg
Aphrodite and Ares on Cilician AR Stater of Satrap Pharnabazos174 views
Circa 380-374/3 B.C.(21mm, 10.39g, 11h). Struck circa 380-379 B.C. Casabonne series 3; Moysey Issue 3, 3-5 var. (dolphin on obv.); SNG France 246 var. (rev. legend). Obverse Head of nymph facing three-quarters left. Reverse Helmeted head of Ares left, Aramaic PRNBZW to left. Near EF, toned, struck from a slightly worn obverse die.

Ex CNG.

There is still an ongoing debate whether who represent the obverse and reverse of this coin type of Pharnabazos. The obverse obviously was inspired by the renowned Syracusan tetradrachm of Kimon, whose three-quarter facing head of the nymph Arethusa was widely copied throughout the ancient world. A handful of ancient poleis adopted this style to represent their local nymph or goddess on their coins. A perfect example is the numerous coins of Larissa in Thessaly representing the local nymph of the same name. It is possible to assume then that the obverse of our coin might be another female deity other than Arethusa. A current opinion holds that the obverse represents Aphrodite, the goddess of love; and the reverse depicts Ares, the god of war. The two were known in ancient mythology as lovers, and commonly paired together on ancient coins. Of special note on this coin is the reverse: while most coins of this type display static male heads with little originality, the reverse die is probably from a special issue marked by superior style and executed with extreme delicacy. It has been suggested (Leu Auction 81, lot 317) that the head of Ares may be a disguised portrait of Pharnabazos himself.

1 commentsJason T
mithra.jpg
AR Drachm of Mithradates I (171-138 BC)16 viewsObverse: Bearded bust left wearing diadem with circular reel and pellet border.
Reverse: Beardless archer sitting right on omphalos wearing cloak and bashlyk, 3 line Greek inscription BASILEWS MEGALOY ARSAKOY

A nice portrait of the king done in realistic style probably near the end of his long reign

Sellwood 11.1
daverino
antdrahm.jpg
AR Tetradrachm of Philip I, Antioch 244-248 AD26 viewsObverse: AVTOK K M IOVL FILIPPOC CEB, Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: DHMAPX EZOVCIAC (Holder of the tribunician power i.e. TR POT) S C in exergue. Eagle standing left on a palm branch facing left with wings spread and holding wreath in beak.

This coin has a little wear but must have been struck with new dies. Philip "the Arab" is portrayed as just that with very Semitic features notably the high cheekbones and full lips. It is very finely modeled and quite different from most portraits struck at Rome. Perhaps it reflects only the aesthetics of Syria or it may in fact be close to what Philip actually looked like

SNG CoP 263 (ref. Wildwinds), wt 11.5 gms ~27 mm

Purchased at the Bay State Coin Show, Nov 2012
daverino
DSCN7795.JPG
Ariobarzanes III of Cappadocia . 52-42 BC. AR17mm14 viewsAriobarzanes III of Cappadocia . 52-42 BC.

Obv. Portrait of King right.

Rev. Athena standing holding Nike, spear and shield.
Lee S
Seal007.jpg
ARISTANETOS. ROMAN LEAD SEAL289 viewsAPICT - ANETOV
Draped bust of a slightly balding middle-aged man with sideburns

Cf. Gert Boersema stock no. 5705 (2010)=Münzzentrum 157 (2011), 552 for the same seal type with a clear legend;

18x16x10mm

10.74g; very fine

Note: The style of this portrait of a slightly balding middle-aged man with sideburns suggests a date in the early 4th century. It is the personal seal of a man called Aristanetos, as the Greek genitive legend indicates. In late Roman and early Byzantine times there are numerous personal seals that feature the portrait of the owner. Many of them are not known from other sources. These named portraits of individuals who were powerful and important in their day but are now long forgotten except for a few pieces of lead have a special kind of fascination.

From the Gert Boersema files
2 commentsJay GT4
IMGP2035Art1_combo.jpg
Artabanos I. 127-124 BC52 viewsAR dr., 4,1gr, 20,3mm; Sellwood 19.2var., Shore 58var., Sunrise --;
mint: Ekbatana (?), axis: 12h;
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem, knot and 2 ribbons; short cap like hair in 5 waves, side lock (?), medium long beard; earring, multi-turn torque; eastern portrait (?); dotted border 9 to 13:30;
rev.: archer, right, on omphalos, w/bow in right hand; 4-line legend in 2+2 format: (B)AΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY APΣAKO(Y) ΘEOΠATOPO(Σ); exergual line;

ex: Pars Coins
1 commentsSchatz
IMGP0451Arta1combo.jpg
Artabanos I. 127-124 BC38 viewsAR dr., 3,32gr, 18,6mm; Sellwood 19.2var., Shore 58var., Sunrise --; PDC 5889 (this coin)
mint: Ekbatana (?), axis:
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem, knot and 2 ribbons; short, cap like hair in 5 waves, long beard, side lock(?); earring, necklace; strange, eastern(?) portrait; dotted border 8 to 14;
rev.: archer, right, on omphalos, w/bow in right hand; 4-line legend in 2+2 format: (B)AΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY APΣAKOY ΘEOΠATOP(O)Σ exergual line;

ex: CNG Triton XIII, # 545 (T. Ballen Collection); ex: Gorny & Mosch 155/156, #1547, ex: Gorny & Mosch 152, # 1501.
Schatz
IMGP0937Art1_combo.jpg
Artabanos I. 127-124 BC12 views
AR dr., 3,32gr, 18,6mm; Sellwood 19.2var., Shore 58var., Sunrise --; PDC 5889 (this coin)
mint: Ekbatana (?), axis:
obv.: bare-headed, left, w/diadem, knot and 2 ribbons; short, cap like hair in 5 waves, long beard, side lock(?); earring, necklace; strange, eastern(?) portrait; dotted border 8 to 14;
rev.: archer, right, on omphalos, w/bow in right hand; 4-line legend in 2+2 format: (B)AΣIΛEΩΣ MEΓAΛOY APΣAKOY ΘEOΠATOP(O)Σ exergual line;
Schatz
Nercessian-93.jpg
Artaxiads of Armenia: Tigranes II the Great (95-56 BC) Æ Two Chalci (Nercessian-93)31 viewsObv: Finely executed portrait of Tigranes facing right. Tiara has five sharp spikes. Tiara has one star between two eagles.
Rev: Cornucopia with the upper half to the right. Above to the left and to the right of cornucopia marks resembling bunch of grapes. Legend to right downward - ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ; to left downward - ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ / ΤΙΓΡΑΝΟΥ. Various field marks.
SpongeBob
As_Lvgdvnvm_for_Avgvstvs.jpg
As for Avgvstvs from Lvgdvnvm20 viewsAs for Avgvstvs. Lvgdvnvm mint. Around 10 BC.
9.71 grs and 28mm.
Observe : Laureate head right . Around CAESAR PONTMAX.
Reverse : Altar of Lugdunum, decorated with the corona civica between laurels, flanked by nude male figures; to left and right, Victories on columns, facing one another. Below ROMETAVG.
RIC I 230; Lyon 73. Cohen 240.
Everything is about the portrait.
3 commentslabienus
Vespasian_As_Tarraco.jpg
As for Vespasian from (probably) Tarraco128 viewsAs for Vespasian. Probably Tarraco mint. 70 AD.
14.7 grs.
Observe : IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG P M TR P. Laureate head right.
Reverse : IMP V P P COS II DESIG III. Aequitas standing left, holding scales & scepter.
RIC 1329.
Rarity : R2
Fairly unusual portrait of Vespasian with quite curly hair.
3 commentslabienus
ant_pius_as.jpg
As, COS IIII S C, Pax standing left with branch and cornucopia; RIC III 9552 viewsAntoninus Pius, 138-161 A.D. Copper as, RIC III 955, Cohen 257, gVF+, Rome mint, 8.714g, 26.5mm, 0o, 155-156 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XIX, laureate head right; reverse COS IIII S C, Pax standing left, branch in right, cornucopia in left; bold, sharp, nice portrait; scarce. Ex FORVMPodiceps
apr_24_2012-007.jpg
Asklepios, serpent36 viewsMysia, Pergamon or Antioch, Syria

Portrait of Asklepios left

Serpent entwined staff, A in left field
Robin Ayers
982c.jpg
asmcalee802b211 viewsElagabalus
Antioch, Syria

Obv: AVTO KAI MAP AV(...)NOC Cε. Laureate head right.
Rev: ANTIOXεΩN (...), Tyche seated left on rocks, holding grain ears in right hand, left hand resting on rocks; below, river-god Orontes swimming left; above, ram leaping left, head right; S-C and Δ-ε across upper field. Crescent in reverse left field.
32 mm, 24.79 gms

McAlee 802(b)


Note: Portrait looks like Caracalla but this type was not struck under Caracalla.
Charles M
bosporus_aspurgus.jpg
Aspurgus, c. 14 - 37 A.D., In the Name of Tiberius. Tiberius/ Aspurgus21 viewsKingdom of Bosporus, Aspurgus, c. 14 - 37 A.D., In the Name of Tiberius. Bronze 12 nummi, RPC I 1903 (14 examples), MacDonald 300, F, 7.000g, 22.7mm, 0o, c. 35 - 37 A.D.; obverse “TIBERIOS KAISAROS”, laureate head of Tiberius right; reverse, diademed head of Aspurgus right, IB before, uncertain monogram behind; brown tone. This coin and coins of Caligula (RPC 1904, “Gaius Caesar Germanicus” 14 examples known to RPC) were both struck with this date, with young portraits, about which RPC notes, “the pieces with the portraits of Tiberius and Caligula were probably made at the end of the reign; the Tiberian pieces are so similar to the Caligulan ones that it seems very likely that both were made within a short space of time.” Could the young portrait on the obverse be viewed as that of Tiberius Gemellus? The grandson of Tiberius was named joint-heir with Caligula in the will of the emperor. Ex FORVMPodiceps
attalusI.jpg
Attalus I AR Tetradrachm 241-197 BC31 viewsOBV: Diademed head of Philetairos, founder of the Pergamene dynasty, to right
REV: Athena enthroned left resting left arm on shield and placing a wreath on the name of PHILETAIROY with her extended right arm. 'A' in field below Athena's arm - likely Sear 7720
Philetairos was a eunuch trusted by Seleukos to guard the treasury at Pergamon. This he did for many years before eventually striking out on his own and founding a dynasty by adoption. Attalus I, one of his successors was a loyal ally of Rome in its wars with Macedon.
The coin is worn but it still retains much of its original portrait quality. The engravers of royal Greek tetradrachms often tried to capture a subtle atmospheric effect by fading the profile into the fields.
Diam 27.6 mm, wt 15.6 gm
1 commentsdaverino
attica_athen_Thompson715b.jpg
Attica, Athens, Thompson 715b173 viewsAttica, Athens, 110/109 BC
AR - tetradrachm ('New Style'), 16.64g, 33mm
struck under magistrates Zoilos, Euandros and Lysippos
obv. Head of Athena Parthenos, wearing crested Attic helmet, decorated with gryphion, r.
rev. Owl, stg. r. on amphora reclined r.
in l. and r. field A - QE
beneath ZOI - LOS / EYA / NDRO / LYSI / PP
in r. feld grain, beneath a bee
Amphora inscribed with Gamma (number of month)
beneath SF
All within olive wreath
ref. Thompson 715b
EF, slightly toned

A must for every collector. I have waited a long time for this coin. A wonderful portrait!
9 commentsJochen
augustus_RIC_207.jpg
Augustus135 viewsAugustus, denarius.
RIC I 207, RSC 43.
Lugdunum mint.
19.5 mm, 3.8 g
Obv. CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE, laureate head right.
Rev. AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below, Gaius and Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, and in field above, a lituus right and simpulum left.

Gaius and Lucius were adopted in 17 BC by their maternal grandfather Augustus, who named the two boys his heirs. They were raised and educated by their grandparents. Lucius died in Gaul of an illness in 2 A.D and Gaius died two years later in Lycia, after being wounded during a campaign in Artagira. The death of both Gaius and Lucius, the Emperor's two most favored heirs, compelled Augustus to adopt his stepson, Tiberius, and his sole remaining grandson, Postumus Agrippa as his new respective heirs.

I love this Augustus portrait!
3 commentsMarsman
222.jpg
Augustus42 viewsDate: 16 BCE
Denomination: As
Material: Bronze
Authority: Augustus
Issuer: C. Cassius Celer
Mint: Rome
Region: Italy
Obverse
Legend: CAESAR AVGVSTVS TRIBVNIC POTEST
Type: Head of Augustus, bare, right
Portrait: Augustus
Reverse
Legend: C CASSIVS C F CELER IIIVIR A A A F F
Type: Legend surrounding S C
Weight: 8,8g
Dimensions: 27mm
Flamur H
Augustus_RIC_86a.jpg
Augustus - [RIC 86a, BMC 41, CBN 1132, Cohen 19]86 viewsSilver denarius, 3.13g, 18.44mm, 90 degree, Colonia Patricia mint, 19 B.C.

Obv. - CAESAR AVGVSTVS, bare head right

Rev. - SIGNIS RECEPTIS, Aquila on left and standard on right flanking S P Q R arranged around shield inscribed CL V

A superb piece with a particularly beautiful portrait and an attractive tone.

This famous and historically important denarius of Augustus commemorates the reconquest of the legionary eagles from the Parthians. These signa where lost, when Crassus was defeated at the battle of Carrhae and their return back to Rome was one of the greatest diplomatic successes Augustus had.

The CL V on the reverse of this issue represents the clipeus virtutis, which was - according to the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, the funerary inscription giving the achievements of Augustus - a golden shield displayed in the Curia Iulia that was given to Augustus by the Senate and the Roman people (Senatus PopulusQue Romanus) in commemoration of his virtue, piety, justice and clemency. Even though it seems to be obvious that Augustus must have been awarded the shield right after he achieved absolute power and declared the restoration of the Republic, Sydenham suggests "that there is no decisive evidence as to the exact date at which the golden shield was conferred, but the coins on which it is represented are of later date than the year BC 27". When, in 19 BC, the Parthians returned the standards they had captured from Crassus in 53, there would have been an excellent opportunity to once again recall Augustus' pietas, one of the virtues recorded on the clipeus.
___________

Purchased from VCoins seller Ancient Artifacts & Treasures, Inc. at the 2013 BRNA Dalton, GA coin show

Sold 25Apr2015 to Lucas Harsh Collection
2 commentsrenegade3220
H1a.jpg
Augustus AR Denarius46 viewsOne of my favorites.

Augustus AR Denarius. Spanish mint. 27-26 BC. Octavian, bare, r. / IMP (above) CAE - SAR DIVI F. Round shield with concentric rows of studs and central boss. RIC 543a

RARE
GOOD VERY FINE
SUPERLATIVE PORTRAIT

Ex. W. Uibeleisen Collection
Ex. Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel 81 (1995), 173.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
Trajan
Auguste as.jpg
Augustus as31 viewsObv.: CAESAR AV[G. PONT. MAX. T]RIBVNIC. POTEST., bare head right.
Rev.: L. SVRDINVS [III VIR] A.A.A.F.F. around large SC.

Nice realistic portrait of Augustus...
Ginolerhino
Augustus_Denarius_02.jpg
Augustus Denarius "Lucius and Caius"28 viewsOBV: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI (F PATER PATRIAE)
Laureate portrait of Augustus, right.
REV: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT
Lucius and Caius caesares standing facing,
each togate and resting hand on shield;
behind each shield, a spear;
above: simpulum and lituus.
C.L.CAESARES in exergue.

BMC 533, RSC 43.
Lugdunum mint between 7 - 5 B.C.
3.75gm 19.5mm
1 commentsgoldenancients
Augustus_denarius.jpg
Augustus portrait denarius41 viewsAugustus. 27 BC-AD 14. AR Denarius (21mm, 3.67 g, 6h). Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Caesaraugusta?). Struck circa 19-18 BC. Bare head left / Oak wreath with the two ties drawn up across center. RIC I 40b; RSC 211. Near EF, banker’s mark on obverse, fine style.4 commentsTiberiusClaudius
ric_126_augustus.jpg
Augustus RIC 0126 75 viewsAugustus (27 BC-AD 14), Denarius, Uncertain Spanish mint (Colonia Patricia?), 17-16 BC, (19 mm 3.73 g).
Obv: Bare head right
Rev: Augustus, Capricorn right, holding globe attached to rudder between front hooves; cornucopia above its back.
RIC I 126; RSC 21 SRCV (2000) 1592.
Purchased October 28, 2016 from vcoins store London Coin Galleries Ltd.




Although Augustus was the second Caesar covered by Suetonius, he really was the first ruler of the new Roman empire. Originally known by the name Octavian, he became Augustus as the new ruler of the empire.

The coin below is special to me for two reasons. First, I love the
anepigraphic (no legend) obverse. I feel this gives an elegant look to the portrait and make the portrait the focus of the coin. Many emperors were very particular as to how their images appeared on their coins and Augustus was no exception. It is difficult to tell when a coin of Augustus was issued by the portrait alone because his portraits did not age very much from his beginnings as emperor until his death.

Another reason I like this coin is the reverse. It depicts a Capricorn with globe and rudder. These devices appear on other coins of Augustus, and other emperors used them as well. Augustus would be associated with the image of the Capricorn for much of his rule.

Although this is not a perfect coin because of its imperfect flan shape, the combination of a great portrait and the Capricorn meant I had to have it.
4 commentsorfew
Augustus_Cistophorous.jpg
Augustus RIC 047787 viewsAugustus (27 BC-AD 14). AR cistophorus
(28 mm, 10.86 gm, 12h).
NGC VG 5/5 - 2/5.
Pergamum, ca. 27-26 BC.
Obv: IMP •-CAE-SAR, bare head of Augustus right
Rev: AVGVSTVS, Capricorn right, head left, bearing cornucopia on back; all within laurel wreath.
RIC I 477. RPC 2211.
Heritage Auctions August 30, 2018 Lot 231835
 I love the portrait on this coin. It is a large silver coin called a Cistophorus and had the value of 3 silver denarii. the obverse is quite simple with a portrait of Augustus and the legend "IMP CAESAR". The reverse is more detailed and depicts a sign often associated with Augustus- the Capricorn. It spells out "Augustus" and the device are all surrounded by a laurel wreath.

I wanted a Cistophorus for my 12 Caesars collection. I already have a denarius and by chance this coin also features a Capricorn on the reverse. I love the heft of this coin. there is nothing quite like handling an ancient chunk of silver like this.

The coin will make an excellent addition to my 12 Caesars collection.
6 commentsorfew
augustus_169.jpg
Augustus RIC I, 169140 viewsAugustus 27 BC - AD 14
AR - Denar, 3.82g, 18mm
Lugdunum 15 - 13 BC
obv. AVGVSTVS - DIVI F
bare head r.
rev. bull butting l.
exergue: IMP X
RIC I, 169; C.141
scarce; EF portrait!

1. The bull resembles the coins of Thurioi. Octavian has had the nickname Thurinus, because his ancestors came from Thurioi.
2. Then it is a general allusion to Gaul, inspired by coins of Massala. Augustus was 16-13 in Gaul to reorganize it.
1 commentsJochen
Augustus_Secular_games_17_BC.jpg
Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.99 views Silver denarius, RIC I 340 (R2), RSC I Julius Caesar 6, BnF I 273, BMCRE I 70, SRCV I 1622, VF, scratch on cheek, pitting, 3.572g, 19.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, moneyer M. Sanquinius, 17 B.C.; obverse AVGVST DIVI F LVDOS SAE (Augustus son of the divine [Julius Caesar], [has made the] secular games), Herald standing left, wearing helmet with two feathers and long robe, winged caduceus in right hand, round shield decorated with six-pointed star on his left arm; reverse M SANQVINIVS III VIR, youthful laureate head (the deified Julius Caesar or Genius Saeculari Novi?) right, above, four-rayed comet (sidus Iulium) with tail; ex CNG auction 145 (9 Aug 2006), lot 254. Very rare.

This type was struck to commemorate the Ludi Saeculares, the Secular Games held by Augustus in 17 B.C. to mark the commencement of a new age inaugurated by the divine Julius Caesar and led by his heir Augustus. The reverse portrait is traditionally identified as the head of a youthful divine Julius Caesar, however, it actually resembles Augustus and may be Genius Saeculari Novi, the personification of the new age.

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins.

*With my sincere thank and appreciation , Photo and Description courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.
Per FORVM ; an EF example of this type recently sold on 26 May 2014 for 20,000 CHF (approximately $25,575) plus fees.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
4 commentsSam
augustus_120cf_replica.jpg
Augustus, RIC 120 cf., replica49 viewsAugustus, 27 BC- AD 14
AR - denarius, 4.37g, 19.46mm
Colonia Patricia(?), 18 BC
obv. CAESARI AVGVSTO
Head, laureate, l.
rev. Frontal view of tetrastyle temple of Mars, domed roof and decorated with 9 figures and acroterias; within
triumphal chariot with eagle-sceptre and 4 small horses galopping r.
in l. and r. field S.P. - Q.R.
ref. RIC I, 120 cf.; BMCR 386; RSC 282
(for the original only!)

This is a replica struck from new dies. Easily recognized by the odd portrait on the obv. It is made by CopyCoins.com
Jochen
AUREL.jpg
Aurelian and Vabalathus, 271 - 272 A.D46 viewsBronze antoninianus, RIC 381, choice gVF, 3.00g, 21.7mm, 180o, Antioch mint, late 271 - spring 272 A.D.; obverse IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right, E below; reverse VABALATHVS V C R IM D R, laureate draped and cuirassed bust right; excellent portraits and centeringsalem
aureliansiscia.JPG
Aurelian Antoninianus, Siscia Mint55 viewsObv: INP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, Draped and Cuirassed bust rt. Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter on rt. presenting glbe to Aurelian. *T in Exergue; RIC VI 227, Sear5 1146v

Unfortunately depatinated but a great example of the vigorous style of portraiture that one often finds from the Siscia mint.
daverino
milit.JPG
Aurelian Bronze Antonianus, Siscia 272-274 AD84 viewsOBV: IMP AURELIANUS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and Cuirassed bust (Type A) rt.
REV: CONCORDIA MILITUM; Aurelian standing right clasps hands with Concordia standing left; S* in Exergue

RIC 216 is perhaps the most common type from Siscia but it covers a wide variety of styles including this dramatic portrait design. The template is exactly the same for other examples of this coin (for example in Wildwinds) and I think must all have been done by the same engraver. A beautiful design with many different textures.
1 commentsdaverino
Aurelian- Concordia Militum.jpg
Aurelian- Concordia Militum142 viewsAurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate and cuirassed bust right

IMP AVRELIANVS AVG

IMP: Imperator, leader of the army
AVRELIANVS: Aurelian
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse
CONCORD • MILIT, Accordance with the army

CONCORD • : Accordance
MILIT: Army

The dot in legend appears on the specimen illustrated by Göbl. Göbl 276a3 (2). He says "Moneta Comitatentis (later in Byzantium), 2nd. Emission"
He dates that to middle of 272. Göbl's concordance is -> Göbl (MiR 47) 276 = RIC 391 = Rohde 119, 120


Aurelian standing right, holding sceptre and clasping hand of Concordia standing left.

Domination: Bronze, size 23 mm

Mint: Cyzicus Γ (3.rd Officina), scarce or RIC V/1, 391; unattributed mint. It is Cohen 25. It could be RIC V/1, 342. I can't tell the difference! The description in RIC is the same for both types. Moneta Comitatensis, but it may be obsolete in any case.


Comment: In Estiot, Monnaies de l'Empire romain, vol.II, it is #987, pl.31; atelier Balkanique. The portrait on the obverse looks very strange. It is strange in the sense that there are very odd pictorial trends in the portraiture of Aurelian, but within the context it's not that unusual.
John Schou
PostumusMilanEquit.jpg
Aureolus for Postumus118 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
Cuirassed, draped and radiated bust right
R/[VIRTV]S EQVIT / / T
Mars walking right, holding spear end shield

Antoninianus struck in Mediolanum , third officina
C.442 - RIC.387 - Elmer 617 - AGK.111a

magnificient portrait
3 commentsgb29400
262-3-horz.jpg
Austria Ferdinand III, 3 Kreuzer, 1637 – 165711 views1647 - Mint Graz
Obv. Portrait and titles of Ferdinand III
Rev. Three shields of arms, points together in inner circle, date at top
KM-833
Purchased on eBay
NGC MS-62
Cost $162
Richard M10
Bactria,_Apollodotos_AE_Unit_.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Apollodotos I, ca. 175-165 BC Æ Quadruple Unit27 viewsΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ AΠΟΛΛΟΔΟΤΟY ΣΩΤHPOΣ (of King Apollodotos Savior) Apollo standing facing holding bow and arrow.
Tripod on stand in dotted square border outside which Maharajas Apaladasta Iradasa (of King Apollodotos Savior) in Kharoshthi script (reverse image in photo above is inverted).

Mitchiner 209a; Bopearachchi 6A; SNG ANS 9, 346; HGC 12, 41; Sear GCV 7594.

(22 x 21 mm, 12h).
CNG e-Auction 162, 11 Apr. 2007, 134.

Apollodotos was a contemporary of the later Euthydemid rulers, Agathokles, Pantaleon and Antimachos. His Greek coinage is rare with only less than a dozen portrait tetradrachm specimens known. Almost all of his coinage adhered to south Indian traditions, with bi-lingual Greek and Kharoshthi legends and non-portrait types struck on square flans, either elephant and bull on his silver, or Apollo and tripod on the bronze. From this coinage, which comprises the only evidence for his reign, it appears that Apollodotos administered his territories south of the Hindu Kush. The imagery on Apollodotos’ coins breaks with the tradition of the Euthydemid dynasty, portraying seated Athena on the tetradrachms (in the style of the reverse of Lysimachos coinage) and a standing Apollo on AE issues, reminiscent of the Seleukid coinage. Eukratides may have retained him as a provincial ruler through the struggle for power.
1 commentsn.igma
Bactria,_Eukratides_I_Pedigree_Tetradrachm.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Eukratides I, ca. 171-145 BC, AR Tetradrachm 34 viewsΒΑΣΙΛΕYΣ MEΓAΣ EYKPATIΔHΣ Diademed and draped bust of a mature Eukratides right, wearing a crested helmet decorated with ear and horn of a bull.
HΛIOKΛIOΣ KAI ΛAOΔIKHΣ Co-joined busts facing right of Eukratides parents, Heliokles and Laodike, ΦΛΩ monogram to left.

Bopearachchi Series 15 A; SNG ANS 526-527; Mitchiner 182a; Qunduz 245-246; HGC 12, 133; Sear 7572.

(30 mm, 16.16 g, 12h).

Gorny & Mosch Giessener Munzhandlung Auction 126, October 2003, 1534.
The distinctive reddish black remnant patina of this coin is a characteristic of the silver coins from the Mir Zakah deposit. It is probably from this, the largest hoard of coins ever found, that the coin is derived.

This issue may have been inspired by the earlier “pedigree” coinage of Agathokles and Pantaleon, but equally likely given the many apparent anomalies associated with the issue, is that it was issued by the parents of Eukratides as statement of their position and prestige in Baktrian society. Heliokles’ bare head indicates that he was not a king, whereas the diadem on Laodike’s head suggests that she was of royal blood. Tarn identified her as a Seleukid princess, daughter of Seleukos II and sister of Antiochus III. On the other hand, Hollis in Laodike Mother of Eucratides of Baktria makes a plausible case that Laodike was the daughter of Antiochos III. Hollis argues that Eukratides was in this way connected to the Seleukid royal family and was perhaps facilitated by the latter in his endeavor to seize the Baktrian throne.

This coinage has a number of curious characteristics. The legend on this coin names Eukratides is in the nominative case, so that it serves to label his portrait rather than to identify him as the issuing authority of the coinage. The legend naming his parents, on the other hand, is in the genitive, normally used to indicate a filial relationship an argument supported by Hollis. However, it could also imply that Heliokles and Laodike had authorized the coinage. Both sides of the coin have defined filleted borders, unique in the coinage of Eukratides. All other issues bear only an obverse border around the image of the king. The fabric of these coins indicates that Heliokles and Laodike occupy the obverse, anvil struck side of the coin. Nevertheless, they are most frequently described in the opposite manner, in accord with the convention that the ruler occupies the obverse side of the coin.
1 commentsn.igma
Bactria,_Euthydemos_I_Tetradrachm_old_portrait.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I, ca. 230-200 BC, AR Tetradrachm 22 viewsDiademed head of an elderly Euthydemos right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΘYΔHMOY Herakles seated left on rock, resting club on thigh, PK monogram in inner right field.

SNG ANS 9, 141-142; Kritt B17; Mitchiner 94a; Qunduz 19-20; HGC 12, 43; Sear GCV 7516.
Mint “B” – Baktra ca. 206-200 BC.

(26 mm, 15.92 g, 12h).
Realms Ancient Coins; ex- CNG.

The coinage portraits of Euthydemos range from youthful to elderly, reflecting the thirty year duration of his reign, which is inferred to have ended as early as 200 BC by recent workers (Kritt), or as late as 190 BC by earlier workers (Mitchiner). This portrayal probably represents the king in his sixties or seventies, after the invasion of Baktria by Antiochos III. The late life portrayal of Euthydemos is considered to be amongst the finest Hellenistic numismatic art. It shows a world weary, perhaps dissolute figure, for who the exercise of power has become as much a burden as a benefit. The Euthydemos series extending from youth to late life is almost unique in it’s true to life representation of the physical process of aging; the vitality and optimism of youth gradually replaced by the weariness of age, all captured in the progression of the portraits of Euthydemos.
1 commentsn.igma
Bactria,_Euthydemos_I_Tetradrachm_-_mature_portrait.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I, ca. 230-200 BC, AR Tetradrachm 15 viewsDiademed head of the mature Euthydemos right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΘYΔHMOY (of King Euthydemos). Herakles seated left on rock, resting club on pile of rocks, monogram in inner right field. Die shift in lower field with some minor scratches.

Bopearachchi Series 5B; SNG ANS 9, 131; Kritt A14; Mitchiner 85c; Qunduz12-14; HGC 12, 40; Sear 7514.
Mint “A” - Ai Khanoum ca. 215-208 BC.

(29 mm, 16.96 g, 12h).
Pars Coins.

This depiction of Euthydemos on the obverse of this coin has a portrait quality. It probably closely approximates the features of the ruler in middle age.
n.igma
Bactria,_Euthydemos_I_Tetradrachm_-_youthful_portrait.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I, ca. 230-200 BC, AR Tetradrachm 22 viewsDiademed head of a relatively youthful Euthydemos right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΘYΔHMOY Herakles seated left on rock, resting club on pile of rocks, monogram in inner right field, letter A in exergue.

Bopearachchi Series 5C; SNG ANS 9, 137 (same reverse die); Kritt, A8; HGC 12, 40.
Mint “A” - Ai Khanoum ca. 225-220/215 BC.

(29 mm, 16.7 g, 12h).
CNG 782054; ex- Semon Lipcer Coll.; ex- CNG 63, May 2003, 923.
1 commentsn.igma
Bactria,_Euthydemos_1_Tetradrachm_-_youthful_portrait.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Euthydemos I, ca. 230-200 BC, AR Tetradrachm 16 viewsDiademed youthful head right.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ EYΘYΔHMOY (of King Euthydemos). Herakles seated left on rocks, holding club set on rocks; monogram lower right field.

Kritt A1; Bopearachchi 5B; SNG ANS 9,125; HGC 12, 40; Mitchiner 85c; Qunduz 10-11.
Mint “A” - Ai Khanoum ca. 230 BC.

(28 mm, 16.38 g, 6h).
CNG eAuction 170, 8 Aug. 2007, 138.

Euthydemos I overthrew Diodotos II around 230 BC. This coin is amongst the first issued by Euthydemos. The inverted die axes convention with which it was struck is a characteristic of Mint “A” (Ai Khanoum) in the preceding Diodotid era. This was changed to parallel die axes convention in the early years of the reign of Euthydemos. Late in Euthydemos reign, Antiochos III the Great, sought to reimpose Seleukid authority over Baktria. Euthydemos withstood a two year siege by Antiochos at the fortress city of Baktra in 208-206 BC at the conclusion of which Antiochos was forced to recognize an independent Baktria. Demetrios, the son of Euthydemos, succeeded the latter around 200 BC and extended the kingdom south into the Kabul Valley and northwest Pakistan. However, the Euthydemid dynasty was destroyed by Eukratides I who progressively deposed the successors of Demetrios I.

The reverse image of a “weary Herakles” on the Euthydemos series of tetradrachms is noteworthy for its antecedents in the Lydian issues of Antiochus II. The ancient historian Polybius noted that Euthydemos came from Magnesia. However, which of three possible cities or regions called Magnesia remains uncertain. Based on the similarity of the reverse image of Euthydemos’ silver coins with those of the Lydian types, it is inferred that he may have come from Magnesia ad Sipylum in Lydia where he could have been exposed to the” weary Herakles” issues prior to his migration to Baktria. Such being the case, Euthydemos could not have been born much later than 270 BC, in which case he would have been in his seventies at the time of his death. The aged portrait on the last of his coinage tends to confirm this inference.
n.igma
Zuz_Domitian.jpg
Bar Kokhba Revolt Zuz29 viewsJudaea, Bar Kokhba Revolt. Silver Zuz (3.22 g), 132-135 CE. Undated, attributed to year 3 (134/5 CE).
O: 'Simon' (Paleo-Hebrew) within wreath of thin branches wrapped around eight almonds, with a medallion at top and tendrils at bottom.
R: 'For the freedom of Jerusalem' (Paleo-Hebrew), fluted jug with handle on left; in right field, willow branch. Partial portrait of Domitian to left.
- Hendin 1418; Mildenberg 79 (O14/R51); TJC 283., ex S. Moussaieff Collection.
1 commentsNemonater
IMG_7804.JPG
Barbaric imitation of Tetricus I / II . AE15mm38 viewsObv. Radiate, draped bust right . Blundered legend.
Rev. Figure standing right holding spear. Blundered legend, perhaps in a dotted border
( there is a lot going on here for such a little coin, and does the portrait not look wonderfully stearn!!!
1 commentsLee S
IMG_0405.JPG
Barbaric imitation of Tetricus II. AE15mm22 viewsBarbaric imitation of Tetricus II.
Obv. Radiate, draped bust right. Blundered legend.
Rev . Figure (Spes? ) standing left, blundered legend.
( I love this coin as the portrait is better than many genuine roman coins, but the reverse is a stick figure... Ace!! )
Lee S
Ancient_Counterfeits_Barbarous_Trajan_Denarius_Column.jpg
Barbarous Denarius of Trajan, Fouree42 viewsObv: IMP TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR (no P)
Barbarous portrait
Rev: COS VI P P SPQR
Man with tambourine and spear dancing on the world's smallest column. Two vultures at base waiting for him to fall down.
18mm, 2.44g

Sweet!
1 commentsklausklage
19C7.JPG
Barbarous radiate. AE7mm17 viewsObv. Portrait right.
Rev. ????

UK detector find.

The smallest coin in my collection... I wonder how many of these would have paid for a beer "back in the day"???
Lee S
BCC_g11.jpg
BCC g1188 viewsRoman Gem Stone
Caesarea Maritima
Intaglio
1st-3rd century CE
Unidentified portrait, head left,
with elaborate hairstyle.
Translucent Carnelian
11.5x7.5mm
There are no parallels in
Anit Hamburger's "Gems from Caesarea"
v-drome
green_gem_stone.jpg
BCC g694 viewsRoman Gem Stone
Caesarea Maritima
Facing busts of radiate SOL and
LUNA, with crescent. Concordia
to each side, lion below, bucranium (skull of an ox) between paws.
Green Jasper with red inclusions. 10x9 mm. The style
of the portraits may suggest a connection to coins
of 2nd-3rd century CE. There is no parallel
in Anit Hamburger's "Gems from Caesarea Maritima"
Atiqot English Series, Vol. VIII, 1968
v-drome
Silenus_BCC_L13.jpg
BCC L1323 viewsVotive Lead Head
1st - 3rd Century CE?
Lead Head depicting Silenus?
(or comedic actor?) with bulbous
nose and lump on forehead,
but lacking the usual full beard.
3/4 facing portrait with flat
underside and no obvious breaks.
Caesarea Maritima, surface find, 1974.
2.5cm.x1.85cm.x1.1cm. wt: 23.6gm.
v-drome
lead_lamp.jpg
BCC L334 viewsLead Oil Lamp
Hollow Cast Miniature
Central disc with facing portrait (Helios
or Medusa?) Remnants of handle.
Though it seems that the lamp
could have been functional, there is
no evidence of carbon on the object,
as far as I can tell. Weight: 16.10gm.
38.5mm.x20.0mm.x10.0mm.
v-drome
vabalathus_1.jpg
BCC Lr1515 viewsLate Roman BCC Lr15
Vabalathus 271-272 CE
AE Antoninianus
Obv:VABALATHVS V C R IM D R
Laureate, diademed, draped, and cuir. bust right.
Rev:IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG
Radiate, and cuir. bust rt. Below portrait “A”.
19x22mm. 2.43gm. Axis:180
v-drome
BCC_Ls12_.jpg
BCC LS1243 viewsLead Seal
Late Roman-Early Byzantine        
Obv:Facing portrait, nimbate, in high
relief. Cross in right field.
Rev:Cruciform monogram with
Greek letters: M, N, H, O, and
possibly Y, E, Γ, and C.
Off-flan at bottom: could be
Δ, Λ, A or some combination of those.
18x20.5mm. 12.30gm. Axis:0
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_LS13_bardou_.jpg
BCC Ls1325 viewsLead Seal
Late Roman-Early Byzantine
Obv: Facing portrait, nimbate, Mother and Child.
Cross in right and left fields.
Rev: Cruciform monogram with Greek letters:
Β, Α, Ρ, Δ, Ο, Υ, "of Bardas", a relatively common name
from the Byzantine period.
21mm. 7.33gm. Axis:0
v-drome
BCC_LS14_Lead_Seal.jpg
BCC LS1416 viewsLead Seal
6th Century CE
Obv: Facing portrait, nimbate,
Mother and Child. Possible symbols
to left and right (cross?)
Rev: Cruciform monogram with Greek letters:
θ, E, Λ, Ρ, I, O, Υ,
Eleutheriou
20.5 x 19mm. 7.85gm. Axis:0
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
lead_seal_BCC_LS21.jpg
BCC LS2156 viewsLead Seal - Early Byzantine
6th-7th century CE
Obv:Facing portrait, Mother
and Child, nimbate.
Rev: Very complex block monogram
possibly reading "of John, apo eparchon
(or apo hypaton)”, but there are
other possible solutions.
21.5 x 19mm. 6.47gm. Axis:0
1 commentsv-drome
BCC_LS30.jpg
BCC LS3012 viewsLead Seal
Caesarea Maritima
Late 6th - Early 7th Century CE
Obv: Facing portrait, nimbate,
Mother and Child. Cross to left.
Rev: Block monogram with Greek letters:
A, C, K, Ι, O, Υ,
ISAAKIOS (Isaac, a Hebrew name)
16 x 14.5mm. 5.39gm. Axis:0
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BCC_LT76_Zeus_portrait.jpg
BCC LT7613 viewsLead Tessera
Caesarea Maritima
1st to 4th Century CE?
Obv: Three quarter facing
portrait of Zeus, or Mask?
Rev: Uncertain object,
orientation unknown.
9 x 9.759 x 1.5mm.
Weight: 0.94gm. Axis:90?
cf. BCC LT21 or LT2
v-drome
hercules_minima_2.png
BCC m16-2060 viewsFive Minute Coins
from Caesarea Maritima
2nd-3rd cent. CE
OBV: bust of Hercules rt.
REV: various: Boar, wolf,
bull or dog std. right.
in ex. SC, dots, or blank.
The coin on the left may have an
imperial portrait, possibly Hadrian or Pius,
instead of the bust of Hercules. The inscription
is not clear.
AE 12.5-7 mm. 1.3-0.6 g.
similar to Hamburger #35-58
Atiqot Vol.1 1954/56
v-drome
BCC_RI24_Caracalla_Indvlg.jpg
BCC RI24 - Hybrid19 viewsRoman Imperial
Caracalla 198-217C.E.
AR Denarius (debased silver?)
Obv:ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate, bearded bust right.
Rev:INDVGENTIA AVGG IN CARTH
Dea Caelestis riding lion right,
over waters.
18mm. 3.50gm. Axis:180
Possible reference for reverse: RIC 130
This is a very unusual coin, perhaps
a contemporary imitation mis-matching
the Dea Caelestis reverse with a later,
mature portrait of Caracalla.
v-drome
Peace of Amiens BHM 538.JPG
BHM 0538. The Peace of Amiens, 1802.125 viewsObv. Angel standing, reaching down to clasp the hand of kneeling woman, angel holds a branch and scroll in her left hand, pedestel between the two figures MY SOUL DOTH MAGNIFY THE LORD/in exergue MARCH 27 1802/ K.N.K
Rev. Veiled female figure standing facing, arms uplifted, cross in left hand, radiant light above her head, ornate domed structure at her feet to left, intaglio portrait of a man to her right WE PRAISE THEE O GOD/ in exergue THANKSGIVING/ JUNE 1

Engraved by J. G. Hancock in 1802 to celebrate a mass held at St. Pauls cathedral commemorating the peace between France and Britain.
LordBest
SoaneBankofEnglandTaylor106a.JPG
BHM 1662. 1834. Sir John Soane, Architect. Bank of England. Taylor 106a.102 viewsObv. Portrait head right JOHN SOANE Signed W WYON A B A MINT
Rev. Elevation of the "Tivoli Corner" of the Bank building A TRIBUTE OF RESPECT FROM THE BRITISH ARCHITECTS MDCCCXXXIV.

AE58.

A gold example of this medal was presented to Sir John Soane, one of Britains premiere architects, in 1834.
LordBest
BohemondIIIM25a.jpg
Billion denier , Bohemond III Minority 1149-1163 CE.12 viewsObverse: Bare head r., linear portrait square A and V. +BOAMVNDVS
Reverse: +ANTIOCHIA, cross pate's
Mint: Antioch
Date: 1149-63 CE
Malloy 25, Metcalf Class B, 243
17mm, .80g
wileyc
BohemondIIIm25.jpg
Billion denier , Bohemond III Minority 1149-1163 CE.17 viewsObverse: Bare head r., linear portrait square A and V. +BOAMVNDVS
Reverse: +ANTIOCHIA, cross pate's
Mint: Antioch
Date: 1149-63 CE
Malloy 25, Metcalf Class B, 243
17mm, .77g
wileyc
tdeciussyria.jpg
Billon Tetradrachm of Trajan Decius, Antioch 250-51 AD19 viewsOBV: Laureate, Draped and cuirassed bust right, 4 dots below bust (4th Officina); AYT K G ME TRAIANOC DEKIOC CEB
REV: Eagle standing left on palm branch, head left, tail right, wings spread holding wreath in beak; DHMARX EXOYCIAC, SC in exergue

Prieur 576; weight 11.4 gms

a little pitted in spots but otherwise a nice portrait coin.
daverino
severusAlexNicaea.jpg
Bithynia, Nicaea. Severus Alexander AE21115 viewsSeverus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D., Nicaea, Bithynia

Obverse M AΥΡ CEΥH AΛEΞAΔΡOC AV, laureate head right.
Reverse NI-KA-IE-ΩN, three standards; nice portrait, nice glossy green patina.
1 commentsancientone
sevalexnicomedia2.jpg
Bithynia, Nicomedia. Severus Alexander AE24. Athena55 viewsPRO: BITHYNIA
PO : NICOMEDIA
PZ : Between 222 and 235
TIG: NEWKORWN TRIS
Obverse
VSG: M AYR SEYH ALEXANDROS S
VT : PORTRAIT MAN R / SEV. ALEXANDER
VA : RADIATE / CLOTHES
Reverse
RSG: NIKOMHDEWN TRIS NEWKORWN
RT : WOMAN STANDING HL(1) / ATHENA(1)
RA : PATERA(1) / HELMET / SPEAR(1) / SHIELD
Technical details
M : AE
GR : 27(1)
Bibliographical references
ZIT: WADD RG S554,290(1) / COLL FLORENZ(1)
Additional remarks
FR : VS: M AYR SEYH ALEXANDROS S RS: NIKOMHDEWN TRIS NEWKORWN
ancientone
0123-Consul_20Fs.jpg
Bonaparte I° Consul - 20 francs or An 12 A45 viewsAtelier de Paris (A)
BONAPARTE PREMIER CONSUL, tête nue a gauche
REPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE, couronne de lauriers entourant 20 FRANCS en deux lignes. A l'exergue . coq . AN 12. . A .
Tranche inscrite DIEU PROTEGE LA FRANCE
6.44 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 510/2
The revolution has ended, Bonaparte is soon becoming Napoleon I Empereur, as Octavian became Augustus (note the similarities on this portrait with those of Augustus on the "bull butting" denarii), but still unsure of what is going on. We see many contradictory messages for a laïque republic : a consul on obverse, a republic on reverse, a revolutionary calendar (An 12) and ... God save France on the edge...
Now you know why you find french people so romantic...
11-249
Potator II
Bramsen 0310.JPG
Bramsen 0310. Légion d'Honneur, 1804.486 viewsObv. Laureate head of Napoleon ANDRIEU F below.
Rev.the cross of the order, in the centre of which the eagle of France stands on the fulmen of Jove, encircled with a flat ring, on which the motto, HONNEUR . ET . PATRIE. is impressed. A wreath of the branches of oak and laurel, with their fruit, surrounds the cross behind AUSPICE NEAPOLEONE GALLIA RENOVATA. Exergue, DENON DIRT. JALEY FT.

The engraving is of the highest quality. Some scratches on the obverse, not particularly visible in hand. The scratches on the portrait itself do not penetrate the patination to bare metal.

Laskey's Narrative:
Napoleon having been elected First Consul for life, immediately marked his great event by instituting the order of the Legion of Honour, which, by joining personal decoration with pecuniary stipend, answered two purposes, that of reconciling the people of France to the restoration of artificial rank in society, and also or securing to Napoleon himself the personal attachment of all those connected with the institution; in short it was a cheap, but efficacious mode of giving bribes to all ranks both in military and civil life, and therefore likely to be attended with the best consequences to his own popularity.


On this occasion, Joseph Bonaparte, the Consul's brother, was made the grand officer of the order.

It was also decreed that the legion should be composed of fifteen cohorts, and a council of administration; that each cohort should consist of seven grand officers, twenty commandants, thirty officers, and 350 legionaries; and that the First Consul should always be the chief of the legion, and of the council of administration. The members were to be military men, who had distinguished themselves in the war, or citizens, who, by their knowledge, talents, and virtues, had contributed to establish or defend the republic.



LordBest
Kraus-10159_Rear.jpg
Brandon, Mississippi: Mississippi & Alabama Rail Road Company $100 Jan. 1, 1838 (Kraus-10159)4 viewsAn early train is flanked by twin portraits of John Marshall and vignettes depicting Justice. This variety has a delicate orange back design.SpongeBob
Kraus-10159_Front.jpg
Brandon, Mississippi: Mississippi & Alabama Rail Road Company $100 Jan. 1, 1838 (Kraus-10159)4 viewsAn early train is flanked by twin portraits of John Marshall and vignettes depicting Justice. This variety has a delicate orange back design.SpongeBob
Kraus-10110_Rear.jpg
Brandon, Mississippi: Mississippi & Alabama Rail Road Company $5 Jan. 2, 1837 (Kraus-10110)3 viewsPayable at the Girard Bank In Philadelphia, some 1100 miles distant from Brandon, this note appropriately enough bears two portraits of Stephen Girard as well as a vignette of Moneta that would eventually appear on T14 $50 Confederate Treasury Notes nearly 25 years later. SpongeBob
Kraus-10110_Front.jpg
Brandon, Mississippi: Mississippi & Alabama Rail Road Company $5 Jan. 2, 1837 (Kraus-10110)4 viewsPayable at the Girard Bank In Philadelphia, some 1100 miles distant from Brandon, this note appropriately enough bears two portraits of Stephen Girard as well as a vignette of Moneta that would eventually appear on T14 $50 Confederate Treasury Notes nearly 25 years later.SpongeBob
1902_Edward_VII_British_Trade_Dollar.JPG
BRITISH OVERSEAS TRADE. 1902 EDWARD VII AR DOLLAR4 viewsObverse: • ONE DOLLAR •. Britannia standing on shore, facing left, left hand gripping top of shield, right hand holding trident; ship in full sail sailing left behind her; 1902 in exergue.
Reverse: Arabesque design with a Chinese labyrinth, one of the many variations of the Chinese character "shou" for longevity, in the centre, and the denomination in two languages, Chinese and Jawi Malay, the two main languages of the intended areas of circulation.
Diameter: 39mm | Weight: 26.9gms.

The dies were originally designed by George William De Saulles (1862 - 1903), who was later responsible for Edward VII's portrait on the British coinage as well as the reverse of that king's iconic florin which has a passing resemblance to the portrayal of Britannia on this coin.

British Trade Dollars were a direct result of the Opium Wars which began when China tried to stop Britain from selling opium to its citizens. The loser, China, had to open up a number of ports to British trade and residence, as well as ceding Hong Kong to Britain. In the decades that followed, merchants and adventurers flocked to these areas, and international trade flourished. Foreign banks were established and silver coins from all over the world began arriving to pay for tea, silk and Chinese porcelain to be shipped abroad. With the extension of British trading interests throughout the East, it became necessary to produce a special Dollar so as to remove the reliance of a British Colony upon the various foreign coins then in circulation. These .900 fine silver British Trade Dollars began being minted in 1895 and were readily accepted as a medium of exchange throughout the area. They continued being minted up until 1935 when production ceased, but coins struck in 1934 and 1935 are very rare because they were not released into circulation and were mostly melted down. The coin was officially demonetised on August 1st, 1937.
To keep up with demand these coins were minted in Bombay (now Mumbai) and Calcutta (now Kolkata) in India as well as at the Royal Mint in London. The London minted coins have no mint-mark but those struck at Bombay have the mint-mark “B” in the centre prong of Britannia's trident and those minted at Calcutta are marked with a small “C” in the ground between Britannia's left foot and the base of her shield. This coin is a product of the Bombay mint.
*Alex
Broken Fel Temp with Nice Portrait Obverse and Reverse.jpg
Broken Fel Temp17 viewsConstantius II cuirassed and diademed facing right. DN CONSTANS is th eonly thing left of the inscription and then the FELTEMPREPARATIO reverse of a standing soldier spearing a fallen horseman.

cwonsidler
127~3.JPG
Bronze MOTUIDIACA,-90/-50. 20 viewsBronze, 2,54 g, 20 mm.
A/ Tête à gauche avec collier de perles (portrait inhabituel pour ce type)
R/ Hippocampe à gauche, MOTVIDIACA autour.
Réfs : Dicomon ARV-3994 ; LT 3994 ; BnF 3990-4005 ; Depeyrot 2004, type 242 ; DT série 1193 ; RIG, type 208.
Gabalor
BRUNS-WOLD_THIRD_THALER.jpg
BRUNSWICK-WOLFENBUTTEL72 viewsBRUNSWICK-WOLFENBUTTEL - Karl I (1735-1780) AR 1/3 Thaler, 1765. Obv: Portrait of Karl I facing right. Reverse shows the iconic HORSE design for this area! Reference: KM #972.dpaul7
Basil_II___Constantine_VIII.jpg
Byzantine Anonymous Follis of Christ, Class A3, Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 11 November 1028 A.D.134 viewsBronze anonymous follis, Anonymous follis of Christ, class A3; SBCV 1818; Grierson ornaments 24a, gVF, well centered, excellent portrait detail but nose a bit flat, attractive toned bare metal, a few scratches, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, weight 9.833g, maximum diameter 27.5mm, die axis 180o, c. 1023 - 11 Nov 1028 A.D.; obverse + EMMANOVHL, facing nimbate bust of Christ, two pellets in each arm of the cross, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC; reverse + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings), ornaments above and below legend;

The emperor's name and portrait are not part of the design on the Byzantine types referred to as anonymous folles. Instead of the earthly king, these coins depict Jesus Christ, King of Kings.

FORVM Ancient Coins.

*A spectacular artistic portrait of Christ.
The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
BYZANTINE_MAURICE_TIB_CHERSON_MINT.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - MAURICE TIBERIAS 33 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - MAURICE TIBERIAS (582-602 CE) Bronze Pentanummia (Half-Follis). Cherson mint. Obv.: ΧΕΡCONOC Maurice on left; Empress Constantina on right, both standing facing & nimbate, Emperor holds globus cruciger; Empress holds long cruciform sceptre. Rev.: Large Δ to left, cross above it; to right - Theodosius, son of Maurice, stands facing, nimbate, holding long staff surmounted by XI-RHO symbol. Reference: Sear #610.

*NOTE: There is a controversy in the attribution: Anokhin (and other Russian experts) assign the varieties with XEPCWNOC to Justin II, instead of the older attribution to Maurice used by Sear. Anokhin assigns only those with DNMAVRIC PP AVG to Maurice. Grierson does not outright deny it, but has his doubts. Very similar coins were issued in the name of Maurice, so older attributions of the "XEPCONOC" types were also to Maurice, but now some scholars have argued that they were originally issued by Justin II. Under the old attribution the obverse figures are Maurice and his wife and the reverse figure is his son Theodosius. Grierson (p. 73) says, "If the coins all belong together it would seem reasonable to regard them as an insurrectionary coinage struck at Cherson in 602, the intention of the rebels having been initially to depose Maurice in favor of his son Theodosius and not the upstart adventurer Phocas." According to this theory, the revolt prompted a new coin with a neutral legend, which was replaced by the emperor's name when the outcome favored Maurice. This attribution is accepted by Sear.

Anokhin (1980) and Hahn (1978) concur in attributing them to Justin II (and the following period). Anokhin argues the two-figure type resembles the regular type introduced by Justin II and Sophia. However, a type can resemble one of Justin II and be issued a few years later. Anokhin says (p. 92) "if the striking commenced from the moment Theodosius was named Augustus, i.e. in 590, all three series with differing types would have had to be issued within limits between 590-602, which is unlikely." Hahn also argues that there are several minor varieties which would probably take a number of years to mint. However, the varieties are clearly very similar and not numerous. I think there is no need to postulate more than ten years to mint three very similar types, all of which are scarce.

Anokhin (p. 92) argues "if we assign the coins described to Maurice we expose their failure to correspond with empire-wide coins, which have on the obverse a portrait of Maurice alone." But that argument is feeble -- we know Maurice minted such coins that fail to correspond with empire-wide coins -- some of the coins we are attributing have his name on them!

Anokhin (p. 93) thinks the reverse figure, if a real person, could "be Tiberius, the future emperor, who was proclaimed Caesar in December 574 and who reigned as co-regent jointly with Sophia during the last four years of the life of Justin II who was mentally ill." However, he does not accept that it is a real person and says "it most likely represents some symbolic figure or a saint."

Hahn notes that the reverse figure seems to be a Caesar (because the pendillia are lacking) and says in the later 6th century the only appropriate Caesar is Tiberius II under Justin II. However, the older attribution already had an acceptable Caesar, just in the early 7th instead of the late 6th century. Hahn notes the first issue, with the "M" and "K" has a capital omega in "XERCWNOC", rather than the later "O", as do some of the "H" and delta pieces. Clearly, the "M" and "K" are the first of the series. However, that does not make them issued by Justin II.

Hahn admits, as noted by Grierson, that the two-figure type is very similar to some coins of Focas, showing a continuum of types could equally well be at either end of the potential attribution period. Hahn gives the attribution to Justin II and calls it "secure." It may well be that the "M" and "K" types began under Justin II, but the Hahn paper presents no convincing evidence.

If we postulate this type began under Justin II, it is hard to explain why it pops up again under Maurice with a 12-year gap from the end of Justin II (578) until Maurice (582-602) promotes Theodosius to Caesar (May 26, 590). Unless, of course, it was minted throughout the period as a type immobilise. (Thanks for ancients.info for the argument text). My own research of my Russian resources vs. Sear and others confirm all of the above!
dpaul7
4349_(1)_4350_(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire, Half Follis?10 viewsAE Half Follis?
O:?; Portrait of Emperor facing,
R:ANNO; XX;
Exergue: T, above XX; C, below XX.
4/28/17
Nicholas Z
Byz_Lead_Seal~0.jpg
Byzantine Lead Seal12 viewsO: Nimbate bust

R: Monogram

Per FORVM member Gert (thanks!):
Your seal has a monogram that can be solved NIKOLAOV, the genitive of Nicholas, who would have been the owner of the seal, assuming the letter at the bottom extremity is Alpha (and Lambda at the same time, of course).

The portrait on the obverse can well be Saint Nicholas as well, but from the photo I can't say for sure. For this time period (6th/7th century AD) St. Nicholas is quite rare, but with the reading of the monogram in mind, it would be a good guess."
Sosius
normal_Byz_Lead_Seal~0~0.jpg
Byzantine Seal137 viewsO: Nimbate bust

R: Monogram

Per FORVM member Gert (thanks!):
"Your seal has a monogram that can be solved NIKOLAOV, the genitive of Nicholas, who would have been the owner of the seal, assuming the letter at the bottom extremity is Alpha (and Lambda at the same time, of course).
The portrait on the obverse can well be Saint Nicholas as well, but from the photo I can't say for sure. For this time period (6th/7th century AD) St. Nicholas is quite rare, but with the reading of the monogram in mind, it would be a good guess."
Sosius
6098.JPG
Byzantine seal invoking Ephraim the Syrian - 11th century AD228 viewsByzantine lead seal Ephraim 11th century AD
Nimbate half-length bust of Saint Ephraim, holding cross in right hand and scroll in left hand; to left:
Θ|E|V; to r.: Φ|P|E
+|EVΦPAIM|CKEΠOIC M,|TON CVNW|NVMON|ΠATEP in five lines
17mm; 4.47g; extremely fine.

This seems to be the only known Byzantine seal with the portrait of Ephraim/Ephrem the Syrian.

The reverse legend is a twelve syllable verse which translates “Father Ephraim, may you protect me, who shares your name.”
2 commentsGert
Basil_II___Constantine_VIII_-_Christ-.jpg
Byzantine, Christ, Anonymous Folles. temp. Basil II & Constantine VIII, circa 976-1025. 490 viewsÆ Follis (28mm, 12.04 g, 6h). Class A2. Constantinople mint. Nimbate half-length bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels / [+] IhSЧ[S]/[X]PISTЧS/[Ь]ASILЄЧ/ЬASILЄ in four lines ( Jesus Christ King of Kings ); rectangular ornament below. DOC A2.47; SB 1813. VF, dark green patina with earthen highlights/deposits, a few cleaning scratches. EX ; The Prue Morgan Fitts Collection.

EX The Sam Mansourati Collection.

*A fine masterpiece of one of the very early portraits of Christ according to Saint Veronica 's Veil.
**The emperor's name and portrait are not part of the design on the Byzantine types referred to as anonymous folles. Instead of the earthly king, these coins depict Jesus Christ, King of Kings.

Given as a Christmas Present to Dear friend , brother and great dentist , Dr. Manuel M. Cunanan .
Sam
Justinian_I_half_follis_left_lit~0.jpg
Byzantine, Justinian "retro portrait"127 viewsJustinian I AD527-AD565
Die axis 300 degrees
Theoupolis mint
Paul D3
179.jpg
C. Naevius Balbus Denarius Serratus - Victory Riding in Triga (Crawf. 382/1b)38 viewsAR Denarius Serratus
Rome, 79 BC
4.06g

Obv: Diademed head of Venus (R) wearing earrings and necklace, behind S.C - "Senatus Consulto"

Rev: Victory in prancing triga (R); above, TXV and in exergue, C·NAE·BALB

Virtually as struck and Fleur de Coin.

Sydenham 769b. RBW 1410. Crawford 382/1b.

ex. Elvira Clain Stefanelli (1914-2001) collection, curator of the National Numismatics Collection at the Smithsonian

Minted under Sulla's rule, the coin honours Venus, who Sulla is known to have worshipped. Behind her portrait is the abbreviation S∙C - “Senatus Consulto”, a rarity on silver coinage, indicating it was minted by special permission of the Senate.
The incredibly struck reverse shows the winged goddess Victory holding the reins to a rarely depicted "triga", or three-horse chariot, prancing delightfully across the coin. Note the exquisite and playful rendering of the horses, even showing the details of their harnesses.
Some believe the triga may allude to Sulla’s three major victories in Greece, Numidia and most notably in Asia Minor against Mithradates VI. Below can be seen the wonderfully ligatured name of the moneyer, C(aius) NAE(vius) BALB(us). This may be the same Balbus mentioned in Plutarch's dramatic description of the Battle of Colline Gate (29) "Balbus, sent forward by Sulla, rode at full speed with 700 horsemen. He paused just long enough to let the sweat of the horses dry off, then quickly bridled them again & attacked.."
1 commentsKained but Able
Trajan_Drachm_Caesarea_Camel.jpg
Caesarea Drachm 36 viewsMy only portrait of Trajan from the left side so far.
19mm, 3.18g
References?
2 commentsklausklage
Caligula_AE_as_obv.jpg
Caligula AE as19 viewsGaius 'Caligula' (AD 37-41). AE as (29mm, 11.8 g, 6h). Rome, AD 37-38. C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head of Caligula left / VESTA, Vesta seated left on throne, holding patera and scepter, S C across field. RIC 38. Untouched dark green patina. Detailed portrait, exceptional strike. Choice EFOctopus Grabus
Caligula_as.jpg
Caligula portrait as29 viewsDescription: Caligula (AD 37-41). Bronze as (29mm, 10.02 gm). Rome mint, AD 37-38. Obverse: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS PON M TR POT, bare head left. Reverse: VESTA S C., Vesta seated left, veiled, holding patera and scepter. RIC 38. C. 27. BMC 46. Dark green patina.

2 commentsTiberiusClaudius
Caligula_RIC_16.jpg
Caligula RIC 001682 viewsSH86638. Silver denarius, RIC I 16 (R2, Rome), RSC I 2, Lyon 167, BnF II 21, BMCRE I 17, cf. SRCV I 1807 (aureus), VF, toned, attractive portraits, bumps and marks, some pitting, lamination defects, ex jewelry, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, weight 3.443g, maximum diameter 18.2mm, die axis 180o, 2nd emission, 37 - 38 A.D.; obverse C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT (counterclockwise from lower right), laureate head of Caligula right; reverse DIVVS AVG PATER PATRIAE (counterclockwise from lower right), radiate head of Divus Augustus right; ex Classical Numismatic Group, e-auction 69 (23 July 2003), lot 90
Ex: Forum Ancient coins, March 2, 2018.


This is my second denarius of Gaius. I was extremely happy to get this one. I know the surfaces are a bit rough, but it is still a VF example of a rare coin. Denarii of Caligula do not show up for sale very often outside of large auction houses. When they do appear they are often very expensive. I waited for about 2 1/2 years for a coin like this to show up. As soon as it did I bought it.

I want to share a quick word about where I bought this coin. It was a purchase from Forum Ancient Coins. Coins are guaranteed authentic for eternity, and the service is second to none. Forum is also an incredible source of information concerning ancient coins. If you have a question about ancient coins, chances are that question has been asked and answered on Forum Ancient Coins. Many experts frequent this site and they are always willing to share their expertise.

Anyone trying to assemble a set of the 12 Caesars in silver will need to find a denarius of Gaius. His is one of the most difficult to add along with denarii of Claudius and Otho. It has also been suggested by some that it is the fault of 12 Caesars collectors that drives the prices so high. While true that there is a lot of competition for these coins when they appear, it is also true that there are alternatives to the denarii of Gaius. One popular choice is the Vesta As. These are quite common and can be had in nice condition for reasonable prices.

On the obverse we have the typical portrait of Gaius, while on the reverse we see a portrait of his great grandfather Augustus. Augustus is depicted as a Divus or god. The reverse legend "Pater Patriae" refers to Augustus as the father of the country. One reason Augustus was on the reverse was to remind the people of Rome of their emperor's connection to the Julio-Claudian ruling dynasty.

Why are denarii of Gaius so scarce? One explanation is has to do with Gresham's law or bad money drives out good money. The theory is that the monetary reforms of Nero, which debased to coinage in both weight and fineness, caused people to hoard the older more valuable coins of emperors like Caligula and Claudius. The problem with this explanation is that there are plenty of "tribute penny" denarii of Tiberius. The other possibility is that perhaps smaller numbers of Gaius' denarii were originally minted. Maybe there was already enough silver coinage circulating and therefore fewer were needed. Whatever the real reason, we are unlikely to ever get a satisfactory answer.
5 commentsorfew
rm0403siliqua1.jpg
CAMPGATE, Constantius I, AR Argenteus295 viewsConstantius I AR Argenteus. 294-305 AD.

Obverse: CONSTANT[I]-VS CAESAR (Laureate head right).
Reverse: PROVIDEN-T[I]A AVGG* or dot (4 Turrets on Campgate w/ Open Doors and
Star over doors)
Exergue: SMNT
Diameter: 19mm
Weight: 2.52 Grams
Condition: F/aF - Flan crack at 11:00, strong portrait, weak reverse.
Attribution: RSC 240b
Gunner
m~18.PNG
Canada King George V 25 Cents Silver3 viewsCanada King George V 25 Cents Silver Dated 1929

Obverse:portrait in left profile of George V is surrounded with the inscription "GEORGIVS V DEI GRA: REX ET IND:IMP" (George V, King and Emperor of India by the grace of God)

Reverse:facial value, accompanied with the inscription "CANADA", is surrounded with two maple boughs and a crown Lettering: 25 CENTS CANADA 1929
discwizard
244.jpg
CAP/▪Δ‾, Serapis and bust171 viewsLYDIA. Tripolis (?). Commodus (?). Æ 32. A.D. 175-177. Obv: Dr. bust r.; 3 CMs. Ref: SNG Aul -; SNG Cop -. Weight: 19.49 g. Note: The identif. of the coin is consistent with other specimens bearing cm (2), which are from Tripolis, bear the portrait of Faustina Jr., and are around 30 mm. CM(1): CAP, ▪Δ‾, in 2 lines, in oval punch, 10 x 9 mm. Howg. 561 (46 pcs). Note: The "dash" to the right of the Δ might indicate that the denom. is 4 1/2 assaria. This, and other denominational countermarks, were applied at Sardis to worn coins of other cities in w. Roman Asia, although not to Sardian coins (unless worn smooth). Appl. may have taken place during the sole reign of Gallienus, the reason being that coins bearing the portr. of Gallienus have been found cm'd, while a cm'd coin has been found bearing the cm of another city consistent with this date. CM(2): Hd of Serapis r., in modius, n circ. punch, 4 mm. How. 20 (3 pcs). CM(3): Bust in circ punch, 5 mm. How. 95 ? (2 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
caesarea_elagabal_sydenham518var.jpg
Cappadocia, Caesarea, Elagabal Sydenham 518 var.128 viewsElagabal AD 218-222
AE 28, 11.67g
struck in the year 2 (ET B) of Elagabal's reign = AD 219
obv. AY KM AYRHLI - ANTWNINOC
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. MHTROP [KAICARIA]
Agalma of Mt. Argaios on altar
ET B below
Sydenham 518 var. (date on altar); coll. Hunter 593, 81
VF, green-brown patina
Very nice youthful and realistic portrait

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
3 commentsJochen
Antiochus.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII70 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Houghton II 655 (same dies), SNG Spaer -, Newell SMA -, gVF, weight 16.157g, maximum diameter 28.8mm, die axis 0o, posthumous, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; obverse diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; reverse BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate DI / A left, A inner left, G inner right, Nike crowns epithet, laurel wreath border; scarce;

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

Ex Houghton collection
Ex Forum
1 commentsPhiloromaos
ant_pan.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochus VII77 viewsSilver tetradrachm, (Houghton II 642 ff., SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282), Weight 16.560g, Max. diameter 27.9mm, Obv. diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; Rev. BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXDOY EYEPΠETOY, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate ΔI / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border. Toned, some light scratches.

EX. Forvm Ancient Coins

Background info, courtesy Forvm Ancient Coins;

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

4 commentsSteve E
Cappadocian Kingdom 1a img.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, Tetradrachm, In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII59 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:– Diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border.
Rev:– BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate DI / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border
c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C.
Ref:– Houghton II 642 (same dies), SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian king Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

Grey tone.

Ex-Forvm
1 commentsmaridvnvm
Cappadocian_Kingdom_1a_img.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom, Tetradrachm, In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII18 viewsSilver tetradrachm
Obv:– Diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border.
Rev:– BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate DI / A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border
c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C.
Ref:– Houghton II 642 (same dies), SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282

Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian king Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII.

Grey tone.

Ex-Forvm

Updated image using new photography setup.
maridvnvm
antiochos_VII_tetra.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom/ In the name of Antiochos VII; tetradrachm; Nike20 viewsCappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton II 651 ff. (different dies), SNG Spaer -, Newell SMA -, VF, grainy, 15.919g, 29.4mm, 0o, posthumous, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; obverse diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; reverse “BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU”, Athena standing left, Nike in right, spear and shield in left, ligate “DI” / A left, ligate “OD” inner left, K inner right, Nike crowns epithet, laurel wreath border. Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII. Ex FORVMPodiceps
23712_cappadocia__antiochos_VII_tetratetradrachm,_Houghton_II_644.jpg
Cappadocian Kingdom/ In the name of Antiochos VII; tetradrachm; Nike15 viewsCappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C.; In the Name of the Seleukid King, Antiochos VII, 138 - 129 B.C. Silver tetradrachm, Houghton II 644 (same dies), SNG Spaer 1855, Newell SMA 282, VF, toned, 16.302g, 29.6mm, 0o, obverse diademed head of the Seleukid King Antiochos VII right, fillet border; reverse “BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU”, Athena standing left holding Nike, spear and shield, “DI” monogram above A left, Nike extends wreath into laurel wreath border. Oliver Hoover, in Coins of the Seleucid Empire from the Collection of Arthur Houghton, attributes this type to the Cappadocian Kingdom, c. 130 - 80 B.C. The symbols were used on Cappadocian royal coinage, the coins are found in Cappadocian hoards and a tetradrachm naming the Cappadocian King Ariarathes VII Philometor (116 - 99 B.C.) bears the obverse portrait of Antiochus VII. He notes they may have been struck to pay foreign (Syrian?) mercenaries who preferred the types of Antiochus VII. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
235.jpg
Caracalla (?), head right191 viewsBITHYNIA. Nicomedia. Commodus. Æ 24. A.D. 177-192 (?). Obv: (...)VAN-TΩN(...) or similar. Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: MH(TNEΩKOPΩN), NEIK(OMHΔ) in ex., or similar. Eagle standing left, head turned back, fighting with snake; prow in ex. Ref: SNG Cop 565 for reverse for Commodus Caesar. Defacement of portrait (damnatio). Axis: 195°. Weight: 9.82 g. CM: Laureate imperial head right (Caracalla?), in circular punch, 6.5 mm. Howgego 67 (48 pcs). Note: May have been applied because Caracalla spent his birthday 4/4 215 in Nicomedia. Collection Automan.1 commentsAutoman
182.jpg
Caracalla (head of)152 viewsBITHYNIA. Nicomedia. Marcus Aurelius. Æ 24. A.D. 161-169. Obv: (AYTKAIM)AVP-ANTΩ(NINOC). Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; countermark on neck. Rev: (AVTKAIΛ)AVP-OYHP(OCNIKOM). Head of Lucius Verus right. Ref: SNG Aul 761; BMC 23; Sear GIC 1703. Axis: 195°. Weight: 8.59 g. CM: Laureate head of emperor right, in circular punch, 6.5 mm. Howgego 67 (48 pcs). Note: May have been applied because Caracalla spent his birthday 4/4 215 in Nicomedia; Other specimens have the countermark applied to the reverse, but this coin has an imperial portrait on both sides, so the rev-obv. distinction may not have been an easy one for the person applying the countermark. Collection Automan.Automan
carodessos.jpg
Caracalla AE 27 Tetrassarion of Odessos 198-217 AD47 viewsOBV: AVK MAV ANTWNINOC, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
REV: ODHCCEITWN; The Great God of Odessos standing left, holding a cornucopia and makining an offering from a patera over a burning altar.

The coin has a great portrait of Caracalla, in this case depicted in one of his rare good moods - or perhaps it was in his youth that the coin was minted. The deity on the back has sometimes been characterized as Zeus, but to whom would he be offering a sacrifice?

Odessos was a town on the Black Sea (today's Varna, Bulgaria) which had produced coins back to the 3rd Century BC. As a city in the Roman province of Moesia it first produced coins honoring Augustus, and later in the 2nd and 3rd century AD under Commodus, Verus and the Severans. It's greatest and final output of coins were minted under Gordian III.
Moushmov 1610 (Ref. Wildwinds)
Diam 27 mm, wt 9.64 gm
1 commentsdaverino
12.JPG
Caracalla AR Antoninianus - Venus holding helmet, two captives. obv 0228 viewsAD 212 - 217
obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Seen from behind.
rev: VENVS VICTRIX - Venus standing holding helmet & scepter, shield set on right of two captives seated to either side.

5.5 grams
--------------------------
*Great portrait
1 commentsrexesq
caracalla__iiiipp.jpg
Caracalla AR Denarius ‘Libertas’21 viewsBust: Right facing, Laureate.
Obverse Legend; ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT
Reverse Legend; PM TR P XVI COS IIII PP
Type; Libertas standing left holding pileus and scepter
MINT Rome, 213 AD. 2.6 grams

RIC IVi, 209a, page 241 - Cohen 224 (plate xii, 12) - SEAR RCV II (2002), #6830, page 522
Fearsome portrait.
Banjaxed
Ancient_Counterfeits_Caracalla_Castor.jpg
Caracalla Castor22 viewsImitation in good silver, combining a Caracalla portrait with a reverse that belongs to Geta.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Rev: CASTOR
Castor standing l. in front of horse, which he holds by rein, holding spear (RIC 6).
2.86g, 17mm
klausklage
CaracallaDenarius.jpg
Caracalla Denarius85 viewsANTONINVS - PIVS AVG
Draped and laureated bust right

R/ PART MAX PONT TRP IIII
two captives seated below trophy.

Denarius struck 201 AD in ROM

RIC.54b C.175

18 mm -- 3,89 g -- axis 180°

beautifull portrait on heavy flan
2 commentsgb29400
caracalla~0.jpg
Caracalla Prov48 viewsFrom Isegrim per archivum (http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=42896.0)

PRO: BITHYNIA
PO : NICAEA
PZ : Between 198 and 217
Obverse
VSG: AYT K M AYRH ANTWNEINOS AYG
VT : PORTRAIT MAN R / CARACALLA
VA : WREATH LAUREL
VG : ROUND / WOMAN STANDING HR / NIKE
Reverse
RSG: EIS AIWNA TOYS KYRIOYS NIKAIEWN
RT : PERSONS 3 / MAN STANDING HR(1) / EMPEROR(1) / MAN STANDING HL(2) / EMPEROR(2) / ALTAR / WOMAN STANDING HL(3) / HOMONOIA(3)
RA : STAFF(1-3) / CLASPING HANDS(1-2) / PATERA(3)
Technical details
M : AE
GEW: 13.39(1)
Bibliographical references
ZIT: SNG AUL 590(1) / WEISER SLG KOELN S345,17(1)
Additional remarks
FR : VS: AYT K M AYRH ANTWNEINOS AYG RS: EIS AIWNA TOYS KYRI NIKAIEWN

Thanks to achivum/slokind/Jochen/Curtis Clay for attribution help!
fordicus
caracalla_39.jpg
Caracalla RIC IV, 39(a) corr.129 viewsCaracalla, AD 198 - 217
AR - Denar, 3.67g, 19mm
Rome AD 199 - 201
obv. ANTONINVS - AVGVSTVS
bust draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate head r., youthful portrait
rev. RECTOR - ORBIS
Caracalla as Alexander the Great, naked, standing frontal, laureate head l.,
Chlamys over l. shoulder, wears sword in scabbard suspended from
belt over shoulder, holding globe r. and reversed spear l.
RIC IV, 39(a) corr.; C.542; BMC 165 corr.
EF, mint luster

The rev. is usually called Caracalla as Sol. But there are some oddities: The figure is not radiate but laureate, and a sword in a scubbard is hanging over the r. shoulder. That doesn't match the attributes of Sol. Curtis Clay: It is Caracalla as Alexander the Great! Probably it resembles the statue of Lysipp 'Alexander with spear'.

CHLAMYS, cloak, if the context suggest civilian rather than military use
PALUDAMENTUM, used to describe the cloak worn with a cuirass by emperors on late Roman coins. So the garment on the obv. is a paludament, that on the rev. a chlamys!
3 commentsJochen
Caracalla_Spes.JPG
Caracalla Spec24 viewsCaracalla AD 198-217, AR Denarius, Laodicea Mint, c. AD 199
O: IMP CAE M AVR ANT AVG P TR P II; Laureate, draped bust facing right.
R: SPES PVBLICA; Spes advancing left, holding flower and lifting hem.
34 out of 5736 Caracalla in Reka-Devnia Hoard [typical avg / type = 25.6]
A nice youthful portrait from the Eastern mint on this coin from a major Caracalla collection that will be sold over the next few weeks here.
17mm, 2.3g
Romanorvm
002257LG.jpg
Caracalla, 198–217 CE45 viewsAR denarius, Rome, 213 CE; 3.43g., 19.4mm., BMCRE 48–9, RIC 206a, RSC 220. Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT; head laureate right. Rx: PM TR P XVI COS IIII PP; Hercules, naked, standing half-left, holding branch and club with lion's skin.

Notes: Second issue of the sole reign of Caracalla. Perhaps the bearded figure on the reverse is intended to represent Caracalla as Hercules; its head bears a strong resemblance to Caracalla's "angry scowl" portrait as shown on the obverse.
2 commentsMichael K5
CaraStobe110.JPG
Caracalla, AE 23 Diassaria27 viewsPIVS AVGV A/NTONINVS
Bust laureate, draped, cuirassed, right, seen from behind
MVNICI STOBEN
Nike advancing left with wreath and palm
Josifovski 332 (V49, R51)
Kuzmanovic Collection 627, 629
This obverse is likely to be one of the earliest cuirassed and draped portraits. No die links have yet been established for this coin.
whitetd49
CaraStobe23.JPG
Caracalla, AE 27 Tetrassaria50 viewsIM C M AVR ANTONINVS
Bust laureate, draped, cuirassed, right, seen from behind
MVNICIP STOBENSI
Nike/Nemesis advancing left with wreath and palm, wheel at her feet
Cohen 718 - 719, Lindgren 1148
Josifovski 485, same dies (V124, R172), citing specimen in Petersberg 2954.
One of the earlier portraits of Caracalla at Stobi.
whitetd49
CaraStobe78.JPG
Caracallla, AE 29 Tetrassaria21 viewsIMP C MAV[?]NVS
Bust laureate, draped, cuirassed, right, seen from behind
MVNI[?] STOBENS
Nike advancing left with wreath and palm
Unlisted dies.
Very early issue - very large flan and beardless portrait
whitetd49
carausius_475.jpg
Carausius RIC V, 47575 viewsCarausius 287 - 293, British Empire
AE - Antoninianus, 4.53g, 22mm
London, undated
obv. IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, radiate head r.
rev. PA - X - AVG
Pax standing l., holding olive-branch and vertical sceptre
field: left S, right P
RIC V/2, 475; C.215; Webb 532
VF, Portrait!

Coins with SP were mostly struck in London, but the meaning of SP is still unknown.
Jochen
aphrodisias_gordianIII_SNGaulock2461cf.jpg
Caria, Aphrodisias, Gordian III, MacDonald Type 187 var. 21 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 30 (2 assaria), 14.09g, 30.48mm, 165°
struck AD 238-341 (see MacDonald below)
obv. AV KM ANT - GORDIANOC (1st N reversed)
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. AFROD. - EI[CIE]EWN
Cult statue of Aphrodite Aphrodisias in ependytes and with kalathos, stg. r. on plinthe, head flanked by
crescent and star, both hands outstretched forwards; l. beside her small priestress std. with raised hand
on sella r., r. beside her a fountain with arched cover.
ref. MacDonald Type 187 var., 0234 var., R432 var.; cf. SNGF von Aulock 2461; not in Leypold, Keckmann,
Sammlung Karl, BMC
rare, F+, some deposits of sand-patina

MacDonald: Types 187-189 are an exception to the rule that the portrait of the emperor appears only on the largest denominations of Aphrodisias. The reason is fairly obvious. The portraits of 0234-0236 are distinctly juvenile, and early in the reign of Gordian III there were no other members of the imperial family whose portraits might be put on the coins. When Gordian III married Tranquillina, her portrait appeared on this denomination, Types 190-192
Jochen
Chach_Kanka_98.jpg
Central Asia, Chach: Anonymous (700-800AD) AE Cash, Kanka Mint (Shagalov & Kuznetsov, #98)41 viewsObv: Three-Quarter portrait of the ruler facing right, surrounded by a belt of the rim. Ruler with large almond-shaped eyes, a straight, narrow nose, small mouth, and a peculiar form of hairstyle. On the neck, a massive decoration is suspended in the center. Above the shoulders and head, a crescent moon with a dot. Behind the head, a Sogdian legend consisting of a single word.
Rev: Tamgra surrounded by Sogdian legend - ZNH pny tkyn c'cynk xw
SpongeBob
Chach_SK_178.jpg
Central Asia, Chach: Anonymous (750-800AD) AE Double-Portrait Unit (Shagalov & Kuznetsov, #178)28 viewsObv: 3/4 busts of a man and a woman facing each other inside a dotted rim
Rev: Tamga surrounded by Sogdian legend. The rim of the coin is either dotted or absent. Legend is read from the outside mint mug right to left, and consists of three words b g y twwn g 'g' n
SpongeBob
anazarbus_commodus_SNGsupp325.jpg
Cilicia, Anazarbus, Commodus, SNG Leante Supp. 32594 viewsCommodus AD 177-192
AE 26, 12.84g, 225°
struck (Theta)QP = 199 = AD 181/182
obv. AVTO K LO A - KOMODEW CEB
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. ANAZARBE - WN ETOVC (Theta)QP
bust of Zeus Olybrius, draped, diademed, wearing necklace, seen from front, head r.
SNG Levante 325 (this ex.); SNG Paris 2041 var. (date, legend)
rare, VF, dark green patina, obv. a bit rough, impressive portrait of Zeus
added to www.wildwinds.com

This coin is much better in hand, especially the rev. is very beautiful!
4 commentsJochen
4140368_(1).jpg
CILICIA, Anazarbus; Germanicus10 viewsCILICIA, Anazarbus. Germanicus. Caesar, 15 BC-AD 19. Æ Diassarion (29mm, 16.81 g, 12h). Dated CY 67 (AD 48/9). Bare head right / Laureate head of Zeus Olybris right before mountain with acropolis; ETOYΣ [ZΞ] (date) in exergue. Ziegler 35 (O1/R1); SNG BN –; SNG Levante 1366; RPC II 4060 (same obv. die as illustration). VF, green and red-brown patina, surfaces a little rough. Good portrait and interesting reverse design.

Ex Classical Numismatic Group Electronic Auction 269 (30 November 2011), lot 257; Hirsch 251 (9 May 2007), lot 861.

RPC gives three possible identifications for the figure on the obverse: Claudius, Britannicus, or Germanicus. Britannicus is the most easily dismissable attribution; as RPC notes (p. 595) the nomenclature would be unlikely for such a date. Levante and Ziegler describe the figure as Claudius (the latter with a question mark), but the varying portrait style and the obverse legend “TIBERIOC KΛAΔIOC KAICAP” on a parellel issue of the same year casts serious doubt. Germanicus then seems the most likely of the three. Ex - CNG
ecoli
kastabala_sept_severus_SNGlev1589.jpg
Cilicia, Hieropolis-Kastabala, Septimius Severus, SNG Levante 158932 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 30, 15.97g
obv. AVT KAI L C - EP CEVHROC PER CE
Emperor in military cloak and wearing parazonium(?), stg. l., resting with l. hand on
spear and holding in outstretched r. hand Nike on globe, holding wreath and
palm-branch
rev. IE - ROPOLI - TWN KACTABALEW - N
Bust of young Dionysos, wearing ivy wreath and clad in panther skin, r.,
thyrsos over l. shoulder and vine-grape before.
SNG Levante 1589; SNG Paris 2339
about VF, corrosion in upper field of obv.

It's interesting that here the portrait is not the emperor's. Therefore I think it's on the rev.!
Jochen
Tarsos.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos. AE35. Philip I or II / Spes71 viewsCilicia, Tarsos AE35 23.4gm.

Bronze Medallion 35mm (21.94 grams) of Tarsus in Cilicia
AVT KAI IOV ΦIΛIΠΠON ЄVT ЄVC CЄ around, Π - Π in field, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
TAPCOV THC MHTPOΠOΛEΩC AMK, Elpis (Spes) standing left, holding flower and pulling on skirt, Γ B across fields.

Philip I or Philip II as Augustus, same obv. die as Ziegler, Smaller German Collections, pl. 42, 799 ("Philip II"); SNG Paris 1730 ("Philip I"); and SNG Aulock 6062 ("Philip I").

The light beard would speak for Philip I, yet the features look different and younger than other portrait dies at Tarsus that are definitely Philip I. -Curtis Clay


ancientone
prnbzw.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsos. Satrap Pharnabazos II. AR Stater.21 viewsCirca 380-374/3 B.C.(21mm, 10.39g, 11h). Struck circa 380-379 B.C. Casabonne series 3; Moysey Issue 3, 3-5 var. (dolphin on obv.); SNG France 246 var. (rev. legend). Obverse Head of nymph facing three-quarters left. Reverse Helmeted head of Ares left, Aramaic PRNBZW to left. Near EF, toned, struck from a slightly worn obverse die.

Ex CNG.

There is still an ongoing debate whether who represent the obverse and reverse of this coin type of Pharnabazos. The obverse obviously was inspired by the renowned Syracusan tetradrachm of Kimon, whose three-quarter facing head of the nymph Arethusa was widely copied throughout the ancient world. A handful of ancient poleis adopted this style to represent their local nymph or goddess on their coins. A perfect example is the numerous coins of Larissa in Thessaly representing the local nymph of the same name. It is possible to assume then that the obverse of our coin might be another female deity other than Arethusa. A current opinion holds that the obverse represents Aphrodite, the goddess of love; and the reverse depicts Ares, the god of war. The two were known in ancient mythology as lovers, and commonly paired together on ancient coins. Of special note on this coin is the reverse: while most coins of this type display static male heads with little originality, the reverse die is probably from a special issue marked by superior style and executed with extreme delicacy. It has been suggested (Leu Auction 81, lot 317) that the head of Ares may be a disguised portrait of Pharnabazos himself.
Jason T
TarsosCrowns2.jpg
Cilicia, Tarsus. Elagabalus AE28. Demiourgos and Kiliarch Crowns48 viewsAΥT KAI M AΥΡ ANTΩONEINOC C, Radiate bust right, seen from behind / TAPCOY THC MHTΡOΠOΛE, AMK in exergue, demiourgos crown over garlanded altar and kiliarch crown decorated with imperial portraits and Γ-B.ancientone
lust1.jpg
Clashed die of Lucilla (wife of Lucius Verus) Struck 164 - 169 C.E.32 viewsObverse - LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG FB. Draped bust right.
Reverse - PIETAS. Pietas standing left, right hand over lighted altar and holding box of incense in left. SC in field
30 mm diam. 19.8g. RIC 1756
Reverse clearly shows an inverse portrait caused by a clashed die
sold 1-2018
2 commentsNORMAN K
spes1.JPG
Claudius II (Gothicus) AE Antoninianus 268-270 AD41 viewsOBV: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG; Radiate Cuirassed Bust Right
REV: SPES PVBLICA; Spes standing left, holding a flower with one hand and raising her robe with the other.

RIC 102 (Ref. W'winds) Rome mint. Nice obverse portrait on a rough flan - typical for the times.
daverino
Claudius_II___Virtus.png
Claudius II 268- 270 / Antoninianus 32 viewsAntoninianus, Claudius II right / Virtus walking right, Trophy on left shoulder, spear in right hand.
Nice portrait.

**The Golden Legend of 1260 AD recounts how St. Valentine refused to deny Christ before the "Emperor Claudius" in 270 AD ( in some ref ; 269 AD as he was beheaded in that year 269 AD ,per Sam) and as a result was beheaded. Since then, February 14 marks Valentine's Day, a day set aside by the Christian church in memory of the Roman priest and physician.

2 commentsSam
claudiusII_193~0.jpg
Claudius II Gothicus RIC V, 19384 viewsClaudius II Gothicus 268 - 270
AR - Antoninian, 2.78g, 19mm
Siscia 1. officina
obv. IMP CLAVDIVS AVG
cuirassed bust, radiate head r.
rev. VBER[IT]AS AVG
Uberitas standing l., holding cornucopiae and purse
RIC V, 193; C.286
good F, portrait!
added to www.wildwinds.com
2 commentsJochen
New_Claudius_Combined_2.jpg
Claudius RIC 008345 viewsClaudius, with Nero as Caesar. 41-54 AD. AR Denarius. Struck 50-54 AD.
(17.68 mm, 2.78 g, 6h)
Obv: TI CLAVD CAESAR AVG GERM P M TRIB POT P P Laureate head of Claudius right
Rev: NERO CLAVD CAES DRVSVS GERM PRINC IVVENT Draped bust of Nero Left
RIC I 83 (R2) ; RSC 5.
Ex: CNG e-auctions 356, Lot: 469. Closing Jul 29, 2015
Ex: Holding History Coins Agora Auctions Lot 07-158 April 21, 2016




This denarius of Claudius is interesting because it has 2 portraits. the obverse depicts Claudius and on the reverse we see a very young portrait of Nero as Caesar or successor to Claudius. The portrait of Nero looks nothing like the "Fat tyrant" of Neros' later days.

Denarii of Claudius are scarce to rare. When Nero debased the coinage in 64 CE people hoarded or melted down the finer denarii of decades past. However, this does not explain why there appears to be plenty of earlier denarii available of figures such as Tiberius and Augustus but very few of Claudius and Gaius. We may never have a satisfactory answer.

I like this coin for its 2 portraits and especially for its depiction of a young Nero who seems so full of promise as the next ruler of Rome. I also like this coin because it reminds me that although Claudius was an improbable choice for ruler of Rome, he led the empire in a period of relative stability.

I know the coin is rather worn, but for me, that is part of its charm. It is obvious that this coin circulated and was used by those who lived in ancient Rome. It is interesting to think of who could have handled this coin and what it could have bought almost 2ooo years ago.
2 commentsorfew
claudius_97.jpg
Claudius RIC I, 97162 viewsClaudius 41 - 54
AE - As, 10.97g, 26mm
Rome 41
obv. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TRP IM[P]
bare head l.
rev. LIBERTAS AVGVSTA
Libertas standing frontal, head r., holding pileus
in r. hand, between S-C
RIC I, 97; C.47
about VF
From Curtis Clay: The obverse of Jochen's As shows the rare earliest
portrait of Claudius' reign, youthful and reminescent of his brother
Germanicus. I think Jochen's coin will have a rank high among the luckiest
first purchases ever made!

PILEUS, a felt cap, given to slaves who received their freedom. Therefore a attribute of Liberty
2 commentsJochen
52524p00.jpg
Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.30 viewsFrom Forum: Copper as, RIC I 97, BMCRE I 145, VF, 11.603g, 27.2mm, 180o, Rome mint, c. 41 - 50 A.D.; obverse TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left; reverse LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, pileus in right, extending left arm; struck with a damaged reverse die;

I looked at this coin several weeks before taking the plunge...I just couldn't let that portrait and patina go....too gorgeous!
1 commentsMagisterRiggs
cleo_paphos.jpg
Cleopatra portrait, dichalkon; Paphos, Cyprus14 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus. Bronze dichalkon, Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649, gF, Paphos mint, 1.570g, 11.8mm, 0o, obverse diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure; reverse “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ − ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons; nice green patina. Ex FORVMPodiceps
cleo.jpg
Cleopatra portrait, Paphos, Cyprus20 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus. Bronze dichalkon, Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649, F, Paphos mint, 1.190 g, 10.9 mm, 0o, obverse diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure; reverse PTOLEMAIOU BASILEWS, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons. Kreuzer, in his book The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus, assembles evidence dating this type to Cleopatra VII instead of the reign of Ptolemy IV used in older references. ex FORVMPodiceps
25363_Cleopatra_VII,_Philopator,_51_-_30_B_C_,_Paphos,_Cyprus_F.jpg
Cleopatra portrait, Paphos, Cyprus11 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus. Bronze dichalkon, Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649, F, attractive patina, Paphos mint, 1.254g, 11.5mm, 270o, obverse diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure; reverse “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ − ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons; crude, flan flaw. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
25389_Cleopatra_VII,_Philopator,_51_-_30_B_C_,_Paphos,_Cyprus_aF.jpg
Cleopatra portrait, Paphos, Cyprus13 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus. Bronze dichalkon, Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649, aF, Paphos mint, 1.498g, 11.7mm, 0o, obverse diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure; reverse “ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ − ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ”, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons; green patina. FORVM. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Cleopatra_VII.jpg
Cleopatra portrait, Paphos, Cyprus (2)10 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Cleopatra VII, Philopator, 51 - 30 B.C., Paphos, Cyprus. Bronze dichalkon, Kreuzer p. 44, first illustration; Svoronos 1160 (Ptolemy IV); Weiser -; SNG Cop 649, VF, obverse off center, 1.660g, 13.5mm, 0o, Paphos mint, obverse diademed bust of Cleopatra VII as Isis right, hair in melon-coiffure; reverse ΠΤΟΛΕΜΑΙΟΥ − ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, double cornucopia flanked by ribbons; Kreuzer, in his book The Coinage System of Cleopatra VII and Augustus in Cyprus, assembles evidence dating this type to Cleopatra VII instead of the reign of Ptolemy IV used in older references. ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
clod_albinus_7.jpg
Clodius Albinus RIC IV, 723 viewsClodius Albinus as Caesar, AD 195-196
AR - denarius, 3.05g, 18.6mm, 0°
Rome, AD 194
obv. D CLOD EPT ALBIN CAES
Bare head, r.
rev. MINER - PA - CIF COS II
Minerva, in long garment and helmeted, stg. l., holding olive-branch in r. hand and resting with l. hand on
spear; shield leaning at her l. arm
ref. RIC IV, 7; SRCV II 6144; BMCR V, 98; C.48
R1!, VF/F+, portrait!
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!
Jochen
CommodusHercules.jpg
Commodus118 viewsAD 177-192. AR Denarius (17mm, 1.94 g, 1h). Rome mint. Struck AD 192. Head right, wearing lion skin / HER-CVL/ RO-MAN/ AV-GV divided by club; all within wreath. RIC III 251; RSC 190

Numerous events suggest Commodus was becoming mentally ill. Apparently he thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules. It is said that in public spectacles he would dress in the manner of Hercules and bludgeon prisoners to death with a club.

I feel this serene portrait is unusually lifelike for the type.
5 commentsNemonater
Commodus_Minerva_1a.jpg
Commodus * Minerva with Owl - 183-184 AD. AR Denarius96 views
Commodus * Minerva with Owl - 183-184 AD.
Silver Denarius

Obv: M COMMODVS ANTON AVG PIVS, laureate head of Commodus, facing right.
Rev: P M TR P VIIII IMP VI COS IIII PP, Minerva advancing right, brandishing a javelin in right hand and holding a shield in her left, with an owl at her feet, to right - facing.

Tribunician Power (Tribunicia Potestas) held nine times, Consular four times.
A handsome portrait of Commodus, with clear, sharp & high relief features.

Exergue: (Blank)

Mint: Rome
Struck: 183-184 AD.

Size: 19 mm.
Weight: 2.8 grams
Die axis: 180 degs.

Condition: Beautiful, bright, clear lustrous silver.

Refs:*
RSC 424
RIC III 72
BMC IV, 120
Sear Roman Coins & their Values (2000 Edition), #5668

Tiathena
Commodus AVCTOR PIETAT RIC 494.jpg
Commodus RIC 494138 viewsSestertius, 29mm, 22.75g.

Obverse: M COMMODVS ANT P - FELIX AVG BRIT, laureate head R.

Reverse: AVCTOR PIETAT PM TRP XII IMP VIII COS V PP, Pietas standing L sacrificing over altar and holding box, SC in fields.

RIC 494, AD186-7, Rare.

Weakly struck but a nice portrait for all that.
2 commentsRobert_Brenchley