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Search results - "POPULI"
altar1s.jpg
Constantine the Great, RIC VII 73 Siscia, 319 CE34 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG, laureate helmet & cuirassed.
Reverse:VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP [ Joyous victory to the eternal
Prince] two Victories standing, facing one another, together holding shield
inscribed VOT PR [VOTA POPULI ROMANI (vows of the Roman people)]on altar.
gamma SIS dot in ex. RIC VII Siscia 73, 18.9 mm 2.6 g. rare
NORMAN K
IMG_0351.JPG
Q. Sicinius11 viewsMoneyer issues of Imperatorial Rome. Q. Sicinius. Early 49 BC. AR Denarius (17.5mm, 3.89 g, 4h). Rome mint. Diademed head of Fortuna Populi Romani right / Palm frond with fillet and winged caduceus in saltire; wreath above. Crawford 440/1; CRI 1; Sydenham 938; Sicinia 5. Near VF, toned, some iridescence, banker’s marks and a couple scratches under tone on obverse, traces of deposits, a few minor marks on reverse.

Ex CNG
1 commentsecoli
uncertain.jpg
39 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 4.33 g)
Contemporary counterfeit
Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia, GPR (Genio populi Romani) around
Blank
Rostowzew -

This tessera was cast from fractured molds, likely after the they had been discarded by the mint. It is the only possibly counterfeit tessera I have discovered to date.
Ardatirion
00061x00.jpg
31 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.47 g, 9h)
Roma seated right, holding Victory and spear
G P R F (Genio Populi Romani Feliciter) in circle
Rostovtzev 1576; BM 369

Rostovtsev cites two examples in the British Museum, as well as five more in smaller collections. Thornton could only locate one specimen.
Ardatirion
0036.jpg
0036 - Denarius Cassia 55 BC73 viewsObv/Head of Genius Populi Romani r. with sceptre over shoulder.
Rev/Eagle on thunderbolt r., on l. lituus, on r. jug, below Q CASSIVS.

Ag, 19.4mm, 3.59g
Moneyer: Q. Cassius Longinus
Mint: Rome.
RRC 428/3 [dies o/r: 126/140] - BMCRR Rome 3868 - RSC Cassia 7 - Syd. 916
ex-Tkalec, auction 27 apr 2007, lot 162
1 commentsdafnis
0147.jpg
0147 - Denarius Sicinia 49 BC45 viewsObv/ Diademed head of Fortuna r.; before, FORT; behind, PR.
Rev/ Palm branch tied with fillet and winged caduceus, in saltire; above, wreath; below, Q SICINIVS; III VIR at sides.

Ag, 17.5 mm, 4.03 g
Moneyer: Q. Sicinius.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 440/1 [dies o/r: 129/143] - Syd.938
ex-CNG, auction e260, lot 453 (ex–Dante Alighieri colln., CNG auction e219, lot 406).
dafnis
0194.jpg
0194 - Nummus Maximian 307 AC49 viewsObv/ DN MAXIMIANO PFS AVG, laureate and cuirassed bust of M. r.
Rev/ GENIO POP ROM, Genius of the Roman People standing l., holding patera and cornucopia; in ex., PLN.

AE, 7.09g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/90 [C2].
ex-Emporium Hamburg, auction 72, lot 819.
dafnis
0195.jpg
0195 - Nummus Constantius I 300-03 AC62 viewsObv/ FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate and cuirassed bust of C. r.
Rev/ GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius of the Roman People standing l., holding patera and cornucopia.

AE, 28 mm, 10.41 g
Mint: Londinium.
RIC VI/20 [R]
ex-vAuctions (Triskeles), auction 313, lot 354.
dafnis
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar161 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
antpius-RIC70.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 140-143 AD27 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (bare head right)
rev: GENIVS POP ROMANI (Genius standing front, head right, with scepter & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC III 70, RSC 405 (6frcs), BMC 207
3.15gms, 18mm

The Roman genius, representing man's natural optimism, always endeavoured to guide him to happiness; that man was intended to enjoy life is shown by the fact that the Roman spoke of indulging or cheating his genius of his due according as he enjoyed himself or failed to do so, when he had the opportunity. The genius publicus Populi Romani - probably distinct from the genius Urbis Romae, to whom an old shield on the Capitol was dedicated, stood in the forum near the temple of Concord, in the form of a bearded man, crowned with a diadem, and carrying a cornucopiae and sceptre. In imperial times the genius of Augustus and of the reigning emperor, as part of the sacra of the imperial family, were publicly worshipped. The reverse probably commemorate this (the scepter as Genius attributum is unusual).
berserker
Sicinia_5_Den.jpg
2) The Pompeians: Quintus Sicinius17 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC
Quintus Sicinius for Pompey
AR Denarius, 49 B.C. (3.6g)

Diademed head of Fortuna Populi Romani, goddess of Fortune of the Roman people. FORT before, P.R. behind / Crossed palm branch and winged caduceus (staff carried by ambassadors in wartime), wreath above. Q. SICINIVS, III VIR

The symbols of good fortune and victory on the reverse, together with Fortuna populi Romani on the obverse, anticipate victory by Pompey over Caesar.

CR 440, Sear Imperators #1, Sicinia 5
RM0043
Sosius
caligula dupondius RIC56.jpg
37-41 AD - AUGUSTUS memorial Æ dupondius - struck under Caligula 43 viewsobv: DIVVS AVGVSTVS (radiate head of Augustus left), dividing S C
rev: CONSENSV SENAT ET EQ ORDIN P Q R (laureate & togate statue of Gaius Caligula seated left on curule chair, holding branch)
ref: RIC I 56 (Gaius); BMCRE 88; C.87 (at Augustus-as struck Tiberius-4 frcs). BMC90
mint: Rome
15.80gms, 29mm
Rare

In reverse the whole text: CONSENSV. SENATus ET EQuestris ORDINis Populi Que Romani. This coin probably features an image of an actual statue of the Caligula. Dio Cassius notes, that the Senate ordered a guard to keep watch at each of Caligula's statues. (Dio Cassius LIX.26). Just a few coin has S-C on the obverse, like this.
berserker
Follis Diocleciano RIC 12a.jpg
A107-20 - DIOCLECIANO (284 - 305 D.C.)120 viewsAE Follis 26 mm 9.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido, de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "KΓ" en exergo.

Acuñada 294 - 305 D.C.
Ceca: Cyzicus (Off. 4ta.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Cyzicus) #12a Pag.580 - Cohen Vol.VI #106 Pag.426 - DVM #41 Pag.277 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7031.l.2 Pag.52
mdelvalle
RIC_12a_Nummus_Diocleciano.jpg
A107-20 - DIOCLECIANO (284 - 305 D.C.)25 viewsAE Follis 26 mm 9.3 gr.

Anv: "IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido, de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "KΓ" en exergo.

Acuñada 294 - 305 D.C.
Ceca: Cyzicus (Off. 3ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Cyzicus) #12a Pag.580 - Cohen Vol.VI #106 Pag.426 - DVM #41 Pag.277 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7031.l.2 Pag.52 - Sear RCV IV #12791 Pag.108
mdelvalle
RIC_19a_Nummus_Diocleciano.jpg
A107-22 - DIOCLECIANO (284 - 305 D.C.)16 viewsAE Follis 28 mm 10.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido, de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "HTΓ" en exergo.

Acuñada 297 - 298 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off. 3ra.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Heraclea) #19a Pag.531 - Cohen Vol.VI #106 Pag.426 - DVM #41 Pag.277 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7031.j.2 Pag.52 - Sear RCV IV #12787 Pag.108
mdelvalle
Follis Constancio I RIC Antiochia 55a.jpg
A112-20 - CONSTANCIO I Como Cesar de Maximiano (293 - 305 D.C.)78 viewsAE Follis 24 x 25 mm 9.1 gr.

Anv: "FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido, de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "ANT" en exergo, "K" en campo izquierdo y "A/V" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 300 - 301 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off.1ra)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Antiochia) #55a Pag.620 - Cohen Vol.VII #89 Pag.66 - DVM #25 var Pag.280 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7121.m Pag.61
mdelvalle
Follis Constancio I RIC 95a.jpg
A112-22 - CONSTANCIO I Como Cesar de Maximiano (293 - 305 D.C.)65 viewsAE Follis 29 x 27 mm 10.2 gr.

Anv: "CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en izquierda. "T * " en exergo.

Acuñada 299 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.3ra)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Roma) #95a Pag.361 - Cohen Vol.VII #61 Pag.65 - DVM #25 Pag.280 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7121.f.3. Pag.61
mdelvalle
Follis Galerio RIC Antiochia 59b.jpg
A113-20 - GALERIO Como Cesar de Diocleciano (293 - 305 D.C.)70 viewsAE Follis 27 x 25 mm 9.3 gr.

Anv: "GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "GENIO POPVLI ROMANI" - Genio de pié a izquierda, desnudo salvo modius en la cabeza y chlamys colgando desde su hombro izquierdo, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido de la que cae cierto líquido y cornucopia en izquierda. "ANT·" en exergo y "B" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 304 - 305 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off.2da)
Rareza: C2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Antiochia) #59b Pag.621 - Cohen Vol.VII #78 Pag.109 - DVM #29 var Pag.281 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7169.m. Pag.65
mdelvalle
0050.jpg
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus, Denarius14 viewsRRC 393/1a
76-75 b.c.
Ex HDRauch Auktion 86, lot 499

Struck during the war against Sertorius. Therefore the possibly minting location in Spain.

According to Crawford the choice of the Genius populi Romani with dominiation "terra marique" (to land and water) should be read as a public statement to claim the power of Rome over the rebel state of Sertorius.

described:
RÖMISCHE REPUBLIK
Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus
(D) Denarius (3,98g), Roma oder Heeresmünzstätte in Spanien 76/75 v.Chr. Av.: G P R, Büste des Genius Populi Romani mit Diadem und Drapierung n.r., dahinter Szepter. Rv.: CN LEN Q (im Abschnitt) / EX - S C (in den Feldern), Globus zwischen Szepter mit Kranz und Ruder. -- Winzige Randkerben. Cr 393/1a, Albert 1288. Geringer Stempelglanz.
s.sch.-vzgl./s.sch.
Norbert
P1018885.JPG
Cn. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Marcellinus, Quaestor (76-75 B.C.), Denarius, AR 19mm.7 viewsCn. Cornelius P. f. Lentulus Marcellinus, Quaestor (76-75 B.C.)

Obv. Diademed and draped bust of Genius Populi Romani right, sceptre over shoulder, G P R above.
Rev. wreathed sceptre, globe, and rudder, EX SC, CN LEN Q below.
Lee S
Cn__Lentulus_Q.jpg
Cn. Cornelius P.f. Lentulus Marcellinus -AR denarius11 views²Taras or Brundisium
¹Spain
²late 75 BC
¹76-75 BC
diademed bust of Genius Populi Romani right, scepter across shoulder
G·P·R
wreathed scepter, globe, rudder
EX _ S·C
CN·LEN·Q
¹Crawford 393/1a; SRCV I 323; Sydenham 752, RSC I Cornelia 54, Russo RBW 1432
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Roma Numismatics

Moneyer struck this coin as questor of proconsul Pompey when he was sent to support Q. Caecilius Metellus Pius in lenghty war against Sertorius in Spain. Moneyer became consul in 56 BC.
Johny SYSEL
Constance Chlore Follis Sisak Gen Po.jpg
Constance Clore, Follis31 viewsAE, 26mm, 296/297 A.D., Siscia (Sisak, Croatia)
Obv: Constantius Nob Caes
Rev: Genio Populi Romani , Delta on right
Ex: * SIS for Siscia
Ref: CMIR Vol III, Juan R. Cayon p. 1836 # 177
Jean Paul D
Constantius_I_Genius_RIC_169a.JPG
Constantius I Genius RIC 169a17 viewsCONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS, (Flavius Constantius Valerius), co-Emperor, AD 305-306, RIC VI, pg., 475 169a (R2),
OBV: CONSTANTIVS AVG, laureate bust right.
REV: GENIO POPULI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head,
naked but for chlamys over shoulder, holding cornucopia and patera
SIS in exergue

RARE (R2)
Romanorvm
constantius#1.JPG
Constantius I quarter-follis 38 viewsOBV: CONSTANTIUS AVG, Laureate bust right, REV: GENIO POPULI ROMANI, Genius standing left with Cornucopia, patera, and chlamys
SIS in exergue
RIC 168a (ref: Wildwnds)
daverino
839NN368.jpg
Cr 393/1b AR Denarius Cn. Cornelius Lentulus9 viewsSpain (?) 76-75 BCE 3.62gm. 17 mm.
o: Draped bust of the Genius Populi Romani r., hair tied with band and sceptre over shoulder; above, [G·P·R]
r: Sceptre with wreath, globe and rudder; EX – S·C. Below, [LE]NT [monogram NT] CVR * FL.
Cornelia 55; Sydenham 752a; Crawford 393/1b.
This nice and beautifully toned but not spectacular example of this type illustrates a few of the conundrums that come with it. One is the use of the office title on the reverse, Curator [* = for Denarii] Flandorum, which is uncommon even though, theoretically, the vast majority of the moneyers held a variation on that title -- especially the majority who did not strike Bronze and certainly not Gold. Another, the very tight flan, which cuts off the almost certain "LE" on rev. and part of the L -- tight flans are common, but the main elements of the obverse and reverse design are mostly present, so this flan/blank could be the runt of the mint, although it is a full 17 MM. The "Genius" head could be any lesser male diety, so the loss of the GPR is unfortunate. From Lentulus's perspective, of course, the key element of his full name was obscured. Good thing that there was almost always a Cornelius on the ballot, so, as is known, he moved ahead. The Spanish mint attribution is based in part on the "1a" type, which has "Q" for Quaestor instead of "Curator...", suggesting a non-standard appointment. Andrew McCabe illustrates a nice "1a".
PMah
516naville.jpg
Cr 440/1 AR Denarius Q. Sicinius 11 viewsQ. Sicinius. 49 BCE (17mm., 3.83g.
o: FORT – P·R Diademed head of Fortuna Populi Romani r.
r: Palm branch tied with fillet and winged caduceus in saltire; above, wreath. On either side, III – VIR and below, Q·SICINIVS

Sicinia 5. Sydenham 938. Sear Imperators 1. RBW 1555. Crawford 440/1.
PMah
diocletian.JPG
Diocletian/Genio Large Follis48 viewsLarge Follis of Diocletian, Antioch Mint Sear 3434
o: IMP DIOCLETIANUS PF AVG ; r: GENIO POPULI ROMANI ; ex: ANT and 'H' in right.

The "Genio" reverses were adopted by Diocletian and Galerius to counter the growing influence of Christianity as a force in society - countering it with the traditional "spirit of the Roman people"- Mattingly

From Baltimore Coin show 2010
daverino
Combined~11.jpg
Diocletianus GENIO POPULI SILVERED64 viewsDiocletianus (284 - 305 n. Chr.).

Follis. 296 - 297 n. Chr. Rom.
Obverse: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG. Kopf mit Lorbeerkranz rechts.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI / B. Genius mit Patera und Füllhorn nach links stehend; im Feld R.

23,7 mm. 5,2 g.
2 commentsFlamur H
Diocletien follis sisak EF.jpg
Diocletien, Follis48 viewsAE 27 mm, 294/305 A.D. , Siscia (Croatia)
Obv: Imp. C. Diocletianus PF Aug
Rev: Genio Populi Romani, gamma on right
Ex: * SIS, third officina of Siscia
Ref:CMIR, Vol III, Juan R. Cayon, p. 1584 # 338
1 commentsJean Paul D
EB0361_scaled.JPG
EB0361 Genius Populi / Scepter, wreath, globe and rudder18 viewsCn. Lentulus,Denarius, 76-75 BC.
Obv: G P R Draped bust of the Genius Populi Romani to right, his hair tied with band and scepter over his shoulder.
Rev: LENT CVR * FL, Scepter with wreath, globe and rudder.
References: Crawford 393/1b; Syd. 752a.
Diameter: 18mm, Weight: 3.903 grams.
EB
EB0730_scaled.JPG
EB0730 Diocletian / Genio Populi12 viewsDiocletian 284-305, AE Follis, Heraclea 297-298.
Obverse: IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG, laureate head right (large head type).
Reverse: GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing left pouring libation from a patera and holding cornucopiae, HTB in exergue.
References: RIC VI Heraclea 19a; Sear 12786.
Diameter: 28.5mm, Weight: 9.402g.
EB
EB0731_scaled.JPG
EB0731 Diocletian / Genio Populi11 viewsDiocletian 284-305, AE Follis.
Obverse: IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS P AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, holding patera and cornucopiae, S-B.
References: -.
Diameter: 27.5mm, Weight: 11.166g.
EB
EB0733_scaled.JPG
EB0733 Diocletian / Genio Populi13 viewsDiocletian 284-305, AE Follis, Trier 302-303.
Obverse: IMP DIOCLETIANVS P AVG, laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, tower on head, holding patera and cornucopiae. S-F across fields. Mintmark ITR.
References: RIC VI 519a (see 505 for modius instead of tower).
Diameter: 27.5mm, Weight: 8.471g.
EB
EB0734_scaled.JPG
EB0734 Diocletian / Genio Populi10 viewsDiocletian 284-305, AE Follis, Heraclea, 296-297.
Obverse: IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG, laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, pouring libation from a patera and holding cornucopiae. Mintmark HTΓ.
References: RIC VI 17a, Γ.
Diameter: 26mm, Weight: 7.863g.
EB
EB0736_scaled.JPG
EB0736 Maximianus / Genio Populi11 viewsMaximianus 286-305, AE Follis, Ticinum 296-297.
Obverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, star in left field. Mintmark PT.
References: RIC VI 31b.
Diameter: 28mm, Weight: 10.819g.
EB
EB0737_scaled.JPG
EB0737 Maximianus / Genio Populi26 viewsMaximianus 286-305, AE Follis, Cyzicus 297-299.
Obverse: IMP C MAXIMIANVS PF AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark [K]Δ.
References: RIC VI Cyzicus 12b; Sear 13269.
Diameter: 28mm, Weight: 8.688g.
1 commentsEB
EB0738_scaled.JPG
EB0738 Maximianus / Genio Populi10 viewsMaximianus 286-305, AE Follis, Trier 295-297.
Obverse: IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, B-Γ, Mintmark TR.
References: Cf. RIC VI 152b (no Γ), RIC VI 170b (cuirassed, PF AVG).
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 10.334g.
EB
EB0742_scaled.JPG
EB0742 Constantius I / Genio Populi13 viewsConstantius I as Caesar 293-305, AE Follis, Antioch 305-306.
Obverse: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left with modius on head, chlamys over shoulder, holding cornucopiae, pouring liquid from patera, S in right field, mintmark ANT.
References: RIC VI 57a var. (ANT star).
Diameter: 29mm, Weight: 10.205g.
EB
EB0743_scaled.JPG
EB0743 Constantius I / Genio Populi16 viewsConstantius I 293-305, AE Follis, Serdica 305-306.
Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTIVS PF AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Δ in right field. Mintmark SM dot SD dot.
References: RIC VI 12a, Δ.
Diameter: 28mm, Weight: 10.355g.
EB
EB0745_scaled.JPG
EB0745 Constantius I / Genio Populi19 viewsConstantius I 293-305 (as Caesar), AE Follis, Rome.
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPVLI ROMANO, Genius standing left, modius on head, chlamys over shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark T star.
References: RIC VI 95a; Sear 14052.
Diameter: 27mm, Weight: 10.393g.
EB
EB0749_scaled.JPG
EB0749 Galerius / Genio Populi14 viewsGalerius as Caesar 293-305, AE Follis, Rome 299 AD.
Obverse: MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark Q star.
References: RIC VI Rome 95b.
Diameter: 29.5mm, Weight: 12.599g.
EB
EB0751_scaled.JPG
EB0751 Galerius / Genio Populi10 viewsGalerius as Caesar 293-305, AE Follis, Alexandria 295-296 AD.
Obverse: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-[L]-I ROMANI, Genius standing left, eagle at feet, modius on head, holding patera and cornucopiae. A in right field, mintmark ALE.
References: Cf. RIC VI 23b (star-B across fields), RIC 21b (head towered, Γ in right field).
Diameter: 26mm, Weight: 9.933g.
EB
EB0754_scaled.JPG
EB0754 Severus II / Genio Populi10 viewsSeverus II 305-306, AE Follis, Heraclea 305-306 AD.
Obverse: FL VAL SEVERVS NOBIL CAES, laureate head right, divergent wreath ties.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, holding patera from which liquid flows, and cornucopiae. Mintmark HTE.
References: RIC VI Heraclea 25.
Diameter: 29mm, Weight: 9.172g.
EB
EB0755_scaled.JPG
EB0755 Severus II / Genio Populi10 viewsSeverus II 305-306, AE follis, Cyzicus 305-306 AD.
Obverse: FL VAL SEVERVS NOB CAES, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO AVGG ET-CAESARVM NN, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder (falls low), holding patera from which liquid flows, and cornucopiae. Mintmark KA.
References: RIC VI Cyzicus 20a.
Diameter: 28.5mm, Weight: 10.472g.
EB
EB0757_scaled.JPG
EB0757 Severus II / Genio Populi13 viewsSeverus II as Caesar 306-307, AE Follis, London 305-307.
Obverse: SEVERVS NOBILISSIMVS CAES, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GENIO POPV-LI ROMANI, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. No mintmark.
References: RIC VI London 59a.
Diameter: 29mm, Weight: 10.399g.
EB
EB0870_scaled.JPG
EB0870 Diocletian / Genius7 viewsDiocletian 284-305, AE Follis, Nicomedia 294-295 AD.
Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: GENIO POPULI ROMANI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae, SMNA in exergue.
References: RIC 29a.
Diameter: 28.5mm, Weight: 9.91g.
EB
EB0903_scaled.JPG
EB0903 Nero Claudius Drusus / Claudius3 viewsNero Claudius Drusus, father of Claudius, AE Sestertius, Struck by Claudius, Rome mint 41-42 AD.
Obverse: NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMANICVS IMP, bare head of Nero Drusus left; counterstamp NCAPR (possibly for Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani).
Reverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius, togate, seated left on curule chair, holding branch; arms lying around; SC in ex.
References: RIC I 93 [Claudius], Cohen 8, BMC 157.
Diameter: 36mm, Weight: 24.03g.
EB
00galerius2.jpg
GALERIUS15 viewsAE follis. Treveri 303-305 AD. 9,90 grs. 6h. Laureate and cuirassed bust right . MAXIMIANVS NOB C. / Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. GENIO POPULI ROMANI. SF in fields. In exergue PTR.
RIC VI 602b.
benito
00galerius2~0.jpg
GALERIUS47 viewsAE follis. Treveri 303-305 AD. 9,90 grs. 6h. Laureate and cuirassed bust right . MAXIMIANVS NOB C. / Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia. GENIO POPULI ROMANI. SF in fields. In exergue PTR.
RIC VI 602b.
benito
Galerius_OBV_(2).JPG
Galerius Obv9 viewsGalerius; AD 297-298
Bronze; AE Follis, Heraclea mint; 29mm/9.2g
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANUSNOB CEAS; Laureate Head R
REV: GENIO POPULI ROMANI; Genus standing Left holding patera and cornucopia
(RIC VI 20 b, G)
Philip G
Galerius_REV_(2).JPG
Galerius Rev9 viewsGalerius; AD 297-298
Bronze; AE Follis, Heraclea mint; 29mm/9.2g
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANUSNOB CEAS; Laureate Head R
REV: GENIO POPULI ROMANI; Genus standing Left holding patera and cornucopia
(RIC VI 20 b, G)
Philip G
393-1a-CNG-3,92g-blk.jpg
GN. Lentulus (as Quaestor) Denarius - RRC 393/1a2 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: 76-74 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Male bust r. (Genius Populi Romani), draped hair tied with band, and scepter over shoulder. G.P.R above head. Beaded border.

Reverse: Scepter with wreath, globe and rudder; on l., EX; on r., SC; below, CN.LEN.Q. Border of dots
Mint: Spain (?)
Weight: 3.92 gm.
Reference: RRC393/1a;
Provenance: CNG private purchase Jan. 17, 2020
Comments: Lentulus struck these SC coins as quaestor, probably in Spain. He was later Consul in 56. Reverse slightly off center. Trivial reverse hairlines, EF
1 commentsSteve B5
Livia_IVSTITIA.jpg
Livia Dupondius91 viewsIVSTITIA
Diad. and draped bust of Livia as Justitia right

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG P M TR POT XXIIII around large SC

Rome 22-23AD

12.61g

Sear 1739

Countermark on reverse NCAP?:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 1; 20; 60 depending on subtype
2 commentsTitus Pullo
Livia_IVSTITIA~0.jpg
Livia dupondius with Nero Countermark119 viewsIVSTITIA
Diad. and draped bust of Livia as Justitia right

TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVG P M TR POT XXIIII around large SC

Rome 22-23AD

Sear 1739

Countermark on reverse NCAP:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark, Countermark Martini Pangerl Collection 1; 20; 60 depending on subtype
Titus Pullo
Probus_-_Mars_Pacif.jpg
Marti Pacifero54 viewsObv. PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. MARTI PACIF, armoured and helmeted mars advancing left, holding olive twig in right, spear and shield in left, cape billowing behind, RQ{Gamma} in exergue,
Rome Mint, AD 282,
20 mm, 3,43 gr
Refs. RIC 177

Historia Augusta 16: "post haec Illyricum petiit. priusquam veniret, Raetias sic pacatas reliquit ut illic ne suspicionem quidem ullius terroris relinqueret. in Illyrico Sarmatos ceterasque gentes ita contudit ut prope sine bello cuncta reciperet quae illi diripuerant. tetendit deinde iter per Thracias atque omnes Geticos populos fama rerum territos et antiqui nominis potentia pressos aut in deditionem aut in amicitiam recepit. his gestis orientem petiit atque itinere potentissimo quodam latrone Palfuerio capto et interfecto omnem Isauriam liberavit, populis atque urbibus Romanis legibus restitutis. barbarorum, qui apud Isauros sunt, vel per terrorem vel urbanitatem loca ingressus est. (...) veteranis omnia illa quae anguste adeuntur loca privata donavit, addens ut eorum filii ab anno octavo decimo, mares dumtaxat, ad militiam mitterentur, ne latrocinare umquam discerent." - [20]causae occidendi eius haec fuerunt: primum quod numquam militem otiosum esse perpessus est, si quidem multa opera militari manu perfecit, dicens annonam gratuitam militem comedere non debere.

"After this he set out for Illyricum, but before going thither he left Raetia in so peaceful a state that there remained therein not even any suspicion of fear. In Illyricum he so crushed the Sarmatians and other tribes that almost without any war at all he got back all they had ravaged. He then directed his march through Thrace, and received in either surrender or friendship all the tribes of the Getae, rightened by the repute of his deeds and brought to submission by the power of his ancient fame. This done, he set out for the East, and while on his march he captured and killed a most powerful brigand, named Palfuerius, and so set free the whole of Isauria and restored the laws of Rome to the tribes and the cities. By fear or favour he entered the places held by the barbarians living among the Isaurians, (...) And so all those places which were difficult of access he gave to his veterans as their own private holdings, attaching thereto the condition that their children, that is, the males only, should be sent to the army at the age of eighteen, in order that they never might learn to be brigands." - "The causes of his murder were these: first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labour, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned"
Syltorian
maxlugnew.jpg
Maximianus Herculeus, Silvered AE Follis AD 295-29642 viewsOBV: IMP C MAXIMIANUS PF AVG; Laureate head right
REV: GENIO POPULI ROMANI; Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia with chlamys over left shoulder and modius on head. No mintmark.

RIC v.VI, 14b Lugdunum mint (Ref. Wildwinds)

The design of these folles had a number of political inspirations. It is thought that the 'big head' would magnify the dignity of the Emperor above ordinary humans and make him less vulnerable to being overthrown as the 'barracks emperors' often were. Mattingly believed that the Genio themes on the reverse were meant to counter the growing Christian influence in Roman culture.
At any rate the quality of this portrait head is superior to the caricature-like bigheads on most coins of the type.

Diam. ~27 mm, wt 9.4 gm
daverino
Max Hercules Gen Pop SR Follis.jpg
Maximien Hercules, Follis28 viewsAE 27 mm, 294/295 A.D. , Rome (?)
Obv: M.A. Maximianus PF Aug
Rev: Genio Populi , S on left and gamma on right
Ref: CMIR,Vol III, Juan R. Cayon, p. 1775 # 341
Jean Paul D
P_Lentulus_Cornelius.jpg
Pub. Lentulus P.f. L.n. Spinther - AR denarius2 viewsRome
²72 BC
¹71 BC
head of Hercules right
Q·S·C
Genius Populi Romani facing, seated on curule chair, with right foot on globe, holding cornucopia and scepter; Victory flying and crowning Genius, holding wreath and palm
P·LENT·P·F__L·N
¹Crawford 397/1; Sydenham 791; Cornelia 58
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,4g
ex Künker

rare
Johny SYSEL
428,3_Q__Cassius.jpg
Q. Cassius Longinus - AR denarius22 viewsRome
¹²55 BC
head of young Jupiter (or Bonus Eventus or Genius Populi Romani)* right, scepter behind
eagle on thunderbolt right, lituus on left and jug on right
Q·CASSIVS
¹Crawford 428/3, SRCV I 391, Sydenham 916, BMCRR 3868, RSC I Cassia 7
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,03g
ex Aurea

* The sceptrum, fulmen and aquila point to this being the bust of a young Jupiter, for whom such insignia are normally reserved. The priestly implements on the reverse likely allude to an ancestor who belonged to the college of pontiffs, and if we take the symbolism of this coin to be in reference to Jupiter, then it is probable that this coin is in reference to a family member who was once Flamen Dialis, (high priest of Jupiter), a position of great importance and privilege in Rome that entitled the holder of that office to many honours, including the right to a lictor, the toga praetexta, the sella curulis, and to a seat in the Senate. (ROMA NUMISMATICS historical articles)

Q. Cassius Longinus was brother or cousin of C. Cassius Longinus (Caesar's murderer). He served as a quaestor of Pompey in Hispania Ulterior in 54 BC. In 49 BC, as tribune of the people, he strongly supported the cause of Caesar, by whom he was made governor of Hispania Ulterior. He treated the provincials with great cruelty, and his appointment (48 BC) to take the field against Juba I of Numidia gave him an excuse for fresh oppression. The result was an unsuccessful insurrection at Corduba. Cassius punished the leaders with merciless severity, and made the lot of the provincials harder than ever. At last some of his troops revolted under the quaestor Marcellus, who was proclaimed governor of the province. Cassius was surrounded by Marcellus in Ulia. Bogud, king of Mauretania, and Marcus Lepidus, proconsul of Hispania Citerior, to whom Cassius had applied for assistance, negotiated an arrangement with Marcellus whereby Cassius was to be allowed to go free with the legions that remained loyal to him. Cassius sent his troops into winter quarters, hastened on board ship at Malaca with his ill-gotten gains, but was wrecked in a storm at the mouth of the Iberus (Ebro). His tyrannical government of Hispania greatly injured the cause of Caesar. (wikipedia)
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
0039.jpg
Q. Cassius Longinus, Denarius8 viewsRRC 428/3
55 b.c.

the Avers of "Genius populi romani" and rev of eagle on thunderbolt according to Crawford would refer to Lex Cassia of 104 "required any senator to be expelled from the senate if they had been convicted of a crime, or if their power (imperium) had been revoked while serving as a magistrate" (wikipedia)

Ex HD Rauch 11 Fernauktion 12 Sept 2006

described:
Denar (3,74 g), Rom 55. Av.: Kopf des Genius links Szepter. Rv.: Adler auf Blitz links Lituus, rechts Krug i.A. Q CASSIVS. Cra:428/3, Albert:1355 Av. Prüfstich s.sch.
Norbert
9xQHN2Qj3yMBgP8JCqn64tKrF9w57q.jpg
Q. Sicinius – Sicinia-535 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC Q. Sicinius, 49 BC AR denarius (17mm, 3.8g) Rome mint.– Q. Sicinius, Sicinia, 49 B.C. Roma Head of Fortuna Populi Romani r., wearing diadem; before, FORT downward. Palm-branch tied with fillet and winged caduceus, in saltire; above, wreath; below, Q SICINIVS; on either side, III VIR. Cr 440/1; Syd 938; SRCV 410; Sicinia-51 commentsBud Stewart
q_sicinius__Cr440_1.jpg
Q. Sicinius, Crawford 440/113 viewsQuintus Sicinius, gens Sicinia
AR - Denarius, 17.42mm, 3.71g, 90°
struck 49-48 BC
obv. Head of Fortuna Populi Romani, diademed, r.
bevor FORT, behind P.R.
rev. crossed winged caduceus and fileted Palm branch, above wreath
in field l. and r. III. - .VIR
below Q.SICINIVS
ref. Crawford 440/1; Sydenham 938; Sicinia 5; RCV 410; BMCRR 3947
about VF

Q. Sicinius was a follower of Pompeius. The rev. is full of symbolic: The caduceus stands for Pompeius' victory over the Cilician pirates and the free trade after their defeat. The palm branch symbolizes all his victories. The wreath seems to stand for the chaplet which was given to him by the Roman People (Mommsen, Römische Geschichte).

This type has been struck at a critical point of the Civil War, late February or early March 49 BC, probably outside of Rome. Caesar has already crossed the Rubicon on January 1. Sicinius fled with the other Pompeians to Greece end of March. He seems to be the last Republican mint master.
Jochen
0128.jpg
Q. Sicinius, Denarius17 viewsQ. Sicinius, Denarius

RRC 440/1
49 b.c.
3.74 gr

AV: [FORT] P R, diademed head of Fortuna Populi Romani right.
Rv: III VIR across field, Q SICINIVS, crossed palm branch and caduceus; above, wreath.

In 49 bc one of the last 'republican' coins, before Ceasar took control of the City

Ex Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Inc., Auction 96, 14 - 15 February 2017, Lot 1984
2 commentsNorbert
56.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantine - VLPP396 viewsConstantine I
A.D. 318-19
CONSTANTI-NVS AVG high crested helmet, cuir., spear across right shoulder.
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP [ Joyous (well-earned) victory to the eternal Prince] two Victories stg., facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT PR [VOTA POPULI ROMANI (vows of the Roman people)]on altar.
In exergue ESIS

this coin is not in very good shape, but it is unlisted.
Unlisted in RIC should be after RIC 56.

from the collection of Victor
My Constantine Website
Victor
60.jpg
Roman Empire, Constantine- VLPP526 viewsConstantine I
A.D. 319
IMP CONSTAN-TINVS AVG high crested helmet, cuir., spear across right
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP [ Joyous (well-earned) victory to the eternal Prince] two Victories stg., facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT PR [VOTA POPULI ROMANI (vows of the Roman people)] on altar.
EpsilonSIS dot

Unlisted in RIC VII for bust type H11. It should come before RIC 61.

from the collection of Victor
3 commentsVictor
Arles.jpe
Roman Empire, Constantine-VLPP-Arles369 viewsConstantine I
A.D. 319-20
CONSTAN-TINVS AVG laureate head only
VICTORIAE LAET PRINC PERP [Joyous (well-earned) victory to the eternal Prince] two Victories stg., facing one another, together holding shield inscribed VOT PR [VOTA POPULI ROMANI (vows of the Roman people)] on altar
in ex. PARL
RIC VII Arles (should come before RIC 198)
Unlisted for bust type
not in RIC, but one of these was in the Bikic-Do hoard

from the collection of Victor
My Constantine Website
1 commentsVictor
Constantius.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I20 viewsAvers CONSTANTIVS NOB AVG
Revers GENIO POPULI ROMANI
Franz-Josef M
constantius_unlisted_off_qq22.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Constantius I Chlorus -- Genio Populi Romani Unlisted Officina167 viewsCONSTANTIVS NOB CAES
GENIO POP-VLI ROMANI
.SISC.
Gamma in right field
RIC 106a unlisted officina

Though a very popular reverse type for the Tetrarchs, this coin is only recorded for officina B and is listed as Rare, as are all 6 types in this rare issue (blank|A,B,Gamma / .SISC.). Curtis Clay surmises that all 6 of them were produced by all 3 officinae , making 18 variants. RIC records 8 of them, mine adds a 9th and there should be 9 more out there, though very rare indeed!
roscoedaisy
Hadrianuscombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Fabius C.f. Hadrianus, AR Denarius - Crawford 322/1b16 viewsRome. The Republic.
C. Fabius C. f. Hadrianus, 102 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.01g; 20mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Veiled and turreted head of Cybele, facing right; EX· A· PV, behind.

Reverse: Victory in fast biga galloping right; A· and heron/stork below; C· FABI· C· F in exergue.

References: Crawford 322/1b; Sydenham 590; BMCRR 1592; Fabia 14.

Provenance: Ex Heritage Europe Auction 44 (26 Nov 2014), Lot 35.


While not certain, the moneyer may be Caius Fabius Hadrianus, who was praetor in 84 BCE, propraetor in 83–82 BCE and who was burned alive in his official residence during a Sullan uprising in 82. He struck two distinct series of this denarius: one, without an obverse inscription but with Greek letter control marks behind the obverse head; the other with Latin letter control marks on the reverse and the EX· A· PV obverse inscription. The obverse inscription is an abbreviation for EX A[RGENTO] PV[BLICO] meaning “from the public silver”. Only eight issues of Roman Republican coins reference the public silver, and it is not abundantly clear why this reference is needed since official silver coinage should always be struck from state silver. Fabius’s issue is the first of four issues struck circa 102-100 to bear a “public silver” inscription, which Crawford attributes as a sign of the populist times. Given that Hadrianus may have been killed in 82 by Sulla supporters because of his populist sympathies, Crawford’s attribution of the inscription as a populist message may be correct.

The bird on the reverse of the coin deserves some comment. According to Pliny, some members of the Fabia gens took the cognomen Buteones (a Buteo is a type of hawk or bird), after a bird settled on a Fabian’s ship and was taken as a good omen in advance of a victory. Both Grueber and Crawford interpret the heron/stork on the reverse of this coin as further evidence of Pliny’s story, and as likely proof that Pliny got the type of bird wrong in his retelling of the story. The bird is certainly important to the moneyer, as he also included the symbol on his AE Asses.
Carausius
Republic_-_Cassius_2~0.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Cassius Longinus99 viewsRome
55 BC
head of young Jupiter (or Bonus Eventus or Genius Populi Romani)* right, scepter behind
eagle on thunderbolt right, lituus on left and jug on right
Q·CASSIVS
SRCV I 391, Sydenham 916, Crawford 428/3, BMCRR 3868, RSC I Cassia 7
4,03g
ex Aurea Numismatika

* The sceptrum, fulmen and aquila point to this being the bust of a young Jupiter, for whom such insignia are normally reserved. The priestly implements on the reverse likely allude to an ancestor who belonged to the college of pontiffs, and if we take the symbolism of this coin to be in reference to Jupiter, then it is probable that this coin is in reference to a family member who was once Flamen Dialis, (high priest of Jupiter), a position of great importance and privilege in Rome that entitled the holder of that office to many honours, including the right to a lictor, the toga praetexta, the sella curulis, and to a seat in the Senate. (ROMA NUMISMATICS historical articles)
4 commentsJohny SYSEL
   
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