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Search results - "PACIF,"
TacitusMartiPacif.jpg
50 viewsmarandnumiz
POSTUMUS-2.jpg
36 viewsPOSTUMUS - 260/268 - Billon Antoninianus - Lugdunum mint
Obv: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Rdiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing left, holding olive branch and club
Gms 2,27 mm 23,2
RIC 67 Cohen 101
Maxentius
Clodius_Albinus_RIC_7.jpg
24.5 Clodius Albinus Denarius17 viewsCLODIUS ALBINUS
as Caesar
AR Denarius

O: CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right

R: MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva standing facing with olive branch, shield & spear.

RIC 7, RSC 48, Sear 6144

Ex Tom Vossen Coins
RI0130
Sosius
rjb_2012_02_17.jpg
281cf24 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP CARAVS[IVS ....AVG]"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "MARTI PACIF"
Mard advancing eft holdong branch, spear and shield
Camulodunum mint
-/-//C
RIC - (cf 281-3)
mauseus
Tacitus_Ant_RIC_145.jpg
4 Tacitus53 viewsTacitus. A.D. 275-276. Æ antoninianus (22.2 mm, 4.13 g, 6 h). Rome mint, A.D. 276. IMP CM CL TACITVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right / MARTI PACIF, Mars advancing left, holding branch, spear and shield; S in exergue. RIC 145. gVF, partially silvered.
Ex. Agora Auctions, Aug 2014, from collection of Dave Surber, founder of wildwinds.com
3 commentsSosius
rjb_car_449bis_04_06.jpg
449bis38 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "ERCVLI PACIFERO"
Hercules standing left holding club and lions scalp
Unattributed mint
S/P//
RIC - (449 bis)
mauseus
rjb_car_465cf_09_05.jpg
465cf32 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “MARTI PACIFER”
Mars walking left holding branch, spear and shield
Uncertain mint
S/C//-
RIC - (cf 465-6)
mauseus
rjb_car465cf_07_07.jpg
465cf35 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS PF I AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "MARTI PACIFE"
Mars walking left holding branch, spear and shield
Uncertain mint
S/P//
RIC - (cf 465)
mauseus
rjb_2010_03_17.jpg
465cf26 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "IMP C CARAVSIVS P AVG"
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev "MARTI PACIFE"
Mars walking left holding branch, spear and shield
Uncertain mint
S/C//
RIC - (cf 465)
mauseus
rjb_gallienus_658_08_05.jpg
65821 viewsDenarius
Rome
Issue 9
MARTI PACIFERO
G 658
mauseus
rjb_2016_01_01.jpg
80217 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “[IMP C CA]RAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “[HERCVLI] PACIF”
Hercules standing left holding ? and club
Unmarked mint
RIC 802
mauseus
Postumus_RIC_Lyons_67.jpg
Gallic 1 Postumus23 viewsPOSTUMUS
AR Antoninianus, Lyons Mint
IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG, RDC bust r. / HERC PACIFERO, Hercules st. l., holding olive branch, club and lion's skin
RIC V-II Lyons 67; Sear 10946
Sosius
gal236.jpg
Gallienus, RIC 236 Rome21 viewsGallienus, AE antoninianus 253-268 CE
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, bust right.
Reverse: MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left, holding olive branch, spear and shield. H in left field.
16.4 mm., 2.0 g.
NORMAN K
DSC_4480.JPG
48 viewsUNITED STATES, Native proto-currency. Northern Pacific coast. 18th-early19th century
Shell “kop-kop” (29mm by 6mm, 0.38 g)
Tubular shell of the dentalium genus of mollusks
Robert Stearns, Ethno-conchology: A Study of Primitive Money p. 314-321

Ex Detroit Museum of Art

Kop-kops were smaller or damaged pieces of hi-qua shells and circulated as a fraction of the hi-qua. Use of this shell type as currency ranged from northern California to Alaska.
1 commentsArdatirion
postume-dsesterce-herc-pacifero.JPG
Bastien 277 Postumus: double sestertius (Herc Pacifero)14 viewsPostumus, Gallic emperor (usurper) (260-269)
Antoninianus: Herc Pacifero (264-265/6, mint II)

Bronze, 15.52 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 11h

A/ IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ HERC-PACIFERO; Hercules, standing left, holding olive branch, club and lion’s skin
Droger
postume-herc-pacifero.JPG
RIC.67 Postumus: antoninianus (Herc Pacifero)44 viewsPostumus, Gallic emperor (usurper) (260-269)
Antoninianus: Herc Pacifero (2ond emission, 2ond phase, 262, Trèves)

Billon (200 ‰), 3.37 g, diameter 20 mm, die axis 7h

A/ IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ HERC-PA-CIFERO; Hercules, standing left, holding olive branch, club and lion’s skin

Curious Postumus' big nose.

EG.27
2 commentsDroger
gallienus_mars_res~0.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS16 views253 - 268 AD
AE 17 mm; 2.95 g
O: [GALLIENVS AVG] Radiate head, right.
R: MARTI PACIFEROMars standing left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield, A in right field.
Rome, RIC 236

Mint City: Rome. Struck AD 264-66

Reference: Goebl 570a. RIC 236.
laney
gallien_mars.jpg
(0260) GALLIENUS11 views260 - 268
AE 16.8 mm 2.30 g
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right.
Rev: MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left, holding branch in right hand, and spear with shield in left hand.
laney
Sept_Sev.jpg
*SOLD*20 viewsSeptimius Severus AE Sestertius

Attribution: RIC 741, scarce
Date: AD 197-198
Obverse: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, laureate head r.
Reverse: MARTI PACIFERO P M TR P V COS II P P, Mars standing facing l., foot on cuirass, holding branch and reversed spear, S-C across fields
Noah
0163.jpg
0163 - Denarius Clodius Albinus 194-5 AC54 viewsObv/ D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, head of C.A. r.
Rev/ MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva helmeted and draped, standing facing, head l., spear leaning on arm, holding branch and leaning on shield.

Ag, 18.8 mm, 3.28 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/96 – RIC IV.1/7 [R]
ex-CNG, auction e273, lot 432
dafnis
tacitusant~0.JPG
046. Tacitus, 275-276AD. BI Antoninianus. 28 viewsBI Antoninianus. Ticinum mint.
Obv. Radiate and cuirassed bust right. IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG

Rev. Mars left, holding branch, spear and shield. MARTI PACIF, S in exe.

RIC VI 145F, Cohen 60..

Lovely, silvered coin. EF. Superb full circle centering on both sides.
LordBest
marti_pacifero.jpg
0569w (11)52 viewsAtelier : ROME
Droit : GALLIENUS AVG
Revers : MARTI PACIFERO
2,95g ; 20mm ; 6h
icos
088.JPG
0570a (158)13 viewsAtelier : ROME
Droit : GALLIENUS AVG
Revers : MARTI PACIFERO
4,08 g ; 20 mm ; 12h
Ségusiaves
RI_064je_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 11323 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PART AVG IMP X, Laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left, right foot atop of helmet & holding branch & reversed spear.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 197 - 198
References:– BMCRE W 250. RIC 113. RSC 315.
maridvnvm
IMG_8678.JPG
073. Clodius Albinus (193-197 A.D.)57 viewsAv.: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES
Rv.: MINER PACIF COS II / S-C

AE Sestertius Ø28 / 22.4g
RIC 54a Rome, Cohen 49
Juancho
C-Albinus-RIC-7.jpg
073. Clodius Albinus.9 viewsDenarius, 194-195 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES / bust of Clodius Albinus.
Reverse: MINER PACIF COS II / Minerva standing, holding olive branch, spear, and shield.
3.14 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #7; Sear #6144.
Callimachus
RI 077ab img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 160 (base metal)38 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACIFERO, Mars, standing left, holding branch and reversed spear
maridvnvm
RI 077y img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 28946 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing front, head left holding branch & spear.
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 222-228
Reference:– RIC 289, RSC 173
maridvnvm
Aemilian_AR-Ant_IMP-AEMILIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_MARTI-PACIF_RIC-IV-III-5b-p195_C-22_253-AD_R_Q-001_axis-1h_19-22,5mm_3,25ga-s.jpg
085 Aemilian (253 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 005b, Rome, MARTI PACIF, Mars advancing left, Rare!110 views085 Aemilian (253 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 005b, Rome, MARTI PACIF, Mars advancing left, Rare!
avers:- IMP-AEMILIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- MARTI-PACIF, Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield.
exerg: , diameter: 19-22,5 mm, weight: 3,25 g, axis: 1 h,
mint: Rome, date: 253 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-5b, p195, C-22, Sear5-9836, Rare!,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_MARTI-PACIFERO_A_RIC-V-I-236A_C-614_Gobl-570a_Rome_-AD_Q-001_0h_21,5-24,5mm_6,47ga-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236A, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left, (Very heavy, double thickness !!!)125 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236A, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left, (Very heavy, double thickness !!!)
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiated bust right.
revers:- MARTI-PACIFERO, Mars standing left holding shield on ground in let and olive branch in right, spear behind, H in left field.
exerg: A/-//--, diameter: 21,5-24,5mm, weight: 6,47g!!!, axes: 0h, thickness:2,5mm,
mint: Rome, date: 253-268-A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-236A, p-151, C-614, Gobl-570a
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_MARTI-PACIFERO_H_RIC-V-I-236H-p-151_C-614_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-001_5h_22mm_3,83ga-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236H, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left,109 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236H, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left,
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiated bust right.
revers:- MARTI-PACIFERO, Mars standing left holding shield on ground in let and olive branch in right, spear behind, H in left field.
exerg: H/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,83g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 253-268-A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-236H, p-151,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Postumus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-POSTVMVS-PF-AVG_HERC-PACIFERO_RIC-VII-67-p-342-3C_Lugdunum_AD_Q-001_2h_21-22mm_3,37ga-s.jpg
098 Postumus (260-269 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 067, AE-Antoninianus, HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing right, #1173 views098 Postumus (260-269 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC V-II 067, AE-Antoninianus, HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing right, #1
avers: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing right, holding olive branch and club.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0-22,0mm, weight: 3,37g, axes: 2h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 260-269 A.D.,
ref: RIC V-II 67, RSC 101, Sear 10946,
Q-001
quadrans
Claudius-II__AE-Ant_IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG_MARTI-PACIF_X_T-529_off-10_RIC-72_C-_Roma_270-AD__Q-001_1h_19-20mm_3,24g-s.jpg
104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0529 (Estiot), RIC V-I 072, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, X/-//--, Mars in military dress walking left, 176 views104 Claudius II. (268-270 A.D.), T-0529 (Estiot), RIC V-I 072, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, X/-//--, Mars in military dress walking left,
avers: IMP-CLAVDIVS-AVG, Radiate bust right, (A1).
revers: MARTI-PACIF, Mars in military dress walking left, holding olive branch in right hand, transverse spear and round shield in left hand. (Mars 1b).
exerg: X/-//--, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,24g, axes: 1h,
mint: Rome, iss-, off-10, date: 270 A.D., ref: T-0529 (Estiot), RIC V-I 072,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 107n img.jpg
107 - Gallienus Antoninianus - RIC 236a30 viewsObv:– GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left holding olive branch, shield and spear, "A" in left field
Minted in Rome, A in left field.
Reference:– RIC 236a (Scarce), RSC 617a.
maridvnvm
T-3365,_Tacitus,_AE-Ant_,_IMP_C_M_CL_TACITVS_AVG_(D1),MART_I_P_ACIF_(M1c),_S,_RIC-145,_iss-1,_off-2,_Ticinum_275_AD,_Q-001,_1h,_21,5mm,_3,32g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3365, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-B1, Mars left, #168 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3365, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-B1, Mars left, #1
avers: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum. (D1).
reverse: MART I P ACIF, Mars in military dress walking left, holding an olive branch in right hand, transverse spear and long oval shield in left hand. (Mars 1c).
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 3,32g, axes: 1h,
mint: Ticinum, iss.-1., off.-2., date: 275 AD., ref: RIC-145., T-(Estiot)-3365, C-,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
T-3366_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(B1)_MART-I-P-ACIF-(M1c)_S_RIC-145_T-3366_iss-1_off_2_Ticinum-275-AD_Q-001_6h_22mm_3,76g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3366, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-B1, Mars left, #164 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3366, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-B1, Mars left, #1
avers: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed. (B1).
reverse: MART I P ACIF, Mars in military dress walking left, holding an olive branch in right hand, transverse spear and long oval shield in left hand. (Mars 1c).
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,76g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, iss.-1., off.-2., date: 276 AD., ref: RIC-145., T-(Estiot)-3366, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
T-3408_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-CM-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(D1l)_MART-I-P-ACIF-(M1c)_S_T-3408_Ticinum-276-AD_Q-0017h_21,5-23mm_3,75g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3408, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-D1., Mars advancing left, #1100 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3408, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-D1., Mars advancing left, #1
avers: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, (D1).
reverse: MART I P ACIF, Mars in military dress walking left, holding an olive branch in right hand, transverse spear and long oval shield in left hand, (M1c).
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 21,5-23,0mm, weight: 3,75g, axes: 7h,
mint: Ticinum, issue-2., off-2., date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC V-I 145, T-(Estiot)-3408, LV 1565-604,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
T-3413_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-CM-CL-TACITVS-P-F-AVG-(D1l)_MART-I-P-ACIF-(M1c)_S_RIC-temp-3413_Ticinum-276-AD_Q-001_6h_21-22mm_3,77g-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3413, RIC V-I ???, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-D1.left, Mars advancing left, #172 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3413, RIC V-I ???, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-D1.left, Mars advancing left, #1
avers: IMP C M CL TACITVS P F AVG, Bust left, radiate, cuirassed and draped with paludamentum, (D1l.).
reverse: MART I P ACIF, Mars in military dress walking left, holding an olive branch in right hand, transverse spear and long oval shield in left hand, (M1c).
exergue: -/-//S, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,77g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, issue-2., off-2., date: 276 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-, T-(Estiot)-3413, LV 1605,
Q-001
quadrans
T-3836_Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG_MART-I-P-ACIF_V_RIC-145_Siscia-5th-issue_276-AD__Q-001_6h_22,5mm_4,80ga-s.jpg
110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3836, RIC V-I 145, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//V, Bust-B1, Mars in military dress walking left, #164 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3836, RIC V-I 145, Siscia, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//V, Bust-B1, Mars in military dress walking left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed. (B1).
revers:- MART-I-P-ACIF, Mars in military dress walking left, holding olive branch in r. hand, transverse spear and long oval shield in l. hand. (Mars 1c).
exerg: -/-//V, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 4,80g, axes: 6h,
mint: Siscia, 5th.issue, date: 276 AD., ref: RIC-145., T-(Estiot)-3836, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_177_112_Probus_AE-Ant_PRO-BV-S-P-F-AVG_MARTI-PACIF_R-Q-Gamma_(EQVITI)_Bust-F_RIC-177-p-36_Rome_7em_282-AD_Q-001_6h_19,5-21mm_2,98g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 177, Rome, MARTI PACIF, Bust-F, -/-//R Q Γ, Mars walking left, #1116 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 177, Rome, MARTI PACIF, Bust-F, -/-//R Q Γ, Mars walking left, #1
avers: PROBV-S-P-F-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F)
revers: MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield. Billowing cloak behind shield.
exergo: -/-//R Q Γ, diameter: 19,5-21mm, weight: 2,98g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, 7th emission of Rome, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-177, p-36, C-350,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_AERCVLI-PACIF_S-XXT_Bust-F_RIC-375-p-58_4th-em_Ticinum_278-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_21,5mm_3,25g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 375, Ticinum, AERCVLI PACIF, Bust-F, -/-//SXXT, Hercules standing left,70 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 375, Ticinum, AERCVLI PACIF, Bust-F, -/-//SXXT, Hercules standing left,
avers:- IMP-C-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (F),
revers:- AERCVLI-PACIF, Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin.
exerg: -/-//SXXT, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 3,25g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 4th. emission, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-375, p-58,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_AERCVLI-PACIF_S-XXT_Bust-F-l-square_RIC-376-p-58_3rd-em_Ticinum_277-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_22-22,5mm_3,36g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 376, Ticinum, AERCVLI PACIF, Bust-Heroic type in "Square shield", -/-//SXXT, Hercules standing left, Scarce!79 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 376, Ticinum, AERCVLI PACIF, Bust-Heroic type in "Square shield", -/-//SXXT, Hercules standing left, Scarce!
avers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, heroically nude bust left, holding spear and aegis,"Square shield", seen from back.
revers:- AERCVLI-PACIF, Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin.
exerg: -/-//SXXT, diameter: 22-22,5mm, weight: 3,36g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 3rd. emission, date: 277A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-376, p-58, Heroic Bust Type , Square shield, seen from back,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTVS-PR-OBI-A-VG_HERCVLI-PACIF_S-XXT_Bust-G_RIC-376-p-58_4th-em_Ticinum_278-AD_Scarce_Q-001_0h_21,5mm_2,95g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 376, Ticinum, HERCVLI PACIF, Bust type G, -/-//SXXT, Hercules standing left, Scarce!99 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 376, Ticinum, HERCVLI PACIF, Bust type G, -/-//SXXT, Hercules standing left, Scarce!
avers: VIRTVS-PR-OBI-A-VG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield. (G)
revers: HERCVLI-PACIF, Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin.
exerg: -/-//SXXT, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 2,95g, axes: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, 4th. emission, date: 278A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-376, p-58, Bust Type G,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_HERCVLI-PACIF_S-XXT_Bust-F-square_RIC-376-p-58_Ticinum_376-AD_Scarce_Q-001_0h_22-23mm_3,89g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 376, Ticinum, HERCVLI PACIF, Bust-Heroic type in "Square shield", -/-//SXXT, Hercules standing left, Scarce!163 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 376, Ticinum, HERCVLI PACIF, Bust-Heroic type in "Square shield", -/-//SXXT, Hercules standing left, Scarce!
avers: VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, heroically nude bust left, holding spear and aegis,"Square shield", seen from back.
revers: HERCVLI-PACIF, Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin.
exerg: -/-//SXXT, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 3,89g, axes: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, 3rd. emission, date: 276A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-376, p-58, Heroic Bust Type , Square shield, seen from back,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_508_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG_MART-I-PACIF_I_star_Q-XXI_RIC-508_p-71_Ticinum-10th-emission_282-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/*//QXXI, Mars walking left,161 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/*//QXXI, Mars walking left,
avers: IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers: MART-I-PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.
exerg: I/*//QXXI, diameter: 20,4-24,0mm, weight: 3,81g, axes: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, 10th-emission, date: 282A.D., ref: RIC V-II 508, p-71 ,
Q-001
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("I") of Ticinum.
quadrans
RIC_508_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG_MART-I-PACIF_I_Q-XXI_RIC-508_p-71_Ticinum-9th-emission_281-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5-24mm_3,01g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #194 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #1
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers: MART I PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.
exerg: I/-//QXXI, diameter: 22,5-24mm, weight: 3,01g, axes: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th-emission, date: 281A.D., ref: RIC V-II 508, p-71 ,
Q-001
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("I") of Ticinum.
quadrans
RIC_508_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG_MART-I-PACIF_I_Q-XXI_RIC-508_p-71_Ticinum-9th-emission_281-AD_Q-002_6h_22,0-24,5mm_4,19g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #2127 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #2
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers: MART I PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.
exerg: I/-//QXXI, diameter: 22,0-24,5mm, weight: 4,19g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th-emission, date: 281A.D., ref: RIC V-II 508, p-71 ,
Q-002
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("I") of Ticinum.
2 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_MART-I-PACIF_I_Q-XXT_RIC-509_C-000_Ticinum-9th-emission_281_Q-001_axis-_21-23mm_3_xxg-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 509, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-G, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #1, C,264 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 509, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-G, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #1, C,
avers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left., holding spear and shield. (9,G)
revers:- MART-I-PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield. Mintmark: In left field I. EQV"I"TI
exerg: I/-//QXXI, diameter: 23-24mm, weight: 3,95g, axis: 0h,
mint: Ticinium, 9th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-509, p-71, C-358, "C",
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTVS-PROBI-A-VG_MART-I-PACIF_I_Q-XXI_RIC-509_p-71_Ticinum-9th-emission_281-AD_Q-002_axis-0h_23,5-24,5mm_4,24g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 509, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-G, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #2, C,108 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 509, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-G, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #2, C,
avers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left., holding spear and shield. (9,G)
revers:- MART-I-PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield. Mintmark: In left field I. EQV"I"TI
exerg: I/-//QXXI, diameter: 23,5-24,5mm, weight: 4,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Ticinium, 9th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-509, p-71, C-358, "C",
Q-002
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTVS-PROBI-A-VG_MART-I-PACIF_I_Q-XXI_RIC-509_p-71_Ticinum-9th-emission_281-AD_Q-003_axis-11h_22,5-23,5mm_4,68g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 509, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-G, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #3, C,74 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 509, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-G, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #3, C,
avers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left., holding spear and shield. (9,G)
revers:- MART-I-PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield. Mintmark: In left field I. EQV"I"TI
exerg: I/-//QXXI, diameter: 22,5-23,5mm, weight: 4,68g, axis: 11h,
mint: Ticinium, 9th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-509, p-71, C-358, "C",
Q-003
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_VIRTVS-PROBI-A-VG_MART-PACIF_Delta-XXI_RIC-543_p-74_Ticinum_-AD_Q-001_axis-11h_22-22,5mm_3,70g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 543, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-G, -/-//ΔXXI, Mars walking left, , C,70 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 543, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-G, -/-//ΔXXI, Mars walking left, , C,
avers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left., holding spear and shield. (9,G)
revers:- MART-I-PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.
exerg: -/-//ΔXXI, diameter: 22-22,5mm, weight: 3,70g, axis: 11h,
mint: Ticinium, 9th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-543, p-74, C-358, "C",
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_544var_,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_PROBVS_AVG_CONS_III,_MARTI_PACIF,_Ticinum_6th-em,_4th-off,_279AD_Q-001,_11h,_22,0mm_3,4ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 544ver., Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H2/H, Δ/-//--, Mars walking left, Rare! #165 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 544ver., Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H2/H, Δ/-//--, Mars walking left, Rare! #1
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS III, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H)
reverse: MART I PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear, and shield.
exergue: Δ/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 3.40g, axes: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, 6th-emission, 4th-off., date: 279A.D., ref: RIC V-II 544var., Rare!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
RI 115g img.jpg
115 - Postumus Ant. - RIC 067 A17 viewsObv:– IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– HERC PACIFERO, Hercules, standing left, holding olive branch, club and lion’s skin
Ref:- RIC 67 Bust Type A, attributed to Lugdunum
maridvnvm
RI 125r img.jpg
125 - Aurelian Ant. - RIC 133 Bust Type A 23 viewsObverse Legend – IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiated draped bust right
Reverse Legend – MARTI PACIF, Mars standing left, holding an olive branch and a transverse spear
Minted in Milan. (P in exe). A.D. 275
Reference:– RIC 133 Bust Type A
maridvnvm
RI 130e img.jpg
130 - Tacitus Antoninianus - RIC 14522 viewsObv:– IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinum (S in exe)
References:– RIC 145 Bust Type C
maridvnvm
RI_132jx_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 042 - Bust Type F (Lugdunum) (II)13 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing. left, holding olive-branch and spear, and leaning on shield.
Minted in Lugdunum (II in exe) Emission 2 Officina 2. from November to December A.D. 276
Reference:– Cohen 365. Bastien 167. RIC 42 Bust type F.

3.96 gms
maridvnvm
RI 132bt img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 177 - Bust type F (Rome) (RQΓ)31 viewsObv:– PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield. Billowing cloak behind shield
Minted in Rome (RQΓ in exe) Emission 7 Officina 3. A.D. 282
Reference(s) – RIC 177 Bust type F
Weight 4.22 gms
Size 23.22mm

Part of the AEQVITI series of Rome (Q)
maridvnvm
RI 132eu img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 376 var - Heroic Bust type (Ticinum) (SXXT)55 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, heroically nude bust left, holding spear and aegis, seen from back. ("Square shield" in RIC)
Rev:– HERCVLI PACIF, Hercules standing left, holding branch and club; lion's skin over arm
Minted in Ticinum (SXXT in exe) Emission 3 Officina 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 376 var. Heroic Bust type (unlisted with this bust type)
maridvnvm
RI 132uk img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 378 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (SXXT)20 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS II, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– HERCVLI PACIF, Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin
Minted in Ticinum (SXXT in exe) Emission 4 Officina 2. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 382 Bust type H (R)

Ex-Forvm
maridvnvm
RI 132ek img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 381 - Bust Type F (Ticinum) (VIXXT) 25 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS • P • F • AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– ERCVLI PACIFERO, Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin
Minted in Ticinum (VIXXT in exe) Emission 4 Officina 6. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 381 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI 132go img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 381 - Bust Type F (Ticinum) (VXXT)38 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– HERCVLI PACIF, Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin
Minted in Ticinum (VXXT in exe) Emission 4 Officina 5. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 381 Bust type F
maridvnvm
RI_132wn_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 383 - Bust Type G (Ticinum) (SXXT)23 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev:– HERCVLI PACIF, Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin
Minted in Ticinum (//SXXT) Emission 3 Officina 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 383 Bust type G.
maridvnvm
RI 132m img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 508 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (I | _ / QXXI)28 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinum (I in left field, QXXI in exe), Emission 9, Officina 4. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 508 Bust type H
Part of coded EQVITI series (first I)
maridvnvm
RI_132xf_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 508- Bust Type H22 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinium (I | * / QXXI), Emission 10, Officina 4. A.D. 282
Reference(s) – RIC 508 Bust type H

Part of EQVITI series II (I)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132q img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 509 - Bust Type G (Ticinum) (I | _ / QXXI)24 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust left with spear and shield
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left holding olive branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinum (I in left field, QXXI in exe) Emission 9 Officina 4. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 509 Bust type G
Part of coded EQVITI series (first I)
maridvnvm
RI 132ng img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 511 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (I | _ / QXXI)40 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinum (I in left field, QXXI in exe), Emission 9, Officina 4. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 511 Bust type H (Scarce)
Part of coded EQVITI series (first I)
maridvnvm
RI 132qw img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 543 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (Ticinum) (ΔXXI)30 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinum (ΔXXI) Emission 6, second phase with XXI, Officina 2. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 543 Radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (Rare)
maridvnvm
RI 132uj img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 544 Bust type H (Ticinum)19 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS III, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinum (//ΔXXI) Emission 6, second phase with XXI, Officina 2. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 544 Bust Type H (R2)

Ex-Forvm
maridvnvm
RI_132fi_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 699 (near) - Bust Type F (Siscia) (_ | VII / XXI) 33 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield
Minted in Siscia (VII in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7, Officina 7. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC Unlisted near 699 Bust type C. (Reverse type not listed with this obverse legend)
Martin Griffiths
RI 141r img~0.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Rome 17330 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars, standing left, holding branch in right hand, holding a sceptre and resting left hand on shield
Minted in Rome (XXIE in exe)
References:– Cohen 316 (6Fr). RIC V Part 2 Rome 173
maridvnvm
RI 146bq img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 371 Bust Type C16 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– HERCVLI PACIFERO, Hercules standing left holding branch & club, lion skin over arm.
Minted in Lugdunum (B in left field, SML in exe). Emission 4. Officina 2. start to Summer A.D. 287
References:– Cohen 282. RIC V Part 2 371 Bust Type C. Bastien Volume VII 116 (25 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 146bt img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 371 Bust Type C 11 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– HERCVLI PACIFERO, Hercules standing left holding branch & club, lion skin over arm.
Minted in Lugdunum (Δ in left field). Emission 3. Officina 4. Spring A.D. 290 – A.D. 291
References:– Cohen 282. RIC V Part 2 371 Bust Type C. Bastien Volume VII 95 (20 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_146dm_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 371 Bust Type C7 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– HERCVLI PACIFERO, Hercules standing left holding branch & club, lion skin over arm.
Minted in Lugdunum (B in left field, SML in exe). Emission 4. Officina 2. start to Summer A.D. 287
References:– Cohen 282. RIC V Part 2 371 Bust Type C. Bastien Volume VII 116 (25 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 146bp img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 372 var Bust Type C 7 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– HERCVLI PACIFERO, Hercules standing left holding branch & club, lion skin over arm.
Minted in Lugdunum (Γ in left field). Emission 3. Officina 3. Spring A.D. 290 – A.D. 291
References:– Cohen 280. RIC V Part 2 372 Bust Type C (Not listed with Γ in left field in RIC). Bastien Volume VII 94 (16 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_146db_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius, Antoninianus - RIC 371 Bust Type C 12 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– HERCVLI PACIFERO, Hercules standing left holding branch & club, lion skin over arm
Minted in Lugdunum (D | _). Emission 3, Officina 4. Spring A.D. 290 – A.D. 291
Reference(s) – Cohen 282. Bastien XI 95 (20). RIC V Pt. 2 371 Bust Type C (C)
maridvnvm
IMG_3019.JPG
179 Clodius Albinus29 viewsClodius Albinus, as Caesar,

AR Denarius 19 mm 3.34g

D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right / MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva standing facing with olive branch, shield & spear. RIC 7, RSC 48. BMC 98

Ex Allan Barker Collection.

ex Mat
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
c albinus RIC7.jpg
193-195 AD - CLODIUS ALBINUS Caesar AR denarius - struck 194-195 AD142 viewsobv: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES (bare head right)
rev: MINER PACIF COS II (Minerva standing facing with olive branch, shield & spear)
ref: RIC IVi 7, C.48 (12frcs)
mint: ? , 2.87gms, 17mm
Rare

Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus, Governor of Britain and Gaul, was declared "Caesar of the West" in 193 and made co-regent with Severus late in 195. However, these concessions to his considerable power were only the means by which Severus averted a direct conflict with Albinus until he was ready for one. Early in 197 when Severus' own position was more secure, he attacked Albinus at Lugdunum (Lyons). Albinus was murdered or committed suicide on 19 February 197.
berserker
1997-161-179_ProbusMartiPacif-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17919 viewsTicinum, 4.29 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: MARTI PACIF; I| /QXXI; Mars advancing left, holding olive branch in raised right hand and carrying spear in left; shield over left shoulder.
Ref: RIC 508; Pink VI/1, pg 67, 9th emission, 281 AD, part of EQVITI series for Ticinum.
1 commentsgordian_guy
1997-161-180_ProbusMartiPacif-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18013 viewsTicinum, 3.55g

Obverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Radiate, helmet, cuirassed, burst right; spear in right hand over right shoulder; shield on left shoulder.
Reverse: MARTI PACIF; I|*/QXXI; Mars advancing left, holding olive branch in raised right hand; spear in left hand and shield over left shoulder.
Ref: RIC 509; Pink, pg 67, 10th emission, 282 AD, part of EQVITI series for Ticinum.
gordian_guy
TacitusAntMars.jpg
1dm Tacitus28 views275-276

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Mars stg, MARTI PACIF

RIC 145

A rare emperor nominated by the Senate after the death of the widely revered Aurelianus.

Zonaras recorded: Tacitus, an elderly man, succeeded him. For it is written that he was seventy-five years old when he was chosen for monarchy. The army recognized him, though he was absent, for he was then residing in Campania. When he received the decision there, he entered Rome in private dress and, with the consent of the Senate and the People, donned the imperial garb.

The Scythians, having crossed Lake Maeotis and the Phasis River, attacked Pontus, Cappadocia, Galatia, and Cilicia. Tacitus, who had joined battle with them, and Florianus, who was prefect, slew many, and the remainder sought safety in flight. Tacitus appointed Maximinus, one of his kinsmen, as governor of Syria. But, when he behaved badly in his office, he was killed by his soldiers. Those who had killed him, frightened that the emperor would not leave them unpunished, set out after him too and killed him, not yet seven months after he had assumed sovereignty, but according to some not quite two years.

Zosimus, however, recorded, "Upon [Aurelianus'] death the empire fell into the hands of Tacitus, in whose time the Scythians crossed the Palus Maeotis, and made incursions through Pontus even into Cilicia, until he opposed them. Partly in person, and partly by Florianus, prefect of the court, whom he left in commission for that purpose, this emperor completely routed and destroyed them. He himself was going into Europe, but was thus circumvented and killed. He had committed the government of Syria to his cousin Maximinus, who treated the nobility of that country with such austerity, that he caused them both to hate and fear him. Their hatred became so excessive, that at length conspiring with the murderers of Aurelianus, they assaulted Maximinus, and having killed him, fell on and slew Tacitus also as he was upon his departure."
Blindado
761Hadrian_RIC225var_.jpg
227 var. Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian & Roma standing26 viewsReference.
Strack 218; RIC cf 227; C.cf 94; BMCR cf 584

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Bare head right

Rev. ADVENTVS AVGVSTI
Roma standing left, holding spear, and parazonium on hip?? and clasping hands with Hadrian standing right, holding a roll.

3.35 gr
18 mm
7h

Note.
Strack saw two similar coins in Vienna and Sofia with same die pair.

This denarius was Rome struck during the latter part of Hadrian’s reign, and which fall into three classes or categories: 1) a series of coins commemorating the visit or arrival (adventus) of the emperor to each province; 2) another series which commemorates the restoration (restitutor) of the province by the emperor; and 3) an additional series which commemorates the military strength (exercitus) of province, for those provinces which had legions stationed within them. In addition to these three categories of commemorative issues that are collectively known as Hadrian’s ‘travel’ series, there are a further two related groups of coins. The first is quite extensive and simply commemorates the various provinces, with the provinces of Egypt, Africa, Hispania and Gallia being the most common. Then there is a much smaller issue which commemorates the emperor’s final return (adventus) to Rome, after his subjugation of the Jewish zealots under Simon Bar Kochba led to the pacification of the province of Judaea, of which this coin is a particularly handsome specimen. After spending more than half his reign on the road, and especially after having just inflicted such a crushing defeat on the recalcitrant Jews, Hadrian’s homecoming was a momentous occasion in the capital which was warmly welcomed by the citizens. The reverse shows the city of Rome personified as the goddess Roma, helmeted and draped in military attire, holding a spear and clasping the hand of the now elderly emperor who is depicted togate and holding a roll in the guise of a citizen, standing before her. The legend which appears on the obverse of this coin was only employed ca. A.D. 134-138. As Hadrian returned to Italy during A.D. 136 and died not two years later, this coin belongs to the very last issue of coinage struck at Rome during his principate.
1 commentsokidoki
rjb_post4_11_05.jpg
2394-520 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
HERC PACIFERO
Hercules standing left
Mint 1 (Trier), Issue 2
Cunetio 2394-5
mauseus
rjb_2009_10_14.jpg
240917 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
HERC PACIFERO
Hercules standing left in tetrastyle temple
Mint 1 (Trier), Issue 3
Cunetio 2409
mauseus
postume-hercpacifero_3.JPG
2e Emission - 2e Phase - (262) - Trèves - HERC PACIFERO15 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
HERC PACIFERO
Hercule de style 1
EG 26
CUNETIO 2394
RIC 67
ELMER 299
AGK 27
de Witte 101
Cohen 101
PYL
postume-hercpacifero2.jpg
2e Emission - 2e Phase - (262) - Trèves - HERC PACIFERO7 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
HERC PACIFERO
Hercule de style 2
EG 27
CUNETIO 2395
RIC 67
ELMER 299
AGK 27
de Witte 101
Cohen 101
PYL
postume-hercpacifero.jpg
2e Emission - 2e Phase - (262) - Trèves - HERC PACIFERO9 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
HERC PACIFERO
Hercule de style 2
EG 27
CUNETIO 2395
RIC 67
ELMER 299
AGK 27
de Witte 101
Cohen 101
PYL
Rjb_post_sest_04_05.jpg
37230 viewsAE double sestertius
Uncertain mint (cast)
IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
HERC PACIFERO
Hercules standing left, club over shoulder
Bastien 372
mauseus
Denario_Clodio_Albino_RIC_4_2.jpg
45 - 07 - Clodio Albino (195-197 D.C.)40 views "Como Cesar de Septimio Severo"
AR Denario 18 x 17 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES" - Busto a Cabeza desnuda, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MINER PACIF COS II" - Minerva c/yelmo de pié a izq., portando rama en mano der. y descansando la izq. apoyada sobre un escudo. Una lanza descansando sobre su brazo izq.

Acuñada: 194 - 195 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #7 Pag.45 - Cohen Vol.III #48 Pag.420 - DVM #15/1 Pag. 177 - BMCRE III #98
mdelvalle
RIC_7_Denario_Clodio_Albino.jpg
45 - 07 - Clodio Albino (195-197 D.C.)15 views "Como Cesar de Septimio Severo"
AR Denario 18 x 17 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES" - Busto a Cabeza desnuda, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MINER PACIF COS II" - Minerva c/yelmo de pié a izq., portando rama en mano der. y descansando la izq. apoyada sobre un escudo. Una lanza descansando sobre su brazo izq.

Acuñada: 194 - 195 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #7 Pag.45 – Sear RCV Vol.II #6144 Pag.443 - Cohen Vol.III #48 Pag.420 - DVM #15/1 Pag. 177 - RSC III #48 Pag.15 - BMCRE V #98-102 Pag.37 (Plate 8 #6) - Hill CSS #119 - Salgado II/1 #4305.c Pag.122
mdelvalle
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.135 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
Antoniniano Galieno RIC 236.jpg
82-16 - GALIENO (253 - 268 D.C.)35 viewsBillon Antoniniano 20 x 21 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "GALLIENVS AVG" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MARTI PACIFERO" - Marte de pié a izquierda, portando rama de olivo en mano de brazo derecho extendido y lanza y escudo en mano izquierda. "H" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 264 - 266 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias:
Göbl #570b - RIC Vol.V Parte I #236 Pag.151 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10288 - Cohen Vol.V #617 Pag.400 - DVM #169 Pag.247 - RSC Vol.IV #617a Pag.83 - Cayón #171
mdelvalle
Göbl_570b_Antoniniano_Galieno.jpg
82-16 - GALIENO (253 - 268 D.C.)10 viewsAE Antoniniano 20 x 21 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "GALLIENVS AVG" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "MARTI PACIFERO" - Marte de pié a izquierda, portando rama de olivo en mano de brazo derecho extendido y lanza y escudo en mano izquierda. "H" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 264 - 266 D.C.
Ceca: 8vo. Taller de Roma

Referencias: Göbl #570b - RIC Vol.V Parte I #236 Pag.151 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10288 Pag.296 - Cohen Vol.V #617 Pag.400 - DVM #169 Pag.247 - RSC Vol.IV #617a Pag.83 - Cayón #171 - Hunter #67 - Cunetio #1149
mdelvalle
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A111 -01 - MAXIMIANO (1er. Reinado 286 - 305 D.C.)12 viewsAntoniniano Pre-reforma 20 mm 4.3 gr.
M.AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS – Emperador asociado por Diocleciano para que gobierne como “Augusto de Occidente”, hasta 305 D.C. cuando abdica.

Anv: "IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG" - Busto con corona radiada, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "HERCVLI PACIFERO" – Hércules desnudo de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando una rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y garrote y piel de león en la izquierda. "Δ" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada: 287 - 288 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum – Hoy Lyon Francia

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #371 (C) Pag.263 – Cohen VI #282 Pag.520 - DVM #23 Pag.278 - Sear RCTV IV #13131 Pag.147 - Hunter iv #27 - Bastien #135
mdelvalle
Antoniniano_Maximiano_RIC_371BIS.jpg
A111 -1 - MAXIMIANO (1er. Reinado 286 - 305 D.C.)61 viewsAntoniniano Pre-reforma 20 mm 4.3 gr.
M.AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS – Emperador asociado por Diocleciano para que gobierne como “Augusto de Occidente”, hasta 305 D.C. cuando abdica.

Anv: "IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS PF AVG" - Busto con corona radiada, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "HERCVLI PACIFERO" – Hércules desnudo de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando una rama de olivo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y garrote y piel de león en la izquierda. "Δ" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada: 287 - 288 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum – Hoy Lyon Francia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #371 Pag.263 – Cohen vol-VI #282 Pag.520 - DVM # Pag. - Salgado MRBI Vol.III # Pag.
mdelvalle
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ALFOLDI 038.00111 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIFERO
BUST TYPE: A2 = Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/VII//XXI
WEIGHT 3.39g / WIDTH 21 mm
RIC 699 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH THIS OBVERSE LEGEND)
ALFOLDI 038.001 (4 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 1372
Note: Rare reverse type for Siscia
Barnaba6
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Antoninianus Gordian III Marti Pacifero38 viewsMint : Antioch

IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
MARTI PACIFERO

RIC 212e (R), Cohen 162

Nice antoninianus, nice style for Antioch.
1 commentsChut
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Antoninianus. RSC 0618a. Rome.24 viewsObv. Radiate head right GALLIENVS AVG
Rev. Mars standing left, holding spear and branch. MARTI PACIFERO.A in left field.
RSC 618a. Rome mint.
LordBest
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Belgium: Pacification of Gand14 viewsBelgium, Brass Medal (17 mm) 1876, 300th anniversary of the pacification of Gand. Podiceps
Venta Silurum Site Map.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 01, Site Map107 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75. It lies on the Roman Road between Caerleon and Gloucester. It was the largest roman civilian settlement in Wales, covering some 44 acres and was created in an attempt to pacify the Silures tribe who had been battling with the Romand for some 25 years. It had an grid system design and whilst initially comprised of a scattered settlement of buildings it evolved and became enclosed c. A.D. 200. Further evolution occurred through to A.D. 350.
The site is now the modern village of Caerwent with many of the houses being build on top of the Roman remains.
maridvnvm
Venta Silurum Artist Impression.jpg
Britain, Caerwent, Venta Silurum, 02, Artistic Impression95 viewsVenta Silurum (modern village of Caerwent, Wales, UK) was a Roman city founded sometime after A.D. 75. It lies on the Roman Road between Caerleon and Gloucester. It was the largest roman civilian settlement in Wales, covering some 44 acres and was created in an attempt to pacify the Silures tribe who had been battling with the Romand for some 25 years. It had an grid system design and whilst initially comprised of a scattered settlement of buildings it evolved and became enclosed c. A.D. 200. Further evolution occurred through to A.D. 350.
The site is now the modern village of Caerwent with many of the houses being build on top of the Roman remains.
maridvnvm
Brittium__The_Bretti_River_God_221-179_BC.jpg
BRUTTIUM. The Brettii.21 viewsAR Drachm
215-2015 BC
18.5mm, 4.23 grams
Diademed bust of Nike r.; behind, harpa
BPETTIΩN, river-god standing, crowning himself, holding cloak and sceptre at r., snake and Σ.
Scheu 61. SNG Copenhagen 1624. Historia Numorum Italy 1963.
The Bretti (or Brutti) emerged from the rugged hills of southern Italy in the mid-4th century BC as an insurgent force of escaped slaves and other fugitives rebelling against the Lucanians, who had subjugated the area a generation earlier. Having thrown off the yoke of oppression, the Bretti retained their independence until 280 BC, when they helped the Greek king Pyrrhus of Epirus in his war against the Romans. After defeating Pyrrhus, the Romans invaded Bruttium and occupied most of the country. The Brettii remained pacified throughout the First Punic War (264-241 BC) but were among the first to declare in favor of the Carthaginian general Hannibal against Rome in the Second Punic War (218-201 BC), resulting in their final crushing as a separate people and absorption by Rome.
1 commentsJBGood
x7.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius36 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG laureate & draped bust right
Rev. PONTIF TR P VII COS II Mars, with cloak, foot on helmet, holding branch and spear
Ref. Sear 1841, RIC 80b RSC 420a, BMC 481
Mint Rome
Year 205

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus
PONTIF TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS VII CONSUL II - Priest and Tribune of the People for the seventh time, Consul for the second time

Mars (god of war) is usually depicted naked with a cloak and helmet (as here) or in full armor. He normally has a shield, spear and trophy, though here he has his foot on a helmet, indicating military prowess, and a branch possibly indicating he is willing to extend the olive branch to those he has pacified.


-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
00473q00.jpg
Carausius15 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
MARTI PACIF; Mars stg. holding spear, shield and branch; S P in fields.
Ex: C
Camolodunum
RIC 28
Julianus of Pannonia
00149-ClodiusAlbinus.JPG
Clodius Albinus 26 viewsClodius Albinus Denarius
17 mm 2.57 gm
O: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES
Bare head right.
R: MINER PACIF COS II
Minerva, helmeted, standing left, olive branch in right, resting left on shield, spear leans against arm.
1 commentsKoffy
pmclodalbinus.jpg
CLODIUS ALBINUS37 viewsAR denarius. 194-195 AD. 3,52 grs. Bare head right. D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES / Helmeted Minerva, standing front, head left, holding olive-branch, resting hand on shield set on the ground, spear against arm. MINER PACIF COS II .
RIC 7. RSC 44.
benito
pmclodalbinus~0.jpg
CLODIUS ALBINUS20 viewsAR denarius. 194-195 AD. 3,52 grs. Bare head right. D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES / Helmeted Minerva, standing front, head left, holding olive-branch, resting hand on shield set on the ground, spear against arm. MINER PACIF COS II .
RIC 7. RSC 44.

benito
ALBIN-1.jpg
Clodius Albinus RIC IV 721 viewsObv: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES
bare head right
Rev: MINER PACIF COS II
Minerva standing facing with
olive branch, shield & spear.
18.5mm 3.1gm
OWL365
clodi.jpg
Clodius Albinus (193 - 195 A.D.)53 viewsAR Denarius
O: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right.
R: MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva standing front, head left, holding a spear and leaning on a shield.
Rome Mint
3.21g
19mm
RIC 7, RSC 48, RCV 6144, BMC 98
6 commentsMat
00450.jpg
Clodius Albinus (RIC 7, Coin #450)13 viewsRIC 7, AR Denarius, Rome, 195 - 196 AD.
Obv: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES Bare head right.
Rev: MINER PACIF COS II Minerva, helmeted, standing left, olive branch in right, resting left on shield, spear leans against arm.
Size: 18.1mm 2.82gm
MaynardGee
Clodius_Albinus.JPG
Clodius Albinus - RIC 781 viewsClodius Albinus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. 194 AD. D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right / MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva standing facing with olive branch, shield & spear. RIC 7, RSC 48, RCV 6144, BMC 984 commentsBud Stewart
clodius_albinus.jpg
Clodius Albinus AR Denarius28 viewsClodius Albinus, as Caesar, AR Denarius. Rome, AD 193-195. 18 mm. 3.6 gm.
Obv: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right
Rev: MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva, helmeted, standing left, holding olive branch and shield on ground to right; spear against left arm.
RIC 7 (Rare).
1 commentsAntonivs Protti
1clodio_albino_posto.jpg
Clodius Albinus, denarius (194-195 d.C.)13 viewsClodius Albinus, silver denarius, Rome mint (194-195 AD)
AR, 3,82 gr, 17 mm, gVF, R1
D/ D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right
R/ MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva, helmeted, standing left, olive-branch in right hand, resting left on grounded shield, spear leans against arm
RIC IV 7, SRCV II 6144, BMCRE V 98, Cohen 48
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma Italia, 20 agosto 1014, numero catalogo 217), ex Tinia Numismatica (Follonica, Grosseto Italia, fino al 2014)
paolo
0175-210np_noir.jpg
Clodius Albinus, Denarius - *110 viewsDenarius minted in Rome, 194 AD
CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head of Clodius Albinus right
MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva standing left, holding spear and olive branch, leaning on shield
3,36 gr
Ref : Cohen #48, RCV #6144
1 commentsPotator II
41882_sept_severus_denarius,_RIC_IV_133a.jpg
Denarius; MARTI PACIFERO, RIC IV 133a6 viewsSeptimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D. Silver denarius, RIC IV 133a, RSC III 315, aVF, Rome mint, 2.837g, 18.6mm, 180o, 198 - 200 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, laureate head right; reverse MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing half left, helmeted, nude, foot on cuirass, branch in right, inverted spear in left; interesting flan defect (hole), perhaps overstruck on an earlier holed coin? Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
EB0475_scaled.JPG
EB0475 Clodius Albinus / Minerva10 viewsClodius Albinus, AR Denarius, 194-195 AD.
Obv: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right.
Rev: MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva standing left, holding olive branch and shield on ground, spear resting against her left arm.
References: RIC 7; RSC 48; BMC 98; Sear 6144.
Diameter: 17mm, Weight: 3.037 grams.
Note: Sold.
EB
EB0858_scaled.JPG
EB0858 Probus / Mars19 viewsProbus 276-282, AE Antoninianus, Ticinum mint, 279 AD.
Obverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG, helmeted, radiate and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive branch, spear and shield, I left - star right; QXXI in exergue.
References: RIC 472.
Diameter: 23mm, Weight: 3.702g.
1 commentsEB
La_Turbie_-_Trophy.JPG
France, La Turbie - Trophée des Alpes229 viewsThis Augustan trophy towers over the French Riviera and Monaco. It celebrates Augustus' pacification of the Alps and his victory over 45 tribes. (also mentioned by Pliny, Nat. Hist. III,136-137) Pity about the rainy weather when this photograph was taken.
Syltorian
q9~0.JPG
Gallienus9 viewsGALLIENVS AVG
MARTI PACIFERO
RIC V-1, Rome 236
ecoli
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_236.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10288, RIC-V (S) 236, Göbl 569a, Van Meter 168

AE Antoninianus, 4.16 g., 22.49 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264-266 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: MART-I PACIFERO (=To Mars, the peacemaker/pacifier), Mars standing left, raising olive branch in right hand, resting left hand on shield and spear.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10288_marti_pacifero_A_left.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)7 viewsSRCV 10288, RIC-V (S) 236, Göbl 570a, Van Meter 168

AE Antoninianus, 2.28 g., 18.08 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, first officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264-266 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: MARTI PACIFERO (=To Mars, the peacemaker/pacifier), Mars standing left, raising olive branch in right hand, resting left hand on shield and spear, A in left field.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
gallilenus-herc-pacifero.jpg
Gallienus AE Antoninianus, (263 AD) Rome mint9 viewsRoman Imperial, Gallienus AE Antoninianus, (263 AD) Rome mint.

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.

Reverse: MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield, X in left field.

Reference: Cohen 617, RIC 236

Ex: Lazar Lazo Trivunović
Gil-galad
A_billon_Antoninianus_of_Gallienus_.jpg
Gallienus Billon Antoninianus.19 viewsGALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right

MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left holding olive branch, shield and spear, "A" in left field

Minted in Rome


RIC V Part 1 236 (Scarce).
GaiusCaligula
GALLIEN-2.jpg
Gallienus RIC V-1 236 14 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
radiate bust right
Rev: MARTI PACIFERO
Mars walking left with olive branch, spear & shield.
18mm 2.9gm
OWL365
GALLIEN-11.jpg
Gallienus RIC V-1 23623 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
radiate bust right
Rev: MARTI PACIFERO
Mars standing left, holding olive-branch,
spear & shield, H to left.
18mm 2.3gm

OWL365
4619_4620.jpg
Gallienus, Antoninianus, MARTI PACIFERO5 viewsAE Antoninianus
Gallienus
Augustus: 253 - 268AD
Issued: 264 - 266AD
21.0 x 19.0mm 3.25gr
O: GALLIENVS AVG; Radiate head, right.
R: MARTI PACIFERO; Mars standing left, holding olive branch, spear and shield.
Rome Mint
RIC V-1, 236, radiate; Goebl 569a; Sear 10288; Cohen 614.
Aorta: 524: B40, O10, R226, T206, M5.
dw152694 121345006700
5/25/14 3/7/17
Nicholas Z
4617_4618.jpg
Gallienus, Antoninianus, MARTI PACIFERO11 viewsAE Antoninianus
Gallienus
Augustus: 253 - 268AD
Issued: 264 - 266AD
20.0mm
O: GALLIENVS AVG; Radiate head, right.
R: MARTI PACIFERO; Mars standing left, holding branch and scepter.
Exergue: A, left field.
Rome Mint
RIC 236, A, left; Cohen 617.
Aorta: 525: B40, O10, R226, T206, M5.
herus66 291192447642
7/20/14 3/7/17
Nicholas Z
Gallienus 12.jpg
Gallienus, RIC 236,15 viewsObv: GALLIENVS AVG
Bust: Radiate and draped bust right
Rev: MARTI PACIFERO
Mars standing left holding branch in left hand and spear and shield in right.
Date: 253-260 AD
Denom: Antoninianus
Bluefish
gal492.jpg
Gallienus, RIC 492 Siscia14 views
Gallienus, AE antoninianus
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left holding an olive branch in right hand and a spear and a shield in left hand.
Siscia mint , 18.9 mm., 2.5 g.
NORMAN K
GALLIEN-29-ROMAN.jpg
Gallienus, RIC V(1)-236.K Rome12 viewsBillon Antoninianus
Rome mint, 264-266 A.D.
18mm, 2.13g
RIC V(1)-236, RSCv.4-627a, RCVv.3-10288

Obverse:
GALLIENVS AVG
Radiate head right

Reverse:
MARTI PACIFRO
H in left field
Mars standing left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.

Double strike incuse profile of Gallienus on reverse.
rubadub
1111Gallieno_brathwell_marti.jpg
Gallienus, Rome mint (266 d.C.), R/ MARTI PACIFERO (Braithwell hoard)20 viewsGallienus, bronze antoninianus, Rome mint (266 d.C.), VIII officina
AE, 1.423 gr, 18.7 mm, 180°, F ragged flan
D/ GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right
R/ MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing half left, olive branch raised in right, resting left on grounded shield, spear behind, H in left field
RIC V 236, SRCV III 10288
Nota: nel 266 d.C. le officine della zecca di Roma passano da 6 a 12
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (2 aprile 2011, numero catalogo 128), ex FAC (Morehead City NC Usa, 2010); ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, Londra-New York, 2007), ex CNG (Londra, 2007); ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
Gordian-III-RIC-212.jpg
Gordian III / RIC 212, 2'nd series.38 viewsAntoninianus, 242 -244 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Radiate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: MARTI PACIFERO / Mars running left; holding branch, reversed spear, and shield.
4.57 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #212; Sear #8625.

Unusual for the second issue from Antioch is a portrait which shows Gordian as a boy.
1 commentsCallimachus
Gordian_III_AR_Antoninianus_2_88g_,_24mm.jpg
Gordian III AR Antoninianus, 36 views2.88grams, 24mm _7726
Gordian III AR Antoninianus. Antioch mint. MARTI PACIFERO Mars running left, holding branch, reversed spear and shield. RIC 212, RSC 162a


Antonivs Protti
Gordian_III_RIC_212.JPG
Gordian III, 238 - 244 AD18 viewsObv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian III facing right.

Rev: MARTI PACIFERO, Mars running left, holding a branch, reversed spear and a shield.

Silver Antoninianus, Antioch mint, 242 - 244 AD

2.8 grams, 23.06 mm, 180°

RIC IViii 212, RSC 162, S8625, VM 30
SPQR Coins
Seleukos_I_on_Sophytes_Drachm.jpg
Greek, Seleukos I Nikator (?) on Sophytes Drachm, Baktria228 viewsThe portrait on the obverse of this coin is may be that of Seleukos I Nikator. It appears that Sophytes submitted to Seleukos I during the latter’s eastern anabasis in 306-305 BC and was appointed to the position of Satrap of Baktria. Following the incorporation of Baktria into the Seleukid Empire, the Seleukid administration appears to have sponsored Greek migration into the territory from Asia Minor. The increased demand for coinage would explain the successive emissions of owl, eagle and cock coinage, which culminated in the issue of the epigraphic Sophytes cock emission. The inspiration for the obverse was probably the Hero/Trophy issue of Susa, which commenced ca 301 BC. The frontal profile and features of the portrait on the obverse of Sophytes issues bear a resemblance to the portrait of Seleukos on the later coinage of Philetairos of Pergamon. On allying himself with Seleukos, Philetairos issued coinage bearing the portrait of Seleukos on the obverse the name of Philetairos on a distinctive non-Seleukid reverse. The parallels between the documented circumstances and coinage of Philetairos with the earlier undocumented history and coinage of Sopytes are apparent and suggestive of the circumstances under which Sophytes came to issue coinage bearing his name in Seleukid Baktria.

With growing power and provincial wealth following a decade of Greek immigration to the province, it is possible that Sophytes determined to move on a more independent path and issued coinage in his name, but bearing the image of Seleukos, in anticipation that the latter would pacify any concern that Seleukos may have with the approach. However, the latter strategy appears to have failed and Sophytes rapidly disappears from the scene and numismatic record. This action of Sophytes may have been the trigger for Seleukos to declare Antiochos co-regent and satrap of the eastern provinces. With this appointment, Antiochos was dispatched to Baktria and set about expanding the Seleukid administration and development of the province, including the establishment of Seleukid royal mints at Baktra and Ai Khanoum, commencing around 294 BC.
Lloyd T
Hadrse50-2.jpg
Hadrian, RIC 551a, Sestertius of AD 118 (Fortuna Redux)32 viewsÆ sestertius (25.8g, Ø 34mm, 4h). Rome mint. Struck AD 118.
Obv.: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
Rev.: PONT MAX TR POT COS II (around) FORT RED / S C (in two lines in ex.) Fortuna seated left holding branch right and cornucopiae left.
RIC 551; BMCRE 1132; Cohen 756; Strack 515; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-2) 414 (15 spec.)
ex Numismatik Lanz - Hubert Lanz (2009)

This FORTuna REDux issue celebrates the first arrival to Rome of Hadrian as emperor on 9 july 118, returning from travel. Hadrian had spent his first winter as emperor in Asia Minor and pacified the Danube frontier the following spring.
Charles S
herc_pacifero_12_71g.JPG
HERC PACIFERO8 viewsdouble sesterce
atelier II
12.71g
ASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG titulature incomplète
HERC PACIFERO
Bastien 294
de Witte 105
Cohen ...
RIC ...
Elmer ...
PYL
severus_alexander_160~0.jpg
Mars Pacifero204 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-235
AR - Denar, 3.12g, 20.5mm
Rome AD 222
obv. IMP CM AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, laureate head r.
rev. MARTI PACIFERO
Mars standing , head l., holding olive-branch and reversed spear
RIC IV/ 2, 160; BMCR 68; C.173
good VF

MARS PACIFER, Mars the Peace-bringer. Depicted with olive-branch and reversed spear as signs of peace. Reminds us of the old saying 'si vis pacem, para bellum (If you want peace, prepare war)'. The Corinthian helmet is borrowed from Greek art.
Jochen
Gordianus_MARTI_PACIFERO_go5_b.jpg
MARTI PACIFERO17 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
draped and cuirassed bust
rare
Tibsi
Trebonianus_Gallus_MARTI_PACIFERO_tr4_b2.jpg
MARTI PACIFERO6 viewsTrebonianus Gallus antoninianus
Antiochia mint
Tibsi
Gordianus_MARTI_PACIFERO_ff_b.jpg
MARTI PACIFERO19 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
Obv.: GORIANVS... (instead of GORDIANVS...)
very rare
Tibsi
Trebonianus_Gallus_MARTI_PACIFERO_ab.jpg
MARTI PACIFERO20 viewsTrebonianus Gallus antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
galli_marti.jpg
MARTI PACIFERO14 viewsGallienus, Billon antoninianus, Rome Mint, 264-266 A.D. 20x21 mm, 4.43 g. 
Obverse: Radiate head right. 
GALLIENVS AVG 
Reverse: Mars standing left, holding up an olive branch with his right hand, and a spear in his left arm, his left hand resting on a shield. 
MARTI PACIFERO. 
Reference: RCV (2005) 10288; RIC V 236; Göbl 0569a. Ex MoremothPodiceps
Gordianus_zb.jpg
MARTI PACIFERO50 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
1 commentsTibsi
Probus_-_Mars_Pacif.jpg
Marti Pacifero54 viewsObv. PROBVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. MARTI PACIF, armoured and helmeted mars advancing left, holding olive twig in right, spear and shield in left, cape billowing behind, RQ{Gamma} in exergue,
Rome Mint, AD 282,
20 mm, 3,43 gr
Refs. RIC 177

Historia Augusta 16: "post haec Illyricum petiit. priusquam veniret, Raetias sic pacatas reliquit ut illic ne suspicionem quidem ullius terroris relinqueret. in Illyrico Sarmatos ceterasque gentes ita contudit ut prope sine bello cuncta reciperet quae illi diripuerant. tetendit deinde iter per Thracias atque omnes Geticos populos fama rerum territos et antiqui nominis potentia pressos aut in deditionem aut in amicitiam recepit. his gestis orientem petiit atque itinere potentissimo quodam latrone Palfuerio capto et interfecto omnem Isauriam liberavit, populis atque urbibus Romanis legibus restitutis. barbarorum, qui apud Isauros sunt, vel per terrorem vel urbanitatem loca ingressus est. (...) veteranis omnia illa quae anguste adeuntur loca privata donavit, addens ut eorum filii ab anno octavo decimo, mares dumtaxat, ad militiam mitterentur, ne latrocinare umquam discerent." - [20]causae occidendi eius haec fuerunt: primum quod numquam militem otiosum esse perpessus est, si quidem multa opera militari manu perfecit, dicens annonam gratuitam militem comedere non debere.

"After this he set out for Illyricum, but before going thither he left Raetia in so peaceful a state that there remained therein not even any suspicion of fear. In Illyricum he so crushed the Sarmatians and other tribes that almost without any war at all he got back all they had ravaged. He then directed his march through Thrace, and received in either surrender or friendship all the tribes of the Getae, rightened by the repute of his deeds and brought to submission by the power of his ancient fame. This done, he set out for the East, and while on his march he captured and killed a most powerful brigand, named Palfuerius, and so set free the whole of Isauria and restored the laws of Rome to the tribes and the cities. By fear or favour he entered the places held by the barbarians living among the Isaurians, (...) And so all those places which were difficult of access he gave to his veterans as their own private holdings, attaching thereto the condition that their children, that is, the males only, should be sent to the army at the age of eighteen, in order that they never might learn to be brigands." - "The causes of his murder were these: first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labour, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned"
Syltorian
Gordianus_III_MARTI_PACIFERO_eu_b.jpg
MARTI PACIFERO27 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
draped and cuirassed bust
very rare
Tibsi
Marti_Pacifero_Cldc.jpg
Marti Pacifero Cldc76 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed
Reverse: MARTIPA_CIFERO, SC left and right, low in field
Mars helmeted, in military dress, stranding front, head left, holding branch in right hand and vertical spear reversed in left.
bust variety of BMC 74-5 (front view), RIC 585
Weight, 19.80g; die axis, 12h.
2 commentsmix_val
Gallienus MARTI PACIFERO RIC 492var.jpg
MARTI PACIFERO RIC 492var58 viewsAnt, 21mm, 3.05g.

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate & cuirassed bust R.

Reverse: MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing L holding branch & shield.

Mediolanum, RIC 492 var, Common.

Variant reverse: Mars is standing rather than walking. This reverse is recorded from Rome.
Robert_Brenchley
Gallienus MARTI PACIFERO RIC 236.jpg
MARTI PACIFERO RIC V/1 23686 viewsAnt, 18mm, 2.50g.

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head R.

Reverse: MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing L with branch, spear & shield.

Rome, RIC 236, Common.

A nice example of a clashed die, with the outline of the bust clearly visible on the reverse.
1 commentsRobert_Brenchley
Maximianus_2_black_sml.png
Maximian Antoninianus24 viewsMaximianus Herculeus, Augustus 286-305, 307-308, and 310 AD.

Lugdunum, 287-288AD.

23mm., 4.40g.

IMP C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG. Bust of Maximian, radiate, draped, cuirassed, right.

HERCVLI PACIFERO. Hercules, standing left, holding olive-branch in right hand and club with lion's skin in left hand. Mintmark B/-//SML.

References: RIC V Diocletian 371

AAIU
RL
00308q00.jpg
Maximianus Herculius5 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP C MAXIMIANVS AVG; Radiate and draped bust left with club and lion’s skin
HERCVLI PACIFERO; Hercules standing left holding branch, club and lion’s skin; B in left field.
Ex: SML
Lugdunum
RIC 380; B 127 pl. VIII (3 ex.)
Julianus of Pannonia
Tacitus_11.jpg
MER RIC 336719 viewsMint: Ticinum Issue 1
Datation: November – December 275
Denomination: Aureliani
Titulature: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Bust: Bust right, radiate, cuirassed, with left sleeve raised
Legend: MARTI PACIF
Reverse: Mars in military dress walking l., holding olive branch in r. hand, transverse spear and long oval shield in l. hand.
Reverse Mark: –/–//S
Tacitus
Tacitus_23.jpg
MER RIC 383415 viewsDatation: early – June 276
Issue: 5
Denomination: Aureliani
Titulature: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG Bust: D1
Legend: MARTI PACIF
Reverse Mark: V/–//–
Reverse: Mars 1c

Tacitus
1257~0.jpg
MPR 020 VAR. MARTI PACIFERO (UNLISTED IN MPR WITH B BUST!!!) 13 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIFERO
BUST TYPE: B = Radiate, cuirassed bust right
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//XXIΔ
WEIGHT 3.52g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 20-23 mm
RIC: unlisted with this reverse type
J.GUILLEMAIN, MONETAZIONE DI PROBO A ROMA (276-282 d.C.): unlisted !!!
S. ESTIOT / PH. GYSEN RN 2006: 1 ex. only cited
COLLECTION NO. 1257

Ex. S. Luethi collection

Note: extremely rare and desirable reverse type struck during Rome's first emmission.

This is only the second example of this type (with B bust) known to me (the other being cited by S.Estiot and Ph. Gysen in RN 2006).
Barnaba6
002.jpg
MPR 491 AEQVITI SERIES10 viewsOBVERSE: PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: B (BASTIEN'S CLASSIFICATION)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//RQΓ
WEIGHT 4.36g / AXIS: 1h
RIC: 177
J.GUILLEMAIN, MONETAZIONE DI PROBO A ROMA (276-282 d.C.), 2009: 491 (102 EX.)
COLLECTION NO. 2
NOTE: THIS COIN IS PART OF CODED AEQVITI SERIES ("Q")
Barnaba6
SeptimiusPisidiaAntiochAE22.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. 105 viewsPisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. AE 22mm (5.21 gm). Obverse: Laureate, head left. Reverse: Mên standing facing, head right, foot on bucranium, holding sceptre and Nike on globe; cock at feet left. SNG France 3, 1118. Cleaning scratches, very fine. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
coin9.jpg
Postumus13 viewsPostumus AR Antoninianus. IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing right, holding olive branch & club. RIC 67, RSC 101, Sear5 10946.simmurray
247_Postumus_67.jpg
Postumus - BI antoninianus25 viewsTrier
262 AD
Issue 2
radiate draped cuirassed bust right
IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
Hercules standing left, holding branch and club with lion's skin
HERC_PACIFERO
RIC V-II Lyons 67; RSC 101; Sear'88 #3112
3,97g 23-22mm
Johny SYSEL
postumus-hercules.jpg
Postumus - Hercules29 viewsRoman Imperial, Postumus (260-269 AD) BI Antoninianus, Lugdunum mint, 2.4g, 22.0mm

Obverse: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing right, holding olive branch & club. "Herculean Pacification"

Reference: RIC V-II Lyons 67, RSC 101, Sear5 10946.

Ex: Holding History Coins +photo
Gil-galad
Postumus_Herc_Pacifero_RIC_5b_67.jpg
Postumus Herc Pacifero RIC 5b 674 viewsPostumus, Antoninianus, 262 AD, Lugdunum, 3.47g, 22mm, RIC 5b 67
OBV: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV: HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing left, olive branch in right hand,
club and lions skin in left
SRukke
Postumus HERC PACIFERO RIC 67.jpg
Postumus HERC PACIFERO RIC V/2 67150 viewsAnt, 21mm, 3.65g.

Obverse: IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust R.

Reverse: HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing L with club, branch and lion skin.

Trier, Officina A, Issue 2.

RIC 67, Common.

Robert_Brenchley
Postumus_Hercules_RIC_5b_67.jpg
Postumus Hercules RIC 5b 674 viewsPostumus, Antoninianus, Lugdunum, 260 - 265 AD, Sear 10946, RSC 101, RIC 5b 67
OBVERSE: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing right, holding olive branch and club
lion skin in left
SRukke
Postumus_RIC_67.JPG
Postumus, 260 - 269 AD30 viewsObv: IMP C POSTVMVS PF AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Postumus facing right.

Rev: HERC PACIFERO, Hercules, standing left, holding an olive branch, club and lion's skin.

Billon Antoninianus, Cologne mint, 260 - 265 AD

3.9 grams, 21.8 mm, 45°

RIC Vii 67, RSC 101, S10946
SPQR Matt
IMG_0514.jpg
Postumus, cast double sestertius, uncertain mint, reverse HERC PACIFERO 13 views[...] LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing left holding branch, club and lionskin

Casting seams evident on the edge.
Adrianus
Postumus.jpg
Postumus, Silver antoninianus.58 viewsPostumus, Summer 260 - Spring 269 A.D.
Silver antoninianus, RIC V 67, Cohen 101, EF/VF, 3.673g, 22.9mm, 0o, Lugdunum (Lyon, France) mint, obverse IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse HERC PACIFERO, Hercules standing left, olive branch in right, club and lion skin in left;

EX; FORVM Ancient Coins Auction.

*With my sincere thank and appreciation . Photo and Description , courtesy of FORVM Ancient Coins Staff.

From the Sam Mansourati collection.
3 commentsSam
00anticplumb.jpg
PRECOLUMBIAN50 viewsPlumbate (Tohil) vase. Pacific slope, Guatemala. Early Post-classic. 11,2 cms h.1 commentsbenito
00jaguarpl.jpg
PRECOLUMBIAN47 viewsPlumbate (Tohil) vase. Pacific slope, Guatemala. Early Post-classic. 15,7 cms.
benito
probusmarti.jpg
PROBUS21 views AE antoninianus. Ticinum 282 AD. 3,87 grs. Radiate helmeted cuirassed bust right with spear and shield. VIRTVS PROBI AVG / Mars walking left,holding olive-branch, spear and shield. MARTI PACIF. I in left field ( from the coded Equiti series ),star on right. QXXI in exergue.
RIC 509. Cohen 258.




benito
probusmarti~0.jpg
PROBUS17 viewsAE antoninianus. Ticinum 282 AD. 3,87 grs. Radiate helmeted cuirassed bust right with spear and shield. VIRTVS PROBI AVG / Mars walking left,holding olive-branch, spear and shield. MARTI PACIF. I in left field ( from the coded Equiti series ),star on right. QXXI in exergue.
RIC 509. Cohen 258.

benito
00410q00.jpg
Probus18 viewsAE-Antoninianus
VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, holding spear.
ERCVLI PACIF; Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin.
Ex: VXXT
Ticinum
RIC 376var.
Julianus of Pannonia
00451q00.jpg
Probus11 viewsAE-Antoninianus
VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust l., holding spear and shield; VOTIS X ET XX inscribed on shield
ERCVLI PACIFERO; Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin.
Ex: VXXT
Ticinum
RIC 376var.
Julianus of Pannonia
121D7227-BA57-4E09-BB65-3439B8BE62EF.jpeg
Probus7 viewsEQVITI Series II of Ticinum, I, QXXI.
Silvered antoninianus, Choice aEF, 4th officina, Ticinum mint, ; obverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG , radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, spear across shoulder in right, shield on left; reverse MARTI PACIF, Mars advancing left, holding olive-branch, shield and spear, I left, QXXI in ex; sharp strike with full circles centering, much silver remaining; Ticinum mint EQVITI series II - The letter `I` in the reverse field is the fourth letter of the codeword EQVITI. The letter `Q` in the exergue indicates this coin was struck by the fourth officina (mint workshop). The letters of the word EQVITI are coded in the mintmarks of coins from all the officinae of the mint, with the specific letters of the codeword assigned to each officina in order corresponding with their officina numbers. This codeword probably refers to cavalry. It may be AEQVITI truncated because there were only six officinae in operation. RIC V 509.
simmurray
probusmarti.jpg
Probus Antoninianus RIC 509, Ticinum. Antoninianus.(9th emission of Ticinum, 281 CE, 4th consulate.)11 viewsRIC 509, Ticinum. Antoninianus.
This coin is part of the EQVITI series of Ticinum.


OBV.: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left., holding spear and shield.

REV.: MARTI PACIF
Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.
Mintmark: In left field I // QXXI

EQVITI

(9th emission of Ticinum, 281 CE, 4th consulate.)
Britanikus
519.jpg
PROBUS BASTIEN 16710 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIFERO
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//II
WEIGHT 4.04g / AXIS 1h / WIDTH: 22-24mm
RIC: 42
BASTIEN: 167 (34 EX.)
COLLECTION NO: 519
Barnaba6
Probus_Marti_Pacif_Mars~0.JPG
Probus Marti Pacif Mars21 viewsOne of the few emperors to wear a radiate, crested helmet on their coins
Probus AE Antoninianus, Ticinum mint, 279 AD, 24mm, 3.74g, Officina 4 (QXXI)
OBV: VIRTVS PROBI AVG, His radiate crested helmeted cuirassed bust left
REV: MARTI PACIF, Mars advancing left holding spear, shield and olive branch
I left Star right, QXXI in exergue
Sear 3356, Van Meter 27, RIC 472, RCV 11993

SCARCE
Romanorvm
93~1.jpg
PROBUS RIC 37510 viewsOBVERSE: IMP•C•PROBVS•P•F•AVG
REVERSE: ERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 4.31g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 22-23mm
RIC: 375
COLLECTION NO. 561
Barnaba6
94~1.jpg
PROBUS RIC 37511 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: HERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VXXT
WEIGHT 3.05g / AXIS: 5h
RIC: 375
COLLECTION NO. 26
Barnaba6
237.jpg
PROBUS RIC 37519 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: HERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 4.06g / AXIS: 12h
RIC: 375
COLLECTION NO. 276
EX S.L. COLLECTION

Barnaba6
67.jpg
PROBUS RIC 37517 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: AERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 3.14g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 22-23mm
RIC: 375
COLLECTION NO. 800
Barnaba6
118~1.jpg
PROBUS RIC 37514 viewsOBVERSE: IMP•C•PROBVS•P•F•AVG
REVERSE: ERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VXXT
WEIGHT 3.02g / AXIS: 5h
RIC: 375
COLLECTION NO. 118
NOTE: DIVERGENT WREATH TIES
Barnaba6
277~0.jpg
PROBUS RIC 37513 viewsOBVERSE: IMP•C•PROBVS•P•F•AVG
REVERSE: ERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VIXXT
WEIGHT 3.99g / AXIS: 6h
RIC: 375
COLLECTION NO. 277
NOTE: EX S.L. COLLECTION
Barnaba6
866~0.jpg
PROBUS RIC 376 E1 BUST 14 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: HERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 3.31g / AXIS: 1h
RIC: 376
COLLECTION NO. 866
Barnaba6
1000.jpg
PROBUS RIC 376 E1 BUST PARMA SHIELD43 views OBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: ERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 4.38g
RIC: 376
COLLECTION NO. 1009
NOTE: VERY RARE (ESPECIALLY FOR TICINUM) AND DESIRABLE BUST TYPE WITH SMALL, ROUND (PARMA) SHIELD !!!
2 commentsBarnaba6
147~0.JPG
PROBUS RIC 376 F19 BUST5 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: HERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: F19
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 4.22g / AXIS: 5h
RIC: 376
COLLECTION NO. 147
Barnaba6
Probus_RIC_376_Ticinum.jpg
Probus RIC 376 Ticinum45 viewsobv. VIRTVS PROBI AVG
radiate, helmeted, heroically nude bust left, with spear and aegis, seen from back.
rev. HERCVLI PACIF
Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion´s skin.
Ex: SXXT
Ticinum
RIC 376 var.
unlisted bust type
HG
96~1.jpg
PROBUS RIC 376 VAR. E8 BUST29 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: HERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: E8
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 3.69g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 22mm
RIC: 376 VAR. (E8 BUST UNLISTED)
COLLECTION NO. 458
NOTE: VERY RARE BUST TYPE
7TH KNOWN SPECIMEN IN THE WORLD (INFORMATION FROM S.ESTIOT)
Barnaba6
1288~0.jpg
PROBUS RIC 376 VAR. VOTIS X ET XX ON SHIELD 30 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: ERCVLI PACIF[ERO]
BUST TYPE: F1 = radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield (VOTIS X ET XX inscription on shield)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 3.66g / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 21-22mm
RIC: 376 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH VOTIS X ET XX ON SHIELD)
COLLECTION NO. 1288

NOTE: Extremely rare and desirable shield decoration in the form of the VOTIS X ET XX inscription

Ex Ph. Gysen collection = Ex Spink, NumCirc 99/4 (1991.), 2660

Only 4th specimen of this type known to me (the other being EBAY / NUMISMATIKLANZ 2016-05-20; GLOUCESTER HOARD NO. 1252; Numismatica Ars Classica 92/665)
Barnaba6
14po.jpg
PROBUS RIC 378 officina 225 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS II
REVERSE: AERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 3.05g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 23-24mm
RIC 378
COLLECTION NO. 1072
NOTE: DIVERGENT WREATH TIES
Barnaba6
299_after.jpg
PROBUS RIC 378 officina 5 14 views OBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS II
REVERSE: HERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VXXT
WEIGHT 3.80g / AXIS: 6h
RIC: 378
COLLECTION NO. 299
Barnaba6
1263~0.JPG
PROBUS RIC 378 VAR. 5 views48 views
OBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG CONS II
REVERSE: HERCVLI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT 3.30g / AXIS: 6h
RIC: 378 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH P F AVG CONS II LEGEND)
COLLECTION NO. 1263

Ex S. Luethi collection

NOTE: The only example of this type known to me (I know of one another specimen with the same obverse legend but from officina VXXT in Ph. Gysen's collection)
Barnaba6
1371.jpg
PROBUS RIC 38015 views OBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: ERCVLI PACIFERO
BUST TYPE: H2 = radiate cust left in imperial mantle (toga picta and tunica palmata), holding eagle-tipped sceptre (scipio)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//SXXT
WEIGHT: / AXIS: h / WIDTH:
RIC: 380
COLLECTION NO. 1371
NOTE: DIVERGENT WREATH TIES OF THE CORONA RADIATA
Barnaba6
40~2.jpg
PROBUS RIC 383 FLORET ON SHIELD 19 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: ERCVLI PACIFERO
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: */-//VIXXT
WEIGHT 4.18g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 23-24mm
RIC: 383
COLLECTION NO. 1051
NOTE: FLORET ON SHIELD
VERY RARE !!!
Barnaba6
97~1.jpg
PROBUS RIC 383 RRR 12 SOLDIERS WITH SHIELDS ON SHIELD13 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: ERCVLI PACIFERO
BUST TYPE: E2 = radiate, cuirassed and helmeted bust left with spear and shield (decorated with rows of soldiers with shields), seen from rear
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VXXT
WEIGHT 3.80g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 23-25mm
RIC: 383
COLLECTION NO. 384
NOTE: 4TH KNOWN SPECIMEN IN THE WORLD; ALL COME FROM THE SAME OBVERSE DIE (INFORMATION FROM S.ESTIOT)
12 SOLDIERS WITH SHIELD ON SHIELD
Barnaba6
1378~0.jpg
PROBUS RIC 383 VAR. F8 BUST 16 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: ERCVLI PACIFERO
BUST TYPE: F8 = radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield, seen from rear
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//VIXXT
WEIGHT 3.21g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 22-23 mm
RIC 383 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH F8 BUST)
COLLECTION NO. 1378

Ex M. Vosper collection

Scarce and desirable bust type!

ONLY 2nd SPECIMEN OF THIS EXACR TYPE KNOWN TO ME (THE OTHER BEING E-bay, aps89herv; 06.01.2017)
Barnaba6
506~1.jpg
PROBUS RIC 472 AEQVIT SERIES 16 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: V/-//QXXI
WEIGHT 4.81g / AXIS: 1h / WIDTH 21-24mm
RIC 472
COLLECTION NO. 506
THIS COIN IS PART OF THE EXTREMELY RARE CODED AEQVIT SERIES (PINK’S 7TH TICINUM EMMISSION) - LETTER "V"
Barnaba6
321po.jpg
PROBUS RIC 506 21 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: I/-//QXXI
WEIGHT 4.02g / AXIS: 11h / WIDTH 22-24mm
RIC: 506
COLLECTION NO. 485
THIS COIN IS PART OF THE CODED EQVITI SERIES ("I")
Barnaba6
1270.jpg
PROBUS RIC 5078 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: I/-//QXXI
WEIGHT 3.83g / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 23-24mm
RIC: 507
COLLECTION NO. 1270
THIS COIN IS PART OF THE CODED EQVITI SERIES (first letter "I")
Barnaba6
324.jpg
PROBUS RIC 50817 views OBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: I/*//QXXI
WEIGHT 3.51g / AXIS: 6h
RIC: 508
COLLECTION NO. 239
THIS COIN IS PART OF THE CODED EQVITI SERIES ("I")
Barnaba6
936.jpg
PROBUS RIC 50814 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: I/-//QXXI
WEIGHT 4.20g / AXIS: 6h
RIC: 508
COLLECTION NO. 936
THIS COIN IS PART OF THE CODED EQVITI SERIES ("I")
Barnaba6
68.jpg
PROBUS RIC 50919 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI A_VG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: I/*//QXXI
WEIGHT 3.76g / AXIS: 5h / WIDTH 21-22,5mm
RIC: 509
COLLECTION NO. 786
THIS COIN IS PART OF THE CODED EQVITI SERIES (FIRST LETTER "I")
Barnaba6
179~0.jpg
PROBUS RIC 50910 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: I/-//QXXI
WEIGHT 3.63g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 20mm
RIC: 509
COLLECTION NO. 179
THIS COIN IS PART OF THE CODED EQVITI SERIES ("I")
Barnaba6
1055.jpg
PROBUS RIC 51011 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI INVICTI AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: I/-//QXXI
WEIGHT 3.33g / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER 22-23mm
RIC: 510
COLLECTION NO. 1055
EX PH. GYSEN COLLECTION
RARE
THIS COIN IS PART OF THE EQVITI SERIES (SEE FIRST LETTER "I" IN LEFT FIELD)
Barnaba6
85.jpg
PROBUS RIC 512 38 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG CONS IIII
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: I/-//QXXI
WEIGHT 3.73g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH 23mm
RIC 512
COLLECTION NO. 824
THIS COIN IS PART OF THE CODED EQVITI SERIES (FIRST "I")
ONLY 3rd KNOWN SPECIMEN IN THE WORLD !!!
Barnaba6
1303~0.jpg
PROBUS RIC 512 (MULE OF 9TH AND 10 TH EMMISSION) 5 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG CONS IIII
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2 = Radiate bust left in consular robe, holding scipio
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: I/*//QXXI
WEIGHT 3.52g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH: 21-24 mm
RIC: 512
COLLECTION NO. 1303

Very rare and desirable consular obverse legend!

THIS COIN IS PART OF THE CODED EQVITI SERIES (see first letter "I" in left field).

This coin is an interesting mule between 9th emmission (consul IIII in obverse legend instead of consvl V) and 10 th emmission (with star in field)

Ex Ph. Gysen collection

THE ONLY SPECIMEN OF THIS EXACT (HYBRIDUAL) TYPE KNOWN TO ME. POSSIBLY UNIQUE !!!
Barnaba6
388~1.jpg
PROBUS RIC 541 11 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: --//ΔXXI
WEIGHT 3.71g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH 20-22mm
RIC 541
COLLECTION NO. 388
Barnaba6
611~0.jpg
PROBUS RIC 54123 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: Δ/-//-
WEIGHT 4.12g / AXIS: 12h / WIDTH: 20-22mm
RIC: 541
COLLECTION NO. 611
Barnaba6
47~4.jpg
PROBUS RIC 54210 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: B
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//ΔXXI
WEIGHT 1.90g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 22mm
RIC: 542
COLLECTION NO. 1042
Barnaba6
1300~0.jpg
PROBUS RIC 542 VAR. SPECTACULAR BUST TYPE !!!23 viewsOBVERSE: IMP PROBVS AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust right, holding spear up in right hand and tropaion over left shoulder
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//ΔXXI
WEIGHT 3.33g / AXIS: 12h / DIAMETER: 21-22 mm
RIC: 542 VAR. (UNLISTED WITH THIS BUST TYPE)
COLLECTION NO. 1300

NOTE: Spectacular, extremely rare and desirable bust type struck only at Ticinum, only in 4th officina and only during 6th emmission! One of the most interesting bust types in the whole coinage of Probus!

Ex Ph. Gysen collection = ex Freeman & Sear auction, June 1998

Only 4th specimen of this type known to me (the other being Numismatica Ars Classica 78/1108 and 2 ex. In La Venera hoard)
Barnaba6
23~3.jpg
PROBUS RIC 54314 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: F1 = radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//ΔXXI
WEIGHT 3.97g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 22mm
RIC: 543
COLLECTION NO.1162

NOTE: extremely rare. Only the second specimen in my Probus database (the other being from ebay auction held on 2016-02-21)

Ex M.Griffiths collection
Barnaba6
209.jpg
PROBUS RIC 54314 viewsOBVERSE: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: E1
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//ΔXXI
WEIGHT 4.06g / AXIS: 6h / WIDTH mm
RIC: 543
COLLECTION NO. 209
Barnaba6
20.jpg
PROBUS RIC 54416 viewsOBVERSE: IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS III
REVERSE: MARTI PACIF
BUST TYPE: H2 = radiate bust left in consular robe, holding eagle-tipped sceptre (scipio)
FIELD / EXERGUE MARKS: -/-//ΔXXI
WEIGHT 3.35g / AXIS: 6h / DIAMETER: 19-21mm
RIC: 544 (R2)
COLLECTION NO. 1146
Very rare
Virtually as struck with full silvering and mint luster!
Barnaba6
8438_8439~0.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, AEQVITI Series, Rome5 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: ?
23.0mm 4.20gr 6h
O: PROBV-S PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust, right.
R: MARTI P-A-CIF; Mars walking left, helmeted, holding branch in right hand, holding spear and shield in left hand.
Exergue: RQΓ
Rome Mint, Third officina.
AEQVITI Series Rome
RIC V-2 Rome 177, Γ
Aorta: B72, O94, R76, T38, M4
sjbcoins/Mark Alexandrov via Stoian Belkin 401684412058
1/20/19 2/11/19
Coin three of seven.
Nicholas Z
3201_3202~0.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, EQVITI Series 2, Ticinum13 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 279 - 281AD
22.5 x 21.5mm 3.78gr
O: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield.
R: MARTI PACIF; Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield.
Exergue: I, left field; QXXI, below line.
Ticinum Mint, Fourth officina.
Second Series of EQVITI issues of Ticinum. This is coin four of six.
RIC V-2 Ticinum 509
Aorta: 555: B15, O99, R76, T38, M7.
Aegean Numismatics through Agora Auctions, Lot 270. Stock #0714207
12/5/16 1/20/17
Nicholas Z
3201_3202.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF: EQVITI Series, Ticinum, I, QXXI9 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 279 - 281AD
22.5 x 21.5mm 3.78gr
O: VIRTVS PROBI AVG; Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left, holding spear over shoulder and shield.
R: MARTI PACIF; Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield.
Exergue: I, left field; QXXI, below line.
Ticinum Mint, Fourth officina.
Second Series of EQVITI issues of Ticinum. This is coin four of six.
RIC V-2 Ticinum 509
Aorta: 555: B15, O99, R76, T38, M7.
Aegean Numismatics through Agora Auctions, Lot 270. Stock #0714207
12/5/16 1/20/17
Nicholas Z
8438_8439.jpg
Probus, Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF; AEQVITI Series, Rome, RQΓ3 viewsAE Antoninianus
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: ?
23.0mm 4.20gr 6h
O: PROBV-S PF AVG; Radiate, cuirassed bust, right.
R: MARTI P-A-CIF; Mars walking left, helmeted, holding branch in right hand, holding spear and shield in left hand.
Exergue: RQΓ, below line.
Rome Mint
AEQVITI Series
RIC V-2 Rome 177, Γ
Aorta: B72, O94, R76, T38, M4
sjobcoins/Mark Alexandrov via Stoian Belkin 401684412058 Inv. # M2832
1/20/19 2/11/19
Nicholas Z
probus_(ticinum)509_I.jpg
Probus, RIC V, 509 (#1)10 viewsProbus, AD 276-282
AE - Antoninianus, 3.36g, 23.09mm, 180°
Ticinum, 4th officina, 2nd series, AD 281
obv. VRTVS PROBI AVG
Bust, helmeted and radiate, cuirassed, l., with r. hand holding spear over r. shoulder, shield on l. shoulder
rev. MARTI PACIF
Mars, helmeted and wearing miltary cloak, advancing l., holding in extended r. hand branch and in l. hand spear and shield
in l. field I
in ex. QXXI
RIC V/2, 509; C.358
about EF, black brown patina, obv. slightly excentric
Pedigree:
ex Kricheldorf/Stuttgart, 1.8.1985

This is a coded coin from the Probus EQVITI series #2. For more informations please look at Forum Resources!
Jochen
probus_Ticinum_509_I_stern.jpg
Probus, RIC V, 509 (#2)24 viewsProbus, AD 276-282
AE - Antoninianus, 3.81g
Ticinum, 4th officina, 3rd series, AD 281
obv. VRTVS PROBI AVG
Bust, helmeted and radiate, cuirassed, l., with r. hand holding spear over r. shoulder, shield on l. shoulder
rev. MARTI PACIF
Mars, helmeted and wearing miltary cloak, advancing l., holding in extended r. hand branch and in l. hand spear and shield
in l. field I, in r. field star
in ex. QXXI
RIC V/2, 509; C.358
VF

This is a coded coin from the Probus EQVITI series #3. For more informations please look at Forum Resources!
Jochen
100_0751.JPG
Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D23 viewsEQVITI Series II of Ticinum, I, QXXI.
Silvered antoninianus, Choice aEF, 4th officina, Ticinum mint, ; obverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG , radiate, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, spear across shoulder in right, shield on left; reverse MARTI PACIF, Mars advancing left, holding olive-branch, shield and spear, I left, QXXI in ex; sharp strike with full circles centering, much silver remaining; Ticinum mint EQVITI series II - The letter `I` in the reverse field is the fourth letter of the codeword EQVITI. The letter `Q` in the exergue indicates this coin was struck by the fourth officina (mint workshop). The letters of the word EQVITI are coded in the mintmarks of coins from all the officinae of the mint, with the specific letters of the codeword assigned to each officina in order corresponding with their officina numbers. This codeword probably refers to cavalry. It may be AEQVITI truncated because there were only six officinae in operation. RIC V 509.
simmurray
quintilus-_ric24.jpg
Quintillus - RIC V, 2410 views19 mm, 2.8 g.
IMP CM AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG
MARTI PACIF - X left

Roma 270 AD.
xokleng
quintillus3.jpg
Quintillus or Claudius mars antoninianus19 viewsMart Pacif(or l). Mars advancing left holding olive branch,spear and shield. X in left field. Radiate and cuirassed bust right.Rome mint.tiberiusjulius
RI_132sc_img.jpg
RI 132sc img22 viewsObv:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust left with spear and shield
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left holding olive branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinum (I in left field, QXXI in exe) Emission 9 Officina 4. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 509 Bust type G
Part of coded EQVITI series (first I)
maridvnvm
R177_w.JPG
RIC 17715 viewsRIC 177, MPR 491; Rome. Bust type F, (B). Denomination: Antoninianus.
This coin is part of the AEQVITI series of Rome.

OBV.: PROBVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right.

REV.: MARTI PACIF
Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield. Billowing cloak behind shield.

Mintmark: // RQΓ

AEQVITI

Weight: ?
Die axis: ?
Diameter: ?

vrtsprb
R177_050917_xD_134o.JPG
RIC 17724 viewsRIC 177, MPR 491; Rome. Bust type F, (B). Denomination: Antoninianus.
This coin is part of the AEQVITI series of Rome.

OBV.: PROBVS P F AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right.

REV.: MARTI PACIF
Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield. Billowing cloak behind shield.

Mintmark: // RQΓ

AEQVITI

Weight: 4.08 g.
Die axis: ?
Diameter: ?

Ex. Dattari
vrtsprb
R375_240102_GK.JPG
RIC 37519 viewsRIC 375, Ticinum. Bust type H, (H2). Denomination: Antoninianus.

OBV.: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG
Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
REV.: ERCVLI PACIF
Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin.

Mintmark: // SXXT

Weight: ?
vrtsprb
Aemilian_1.jpg
RIC 4c, p.196, 15 - Aemilianus, Mars41 viewsAemilianus (253)
Antoninian
Rome
Obv: IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, bust radiate, draped, cuirassed right
Rev: MAR-TI PACIF, Mars advancing left, holding branch, shield, and spear.
Ref.: RIC 15
Ag, 2.89g, 20.56mm
Ex Lanz Numismatik 155
2 commentsshanxi
R509_080302_GK.JPG
RIC 50912 viewsRIC 509, Ticinum. Bust type G, (E1). Denomination: Antoninianus.
This coin is part of the EQVITI series of Ticinum.

OBV.: VIRTVS PROBI AVG
Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
REV.: MARTI PACIF
Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.

Mintmark: I|- // QXXI

EQVITI

Weight: 4.13 g.
vrtsprb
R542_240102_GK.JPG
RIC 54211 viewsRIC 542, Ticinum. Bust type F, (B). Denomination: Antoninianus.

OBV.: IMP C PROBVS AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right.
REV.: MARTI PACIF

Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.

Mintmark: // ΔXXI

Weight: ?
Die axis: ?
Diameter: ?
vrtsprb
CLODIUS_ALBINUS.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Clodius Albinus15 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Clodius Albinus (193-197) , as Caesar, AR Denarius, 193/194. D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES, bare head right / MINER PACIF COS II, Minerva standing facing with olive branch, shield & spear. RIC 7, RSC 48. dpaul7
GALLIENUS_MARTI_PACIFERO.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - Gallienus31 viewsROMAN EMPIRE - Gallienus (253-268 AD) AR Antoninianus. Rome mint. Obv.: GALLIENVS AVG Radiate head right. Rev.: MARTI PACIFERO Mars standing left, holding olive-branch, spear & shield, A in left field. References: RIC 236; Cohen 617. dpaul7
Aemilianus_AR-Ant_IMP-AEMILIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG_MARTI-PACIF_RIC-IV-III-5b-p195_C-22_253-AD_R_Q-001_axis-1h_19-22,5mm_3,25g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Aemilianus (253 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 005b, Rome, MARTI PACIF, Rare!365 views085 Aemilianus (253 A.D.), AR-Antoninianus, RIC IV-III 005b, Rome, MARTI PACIF, Rare!
avers:- IMP-AEMILIANVS-PIVS-FEL-AVG, Radiate, draped bust right.
revers:- MARTI-PACIF, Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear with shield.
exerg: , diameter: 19-22,5 mm, weight: 3,25 g, axis: 1 h,
mint: Rome, date: 253 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-5b, p195, C-22, R!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
bpS1A9ClodAlbinus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Clodius Albinus88 viewsObv: D CLOD SEPT ALBIN CAES
Bare head, right.
Rev: MINER PACIF COS II
Minerva, helmeted, standing left, holding olive branch in right hand and left hand resting on shield while spear rests on arm.
Denarius, 2.2 gm, 17.2 mm, Rome RIC 7.
2 commentsMassanutten
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_MARTI-PACIFERO_H_RIC-V-I-236-p-151_C-614_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_22mm_3,83g-s.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236H, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left,159 views090 Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-I 236H, Rome, Sole reign, MARTI PACIFERO, Mars left,
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, Radiated bust right.
revers:- MARTI-PACIFERO, Mars standing left holding shield on ground in let and olive branch in right, spear behind, H in left field.
exerg: H/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,83g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 253-268-A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-236H, p-151,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Gallienus Antoninian - unpublished328 viewsGallienus AR-Antoninianus, struck at Milan mint.
Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust with bare back and large aegis on strap left.
Rev: VIRTVS AVGG, Hercules standing right, holding club and lion skin.
Ø 20-24 mm 3.12 g.
Not in RIC and Göbl, apparently unpublished.

Curtis Clay and his friend Markus Weder kindly provided me with some additional information:
"Other examples of this rare bust type on Milan coins of the same issue: Göbl pl. 82, 1034u (rev. MARTI PACIFE, P in l. field); pl. 84, 1044u (rev. VIRTVS AVGG, Hercules stg. l. holding branch, club, and lionskin). Neither ill. spec. is from the same obv. die as your coin.
Other AVGG coins of the same issue at Milan: pl. 84, 1044u, just cited; 1045o (apparently from the same VIRTVS AVGG rev. die, different sort of armored obv. die). Pl. 72, 937z (ADVENTVS AVGG Emp. on horseback, obv. of Saloninus as Caesar). Pl. 71, 929r (bronze medallion, ADLOCVTIO AVGG Emp. and two attendants on platform addressing troops)." Markus Weder knows of just one other specimen of my coin, ex Gibraltar hoard, it is in his own collection.
Pscipio
Photo_2006_5_15_23_12_59_edited.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus MARTI PACIFERO79 viewsGallienus, 264-267 A.D., Rome mint.
OBV: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right.
REV: MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left holding olive branch, shield, and spear. A in left field.

Any help as to the mint dates and the mint itself are greatly appreciated.
2 commentsancientcoins
Galli_marti_pacifero.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, AE Antoninianus10 viewsNumis-Student
1092_gallienus_marti_pacifero_cmpl.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Antoninianus, Marti Pacifero11 viewsFranz-Josef M
moneta 292.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus, Rome - RIC V (Part 1) 23647 viewsGallienus Antoninianus
obv: GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate bust right
rev: MARTI PACIFERO. Mars standing left with olive branch, spear & shield.
left field: A
Struck 253-260 A.D. at Rome
RIC V (Part 1) 236
Van Meter 168
Jericho
Nero Sesterzio Partaiani.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Nero, sesterius637 viewsNero, Sestertius. On reverse the temple of Janus with closed doors. Nero was a pacifist, he was proud that during his reign there was peace, so the doors of the temple were closed. 3 commentsPLINIUS
Postumus2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus15 viewsCologne mint, 262

IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG,
radiated, draped and cuirassed bust r.
HERC PACIFERO
Hercules standing l., holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin

RIC V 67
Michael V
po-09G.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus - HERC PACIFERO10 views21mm - 2,96g
IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
HERC PACIFERO
AGK 27 (C4) ; EG 26
gascogne
Probus8.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Probus, Antoninianus22 viewsRome Mint, 282 AD.

PROBVS P F AVG
radiate cuirassed bust right
MARTI PACIF
Mars walking left holding olive-branch, spear & shield, billowing cloak behind shield,
RQG in ex.

RIC 177
Michael V
QuintillusMartiGallery~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Quintillus - MARTI PACI30 viewsObv:– IMP QVIN[TILLVS AVG], Radiate, draped bust right
Rev:– MARTI PACI, Mars standing left, holding olive-branch & spear
Minted in Milan. (P in exe). A.D. 270
Reference:– RIC 58. RCV #11447
black-prophet
Tacitus_AE-Antoninianus_IMP-CM-CL-TACITVS-AVG-(B1)_MART-I-P-ACIF-(M1c)_S_RIC-145_T-3366_iss-1_off_2_Ticinum-275-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_22mm_3,76g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3366, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-B1, Mars left, #1336 views110 Tacitus (275-276 A.D.), T-3366, RIC V-I 145, Ticinum, AE-Antoninianus, MARTI PACIF, -/-//S, Bust-B1, Mars left, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-CL-TACITVS-AVG, Bust right, radiate, cuirassed. (B1).
revers:- MART-I-P-ACIF, Mars in military dress walking l., holding olive branch in r. hand, transverse spear and long oval shield in l. hand. (Mars 1c).
exerg: -/-//S, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,76g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, iss.-1., off.-2., date: 276 AD., ref: RIC-145., T-(Estiot)-3366, C-,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Screenshot_2019-06-05_17_23_29.png
Roman Imperial, Septimius Severus as Augustus, AR Denarius.6 viewsRome 197-198 A.D. 2.63g - 17mm. Axis 12h.

Obv: [L SEPT SEV PERT] AVG IMP X - Laureate head right.

Rev: MARTI PACIFERO - Mars standing left, foot on cuirass, holding branch and inverted spear.

RIC IV-I 113.
Ex Roma Numismatics Limited. https://www.acsearch.info/search.html?id=5190032
scarli
40370449_2264795470418335_8607393213151444992_n.jpg
Roman Imperial, Septimus Severus Denarius. (197-198 AD)8 viewsRoman Imperial, Septimus Severus Denarius. (197-198 AD)

L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, laureate head right.

MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left, right foot atop of helmet & holding branch & reversed spear.

RIC 113, RSC 315, BMC 250
Gil-galad
Maximianus_RICV-377.jpg
Roman Imperial: Maximianus (286-305 CE) Æ Antoninianus, Lugdunum (RIC V 377)12 viewsObv: IMP C C VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG; radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximianus right
Rev: HERCVLI PACIFERO; Hercules standing facing, head left, holding olive branch, club and lion's skin; Γ in left field
Quant.Geek
Max1.jpg
Roman Maximinus I Sestertius9 viewsAE Sestertius
Rome AD 235

Obv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Rev: MARTI PACIFERO SC ; Mars stg. l. foot on helmet, holding olive-branch and resting on spear

RIC 55
Tanit
76279q00.jpg
Roman, Probus, Summer 276 - September 282 A.D.44 viewsRA76279. Silvered antoninianus, Pink VI-1, p. 63; RIC V-2 376 (S) var. (cuirass); Cohen VI 283 var. (same); Hunter IV 131 var. (same, and obv legend); SRCV III 11984 (same), Choice aEF, some mint luster, most silvering remains, fantastic heroic bust, light corrosion, weight 3.341 g, maximum diameter 22.8 mm, die axis 0o, 5th officina, Ticinum (Pavia, Italy) mint, 4 emission, 278 A.D.; obverse VIRTVS PROBI AVG (the valor of Emperor Probus), radiate bust left from behind, spear left in right hand, back bare but for balteus over right shoulder and rectangular Aegis shield with square corner in on left shoulder; reverse HERCVLI PACIF (to Hercules the pacifier), Hercules standing left, raising branch in extended right, club and Nemean Lion skin in left, VXXT in exergue; very rareJoe Sermarini
s_mp.jpg
Septimius Severus denarius60 viewsRIC 113 (3 gm, 17 mm).
Mint of Rome, 198 AD.

Small early flan, but centered & bold.
Mighty Mars!

MARTI PACIFERO
1 commentsneander
ricIV133aORweb.jpg
Septimius Severus denarius, RIC IV 133a42 viewsRome mint, Septimius Severus denarius, 198-200 A.D. AR, 16mm 2.59g, RIC IV 133a
O: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, laureate head right
R: MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left, foot on cuirass, branch in right inverted spear in left
3 commentscasata137ec
Septimius_Severus_Mars_Left.JPG
Septimius Severus Mars left22 viewsSeptimius Severus, Silver Denarius, Rome, 197 - 198 AD, SEAR 6311, RSC 315, RIC 113,
OBV: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X, laureate head right
REV: MARTI PACIFERO, Mars standing left, holding branch and spear, right foot on helmet

SCARCE
Romanorvm
ss_martic_pac_k.jpg
Septimius Severus, AD 193-2118 viewsAR denarius, 17mm, 3.7g, 12h; Rome mint, AD 197-198.
Obv.: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X; Laureate head right.
Rev.: MARTI PACIFERO; Mars standing left, holding olive branch and spear.
Reference: RIC IVa 113
John Anthony
9104_9105.jpg
Septimius Severus, Denarius, MARTI PACIFERO6 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus
Augustus: 193 - 211AD
Issued: 197 - 198AD
16.0mm 3.18gr 0h
O: L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP X; Laureate head, right.
R: MARTI PACIFERO; Mars standing left, stepping on helmet, holding branch and spear.
Rome Mint
RIC IV-1 Rome 113; Sear 6311; RSC 315.
Aorta: 679: B3, O59, R194, T113, M4.
Savoca Auctions London/Philipp Eckhert 3rd Blue Auction, Lot 1098
6/9/19 7/6/19
Nicholas Z
RIC_Severus_Alexander_SRCV_78874_Marti_Pacifero.jpg
Severus Alexander (Marcus Aurelius Alexander) (Caesar, 221-222 A.D.; Augustus, 222-235 A.D.)6 viewsSRCV 7884, RIC IV 160, Van Meter 26.

AR Denarius, 2.37 g., 19.69 mm. max., 180°.

Rome mint, second emission, struck 222 A.D.

Obv: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.

Rev: MARTI P-A-CIFERO, Mars standing facing, head left, branch upward in right hand, reversed spear in left.

"Mars the Pacifier" alludes to victory in war as an effective way to achieve peace.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
00003.jpg
Severus Alexander (RIC 160, Coin #3)6 viewsRIC 160 (C), AR Denarius, Rome, 222 AD.
Obv: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Rev: MARTI PACIFERO Mars standing left, holding branch and reversed spear.
Size: 19.9mm 1.78gm
MaynardGee
sev-alexander_ar-denarius_mars_Eastern-Mint_feb2012.jpg
Severus Alexander - Eastern Mint - MARTI PACIFERO29 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Emperor Severus Alexander ( 222 - 235 AD)
Silver Denarius.
Eastern Mint.

"Mars Pacifies"
obv: IMP C M AUR SEV ALEXAND AUG - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed.
rev: MARTI PACIFERO - Mars standing facing left, holding spear in one hand and branch in the other.

Size: 19 mm - 20 mm
Weight: 2.8 Grams
~~~~
*More Info: Beautiful Eastern style young bust of the Emperor, slight pitting on the reverse.*
~~~
~~
~
4 commentsrexesq
SevAlex-RIC-289.jpg
Severus Alexander / RIC 28923 viewsDenarius, 222-223 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Rev: MARTI PACIFERO / Mars standing, holding branch and reversed spear.
3.05 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #289.
Callimachus
severus_alexander_160.jpg
Severus Alexander RIC IV, 16060 viewsSeverus Alexander 222-235
AR - Denar, 3.12g, 20.5mm
Rome AD 222
obv. IMP CM AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, laureate head r.
rev. MARTI PACIFERO
Mars standing , head l., holding olive-branch and reversed spear
RIC IV/ 2, 160; BMCR 68; C.173
good VF
2 commentsJochen
PROBUS_MARS_RQM.JPG
Struck A.D.276 - 282. PROBUS. AE ANTONINIANUS of Rome18 viewsObverse: PROBVS P F AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust of Probus with aegis, facing right.
Reverse: MARTI PACIF. Mars advancing left, holding olive-branch in raised right hand, spear and decorated shield in left; in exergue, R Q Γ.
Diameter: 21mm | Weight: 3.4gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC V ii : 177.
Part of the "AEQVITI" series of Rome, this coin = "Q".
1 comments*Alex
tacitus-mars-ant-reshoot.jpg
Tacitus AE Antoninianus, 275-276 AD - Mars29 viewsRoman Imperial, Tacitus AE Antoninianus, (275-276 AD), 3.6g, 23mm

Obverse: IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: MARTI PACIF, Mars advancing left, holding branch, spear and shield. XXIVI in ex. "Martial Pacification" "Twenty parts base metal to one part silver ratio value - 6th workshop"

Reference: RIC temp 3764

Ex: Rudi Smits
Gil-galad
rjb_prob_tic507.jpg
Ticinum 509149 viewsAntoninianus
VIRTVS PROBI AVG
Helmeted, radiate, cuirassed bust left with spear and shield
MARTI PACIF
Mars advancing left with spear, shield and olive branch
Ticinum, I/-//QXXI
RIC 509
1 commentsmauseus
trebgallus ant-~2.jpg
TREBONIANUS GALLUS antoninianus - 251-253 AD23 viewsobv: IMP C C VIB TREB GALLVS P F AVG (Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: MARTI PACIFERO (Mars advancing left, holding branch and spear)
ref: RIC85, C.72 (3frcs)
mint: Antioch
3.71gms
Scarce
berserker
268 Volusian.jpg
Volusian, RIC 220, Antioch37 viewsObv: IMP C C VIB VOLVSIANVS AVG
Bust: Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev: MARTI PACIFERO
Mars rushing left holding branch and spear.
Exe: None
Date: 251-253 AD
Denom: Antoninianus
Rated "R"
Bluefish
SeptSeverus.jpg
[1001a] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.63 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 32, RSC 301, VF, 2.966g, 16.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, 194 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP III, laureate head right; reverse LIBERO PATRI, Liber (Bacchus) standing left, in right ocnochoe over panther, thysus in left; excellent portrait; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
SeptSevArDen.jpg
[1001b] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.45 viewsSeptimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Silver denarius, RIC 119A. aF. Rome. Obverse: L. SEP. SEVERVS PER. AVG. P. M. IMP. XI, His bearded and laureated head right. Reverse: SALVTI AVGG. Salus seated left feeding serpent arising from altar(?). Scarce. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves.[[3]] By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin754.jpg
[18H759a] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta49 viewsVespasian. 69-71 AD. AR Denarius;17mm, 3.28g; Hendin 759, RIC 15. Obverse: Laureate head right; Reverse: Jewess seated right, on ground, mourning below right of trophy, IVDAEA below. Ex Imperial Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VesJudCapt.jpg
[18H759] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta173 viewsSilver denarius, Hendin 759, RIC 15, BM 35, RSC 226, S 2296, Fair, 2.344g, 17.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 69-70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA in exergue, Jewess, mourning, seated at right of trophy.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin779.jpg
[18H779] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta issue132 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, Hendin 779, RIC II 1160, BMCRE 809 (same dies), aVF, Lugdunum mint, 9.969g, 27.7mm, 180o, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS S C, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left (Refers to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea); rough; rare (R2). Ex FORVM.




De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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Shapur2ARDirhemGobl1a_1.jpg
[1909a] SHAPUR II, AR DIRHEM, 309 - 379 76 viewsSasanian Empire: Shapur II, AR Dirhem, 309 - 379 C.E., Gobl 1a/1, 26mm, 2.73 grams; near EF; Obverse: Crowned bust right; Reverse: Fire altar between two attendants. PRIME example and SHARP. This is the Shevor Malka mentioned in the Talmud in the story of Rabba.


Shapur II, The Great

Shapur II (The Great) was the ninth King of the Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379. During his long reign, the Sassanid Empire saw its first Golden Era since the reign of Shapur I (241–272).

Early childhood
When King Hormizd II (302–309) died, the Persian magnates killed his eldest son, blinded the second, and imprisoned the third (Hormizd, who afterwards escaped to the Roman Empire). The throne was reserved for the unborn child of one of the wives of Hormizd II, who was Jewish. It is said that Shapur II may have been the only king in history to been crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. This child, named Shapur, was therefore born king; the government was conducted by his mother and the magnates. But when Shapur II came of age, he turned out to be one of the greatest monarchs of the dynasty.

Conquests
During the early years of the reign of Shapur, Arabs crossed the Persian Gulf from Bahrain to "Ardashir-Khora" of Fars and raided the interior. In retaliation, Shapur led an expedition through Bahrain, defeated the combined forces of the Arab tribes of "Taghleb", "Bakr bin Wael", and "Abd Al-Qays" and advanced temporarily into Yamama in central Najd.He resettled these tribes in Kerman and Ahvaz. Arabs named him, as "Shabur Dhul-aktāf" or "Zol 'Aktāf" that means "The owner of the shoulders" after this battle. In 337, just before the death of Constantine I (324–337), Shapur II broke the peace concluded in 297 between Narseh (293–302) and Emperor Diocletian (284–305), which had been observed for forty years. A twenty-six year conflict (337–363) began in two series of wars, the first from 337 to 350. After crushing a rebellion in the south, he headed toward Mesopotamia and recaptured Armenia. From there he started his first campaign against Constantius II, a campaign which was mostly unsuccessful for Shapur II. He was unable to take the fortress of Singara in the Siege of Singara (344). Shapur II also attempted with limited success to conquer the great fortresses of Roman Mesopotamia, Nisibis (which he besieged three times in vain) and Amida.

Although often victorious, Shapur II made scarcely any progress. At the same time he was attacked in the east by nomad tribes, among whom the Xionites are named. After a prolonged struggle (353–358) they were forced to conclude a peace, and their king, Grumbates, accompanied Shapur II in the war against the Romans.

In 358 Shapur II was ready for his second series of wars against Rome, which met with much more success. In 359, Shapur II conquered Amida after a siege of seventy-three days, and he took Singara and some other fortresses in the next year (360). In 363 the Emperor Julian (361–363), at the head of a strong army, advanced to Shapur's capital at Ctesiphon and defeated a superior Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, but was killed during his retreat. His successor Jovian (363–364) made an ignominious peace, by which the districts beyond the Tigris which had been acquired in 298 were given to the Persians along with Nisibis and Singara, and the Romans promised to interfere no more in Armenia. The great success is represented in the rock-sculptures near the town Bishapur in Persis (Stolze, Persepolis, p. 141); under the hoofs of the king's horse lies the body of an enemy, probably Julian, and a supplicant Roman, the Emperor Jovian, asks for peace.

Shapur II now invaded Armenia, where he took King Arshak II, the faithful ally of the Romans, prisoner by treachery and forced him to commit suicide. He then attempted to introduce Zoroastrian orthodoxy into Armenia. However, the Armenian nobles resisted him successfully, secretly supported by the Romans, who sent King Pap, the son of Arsaces III, into Armenia. The war with Rome threatened to break out again, but Valens sacrificed Pap, arranging for his assassination in Tarsus, where he had taken refuge (374). Shapur II subdued the Kushans and took control of the entire area now known as Afghanistan. Shapur II had conducted great hosts of captives from the Roman territory into his dominions, most of whom were settled in Susiana. Here he rebuilt Susa, after having killed the city's rebellious inhabitants.

By his death in 379 the Persian Empire was stronger than ever before, considerably larger than when he came to the throne; the eastern enemies were pacified and Persia had gained control over Armenia.

Contributions
Under Shapur II's reign the collection of the Avesta was completed, heresy and apostasy punished. Shapur recovered Armenia, which he placed under military occupation. Armenia had in the meantime accepted Christianity, and Shapur, an orthodox Zoroastrian, at first persecuted the Christians but later recognized their autonomy and respected their religion. He had a large rock sculpture made near Shapur to commemorate his victory over the Romans.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shapur_II

Author not available, SHAPUR II., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2007. Copyright 2007 Columbia University Press.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





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