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Search results - "Ottoman"
1794798_625273070842941_514968526_n_(1).jpg
61 viewsOttoman akche
Suleiman 1 "Kanuni"
926/1520/---974/1566/
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMITATIVE OTTOMAN.jpg
*IMITATION OTTOMAN Cedid Mahmudiye969 viewsThis piece came in a bag of modern Foreign coins - 21 pounds! May be gold inside!!!
The dating did not seem right to me! From the experts at Zeno, I found a similar issue..... This attribution from Zeno:
Imitation of gold cedid mahmudiye (KM, Turkey #645) with distorted inscriptions and fantasy regnal year 78. Made for jewelry purposes throughout the 19th and early 20th century, very likely outside Turkey: similar imitations are met in abundance in South Russia and Ukraine, along the shores of Black and Azov seas, where they were widely used for adorning Gypsy and native Greek women's garments.

So, as you see, it is not exactly a FAKE or a COUNTERFEIT - it is an IMITATION, so the makers could not get into trouble. The regnal years alone would show that the coin was not "real" -

An interesting piece that may turn up from time to time!
dpaul7
MurIKab03-X-43.jpg
0760-0791 AH - Murad I - cf. N. Kabaklarli # 03-X-43 - Ottoman Mangir81 viewsSultan: Murad I (r. 1359-1389 AD)
Date: 1359-1389 AD (760-791 AH)
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Mangir

Obverse: Four curls separated by two colons in two rectangular boxes.

Reverse: Four curls separated by two colons in two rectangular boxes.

cf. N. Kabaklarli # 03-X-43
1.58g; 16.5mm; 135 or 315°
Pep
MehIIVtine38.jpg
0855-0886 AH - Mehmed II - Valentine #38 - Ottoman Mangir85 viewsSultan: Mehmed II (r. 1444-1448 AD, 1451-1481 AD)
Date: 1451-1481 AD (855-886 AH)
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Mangir

Obverse: Muh bin (Murad)

Reverse: Kallad mulkah (Adrina)

Edirne (Adrina) mint
Valentine #38
1.37g; 14.0mm; 180°

Note: If I don't have this coin oriented correctly, please tell me how to. Thank you.
1 commentsPep
SulIKab10Adr03.jpg
0926-0974 AH - Suleyman I - Kabaklarly 10 - Adr - 03 - Ottoman Mangir64 viewsSultan: Suleyman I (1520-1566 AD)
Date: 1520-1566 AD (926-974 AH)
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Mangir

Obverse: Two round-ended rectangles crossed, superimposed on a square with incurved sides.

Reverse: Arabic inscription.
926 AH

Edirne mint
Kabaklarly 10 - Adr - 03
2.66g; 15.9mm; 45°
Pep
MuradIII.jpg
0982-0983 AH - Murad III - Ottoman Mangir92 viewsSultan: Murad III (r. 1574-1595 AD)
Date: 1574-1576 AD (982 or 983 AH)
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Mangir

Obverse: Design

Reverse: Blank

Mint: Egypt
8.08g; 18.1mm; 4.77mm thick; ?°
Pep
SulIIVtine144.jpg
1099-1102 AH - Suleyman II - 20-Qos-01 - Ottoman Mangir90 viewsSultan: Suleyman II (r. 1687-1691 AD)
Date: 1687-1691 AD (1099-1102 AH)
Condition: Fair/Fine
Denomination: Mangir

Obverse: Symbol of the Ottoman Empire

Reverse: doreb fi Qstantaniyyah
Struck at Qstantaniyyah (Kostantiniye)
Exergue: 1099 (Suleyman II's rule beginning 1099 AH (1687 AD))

20-Qos-01; Valentine #144; KM #87
1.51g; 19.3mm; 345°
Pep
CaligulaSmyrnaRPC2473.jpg
704a, Caligula, 16 March 37 - 24 January 41 A.D.101 viewsCaligula, 37 - 41 AD, Ionia, Smyrna. AE 17mm. Klose, Smyrna 27a. RPC 2473. 2.89 gm. Fine. Menophanes, Aviola, Procos, 37-38 AD. Obverse: AION, laureate head right; Reverse: Nike holding wreath right. Ex Tom Vossen.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

GAIUS (CALIGULA) (A.D. 37-41)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (Caligula) was born on 31 August, A.D. 12, probably at the Julio-Claudian resort of Antium (modern Anzio), the third of six children born to Augustus's adopted grandson, Germanicus, and Augustus's granddaughter, Agrippina. Caligula was the Roman Emperor between A.D. 37-41). Unfortunately, his is the most poorly documented reign of the Julio-Claudian dynasty. The literary sources for these four years are meager, frequently anecdotal, and universally hostile.[[1]] As a result, not only are many of the events of the reign unclear, but Gaius himself appears more as a caricature than a real person, a crazed megalomaniac given to capricious cruelty. Although some headway can be made in disentangling truth from embellishment, the true character of the youthful emperor will forever elude us.

As a baby he accompanied his parents on military campaigns in the north and was shown to the troops wearing a miniature soldier's outfit, including the hob-nailed sandal called caliga, whence the nickname by which posterity remembers him. His childhood was not a happy one, spent amid an atmosphere of paranoia, suspicion, and murder. Instability within the Julio-Claudian house, generated by uncertainty over the succession, led to a series of personal tragedies.

When Tiberius died on 16 March A.D. 37, Gaius was in a perfect position to assume power, despite the obstacle of Tiberius's will, which named him and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus joint heirs. (Gemellus's life was shortened considerably by this bequest, since Gaius ordered him killed within a matter of months.) Backed by the Praetorian Prefect Q. Sutorius Macro, Gaius asserted his dominance. He had Tiberius's will declared null and void on grounds of insanity, accepted the powers of the Principate as conferred by the Senate, and entered Rome on 28 March amid scenes of wild rejoicing. His first acts were generous in spirit: he paid Tiberius's bequests and gave a cash bonus to the Praetorian Guard, the first recorded donativum to troops in imperial history.

The ancient sources are practically unanimous as to the cause of Gaius's downfall: he was insane. The writers differ as to how this condition came about, but all agree that after his good start Gaius began to behave in an openly autocratic manner, even a crazed one. The sources describe his incestuous relations with his sisters, laughable military campaigns in the north, the building of a pontoon bridge across the Bay at Baiae, and the plan to make his horse a consul. Their unanimous hostility renders their testimony suspect, especially since Gaius's reported behavior fits remarkably well with that of the ancient tyrant, a literary type enshrined in Greco-Roman tradition centuries before his reign. Further, the only eye-witness account of Gaius's behavior, Philo's Embassy to Gaius, offers little evidence of outright insanity, despite the antagonism of the author, whom Gaius treated with the utmost disrespect.

The conspiracy that ended Gaius's life was hatched among the officers of the Praetorian Guard, apparently for purely personal reasons. It appears also to have had the support of some senators and an imperial freedman. As with conspiracies in general, there are suspicions that the plot was more broad-based than the sources intimate, and it may even have enjoyed the support of the next emperor Claudius, but these propositions are not provable on available evidence. On 24 January A.D. 41 the praetorian tribune Cassius Chaerea and other guardsmen caught Gaius alone in a secluded palace corridor and cut him down. He was 28 years old and had ruled three years and ten months.

Whatever damage Tiberius's later years had done to the carefully crafted political edifice created by Augustus, Gaius multiplied it a hundredfold. When he came to power in A.D. 37 Gaius had no administrative experience beyond his honorary quaestorship, and had spent an unhappy early life far from the public eye. He appears, once in power, to have realized the boundless scope of his authority and acted accordingly. For the elite, this situation proved intolerable and ensured the blackening of Caligula's name in the historical record they would dictate. The sensational and hostile nature of that record, however, should in no way trivialize Gaius's importance. His reign highlighted an inherent weakness in the Augustan Principate, now openly revealed for what it was -- a raw monarchy in which only the self-discipline of the incumbent acted as a restraint on his behavior. That the only means of retiring the wayward princes was murder marked another important revelation: Roman emperors could not relinquish their powers without simultaneously relinquishing their lives.

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Ancient Smyrna

The 5,000 year-old city of Izmir is one of the oldest cities of the Mediterranean basin. The original city was established in the third millennium BC (at present day Bayraklı), at which time it shared with Troy the most advanced culture in Anatolia.


Greek settlement is attested by the presence of pottery dating from about 1000 BC. In the first millennium BC Izmir, then known as Smyrna, ranked as one of the most important cities of the Ionian Federation. During this period, it is believed that the epic poet Homer resided here.

Lydian conquest of the city around 600 BC brought this golden age to an end. Smyrna was little more than a village throughout the Lydian and subsequent sixth century BC Persian rule. In the fourth century BC a new city was built on the slopes of Mt. Pagos (Kadifekale) during the reign of Alexander the Great. Smyrna's Roman period, beginning in the first century BC, was its second great era.

In the first century AD, Smyrna became one of the earliest centers of Christianity and it was one of the Seven Churches of Revelation. Both Revelation and the Martyrdom of Polycarp indicate the existence of a Jewish community in Smyrna as early as the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The letter to the church at Smyrna in Revelation indicates that the Christians were spiritually "rich" and apparently in conflict with the Jews (2:9).

The origins of the Christian community there, which was established in the 1st century, are unknown. Ignatius of Antioch stopped at Smyrna on his way to martyrdom in Rome in 107 AD, and he sent a letter back to the Christians there from later in his journey. Smyrna's bishop, Polycarp, was burned at the stake in Smyrna's stadium around 156 AD.

Byzantine rule came in the fourth century and lasted until the Seljuk conquest in 11th century. In 1415, under Sultan Mehmed Çelebi, Smyrna became part of the Ottoman Empire.

The city earned its fame as one of the most important port cities of the world during the 17th to 19th centuries. The majority of its population were Greek but merchants of various origins (especially Greek, French, Italian, Dutch, Armenian, Sephardi and Jewish) transformed the city into a cosmopolitan portal of trade. During this period, the city was famous for its own brand of music (Smyrneika) as well as its wide range of products it exported to Europe (Smyrna/Sultana raisins, dried figs, carpets, etc.).

Today, Izmir is Turkey's third largest city and is nicknamed "the pearl of Aegean." It is widely regarded as the most Westernized city of Turkey in terms of values, ideology, gender roles, and lifestyle.
© 2005-08 Sacred Destinations. All rights reserved.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/izmir-history.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Abdul_Hamid_Egypt.png
BCC 2934 viewsOttoman Empire
Sultan Abdul Hamid I
1774-1789 CE Egypt
Obv:Tughra (Sultan’ s Monogram)
Rev:ZURIBA FI
MISR SANAT 1187 (minted in
Egypt year) 1187 HA (1774 CE)
AR or Billon 15mm. approx.0.20g
Axis:60
This is an incredibly thin coin. The images show
through on both sides. I am not sure if this is
because it is so thin or if there was a striking error
involved. This coin was reportedly found at Caesarea
Maritima along the beach, in 1972.
v-drome
ottoman_IC5.jpg
BCC IC531 viewsIslamic-Ottoman Empire
Mahmud II 1808-1855 CE
1/4 Zer-i Mahbub
Obv:Tughra of Sultan
Rev:ZURIBA FI QUSTANTINIYA
1223, regnal year 9
(minted in Constantinople
year 1223/9 AH =1816 CE)
AU13.5mm. 0.78gm. Axis:0
v-drome
MISC_Bulgaria_Stratsimir.jpg
Bulgaria, Second Empire, Vidin Kingdom. Ivan Stratsimir (1356-1396)13 viewsDimnik & Dobrinić 11/10.1.3; Raduchev & Zhekov 1.14.6; cf. Youroukova & Penchev 107; Ljubić III, 2; cf. Moushmov 7542.

AR Groši/grosh (described in older references as a half groši/grosh); Third Chronological Group, variant B; Vidin mint; struck circa 1380-1385; .74 g., 17.52 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Nimbate bust of Christ with cross within halo, raising right hand in benediction and holding Gospel book in left hand, IC - XC (= Jesus Christ) across field, all within beaded circle, abbreviated legend +IW СRАЦИМИР ЦРББ (= Ivan Stratsimir Tsar of the Bulgars).

Rev.: Nimbate Ivan Stratsimir wearing domed crown seated facing, holding scepter decorated with a lily forming a trefoil (with the lily depicted in heraldic manner; i.e., the central petal stands upright but the side petals bend downward) in his right hand and an akakia in his left, axe between his feet, abbreviated legend +IW СRАЦИМИР ЦРББ (= Ivan Stratsimir Tsar of the Bulgars).

Ivan Alexander divided his kingdom between his two sons. Ivan Stratsimir received Vidin. In 1365, the Hungarian King Louis I of Anjou captured Vidin. Sratsimir and his family were held captive in Croatia for four years but in 1369 Sratsimir was restored to his throne under Hungarian overlordship. After the Ottoman invasion in 1388, he was forced to acknowledge Ottoman overlordship and garrisons. In 1396 Sratsimir and his subjects aligned themselves with the anti-Ottoman Crusade led by the Hungarian king Sigismund of Luxemburg. The crusade ended in disaster at the battle of Nikopol on September 25, 1396. By the end of 1397 Sultan Bayezid I approached Vidin and, assured by the promise of his safety, Ivan Stratsimir came out to meet him. On the order of Bayezid I, Ivan Stratsimir was arrested and conveyed to Bursa, while the Sultan confiscated the contents of the Vidin treasury. Sratsimir's fate is unknown. Vidin was likely annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1397, but at least part of the realm remained under the control of Sratsimir's son and heir Constantine II.
Stkp
ex_Turner.jpg
Claudio II, radiato barbarico (minimus o conio Felicissimus). Ex William Turner Collection (1792-1867)32 viewsClaudius II Gothicus
Radiato imitativo (minimus), zecca non ufficiale (originale zecca di Roma), circa 270 d.C.
AE, 0,817 gr, 12,5 mm, 0°, F
D/ DIVO CLAVDIO, testa radiata a dx
R/ CONSECRATIO, altare fiammeggiante
cf SRCV III 11462 and RIC V 261 (ufficiale, zecca di Roma)
Provenienza: ex William Turner Collection, lotto 396 (questa moneta). Acquisita da Turner tra il 1812 e il 1817. Collezione lasciata in ereditŕ nel 1867 al figlio Mansfield Turner, morto nel 1901. Poi rimasta in famiglia e dispersa dal pronipote di William Turner nel 1987. Ex Alex G Malloy collection, New York. Ex FAC, Morehead City, Usa. Acquisita nell'aprile 2012.
NOTA: peso e diametro sono compatibili con le coniazioni "barbariche minime", ma la qualitŕ delle immagini e delle iscrizioni oltreché la provenienza mediorientale (la moneta č entrata nella collezione Turner tra il 1812 e il 1820 durante la sua permanenza nell'Impero Ottomano) inducono a considerare questo antoniniano come prodotto dalle zecche non ufficiali romane all'epoca di Felicissimus, regnante Aureliano.
paolo
ART_Dukat_weight_Hungarian.JPG
Coin Weight for Hungarian Ducat (=aranyforint = gulden)240 viewsAE 13 mm x 14 mm x 1.5 mm; original weight 3.5 gr.

Withers, P. and B.R., "Lions, Ships & Angels: The Galata Guide to Identifying Coin-Weights Found in Britain" (1995 & 2nd ed. revised 2011), p. 29 (per the dealer's flip).

Obv: Crowned St. Lászlo (= Ladislaus) standing facing, holding long cross in right hand and globus cruciger in left, flanked by H-D (= Hungaricus Ducatus), all in a beaded circle.

Rev: Blank.

The Hungarian aranyforint was struck in great quantities and circulated widely throughout Europe, so that they are found as far afield as England and Scotland. As many currencies circulated throughout Europe, coin weights were sold in boxed sets containing weights for a wide variety of coins that a merchant may encounter, together with a scale.

The obverse devise on this weight is similar to the medieval depiction of St. Lászlo which continuously appeared on the aranyforint from the reign of Lajos I (1342-1382) through the reign of Lajos II (1516-1526), and after the defeat of Hungary by the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Mohács, on the ayanyforints of János Szapolyai (1526-1540), but not on those of his Habsburg rival, Ferdinand I (1526-1564), or on those of the subsequent Habsburg kings of Hungary (the depiction of St. Lászlo on the Habsburg coins, and even on some of the later Jagiellon issues, was in a Renaissance style). The devise on the weight differs from that on the aranyforint primarily in that (a) St. Lászlo is holding a long cross rather than a halberd; and (b) St. Lászlo is not nimbate (although he is not consistently nimbate on the later Jagiellon issues and is not nimbate on the issues of János Szapolyai). The style of this weight suggests that it was manufactured pre- Mohács, and according to Withers, it was made in Germany during the 1400’s to 1500’s (Note: I am reliant upon the dealer’s flip for this information, as I have not been able to obtain Withers). However, a number of similarly styled coin weights issued by Antwerp masters who were active in the mid to late 1500’s (i.e., Bernaert Foncq (active 1550-1578), his son, Hans Foncq (active 1577-1603) and Rogier Verpoorten (active ca. 1580 and later)) indicates that the medieval St. Lászlo continued to appear on coin weights even after that style had become obsolete on the actual coins. presenting the possibility that this weight may have been manufactured post-Mohács.
1 commentsStkp
Costantine2.jpg
Constantine II 337-340 A.D.34 views
Metal: Bronze
Diam: 16 mm.
Weight: 1.6 gr.

OBV: Constantine II, Elder son of Constantine The Great :Diademed and cuirassed bust facing Right
OBV-LEGEND: CONSTANTINVSIVNNOBC
Marks-OBV: None

REV: Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing one standard between them.
REV-LEGEND : GLOR IAEXER ITUS
Marks-REV: In Exergue: SMNA also Alignment shifted 180 (Obv and Rev. are upside down one to aother)

Source : N/A
Age: 337-340 A.D.
Mint: Nicomedia *
*Nicomedia Nicomedia (Greek: Νικομήδεια, modern İzmit in Turkey) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus which opens to the Propontis. The city was founded in 712 BC and, in early Antiquity, was called Astacus or Olbia. After being destroyed, it was rebuilt by Nicomedes I in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia, and has ever since been one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor. Hannibal came to Nicomedia in his final years and committed suicide in nearby Libyssa (Diliskelesi, Gebze). The historian Arrian was born there. Nicomedia was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman Empire, and Diocletian made it the eastern capital city of the Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia remained as the eastern (and most senior) capital of the Roman Empire until co-emperor Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great at the Battle of Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) in 324. Constantine mainly resided in Nicomedia as his interim capital city for the next six years, until in 330 he declared the nearby Byzantium as Nova Roma, which eventually became known as Constantinople (present-day Istanbul). Constantine died in a royal villa at the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Owing to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance even after the foundation of Constantinople.[1]

However, a major earthquake on 24 August 358 caused extensive devastation to Nicomedia and was followed by a fire which completed the catastrophe. Nicomedia was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale.[2] In the sixth century under Emperor Justinian the city was extended with new public buildings. Situated on the roads leading to the capital, the city remained a major military center, playing an important role in the Byzantine campaigns against the Caliphate.[3]

From the 840s on, Nicomedia was the capital of the thema of the Optimatoi. By that time, most of the old, seawards city had been abandoned and is described by the Arab geographer Ibn Khurdadhbeh as lying in ruins. The settlement had obviously been restricted to the hilltop citadel.[3] In the 1080s, the city served as the main military base for Alexios I Komnenos in his campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, and the First and Second Crusades both encamped there. The city was held by the Latin Empire between 1204 and ca. 1240, when it was recovered by John III Vatatzes. It remained in Byzantine control for a further century, but following the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Bapheus in 1302, it was threatened by the rising Ottoman beylik. The city was twice blockaded by the Ottomans (in 1304 and 1330) before finally succumbing in 1337.[3]



Ref : Ric VII 189
Michel C2
CTGSolInvAE3London.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.57 viewsAE 3: RIC VI 282, 312-313 AD, 3.3 g, 22 mm; London, EF; Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right; Reverse: SOLI INV-IC-TO COMITI, Sol standing facing, right hand raised, globe in left hand, PLN in ex., star in left field; an attractive bronze with great detail. Ex Ancient Imports.

As I have noted elsewhere, I have chosen the date 395 AD, with the emperor Arcadius, to mark the beginning of the Byzantine Empire in my collection.

That said, it seems appropriate to display a couple of coins struck for the man whose decision made Byzantium possible. As historian John Julius Norwich has writen, “The Byzantine Empire, from its foundation by Constantine the Great on Monday, 11 May 330 to its conquest by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II on Tuesday, 29 May 1453, lasted for a total of 1,123 years and 18 days – a period of time comfortably longer than that which separates us from the Norman conquest of England in 1066. For everyone except astronomers and geologists, such a period must be considered a long time . . ." (Norwich, John Julius. A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books, 1999. xxxvii).


Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, is as controversial as he is "great."


From John Julius Norwich:
"The first thing to be said is that no ruler in all history--not Alexander nor Alfred, not Charles nor Catherine, not Fredrick nor even Gregory--has ever more fully merited his title of "the Great . . . [he has] a serious claim to be considered--excepting only Jesus Christ, the Prophet Mohammed and the Buddha--the most influential man who ever lived" (Norwich, John Julius. The Middle Sea: A History of the Mediterranean. New York: Doubleday, 2006. 50-1).

From Michael Grant:
". . . But he was also murderous, and the many whom he murdered, or executed, included not only his rival Licinius (to whom he had promised survival) but also his own eldest son and his own second wife Fausta. There is no excusing those deaths, at any time or in any society . . . There are, and remain, certain absolute standards, and by his death-dealing Constantine offended signally against them. . . It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . . (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
abdul_hamid_para_1187.jpg
EGYPT - Ottoman Empire, Abdul Hamid I63 viewsEGYPT - Ottoman Empire, Abdul Hamid I, Billon Para, 1781. KM #121.dpaul7
MATHIAS CORVINUS.jpg
HUNGARY - Matthias Corvinus325 viewsHungary Mathias I Corvinus (1458-90) AR Denar. Rethy 2-239B About VF. 6 g. 16mm.
**ERROR IN LEGEND: "+M.MATHIE.R.NVGARIE/PATRON VNGARIE" --
NVGARIE engraved in error. RAR!

Mathias Corvinus was a famous Hungarian King in history - He is known as the King who imprisoned Count Vlad Dracul -
Vlad the Impaler,otherwise known as "Dracula" - and then sent him back to Wallachia and Transylvania to counter the advancing Ottoman armies.
dpaul7
Manghir Otomano.jpg
Imperio Otomano - Mehmed II, 2nd reign (855-886/1451-1481)79 viewsMuhammad b. Murád khán
AE Mangir 13 mm 1.5 gr.

Acuńada: 857 AH / 1453 D.C.
Ceca: Edirne (también llamada por su antigua denominación, Adrianópolis o Hadrianopolis) situada al noroeste de la Turquía europea, no lejos de las fronteras con Grecia y Bulgaria. Adrianópolis cayó en poder de los turcos otomanos, que la convirtieron en su capital bajo el nombre de Edirne hasta 1453, fecha en que fue trasladada hasta la recién caída Constantinopla

Referencias: Valentine #29 - Necdet Kabaklarli, Mangir (Copper Coins of Ottoman Empire), Istanbul, 1998 # 07-Adr-08/18.
mdelvalle
Süleyman I Mangir.jpg
Imperio Otomano - SĂĽleyman I (926-974 AH / 1520-1566 D.C.)33 viewsAE Mangir 11 mm 1.3 gr.

Anv: Ornamento Floral - Sin Leyenda.
Rev: leyenda "Fulus (Moneda de cobre) tish eyyede (Ayuda exterior) (9)_5(Fecha de acuńación, en este caso único número visible el último 5, Posiblemente la fecha sea 955 AH)". La tradución de la leyenda sería aproximadamente "Los impuestos pagados al llegar al lugar ayuda exterior"??.

Acuńada: 955 AH / 1549 D.C.
Ceca: No conocida

Referencias: Necdet Kabaklarli, Mangir (Copper Coins of Ottoman Empire), Istanbul, 1998 # 10-Z-15 Pag.390
mdelvalle
unk_10_07_res.jpg
ISLAMIC9 views944 AH = 1537 AD
AE 12.5 X 13.5 mm; 1.04 g
Ottoman
laney
Islam D 1~0.jpg
ISLAMIC, Ottoman Mustafa III317 viewsOttoman Mustafa III
AU Half Zir-i mahbub. Tunis year 1187 h.
wt. 1.21 g D.: 14.5 mm
Mustafa III ibn Ahmad II (1171-1187 h. 1757-1774 AD)
Obv. Sultan/al-barrayn wa bahrayn/ Sultan Mustafa/ Khan azza nasrahu
Rev. Mint place and date
Tanit
BBEAE263-FCDD-47EA-B499-ADA2F077D6F7.jpeg
Kyme, Aiolis, c. 320 - 250 B.C.8 viewsKyme was conquered by Croesus, king of Lydia, and ruled successively by the Persians, Macedonians, Seleucids, and Pergamenes. Attalus III, the last king of Pergamum, bequeathed Aeolis to Rome in 133 B.C. Shortly afterward, it was made part of the Roman province of Asia. Aeolis was under Byzantine rule until the early 15th century, when the Ottoman Turks occupied the area.
GB88291. Bronze AE 17, BMC Troas p. 109, 50 var. (same magistrate, monogram variant), SNGvA 1629 var. (same), SNG Munchen 476 var. (same), SNG Cop -, SNG Tübingen -, VF, brown tone, porous, Kyme (near Nemrut Limani, Turkey) mint, weight 4.986g, maximum diameter 16.7mm, die axis 0o, c. 320 - 250 B.C.; obverse forepart of a bridled horse right, KY upper left, ΠE∆IEYΣ (magistrate's name) below; reverse one-handled vase, monogram left; ex Frascatius Ancient Coins.
1 commentsMark R1
Mahmud_II_of_the_Ottoman_Empire,_AR_20_para,_1808_AD.JPG
Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire, AR 20 para, 1808 AD27 viewsMahmud II
Ottoman Empire
AR 20 para – 1223 AH
1808 AD
Ardatirion
ISL_MAMLUK_Balog_798_Khushqadam.jpg
Mamluk (Burji). Khushqadam (al-Zahir Abu Sa`id Khushqadam) (865-872 A.H. = 1461-1467 A.D.)10 viewsBalog 798 Plate XXXV 798; SICA v. VI 1498; Album 1022

AE fals; Halab/Aleppo mint, undated; 3.51 g., 20.42 mm. max., 270°

Obv.: No border. Clockwise marginal legend: السلطان الملك الظاهر ابو سعيد (=alsultan al-Malik al-Zahir 'Abu Sa'id). Inner circle with خشقد / م (= __/Khushqadam) in center.

Rev.: No border. Clockwise marginal legend: (السلطان الملك الظاهر (ابو سعيد (= al-Sultan al-Malik al-Zahir). Inner circle with بحلب (= bi-Halab) in center.

Khushqadam, possibly of Greek origin from the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, became sultan when Sultan Ahmad was deposed. His reign was marked by clashes with the Ottoman Empire. He died of dysentery after almost seven years in office.

Attribution courtesy of Alex Koifman.
Stkp
Mehmed_II.jpg
Mehmed II Fatih - The Conqueror of Constantinople 1444-1481 A.D.126 viewsOTTOMAN/TURKEY: MEHMED II FATIH, THE CONQUEROR OF CONSTANTINOPLE [AH 848-886 / 1444-1481 AD], AR AKCHE, 10mm, 1.0gm.; Mint: AYASLUK (EPHESUS/EPHESOS), dated in AH 855/1451 AD. MEHMED BIN MURAD HAN AZZE NASRUHU 855 / HULLIDE MULKUNU DURIBE AYASLUKb70
Ottoman.jpg
Ottoman (1507 or 1517)38 viewsAkce, AR, 10mm
Mehmed II
AH875 or AH865.
Obv: (Mehme)d bin/ (Murad) han/azze nasara/ (875)
Rev: (hulledü)/(mül)ke (d)arebe/Serez

Daniel F
OTTOMAN_ANON_MANGHIR_TIRE.jpg
OTTOMAN - Anonymous Issue22 viewsOTTOMAN - Anonymous Issue, c. AD 1447-1512. AE manghir - Tireh mint. Ex-Ardatirion collection.dpaul7
murad_ii_akche_3.jpg
OTTOMAN - Murad II114 viewsOTTOMAN - Murad II (1421-1451 AD) AR Akche, 12 mm, 1.14 g. Erdine mint, 734 AH.dpaul7
Islamic 2.jpg
Ottoman - Sultan Mahmud I - Tunis47 viewsbillon 2 kharub piece from Tunis, struck in 1153H/ 1740-41 AD in the name of the Ottoman sultan Mahmud I (1143-1168H/ 1730-1754 AD), KM 44.2 in the Krause 18th century catalogue.
Obv: Sultan Mahmud
Rev: Tunis 1153
Tanit
islamic_2.jpg
Ottoman -Sultan Mahmud I - Tunis29 viewsbillon 1 kharub piece from Tunis, struck in 1167H/ 1754 AD in the name of the Ottoman sultan Mahmud I (1143-1168H/ 1730-1754 AD),
Obv: Sultan Mahmud
Rev: Tunis 1167
Tanit
islamic_3.jpg
Ottoman -Sultan Mahmud I - Tunis30 viewsbillon 2 kharub piece from Tunis, struck in 1153H/ 1740-41 AD in the name of the Ottoman sultan Mahmud I (1143-1168H/ 1730-1754 AD), KM 44.2 in the Krause 18th century catalogue.
Obv: Sultan Mahmud
Rev: Tunis 1153
Tanit
883kost.jpg
Ottoman AV Sultani Mehmet II 883AH/1478AD Qustantaniyye139 viewsThe other side of the story. This coin is one of the first coins minted in "Istanbul" by the Ottoman Empire. The coin was minted under Mehmet II who is also known as"The Conquerer" hence his title in Turkish which is Fatih Sultan Mehmet. Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1453AD and consequently the Byzantine Empire fell. This coin is the second series of this type. The first one was minted in 882AH and this one is just one year after it. Before 1477AD there were no Ottoman Gold coins minted in Istanbul, however some coins from other mints circulated there. I chose this coin because it is on exceptional state. A specimen of this coin which was bent, holed cut and very worn has recently sold for 350 Euros. This coin is rare and expensive.2 commentsIstinpolin
otto.jpg
Ottoman Empire24 viewsAR Akce
Top left - Bayezid II 886 AH. Mint Novar., 0.68g
Top right - Selim II. 918 AH.,Edirne Mint., 0.64g
Bottom - Mehmed III. 1003 AH.,Belgrad Mint., 0.28g
Mat
abdul hamid.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - ABDUL HAMID I62 viewsAbdul Hamid I 1187 AH (1774 AD) Silver Para 14 mm, 0.31 g. dpaul7
TURKEY - Abdul Aziz.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Abdul Aziz80 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Abdul Aziz (1861-1876) copper 10 Para, year 4 (1864). Reference: KM-700.dpaul7
AHMED_III_PARA_1703.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Ahmed III52 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Ahmed III (1703-1730 AD) Silver para, accesssion date 1115 AH (1703 AD) 14 mm, 0.56 g. Constantinople mint. KM#139.dpaul7
BAYEZID I.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Bayezid I75 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Bayezid I (1389-1402) AR Akche. Dated AH 792, no mint (as usual). dpaul7
BAYEZID_II_NOVAR_2.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Bayezid II42 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Bayezid II (1481-1512) AR Akche, Novar mint. Dated AH 886 (1481). dpaul7
bayezid_ii_constant__2.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Bayezid II34 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Bayezid II (1481-1512) AR Akche, Constantinople mint. Date not visible. dpaul7
ibrahim i ottoman.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - IBRAHIM I - 1640-164841 viewsIBRAHIM I - 1640-1648, silver Akche, 9 mm. Constantinople mint. dpaul7
MAHMUD II.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - MAHMUD II64 viewsTurkey, Ottoman Empire - Mahmud II (1808-1839) AR 6 Kurush. KM#603. Dated accesson date 1123 AH - Year 32.dpaul7
mehmend_ii_1st_reign_1444.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mehmed II 1st Reign40 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mehmed II 1st Reign (1444-1446). AR Akche, dated 848 AH (1444 AD). Serez Mint. dpaul7
mehmend_ii_2nd_reign_1461.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mehmed II 2nd Reign60 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mehmed II 2nd Reign (1451-1481). AR Akche, 865 AH (1461 AD). Serez Mint. Reference: Nuri Pere #86.dpaul7
mehmend_ii_2nd_reign_2_1451.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mehmed II 2nd Reign50 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mehmed II 2nd Reign (1451-1481) AR Akche, dated 855 AH (1451). Serez Mint. Reference: Mitchener #1246.dpaul7
mehmend_ii_2nd_reign_1_1451.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mehmed II 2nd Reign44 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mehmed II 2nd Reign (1451-1481) AR Akche, dated 855 AH (1451). Serez Mint. Reference: Mitchener #1246.dpaul7
murad ii.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - MURAD II149 viewsSilver Ottoman Akche Murad II 1421-1451 AD, 12 mm, 1.14 g. 1 commentsdpaul7
MURAD_III_AKCHE_4.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Murad II119 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Murad II 1ST REIGN (1421-1451) AR Akche. 12 mm, 1.12 g. Serez mint. Dated 1430.dpaul7
MURAD_II_manghir_BURSA.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Murad II159 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Murad II, 1st reign 824-848/1421-1444. AE Manghir. Mint is Bursa, date is 836. Reference:
Necdet Kabaklarli "Mangir" type II 06-Br-11.
THANKS to J. Berta for the attribution!
dpaul7
MURAD_II_manghir_ardane.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Murad II124 viewsMurad II, 1st reign 824-848/1421-1444. AE Manghir. Adrane mint. Reference: Compare Kabaklarli "Mangir" 06-Adr-18.
Thanks to J. Berta for the identification!
dpaul7
OTTOMAN_MURAD_II_BURSA_M_INT.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - MURAD II - 1ST REIGN49 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - MURAD II - 1ST REIGN (1421-1444) Silver Akce, Mint Date: 1421 (AH 825). Mint Bursa (Turkey). Obverse: Accession date (825) above Tughra (state seal) of the Sultan. All within circle and pearl border. Reverse: Titles above mint name (Bursa). All within circle and pearl border. Diameter: 15mm, Weight: 1.12gm. Reference: Jem Sujltan #369; Pere 53.dpaul7
MURAD III.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Murad III148 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE -- Murad III (1574-1595) AR Dirhem (Onluk). Accession date A.H. 982. Aleppo mint. 3.71 g. c. 20 mm. Thanks to Manzikert for attribution!dpaul7
813Musa_chelebi.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Musa Chelebi55 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Interregnum Period (1402-1413) Sultan Musa Chelebi (1410-1413), AR Akche, 813 AH, (c, 1410 AD), Erdine mint. Album lists this coin as RR. Sultan 302.dpaul7
OTTOMAN_MUSTAFA_I.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mustafa I54 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mustafa I (Second Reign - 1622-1623) AR Onluk. Fine, reverse has permanent marker on it that the collector used to aid in reading the coin. This should be removeable with no problems, but I chose to leave it on... For me, these coins are difficult enough to read! Size: 16 mm. Scarce!

dpaul7
mustafa iii.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mustafa III81 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Mustafa III (1757-1774) Para, 1764. (Year 8). KM-296. Constantinople mint. dpaul7
OTTOMAN_SELIM_I.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Selim I50 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Selim I "The Grim" (1512-1520) AR Akche, Novar mint. Reference: A-1315.dpaul7
selim iii.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - SELIM III55 viewsSelim III silver para 1204 AH (1790AD) 8th YEAR mm, 0.27 g. dpaul7
SELIM_III_PARA_No3.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Selim III52 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Selim III (1203-1222 AH/1789-1807 AD) AR Para, Year 2 (1790) Islamabul mint. 14 mm, 0.30 g. KM#486.dpaul7
suleiman_i_akche_4.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Suleiman I61 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Suleiman I (1520-1566) AR Akche. Dated AH-926. dpaul7
suleiman_i_akche_3.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - Suleiman I 59 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - Suleiman I (1520-1566) AR Akche. Dated AH-926. dpaul7
sulaiman_II_mangir.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - SULEIMAN II 65 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - SULEIMAN II (1687-1691) Cu Mangir, 1687, Constantinople mint. Reference: KM#87.2.dpaul7
SILEIMAN_III_COPPER.jpg
OTTOMAN EMPIRE - SULEIMAN II60 viewsOTTOMAN EMPIRE - SULEIMAN II (1687-1691) Cu Mangir, 1687, Constantinople mint. Reference: KM#87.2.dpaul7
MISC_Ottoman_Bayezid_I_akce_Album_1291.JPG
Ottoman Empire. Bayezid I Yildirim (“the Thunderbolt”) (791-805 A.H. = 1389-1402 A.D.)65 viewsAlbum 1291, Sreckovic I 3.

AR akche dated 792 A.H. = 1390 A.D. (immobilized date), no mint, 13.5-15 mm.

Obv: Bayezid bin / Murad [= Bayezid son of Murad], in two lines within circle, divided horizontally by a straight line.

Rev: Hullide Mülkehn [May his kingdom flourish] /sene [= year] / 792, in three lines within circle and pearl border, with the second line designed as a divider line.
Stkp
MISC_Ottoman_Mehmet_II_akce_Album_1308_3.JPG
Ottoman Empire. Mehmet II el-Fatih (“the Conqueror”) (2nd reign; 855-886 A.H. = 1451-1481 A.D.)76 viewsAlbum 1308.3, Sreckovic III 134, Sultan type 3-180.

AR akche dated 875 A.H. = 1470/71 A.D., Constantinople (Konstantiniye) mint, 11-12 mm.

Obv: Mehmed bin / Murad han / azze nasruhu / 875 (= Mehmed son of / Lord Murad / may his victory be glorious / 875), pellet in field, all within a circle.

Rev: khallada / mulkahu duriba be / Konstantiniye (may his kingdom / flourish, struck in / Constantinople), within a circle.
Stkp
MISC_Ottoman_Murad_II_Akche_Edirne_834.JPG
Ottoman Empire. Murad II (1st reign; 824-848 A.H. = 1421-1444/45 A.D.)148 viewsAlbum 1302.3, Sreckovic I 52 (obverse C*x, reverse VI), Pere 59.

AR akçe dated 834 A.H. = 1430/31 A.D., Edirne (formerly Adrianople) mint, 13-14 mm.

Obv: Murad bin / Mehmed Han [= Murad son of Mehmed Han] in upper and lower semicircles, 83 on left / 4 on right [= 834 A.H.], star in center, all within an encircling line and pearl border.

Rev: Hullide Mülkühü [an abbreviated form of Halledallahü Mülkehü used on smaller coins = God protects the ruler’s property] in upper semicircle / Duri be Edirne [= minted in Edirne] in lower semicircle, all within an encircling line and pearl border.

The word “akçe” is derived from the Greek aspron (= white), the name of a Byzantine silver or billon coin, that was current in the region that eventually became the Ottoman Empire. The akçe is therefore sometimes called “asper” in English sources. When this coin was minted, there were 260 akçes per 100 dirhams and the nominal weight of the akçe was 1.18 gr. Pamuk, Sevket. A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire (Cambridge University Press 2004), Table 3.1 at 46.

References: Album, Stephen A. A Checklist of Islamic Coins (Santa Rosa 1998); Sreckovic, Slobodan. Akches Vol. One, (Osman Gazi – Murad II), 699-848 A.H. (Belgrade 1999); Pere, Nuri. Osmanlilarda Madeni Paralar (Istanbul 1968).

Attribution assistance courtesy of Slobodan Sreckovic and Don Robinson
1 commentsStkp
00475Q00__#1086;_#1073;_#1088;_#1072;_#1073;_#1086;_#1090;_#1072;_#1085;_#1086;.jpg
Ottoman Empire. Abdulaziz. Kurush (Silber). (1277 - 1293 H. / 1861 - 1876). 14 views(18 mm / 1,13 g.)

Vs: Tughra.
Rs: Münzstätte, Jahr und Jahr des Regierungsantritts.

OC 32-021-03.

Rare.
Ruslan K
ISL_Ottoman_Bayezid_I_manghir.jpg
Ottoman Empire. Bayezid I Yildirim (“The Thunderbolt") (791-805 A.H. = 1389-1402 A.D.)4 viewsAlbum 1292

AE manghir; no mint, undated; 3.10 g., 19.76 mm. max, 180° (left image is upside down)

Obv: Arabic legend and pentagram flanked by pellets in triangular formations within circle, divided horizontally by three straight lines.

Rev: Arabic legend in two lines divided by three straight lines.
Stkp
00480Q00.jpg
Ottoman Empire. Mehmed V. 20 Kurush. Dated RY 9 (AD 1917)15 views(36 mm).Constantinople mint (in Turkey), OC 35-012-0. Pere 1046; KM 780.Ruslan K
00038Q00__#1086;_#1073;_#1088;_#1072;_#1073;_#1086;_#1090;_#1072;_#1085;_#1086;.jpg
Ottoman Empire. Murad I. Akce. (763 - 791 H. / 1362 - 1389).13 views15 mm. 1,27 g.
Ohne Jahr. Ohne Prägestätte.
Vs: Murad bin Orhan. Oben und unten Knoten.
Rs: Hüllide / Drei Linien / mülkühü.

Nuri Pere 8; Numos Typ 3;Ehlert S. 56 ff.;Damali 3-G3.
Ruslan K
Ölçer_114-20.jpg
Ottoman Empire: Uncertain ruler, Ć Mangir, Bursa (Ölçer 114-20)13 viewsObv: Floral pattern
Rev: Mint
Quant.Geek
Islamic 1+~0.jpg
Ottoman Islamic27 viewsTanit
Islamic 9 D.jpg
Ottoman Mangir60 viewsOttoman AE Mangir
Misr Mint.
Tanit
isclamic +.jpg
Ottoman Mustafa III42 viewsAE - Tunis year 1187 h.
D.: 14.5 mm
Mustafa III ibn Ahmad II (1171-1187 h. 1757-1774 AD)
Obv. Sultan/ Mustafa
Rev. Mint place and date
Tanit
Islamic 7 D.jpg
Ottoman Mustapha Islamic35 viewsTanit
Islamic 2 D.jpg
Ottoman Mustapha Tunis32 viewsTanit
islamic 1.jpg
Ottoman Suleyman II37 viewsAE Mangir Suleyman II Trablus mint ( Tarabulus Gharb modern Tripoli in Libya)
Date is 1100AH.
rare
Tanit
Ottoman_aqche__Bayezid_I_ibn_Murad_792-AH-Michiner-1239_Q-001.jpg
Ottoman, Bayazid I (791-804 AH, 1389-1402 A.D.), AR Akce, Album 1291. Damali 4-G1a-792.67 viewsOttoman, Bayazid I (791-804 AH, 1389-1402 A.D.), AR Akce, Album 1291. Damali 4-G1a-792.
avers:-
revers:-
exe: , diameter: 11-12mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Edirne, date: 792 AH (1390 A.D.), ref: Michiner-1239, Album 1291. Damali 4-G1a-792.
Q-001
quadrans
Ottoman_aqche__Murad_I_3rd-decade-AH-Q-001.jpg
Ottoman, Murad I (763-791 AH, 1362 - 1389 A.D.), AR Akce, Album 1289., Nuri Pere 8; Numos Typ 3.,66 viewsOttoman, Murad I (763-791 AH, 1362 - 1389 A.D.), AR Akce, Album 1289., Nuri Pere 8; Numos Typ 3.,
avers: Naskh legend, ornaments above and below: Murad bin | Orhan.
revers: Naskh legend: khallada | mulkahu (May his kingdom | flourish).
exe: , diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Uncertain mint, date: Third series, 783-91 AH, 1381-9 A.D., ref: Album 1289., Nuri Pere 8; Numos Typ 3., Srećković. 13; Sultan type 2 var. (dots).
Q-001
quadrans
Ottomans_Manghyr,_Sulayman_II_1099AH_qustantinya_Q-001.jpg
Ottomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #0171 viewsOttomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #01
avers: Toughra,
revers: Inscription, including date and mint (Constantinople), two dots left of the date.
exe: , diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople (Qustantinya), date: 1099 AH (1688 A.D.), ref: KM# 87.2
Q-001
quadrans
Ottomans_Manghyr,_Sulayman_II_1099AH_qustantinya_Q-002.jpg
Ottomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #0264 viewsOttomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #02
avers: Toughra,
revers: Inscription, including date and mint (Constantinople), two dots left of the date.
exe: , diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople (Qustantinya), date: 1099 AH (1688 A.D.), ref: KM# 87.2
Q-002
quadrans
Ottomans_Manghyr,_Sulayman_II_1099AH_qustantinya_Q-005.jpg
Ottomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #0366 viewsOttomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #03
avers: Toughra,
revers: Inscription, including date and mint (Constantinople), two dots left of the date.
exe: , diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople (Qustantinya), date: 1099 AH (1688 A.D.), ref: KM# 87.2
Q-003
quadrans
Ottomans_Manghyr,_Sulayman_II_1099AH_qustantinya_Q-004.jpg
Ottomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #0468 viewsOttomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #04
avers: Toughra,
revers: Inscription, including date and mint (Constantinople), two dots left of the date.
exe: , diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople (Qustantinya), date: 1099 AH (1688 A.D.), ref: KM# 87.2
Q-004
quadrans
Ottomans_Manghyr,_Sulayman_II_1099AH_qustantinya_Q-007.jpg
Ottomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #05106 viewsOttomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #05
avers: Toughra,
revers: Inscription, including date and mint (Constantinople), two dots left of the date.
exe: , diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople (Qustantinya), date: 1099 AH (1688 A.D.), ref: KM# 87.2
Q-005
quadrans
Ottomans_Manghyr,_Sulayman_II_1099AH_qustantinya_Q-006.jpg
Ottomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #0664 viewsOttomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.2, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #06
avers: Toughra,
revers: Inscription, including date and mint (Constantinople), two dots left of the date.
exe: , diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople (Qustantinya), date: 1099 AH (1688 A.D.), ref: KM# 87.2
Q-006
quadrans
Ottomans_Manghyr,_Sulayman_II_1099AH_qustantinya_Q-003.jpg
Ottomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.?, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #0766 viewsOttomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.?, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #07
avers: Toughra,
revers: Inscription, including date and mint (Constantinople), ? dots left of the date.
exe: , diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople (Qustantinya), date: 1099 AH (1688 A.D.), ref: KM# 87.?
Q-007
quadrans
Ottomans_Manghyr,_Sulayman_II_1099AH_qustantinya_Q-008.jpg
Ottomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.?, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #0875 viewsOttomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.?, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #08
avers: Toughra,
revers: Inscription, including date and mint (Constantinople), ? dots left of the date.
exe: , diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople (Qustantinya), date: 1099 AH (1688 A.D.), ref: KM# 87.?
Q-008
quadrans
Ottomans_Manghyr,_Sulayman_II_1099AH_qustantinya_Q-009.jpg
Ottomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.?, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #09108 viewsOttomans, Suleyman II, AE Mangir, KM# 87.?, Constantinople (Qustantinya) #09
avers: Toughra,
revers: Inscription, including date and mint (Constantinople), ? dots left of the date.
exe: , diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople (Qustantinya), date: 1099 AH (1688 A.D.), ref: KM# 87.?
Q-009
quadrans
juliamen3.jpg
Pisidia, Parlais. Julia Domna. Cult Image of Men49 viewsParlais, Pisidia. Julia Domna. 20mm and 4.0gm. Reverse IVL AVG COL PARLAIS. Men stg. facing, holding sceptre and pine-cone, foot set on bucranium.

As a Roman colony it was called Julia Augusta Parlais, and money was coined under this title. Ptolemy calls it Paralais and places it in Lycaonia (Eckhel, "Historica veterum nummorum", III, 33.). Kiepert identified it with Barla, in the Ottoman vilayet of Koniah, but W. M. Ramsay believes that it is contained in the ruins known as Uzumla Monastir.
ancientone
Quietus_Apollo_RIC_V_3.jpg
Quietus Apollo RIC V 316 viewsQuietus, Billon antoninianus, Göbl MIR 1728n (Samosata), RSC IV 4a, RIC V 3 (R2, Antioch), SRCV III 10819 (uncertain Syrian Mint), VF, porous, Samosata (Samsat, Turkey) mint, weight 3.628g, maximum diameter 22.8mm, die axis 180o,
OBV: IMP C FVL QVIETVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
REV: APOLINI CONSERVA, Apollo standing left, radiate, nude but for cloak on shoulders and draped behind, branch downward in right, left rests on grounded lyre, star upper left;
rare;

EX: Forum Ancient Coins

Samosata was the walled capital of the Commagene Kingdom founded in 69 B.C. The town remained a regional center under Rome, and until the Ottoman period. The old town of Samsat and all its history were flooded behind the Atatürk Dam in 1989. The new town was built beside the new waterline by the government to house the displaced residents.
SRukke
tin_dinheiro,_Sebastian_(1554-1578),_Portuguese_Melaka_(SS#5_15_Z-pattern).jpg
Rare tin dinheiro, Sebastian (1554-1578), Portuguese Melaka (SS#5.15 Z-pattern)12 viewsThree arrows tied with a bow in the middle, two large dots between the arrowheads, B-A in fields / Armillary sphere wiith an ecliptic band falling from right upper corner to the lower left corner ("Z" pattern), four large dots (at 3, 6, 9 and 12 o'clock). 18mm, 2.56 grams. Melaka mint. Saran Singh # S.15; Grogan #14. SKU 43016-70806-4

Cast tin, very nice condition for these, scarce. The meaning of the letters B and A on obverse are not known. It is speculated that they might be standing for "bazarucco" or "bastardo".

The Portuguese were the first to arrive in India in 1498. The closing of traditional trade routes in western Asia by the Ottomans and rivalry with the Italian states, set Portugal in search of an alternate sea route to India. The first successful voyage to India was by Vasco da Gama in 1498, when he arrived in Calicut, Kerala. He proceeded to Goa. The Portuguese captured the entire coastal territory along India's western and eastern coasts as well as the island of Sri Lanka in the early 16th century. Portugal had established trading outposts in Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli along India''''s west coast. However Goa was their prized possession and their capital of the eastern hemisphere.
_8
Antonivs Protti
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Sultan Suleyman II 12 viewsOttoman Empire 625 AD ( 1100 AH ) Johnny
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Syria, Apameia23 viewsApamea is located on the right bank of the Orontes river about 55 km to the north west of Hama. It overlooks the Ghab valley and was built by Seleucus Nicator, the first king of the Seleucids in Syria in 300 BC. He named it after his parisian wife, Afamea.

The city flourished to an extent that its population numbered half a million. As an Eastern crossroads, it received many distinguished visitors: Cleopetra, Septimus Severus and the Emperor Caracalla. In the Christian era, Apamea became a center of philosophy and thought, especially of Monophostism.

Most of the uncovered ruins in it date back to the Roman and Byzantine ages. It is distinguished for its high walls and the main thoroughfare surrounded by columns with twisted fluting. The street is 1850 meters long and 87 meters wide. The ruins of the Roman theater which have been frequently disturbed, are now a great mass of stone.

Its colonnade (The Cardo Maximus) is 145 meters long. Erected in the 2nd century, it was destroyed in the 12th century by two violent earthquakes; some columns are still standing nevertheless.

To the west of the city, stands the Mudiq citadel, which once formed a defense line along the Orontes.

Fierce battles with Crusaders attempting to conquer it took place in the 12th century, and Nour Eddin finally surrendered it in 1149.

The citadel has huge towers, overlooking the Ghab valley. It also has a Khan (Inn) built by Ottomans in the 16th century which was transformed into an archaeological museum housing Apamea's wonderful mosaics, paintings, and 15,000 cuneiform clay tablets.

Apameia, Syria: Athena / Nike

2nd c. BC. 22mm. Helmeted bust of Athena right / Nike walking left, As SG 5868 but variant legend. aVF. Ex-Sayles
ecoli
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TURKEY -- Musa Chelebi 34 viewsTURKEY -- Musa Chelebi (1411-1413 AD / 813-816 AH) AR Akche, dated AH 813. Edirne mint. Obv.: Circulart legend within decorated hexagram. Central tamgha: Musa son of Bayezid Rev.: Central inscription divided by horizontal line, tamgha right and left. Above: "STRUCK" 2nd line: EDIRNE 3rd line: PERPETUATE HIS KINGNDOM Below: 813 11mm 0.78 . Reference: J. Sultan #302.dpaul7
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Turkey AH1293/15 - 5 Kurus28 viewsOttoman Empire Silver 5 Kurus
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver
.1605 oz ASW
rexesq
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Turkey AH1293/15 - 5 Kurus33 viewsOttoman Empire Silver 5 Kurus
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver
.1605 oz ASW
rexesq
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Turkey AH1293/19 - 2 Kurus - 0130 viewsOttoman Empire - Silver 2 Kurus
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver
rexesq
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Turkey AH1293/19 - 2 Kurus - 0450 viewsOttoman Empire - Silver 2 Kurus
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver
rexesq
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Turkey AH1293/19 - 2 Kurus - 0656 viewsOttoman Empire - Silver 2 Kurus
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver
rexesq
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Turkey AH1327/6 1914 - 10 Kurus70 viewsOttoman Empire, Silver 10 Kurus.
Constantinople Mint.
.8300 Silver .3210 oz ASW
Mintage: 81,000

* Photos taken through coin flip. *
rexesq
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Turkey, Istanbul, Boukoleon Palace47 views9-6-2015
This section was built in the reign of Emperor Theophilus (829-42 AD).
The brick walls would have been clad in Marble.
The three doorways led to a balcony.
The Sea reached up to the walls in those days.
After being ransacked by the "4th Crusade" in 1204 AD, it remained abandoned, even after Michael VIII retook the city in 1261 AD.
The Ottomans never took this section over.
In 1873 AD it was partially destroyed to make way for the railway line that began at Sirkeci Station.
Masis
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Turkey, Istanbul, Column of Constantine52 views9-6-2015
Known locally as "Çemberlitaş" which translates as "hooped Stone" due to the Iron hoops added in 1779 AD after an earthquake and fire. The base was also reinforced at this date.
The column was inaugurated in 330 AD and originally had three more sections with a large Capital upon which was a gilded statue of Constantine in the guise of his favourite deity, Sol.
At the base of the column was said to have been a sanctuary with ancient relics stored.
A hurricane blew down the statue, Capital and upper three sections of column in 1106 AD.
In the reign of Manuel I (1143-1180 AD) a new Capital was installed with a dedicatory inscription around it which translates as "Faithful Manuel invigorated this holy work of art, which has been damaged by time."
A Cross was also placed on top of this, removed after the Ottoman conquest in 1453 AD. Bronze Wreaths are said to have covered the joints of the column, where the stone ones are today, said to have been looted by the Franks in 1204 AD.
Masis
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Turkey, Istanbul, Rumeli Hisari129 viewsRumeli Hisari means ‘Rumelian Castle’: Rumelia (derived from ‘Rome’) being the Turkish word for the Balkan lands which once belonged to the Roman (Byzantine) Empire. The Rumeli Hisari was constructed in 1452 a few miles north of Constantinople on the European side of the Bosphorus by order of Sultan Mehmet II. Impressively, the whole fortress was built in less than four months. The Rumeli Hisari sits opposite an older, smaller Ottoman fort on the Asian side, the Anadolu Hisari (Anatolian Castle). Together the two forts effectively controlled traffic through the Bosphorus, cutting Constantinople off from the Black Sea and ensuring that an Ottoman army operating on the European side could be supplied from the granaries of central Anatolia. The building of Rumeli Hisari was preparation for the investment and conquest of Constantinople, which took place the following year.

The Rumeli Hisari/Anadolu Hisari forts are built at the point where the Bosphorus is most constricted (about 700m across). This is the same narrows where the Persian King Darius I over 2500 years ago built a ‘bridge of boats’ to transport his army across to attack Thrace (see Herodotus, Histories 4.87f). And these days a modern suspension bridge links Asia to Europe at the same spot, but sadly it rather spoils the view.
Abu Galyon
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[103tis] Tisna, Aiolis, 350 - 300 B.C.170 viewsBronze AE 17, SNG Cop 283, choice gVF, 3.960g, 16.7mm, 180o; Obverse: horned head of river-god Tisnaios left, slightly facing; Reverse :TIS/NAION either side of one-handled cup; superb and unusual style!; rare. Ex FORVM.


The following research was done by Jochen (Tribunus Plebis, 2006; Procurator Caesaris; Caesar), a member extraordinaire of the FORVM Discussion Boards, and the originator and leading contributor to our Coins of Mythological Interest Board:

"Von Mogens Herman Hansen, Thomas Heine, An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis, Oxford University Press, p.1051: 835. *Tisna (Tisnaia) Map 56. Lat. 38-45, long. 27.05 but see 'infra' C:? The toponym Tisna can be reconstructed from the city-ethnic attested by C4 coin legends (infra). Presumably the community took its name from the river Tisna, a personification of which was depicted on Tisna's coins. Tisna struck bronze coins in C4. Types: obv. beardless male head l., horned (river god Tisnaios); rev. one-handle vase, or spearhead, or sword in sheath; legend TISNAI or TISNAIO or TISNAIOS or TISNAION (Imhoof-Blumer (1883) 275 nos.241-42; Head, HN2 557; Robert (1937) 189; BMC Troas 149; SNG Cop Aeolis 283). The book I found under books.google.de It is the first lexicon of all identifiable Greek city states of the Archaic and Classical period (c. 650-325 BC).

You can see that Tisna must be a small city in Aiolis known only by its coins. It is not mentioned in 'Der kleine Pauly' nor depicted in my Historical Atlas.
[The emphasis is mine, J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.]


Aeolis (Ancient Greek Αιολίς Aiolís) or Aeolia was an area that comprised the west and northwestern region of Asia Minor, mostly along the coast, and also several offshore islands (particularly Lesbos), where the Aeolian Greek city-states were located. Aeolis incorporated the southern parts of Mysia which bounded it to the north, Ionia to the south, and Lydia to the east. In early times, the Aeolians' twelve most important cities were independent, and formed a league: Cyme (also called Phriconis), Larissae, Neonteichos, Temnus, Cilla, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Aegae, Myrina, Gryneia, and Smyrna.

According to Homer's description, Odysseus, after his stay with the Cyclopes, reached the island of Aeolus, who provided him with the west wind Zephyr.

Aeolis was an ancient district on the western coast of Asia Minor. It extended along the Aegean Sea from the entrance of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles) south to the Hermus River (now the Gediz River). It was named for the Aeolians, some of whom migrated there from Greece before 1000 BC. Aeolis was, however, an ethnological and linguistic enclave rather than a geographical unit. The district often was considered part of the larger northwest region of Mysia.

By the 8th century BC, twelve of the southern Aeolian city-states were grouped together in a league. The most celebrated of the cities was Smyrna (modern Izmir, Turkey), but in 699 BC, Smyrna became part of an Ionian confederacy. The remaining cities were conquered by Croesus, king of Lydia (reigned 560-546 BC). Later they were held successively by the Persians, Macedonians, Seleucids, and Pergamenes. Attalus III, the last king of Pergamum, bequeathed Aeolis to Rome in 133 BC. Shortly afterward, it was made part of the Roman province of Asia. At the partition of the Roman Empire (395 AD), Aeolis was assigned to the East Roman (Byzantine) empire and remained under Byzantine rule until the early 1400s, when the Ottoman Turks occupied the area.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeolis

Ed. by J.P.Fitzgerald, Jr.

Thank you, Jochen.
Cleisthenes
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[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)313 viewsEmpire of Trebizond: Manuel I, Komnenos, Silver Asper, Sear-2601, struck 1238-1263, 2.9 grams, 21.9 mm. Nice VF; Obverse: St. Eugenius standing facing, holding a long cross; Reverse: Manuel standing facing, holding labarum and akakia, Manus Dei in upper right field. Nicely centered with technically 'mint state' surfaces, but a touch of strike unevenness and irregular toning. Ex Glenn Woods.

Manuel I Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1218 – March 1263), Emperor of Trebizond from 1238 to 1263, surnamed the "Great Captain", was the second son of Alexios I, the first emperor of Trebizond, and Theodora Axouchina. He succeeded his brother, John I Axouchos. In spite of his alleged military abilities, Trebizond became or remained a vassal to the Seljuk Turks and, after the Battle of Köse Dag in 1243, to the Mongols of Persia. Trapezuntine forces served in the battle as Seljuk tributaries. The Seljuk forces were shattered in the defeat and the Sultanate of Iconium began to decline.

In 1253, Manuel negotiated for a dynastic alliance with King Louis IX of France, by which he hoped to secure the help of the Crusaders against the Seljuks and Laskarids of Nicaea, but Louis advised him to seek a wife from the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Jean de Joinville testifies to Manuel's wealth, saying he sent Louis: "various precious things as a gift; amongst others, bows made of the wood of the service tree, whose arrow-notches screwed into the bow, and when they were released, one saw that they were very sharp and well made."

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 revived the trade route running north from Armenia and the upper Euphrates valley to Erzerum and then through the Zigana Pass to Trebizond. This trade route caused the beginnings of Trebizond's commercial prosperity, because goods from the Silk Road were now transported to Trebizond and the Black Sea, instead of to the Mediterranean. Although some bronze coins have been attributed to Alexios I, and silver aspers were certainly coined by John I, Manuel struck both bronze coins and a large silver currency. Trapezuntine coins circulated widely outside the empire, especially in Georgia.

Manuel rebuilt the Hagia Sophia monastery in Trebizond between 1250 and 1260. Eastmond describes Manuel's church as 'the finest surviving Byzantine imperial monument of its period.' When Michael VIII Palaiologos recaptured Constantinople from the Latin Empire in 1261 he unsuccessfully demanded that Manuel abandon his claim to the Byzantine succession.

Manuel married three times and left several children, four of whom reigned after him. By his first wife, Anna Xylaloe, a Trapezuntine noblewoman he had:
• Andronikos II, who succeeded as emperor.

By his second wife, the Iberian princess Rusudan, he had:
• Theodora

By his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, another Trapezuntine noblewoman, he had four children:
• George
• Anonymous daughter, who married King Demetre II of Georgia
• Anonymous daughter
• John II.

The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τής Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. Queen Tamar of Georgia provided troops to her nephew Alexios I, who conquered the Pontic Greek city of Trebizond, Sinope and Paphlagonia. It is often known as "the last Greek Empire."

Foundation
When Constantinople fell in the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to the Western European and Venetian Crusaders, the Empire of Trebizond was one of the three smaller Greek states that emerged from the wreckage, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus. Alexios, a grandson of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, son of Rusudan daughter of George III of Georgia, made Trebizond his capital and asserted a claim to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire.

The Byzantine Emperor Andronikos I had been deposed and killed in 1185. His son Manuel was blinded and may have died of his injuries. The sources agree that Rusudan, the wife of Manuel and the mother of Alexios and David, fled Constantinople with her children, to escape persecution by Isaac II Angelos, Andronikos' successor. It is unclear whether Rusudan fled to Georgia or to the southern coast of the Black Sea where the Komnenos family had its origins. There is some evidence that the Comnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state centred on Trebizond before 1204.

The rulers of Trebizond called themselves Grand Komnenos (Megas Komnenos) and at first claimed the traditional Byzantine title of "Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans." After reaching an agreement with the Byzantine Empire in 1282, the official title of the ruler of Trebizond was changed to "Emperor and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians and the Transmarine Provinces" and remained such until the empire's end in 1461. The state is sometimes called The Komnenian Empire because the ruling dynasty descended from Alexios I Komnenos.

Trebizond initially controlled a contiguous area on the southern Black Sea coast between Soterioupolis and Sinope, comprising the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rise and Artvin. In the thirteenth century, the empire controlled Perateia which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. David Komnenos expanded rapidly to the west, occupying first Sinope, then Paphlagonia and Heraclea Pontica until his territory bordered the Empire of Nicaea founded by Theodore I Laskaris. The territories west of Sinope were lost to the Empire of Nicaea by 1206. Sinope itself fell to the Seljuks in 1214.

Prosperity
While Epirus effectively disintegrated in the 14th century, and the Nicaean Empire succeeded in retaking Constantinople and extinguishing the feeble Latin Empire, only to be conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire, Trebizond managed to outlive its competitors in Epirus and Nicaea.

Trebizond was in continual conflict with the Sultanate of Iconium and later with the Ottoman Turks, as well as Byzantium, the Italian republics, and especially the Genoese. It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkmen rulers of interior Anatolia.

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 made Trebizond the western terminus of the Silk Road. The city grew to tremendous wealth on the Silk Road trade under the protection of the Mongols. Marco Polo returned to Europe by way of Trebizond in 1295. Under the rule of Alexios III (1349–1390) the city was one of the world's leading trade centres and was renowned for its great wealth and artistic accomplishment.

Climax and Civil War
The small Empire of Trebizond had been most successful in asserting itself at its very start, under the leadership of Alexios I (1204–1222) and especially his younger brother David Komnenos, who died in battle in 1214. Alexios' second son Manuel I (1238–1263) had preserved internal security and acquired the reputation of a great commander, but the empire was already losing outlying provinces to the Turkmen, and found itself forced to pay tribute to the Seljuks of Rum and then to the Mongols of Persia, a sign of things to come. The troubled reign of John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. Trebizond reached its greatest wealth and influence during the long reign of Alexios II (1297–1330). Trebizond suffered a period of repeated imperial depositions and assassinations from the end of Alexios' reign until the first years of Alexios III, ending in 1355. The empire never fully recovered its internal cohesion, commercial supremacy or territory.

Decline and Fall
Manuel III (1390–1417), who succeeded his father Alexios III as emperor, allied himself with Timur, and benefited from Timur's defeat of the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Ankara in 1402. His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) married two of his daughters to Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and to Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu; while his eldest daughter Maria became the third wife of the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. Pero Tafur, who visited the city in 1437, reported that Trebizond had less than 4,000 troops.

John IV (1429–1459) could not help but see his Empire would soon share the same fate as Constantinople. The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. While Mehmed II was away laying siege to Belgrade in 1456, the Ottoman governor of Amasya attacked Trebizond, and although defeated, took many prisoners and extracted a heavy tribute.

John IV prepared for the eventual assault by forging alliances. He gave his daughter to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia.

After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power and misused these alliances. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues, and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother.

Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. He led a sizeable army from Brusa, first to Sinope whose emir quickly surrendered, then south across Armenia to neutralize Uzun Hasan. Having isolated Trebizond, Mehmed quickly swept down upon it before the inhabitants knew he was coming, and placed it under siege. The city held out for a month before the emperor David surrendered on August 15, 1461.

With the fall of Trebizond, the territory of "the Last Greek Empire" was extinguished.


List of Trapezuntine Emperors

• Alexios I Megas Komnenos (1204–1222)
• Andronikos I Gidos (1222–1235)
• John I Axouchos Megas Komnenos (1235–1238)
• Manuel I Megas Komnenos (1238–1263)
• Andronikos II Megas Komnenos (1263–1266)
• George Megas Komnenos (1266–1280)
• John II Megas Komnenos (1280–1284)
• Theodora Megale Komnene (1284–1285)
• John II Megas Komnenos (restored, 1285–1297)
• Alexios II Megas Komnenos (1297–1330)
• Andronikos III Megas Komnenos (1330–1332)
• Manuel II Megas Komnenos (1332)
• Basil Megas Komnenos (1332–1340)
• Irene Palaiologina (1340–1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (1341)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (restored, 1341–1342)
• John III Megas Komnenos (1342–1344)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (restored, 1344–1349)
• Alexios III Megas Komnenos (1349–1390)
• Manuel III Megas Komnenos (1390–1416)
• Alexios IV Megas Komnenos (1416–1429)
• John IV Megas Komnenos (1429–1459)
• David Megas Komnenos (1459–1461)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_I_of_Trebizond
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_of_Trebizond


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
 
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