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Search results - "Ostrogoth,"
InvictaR01DaR.jpg
54 viewsAutonomous coin of mint Roma
under Ostrogoths
XL nummii
d/ INVICTA ROMA
r/ XL retrograde
Rugser
InvictaR02DaR.jpg
49 viewsAutonomous coin of mint Roma
under Ostrogoths
XL nummii
d/ INVICTA ROMA
r/ XL retrograde
Rugser
InvictaR03D+R1.jpg
77 viewsAutonomous coin of mint Roma
under Ostrogoths
XL nummii
d/ INVICTA ROMA
r/ XL retrograde
Rugser
InvictaR04D+R.jpg
72 viewsAutonomous coin of mint Roma
under Ostrogoths
XL nummii
d/ INVICTA ROMA
r/ XL retrograde
Rugser
InvictaR05DaR.jpg
108 viewsAutonomous coin of mint Roma
under Ostrogoths
XL nummii
d/ INVICTA ROMA
r/ XL retrograde
Rugser
InvictaR06DaR.jpg
104 viewsAutonomous coin of mint Roma
under Ostrogoths
XL nummii
d/ INVICTA ROMA
r/ XL retrograde
Rugser
Athalaric_BMC_Ostrogoths_67,_52_2.jpg
4. Athalaric40 viewsAnatomy of a Monogram of Athalaric

BMC Ostrogoths p. 67, 52
Sosius
Athalaric_BMC_Ostrogoths_67,_52.jpg
4. Athalaric, in name of Justinian22 viewsATHALARIC
Ostrogoth King of Rome, in name of Justinian
AE 4, Ravenna mint

O: IVSTI..., diademed and cuirassed bust of Justinian I right

R: Monogram of Athalaric in wreath

BMC Ostrogoths p. 67, 52

1 commentsSosius
Retarrifed_Vespasian_as.jpg
105 viewsROME. Titus. As Caesar, AD 69-79.
As (20mm, 9.84 g, 6 h)
Rome mint. Struck AD 77-78.
Retarrifed under by the Ostrogothic kingdom in Italy as 42 nummi, 6th century AD.
Laureate head left; XLII (= mark of value, 42 nummi) carved before bust
Spes standing left, holding flower and raising hem of skirt
For host coin:cf. RIC II 1101. For revaluation: cf. Morrisson, Re-use 19; cf. MEC 1, 76 (Vespasian)

Ex Giamba Collection (Classical Numismatic Group 82, 16 September 2009), lot 1139
3 commentsArdatirion
654Hadrian_RIC841.jpg
0841 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Africa OSTROGOTHS. Uncertain king. Follis circa VI cent.20 viewsReference. very rare
RIC 841; C 147. BMC 1714. MEC I, 66 for countermark.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate and draped bust right; in front XLII.

Rev. AFRICA
Africa reclining left, wearing elephant-trunk, holding scorpion and cornucopia; in front, basket of corn.

12.22 gr
26 mm
6h

From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection.
okidoki
Valens_33.jpg
A127 viewsValens AE3

Attribution: RIC IX, 12b, Antioch
Date: AD 364-378
Obverse: DN VALENS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing l. holding wreath and palm, ANTH in exergue
Size: 18 mm

Approximately one month after his ascension, Valentinian I appointed his younger brother, Valens, joint Augustus and placed him in charge of the eastern provinces including the eastern half of the Balkan Peninsula, Greece, Egypt, Syria and Anatolia as far east as Persia. As a dedicated Christian and anti-intellectual, Valens chose those close to him as his officers and ministers. He did not follow the traditional aristocratic ways. The Visigoths along the Danube frontier were being pushed towards the borders of the empire by the Huns. They requested asylum, which was not entirely granted by the emperor. Valens left a small group of riparian commanders to oversee the entry of a small group of Visigoths, but the barbarians crossed into the empire by the tens of thousands. When the riparian commanders began abusing the Visigoths under their charge, they revolted in early AD 377 and defeated the Roman units in Thrace outside of Marcianople. Interestingly, but AD 378, the Visigoths were actually joined by the Ostrogoths, Alans, and Huns, to form a formidable force which the Romans now had to contend with. The emperor of the West, Gratian, pleaded with his uncle, emperor Valens, to wait for his reinforcements to arrive prior to engaging the barbarians. In an act of superciliousness, Valens decided to take care of the problem himself due to his jealousy of his nephews successes. Valens sallied forth to the confrontation which would later be called the Battle of Adrianople. Here the hasty emperor met his fate. There are two accounts of his death given by Ammianus. The first states that he was mortally wounded by an arrow and died on the battlefield. The second account tells of how the wounded Valens fled to a wooden hut which was then burned down by Gothic troops who were unaware of his presence inside. Still a third account of his death was specified by the church historian Socrates (see quote below). The Romans never recovered from this debacle; this marked the beginning of the end for the empire. Gratian, only 19 at the time, chose a Spanish officer named Theodosius to take the position vacated by his uncle Valens.

Some have asserted that he was burnt to death in a village whither he had retired, which the barbarians assaulted and set on fire. But others affirm that having put off his imperial robe he ran into the midst of the main body of infantry; and that when the cavalry revolted and refused to engage, the infantry were surrounded by the barbarians, and completely destroyed in a body. Among these it is said the emperor fell, but could not be distinguished, in consequence of his not having on his imperial habit. Church Historian Socrates The Ecclesiastical History VI.38
1 commentsNoah
Athalaric.jpg
Athalaric - Ravenna - quarter siliqua29 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). AR quarter siliqua (11 mm, 0.60 g) in the name of Justinian I, minted in Ravenna 527-534. Obverse: diademed bust right, D N IVSTI-NIAN AVC. Reverse: DN/ATHAL/ARICVS/RIX within wreath. Metlich 59.
Jan
Athalaric3_ab.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 10 nummi100 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). 10 Nummi (17 mm, 4.06 g), Rome. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, INVICT-A ROMA. Reverse: DN/ATHAL/ARICVS/REX within wreath. Metlich 86.

Ex Bruun Rasmussen 1237, lot 5031, 2012.
Jan (jbc)
Athalaric_2.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 10 nummi132 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). 10 Nummi (17 mm, 3.11 g), Rome. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, INVICT-A ROMA. Reverse: king standing right holding spear and shield, DN ATAL-ARICVS, S-C, X in left field. Metlich 85a; MIB 77.

This coin is said to have been found in North Yorkshire, England. It does not appear to have been in circulation for a long time, and the find is an interesting indication of contacts with the continent during the Early Middle Ages.
1 commentsjbc
Athalaric_ab.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 2 1/2 nummi59 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). 2.5 Nummi (11 mm, 1.17 g), Rome. Obverse: diademed bust right, IVSTI-NIANI. Reverse: Monogram within wreath. Metlich 88.

Ex Numismatica Tintinna Auction 10, lot 2505, 2011.
1 commentsJan (jbc)
Athalaric_monogram.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 2 1/2 nummi30 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). 2.5 Nummi (10 mm, 1.13 g), Rome. Obverse: diademed bust right, IVSTI-NIANI. Reverse: Monogram within wreath. Metlich 88.Jan
Invicta_Roma.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 20 nummi176 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). 20 Nummi (22 mm, 6.15 g), Rome. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, INVIC-TA ROMA. Reverse: lupa left, Romulus and Remus, star I star above, XX in exergue. Metlich 84a; MIB 71b.jbc
Invicta_Roma_40_nummi_ab.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 40 nummi71 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). 40 Nummi (25 mm, 19.30 g), Rome, prima officina. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, INVICT-A ROMA. Reverse: lupa left, Romulus and Remus, XL above, dot P dot in exergue. Metlich 82a.

Ex Bruun Rasmussen 1237, lot 5031, 2012.
Jan (jbc)
Athalaric_V_nummi_ab.jpg
Athalaric - Rome - 5 nummi70 viewsAthalaric (516-534), Ostrogothic king (526-534). 5 Nummi (13 mm, 1.31 g), Rome. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, (INVIC)T-A ROMA. Reverse: D N ATALARICVS around V. Metlich 87a (r2).

Ex GB Collection Vcoins 2010
1 commentsJan (jbc)
Baduila_ab2-001.jpg
Baduila - Rome - 10 nummi30 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). 10 Nummi (19 mm, 6.46 g), minted in Rome. Obverse: frontal bust with helmet and Ostrogothic garment with pectoral cross, DN BADV-ILA REX. Reverse: the king with spear and schield, X in right field, FLVREAS SEMPER. Metlich 98b.Jan
Baduila.jpg
Baduila - Rome - 10 nummi36 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). 10 Nummi (3.84 g), minted in Rome ca 549-552. Obverse: frontal bust with helmet and Ostrogothic garment, DN BADV-ILA REX. Reverse: DN B/ADV/ILA/REX. Metlich 97a.1 commentsJan
Baduila_lion_ab3.jpg
Baduila - Rome - 2 or 2 1/2 nummi80 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). 2 or 2 Nummi (10 mm, 0.82 g), minted in Rome 550-552. Obverse: frontal bust with helmet, DN BA-DVIL. Reverse: lion advancing right within wreath. Metlich 99.

The type with a lion on the reverse copies the preceeding denarius (MIBE 232) from the Rome mint, which may have been introduced by the Roman general Belisarius in connection with the ludi saeculares of the city in 547; the 1300th anniversary of Rome's foundation. The type was continued to be used after Baduila captured Rome in January 550 and it may be related to the circus games that he is known to have presented in the city.
Jan (jbc)
Baduila_ab~0.jpg
Baduila - Rome - 2 or 2 1/2 nummi65 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). 2 or 2 Nummi (10 mm, 1.00 g), minted in Rome 550-552. Obverse: frontal bust with unusually large helmet, (...)-REX. Reverse: lion advancing right. Metlich 99.

Undescribed variant with obverse legend ()-REX, instead of the usual DN BAD-VEL or DN BA-DV.

Ex Numismatica Tintinna Auction 10, lot 2511, 2011.

1 commentsJan (jbc)
Baduila2_ab.jpg
Baduila - Ticinum - 2 or 2 1/2 nummi76 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). 2 or 2 Nummi (11 mm, 1.17 g), Ticinum. Obverse: bust right, apparently no legend. Reverse: monogram of Baduila. Metlich 94; MIB I 87; MEC 1, 163.

This coin is unusually heavy with a weight intermediate between 2.5 and 5 nummi coins.

Ex Gitbud & Naumann 2013
3 commentsJan (jbc)
Baduila_ab.jpg
Baduila - Ticinum - 2 or 2 1/2 nummi145 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). 2 or 2 Nummi (9 mm, 0.67 g, 6 h), Ticinum. Obverse: diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, [DN ANASTA]SIVS. Reverse: monogram of Baduila. Metlich 94; MIB I 87; MEC 1, 163.

Ex. Giamba collection; Ex. CNG 225, lot 613, 2010
2 commentsJan (jbc)
Baduila_DN_REX_B.jpg
Baduila - Ticinum - 2 or 2 1/2 nummi115 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). 2 or 2 Nummi (8 mm, 0.82 g), Ticinum. Obverse: bust right, [DN ANASTAS]IVS. Reverse: D N REX/B in two lines. Metlich 95b.

This type is believed to have been introduced after the one with Baduila's monogram. It was also introduced before the reopening of the mint in Rome by the Ostrogoths in 549/550. The Fontana Liri hoard contains coins of this type, but not the type with a lion on the reverse that is attributed to Rome (Metlich).

Ex. Gitbud & Naumann 2010
1 commentsJan (jbc)
Baduila4_ab.jpg
Baduila - Ticinum - 2 or 2 1/2 nummi40 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). 2 or 2 Nummi (9 mm, 0.75 g), Ticinum. Obverse: bust right, [...]I AVC. Reverse: D N REX/B in two lines. Metlich 95b.

Ex Bruun Rasmussen 1237, lot 5031, 2012.
Jan (jbc)
Baduila_quarter_siliqua.jpg
Baduila - Ticinum - quarter siliqua48 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). AR quarter siliqua (11 mm, 0.41 g) minted in Ticinum in the name of Justinian I. Obverse: diademed bust right, ()NV IIVC. Reverse: D N BADVILA REX in four lines within wreath. Metlich 68.1 commentsJan
Baduila_quarter_siliqua_ab.jpg
Baduila - Ticinum - quarter siliqua76 viewsBaduila (-552), Ostrogothic king (541-552). AR quarter siliqua (10 mm, 0.36 g) in the name of Justinian I, minted in Ticinum. Obverse: bust right with cross-topped diadem, D N IVSTIN-IVS PF AVC. Reverse: Monogram of Baduila, D above, N below, all within wreath. Metlich 67b, r3 (< three coins listed by Metlich).

Ex Inasta Auction 47, lot 421, 2012
1 commentsJan (jbc)
Vandal_ab.jpg
Bronze nummus - Vandal kingdom153 viewsVandal kingdom. nummus (10 mm, 0.45 g). Obverse: Diademed and draped bust right. Reverse: Eagle or zoomorphic deity within wreath. Wroth 3:18.

Very rare. A similar coin in British Museum (Wroth 3:18) was purchased from Mr. J. Doubleday in 1849 and was believed to originate from Northern Africa. Probably struck in the Vandal kingdom during the time period from c. 450 to 530. One possibility is that the coin imitates Ostrogothic 10 nummi coins with an uppright eagle minted in Rome for Theoderic the great. The vandal king Thrasamund was married to Amalfrida, the sister of Theoderic, from 500 to 523 AD. The coin may perhaps have been struck during this time period. Another possibility is that the reverse shows the Egyptian god Anubis. Comments and alternative interpretations are welcome.

Ex Poncin collection; CNG 134, lot 455, 2006; Beast Coins Auction I, lot 205, 2009
3 commentsjbc
Buckle-04_AR_Q-002_28x13mm_5,49g-s.jpg
Buckle #004, AR Buckle,97 viewsBuckle #004, AR Buckle,
type: AR Buckle, the heavy prong/tongue and how it overlaps the buckle.
"I believe 5th - 6th century. The very thick tongue which extends beyond the buckle ring and hooks down is the diagnostic. Likely "Germanic" though there are some thoughts that they were made in Roman/Byzantine Empire for use by groups like Ostrogoths, Gepids and/or Sarmatians." by Shawn Caza, thank you Shawn.
" Early Christian and Byzantine Art. Walters Gallery/Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore, 1947: page 99, No. 467A, Plate LXVII. Found in Egypt, 4th century." by Russ, thank you Russ.
size:28x13 mm,
weight:5,49 g,
date:??? A.D.,
ref: ???.
distribution: ???,
Q-002
quadrans
Childebert_ab.jpg
Childebert I, Frankish King of Paris, Merovingian Dynasty85 viewsChildebert I (c. 497-558), Merovingian dynasty, Frankish king of Paris (511-558) and Orleans (524-558). (14 mm, 0.81 g). Obverse: EL/DEBER/TIR (first R retrograde) in three lines. Reverse: chi-rho. Prou 36, Belfort 5454.

The coin type may have been minted in Marseille after 536. Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths, ceded Provence to the Franks in 535. The possession of Arles and Marseilles was guaranteed to Childebert by his brothers and the annexation of the province was completed in the winter of 536537. The type with the king's name and title in three or more lines resembles contemporary Ostrogothic coins.
1 commentsJan (jbc)
Trajse28-4.JPG
CIRCUS MAXIMUS, Trajan143 views Sestertius (24.27g, 32.95mm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 103-104.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate bust of Trajan right with aegis.
Rev.: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI around, S C in ex., bird's-eys view on the Circus Maximus in Rome, as seen from the Forum Boarium, showing portico in foreground with eleven arched entrances and monumental gate surmounted by quadriga on right, two additional arches, each surmounted by quadriga behind the portico at both ends, the central spina adorned with tall obelisk of Rameses II at center flanked by equestrian statue of Trajan on left and shrine of Cybele on right , the two metae (turning posts) placed at the extremities; at the far side of the Circus, a curved wall incorporating a tetra-style shrine of Sol.
RIC 571 [R] and pl. x, 187 (rev. only); Cohen 546 (Fr.60); Strack 391; BMC 856; Banti 275 (4 spec.); MIR 175c and pl. 28 (citing 20 examples of this variety; same obv. die as plate 175c1; same rev. die as 175a3); RCV 3208 var. (different bust type).

ex G. Henzen (Netherlands, 2000)

The reverse of this sestertius commemorates the completion in AD 103 of a major restoration of the Circus Maximus, following a great fire that had severely damaged the famous arena in the time of the Flavian emperors. The origin of the Circus Maximus, situated in the Murcia valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills, is quite obscure. An enclosure for chariot racing, it had parallel sides and one semicircular end, all fitted with seats for spectators, and an axial rib (spina) marked at each end by turning-posts (metae) dividing the arena into two runs. At the open end were the curved stables (carceres) sufficient to accommodate twelve teams of horses. Traditionally founded by King Tarquinius Priscus, it does not seem to have become a permanent structure until 329 BC (Livy viii. 20.1). In later times, it was much embellished, notably by Augustus who erected on the spina the great Egyptian obelisk of Rameses II from Heliopolis (it now stands in the Piazza del Populo). The vast arena was frequently damaged by the fires that afflicted the imperial capital; on several occasions, there was loss of life when structural failure occurred under the weight of the huge crowds that attended the events. Trajan was himself an ardent fan of the Circus so it is scarcely surprising that he took on the task of restoring the arena. The present specimen is a good example of the rare issue that commemorated the completion of this undertaking. More than a century later (AD 213), the Emperor Caracalla issued a similar type to record his own restoration work on the Circus Maximus. The last recorded games in this celebrated arena took place under the Ostrogothic king Totila in AD 550.
1 commentsCharles S
Sirmium_ab.jpg
Gepids/Ostrogoths - Sirmium - quarter siliqua115 viewsGepids independently or under Ostrogothic rule in the name of Anastasius, 1/4-siliqua (16 mm, 0.81 g), minted in Sirmium 491-518 AD. Obverse: diademed head right, DN ANST-SIVS PP C . Reverse: VICTORIA (AVGGG) around SRM in open frame, (CO)NO in exergue. Apparently missing in major references. Two similar coins sold in auctions: NAC 33 (2006) lot 693 and Rauch 81 (2007) lot 816.

2 commentsJan (jbc)
Gepids2_ab.jpg
Gepids/Ostrogoths - Sirmium - quarter siliqua88 viewsGepids under Ostrogothic rule in the name of Anastasius, 1/4-siliqua (13 mm, 0.93 g), minted in Sirmium 491-518 AD. Obverse: diademed and cuirassed bust right, DN ANASTASIVS PP AVC. Reverse: INVIT-A ROMA, MD in exergue copying coins from Mediolanum, monogram of Theoderic the great. Ref. MIB 46.

Ex Rauch Auction 92, lot 1503, 2013
Jan (jbc)
Fibula-009_Q-001_50x21mm_6,96g-s.jpg
Germanic Two-Plate Bow Fibulae / Blechfibeln, with Semi-Circular Head Plate, Germanic fibula, #2, Fibula #009, 227 viewsFibula #009, Germanic fibula, #2
type: Germanic fibula. The basic type is called "bow with two plates" or "plate-bow" or, in German Blechfibeln.
This is the round head with three knobs type. Small blech fibula with three knobs on semi-circular head plate. Very similar to the Krefeld type below but lacks the lateral "caterpillar" and animal head motifs on the foot.
Serbia more likely Gepid, Bulgaria Gepid or more likely Ostrogoth.
The reverse shows rust traces from the iron spring.
size: 50x21mm,
weight: 6,96g,
date: c. A.D. 475-525, some into 7th century,
ref: ,
distribution: Gepid; Chernyakhov culture / Goths.
Q-002
quadrans
Fibula-051_Q-001_35x18mm_4,27g-s.jpg
Germanic Two-Plate Bow Fibulae / Blechfibeln, with Semi-Circular Head Plate, Germanic fibula, #4, Fibula #051,80 viewsGermanic Two-Plate Bow Fibulae / Blechfibeln, with Semi-Circular Head Plate, Germanic fibula, #4, Fibula #051,
type: Germanic fibula. The basic type is called "bow with two plates" or "plate-bow" or, in German Blechfibeln.
This is the round head with three knobs type. Small blech fibula with three knobs on semi-circular head plate. Very similar to the Krefeld type below but lacks the lateral "caterpillar" and animal head motifs on the foot.
Serbia more likely Gepid, Bulgaria Gepid or more likely Ostrogoth.
The reverse shows rust traces from the iron spring.
size: 35x18mm,
weight: 4,27g,
date: c. A.D. 475-525, some into 7th century,
ref: ,
distribution: Gepid; Chernyakhov culture / Goths.
Q-004
quadrans
Fibula-038_Germanic_Q-001_45x22mm_8,44g-s.jpg
Germanic Two-Plate Bow Fibulae / Blechfibeln, with Semi-Circular Head Plate, Germanic fibula, #6, Fibula #038,90 viewsGermanic Two-Plate Bow Fibulae / Blechfibeln, with Semi-Circular Head Plate, Germanic fibula, #6, Fibula #038,
type: Germanic fibula. The basic type is called "bow with two plates" or "plate-bow" or, in German Blechfibeln.
This is the round head with five knobs type. Small blech fibula with five knobs on semi-circular head plate. Very similar to the Krefeld type. Serbia more likely Gepid, Bulgaria Gepid or more likely Ostrogoth.
The reverse shows rust traces from the iron spring.
size: 45x22mm,
weight: 8,44g,
date: c. A.D. 475-525, some into 7th century,
ref: ,
distribution: Gepid; Chernyakhov culture / Goths.
Q-004
1 commentsquadrans
Fibula-008_Q_42x22mm_5,58g-s.jpg
Germanic Two-Plate Bow Fibulae / Blechfibeln, with Semi-Circular Head Plate, Krefeld Type, Germanic fibula, Germanic fibula., Fibula #008, 204 viewsFibula #008
type: Germanic fibula. The basic type is called "bow with two plates" or "plate-bow" or, in German Blechfibeln.
This is the round head with three knobs type. Small fibula with half-round head with three knobs and chip-carved radiate design, straight narrow foot with lateral "caterpillar" ridges and usually animal head foot. A Krefeld type fibula. Note the animal head design of the foot. The reverse shows rust traces from the iron spring.
Serbia more likely Gepid, Bulgaria Gepid or more likely Ostrogoth.
A small variant of this type. Note the animal head design of the foot. The reverse shows rust traces from the iron spring.
size: 42x22mm,
weight: 5,58g,
date: c. A.D. 475-525, some into 7th century,
ref: Krefeld type, Stanev 1.2.3.2,
distribution: Gepid; Chernyakhov culture / Goths. Middle and lower Danube. Northern Serbia and northern Bulgaria. Ostrogothic, likely Theodoric's tribes.
Q-001
quadrans
Fibula-052_Q-001_32x21mm_3,56ga-s.jpg
Germanic Two-Plate Bow Fibulae / Blechfibeln, with Semi-Circular Head Plate, Krefeld Type, Germanic fibula, small Germanic fibula., Fibula #052,65 viewsGermanic Two-Plate Bow Fibulae / Blechfibeln, with Semi-Circular Head Plate, Krefeld Type, Germanic fibula, small Germanic fibula., Fibula #052,
This is the round head with three knobs type. Small fibula with half-round head with three knobs and chip-carved radiate design, straight narrow foot with lateral "caterpillar" ridges and usually animal head foot. A Krefeld type fibula. Note the animal head design of the foot. The reverse shows rust traces from the iron spring.
Serbia more likely Gepid, Bulgaria Gepid or more likely Ostrogoth.
A small variant of this type. Note the animal head design of the foot. The reverse shows rust traces from the iron spring.
size: 32x21mm,
weight: 3,56g,
date: c. A.D. 475-525, some into 7th century,
ref: Krefeld type, Stanev 1.2.3.2,
distribution: Gepid; Chernyakhov culture / Goths. Middle and lower Danube. Northern Serbia and northern Bulgaria. Ostrogothic, likely Theodoric's tribes.
Q-001
quadrans
Justinian_ab.jpg
Justinian I - Rome101 viewsJustinian I (527-565). denarius (9 mm, 0.63 g), Rome mint c. 537-546. Obverse: (I)VSTINI-ANVS, diademed bust right. Reverse: Latin version of Justinian's monogram within wreath. Undescribed, similar to MIBE 94 (Rome); Sear 340 (uncertain mint).

I have not found an earlier description of this monogram. It is similar to MIBE 94, which has the same form except that the S is placed below instead of above. The monogram is also similar to those of Athalaric and Theodahad on 2 nummi minted in Rome 526-536. This type of "A" in the monogram is not found on coins from Ravenna. The byzantine army lead by Belisarius entered Rome in December 536 unopposed by the Ostrogoths. Rome was later besieged and occupied by Baduila in 546 and again reoccupied by Belisarius in 547. In addition, the frontal bust was introduced on Italian copper coins in the late 540s. These facts combined suggest that this coin was minted in Rome during the period from about 537 to 546. Hahn suggests that MIBE 94 belongs to the mid-540s.
Jan (jbc)
Dark-Age,_Otrogoth-Gepid,_AR_quarter_Siliqua,_Sirmium_Group,_Anastasius,_Alain_Gennari_38bvar__2_4,_Monogram_(10),_Q-001,_4h,_16-17mm,_0,71g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius or Justin" type, Alain Gennari No: 038bvar., Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 10.), Extremely Rare! 152 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius or Justin" type, Alain Gennari No: 038bvar., Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 10.), Extremely Rare!
avers: D II IHVIIƧTAIIWS P P Λ, Diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: ✠ TIVINH * dΩVIIΛ, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 10.).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16,0-17,0mm, weight: 0,71g, axis: 4h,
mint: Sirmium group, date: 491-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari, 038bvar. (avers type: 144, reverse type: 181, monogram type 10), Extremely Rare!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
2 commentsquadrans
Theoderich-493-526AD-Ostrogoth-or-Gepid-Dark-Age_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_DN-ANASTASIVS-PP-AV_star-AINVIMA-ROMANl-Theoderich-Monogram_Sirmium_Q-001_0h_16-17mm_0,47gx-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.), 140 viewsAs a "chocolate paper" copy of the original coin !!!
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.),
avers: D N ANAƧTAƧIVƧ P P AV (all S are invers), (In the name of Anastasius ), Pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 24.).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 0h,
mint: Sirmium ,date: 493-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari No: 068, (avers type: 134, reverse type: 162, monogram type 24)
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0

I used on this thread :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=110289.msg673332#msg673332
1 commentsquadrans
Theoderich-493-526AD-Ostrogoth-or-Gepid-Dark-Age_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_DN-ANASTASIVS-PP-AV_star-AINVIMA-ROMANl-Theoderich-Monogram_Sirmium_Q-001_0h_16-17mm_0,47g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ-ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.), Extremely Rare!141 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 068, *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 24.), Extremely Rare!
avers: D N ANAƧTAƧIVƧ P P AV (all S are invers), (In the name of Anastasius ), Pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: *ɅINVIMɅ ROMɅИI, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 24.). Extremely Rare!
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 16-17mm, weight: 0,47g, axis: 0h,
mint: Sirmium ,date: 493-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari No: 068, (avers type: 134, reverse type: 162, monogram type 24)
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
1 commentsquadrans
Ostrogoth-or-Gepid-Dark-Age_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_DN-ANASTASIVS-P-A_VIN-VITA-ROMANl-Monogram_-_Q-001_5h_15-16mm_0,83g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 090, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 18), Rare!180 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 090, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 18), Rare!
avers: D N ANASTASIVS P AV, Diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VIN VITA ✠ A ROMANI *, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 18).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 0,78g, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium ,date: 493-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari 090, (avers type: 47, reverse type :64, monogram type: 18), Rare!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
2 commentsquadrans
Dark-Age,_Ostrogoth-Gepid,_AR_quarter_Siliqua,_Sirmium,_D_N_ANASTASIVS_P_A,_VIN_VICTA_ARVHANl,_Monogram,_AG_106_Q-001,_5,5h,_15-16,5mm,_0,67g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 106, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 10.), Very Rare!135 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 106, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 10.), Very Rare!
avers: D Ͷ ΛͶΛSTASIVS P ΛV, Diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: ΛINVICTΛ ✠ ΛRVMΛNI *, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 10.). Very Rare!
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,0-16,5mm, weight: 0,67g, axis: 5h,
mint: Sirmium group, date: 491-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari, 106. (avers type: 59, reverse type: 78, monogram type 10)
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
quadrans
Barbar_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_OV-HI-IVSTINVS-99_no_text_Q-001_1h_15,5-16mm_0,69g-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 126b, No monogram, Plate coin, Figure 26.(and 126b) this coin!, Unique!!!139 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 126b, No monogram, Plate coin, Figure 26.(and 126b) this coin!, Unique!!!
avers: D N HIIIVSTSIVS ꟼ ꟼ Λ, The name of Justin I. The Legend are affected the diademed and cuirassed bust right,
reverse: No legend, Two person sitting face to face, between the third person who standing facing, holding the long cross in right hands and the small thing in the left hand.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 15,5-16,0mm, weight: 0,69g, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium, date: A.D., ref: Alain Gennari 126b, (avers type: 158, reverse type :202, monogram No monogram!) Plate coin Figure 26. this coin! Unique!!!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
quadrans
Barbar_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_IVSTINVS-II-name_Styl-Monogram_Gepida_Sirmium_Rauch-81_lotNo-815_Q-001_1h_21mm_0,78ga-s.jpg
Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 158, Cunimund monogram, Simplified monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 48., Plate coin, Figure 17. this coin!), Very Rare!193 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 158, Cunimund monogram, Simplified monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 48., Plate coin, Figure 17. this coin!), Very Rare!
avers: DN IVSTINV*PNVI, The name of Justin I. The Legend are affected the diademed head right,
reverse: No legend, Stylized monogram, Alain Gennari: Type 48.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 0,78g, axis: 1h,
mint: ,date: A.D., ref: MIB - (cf 50), cf Metlich, Ostrogothic Italy, S. 43, Abb. 23. RR s.sch. ,( another exampl: Ref:H.D.Rauch 81, Lot. No.:815,) Alain Gennari 158, (avers type: 93, reverse type :111, monogram type:48) Plate coin Figure 17. this coin! Very Rare!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
quadrans
ostrogoth_k.jpg
OSTROGOTHS. Uncertain king7 viewsEarly to mid 6th century.
42 Nummi, 10.29g 26mm
Countermarked early Imperial bronze issue.
XLII (mark of value = 42 Nummi) cut into obverse of a Rome mint As of Vespasian
with Victory holding palm branch and wreath reverse.
From the Arnoldoe Collection / 17-266-150
John Anthony
MEC-132.jpg
Ostrogoths: Athalaric (526-534 CE) Decanummium (MEC-132)15 viewsObv: INVIC - TA ROMA; Helmeted, draped bust of Roma right wearing double pearl necklace
Rev: D N ATHAL - ARICVS; King standing front, head right, holding scepter and resting left hand on shield, S - C across field, X in left field below the S
Quant.Geek
MEC-117.jpg
Ostrogoths: Theoderic (493-518) AR Half-siliqua, i.n.o Anastasius I, Ravenna (Metlich-43a; MIBE-V77; MEC-117)19 viewsObv: D N ANASTASIVS P P AVC, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right
Rev: Star within wreath

Size: 12mm
Wgt: 1.27g
1 commentsSpongeBob
MEC-120.jpg
Ostrogoths: Theoderic (493-518) AR Quarter-Siliqua, i.n.o Anastasius I, Ravenna (MEC-120; Metlich-44a)9 viewsObv: D N ANASTASIVS P P AVC, pearl-diademed and cuirassed bust right
Rev: INVICTA ROMA, monogram

Size: 11mm
Wgt: 0.79g

SpongeBob
Sear_0281.jpg
Sear 028121 viewsJustinian I (527 565 CE) Nummus, weight 0.65g, diameter 9mm. Wroth ( i.e. the old British Museum Vandals, Ostrogoths and Lombards catalogue) attributed this type to Hilderic, but it is most likely a Byzantine imperial issue: from the mint at Carthage (or possibly another North African mint) and struck soon after the end of the Vandalic War in 534. Abu Galyon
Barbar_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_DN-ANASTASIVS-P-A_VIN-VITA-ROMAl-Monogram_-_Q-001_axis-5h_15-16mm_0,83g-s.jpg
SUB-ROMAN, Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 090, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 18), Rare! 305 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Anastasius" type, Alain Gennari No: 090, Monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 18), Rare!
avers: D N ANASTASIVS P AV, Diademed and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VIN VITA ✠ A ROMANI *, Stylized "Theoderich" monogram (Alain Gennari type 18).
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 0,78g, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium ,date: 493-526 A.D., ref: Alain Gennari 090, (avers type: 47, reverse type :64, monogram type: 18), Rare!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
1 commentsquadrans
Barbar_Ar-quarter-Siliqua_IVSTINVS-II-name_Styl-Monogram_Gepida_Sirmium_Rauch-81_lotNo-815_Q-001_axis-1h_21mm_0,78g-s.jpg
SUB-ROMAN, Ostrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 158, Cunimund monogram, Simplified monogram of Theoderich, Very Rare!610 viewsOstrogoth, Gepid, (The age of exodus/Dark ages) Sirmium, AR-1/4-Siliqua, "Justin I." type, Alain Gennari No: 158, Cunimund monogram, Simplified monogram of Theoderich (Alain Gennari type 48., Plate coin, Figure 17. this coin!), Very Rare!
avers: DN IVSTINV*PNVI, The name of Justin I. The Legend are affected the diademed head right,
reverse: No legend, Stylized monogram, Alain Gennari: Type 48.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 21,0mm, weight: 0,78g, axis: 1h,
mint: ,date: A.D., ref: MIB - (cf 50), cf Metlich, Ostrogothic Italy, S. 43, Abb. 23. RR s.sch. ,( another exampl: Ref:H.D.Rauch 81, Lot. No.:815,) Alain Gennari 158, (avers type: 93, reverse type :111, monogram type:48) Plate coin Figure 17. this coin! Very Rare!
Q-001
This coin attributed by the Alain Gennari article:
"The "Sirmium group": about the so-called Gepids siliquae
With a specific catalogue -2ⁿᵈ edition, Parma Oktober 2017"
https://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=113140.0
quadrans
Athalaric.JPG
SUB-ROMAN, Ostrogoths, Athalaric 526-534 AD, Rome Mint75 viewsObv: Bust of Justinian Right, ...NIAN...
Rev: Monogram of Athalaric in Wreath
Wroth 47-56, p. 66-67
MEC 135
British Museum Catalog of Western and Provincial Byzantine COins #47-48, plate 8, #16-17
Laetvs
athalaric.jpg
SUB-ROMAN, Ostrogoths, Athalaric, AE1025 viewsAthalaric
AE 10mm
seaotter
Theodahad.jpg
Theodahad - Rome - 10 nummi126 viewsTheodahad (c. 480-536), Ostrogothic king (534-536). 10 Nummi (3.72 g, 17 mm, 6 h), Rome. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, INVICT-A ROMA. Reverse: DN/THEODA/HATHUS/REX within wreath. Metlich 90; MIB 82; MEC 1, 144.

Ex. Giamba collection; Ex. CNG 82, lot 1130, 2009
1 commentsjbc
Theodahat_ab-001.jpg
Theodahad - Rome - 40 nummi40 viewsTheodahad (c. 480-536), Ostrogothic king (534-536). 40 Nummi (11.34 g, 27 mm), Rome. Obverse: Bust of Theodahad with short moustache wearing closed crown ornamented with jewels and two stars, robe ornamented with jewels and pectoral cross on breast, DN THEOD-AHATHUS REX. Reverse: Victory standing right on prow of galley, holding wreath and palm branch, VICTORIA PRINCIPVM, S-C. Metlich 89b; MIB 81; MEC 1, 141.Jan
Theoderic_quarter_siliqua_ab2.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Milan or Ticinum - quarter siliqua44 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526) and ruler of Italy (494-526). AR quarter siliqua (10 mm, 0.71 g) in the name of Anastasius, minted in Milan or Ticinum. Obverse: diademed bust right with crude dotted garment, D N ANASTA-SIVS PP AVC (retrograde). Reverse: INVIC-TA ROMA, monogram of Theoderic with cross above and star below. Metlich 51c, scarce.

Ex Alde Auction 111, lot 314, 2013.
Jan (jbc)
Felix_Ravenna_Victory_ab.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Ravenna - 5 nummi156 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). 5 Nummi (15 mm, 1.67 g), Ravenna. Obverse: crowned head of Ravenna right, [FELIX R]-AVENNA (retrograde). Reverse: Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch, R-V in fields. Metlich 81; Ranieri 252-4; MEC .

Rare. Metlich (2004) cites six coins, four of which are in museums (Ravenna, Milan, Torino, Vienna), and suggests that they belong to the very earliest of Theoderic's coinage from the 490's. This is the only coin of Theoderic that is believed to belong to Ravenna; all other coins where minted in Rome.

Ex Dix Noonan Webb 2009, A8, Lot 5968.
1 commentsjbc
Theoderic_quarter_siliqua_ab.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Ravenna - quarter siliqua71 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526) and ruler of Italy (494-526). AR quarter siliqua (11 mm, 0.64 g) in the name of Justin I, minted in Ravenna 518-526. Obverse: diademed bust right, D N IVSTI-NVS AVC. Reverse: Monogram of Theoderic with cross above, all within wreath. Metlich 55.1 commentsJan (jbc)
Felix_Ravenna_2.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Rome - 10 nummi127 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). 10 Nummi (16 mm, 2.32 g), Rome. Obverse: crowned head of Ravenna right, FELIX R-AVENNA. Reverse: monogram of Ravenna, cross above, all in wreath. Metlich 78b; MIB 72b; MEC 150; Kraus 5.

This type with a cross above the monogram is less common than the type without a cross. The minting is believed to have continued into the reign of Athalaric (526-536) (Metlich, 2004). The existence of two hybrid coins where the Ravenna monogram reverse is combined with an INVICTA ROMA obverse indicates that the coins may have been produced in Rome (Metlich, 2004).
1 commentsjbc
Felix_Ravenna_eagle_ab.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Rome - 10 nummi95 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). 10 Nummi (16 mm, 2.72 g), Rome. Obverse: crowned head of Ravenna right, FELIX R-AVENNA. Reverse: Eagle left between two stars, X in exergue. Metlich 77; Ranieri 255-6; MEC .

Approximately 20-30 coins known. Metlich (2004) cites thirteen coins in museums and sold at major auctions. Metrological evidence suggests that this type was emitted at about the same time as the more common type with the Ravenna monogram on the reverse (Metlich, 2004).
jbc
Theoderic_ab.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Rome - 2 nummi67 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). 2 Nummi (7 mm, 0.56 g), Rome. Obverse: diademed head right, [...]AG. Reverse: Monogram of Theoderic. Metlich 79.

Ex Bruun Rasmussen 1237, lot 5031, 2012.
Jan (jbc)
Theoderic_nummus.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Rome - 2 nummi101 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). 2 Nummi (10 mm, 0.84 g), Rome. Obverse: diademed head right, [D N] ANA[STASIVS]. Reverse: Monogram of Theoderic, a simplified variant of the monogram in the inset. Metlich 79.

This type is represented in the museums in Rome (x2) and Copenhagen (x3), and in the Massafra hoard (Hahn, 1987).
Jan (jbc)
Theoderic3_ab.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Rome - 2 nummi48 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). 2 Nummi (8 mm, 0.88 g), Rome. Obverse: diademed head left. Reverse: Monogram of Theoderic. Metlich 79 var.

Head left not previously described for this type.

Ex Bruun Rasmussen 1237, lot 5031, 2012.
Jan (jbc)
Trajse28-2.jpg
Trajan, RIC 571, Sestertius of AD 103-4 (Circus Maximus)135 views Sestertius (24.27g, 32.95mm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 103-4.
Obv/ IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate bust of Trajan facing right wearing aegis on chest.
Rev/ SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around] S C [in ex.], bird's-eys view on the Circus Maximus in Rome, as seen from the Forum Boarium, showing portico in foreground with eleven arched entrances and monumental gate surmounted by quadriga on right, two additional arches, each surmounted by quadriga behind the portico at both ends, the central spina adorned with tall obelisk of Rameses II at center flanked by equestrian statue of Trajan on left and shrine of Cybele on right , the two metae (turning posts) placed at the extremities; at the far side of the Circus, a curved wall incorporating a tetra-style shrine of Sol.
RIC 571 [R] and pl. x, 187 (rev. only); Cohen 546 (Fr.60); Strack 391; BMC 856; Banti 275 (4 spec.); MIR 175c and pl. 28 (citing 20 examples of this variety; same obv. die as plate 175c1; same rev. die as 175c1); RCV 3208 var. (bust draped instead of aegis)

ex G. Henzen (Netherlands, 2000)

Certificate of Authenticity issued by David Sear / A.C.C.S. Ref. 104CR/RI/C/CR, January 10, 2015 graded F, very rare and of considerable historical interest

Extract of the Certificates' Historical & Numismatic Note: "The reverse of this orichalcum sestertius commemorates the completion in AD 103 of a major restoration of the Circus Maximus, following a great fire that had severely damaged the famous arena in the time of the Flavian emperors. The origin of the Circus Maximus, situated in the Murcia valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills, is quite obscure. An enclosure for chariot racing, it had parallel sides and one semicircular end, all fitted with seats for spectators, and an axial rib (spina) marked at each end by turning-posts (metae) dividing the arena into two runs. At the open end were the curved stables (carceres) sufficient to accommodate twelve teams of horses. Traditionally founded by King Tarquinius Priscus, it does not seem to have become a permanent structure until 329 BC (Livy viii. 20.1). In later times, it was much embellished, notably by Augustus who erected on the spina the great Egyptian obelisk of Rameses II from Heliopolis (it now stands in the Piazza del Populo). The vast arena was frequently damaged by the fires that afflicted the imperial capital; on several occasions, there was loss of life when structural failure occurred under the weight of the huge crowds that attended the events. Trajan was himself an ardent fan of the Circus so it is scarcely surprising that he took on the task of restoring the arena. The present specimen is a good example of the rare issue that commemorated the completion of this undertaking. More than a century later (AD 213), the Emperor Caracalla issued a similar type to record his own restoration work on the Circus Maximus. The last recorded games in this celebrated arena took place under the Ostrogothic king Totila in AD 550."
3 commentsCharles S
Witiges_2ab.jpg
Witigis - Ravenna - 10 nummi164 viewsWitigis, Ostrogothic king (536-539). 10 Nummi (16 mm, 3.23 g), Ravenna. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, (INVICT)-A ROMA. Reverse: DN/VVIT/ICES/REX within wreath. Metlich 92.3 commentsJan (jbc)
Witiges_ab.jpg
Witigis - Ravenna - 10 nummi101 viewsWitigis, Ostrogothic king (536-539). 10 Nummi (3.54 g, 17 mm), Ravenna. Obverse: helmeted bust of Roma right, (INVICT)-A ROMA. Reverse: DN/VVIT/ICIS/REX within wreath. Metlich 92.Jan (jbc)
ArcadiusManusDei.jpg
[1601b] Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.63 viewsARCADIUS AE2. Struck at Constantinople, 378-383 AD. Obverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield, Hand of God above holding wreath; Reverse - GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing, head left, holding standard & resting shield at side, bound captive seated on ground to left, head right, CONG in exergue. RIC 53b. Scarce. Extremely Fine, some roughness and corrosion.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families


Arcadius (395-408 A.D.)

Geoffrey S. Nathan
University of California at Los Angeles

Introduction and Early Life
The ineffectual life and reign of Flavius Arcadius are of considerably less importance than the quite significant developments that occurred during his reign. Born either in 377 or 378 to then general Theodosius and Aelia Flavia Flacilla, he and his younger brother, Honorius, ruled the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire respectively from 395.

Shortly after his birth, his father was raised to the imperial purple in 379. Events in Illyricum with the massive influx of Ostrogothic and Visigothic peoples had resulted in the defeat of the Roman army and the death of the emperor, Valens. Theodosius' first task was to confront the Visigoths who had been ravaging the Balkans. Perhaps in the wake of this difficult and almost insurmountable task, the emperor wanted to insure that his infant son would bear some legitimacy should he die on campaign. Whatever the reason, Arcadius was proclaimed Augustus in January of 383 at the age of five or six. In the following year, his younger brother was born and it seems as if Theodosius initially had been interested in preserving the theoretical position of his elder son. While Arcadius enjoyed the status of Augustus, Honorius only achieved the office of consul posterior in 386. Perhaps the eastern emperor had wanted to avoid the possible conflicts that arose earlier in the century with the family of Constantine. Recent events in the west with the assassination of Gratian by Magnus Maximus may have also played a part: Theodosius initially had to leave the murder of his imperial colleague unavenged and leave the boy- emperor, Valentinian II, largely undefended. The profusion of emperors may well have been seen by Theodosius as kindling for civil war. His own autocratic tendencies may have also meant that he saw only one possible successor for himself.

Nevertheless, Theodosius gave Arcadius very little independence in early life. When he went to campaign against Magnus in the late 380's, he placed his son under the Praetorian Prefect of the East, Tatian, who was the de facto emperor in Theodosius' absence. This began a long series of regencies for Arcadius. The strength of Tatian's position with the eastern governing class made the office of Praetorian Prefect all the more powerful in Constantinople, which in turn made it easier to dominate future emperors. When Theodosius replaced Tatian with the more malleable and more ambitious Rufinus in 392, he had appointed a minister who would centralize even greater authority under the prefecture.

By 393, the emperor's situation had changed radically. When events in the west demanded his attention again, Theodosius was in a much stronger position. The ascendancy of the general, Arbogast, and his own puppet emperor, Eugenius, in the west provided Theodosius an opportunity and, indeed, the obligation to take full control of the Empire. The chance for having his own two sons ruling both halves of Rome not only seemed practical and feasible, but such an arrangement would establish himself as the head of a new dynasty. With thoughts in that direction, Honorius was made Augustus in 393 and accompanied his father west in the summer of 394. Arcadius, although near his majority, was nevertheless placed again under the guardianship (epitropos) of the Prefect of the East. In January of 395, Theodosius the Great died and his two sons took theoretical control of the two halves of the Roman Empire.

Early Reign and the Dominance of Rufinus and Eutropius (395-399)
Arcadius was eighteen when he assumed the throne in the east. We do not know whether or not he was ready for the responsibilities. During the mid-380's, the young emperor had been educated in part by Themistius, a famous pagan statesman, philosopher, and speaker. In what way he affected Arcadius is impossible to say, but surely his teachings must have included statecraft. Perhaps because of this influence, the new emperor's attempt to establish himself as an independent force can be seen in a series of laws passed at his accession. In contrast to trying to create a military image for himself, which would not be allowed either by Rufinus or by the eastern court, he attempted to portray himself as a pious Christian emperor. He enacted several comprehensive laws against heresy and paganism.

This was not necessarily an ineffectual strategy. By celebrating his religious piety, he expressed his power in the only way available to an emperor largely controlled by his ministers. He also perhaps sought to gain support and power from the local governing and religious hierarchies in Constantinople. Arcadius also perhaps thought that he was carrying on in the tradition of his father and so, by extension, might share in some of his glory. Rufinus in contrast wanted to tie himself to the emperor through a marriage connection to his daughter. But in April of 395, Arcadius had taken advantage of the Prefect's temporary absence to marry Aelia Eudoxia, whose guardian, the general, Promotus, had been a bitter enemy of Rufinus. Arcadius had been aided in this move by his own grand chamberlain (praepositus sacri cubiculi), Eutropius, and it perhaps indicated the degree to which he wanted to be free of any regent.

But in reality, Arcadius gained little if any power. Rufinus assumed full control of the east, and the Vandal Stilicho, Theodosius' closest advisor and general, took control of Honorius in the west. The tension between east and west quickly grew when Stilicho, in command of all the eastern and western armies, tried to press his guardianship over Arcadius as well. Moreover, there was considerable resentment against Rufinus in the east for using his office to greatly enrich himself and perhaps, too, because he was a westerner. Rufinus, understanding the perils around him, acted quickly. He had Arcadius demand the return of the eastern armies at once. Stilicho acquiesced, perhaps because the general was basing his claim of guardianship on his own legitimacy: to have taken control of the east and Arcadius by force would have undermined his position there and perhaps in the west. The soldiers returned under the command of the Gothic general, Gainas. With the control of the field army, it seemed as if Rufinus was going to be more thoroughly in control of the east and over Arcadius.

He did not long enjoy his victory. When Arcadius and Rufinus came to greet the armies at Hebdoman near Constantinople in November of 395, the soldiers turned on the Praetorian Prefect and cut him down in front of the emperor. Whether Stilicho instigated the assassination is a matter of some debate, but if he did, he received no benefit from it. The armies remained and Arcadius soon fell under the sway of other ministers. Nevertheless, despite the shock and fear Arcadius may have felt at witnessing such a brutal murder, he probably missed Rufinus' presence not at all and even thought it might provide an opportunity to assert his own authority. For the bureaucracy, the death meant that maintaining civilian control over the army was paramount to their own survival.

Soon thereafter, Eutropius assumed Rufinus' place in dominating Arcadius. Since the grand chamberlain could control access to the emperor and commanded the powerful palace bureaucracy, he was well-placed to dictate what and whom the emperor saw and heard. Military officers--frequently Germanic--who dominated the western government, were held suspect by fearful and jealous civil administrators in Constantinople. Eutropius used that fear to his advantage and froze out any access they may have had to the circles of power. His decision to effectively eliminate the military's input in decision-making would eventually lead to his demise.

It is difficult to determine how popular Eutropius was either with Arcadius or with the wider population. As a eunuch and a former slave, the sources generally portray him very negatively. He nevertheless seems to have enjoyed some support from the emperor, likely aided by Eudoxia with whom the grand chamberlain had close ties. The emperor happily took annual vacations in Galatia, apparently upon the Eutropius' suggestion. Moreover, the chamberlain showed great personal courage and talent in leading a campaign against invading Huns in 397/8, for which he won the consulship and the rank of patrician in the following year of 399. He also seems to have gained considerable support from the local clergy by procuring the patriarchate of Constantinople in 398 for John Chrysostom.

Despite Eutropius' rise to power, however, eastern policy changed little. The religious policies of Theodosius and Arcadius continued, including the forced closure of pagan temples in Gaza. More significantly, tension between the two halves of the empire persisted as Stilicho continued to press for his position as guardian. Although Stilicho led periodic raids into Greece and Thrace to attack the new Visigothic king, Alaric, his victories were incomplete and were more likely meant to keep the Germanic people out of western territory. This meant, among other things, that the Visigoths were an enduring problem for the east. Eutropius in turn supported the revolt of the Count Gildo in Africa, which was under western control, in an attempt to destabilize Stilicho's control and further eastern domains.

The failure of the revolt in 398 was the first step in Eutropius' downfall. The decision to exclude the military men of the period, particularly among the growing importance of Germanic officers, created a dangerous situation. By 399, the dissatisfaction with east-west affairs and the Gildo fiasco resulted in a revolt by the Gothic count, Tribigild. He was apparently in collusion with Gainas, who had taken advantage of the crisis to be named chief general in the east (magister utriusque militiae). Gainas quickly reached an agreement with the rebel and part of the settlement was the dismissal of Eutropius, to which Arcadius--at Eudoxia's urging--agreed. The chamberlain took refuge in the Hagia Sophia, and was exiled to Cyprus. But shortly thereafter, in the autumn of 399, Eutropius was recalled, tried and executed in Chalcedon.

The Age of Eudoxia (400-404)
The death of Eutropius precipitated a serious crisis. Gainas, who had wanted high office for years, now tried to force the hand of Arcadius. Having come to a quick resolution with Tribigild, he moved from Thrace towards Constantinople in 400. With the Germanic troops supporting him, Gainas tried for six months to initiate his own primacy-- including seizing the imperial palace--but which failed. He was forced to withdraw personally from the city to regroup and planned to use his troops remaining there to seize the entire city. But they were slaughtered by the inhabitiants and he fled first to Thrace and then to Asia. Eventually Gainas was killed by the Huns later in that year. His attempted coup ensured that Germanic officers would never again be trusted by the eastern government and would forever be kept out of any important decision-making roles.

The likely successor to Eutropius had been the anti-Germanic leader, Aurelianus, who had succeeded to the Prefecture of the East in 399. But Gainas had exiled him, having forced Arcadius to hand him over, and although Aurelianus returned triumphantly after Gainas' departure, he appears to have lost his hold over the emperor. In the meantime, Aelia Eudoxia had done much to forward her own place in the government. In January of 400, she had been named Augusta, a singular distinction offered to only three other women in the previous century. Her position thus gained a semi-official legitimacy afforded to very few Roman empresses. It has been assumed that because of her beauty, her intelligence, and her fecundity (she bore Arcadius five children), she was able to assert her influence to a point where she was the new power behind the throne.

That assessment, while held by many scholars, is not entirely accurate. While there were several events in which she played a crucial part, they were not terribly important moments during Arcadius' reign. But because Eudoxia was enormously wealthy, because she delivered a male heir in 401, and because she was involved in a highly publicized and drawn out political fight with John Chrysostom, this belief that there was an assumption of power is based more on the notoriety of her acts than on actual control. The fact that there was no one clearly dominating the government nor the emperor during this time implies perhaps that Arcadius had more power during these five years of his reign than at any other time.

There are several indications that he did try to improve and assert his own position. The emperor and his court immediately came to some understanding with the west. The east at the very least gave Honorius and Stilicho moral support in their increasing problems with Alaric. In 402, the feeling of goodwill was sealed by a joint consulship between Arcadius and his brother. The emperor also sought to establish his own military prowess and Christian piety with the erection of a column set up in the Hippodrome of Constantinople in 402/3. The column depicted his military victory over Gainas, crowned with a capital emblazoned with the Greek letters chi-rho, symbolizing his devotion to Christ. Arcadius' son, Theodosius II, was born in 401, and was quickly made Augustus at the age of eight months. The eastern ruler was thus interested in assuring his own dynasty.

In all these things, the emperor was largely successful, but they were largely overshadowed by the feud between his empress and the bishop of Constantinople. Eudoxia had already shown herself able in pushing her interests during the baptism of her son. The Bishop of Constantinople, however, was a much tougher opponent than her husband. John Chrysostom, a strong believer in social justice, had boorishly attacked Eudoxia and many of her friends for the conspicuous luxury in which they lived and displayed themselves. At the height of these attacks, John compared the empress to Jezebel. Eudoxia in turn used her considerable influence to inflame hostility among the clergy against the bishop. Working through Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria, in 403 Chrysostom was deposed and forced into exile at a Church council convened by the emperor (the Synod of the Oak at Chalcedon). However, there was soon such turmoil and uproar in the imperial city that the bishop was recalled a few days later. But the public feuding between Eudoxia and Chrysostom continued until at last she had him banished again in 404, this time permanently. Among other things, it caused a breach between Arcadius and his brother, who had, with Pope Innocent I, tried to support Chrysostom.

Eudoxia's victory was short-lived, however. In October of 404, the Augusta died of a miscarriage. Her death was seen by some as retribution for dismissing John. Whatever the reason, her end also signaled a complete retreat into the background by the emperor and no further initiatives seem to have been pushed by the 27-year-old Augustus.

The Final Years: Anthemius and Death (404-408)
The last years of Arcadius' reign were completely dominated by his Praetorian Prefect of the East, Anthemius. It was perhaps fitting that when the emperor seems to have been most retiring, the most able and energetic of his high ministers came to power. Anthemius worked hard to solve a series of governmental abuses, continue to push for Christianization, and secure the east from attack.

Anthemius first seems to have tried to reconcile with the west, so much so that there was a joint consulship between Anthemius and Stilicho in 405. This might have also been meant to symbolize the Prefect's new dominance, however. Additionally, a number of new laws were passed, curtailing paganism, Judaism and heresy. He tried to make use of the continuing problem of incoming Germanic peoples to combat the Isaurian tribes which had been plaguing Asia Minor since 403. While it failed to halt either group's incursions, it was nevertheless a practical and intelligent strategy. As a means of protecting the imperial capital, Anthemius also strengthened the walls around Constantinople. Our records for the last years of Arcadius' rule are quite spotty, but the emperor himself seems to have completely vanished, even symbolically, from the political scene.

In May of 408, Flavius Arcadius died at the age of 31 of unknown causes. Our only physical description of Arcadius is heavily influenced by the generally low regard in which he was held. The emperor was supposedly short, thin and dark-complected. A more kindly correspondent described him as good-natured and temperate. His son succeeded him without any controversy and the government remained unchanged. Arcadius thus left the world much as he entered it: without much significance and overshadowed by more powerful forces.

Assessment
Despite the ineffectual nature of Arcadius and his rule, a number of significant changes occurred during his stewardship of the eastern empire. His inability to forcefully or at least effectively govern meant that there were few consistent or long-range goals of his administration. With the exception of trying to emphasize the emperor's piety, an important development in the history of the Byzantine monarchy, Arcadius and his ministers were for the most part simply reacting to events.

The emperor became an even more remote figure to the general public. Even in the capital city itself, he was rarely seen: we read in one account that people came running to see the emperor for the first time when he happened to be praying in a local church. A series of "orientalizing" court practices no doubt continued in order to emphasize the symbolic separation of the emperor from the rest of society. The hieratic, almost semi- divine nature of the imperial person, also became a feature of the eastern ruler.

Perhaps of greatest importance was the political and cultural split between east and west. With the death of Theodosius, the two halves of the Roman Empire increasingly went their separate ways. For the most part, the west was thrown back upon its own resources, unable to deal with the problems of the fifth century. The east proved more compact and more resilient: it largely weathered the political storms from without and within.

Moreover, Constantinople fully became the imperial capital of the east, a Roma nova. The emperor rarely left the city and the palace officials became more influential than many of the more theoretically important ministers outside the city. Constantinople was also made an archepiscopate and Chrysostom and others started to push strongly for its primacy in the east. Both public and private building projects beautified and enlarged the city. Under Arcadius' reign, it truly became the second city of the Roman Empire.
Finally, the hard stance against Germanic officers in Roman government became a central feature in the east. While the reasons for this development were inspired largely out of fear and perhaps racism, the eastern Roman Empire did manage to avoid the largely detrimental succession of Germanic generalissimos who controlled the west in the fifth century. It also encouraged the eastern rulers in the following century to take hard lines against other peoples, including the Isaurians, the Huns and the Persians. Taken in all, the era of Arcadius was far more important than Arcadius himself. He perhaps had his father's pretensions, but none of the skills or powers necessary to leave his mark on the Empire.

By Geoffrey S. Nathan, University of California at Los Angeles
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
 
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