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coin616.jpg
17 viewsBruttium, Lokroi Epizephyrioi
300-268 BC 5.27 g (1942) SNG Danish National Museum
1874 4.92 g (1975) SNG ANS 3 543
AE18 of Locri (Locroi Epizephyrii), 290-270 BC or later
Obv. hd Athena, wearing Corinthian helmet
Rev.winged thunderbolt, LOKRWNCoin #616
cars100
Deutschland_Medaille_1982_U-Boot_U_2540_Museum_Bremerhaven.jpg
22 viewsDeutschland

Bremerhaven

Medaille 1982 (Kupfer-Nickel)

auf das Technikmuseum U-Boot Wilhelm Bauer e.v.

Vs.: U-Boot

Rs.: Elefant

Gewicht: 19,0g

Durchmesser: 37mm

Erhaltung: vorzüglich-stempelglanz _798
Antonivs Protti
Alexandria_Egypt_tetradrachm.jpg
42 viewsEGYPT, ALEXANDRIA, Gallienus (A.D. 253-268), Potin Tetradrachm, 10.77g., 23mm, Dated year 14 (A.D. 266/7), AVT K P LIK GALLIHNOC CEB, laureate and cuirassed bust right, rev., eagle standing left, head right, holding wreath in beak, L ID (date) before, palm behind, (Köln 2932; Dattari 5283; Milne 4145),


Provenance:

Ex Boston Museum of Fine Arts (Deaccessioned #88.230).

Purchased from Alfred Oscar van Lennep (1851-1913), Anglo-Dutch Numismatic and Antiquities Dealer (Smyrna, (Izmir) Turkey), January 5th, 1888.
paul1888
Eion.jpg
73 viewsMacedon, Eion, trihemiobol, 5th century BC, goose standing right, head looking back; above, lizard, rev., quadripartite incuse square, 0.77g

Boston 610; K. Regling, Die Griechischen Munzen der Sammlung Warren, Berlin, 1906, 569 ; SNG ANS 274ff.

Provenance:
Ex: Morton and Eden Ltd, In association with Sotheby’s; A Collection of Exceptional Greek Coins, Catalog 51, Monday, October 24, 2011, lot 85
Ex: Numismatic Fine Arts VIII, 6 June 1980, lot 97
Ex: Museum of Fine Arts, Boston Collection (accession number 04.667). Published: Catalogue of Greek Coins in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1955; 610 (this coin),
Ex: Edward Perry Warren collection; Published: Die Griechischen Munzen der Sammlung Warren, Berlin, 1906, 569 (this coin).
Ex: Canon Greenwell Collection


Note: Cannon Greenwell, a well-known Durham antiquarian, sold for £11.000 |$55.000) his fine collection of Greek coins to Edward Perry Warren in 1901.
Source: Los Angeles Herald, Volume XXVIII, Number 323, 19 August 1901, Page 7
4 commentspaul1888
Roman_Lamp.jpg
30 viewsRoman Lug-Handled Lamp
ca. 5th to 6th Century BC. Provenance: Purchased by Dr. Arthur F. Bissell in Rome in 1872 gifted to Toledo Museum of Art in 1912 Accession no. 1912.1258. H. 1 1/2 in. (3.8 cm); Diam. 2 1/2 in. (6.4 cm).
paul1888
Pseudo_Rhodian_Drachm.jpg
31 viewsMacedonian Kingdom. Perseus. 179-168 B.C. AR drachm (15 mm, 2.60 g, 12 h). ca. 171/0 B.C. Aristokrates, magistrate. Head of Helios facing slightly right / P-O, rose with bud to left; in left field, club; above, magistrate's name: [ΑΡΙ]ΣΤΟΚΡΑΤΗΣ. R. J. H. Ashton, ""Clubs, Thunderbolts, Torches, Stars and Caducei: more Pseudo-Rhodian Drachms from Mainland Greece and the Islands,"" NC 162 (2002), 17 (A6/P5; this coin). Toned. Very fine.
Ex Naville V (18 June 1923), 2669. British Museum Duplicate, Ex: British Museum


The Pseudo-Rhodian drachms were struck, probably by the Macedonians under Perseus but possibly by the Romans, to pay for Mercenaries from Crete and Rhodes who would have been familiar with Rhodian coinage. The coins in the name of the magistrate Aristokrates with the club symbol in the field is the largest known individual issue of pseudo-Rhodian drachms from the Third Macedonian War, and used at least twenty-nine obverse dies.
paul1888
Corinthian_Aryballos.jpg
25 viewsCorinthian Aryballos
ca. 6th century BC. Black figure decoration with winged figure. Provenance:Ex: Toledo Museum of Art; Came to Toledo Museum of Art in 1948. Not accessioned has an ID number of "App 7-30-48". UNACC.3.1948. H: 2 1/2 in. (6.4 cm).
paul1888
Klazomenai_Silver_Hemidrachm.jpg
20 viewsIonia, Klazomenai. Silver Hemidrachm (1.99 g), ca. 380-360 BC. Kronax, magistrate. Laureate head of Apollo facing slightly left. Reverse: KΛ-A below, swan standing left; around, magistrate's name: KPΩ-NAΞ. Cf. SNG Copenhagen 16ff; cf. BMC 23ff. Very Rare.
From the Lee Rousseau Collection; Ex Gorny & Mosch 200 (12 October 2011), 1799.
The dies used to strike this handsome hemidrachm of Klazomenai are possibly the work of the famous artist Theodotos: they are reminiscent of the tetradrachm from dies of his that he signed in the British Museum's collection.
2 commentspaul1888
Vespasian_Judea_Den_RIC_2-sm2.jpg
10 Vespasian Denarius, 69-70 Judea Capta42 viewsVespasian. A.D. 69-79. AR denarius (17.1 mm, 2.86 g, 6 h). Rome, A.D. 69-70. Ex-Hebrew College Museum. IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right / IVDAEA, captive Jewess seated right, hands tied before, trophy of captured arms behind. RIC 2; BMCRE 35; RSC 226. Fine, toned.
Ex-Hebrew College Museum.
Ex Agora Auctions #1 - Nov 2013
1 commentsSosius
rjb_2014_07_04.jpg
435bis46 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
AE Antoninianus
Obv: "IMP C CARAVSIVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: "VIRTVS AVG"
Emperor standing left holding globe and vertical sceptre
Colchester mint
S/P//C
RIC -
Another example of this reverse noted in the Ashmolean Museum collection
1 commentsmauseus
rjb_2009_10_13.jpg
835cf25 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv "VICTORIA CARAVSI A"
Radiate, cuirassed bust right with spear & shield
Rev "LITiTI AV"
Laetitia/Pax stg left with vertical sceptre
Unmarked mint
RIC - (cf 835ff, also see RIC 786 for similar obverse)

Obverse die duplicate of two coins in the British Museum, one from the Little Orme hoard (no mintmark in exergue) the other with RSR in the exergue
mauseus
00011x00.jpg
19 viewsGAUL, Lugdunum (?)
PB Tessera (14mm, 2.13 g)
CPF, palm frond below
Blank
Cf. Turcan 221, 225-6, and others.

Found in Southern Spain.

This struck piece shares its general engraving style and palm frond motif with a number of specimens in the museum of Lyons. Perhaps, considering its Spanish provenance, the type saw circulation along the coast of the western Mediterranean.
Ardatirion
00061x00.jpg
31 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.47 g, 9h)
Roma seated right, holding Victory and spear
G P R F (Genio Populi Romani Feliciter) in circle
Rostovtzev 1576; BM 369

Rostovtsev cites two examples in the British Museum, as well as five more in smaller collections. Thornton could only locate one specimen.
Ardatirion
00033x00~1.jpg
61 viewsIONIA, Ephesos.
PB Tessera (20mm, 5.41 g)
Oleiculture scene: male figure standing right, holding stick and knocking olives from tree to right; star and crescent between; behind, stag(?) standing left; [...]POV above
Blank
Gülbay & Kireç –

Scenes of the olive harvest are entirely unknown on coinage, but some mosaics and Greek vases illustrate the practice. See in particular an Attic black figure neck amphora in the British Museum (ABV, 273, 116) depicting two men using sticks to knock olives from a tree.
1 commentsArdatirion
DSC_4480.JPG
48 viewsUNITED STATES, Native proto-currency. Northern Pacific coast. 18th-early19th century
Shell “kop-kop” (29mm by 6mm, 0.38 g)
Tubular shell of the dentalium genus of mollusks
Robert Stearns, Ethno-conchology: A Study of Primitive Money p. 314-321

Ex Detroit Museum of Art

Kop-kops were smaller or damaged pieces of hi-qua shells and circulated as a fraction of the hi-qua. Use of this shell type as currency ranged from northern California to Alaska.
1 commentsArdatirion
00030x00.jpg
71 viewsSCOTLAND, Communion Tokens. Dalziel. Robert Clason
Minister, circa 1786-1801
PB Token (20mm, 3.15 g)
Dated 1798
Dalzel/ R C/ 1798
Blank
Barzinski 1873; Brook -

Museum number in india ink on reverse: 5971730 (?)

Ex Lockdale's 83 (27 March 2011), lot 1112
2 commentsArdatirion
CnCorneliusLentulusMarcellinusARDenariusSear323.jpg
(503f) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius86 viewsCn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius, Sear-323, Cr-393/1a, Syd-752, RSC-Cornelia 54, struck 76-75 BC at Spanish Mint, 3.94 grams, 18 mm. EF. Obverse: GPR above Diademed, draped and bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman People facing right, sceptre over shoulder; Reverse: EX in left field, SC in right field; CN LEN Q in exergue, Sceptre with wreath, terrestrial globe and rudder. An exceptional example that is especially well centered and struck on a slightly larger flan than normally encountered with fully lustrous surfaces and a most attractive irridescent antique toning. Held back from the Superb EF/FDC by a small banker's mark in the right obverse field, but still worthy of the finest collection of Roman Republican denarii. Ex Glenn Woods.

Re: CORNELIA 54:

“Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus may be the same moneyer whose issues have been already described (no.s 702-704). Mommsen suggested that these coins were struck in 74 B.C. as a special issue, authorized by the Senate, to defray the cost of armaments against Mithridates of Pontus and the Mediterranean pirates. But Grueber’s view that they were struck in 76 B.C. by Cn. Cornelius Lentulus acting in the capacity of quaestor of Pompey, seems more in accordance with the evidence of finds" (see: G. ii, p. 359n and The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 1).

H. A. Seaby shows the coin with the smaller head (Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus pg. 33) while David R Sear shows a coin sporting a larger version (Roman Coins and Their Values, pg. 132).

“Cn. Lentulus strikes in Spain in his capacity as quaestor to the proconsul Pompey, who had been sent to the peninsula to assist Q. Caecillus Metellus Piusagainst sertorius”(Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132).

This is not an imperatorial minted coin for Pompey. At the time these coins were minted the Procounsel Pompey was sent to Spain to aid in the war against Sertorius. The moneyer Cn Lentulus served as his Quaestor where he continued to mint coins for Rome.

CN = Cneaus; LEN = Lentulus

Cneaus was his first name. His last, or family name is Lentulus and this clan is a lesser clan within the Cornelii, which is what his middle name of Cornelius implies.

Q = This tells us that he was a Quaestor, or Roman magistrate with judicial powers at the time when the coin was issued, with the responsibility for the treasury. Had this been a position that he once held it would be noted on the coin as PROQ or pro [past] Questor.

For Further Reading on the Cornelia 54 & 55:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum, by H. A. Grueber. London, 1910, Vol. II, pgs. 358, 359, 52, 57

Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus, by H.A.Seaby 1952, pgs. 32-33

The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 122, 241

Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132, 133

Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 407

by Jerry Edward Cornelius, April 2006, THE 81 ROMAN COINS OF THE CORNELIA
http://www.cornelius93.com/Cornelia54.html
1 commentsCleisthenes
RI_064an_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC -40 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– FORT REDVC, Fortuna standing left, holding long scepter & cornucopia
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194
References:– RIC -. BMCRE -. RSC -.

3.17g, 18.54mm, 0o

This is an unusual legend with several spelling errors. It is an obverse die match to a coin in the Doug Smith collection (different reverse type). A reverse die match exists in the British Museum (different obverse die).
maridvnvm
RI_064fl_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -50 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– TR P IIII IMP II COS II, Mars standing right, resting on spear and shield
Minted in Alexandria, A.D. 194
References:– BMCRE -, RIC -, RSC -. RIN (Rivista Italiana di Nvmismatica Vol. XCVI (1994/1995)

2.72g. 17.78mm. 0o

Additional information from Curtis Clay:-
"Die match to example in British Museum, found at the site of a Roman villa in Kent, GB, in 1952. The same obv. die also occurs with the types MONETA AVG and LEG III IT AVG TR P COS.
Bickford-Smith recorded three other specimens, of which I also have plaster casts: his own coll. (probably now in BM), Klosterneuburg, and U.S. private collection. On these the rev. legend apparently ends COS rather than COS II.
This type was clearly struck in 194, when Septimius was TR P II and IMP III or IIII, so TR P IIII IMP II in the rev. legend is an error, the origin of which is obvious: the type is a rote copy of the identical type and legend on denarii of Lucius Verus of 164, Cohen 228-9. The titles apply to Lucius in 164, not Septimius in 194!"
maridvnvm
RI_064ss_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Denarius - RIC 01920 viewsDenarius
Obv:– IMP CAE L SEP-T SEV PERT AVG. Laureate head right
Rev:– SAEC FRVGIF COS, Saeculum Frugiferum., radiate, standing left, holding winged caduceus and trident
Minted in Rome. A.D. 193
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC IV 19 (Rated Rare); RSC 622.

About 8 examples from 2 reverse dies known to Curtis Clay. This example from a different reverse die to the British Museum example.
maridvnvm
Caracalla-Prieur-1144.jpg
07. Caracalla.23 viewsTetradrachm, 205-207 AD, Laodiceia ad Mare.
Obverse: AVT KAI . ANTΩNEINOC . CE . / Laureate bust of Caracalla.
Reverse: ΔHMAPX EΞ VΠATOC B / Eagle, holding wreath in beak, star between legs.
12.91 gm., 25 mm.
Bellinger #57; Prieur #1144.

When Caracalla went to the East to wage war with the Parthians, he issued vast quantities of tetradrachms to finance the activity. This coin, however, is not from that series; it was minted about 10 years earlier when Septimius Severus was still emperor. The main distinguishing feature of this coin is a bust of Caracalla as an adolescent, with just the beginnings of sideburns. It is a fairly scare type. For more information see "Severan Tetradrachms of Laodiceia" by R. G. McAlee in ANS Museum Notes #29 (1984), pages 43-59.

Prieur #1144 has the same obverse die as this coin. However, the reverse legend of #1144 has a Γ at the end of it. Prieur knew of only one example of this coin. Several years ago CNG had a coin from similar dies with the reverse legend ending in a B. Unfortunately, the last letter of the reverse legend on this coin is not real clear.
Callimachus
rjb_car_1093_06_06.jpg
109339 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev “SALVS AVG”
Salus standing left feeding serpent rising from altar
London mint?
-/-//BRI
RIC 1093
The BRI coins are rare, Shiel (1977) listed only seven in total of both reverse types. This coin is a reverse die duplicate of Shiel 6, a specimen from the F Baldwin collection, the whereabouts are unknown today and was not in the 1969 sale of his collection, a cast of which is in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. It appears to be a new obverse die for the series.

More information on the "BRI" coins of Carausius can be found here.
mauseus
RIC_---_A_036_No_001_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(3F)_FORTVNA-REDUX_XXI-T_RIC-V-II-695legendvar_Alf-36_No-01_Siscia_R_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_4,37g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!144 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0036.0001, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II Not in !, AE-Antoninianus, FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left on shield, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (This avers legend not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FORTVNA REDUX, Fortuna seated left on shield, holding baton and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 4,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission, date: 276 A.D. ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, (695var, p91, ???), Alföldi 0036.0001,
Q-001
"This is an extremely rare issue of Probus, which Pink attributes to the 4th emission of Siscia mint. It seems that RIC 695 is incorrectly described: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, bust type G (radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust l, holding spear and shield), cited from Voetter.
However, Alföldi lists two examples with obverse legend IMP C PROBVS P F AVG: type 36/1 - Radiate, cuirassed bust right (specimen in Frankfurt) and type 36/2 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left (collection Missong, Vienna), in addition, another specimen of Alf 36/1 is kept in British Museum, coming from Gloucester hoard . All examples have -/-//XXIT mintmark. The same obverse is listed by Pink." by Incerum, thank you Incerum.
1 commentsquadrans
12th_Century_Talmud_Rear.jpg
12th Century Handwritten Vellum Leaf of the Talmud12 viewsThis page of the Talmud predates publication of the first complete edition of the Talmud in 1540 by Daniel Bomberg. Bomberg employed rabbis, scholars, and apostates at his Venetian publishing house, and was responsible for the first Rabbinic Bible, as well as the first complete Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It was once customary for Jews to use old manuscripts as binding material for their newly printed and bound books. This piece is an example of that practice

Ex Living Torah Museum collection
Quant.Geek
12th_Century_Talmud_Front.jpg
12th Century Handwritten Vellum Leaf of the Talmud18 viewsThis page of the Talmud predates publication of the first complete edition of the Talmud in 1540 by Daniel Bomberg. Bomberg employed rabbis, scholars, and apostates at his Venetian publishing house, and was responsible for the first Rabbinic Bible, as well as the first complete Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It was once customary for Jews to use old manuscripts as binding material for their newly printed and bound books. This piece is an example of that practice

Ex Living Torah Museum collection
Quant.Geek
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
14th_Century_Torah_Front.jpg
14th Century Handwritten Vellum Leaf of the Torah 18 viewsThis page of the Talmud predates publication of the first complete edition of the Talmud in 1540 by Daniel Bomberg. Bomberg employed rabbis, scholars, and apostates at his Venetian publishing house, and was responsible for the first Rabbinic Bible, as well as the first complete Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. It was once customary for Jews to use old manuscripts as binding material for their newly printed and bound books. This piece is an example of that practice.

Ex Living Torah Museum collection
Quant.Geek
1795_John_Howard_Halfpenny.JPG
1795 AE Halfpenny, Portsmouth, Hampshire.69 viewsObverse: IOHN HOWARD F.R.S. PHILANTHROPIST •. Bust of John Howard facing left.
Reverse: RULE BRITANNIA. Britannia facing left, seated on globe, her right hand holding spear, her left arm holding laurel-branch and resting on shield at her side; in exergue, 1795.
Edge: “CURRENT EVERY WHERE ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦”
Diameter: 29mm
Dalton & Hamer: 57b

The dies for this token were likely engraved by Thomas Wyon and it was probably manufactured by Peter Kempson at his mint in Birmingham.
The Fitzwilliam Museum regards Liverpool as an alternative possibility for the place of issue.
These 18th century tokens are often generically referred to as “Conder” tokens, the name originating from James Conder, a linen draper from Tavern Street in Ipswich. Conder was an ardent collector of tokens and the author of the standard work on the subject until it was superseded by that of Atkins in 1892.

John Howard was born in Lower Clapton, London the son of a wealthy upholsterer. After the death of his father in 1742, he received a sizeable inheritance. Since he was wealthy and had no true vocation, in 1748 Howard left England and began to travel. However, while in Hanover he was captured by French privateers and imprisoned. It was this experience that made him consider the conditions in which prisoners were held.
In 1758 Howard returned to England and settled in Cardington, Bedfordshire. As a landowner he was philanthropic and enlightened, ensuring that his estate housing was of good standard and that the poor houses under his management were well run.
In 1773 he became High Sheriff of Bedfordshire. On his appointment he began a tour of English prisons which led to two Acts of Parliament in 1774, making gaolers salaried officers and setting standards of cleanliness.
In April 1777, Howard's sister died leaving him £15,000 and her house. He used this inheritance and the revenue from the sale of her house to further his work on prisons. In 1778 he was examined by the House of Commons, who were this time inquiring into prison ships, or “hulks”. Two days after giving evidence, he was again travelling Europe, beginning in the Dutch Republic.
His final journey took him into Eastern Europe and Russia. Whilst at Kherson, in what is now Ukraine, Howard contracted typhus on a prison visit and died. He was buried on the shores of the Black Sea in a walled field at Dophinovka (Stepanovka), Ukraine. Despite requesting a quiet funeral without pomp and ceremony, the event was elaborate and attended by the Prince of Moldovia.
Howard became the first civilian to be honoured with a statue in St Paul's Cathedral, London. A statue was also erected in Bedford, and another one in Kherson. John Howard's bust can still be seen as a feature in the architecture of a number of Victorian prisons across the UK.
*Alex
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1857. Sir William Chambers and Somerset House. Taylor 52a.77 viewsObv. Bust of William chambers to right. CHAMBERS 1725-1796 Signed B WYON AFTER WESTMACOTT
Rev. Elevation of Somerset House to the Strand, featuring nine bayed entrance block. SOMERSET HOUSE 1781 SIR WILLIAM CHAMBERS RA ARCHITECT. Signed B WYON. Edge inscription: ART UNION OF LONDON 1857.
AE55. Taylor 52a.

Issued as one of the Art Union series. The medal gives an incorrect date of birth to chambers, 725 as opposed to 1723. The portrait is based on a bust displayed at the Royal Academy in 1797 by Sir Richard Westmacott, this is now in Sir John Soanes museum.
Built under an act of 1775, as a great new administrative centre to house official and academic bodies. Designed by Sir William Chambers, the Surveyor- General, and completed in the nineteenth century by Sir Robert Smirke (eastern extension to Kings College) and Sir James Pennethorne (western extension to Waterloo Bridge). Chambers decided on a central courtyard, approached through a block of narrow frontage, which was to house the learned societies, including the Royal Academy and Society of Antiquaries. It is the Strand façade of this entrance block which is shown on the medal, it was complete by 1781 and incorporated sculpture by fellow Academicians Bacon, Carlini and Wilton.
LordBest
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1874. Edward VII, as Prince of Wales. Royal Horticultural Buildings. Taylor 180b105 viewsObv. Head of Edward left ALBERT EDWARD PRINCE OF WALES PRESIDENT, G MORGAN SC, on truncation BOEHM
Rev. The Royal Horticultural Buildings LONDON ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF ALL FINE ARTS INDUSTRIES AND INVENTIONS on scroll below central medallion MDCCCLXXIV

AE51. Taylor 180b.

This medal is arguably the most complex architectural medal ever undertaken, and in my opinion the most accomplished. The depth of view is truly astounding, though this does not come accross to well in the picture. The depiction of the buildings is used as the cover art of Taylor's "The Architectural Medal: England in the Nineteenth Century", British Museum Publication, 1978.

LordBest
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1890 Morgan Carson City silver dollar16 views1890 Carson City silver dollar
The Carson City, Nevada mint opened in 1863 but did not mint coins until 1870 it ran until 1885 but then reopened in 1889 and then closed permanently in 1893. It is now the Nevada State Museum
NORMAN K
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1967A MANUEL METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1967 DOC 14 CLBC 4.4.1 48 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; holds scroll n in l. hand. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV. Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds in r. labarum on long shaft , and in l. Globus cruciger

Size 17.97 mm

Weight 3.2 gm

Cosmopolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of 3% and were also issued with a very light silver wash (Silver traces are common on Cosmopolitan issues but intact fully silvered coins are very rare.) These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Lightly nicer than my other example , the reverse would grade as aVF, the obv has an old collectors mark or museum mark on it.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.63mm to 4.8mm and sizes from 18mm to 20mm
Simon
FaustinaIIAsJuno.jpg
1bk Faustina Junior147 viewsWife of Marcus Aurelius. 131-176

As
Draped bust, left, FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL
Juno seated left holding the three graces and scepter, peacock at feet, IVNO SC

The daughter of Antoninus Pius, wife of Aurelius, and mother of Commodus, Faustina had a box seat to witness the end of the Golden Age. She bore Aurelius at least 13 children and accompanied him on his military campaigns, yet years later had her reputation impuned for alleged adultery.

The reverse is RIC 1400, for which only right-facing busts are listed.

From Curtis Clay: "This is a rev. type that used to be very rare, even with bust right, but quite a few specimens have emerged from Bulgaria since the fall of the Iron Curtain.

I had a specimen with bust left myself, acquired from Baldwin's c. 1970, which is now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

A VF specimen with bust left, from the same dies as yours, was in CNG E54, 4 Dec. 2002, 145 = CNG 57, 4 April 2001, 1292.

Still an interesting and scarce reverse type, and rare with bust left, a variety that is hard to find on any Roman coin of Faustina II !" Thank you, Curtis!
Blindado
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1st-2nd Century C.E. Harness Phalera13 viewsBased on the 1st Century Cavalry harness reconstruction at the Museum het Valkhof in Nijmegen, Netherlands, this phalera was used as a strap terminal. The reverse has two studs. 30mmFiorenza21
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2009-Austria - Carnuntum21 viewsThe only remaining monument of the military city is its amphitheatre. It was located just outside of the fortified military camp. Today, a small adjacent museum shows the history of the gladiators.berserker
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2009-Austria - Carnuntum35 viewsThe archaeological museum Carnuntinum lies in the present village Bad Deutsch-Altenburg, almost on the bank of the Danube river. The most important excavations from the ancient city can be seen here.berserker
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2009-Austria - Carnuntum25 viewsInside of the Museum.berserker
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2009-Austria - Carnuntum26 viewsThe Roman city quarter was a peripheral part of the former civilian city. The ruins are exposed in the open-air museum directly in the present village.berserker
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32. Myrina.60 viewsTetradrachm, ca 160 - 150 BC, minted in Myrina.
Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo of Grynion.
Reverse: ΜΥΡΙΝΑΙΩΝ / Apollo standing, holding patera and laurel branch with fillets, omphalos and amphora at his feet; all within laurel wreath. Monogram at left.
16.49 gm., 32 mm.
Sacks #20 . 20g.

See K.S. Sacks, "The Wreathed Coins of Aeolian Myrina," ANS Museum Notes #30 (1985), p. 1-43.
According to Sacks' classification, the monogram makes this issue #20. The obverse die is also #20. A coin with these two dies is pictured as 20 . 20g on plate #7. The identifying features of the obverse die are the "4'th strand of hair" (actually a die flaw) up under Apollo's jaw and the several cracks in the die.
2 commentsCallimachus
Marco_Aurelio_Cyrrhus_Zeus_Kataibates.jpg
33 - 3 - 1 - MARCO AURELIO (161 - 180 D.C.)50 views CYRRHUS Siria Cyrrhestica

AE 24 x 20 mm 9.8 gr

Anv: ”[AY__ AYPHΛ] ΑNTΩNI[NOΣ ΣEB]” – Cabeza radiada viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”[ΔIOΣ KATAIEBATO]Y KYPPHΣT__” – Zeus Kataibates sentado sobre piedras, portando un rayo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido sobre una águila y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda.

Acuñada: 161 – 180 D.C.

Referencias: NY 1944.100.65347 - Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum #20967
mdelvalle
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33-50 - MARCO AURELIO (161 - 180 D.C.)15 views CYRRHUS Siria Cyrrhestica

AE 24 x 20 mm 9.8 gr

Anv: ”[AY__ AYPHΛ] ΑNTΩNI[NOΣ ΣEB]” – Cabeza radiada viendo a izquierda.
Rev: ”[ΔIOΣ KATAIEBATO]Y KYPPHΣT__” – Zeus Kataibates sentado sobre piedras, portando un rayo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido sobre una águila y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda.

Acuñada: 161 – 180 D.C.

Referencias: NY 1944.100.65347 - Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum #20967 - RPC IV #3602 - SNG Cop - (cf 46) - BMC (cf 134.11ff)
mdelvalle
Faustina_II_Ruzicka,_Pautalia_117-19_bis.jpg
34 – 1 - 5 – FAUSTINA II (161 - 175 D.C.)51 views PAUTALIA Tracia

AE 23 x 20 mm 6.3 gr

Anv: "ΦΑ[ΥCΤΕΙΝΑ] CΕΒΑCΤΗ" – Busto con vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΟΥΛΠΙΑC ΠΑΥΤΑΛΙΑC" – Higieia de pié a derecha, dando de comer a una serpiente con una pátera.

Acuñada: 161 – 175 D.C.

Referencias: Ruzicka, Pautalia #117-19 - Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum #8770 - Fitzwilliam Museum Lewis #1231 – ANS NY 1944.100.16381 – Moushmov #4115-6
mdelvalle
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34 – 2 - 1 – FAUSTINA II (161 - 175 D.C.)40 views HADRIANOPOLIS Tracia

AE 22 mm 7.2 gr

Anv: ”[ΦΑΥC]ΤΕΙΝ - Α C[ΕΒΑCΤΗ]” – Busto con vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”AΔPIANOΠ - [OΛEITΩN]” – Eusebia (= Pietas) de pié a izquierda, portando pátera en la mano de su brazo derecho y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda. A sus piés un altar (Ara).

Acuñada: 161 – 175 D.C.

Referencias: Jurukova # 63-67,71 y 76-81 pl.7 y 8 – Sear GIC # 1725 Pag.160 – SNG Cop #558 – Mc Clean II #4518 pl.169.15 – Righetti #269-70 – Fitzwilliam Museum Leake #3956, European greece, p.53.9 – ANS NY #1944.100.15685- Berlin Museo Estatal #1899/476 – Lischine #405-6 – Paris Biblioteca Nacional de Francia #603 (485), 605 (486) y 611 (491)
mdelvalle
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34 – 2 - 3 – FAUSTINA II (161 - 175 D.C.)35 views HADRIANOPOLIS Tracia

AE 21 mm 6.5 gr

Anv: ”ΦΑΥCΤΕΙΝ - ΑCΕΒ[ΑCΤΗ]” – Busto con vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”AΔ[PIANOΠ] - OΛEITΩN” – Tyche con vestido y galatos en la cabeza, de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando timón en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en la izquierda.

Acuñada: 161 – 175 D.C.

Referencias: Jurukova # 68,72 y 74 PL.7 – BMC #7 – Glasgow Hunterian Museum GI #1 pag.440 – SNG I #906 – Moushmov #4114
mdelvalle
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34-1 - 1 - FAUSTINA II (161 - 175 D.C.)27 views PAUTALIA Tracia

AE 20 mm 5.5 gr

Anv: ”[ΦΑΥCΤΕ]ΙΝΑ CΕΒΑCΤΗ” – Busto con vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”ΟΥΛΠΙΑΣ [ΠΑΥΤ]ΑΛΙΑC” – Demeter de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando pátera en la mano de su brazo derecho y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda. A sus piés un altar (Ara).

Acuñada: 161 – 175 D.C.

Referencias: Ruzicka, Pautalia #85 – Lischine #648a, 4a pl.XI – Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum #8768
mdelvalle
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34-30 - FAUSTINA Jr. (161 - 175 D.C.)7 views PAUTALIA Tracia

AE 20 mm 5.5 gr

Anv: ”[ΦΑΥCΤΕ]ΙΝΑ CΕΒΑCΤΗ” – Busto con vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”ΟΥΛΠΙΑΣ [ΠΑΥΤ]ΑΛΙΑC” – Demeter de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando pátera en la mano de su brazo derecho y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda. A sus piés un altar (Ara).

Acuñada: 161 – 175 D.C.

Referencias: Ruzicka, Pautalia #85 – Lischine #648a, 4a pl.XI – Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum #8768
mdelvalle
Moushmov_4115_Pautalia_tracia_Faustina_Jr.jpg
34-32 - FAUSTINA Jr. (161 - 175 D.C.)5 views PAUTALIA Tracia

AE 23 x 20 mm 6.3 gr

Anv: "ΦΑ[ΥCΤΕΙΝΑ] CΕΒΑCΤΗ" – Busto con vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΟΥΛΠΙΑC ΠΑΥΤΑΛΙΑC" – Higieia de pié a derecha, dando de comer a una serpiente con una pátera.

Acuñada: 161 – 175 D.C.

Referencias: Ruzicka, Pautalia #117-19 - Vienna Kunsthistorisches Museum #8770 - Fitzwilliam Museum Lewis #1231 – ANS NY 1944.100.16381 – Moushmov #4115-6
mdelvalle
Moushmov_4114_Hadrianopolis_Tracia_Faustina_Jr.jpg
34-34 - FAUSTINA Jr. (161 - 175 D.C.)9 views HADRIANOPOLIS Tracia

AE 21 mm 6.5 gr

Anv: ”ΦΑΥCΤΕΙΝ - ΑCΕΒ[ΑCΤΗ]” – Busto con vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”AΔ[PIANOΠ] - OΛEITΩN” – Tyche con vestido y galatos en la cabeza, de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando timón en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en la izquierda.

Acuñada: 161 – 175 D.C.

Referencias: Jurukova # 68,72 y 74 PL.7 – BMC #7 – Glasgow Hunterian Museum GI #1 pag.440 – SNG I #906 – Moushmov #4114
mdelvalle
Jurukova_63_Hadrianopolis_Tracia_Faustina_Jr.jpg
34-36 - FAUSTINA Jr. (161 - 175 D.C.)6 views HADRIANOPOLIS Tracia

AE 22 mm 7.2 gr

Anv: ”[ΦΑΥC]ΤΕΙΝ - Α C[ΕΒΑCΤΗ]” – Busto con vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: ”AΔPIANOΠ - [OΛEITΩN]” – Eusebia (= Pietas) de pié a izquierda, portando pátera en la mano de su brazo derecho y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda. A sus piés un altar (Ara).

Acuñada: 161 – 175 D.C.

Referencias: Jurukova # 63-67,71 y 76-81 pl.7 y 8 – Sear GIC # 1725 Pag.160 – SNG Cop #558 – Mc Clean II #4518 pl.169.15 – Righetti #269-70 – Fitzwilliam Museum Leake #3956, European greece, p.53.9 – ANS NY #1944.100.15685- Berlin Museo Estatal #1899/476 – Lischine #405-6 – Paris Biblioteca Nacional de Francia #603 (485), 605 (486) y 611 (491)
mdelvalle
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501. Constantine I Alexandria Posthumous23 viewsAlexandria

The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but after it had been previously under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander's body (quipping 'I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses' when he was offered a view of the other royal burials) and was mobbed by the rabble. His example was followed by Marc Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.

From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. This fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. In AD 215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city and for some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued.

Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, now Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government. There Arianism was formulated and where also Athanasius, the great opponent of both Arianism and pagan reaction, triumphed over both, establishing the Patriarch of Alexandria as a major influence in Christianity for the next two centuries.

As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century AD, followed by a fast decline in population and splendour.

In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. It is possible that the great Library of Alexandria and the Serapeum was destroyed about this time. The pagan mathematician and philosopher Hypathia was a prominent victim of the persecutions.

The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. On the mainland, life seemed to have centred in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and left intact.

veiled head only
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
RIC VIII Alexandria 32 C3

From uncleaned lot; one of the nicer finds.
ecoli
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501. Constantine I London BEATA TRANQVILLITAS26 viewsLondon

Londinium was established as a town by the Romans after the invasion of 43 AD led by the Emperor Claudius. Archaeological excavation (undertaken by the Department of Urban Archaeology of the Museum of London now called MOLAS) since the 1970s has also failed to unearth any convincing traces of major settlement before c.50 — so ideas about Londinium being a military foundation around the Fort that protected London Bridge are now largely discounted.

The name Londinium is thought to be pre-Roman in origin although there is no consensus on what it means. One suggestion is that it derived from a personal name meaning 'fierce'. However, recent research by Richard Coates has suggested that the name derives from pre-Celtic Old European — Plowonida — from 2 roots, "plew" and "nejd", meaning something like "the flowing river" or "the wide flowing river". Londinium therefore means "the settlement on the wide river". He suggests that the river was called the Thames up river where it was narrower, and Plowonida down river where it was too wide to ford. For a discussion on the legends of London and Plowonida see [1]. The story of the settlement being named after Lud is considered unlikely.

Archaeologists now believe that London was founded as a civilian settlement by 50 AD. A wooden drain by the side of the main roman road excavated at No 1 Poultry has been dated to 47 which is likely to be the foundation date.

Ten years later, Londinium was sacked by the Iceni lead by the British queen Boudica. Excavation has revealed extensive evidence of destruction by fire at this date, and recently a military compound has been discovered in the City of London which may have been the headquarters of the Roman fight back against the British uprising.

The city recovered after perhaps 10 years, and reached its population height by about 120 AD, with a population of around 60,000. London became the capital of Roman Britain (Britannia) (previously the capital was the older, nearby town of Colchester). Thereafter began a slow decline; however, habitation and associated building work did not cease. By 375 London was a small wealthy community protected by completed defences. By 410 Roman occupation officially came to an end, with the citizens being ordered to look after their own defenses. By the middle of the 5th century the Roman city was practically abandoned.

RIC VII London 271 R2

ecoli
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51. Philip II as Caesar.22 viewsA comparison of the portrait of Philip II on the previous sestertius, and the marble bust of Philip II in the Capitoline Museum, Rome.Callimachus
Plancia.jpg
55 BC Gn. Plancius150 viewsCN PLANCIVS AED CVR SC
Head of Macedonia right, wearing causia

Cretan goat standing right, bow and quiver behind
IIZ (old museum number?) in Ex.

Rome 55 BC
3.46g

Sear 396, RRC 432/1

Ex-Canadian Coin

Gnaeus Plancius was a friend of Cicero and strikes this coin as curule aedile. The type recalls his military service in Crete under the Proconsul Q. Metellus. He was also a military tribune under C. Antonius. He later returned to Macedonia as questor under the Propraetor L. Appuleius Saturninus. While serving as Questor in Thessalonia Plancius courageously took in Cicero as a guest in his official residence. Earlier that year (January or Early February of 58 BC.) Cicero was exiled from Italy and Rome because of the Tribune Clodius' legislation which confiscated Cicero's property and forced him to stay 400 miles out of the city of Rome. Clodius was eventually killed along the Appian Way by his rival Milo. Cicero took up the case for the defense of Milo unsuccessfully. In 54 BC Cicero defended Gn. Plancius in a court case (Pro Plancio) in which A. Laterensis accused Plancius of illegally organizing voting clubs (Colegia) to sway the elections and of bribery. Cicero was able to get Plancius acquitted and wrote his Pro Plancio which outlined his speeches and lines of questioning.
7 commentsJay GT4
1006_P_Hadrian_RPC5845.jpg
5845 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 132-33 AD Hadrian & Serapis50 viewsReference.
RPC III 5845/2; Köln 1084; Dattari (Savio) 1946 (this coin); K&G 32.554; Emmett 1042.17; Staffieri, Alexandria In Nummis 69 (this coin)

Issue L IZ = year 17

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΙΑΝ - ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., seen from rear

Rev. L ΙΖ
Temple (classical) with two columns enclosing Sarapis standing, r. holding sceptre and presenting globe; to r., Emperor (Hadrian), laureate-headed, wearing toga, standing l.,
holding sceptre; between, altar inscribed ΑΔΡ/ΙΑ/ΝΟΝ

23.82 gr
34 mm
12h

Note.
From the Giovanni Maria Staffieri Collection, purchased from Renzo Canavesi, Sagno, 1996. Ex Renzo Canavesi Collection (Sagno); Dr. Piero Beretta Collection (Milan); Giovanni Dattari Collection, no. 1946.

A rare variety with Sarapis holding a globe instead of saluting the emperor. The authors of RPC cite two coins: this coin, and the one in the Köln collection. There is also an example in the Ashmolean Museum collection (Milne 1380).
8 commentsokidoki
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612 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 122-25 AD Spes standing62 viewsReference.
Strack 576; RIC 612b; Banti 595

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right. (with visible thunderbolt on his cuirass leather strap)


Rev. P M TR P COS III S C
Spes advancing left, holding flower and lifting dress.

28.15 gr
33 mm
6h

From the J. Eric Engstrom Collection. Ex Lepczyk 61 (13 March 1985), lot 365; Vatican Museum duplicate from St. John’s College Collection, no. 429.
2 commentsokidoki
aegira.jpg
ACHAIA, Achaean League, Aigeira. c. 167-146 BC228 viewsAR Hemidrachm, Obv: Laureate head of Zeus r. Rx: Forepart of goat r. over monograms Achaean League AX monogram with AL to left, KI to right; all within laurel wreath, tied below. Rare. Ex John Twente Animal Collection; ex Craig Whitford NBD Bank Money Museum Collection Part II, lot 87. VF/EF, 2.49g. BCD-399 (same rev. die), Agrinion-571a, Clerk-16, Benner-Aigeira-5. HJBerk BBS 159, lot 166.2 commentsCGPCGP
Achaia,_Achaian_League,_Elis,_AR_Hemidrachm_.jpg
Achaian League, Elis, ca. 50 BC, AR Hemidrachm 11 viewsLaureate head of Zeus right, KA monogram in outer right field.
Wreath surrounding AX monogram in centre; FA monogram to left, Ω above ELIΣ monogram (Elis) in upper field and XE monogram to right, thunderbolt below.

BCD Peloponnesos 685 (this coin); HGC 5, 540 (R2); Clerk 261; SNG Copenhagen 306.

(15 mm, 2.39 g, 6h).
Classical Numismatic Group e-Auction 160, 14 March 2007, 44; ex- BCD collection: LHS Auction 96, 8-9 May 2006, 685; ex- Danish National Museum, Copenhagen (c.f. SNG Cop 306 deaccessioned duplicate).
n.igma
Arrowhead_1.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0118 viewsNorthwestern Iran
1200-800 BC
12.5cm (4.9”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 390

Ex- Axel Guttmann Collection, Lot 27 (part of) Christies Sale 5524, Axel Guttman Collection of Ancient Arms and Armour, Part 2, 28 April 2004.

From Ancientresource.com:
“Axel Guttmann was the most famous collector of ancient militaria in the modern era, actually creating his own museum in Berlin to display his enormous collection.”

Description:
This arrowhead was part of lot 27 in Christies Sale 5524, Axel Guttman Collection of Ancient Arms and Armour, Part 2, London, April 2004. The lot (“A LARGE COLLECTION OF NORTH-WEST PERSIAN BRONZE ARROWHEADS. 2ND/EARLY 1ST MILLENNIUM B.C.”) consisted of an ancient bronze bowl with sculptural handles, filled to the brim with arrowheads of this type. A number of the arrowheads have since appeared on the market. Each is similar, with elongated deltoid head and long tang.
Robert L3
Arrowhead_2.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0215 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
85mm

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 416
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Page 75, Fig. 58
Cf. Piller (Untersuchungen zur relative Chronologie der Nekropole von Marlik), Table XVI, Type 4 (page 293)

Description:
Triangular bilobate ribbed head, stem, medium length tang
Robert L3
Arrowhead_5.jpg
AE Arrowhead #05 (or spearhead?)13 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
15.4cm (6”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 390
Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 8, Fig. 75 (also illustrated on page 85)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 65 (page 85)

Description:
Elongated deltoid, bilobate ribbed head, long stem and tang
Robert L3
Arrowhead_6.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0612 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
15.1cm (6”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 400
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. XII, Fig. 154

Description:
Bilobate ribbed head with barbs, stem and long tang
Robert L3
Arrowhead_7.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0713 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
15.5cm (6.1”)

Cf. Mahboubian (Art of Ancient Iran: Copper and Bronze), 390 (see arrowhead at approximately 10:00 in circular layout)
Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 400

Description:
Triangular bilobate ribbed head with stem and long tang
Robert L3
Arrowhead_9.jpg
AE Arrowhead #0911 viewsWestern Asia (likely Iran)
1200-800 BC
66mm

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 416
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 58 (page 75)
Cf. Piller (Untersuchungen zur relative Chronologie der Nekropole von Marlik), Table XVI, Type 4 (page 293)

Description:
Triangular bilobate ribbed head, short stem, medium length tang, small nick in one edge
Robert L3
R671_Faustina_II_fac.jpg
AE As, RIC 3, p.345, 1639 - Faustina II, Fecunditas16 viewsFaustina II,
As
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA, Draped bust right
Rev.: FECVNDITAS / S – C, Fecunditas standing right, holding scepter in right hand, infant in left hand
11.98g, 23x26mm
Ref.: Cohen 101, RIC 1639
This coin was found in 1987 at the Viehmarktplatz, close to the St. Antoninus Church in Trier, Germany. The find was presented to the Landesmuseum (State Museum).
2 commentsshanxi
Dagger_4.jpg
AE Dagger #0422 viewsNorthwestern Iran (probably Luristan)
1200-800 BC
32cm (12.6”)

Cf. Khorasani (Bronze and Iron Weapons from Luristan), Fig. 2 (page 212)
Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 6, #50; (also illustrated on page 70)
Cf. Overleat (The Early Iron Age in the Pusht-I Kuh, Luristan), Fig. 184, #KT.A6-19 (page 216)

From an old British collection, acquired in the 1970s

Description:
Flanged hilt with no wood or ivory remaining, single rivet hole in wedge-shaped pommel, low broad midrib, blade and hilt cast in one piece
1 commentsRobert L3
Dagger_Short_Sword_2.jpg
AE Dagger/Short Sword #0226 viewsNorthwestern Iran
1200-800 BC
37.7cm (14.8”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 164 (page 99)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 41 (page 59)
Cf. Petrie (Tools and Weapons), Plate XXXVI, Fig. 170

From a private Danish collection of ancient weapons

Description:
Long tapering form, winged guard extending from the ricasso, prominent midrib, chips along one edge
1 commentsRobert L3
R670_Faustina_II_fac.jpg
AE Dupondius, RIC 3, p.194, 1405 (a) - Faustina II, Diana19 viewsFaustina II
Dupondius or As, AD 145-161
Obv.: FAVSTINA AVG PII AVG FIL, draped bust right
Rev.: S - C, Diana standing left with bow and arrow.
AE, 12.4g, 26mm
Ref.: RIC 1405 (a) [C]
This coin was found in 2006 close to the Fleischstraße in Trier, Germany. The find was presented to the Landesmuseum (State Museum).

for the same type, with different hairstyle, click here
3 commentsshanxi
Spearhead_2.jpg
AE Spearhead #02 (or dagger blade?)17 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
18.8cm (7.4”)

Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 5, Fig. 38 and Pl. 6, Fig. 55 (daggers)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik) Pl. X, Fig. 124

Description:
Tapering triangular blade with rounded midrib, nearly square (very slightly deltoid) shoulders, and flat tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_3.jpg
AE Spearhead #03 (or dagger blade?)17 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
27.94cm (11”)

Cf. Khorasani (Bronze and Iron Weapons from Luristan), fig. 1 (very similar blade shape and proportions, although Khorasani’s example has a short stem between the shoulders and tang)
Cf. Malloy (Weapons: Ancient and Medieval Art and Antiquities), Fig. 66
Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 5, Fig. 38
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. X, Fig. 121

Description:
Tapering triangular blade with slightly rounded shoulders, broad flat midrib, long tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_5.jpg
AE Spearhead #05 (or dagger blade?)16 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan)
1200-800 BC
26.9cm (10.6”)

Cf. Moorey (Catalogue of the Ancient Persian Bronzes in the Ashmolean Museum), Pl. 5, Fig. 40

Description:
Triangular blade, square shoulders, broad flat rib, rivet hole in long tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_6.jpg
AE Spearhead #06 (or dagger blade?)17 viewsWestern Asia (possibly Luristan or Marlik)
1200-800 BC
32.9cm (13”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 392 (dagger)
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Pl. IX, Fig. 119

Description:
Rounded shoulders, pronounced midrib, slightly concave edges, long tang
Robert L3
Spearhead_12.jpg
AE Spearhead #1218 viewsWestern Asia
1200-800 BC
16cm (6.3”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 396 (page 290) for similar, though slightly wider, tip
Cf. Negahban (Weapons from Marlik), Fig. 65 (page 85) for similarly shaped tip – however the Negahban example is an arrowhead, not a spearhead

Description:
Tanged ribbed blade, small stem, straight blade edges at base, then tapering toward point
Robert L3
Sword_1.jpg
AE Sword #129 viewsNorthwestern Iran, Talish area
1200-800 BC
45.5cm (18”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 165 (page 99)
Cf. Watson (Luristan Bronzes in Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery), Fig. 16, #54 (page 24)

From an old Cambridge collection

Description:
Tapering ribbed blade, round shoulders, rat-tail tang, tip missing and end bent (possibly a deliberate act in antiquity)
Robert L3
Aelius.jpg
Aelius137 viewsBust of Aelius in the Louvre Museum, Paris. Photo by me taken in May 2014.Masis
10300146~0.jpg
Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 20.5mm 8.25g 11h58 viewsPegasos flying right mintmark below.Rev helmeted head of Athena right,to left bearded ithyphallic herm facing right,standing on three steps,caduceus and mintmark.
ex CNG 103 lot 146 9-14-16
ex Thomas BentleyCederlind.
ex Gorny & Mosch auc 233 lot 1400 10-6-15
ex Sotheby Zurich lot 385 4-5-1973
ex The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
ex J.Pierpont Morgan 1905.
ex John Ward pl.11 465 Greek coins and their Parent Cities 1902
2 commentsGrant H
12330_a45_316.jpg
Akarnania Leukas AR Stater circa 320-280 BC 8.09g31 viewsPegasos flying left with pointed wing.Rev helmeted head of Athena left with unknown symbol behind.TRIPOD?
not in Calciati or the British Museum Catalogue
Grant H
111-1-AL-Indalo.jpg
AL Monogram - Denarius, Crawford 111/19 viewsDenomination: Denarius
Era: c. 209-208 BC
Metal: AR
Obverse: Helmeted head of Roma r. with peaked visor; “X” behind; Border of dots
Reverse: Dioscuri r.; Below, “AL” monogram; in linear frame, “ROMA”.
Mint: Uncertain
Weight: 4.10 gm.
Reference: Crawford 111/1
Provenance: Indalo (through Ebay), 1-MAR-2014

Comments:
The AL monogram denarii are rare with 16 known specimens, 5 of which are in the British museum and The Bibliothèque nationale de France, each having two, and Kestner, having one.
Steve B5
IMG_1286.JPG
Alexander Severus390 viewsCapitoline museums

I'm not 100% sure that it's Alexander Severus.
Johny SYSEL
alexanderx.jpg
Alexander the Great46 viewsObv: Head of beardless Herakles, right, wearing lion skin headdress.
Rev: ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ in exergue; Charioteer in Biga right, Trident below.
"Alexandria (Antigoneia)" mint, struck c.310-301 BC. Extremely rare!

Attribution to this mint has been questioned of late (Meadows, NC 2004),
although no firmer alternative has yet been put forward. A mint in the Troad
seems to be likely, given that three were found in the excavations at Troy.

This is an extremely desirable and very difficult to find item. It appears that
there are none on any of the modern sales databases, and I know of only
one other that has been offered via a 'small seller' on an online auction site.

There is one in the British museum, at least one in Berlin (I-B), one in
the Portolos collection (Athens); another in Paris (B 80); the three that
were found at Troy, the one offered online, and now this one.
Please feel free to let me know of any other known specimens.

Among the rarest bronzes of the series.
Price 1587; Gaebler p.169, 7 pl.XXXI,26;
Bellinger Troy A1; BM 1921,0213.196.
(dealer's image {edited})
OldMoney
Alexandre le Grand Tetrad..jpg
Alexander The Great Silver Tetradrachm42 viewsPella Mint, 285/275 B.C., 29 mm
Obv: Head of Herakles
Rev: Zeus with eagle, monograms K M
Ref: Price Cat. # 563 of The British Museum
1 commentsJean Paul D
Athens_3216.jpg
Alexander the Great at the Acropolis museum36 viewsGrant H
_1BesAmulet.JPG
Amulet of Bes62 views1st century BC - 1st century AD
1.25" tall

A small terracotta amulet of the god Bes, from Roman Egypt.

Bes was an apotropaic deity, the protector of the home. As such He is often depicted on everyday household items such as chairs, pottery, or even on the walls of the house itself.
Shown here wearing His plumed headdress and panther skin, Bes (possibly from the Nubian “Besa“, or ‘Protector‘) may have originally been a cat god. Why He evolved into a dwarf is not known.

Update;
This item donated to the Hallie Ford museum in Salem Oregon.

Enodia
0131.jpg
Anonymous Quadrigatus17 viewsAnonymous Quadrigatus

RRC 31/1
225-214 bc
6.67 gr

Av:Laureate janiform head of Dioscuri, border of dots.
Rv:Jupiter in quadriga driven by Victory r., holding sceptre and thunderbolt; in ex. ROMA in linear frame, line border

for the type compare to the British Museum coin 31.1.1

ex Bertolami Auct 29, Lot 205, 22.03.2017
1 commentsNorbert
Antinous.jpg
Antinous138 viewsBust of Antinous, as a Pharoah. In the Louvre Museum, Paris. Photo taken by me in May 2014.
His appearance is more like Hadrian's.
Masis
Antiochos_VII_Euergetes.jpg
Antiochos VII Euergetes64 viewsFRONT/ Bust of Eros right. BACK / BASILEWS ANTIOCOU EUERGETOU, Headdress of Isis, scepter as monogram to left; aplustre and date EOP below. Minted in the Selukid Kingdom. Struck 138-129 BC. Ref: SNG UK 1301.617-620; BMC 52 (British Museum Catalog #52).

EX ; Andreas Reich


From the Sam Mansourati Collection
2 commentsSam
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-Skrvs3aOlYiQT-Divvs_An_toninus_Pius.jpg
Antoninus Pius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 4 viewsDIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right
DIVO PIO - Column of Antoninus, surmounted by statue of the emperor.
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (161AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 25.00g / 32mm / 180
References:
RIC III 1269 (Marcus Aurelius)
Cohen 354
BMCRE 880 (Marcus Aurelius)
Acquisition/Sale: buy_yourself_a_coin Ebay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From Wikipedia:
Previous to the 18th century the base was completely buried, but the lower part of the shaft projected about 6m above the ground. In 1703, when some buildings were demolished in the area of Montecitorio, the rest of the column and the base were discovered and excavated. The column was raised from the ground by Carlo Fontana's son Francesco (1668–1708), but no decision was made about its use. It remained lying on the ground under some sheds, and was damaged by fire in 1759. Unsuccessful attempts were made to repair it soon afterwards in 1764, with some pieces from it being used in 1789 to restore the obelisk of Augustus that is now in the Piazza di Monte Citorio.

Meanwhile, the base (of white Italian marble) was restored in 1706-08 and erected in the centre of Piazza di Montecitorio by Ferdinando Fuga in 1741, before being taken to the Vatican Museums in 1787, where it has been in the Michelangelo niche in the Cortile della Pigna from 1885 until its final move to its current position in the courtyard outside the entrance to the Vatican Pinacoteca.
Gary W2
Antoninus_Pius_Coela_Prow.JPG
Antoninus Pius Coela Prow52 viewsAntoninus Pius, Thracian Chersonesus Coela, 138 - 164, 18mm, 5.1g,
OBV: IMP CAES ANTONINVS ?, Laureate bust right
OBV: AILI MVNICIPI CVELANI, prow left, above, two ears of corn

SNG Copenhagen 872, Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale 1611
Munich, Staatliche Münzsammlung 63177
Vienna, Kunsthistorisches Museum 37030

RARE
Romanorvm
ANTOME01-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, Medaillon of AD 13961 viewsÆ Medaillon (51,03g, Ø 40,5mm, 10h). Rome, AD 139.
Obv.: IMP T AEL CAES HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS, laureate head left.
Rev.: P M TR POT / COS II in two lines low in field, Victory in prancing biga right.
Cohen 647 (300 fr.) var. (bust type); BMCRM 3, p.7 and Pl.VIII,2 var. (bust type), Strack 523 var. (bust type); Banti 303 var. (bust type); Gnecchi 1912 Vol II 36, p.13 var.; and Pl.46,8 var. (bust type)
Ex Naville Numismatics Live Auction 18, November, 2015; ex Kunst und Munzen 29 (Lugano 20-21 May 1993), lot 409.

All references above point to a single specimen in the British Museum. The present specimen has been struck from the same reverse die, but the obverse bust type is completely different: laureate head left, while the BM specimen has draped, cuirassed laureate bust right.
2 commentsCharles S
AntoSec7.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 600, Sestertius of AD 142 (Concordia Exercituum) 90 viewsÆ Sestertius (30.1g, Ø32.5mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 142.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM (around) S C (in field), Concordia standing left, holding Victory and a legionary standard.
RIC 600; Cohen 139 (6 fr.); BMC 1232; Strack 827 (3 coll.); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 54 (2 spec.); Sear (Roman Coins & their Values II) 4157
ex G.Henzen (2012)

Although RIC 600 rates it as "C" (common), in reality it is very rare: Strack 827 lists it for 3 (of a total of 30) collections only: British Museum, Paris, and Vienna; Banti cites two specimens only.
2 commentsCharles S
Antoninus_Pius_She_Wolf_Boat_2~0.JPG
Antoninus She Wolf Boat26 viewsANTONINUS PIUS, 138-161 AD. Æ As, 10.84, 25mm
Minted 143-144 AD.
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right
REV: IMPERATOR II S-C, wolf suckling twins, boat in ex. Cohen 448.
RIC.734, Cohen 448.
This reverse type comes in two variants, with the she-wolf either looking straight ahead, or turning her head back to look at the twins, as on this coin. This second variant is definitely the scarcer of the two: not represented in our Forvms photofile, nor in CoinArchives according to my (Curtis Clay) perhaps inadequate search. Strack 945 lists five museum specimens and one in an auction catalogue, apparently all that he knew, meaning that this variant is missing from the rich collections in Paris and Vienna.
Romanorvm
Antonyquinarius.jpg
Antony quinarius84 viewsIII VIR R P C
Diademed and veiled head of Concordia right

M ANTON C CAESAR
Two hands clasped round caduceus

Mint moving with Octavian in Gaul
39 BC

1.57g

Crawford 529/4b. Sydenham 1195. Sear, Imperators 304

From a very old collection
Museum number 175 on obverse.
Could use some more cleaning but I don't want to loose the number.
2 commentsJay GT4
Aphrodite _ British Museum.jpg
Aphrodite664 viewsMarble statue of a naked Aphrodite crouching at her bath1 commentsBacchus
Aphrodite_Aphrodisias_2011.JPG
Aphrodite of Aphrodiasis33 viewsStatue of Aphrodite of Aphrodisias, today in the Archaeological Museum of Aphrodisias, Caria. Depicted on coins from Aphrodisias.Jochen
Apollo_Citharoedus.JPG
Apollo kitharoidos, Vatican Museum, a 2nd-century AD colossal marble statue by an unknown Roman sculptor.82 viewsAn Apollo Citharoedus is a statue or other image of Apollo with a Kithara (lyre). Among the best-known examples is this Apollo Citharoedus of the Vatican Museums, a 2nd-century AD colossal marble statue by an unknown Roman sculptor. Apollo is shown crowned with laurel and wearing the long, flowing robe of the Ionic bard. The statue was found in 1774, with seven statues of the Muses, in the ruins of Gaius Cassius Longinus' villa near Tivoli, Italy. The sculptures are preserved in the Hall of the Muses, in the Museo Pio-Clementino of the Vatican Museums. Joe Sermarini
Ara_Pacis_Rom.jpg
Ara Pacis35 viewsThe Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, "Altar of Augustan Peace"; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar in Rome dedicated to Pax, the Roman goddess of Peace. The monument was commissioned by the Roman Senate on July 4, 13 B.C. to honor the return of Augustus to Rome after three years in Hispania and Gaul, and consecrated on January 30, 9 B.C. Originally located on the northern outskirts of Rome, a Roman mile from the boundary of the pomerium on the west side of the Via Flaminia, it stood in the northeastern corner of the Campus Martius, the former flood plain of the Tiber River and gradually became buried under 4 metres (13 ft) of silt deposits. It was reassembled in its current location, now the Museum of the Ara Pacis, in 1938.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ara_Pacis
Joe Sermarini
ArcadiaThelpusaGetaIsis1_(exBassem).jpg
Arcadia, Thelpusa. Geta, as Caesar. Potentially unpublished.21 viewsArcadia, Thelpusa. Geta, as Caesar (AD 198–209). Æ 21.75mm, 3.97 g, 2h. Struck AD 202–205.
Obverse: [ΛΟ]Υ [•] CЄΠΤΙ [•] ΓЄΤΑC [KAI?], bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust left, seen from behind.
Reverse: ΘЄΛΠΟ – ΥCΙΩΝ, Isis standing left, wearing lotus and holding sistrum in right hand over lighted altar and situla in left.
References: Potentially unpublished. Cf. BCD Peloponnesos 1767 (Septimius Severus with capital W-shaped omega); Mi Sup. IV, 124 (same). For possibly another specimen of Geta, see Numismatic Museum of Athens 544.
Ex Bassem Doau, 5-29-2014.

My thanks to Dr. Klaus Vondrovec of the Kunsthistorisches Museum Wien for kindly showing me three of their Thelpusa bronzes of Geta (Mionnet Sup. IV, 126–128). From these it was possible to partially restore the obverse inscription on my piece, made possible by the fact that all four coins were struck with the same obverse die.
Mark Fox
CeolnothBiarnred1.jpg
Archbishop of Canterbury, Ceolnoth110 viewsStruck c.865-868AD Kent, Canterbury mint. AR Penny 1.20g Ceolnoth Group III. Floriated Cross type. Obv tonsured bust facing, breaking inner circle 'ARCHIEP- CEOLNOD'; Rev 'BIARNRED MONETA' (Moneyer Beornraed) around, in inner circle a floriated cross. S.895? (Group III) N.247.

There are 58 recorded coins of Ceolnoth at the SCBI/EMC but only 3 coins of this moneyer for him. He also struck 6 more recorded coins for Alfred, Edward the Elder and some Danish imitative Alfred coins from East Anglia. This actual type is not listed in the corpus. However, a fragment at the British Museum, see BNJ28 CE Blunt 'A new coin of Ceolnoth' and JJ North plate III/9, is likely the same. Infact, I believe these coins are of the same dies and moneyer. Blunt & North describe 'LD' in the fragmented moneyer legend though it is likely 'ED' with the top half of the 'E' missing at the break. The Floriated Cross design is also found on coins of Aethelberht for the moneyers Dudda and Oshere but only 4 on database (N.621). In superb condition, a single find from the Driffield area in Yorkshire. This coin is potentially the only complete specimum and should be considered a great rarity. It is now recorded in the 2011 'The Coinage of Southern England' by Rory Naismith, Volume 1 Plate 65 C218.2b.

Gareth Williams at the British Museum kindly commented:

'I agree with your reading of the coin, and think that it is probably from the same dies as our fragment 1947, 14-4, 6, as you suggest, although it's difficult to be absolutely certain - the angle of the D on the reverse in particular looks slightly different, but that may just be the lighting on the photograph'

Rory Naismith from the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge is studying the period for his PhD dissertation. He kindly commented as below:

'The Ceolnoth in particular is quite spectacular: not only is it, as you say, the only known whole floreate cross penny of Ceolnoth, but it is also a stunning coin of considerable historical importance. There is some reason to believe that it was found as part of a small hoard comprising at least three floreate cross pennies, the other two both being of Aethelberht by the moneyer Dudda. One is unfortunately only a small fragment, but the other is beautifully preserved. As the only known hoard of floreate cross coins, this is understandably a find of some significance, although it is odd to find it deposited so far north. A trawl through the BM and as many other catalogues and find records as I could find turned up only a total of nineteen floreate cross pennies, including yours, struck by seven moneyers. It was probably a lot larger than this meagre record seems to suggest: were it not for the large Dorking hoard of 1817 the preceding Inscribed Cross phase would be almost as little-known, and many moneyers who produced this type reappeared in the Lunettes coinage, so they may well have continued over the intervening period as well'.

The initial coinage of Group III has as the reverse motif a cross crosslet with pellets in the angles [coin 1, illustrated above]. Those of Ceolnoth are of good style and feature a neater tonsured bust of the archbishop possibly wearing his pallium. Those of Aethelwulf for the same period, Phase II at Canterbury, tend to have a rather crude right facing bust with thick lettering in the legend - although a few are of better style. Not all of Aethelwulf's coins of this type have pellets in the angles of the cross crosslet. This type was struck until c.852, when it was replaced by a coinage that was to become standard at Canterbury throughout the remainder of Aethelwulf's reign and the majority of the reign of his son Aethelberht. The Inscribed Cross coinage, struck only by Ceolnoth and the two aforementioned kings, have an identical reverse with a large voided cross that contains the moneyers name within and in the angles. Comparitively large numbers of these coins survive and they have been the subject of much study with regard to dating, reduced silver content and so on. Toward the end of his reign, c.854, Aethelberht minted a new coinage mirrored by Ceolnoth, the extremely rare Floriate Cross issue. These coins as would be expected have a large floriated cross on the reverse and had a very limited striking - perhaps as little as a year. Less than ten examples survive today for the king and archbishop. Illustrated below is the only known complete example of the Floriate Cross type of archbishop Ceolnoth.


AlexB
Hermione_Triobol___BCD_Peloponnesos_1302_(this_coin).jpg
Argolis, Hermione, ca. 280-250 BC, AR Triobol 23 viewsWreathed head of Demeter Chthonia left.
EP monogram above ΔI, all within wreath of grain.

BCD Peloponnesos 1302 (this coin); HGC 5, 748; Grandjean, Monnayage Group II, Emission 8, D16/R25 (this coin cited).

(15 mm, 2.58 g, 11h)
Auctiones GmbH 47, 24 April 2016, 25; ex- BCD Collection: LHS Numismatics 96, 8-9 May 2006, 1302; ex- GMRH, May 1979, SFr 500 (per BCD ticket); ex- Ashmolean Museum from the E.S.G. Robinson Collection, donated to the Ashmolean, disposed of as a duplicate.

This coin has a notable provenance that can be traced back to the collection of Edward Stanley Gotch Robinson (1887-1976) a classical numismatist and the Keeper of the Coin and Medal Department at the British Museum 1949-1952. He endowed the Ashmolean with his coin collection in 1964. Within three years of his death the Ashmolean disposed of this coin from the collection, despite the type being extremely rare. That's gratitude for you!
n.igma
Ariadne Bacchus British Museum.jpg
Ariadne and Bacchus480 viewsAriadne and Bacchus in the British MuseumBacchus
aristotle.jpg
Aristotle, 384-322 B.C.27 viewsAristotle was born in Stagira in north Greece, the son of Nichomachus, the court physician to the Macedonian royal family. He was trained first in medicine, and then in 367 he was sent to Athens to study philosophy with Plato. He stayed at Plato's Academy until about 347. Though a brilliant pupil, Aristotle opposed some of Plato's teachings, and when Plato died, Aristotle was not appointed head of the Academy. After leaving Athens, Aristotle spent some time traveling, and possibly studying biology, in Asia Minor (now Turkey) and its islands. He returned to Macedonia in 338 to tutor Alexander the Great; after Alexander conquered Athens, Aristotle returned to Athens and set up a school of his own, known as the Lyceum. After Alexander's death, Athens rebelled against Macedonian rule, and Aristotle's political situation became precarious. To avoid being put to death, he fled to the island of Euboea, where he died in 322 B.C.

Aristotle is said to have written 150 philosophical treatises. The 30 that survive touch on an enormous range of philosophical problems, from biology and physics to morals to aesthetics to politics. Many, however, are thought to be "lecture notes" instead of complete, polished treatises, and a few may not be the work of Aristotle but of members of his school.

A full description of Aristotle's contributions to science and philosophy is beyond the scope of this gallgery. Suffice it to say that Aristotle became virtually lost to Western Civilization during the so-called "dark ages." In the later Middle Ages, Aristotle's work was rediscovered and enthusiastically adopted by medieval scholars. His followers called him Ille Philosophus (The Philosopher), or "the master of them that know," and many accepted every word of his writings -- or at least every word that did not contradict the Bible -- as eternal truth. Fused and reconciled with Christian doctrine into a philosophical system known as Scholasticism, Aristotelian philosophy became the official philosophy of the Roman Catholic Church. As a result, some scientific discoveries in the Middle Ages and Renaissance were criticized simply because they were not found in Aristotle. It is one of the ironies of the history of science that Aristotle's writings, which in many cases were based on first-hand observation, were used to impede observational science.

"Mine is the first step and therefore a small one, though worked out with much thought and hard labor. You, my readers or hearers of my lectures, if you think I have done as much as can fairly be expected of an initial start. . . will acknowledge what I have achieved and will pardon what I have left for others to accomplish," Aristotle.

See: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html hosted by the University of California, Berkeley Museum of Paleontology.
Cleisthenes
Diana_of_Ephesus_-_Claudius_AR_Tetradrachm.jpg
Artemis, (Diana of Ephesus), in her Temple136 viewsTI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left. / DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.
RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.
(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h)

The statue of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the statue, or the temple that housed it, other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt around 330 BC in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The columns and marble of the temple were used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base. The rectangles on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as tables, or altars. However, it is more likely that these are windows in the pediment to facilitate lighting of the statue in the interior of the temple. The Ionic style of the columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
1 commentsLloyd T
IMG_1296.JPG
Asclepius177 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
Asklepios_Phyromachos.jpg
Asklepios of Phyromachos36 viewsHead of Asklepios. Roman marble copy of the head of Asklepios made by Phyromachos, today in the Hermitage in St. Petersburg/Russia. The famous statue of Asklepios made by Phyromachos stood in the Asklepieion in Pergamon. Its head is found on several coins from Pergamon.

Phyromachos was the Pergamenian court sculptor. He has made too the Gigantomachy of the Pergamon Altar today in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin.
Jochen
Ath_dek_elect_w.jpg
Athens, dekadrachm125 viewsThis is a British Museum electrotype (made by Robert Ready in the late 19th century with his RR mark on the edge) of the largest circulating Greek coin. With the price of these at about $500,000 dollars when they come on the market a good quality reproduction like this is the nearest most of us will come to handling one of them.
48.21 gm, 34 mm; original weighs 42.7 gm.
Manzikert
AthenTetVF.jpg
Athens, Greece, Old Style Tetradrachm, 449 - 413 B.C.121 viewsSilver tetradrachm, SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526, VF, near full crest, Athens mint, 16.410g, 25.1mm, 90o. Obverse: head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves; Reverse: AQE right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square.

This coin is one of the most familiar of all the coins struck throughout the ancient Mediterranean. The images of Athena and her Owl, while not static, changed undramatically, in an unhurried and deliberate way. Although its production rests firmly during the time that numismatists call the Classical era (479 BC --336 BC), this coin's "style" better reflects the earlier Archaic period.

The Athenian "Owl" (until its debasement as a result of the Peloponnesian War) was the standard of its day. Between the late 5th century BC and the late 3rd century BC, these coins were the currency against which all other coins were measured. This high esteem was due to the Athenian tetradrachms' consistent weight and quality of silver.

"The little elf-like owl dear to ancient Athens had greenish-blue-gray eyes that could see clearly where humans could not. Glaukopis -- the "shining eyed one" was often shortened to glaux, a nickname for the tetradrachm that bore the owl's likeness" (http://notes.utk.edu/bio/unistudy.nsf/0/da0222e2e80272fd85256785001683e4?OpenDocument).

It is only with the emergence of the Imperial coinage of Alexander the Great (beginning quickly after his ascension to the throne in 336 BC) that the ancient world had another coin as widely accepted. As Martin J. Price notes, "“The impressive list of twenty-three mints on Asian soil and one in Egypt, all used to strike Alexander’s imperial coinage during his lifetime, shows that there was a conscious policy of providing this form of money on an empire-wide basis" (Price, Martin J. The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. Zurich: The Swiss Numismatic Society in Association with British Museum Press, 1991. 72).

More than two millennia after the Athenian Tetracrachm was first struck, the 26th President of The United States, Theodore Roosevelt (b. 1858; d. 1919), is said to have carried an Athenian "Owl" in his pocket--to remind him just how beautiful a coin could be.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Athlit_Ram_Haifa.jpg
Athlit Bronze War Galley Ram55 viewsThe Athlit ram, found in 1980 off the coast of Israel near at Athlit Bay (just south of Haifa), is the one of a few surviving ancient war galley rams. Carbon 14 dating of timber remnants date it to between 530 BC and 270 BC. It was once fit on the prow of an ancient oared warship. This would be driven into the hull of an enemy ship in order to puncture it and thus sink, or at least disable, the ship. It is made of a single casting of bronze weighing 465kg and measures about 2.10m long. The ram is thus one of the largest bronze objects to survive from the ancient world and is currently on display in the National Maritime Museum, Haifa, Israel. Captured rams were once used to ornament Octavian's battle monument at Actium, Greece. Only the sockets that held them remain. The valuable bronze was melted long ago.

Sources:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Naval_ram
http://www.learningsites.com/Athlit/AthlitRam_home.php

For other recovered galley rams see:
https://archaeologynewsnetwork.blogspot.com/2013/04/rare-bronze-rams-found-at-site-of-final.html
https://www.historytoday.com/ann-natanson/roman-naval-power-raising-ram
1 commentsJoe Sermarini
Schönert-Geiss_#228_Caracalla_City-gate_Augusta_Traiana.jpg
Augusta Traiana Caracalla Sicinnius Clarus74 viewsCaracalla as co-emperor
Governor Q. Sicinnius Clarus Po[ntianus?] 202AD cf. Stein Reichsbeamte Thracia p.46-7
AE27 13.65g
Ob: [AVT K M AVPHΛIOC | ANTΩNINOC]
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: HΓE CIKINNIOV KΛAPOV A[VΓOVCTH]
Ex: TPAIANHC
City gate with three turrets with battlements

Obverse legend worn away, reverse more detail, dull black patina
Cf. BMC 11 under Trajanopolis; Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis p. 86 # 228 reverse depicted Tafel 10; Mionnet Supp. 2 p.511 #1809 (Trajanopolis)
M & M cites Trell 247, 79 in addition to confirming my attributions above.
The legend is slightly different from the British Museum specimen (=#230). I think this reverse die is more common. Placement of kappa in relation to central tower is an indication of die.

This coin appears to be from Righetti’s collection M & M Auction 15 (21 10 2004) lot 77 Righetti Teil IV!
http://www.acsearch.info/record.html?id=99790

No tags from auction nor Righetti’s own
1 commentsPetrus Elmsley
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-yQKgTlpIp6vJ3j-Augustus.jpg
Augustus (Augustus Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius 9 viewsOB CIVIS SERVATOS - OB above, SERVATOS below, CIVIS within oak wreath between two laurel branches
C • ASINIVS • C • F • GALLVS • III • VIR • A • A • A • F • F •, large S • C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (16 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.70g / 35mm / 7h
References:
RIC I 370
BMCRE 157 = BMCRR Rome 4594
BN 372-6
Cohen 367
Sear5 1644
Acquisition/Sale: cutiepagirl Ebay $0.00 09/18
Notes: Sep 7, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From CNG:
During the reign of Augustus a number of curious coins were produced, usually termed trial pieces or patterns. They tend to be of very much heavier weight than usual (the present piece is between 45-50% heavier than normal coins of this type), or struck on much larger flans (such as a quadrans struck on the flan of a dupondius). Exactly why they were struck is uncertain, but it is probable that they served as presentation pieces, either for officials or for friends and family of the moneyer’s. In that sense they were probably not overvalued for circulation (which the medallions of the 2nd and later centuries certainly were) but simply were impressive coins designed to be used by select people. This is quite an fine example of one of those Augustan issues - a remarkably medallic looking example of this type is in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge (CM-RI.58.R) - and one can imagine how the possessor of such a coin would carefully save it for a special purchase.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-yQKgTlpIp6vJ3j-Augustus~0.jpg
Augustus (Augustus Caesar) Coin: Brass Sestertius16 viewsOB CIVIS SERVATOS - OB above, SERVATOS below, CIVIS within oak wreath between two laurel branches
C • ASINIVS • C • F • GALLVS • III • VIR • A • A • A • F • F •, large S • C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (16 BC)
Wt./Size/Axis: 22.70g / 35mm / 7h
References:
RIC I 370
BMCRE 157 = BMCRR Rome 4594
BN 372-6
Cohen 367
Sear5 1644
Acquisition/Sale: cutiepagirl Ebay $0.00 09/18
Notes: Sep 7, 18 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

From CNG:
During the reign of Augustus a number of curious coins were produced, usually termed trial pieces or patterns. They tend to be of very much heavier weight than usual (the present piece is between 45-50% heavier than normal coins of this type), or struck on much larger flans (such as a quadrans struck on the flan of a dupondius). Exactly why they were struck is uncertain, but it is probable that they served as presentation pieces, either for officials or for friends and family of the moneyer’s. In that sense they were probably not overvalued for circulation (which the medallions of the 2nd and later centuries certainly were) but simply were impressive coins designed to be used by select people. This is quite an fine example of one of those Augustan issues - a remarkably medallic looking example of this type is in the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge (CM-RI.58.R) - and one can imagine how the possessor of such a coin would carefully save it for a special purch

Per RIC-Rare
Gary W2
Augustus_British Museum.jpg
Augustus; September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 1410 viewsAugustus (Latin: IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS; September 23, 63 BC–August 19, AD 14), known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (English Octavian; Latin: C•IVLIVS•C•F•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS) for the period of his life prior to 27 BC, was the first and among the most important of the Roman Emperors.Cleisthenes
Aurelian.jpg
Aurelian - Vabalathus Bronze Potin Tetradrachm20 views
Metal: Bronze
Diam: 20 mm.
Weight: 9.6 gr.
Potin Tetradrachm of Alexandria
OBV: Aurelian . Year 2 = 271-272 , laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
OBV-LEGEND: Α Κ Λ ∆ΟΜ ΑΥΡΗΛΙΑΝΟC CEB (A K L DOM AVPHLIANOC)
Marks-OBV: L behind neck and L in front of it

REV: Young Vabalathus , laureate, draped, cuirassed Bust right
REV-LEGEND : Ι Α C OςΑΒΑΛΛΑΘΟC ΑΘΗΝΟΥ Α C Ρ(IACO VABALLAQO)
Marks-REV: left field: L behind head , right field: E (Epsilon) in front of nose

Source : Alexandria, Egypt Catacombs
Age: 270-272 A.D.
Mint: Alexandria ( Egypt) Year 5

Ref :Emmett 3914, Milne 4330, Dattari cf. 5424, Sear Greek cf. 4757; Köln (coll. Geissen) 3058
Historisches Museum Frankfurt am Main, 1987
1 commentsMichel C2
MISC_Austria_Albrecht_II_L_140.JPG
Austria. Albert II (the Wise), Duke of Austria and Styria (1330-1358)633 viewsLuschin/Szego 140, CNA B 236.

AR Pfennig, Vienna mint, 14-15 mm.

Obv: Hare facing left.

Rev: Shield.

“Until the 12th century, coins were needed above all for exports; daily transactions were generally barter transactions. As the economy began to operate increasingly on the principle of the division of labor and as cities began to grow, money started to acquire more and more importance for regional trade. Municipal records show that even in Austria under Babenberg rule, money payments to feudal lords began to replace payments in kind. The growing monetarization of society ushered in a new phase in the history of coins. Monetary systems became regionalized. The denar, formerly used for external trade and exports, was replaced by the regional pfennig. New monetary borders came into existence, within which the rulers with coinage rights tried to enforce the compulsory, exclusive use of their own coins. Under Babenberg rule, the Vienna pfennig was accorded the role of regional money used in Austria. The Vienna pfennig came into its own when the mint was moved from Krems to Vienna at the end of the 12th century. It served as a means of payment for daily monetary transactions and remained a monetary unit even when large foreign coins were used to settle the growing volume of trade transactions – gold coins such as the Venetian or Florentine ducat and large silver coins like the Prague groschen. In the course of the 14th century, it became established as a currency in nearly the entire area covered by modern-day Austria, with the exception of Tyrol and Vorarlberg.” (“Money and Trade during the Era of the Silver Pfennig.” Oesterreichische Nationalbank

“It is assumed that most of the 13th and 14th century reverses are not legible at all. This is entirely normal as the obverses were usually struck after the reverses.” (Szego, at 52). The reverse of this issue was the arms of mintmaster Heinrich Schucheler (per Jean Elsen, List 263 Lot 395).
Stkp
MISC_Austria_Frederick_III_L_159.JPG
Austria. Frederich the Handsome, Duke of Austria and Styria (1308-1330). 28 viewsLuschin/Szego 159.

AR Pfennig, Wiener Neustadt mint, 15-16 mm.

Obv: Austrian shield inside six-petalled rose.

Rev: Shield of Austria between two panthers.

“Until the 12th century, coins were needed above all for exports; daily transactions were generally barter transactions. As the economy began to operate increasingly on the principle of the division of labor and as cities began to grow, money started to acquire more and more importance for regional trade. Municipal records show that even in Austria under Babenberg rule, money payments to feudal lords began to replace payments in kind. The growing monetarization of society ushered in a new phase in the history of coins. Monetary systems became regionalized. The denar, formerly used for external trade and exports, was replaced by the regional pfennig. New monetary borders came into existence, within which the rulers with coinage rights tried to enforce the compulsory, exclusive use of their own coins. Under Babenberg rule, the Vienna pfennig was accorded the role of regional money used in Austria. The Vienna pfennig came into its own when the mint was moved from Krems to Vienna at the end of the 12th century. It served as a means of payment for daily monetary transactions and remained a monetary unit even when large foreign coins were used to settle the growing volume of trade transactions – gold coins such as the Venetian or Florentine ducat and large silver coins like the Prague groschen. In the course of the 14th century, it became established as a currency in nearly the entire area covered by modern-day Austria, with the exception of Tyrol and Vorarlberg.” (“Money and Trade during the Era of the Silver Pfennig.” Oesterreichische Nationalbank

“It is assumed that most of the 13th and 14th century reverses are not legible at all. This is entirely normal as the obverses were usually struck after the reverses.” (Szego, at 52).

Frederick the Handsome (Friedrich der Schöne), from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria and Styria from 1308 as Frederick I as well as King of Germany (King of the Romans) from 1314 (antiking until 1325) as Frederick III until his death.
Stkp
Tiberius_37.jpg
B265 views Tiberius AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV I 1763, Lugdunum
Date: 19 August, AD 14 – 16 March, AD 37
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head r.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated r., holding olive branch & long scepter; ornate legs to chair
Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.6 grams
* NOTE: chipped piece & metal adhesions from prior mounting of coin as jewelry
(Image of Tiberius courtesy of Bill Storage: Ara Pacis Museum, Rome)

"He was large and strong of frame, and of a stature above the average... He strode along with his neck stiff and bent forward, usually with a stern countenance and for the most part in silence, never or very rarely conversing with his companions... All of these mannerisms of his, which were disagreeable and signs of arrogance, were remarked by Augustus, who often tried to excuse them to the senate and people by declaring that they were natural failings, and not intentional." - Suetonius Life of Tiberius LXVIII

When Augustus died on August 19, AD 14, Tiberius was considered to be the logical successor. The issue, however, was that there had never been a transfer of power by succession, only through seizure of leadership by force. Although Tiberius superficially sought to preserve the idea of the emperor being “First Citizen” to appease the senate, it was abundantly clear who was in control of the empire. Tiberius made a clever move to sequester the support of the legions through a pay increase. The reverse of this coin depicts Livia seated. Being Tiberius’ mother, she campaigned relentlessly to place her son as the natural heir to the position of emperor. Once in control, Tiberius allowed her to keep the title of Augusta, granted to her by Augustus in his will, but refused her the honor of being recognized as “Mother of her Country” or that of lictor. This was an astute political move to limit Livia’s influence. In the long run Tiberius was unable to maintain the demeanor or tact that Augustus possessed, and was seen as a stiff and arrogant tyrant by many. Tiberius spent much of the latter part of his reign at his private retreat on the island of Capri. He fell ill in AD 37 and died March 16 at the age of 77 in his seaside villa at Misenum.
The denarius of Tiberius with Livia as Pax on the reverse is commonly known as the 'Tribute Penny,' the coin to which Jesus referred to when he was discussing paying taxes to the Romans, and said "render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mark 12:17 & Matthew 22:20-21). Although there are two other reverse types on denarii of Tiberius, they were only issued during the first two years of his reign, while the Pax reverse was employed throughout the remainder, making it the more likely coin referred to. The term 'penny' is from the AD 1611 King James translation of the Bible, and was adopted since the penny was the standard denomination of the time.
6 commentsNoah
Bactria,_Agathokles_Nickel_Double_Unit_.jpg
Baktrian Kingdom, Agathokles I, ca. 185-170 BC, Copper-Nickel Dichalkon 14 viewsHead of Dionysos right, wearing ivy wreath, thyrsos over left shoulder
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ AΓAΘOKΛEOYΣ (of King Agathokles) Panther standing right with bell around neck, touching vine with raised paw, monogram ΦI to left

HGC 12, 94; Bopearachchi Series 5B; SNG ANS 9, 236; Mitchiner 147b (this coin illustrated); Sear GCV 7557 var.

(21 mm, 8.8 g, 12h).
Ancient Numismatic Enterprise; ex Duplicates of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.

Agathokles, Euthydemos II, and Pantaleon minted copper-nickel coins in the period ca. 185-170 BC, the first such alloy coins to be produced. Nickel was not used again in coin production until the 19th century. The nickel content in these coins is variable in the range 7.5% to 20.2%. It is probable that locally available, rich deposits of copper-nickel ore were mined and smelted to produce the coinage. The short period of time in which such coins were minted suggests that the source of nickel rich copper was rapidly depleted. The silver appearance of the coinage probably enhanced its perceived value at a time when the Euthydemid Dynasty was struggling for survival against the usurper Eukratides. It may have even been considered a substitute for silver at a time when the latter was in short supply due to the conflict with Eukratides.
n.igma
IMG_1826.JPG
Balbus160 viewsmuseum on PalatinJohny SYSEL
hostilian_tyche.jpg
BCC CM1361 viewsRoman Provincial
Caesarea Maritima
Hostilian 250-251 CE
Obv:HOSTILIANO QVINTO C
Radiate, (draped or cuirassed?) bust right.
Rev:COL P R FL AV FC CAES METROP
Tyche standing to left, holding bust, staff and rudder.
Her right foot rests on a prow, she steers the ship of state.
At her feet to her left, not so visible here, is a port worker,
perhaps a god, representing the harbor of Sebastos. He gazes
up at her in adoration for her protection of the city. Large parts
of the statue that I believe formed the model for this coin were
found in the 1970's by the Joint Expedition to Caesarea
Maritima, and are now on display in the museum there.
AE 24mm. 14.1g. Axis:0
Kadman #187 var. (radiate bust), very rare.
v-drome
BCC_LH1_Lead_Head_comp.jpeg
BCC LH114 viewsLead Head
Cast lead figure of a miniature
stylized head, possibly crimped on
to a shaft or tang? This specimen
is unusual in that it is slightly
larger and heavier than the other
heads in this assemblage, and the
face is flat (solid?) with a hollow neck.
My father recalled seeing a similar
object with an iron blade attached to
it at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
in New York, but I have not been
able to confirm this.
49 x 23 x 9.5mm. 32.28gm.
Surface find, 1976, Caesarea Maritima
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
Belt-terminal_AR_Q-001_mm_g-s.jpg
Belt terminal, Silver, called "heart shaped" belt terminals, AR #001107 viewsBelt terminal, Silver, called "heart shaped" belt terminals, AR #001
type: Silver belt terminal, called "heart shaped" belt terminals; of the Zagreb Museum believes that they represent bollocks (testicles).
size: 26x31mm,
weight: 8,27g,
date: 4th. century ( cc. 330 - 380 but into fifth century too.) A.D.,
ref: ???,
distribution: ???,
Q-001
quadrans
BHM_1061__Elgin_Marbles_East_IV_24-27.jpg
BHM 1061. The Elgin Marbles, East Frieze IV 24-27.78 viewsObv. THE ELGIN MARBLES DEDICATED BY PERMISSION TO HIS MAJESTY GEORGE IV The Royal Coat of Arms with supporters.
Rev. CASTOR POLLUX CERES AND TRIPTOLEMUS THOMASON DIREXIT Hermes, Dionysos(?), Demeter and Ares seated.

AE48

The British Museum writes about the fragment depicted:
24-25. Hermes, a messenger god, sits looking in the direction of the procession. He wears sandals and a traveller's hat (petasos) rests on his knee. The figure who leans on his shoulder is probably Dionysos, god of wine. His left arm was supported by a staff (thyrsos).
26. Demeter, goddess of growing corn, was shown resting her chin (now missing) upon her hand. In Greek art this was a conventional gesture of mourning. Her grief is for her daughter Persephone, who was abducted by the god of the Underworld. In her left hand Demeter holds a torch, the symbol of the Eleusinian Mysteries, of which she was the patron.
27. Ares, god of war, sits with one knee cradled in his hands, while his left foot rests on the haft of a spear. Part of the weapon is just visible below the ankle bone. The rest of it must have been painted on the stone.
LordBest
BithyniaCius(PrusiasAdMare)Gordian-III-Hygieia_1a.jpg
Bithynia, Cius. Gordian III (AD 238–244). Potentially unpublished.21 viewsBithynia, Cius. Gordian III (AD 238–244). Æ 24mm, 7.26 g, ~1h.
Obverse: [Μ] ΑΝΤ ΓΟΡΔΙΑΝΟC Α[VΓ?], radiate, draped and cuirassed bust left, seen from behind, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: ΚΙΑ – Ν – [Ω]Ν;, Hygieia standing right, feeding a serpent in her arms from a patera held in her right hand.
References: None found, although another example of the same type (and probably dies) is housed in the British Museum (BM 1975-411-66). Also cf. Rec 108 (Tranquillina).
Ex Zlatina Gospodinova, 8-26-2015.
Mark Fox
Bramsen 0280.JPG
Bramsen 0280. La Venus de Medicis, 1803.153 viewsObv. Head of Napoleon.
Exergue, JEUFFROY FECIT 1803. DENON DIR. G.D. MUSÉE C. D. ARTS
Rev. the antique statue of the Venus de Medicis.
Legend, AUX ARTS LA VICTOIRE. L'AN IV DU CONSULAT DE BONAPARTE.

Depicts the Venus de Medici in the Louvre, and the occasion of Napoleons visit to the museum. The legend "Aux arts la victoire" is a reference to Napoleon's philosophy of "To the victors belong the spoils" . 1803.
LordBest
Mosaic.jpg
Britain, Bath, Aquae Sulis, Mosaic26 viewsDisplayed in the Baths.

This wonderful mosaic is one of many fascinating exhibits dotted around the museum.
maridvnvm
Ornamental Pediment.jpg
Britain, Bath, Aquae Sulis, The Temple31 viewsThe Temple at Bath is one of only two truly classical temples known from Roman Britain. It was where the the cult statue of the goddess Sulis Minerva was thought to have been housed. Parts of the ornamental pediment survives and are displayed in the Baths Museum.maridvnvm
Victory Trophy Caerleon close.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Artefact - Victory with Trophy (Close-up of Trophy)51 views1st Century A.D. Victory artefact displayed in Museum at Caerleon, the Roman City of Isca Silurum in South Wales.maridvnvm
Victory Trophy Caerleon 2.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Artefact - Victory with Trophy (View 1)54 views1st Century A.D. Victory artefact displayed in Museum at Caerleon, the Roman City of Isca Silurum in South Wales. maridvnvm
Victory Trophy Caerleon 1.jpg
Britain, Caerleon, Isca Silurum, Artefact - Victory with Trophy (View 2)60 views1st Century A.D. Victory artefact displayed in Museum at Caerleon, the Roman City of Isca Silurum in South Wales. 2 commentsmaridvnvm
B-britannicus_01.jpg
Britannicus Sestertius146 viewsObv: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG F BRITANNICVS - Bare headed and draped bust left
Rev. S C - Mars advancing left, holding spear and shield.
Year: 50-54 AD
Material: AE
Weight: 24.05g
Ref: Cohen 2
Notes: Extremely rare; authenticity verified by Fitzwilliam Museum (Cambridge) experts.
oa
BM_cupid.jpg
Bronze Cupid 2nd Century British Museum469 viewsBacchus
Vandal_ab.jpg
Bronze nummus - Vandal kingdom153 viewsVandal kingdom. Æ nummus (10 mm, 0.45 g). Obverse: Diademed and draped bust right. Reverse: Eagle or zoomorphic deity within wreath. Wroth 3:18.

Very rare. A similar coin in British Museum (Wroth 3:18) was purchased from Mr. J. Doubleday in 1849 and was believed to originate from Northern Africa. Probably struck in the Vandal kingdom during the time period from c. 450 to 530. One possibility is that the coin imitates Ostrogothic 10 nummi coins with an uppright eagle minted in Rome for Theoderic the great. The vandal king Thrasamund was married to Amalfrida, the sister of Theoderic, from 500 to 523 AD. The coin may perhaps have been struck during this time period. Another possibility is that the reverse shows the Egyptian god Anubis. Comments and alternative interpretations are welcome.

Ex Poncin collection; CNG 134, lot 455, 2006; Beast Coins Auction I, lot 205, 2009
3 commentsjbc
Buckle-04_AR_Q-002_28x13mm_5,49g-s.jpg
Buckle #004, AR Buckle,97 viewsBuckle #004, AR Buckle,
type: AR Buckle, the heavy prong/tongue and how it overlaps the buckle.
"I believe 5th - 6th century. The very thick tongue which extends beyond the buckle ring and hooks down is the diagnostic. Likely "Germanic" though there are some thoughts that they were made in Roman/Byzantine Empire for use by groups like Ostrogoths, Gepids and/or Sarmatians." by Shawn Caza, thank you Shawn.
" Early Christian and Byzantine Art. Walters Gallery/Baltimore Museum of Art. Baltimore, 1947: page 99, No. 467A, Plate LXVII. Found in Egypt, 4th century." by Russ, thank you Russ.
size:28x13 mm,
weight:5,49 g,
date:??? A.D.,
ref: ???.
distribution: ???,
Q-002
quadrans
AntoninusPius_BM.jpg
Bust of Antoninus Pius from the British museum554 views3 commentsareich
LuciusVerus_BM.jpg
Bust of Lucius Verus from the British museum357 viewsareich
MarcusAurelius_BM.jpg
Bust of Marcus Aurelius from the British museum317 viewsareich
Lyon-20140817-00305.jpg
Bust of Sol24 viewsStone carving of a bust of the sun god Sol. Roman Museum of Lugdunum in Lyons, France.1 commentsotlichnik
IMG_2090.JPG
bust of Traian125 viewsVatican museumsJohny SYSEL
Trajan_BM.jpg
Bust of Trajan from the British museum355 viewsareich
sear0041.jpg
BYZANTINE, ALEXIUS I AE Tetarteron S- Unlisted DOC 41 CLBC 2.4.11123 views
OBV Monogram of Alexius.

REV Bust of Emperor wearing stemma divitision and jeweled loros of traditional type holds in r. hand jeweled scepter and in l. gl. cr.

Size 16/18mm

Weight 2.3gm

This is believed to be a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. Grierson believed this coin to be an imitation and Hendy's original catalog mentioned the coin as mythical , a coin had been published a century before but no currently known examples.
By the time DOC IV was published twenty years latter, one was found in the collection of the museum of Istanbul.

My example has now been published in BULLETIN du cercle d'etudeas Numismatiques VOL 52 Jan 2015 by Cedric Wolkow, three examples are shown. This one appears to be in the best condition.

DOC lists the above coin as the only example( Istanbul Museum ) Weight 3.74gm and size at 17mm. Mine is considerable lighter.
Simon
collagemaker_2018060_ied4O.jpg
Caligula (Gaius)12 viewsAE21, Corinthian, Issued by P. Vipsanius Agrippa and M. Bellius Proculus, duoviri. Struck 37-38 AD
Obverse: CAESAR AVGVST, bare head of Caligula left.
Reverse: P VIPSANIO AGRIPPA IIVIR, Pegasus flying right, COR below.
References: RPC 1173 (left), BCD Corinth 407, Amandry group XVII pp. 186-189, British Museum (Corinth) 531-533
Justin L
_1RomanGlass.JPG
Candlestick Unguentarium97 viewsCirca 1st-3rd Century AD
10.9cm tall.
ex Apollux

Roman glass candlestick unguentarium with flared rim and flattened base, possibly from Syria.
Fully intact with nice mottled green iridescence.

" ... they drove about in chariots with seats, through the woods and groves, just as wild beasts do, holding in their hands the sacred frankincense, and the fragrant dates, and cassia, and the delicate perfumes of Syria."
~ Melanippides of Melos (Danaides)

Update;
This item donated to the Hallie Ford museum in Salem Oregon.
3 commentsEnodia
IMG_1188wp.jpg
Capitoline Wolf186 viewsCapitoline Museums

It seems it's from 13th century - not etruscan.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/She-Wolf_of_the_Capitol
Johny SYSEL
Caracalla_Zeus_Throwing_Thunderbolt.jpg
Caracalla Zeus Throwing Thunderbolt17 viewsCaracalla, Traianopolis, Thrace, 209 - 217 AD, 19mm, 3.4g, Schoenert-Geiss (47), Varbanov 2873?,
OBV: M AVRHL ANTWNEINOC K, bare headed and draped bust right
REV: naked Zeus, standing front, looking left, right arm raised, holding thunderbolt in left arm, border of dots.

Schoenert-Geiss (47):
She cites two examples: 18-20mm, 3.77gr in Berlin Museum in the Bernhard-Imhoof collection and 19mm, 4.22 gr in Madrid.
NOTE:
As an additional footnote she writes, "the coin listed under Thracian Traianopolis in SNG Evelp page 30, 1039 as Caracalla belongs to Marcus Aurelius and was probably not struck in Thrace.

RARE
Romanorvm
CARASE02.jpg
Caracalla, sestertius of AD 210, two emperors crowned by Victories34 viewsObv.: M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate bust of Caracalla facing right.
Rev.: CONCORDIAE AVGG (around) S C (in ex.), Caracalla and Geta clasping hands above tripod altar, both holding spears, each crowned by Victory.
RIC -; Cohen -
ex Henzen (1995, "found during dredging in Lagliari harbour, Sardinia" ).
The reverse has been badly double struck but the representation can clearly be seen.

This type is not listed in RIC nor Cohen. Cohen reports a medallion of Caracalla with the same reverse representation. The same reverse is listed in RIC, Cohen and BMC but only for Geta and Septimius Severus. Another related type is listed in RIC 459 (R2) and Cohen 28: Caracalla and Geta clasping hands and holding spears, being crowned by Apollo and Hercules, minted A.D. 210.

A sestertius of Caracalla with the same reverse was in the Santamaria sale of 1938 but was overlooked for inclusion in RIC. It was purchased by Curtis Clay in 1967 and is in the British Museum since 1993. Thus this coin is the second specimen known of this type for Caracalla.
Curtis Clay noted that the obv. and rev. dies of this specimen are both different from the Santamaria-BM specimen. The rev. die was entirely new to him and unknown in combination with a Geta obv. either; the obv. die of this coin is known with TR P XIII (thus dating this coin to AD 210): three emps. sacrificing rev. dies, one being BMC pl. 62.1. (That BM coin has been tooled, and the tribunician number altered to XIIII.).
1 commentsCharles S
Figures_with_horns_on_the_Gundestrup_Cauldron.jpg
Carnyx players on the Gundestrup Cauldron68 viewsDetail of antlered figures with animal-headed horns depicted on the cauldron found at Gundestrup, Himmerland, Jutland, Denmark. The Gundestrup cauldron is housed at the National Museum of Denmark.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Figures_with_horns_on_the_Gundestrup_Cauldron.jpg
Joe Sermarini
Harness_7a.jpg
Cavalry Harness Decoration - obverse75 viewsThis large harness decoration, circa early- to mid-1st century AD has extensive incised decorations which were likely filled with niello. It is often called a phalera though differes from the phalera worn on soldiers armour or belts. Exact parallels can be seen in the Romisches Museum Germany from Vindonissa and Colchester (believed to have belonged to Ala I Thracia attached to Legio XX); and in Feugere, figure 187, #2 from Hod Hill UK dating to the Neronian era. The centre hole was for a lost attachment - possibly a silver medallion.otlichnik
roman_spurs_2.jpg
Cavalry Spur, front view112 viewsFront view of a Roman cavalry hackenspur, circa 1st century AD. The bronze spur had a separate iron prick inserted - remnants of which can still be seen. The hook at the top gave the type its name and was used to help attached it over a boot. Examples in the Romisches Museum Germany are from Dangstetten, Vindonissa and Haltern.otlichnik
roman_spurs_1.jpg
Cavalry Spurs, top views126 viewsTop view of two Roman cavalry spurs, circa 1st century AD. The upper spur has knob terminals, which would have buttoned into slits in leather straps to go over the boots. It also has a hole (not visible in this image) for a separate iron prick. An example in the Romisches Museum Germany is from Sirmium. The lower spur is a hackenspur which also had a separate iron prick inserted - remnants of which can still be seen. The hook at the top and at the ends of the termilas gave the type its name and were used to help attached it to leather boot straps. Examples in the Romisches Museum Germany are from Dangstetten, Vindonissa and Haltern.otlichnik
1FaceB.jpg
Ceramic Face52 viewsLate Hellenistic - Early Roman
1.7"
ex Olympvs Coins

Update;
This item donated to the Hallie Ford museum in Salem Oregon.
Enodia
Ceres.jpg
Ceres115 viewsStatue of Ceres, in the Louvre Museum. Photo taken by me in May 2014.1 commentsMasis
ARM_Levon_I_tank_Vardanyan_Group_C.jpg
Cilician Armenia. Levon I, the Great (1199-1219)15 viewsVardanyan Group C; Nercessian 304 var. (obv. legend), Bedoukian 720 var. (obv. legend)

AE tank. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint. 6.80 g., 28.19 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + ԼԵՒՈՆ ׀ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՒՈՑ (= Lewon Tagawor Haywots = Levon, King of Armenians), leonine head of the king, seven dots on the crown, pendilium and hair represented by vertical row of six dots; and the mane/beard by a semi-irregular juxtaposition of dots.

Rev: + ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՍ Ի ՍԻՍ [Type 2 letter Ք] (= Shineal i kaghakn i Sis = Struck in the city of Sis), patriarchal cross with five-pointed star on each side.

There are three varieties of the obverse legend among the Group C coins in the collection of the History Museum of Armenia. The obverse legend on this coin, which bears a letter/symbol between the words ԼԵՒՈՆ and ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ, is not represented. This obverse letter variation is also not recorded in Bedoukian and Nercessian.

The sequence of issuance of the four groups is unknown.
1 commentsStkp
ARM_Levon_I_tank_Vardanyan_Group_A.png
Cilician Armenia. Levon I, the Great (1199-1219)21 viewsVardanyan Group A; Nercessian 308; Bedoukian 716

AE tank. Sis (now Kozan, Turkey) mint. 6.89 g., 27.92 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + ԼԵՒՈՆ ԹԱԳԱՒՈՐ ՀԱՅՒՈՑ (= Lewon T'agawor Haywoc' = Levon, King of Armenians), leonine head of the king, crown with row of six dots, pendilium and hair represented by single curl and a row of four vertical dots below; and the mane/beard represented by two horizontal rows of dots.

Rev.: + ՇԻՆԵԱԼ Ի ՔԱՂԱՔՍ Ի ՍԻՍ [Type 1 letter Ք (without horizontal strokes)] (= Šineal i k'ałak's i sis = Struck in the city of Sis), patriarchal cross with five-pointed star on each side.

There are four varieties of the obverse legend among the Group A coins in the collection of the History Museum of Armenia (the "HRH"). The obverse legend on this coin is represented by 7 dies (39 coins), but this coin is not a die match with any of them. There are five varieties of the reverse legend among the Group A coins in the HRH collection. The reverse legend on this coin is represented by 12 dies (16 coins), but this coin is not a die match with any of them.

The sequence of issuance of the four groups is unknown.
Stkp
sb1825classc26mm1017g.jpg
Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE17 viewsObverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
26mm, 10.17g
SB 1825 Class C follis



The Obverse is Christ as Antiphonetes, "the guarantor." A famous icon of Christ was so named because, according to a miracle story, it had been held as loan collateral by a creditor. The Byzantine empress Zoë (r. 1028–50) had coins struck with the Antiphonetes image and kept an icon of the type close at hand. "I myself have often seen her, in moments of great distress, clasp the sacred object in her hands, contemplate it, talk to it as if it were indeed alive, and address it with one sweet term of endearment after another," wrote court historian Michael Psellos (1018–ca. 1081).

Source: Icon with Christ Antiphonetes [Byzantine] (1979.217) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
wileyc
sb1825classc.jpg
Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE24 viewsObverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
25mm, 6.06g
SB 1825 Class C follis



The Obverse is Christ as Antiphonetes, "the guarantor." A famous icon of Christ was so named because, according to a miracle story, it had been held as loan collateral by a creditor. The Byzantine empress Zoë (r. 1028–50) had coins struck with the Antiphonetes image and kept an icon of the type close at hand. "I myself have often seen her, in moments of great distress, clasp the sacred object in her hands, contemplate it, talk to it as if it were indeed alive, and address it with one sweet term of endearment after another," wrote court historian Michael Psellos (1018–ca. 1081).

Source: Icon with Christ Antiphonetes [Byzantine] (1979.217) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
wileyc
sb1825classC23mm473g.jpg
Class C follis, sb1825, attributed to Michael IV, 1034-1041 CE22 viewsObverse: EMMANOVHA - Three -quarter length of Christ Antiphonetes standing facing, wearing nimbus cr. pallium and colobium, raising rt hand in benediction in L. hand book of Gospels, in field to L., IC barred, to r., XC barred.
Reverse: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Jewelled cross with pellet at each end divides inscription into four equal parts, IC--XC/NI--KA
Mint: Contantinople
Date: 1034-1041 CE
23mm, 4.73g
SB 1825 Class C follis



The Obverse is Christ as Antiphonetes, "the guarantor." A famous icon of Christ was so named because, according to a miracle story, it had been held as loan collateral by a creditor. The Byzantine empress Zoë (r. 1028–50) had coins struck with the Antiphonetes image and kept an icon of the type close at hand. "I myself have often seen her, in moments of great distress, clasp the sacred object in her hands, contemplate it, talk to it as if it were indeed alive, and address it with one sweet term of endearment after another," wrote court historian Michael Psellos (1018–ca. 1081).

Source: Icon with Christ Antiphonetes [Byzantine] (1979.217) | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
wileyc
IMG_2100.JPG
Claudius138 viewsVatican museumsJohny SYSEL
Claudius_Æ_Sestertiu.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius 5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right, NCAPR counterstamp behind bust
EX S C / P P / OB CIVES / SERVATOS - Legend within wreath
Mint: Rome (50-54AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 23.42g / 36.39mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC² 112
Cohen 38
BMC 185
Sear 1850
Provenances:
Marc Breitsprecher
Old Roman Coins.Com
Acquisition/Sale: Ancient Imports Internet $0.00 8/17
The Gary R. Wilson Collection


The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.



The wreath on the reverse is the corona civica, the oak wreath awarded to Roman citizens ex senatus consulto (by special decree of the Senate) for saving the life of another citizen by slaying an enemy in battle. It became a prerogative for Roman emperors to be awarded the Civic Crown, originating with Augustus, who was awarded it in 27 B.C. for saving the lives of citizens by ending the series of civil wars.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-oXfGCiAQjcBiF-Claudius_arch.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Brass Sestertius4 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P - Laureate head right with NCAPR countermark behind head.
NERO CLAVDIVS DRVSVS GERMAN IMP, S C - Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus: triumphal arch consisting of single arch & decorated piers set on raised base with four columns supporting ornate attic.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 24.20g / 35mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC 114
Cohen 48
BMC 187
Acquisition/Sale: shpadoinkle24 Ebay $0.00 8/17
Notes: Jan 9, 19 - NCAPR Countermark

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Nero Claudius Drusus was Tiberius' younger brother. He was a successful general but died at only 29 after a fall from his horse. He married Antonia, daughter of Mark Antony and Octavia. Their sons were Germanicus and Claudius. Claudius issued his coins.

From CNG:
The Arch of Nero Claudius Drusus was erected by order of the Senate sometime after the death of Drusus in 9 BC. Located on the Via Appia, it commemorated his victories along the German frontier. Eventually, the presence of the arch may have lent its name to the surrounding region, known colloquially as the vicus Drusianus (Drusus' district). By the late fourth century AD, the arch may have survived as the arch then known as the arcus Recordationis (Arch of Remembrance).

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

The countermark NCAPR was applied to numerous orichalcum coins of the reigns of Tiberius and Claudius. NCAPR is most often explained as "Nero Caesar Augustus Populo Romano." Others believe NCAPR abbreviates "Nummus Caesare Augusto Probatus" or "Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit" (probavit means approved). Excavations of the Meta Sudans and the northeastern slope of the Palatine Hill in Rome indicate that this countermark was applied for Nero's congiarium (distribution to the people) in 57 A.D., which supports the Populo Romano interpretation. Varieties of this relatively common countermark are identified by some authors as applied in either Italy, Spain or Gaul. The countermark is not found on coins bearing the name or portrait of Caligula. Clearly any coins of Caligula that were still in circulation and collected for application of the countermark were picked out and melted down, in accordance with his damnatio, rather than being countermarked and returned to circulation. A NCAPR countermark has, however, been found on a Vespasian dupondius which, if genuine and official, seems to indicate the N may refer to Nerva, not Nero.

NCAPR counterstamp of Nero behind bust.

From The Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins website:
There are several interpretations of what this, the most interesting of all Julio-Caludian ctmk., means. The two most likely are:
1. Nero Ceasar Augustus Populi Romani
2. Nero Caesar Augustus Probavit
In the first instance it is a congiarium or public dole given by Nero to the people of Rome. In the second, it is a revalidation of the earlier coins of ones predecessors still in circulation.
Possible is also a later use, eg. by Nerva, or that no emperors name was part of the countermark.

Previously believed to be applied during the reign of Nero, a specimen in the Pangerl collection appears on an as of Vespasian, necessitating a later date for the series. Three distinct production centers can be identified for this issue, in Spain, Gaul, and Italy. The Italian type is distinguished by the frequent joining of the letters NC at the base.

NCAPR (Nummus Caesare Augusto PRobatus?) in rectangular countermark-Translated-'Money Caesar Augustus Approved'

Just FYI-This coin has been 'Liberated' from the NGC slab and is now how it should be-free for a person to hold, as all ancients should be!
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-AOy7GVWJFbuo-Claudius.jpg
Claudius (Augustus) Coin: Bronze AS 5 viewsTI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP P P - Bare head left
(NO LEGEND) SC - Minerva advancing right, holding shield and brandishing a javelin, S-C across fields.
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (42-54 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 10.00g / 27mm / 6h
References:
RIC I (second edition), 116
BMC 206
Cohen 84
von Kaenel Type 60
BN 233-5
Acquisition/Sale: amarso66 eBay $0.00 04/19
Notes: Apr 12, 19 - The Gary R. Wilson Collection

Claudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.
Claudius was one of the most capable, yet unlikely emperors. Shunned as an idiot by his family due to a limp and embarrassing stutter, Claudius spent the first decades of his life absorbed in scholarly studies until the death of his nephew Caligula. After Caligula's murder, the Praetorian Guard found him hiding behind a curtain in the Imperial Palace, expecting to be murdered. Instead, the guard proclaimed him emperor. His reign was marred by personal catastrophes, most notably promiscuity and betrayal by his first wife. He governed well and conquered the troublesome island of Britain. He was poisoned by his second wife, Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero.

"Nobody is familiar with his own profile, and it comes as a shock, when one sees it in a portrait, that one really looks like that to people standing beside one. For one's full face, because of the familiarity that mirrors give it, a certain toleration and even affection is felt; but I must say that when I first saw the model of the gold piece that the mint-masters were striking for me I grew angry and asked whether it was intended to be a caricature. My little head with its worried face perched on my long neck, and the Adam's apple standing out almost like a second chin, shocked me. But Messalina said: "No, my dear, that's really what you look like. In fact, it is rather flattering than otherwise." -- From the novel "Claudius the God: And His Wife Messalina" by Robert Graves

per Curtis Clay:
At ROME, bronze coins were struck for Claudius in two large issues, the first without P P and the second with P P, that is the first between his accession on 25 Jan. 41 and his acceptance of the title Pater Patriae less than a year later, between 1 and 12 Jan. 42, and the second after early January 42.

The types were the same in both issues:

sestertii of Claudius with types legend in wreath OB CIVES SERVATOS, SPES AVGVSTA, and legend of Nero Claudius Drusus around triumphal arch;

sestertius of Nero Claudius Drusus with rev. legend of Claudius around Claudius seated on curule chair set on globe among arms;

dupondius of Claudius with rev. CERES AVGVSTA;

dupondius of Antonia with rev. legend of Claudius around standing togate emperor;

asses of Claudius with rev. CONSTANTIAE AVGVSTI, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, and Minerva fighting r.;

quadrantes of Claudius with types Modius and PNR, hand holding scales.

PROVINCIAL MINTS, official and unofficial, on the other hand, struck these same types for Claudius, usually without the quadrantes, almost exclusively without P P, so apparently during the first year of his reign. There were only two exceptions of provincial mints striking these standard types of Claudius after he became P P:

1. The Spanish mint, defined by the many sestertii and dupondii of this particular style, including dozens of die duplicates, found in the Pobla de Mafumet Hoard, struck most of its bronze coins for Claudius without P P, but, alone of the early provincial mints, continued to strike for him early in 42, now with P P, this however being a much smaller issue which probably lasted only a month or two.

I show below a "Pobla" dupondius of Claudius, this one of 41 (no P P), with the characteristic letter forms (particularly the Rs and Ms), often dots left and right of S C in rev. exergue, and the characteristic portrait with spikey hair locks. For comparison I also add a Rome-mint dupondius of the second issue, with P P. (Both images from CoinArchives)

curtislclay:
2. Thracian mint, later in reign, which had NOT struck bronzes for Claudius before he became P P. This mint copied the Roman types, but in slightly cruder style. Its dupondii often have central cavities on their flans, which never occur at Rome or at any of the other provincial mints; see the specimen that I illustrate below from CoinArchives.

Other features which suggest a Thracian or possibly Bithynian location of the mint: (a) quite a few bronze coins of this style have turned up in the flood of ancient coins that emerged from Bulgaria after the fall of the Iron Curtain. (b) Some of the sestertii in this style have Eastern countermarks, for example the SPES AVGVSTA sestertius shown below, from the website Museum of Countermarks on Roman Coins, with countermark Capricorn above rudder on globe. I think most of the Claudian bronzes known with this rare countermark are from our Thracian mint, though it can also occur on Roman and Spanish bronzes of Claudius, which had presumably found their way into circulation in Thrace or Bithynia.

What types did this mint strike? Well, sestertii of Claudius with Legend in wreath and SPES AVGVSTA, but no Arch of Drusus sestertii have yet been observed; CERES AVGVSTA dupondii of Claudius, but I haven't yet noted any dupondii of Antonia; asses of Claudius with all three normal types; no quadrantes.

curtislclay:
Unfortunately these different mints for bronze coins of Claudius are hardly recorded in the standard catalogues!

Laffranchi, in an article written in 1948, was the first to recognize and separate from Rome two of the main provincial mints striking bronzes for Claudius early in his reign, including the Spanish mint mentioned above. But Sutherland, revising RIC I in 1983, was unable to see the stylistic differences pointed out by Laffranchi, so attributed all of Claudius' bronze coins to Rome. The same RIC numbers, therefore, cover Rome and at least three major provincial mints without P P, and Rome, the Spanish mint, and the Thracian mint with P P!

Von Kaenel, in his 1986 monograph on the coinage of Claudius, recognized the two early provincial mints for bronze coins pointed out by Laffranchi, and attributed certain middle bronzes to yet a third provincial mint, though he wrongly located all of these mints in Rome, as auxiliarly mints to the main public one, rather than in the western provinces. He did not recognize the Thracian mint from later in the reign that I have treated above. His catalogue, no. 1888, pl. 43, indeed includes a Thracian CERES AVGVSTA dupondius with central indentations, but he misattributed it to the early Spanish mint, the only early provincial mint to produce bronze coins for Claudius as P P.

Giard, in his Paris catalogue of 1988, ignored both Laffranchi and von Kaenel, and, like RIC, attributed all official bronze coins of Claudius to the mint of Rome!

Individual Thracian mint coins have been recognized as such in various sale catalogues since the 1990s, but this mint has not been treated in any academic article or museum catalogue as far as I know.
Gary W2
cleopatraVII.jpg
Cleopatra VII hemiobol27 viewsLaureate head of Zeus

Statue of Zeus Salaminos standing, holding stalks of grain, star above


Paphos mint c. 35 BC

3.15g

Nicolaou, Paphos II, 469-509; Cox, Exc. at Curium 128; Museum of the History of Cypriot Coinage ch. 11, 35

Notes from Forum:

While not noted in Svoronos, this type is fairly common on Cyprus and many have been found in the excavations at Neopaphos. The lack of a central depression indicates they were struck after 96 B.C. Recent Cypriot numismatic publications date them to the time when Cleopatra VII of Egypt was the ruler of the island


Sold Forum Auction March 2019
1 commentsJay GT4
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Cn. Plancius, Denarius12 viewsRRC 432/1
55 b.c.

The obverse seems to symbolize Macedonia, the reverse to allude to hunting in Crete; both where places in which Cn. Plancius has spent some time in the course of his career (Crawford)

Cn. Plancius stammte aus einer Ritterfamilie und war der Sohn eines angesehenen Steuerpächters....
Wiederum wurde Plancius gewählt, mit ihm A. Plotins, während Q. Pedius und Inventius dnrchfielen. Letzterer erzielte die geringste Stimmenzahl (§ 17 p. 482,22). Er tat, was in solchen Fällen oft geschah: er verklagte seinen siegreichen Rivalen wegen ambitus;....die Verteidigung führten Cicero und Hortensius. (W. Kroll, Ciceros Rede für Plancius, Rheinisches Museum, 86 (1937))
--
ex Rauch Auktion 86, Lot 512, 2010-05-12-14

Described as:
Cn. Plancius
(D) Denarius (3,91g), Roma 55 v.Chr. Av.: CN PLANCIVS / AED CVR S C, Kopf der Diana Planciana (oder der Macedonia?) mit Kausia n.r. Rv.: Kretische Ziege n.r., dahinter Bogen und Köcher. -- Kleiner Kratzer im Av. Cr 432/1, Albert 1360. Attraktive Tönung.
s.sch.-vzgl.
Norbert
Nil_Vatikan_1892.jpg
Colossal statue of the river Nile273 viewsThe new wing of the Vatican Museums, Museo Pio-Clementine, is home to Colossus of the Nile the river god, identified by the sphinxes and crocodiles, is represented as a dispenser of blessings. The 16 boys are thought to be an allusion to the number of cubits the level of the Nile rises when it floods, fertilizing the region which it crosses. The reliefs on the base represent life on the banks of the river. It is a 1st century A.D. Roman work most likely based on a Hellenistic original. Jochen
Treveri_(Trier)_mint.jpg
Commemorative Series67 viewsCommemorative Series. AD 330-354. Æ Follis (17mm, 2.61 g, 6h).
Treveri (Trier) mint, 2nd officina. Struck under Constantine I, AD 332-333. Helmeted and mantled bust of Roma left / She-wolf standing left, head right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; two stars above; TR•S. RIC VII 542; LRBC 65. EF, gray-brown patina.

From the collection of the MoneyMuseum, Zurich. Ex Münz Zentrum Köln 104 (6 September 2000), lot 613.
1 commentsLeo
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Commodus as Hercules166 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Commodus, RIC 560, Sestertius of AD 190 (Ploughing)42 viewsÆ Sestertius (16,57g, Ø 30mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 190.
Ob.: M COMMOD ANT P FE-LIX AVG BRIT P P, laureate head right
Rev.: COL LAN COM PM TR P XV IMP VIII (around) COS VI (in ex.) S C, Commodus, veiled, as priest, ploughing right with two oxen.

RIC 560; BMC 643; Cohen 39(60fr.); Sear (RCV) 5737

This is a very rare type, found occasionally as Æ-As, but extremely rare as a sestertius. It probably refers to the refounding of Lanuvium, the birthplace of Commodus and the place where he displayed his skills as Hercules by killing lions in the arena.

There has been speculation about the meaning of the first part of the reverse legend COLLANCOM. The traditional expansion of this legend is based on Eckhel (1796), reading the legend as COLonia Lucia ANtoniana COMmodiana, in order to try to relate it to the refounding of Rome. This was followed by Cohen and many other references. The British Museum and RIC expand it slightly differently: "The depiction of the ritual ploughing of the furrow marking out a new foundation refers to Commodus' refounding of Rome as COLonia Lucia ANnia COMmodiana."

Curtis Clay in Forum's discussion board, points to a powerful objection of this interpretation: "Since Commodus still calls himself Marcus on the obverse and was not to switch his praenomen back to Lucius until 191, a year later, why, on the reverse, does he name Rome Lucia and not Marcia?

Chantraine in 1971, following a suggestion of Renier in 1872, proposed what seems to be the solution to the problem: the legend is to be expanded COLonia LANuvina COMmodiana and commemorates Commodus' elevation of his birthplace Lanuvium, which had been a municipium, to the rank of colony.

Commodus did refound Rome too, and this deed is commemorated on very rare mediallions, sestertii, and dupondii struck late in 192, just before his assassination on 31 december. These coins have the same rev. type of emperor plowing, but the legend HERCuli ROMano CONDITORI P M TR P XVIII COS VII P P, 'To the Roman Hercules, the Founder'."

ex cgb.fr (2014).
1 commentsCharles S
dupondius_concordia_milit.JPG
CONCORDIA MILIT S C 41 viewsobv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG laurate, draped and cuirassed bust of gordian right seen from behind
rev: CONCORDIA MILIT concordia seated left on throne holding patera and dubble cornucopiae

RIC 288
C 66

extremely rare, only the 6th specimen known and 4 of them are in museums!
leseullunique
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Constantine I, Follis, GLORIA EXERCITVS5 viewsAE Follis
Constantine I
Caesar: 306 - 307AD
Augustus: 307 - 337AD
Issued: 333 - 335AD
16.0 x 15.0mm
O: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG; Diademed (rosettes), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: GLORIA EXERCITVS; Two soldiers standing on either side of two standards, each holding a spear and resting hand on a shield.
Ihnasyah Hoard; Royal Ontario Museum
Exergue: CONSB(Dot)
Constantinople Mint
ANC 10745
Aorta: 209: B18, O9, R87, T220, M5.
spartakmus 281890992463
12/27/15 1/30/17
Nicholas Z
coin42.jpg
Constantine I, RIC VII Heraclea 132 Rare323 viewsConstantine I, RIC VII Heraclea 132 Rare3
CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C,laureate cuirassed,
Draped bust right. / dot GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, 2
Soldiers, 2 standards. Dot SMH gamma dot in ex.
RIC notes the only other known examples in Vienna
Museum. Coin #42
cars100
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Constantine II AV Solidus131 viewsConstantine II AV Solidus. Nicomedia. 324 AD. CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, laureate draped and curiassed bust right / PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Prince standing left, looking right, in military dress, holding parazonium on l. arm, standard with eagle holding wreath in r. hand; to r., another standard with hand. RIC 74

EXTREMELY RARE - Only two other examples cited by RIC, both in museum collections.
EXTEMELY FINE
SPLENDID STYLE

Ex. Stock Münzen & Medaillen AG Basel
From a small hoard discovered around 1980 in Egypt.
Ex. Hess-Divo 2007
3 commentsTrajan
441s.jpg
Constantine II, RIC VII 170 Sisica33 viewsConstantine II AE3 "Vows X" Constantine II CE. 316-340
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C - Laureate head right.
Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM- Wreath within is written VOT X.
Ex: (epsilon) SIS (double crescent) Siscia mint: AD 321-324 = RIC VII, 170, page 445 - British Museum. 18.35 mm, 3.0 g.
NORMAN K
Constantine.jpg
Constantine the Great212 viewsMarble head of Constantine the Great at the Musei Capitolini in RomeTitus Pullo
Constantius_II_gloria_Alexandria.JPG
Constantius II AE4 Gloria Exercitvs31 viewsAE 4
Constantius II, 337-361 CE
Diameter: 15 mm, Weight: 1.24 grams, Die axis: 5h

Obverse: CONSTANTIVS AVG
Diadem, draped, and cuirassed bust to right.

Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS
Two soldiers standing either side of one standard.

Mint: SMALB: Alexandria

Notes:
- This small coin has an interesting pedigree and possesses a portrait of unusual finesse for the issue.

Ex Ebay.de 2015, Ex CNG Triton XVIII 2015, Ex Royal Ontario Museum, Ex The Ihnasyah Hoard, Egypt, 1903/1905.
Pharsalos
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Constantius II, RIC VIII, Arles 141 var.19 viewsConstantius II, AD 337-361
AE 3 (Centenionalis), 4.24g, 24mm, 210°
Arles, 1st officina, 348-350
obv. DN CONSTAN - TIVS PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
behind bust A
rev. FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
Soldier, helmeted, with shield, spearing fallen horseman, who is sitting beside his horse
and is stretching his hands against the soldier (type FH2 sitting)
in l. field A, in r. field dot
in ex. PAR
ref. RIC VIII, Arles 141 var. (has no A in left field of rev.); LRBC -
scarce, about VF, oval flan

From the Bridgnorth Hoard, Scropshire, England, buried ca. AD 355, unearthed 2007. Preliminary report of the British Museum by Lopez-Sanchez & Abdy under "Bridgnorth, Scropshire"
1 commentsJochen
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Corinthian helmets237 viewsMuseum - Olympia Johny SYSEL
Corinthian_Stemmed_Terracotta_Dish.jpg
Corinthian Stemmed Terracotta Dish, ca. 5th century BCE12 viewsShallow, wide-mouthed bowl set atop a modestly flared stem. Painted decoration in rusty orange and black appears on the interior around the circumference and around the tondo, and around the exterior below the rim

Height: 2 5/8"; Diameter: 6"

Ex Living Torah Museum collection
Quant.Geek
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COVENTRY HALF-PENNY225 viewsCOVENTRY HALF-PENNY - CU 1797 Coventry half-penny. Obv.: Lady Godiva rides horse left. Above: PRO BONO PUBLICO - Date in exurge. Reverse: Elephant with tower on back walks right. COVENTRY HALF-PENNY. Reference: Conder #68.
From the Birmingham Museum: In the late 18th century the Royal Mint did not make enough low value coins to satisfy the growing demand for small change. As a result, many towns and cities started producing their own token money. This halfpenny token was issued at Coventry in Warwickshire. It depicts the famous story of Lady Godiva, who supposedly rode naked through the streets to win a reduction in the city’s taxes from her husband, Earl Leofric. The reverse shows that the die cutter had clearly never seen a real elephant!
dpaul7
691CN465.jpg
Cr 352/1b AR Denarius L. Julius Bursio20 viewsRome, 85 BCE
o: Laureate, winged, and draped bust of Apollo Vejovis right; to left, trident above bow
r: Victory driving galloping quadriga right, holding reins and wreath; EX • A • P in ex.
Sydenham 729; Julia 6; Type as RBW 1348
(18.5mm, 4.04 g, 10h)
From the Andrew McCabe Collection.

I have noted some of my other coins whose types bear a variation on the indication of "from the Public Silver", usually interpreted to mean an issue that required a supplementary grant of authority from the Senate outside the normal annual authorization, as all of the coining metal was "public", including the precious metals from time to time appropriated from the temples of the state religion.

Since this coin is ex McCabe, I will quote his notes on the relative rarity of this type directly:
"The British Museum collection has 115 examples of RRC 352/1a or 352/1c with moneyers name L. IVLI BVRSIO, but just 4 examples with EX A. P. Crawford in RRC, p. 605, says that this issue was struck from money left to the Roman people by Ptolemy Alexander I of Egypt, which probably arrived at Rome in 86 BC. Given the rarity of the EX A. P. issue, perhaps the bequest was modest! "
As with the other 3 coins posted in this group, the coin is much better in hand, although the photos of the silver coins are clearer than the bronze.
1 commentsPMah
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Crouching Venus154 viewsThe British museumJohny SYSEL
Belt_7.jpg
Decorative Belt Plate 2nd century AD. 78 viewsThis so-called "celtic" or "trumpet" style belt plate is Roman military circa mid- to late-2nd century AD. Parallels are found in Bishop and Coulston's Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 88, #5, Antonine era, from Curle Newstead UK; and at the Carnuntum Museum in Bad Altenbach.otlichnik
D3.jpg
Domitian RIC 0382 viewsAR Denarius, 3.13g
Rome mint, 81 AD
RIC 3 (R). BMC 2. RSC 554a. BNC 2.
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII; Seat, draped; above, triangular frame decorated with corn ears
Acquired from Museum Surplus, July 2013.

Here we have a rather worn denarius of Domitian which may at first glance appear unremarkable, however, to me it is anything but that. Minted within the first few days of Domitian's reign, the reverse type is a carry-over from Titus' 'pulvinar' series. The mint had yet to develop unique or new reverse types for Domitian. Here we see a triangular frame above a chair, which is its only appearance in Domitian's 'pulvinar' series making this a rather rare coin. The early dating of the type can be confirmed by the spartan-like reverse titles that show Domitian simply as Tribunica Potestat for the first time and Consul for the seventh. Domitian was notorious for his adherence to the correct form of his titles, as clearly evident here. He would not advertise any titles that had yet to be bestowed. The absence of PM or P P is glaringly apparent.

A nice little coin that provides a neat glimpse into the workings of a mint and the mind of a new emperor.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
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Domitian, RIC 478 & 493, As of AD 86 (double reverse)51 viewsÆ As (11,2g, Ø 30mm, 6h), Rome, AD 86
Obv.: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM.COS XII CENS PER P P, laureate head right, aegis
Rev.: M[ONETA] AVGVSTI, Moneta standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae, struck over [F]IDEI [PVBLICAE] (around), S C (field), Fides standing right with corn ears and plate of fruits (of which only the head is visible).
RIC II,1:478 & 493
ex G.Henzen (1998)

The double struck reverse is composed of parts from two different dies: upper left third: (F)IDEI (PVBLICAE) and head of Fides turned r. (RIC 478); other two thirds: M(ONETA) AVGVSTI (RIC 493). Curtis Clay gives a plausible and interesting explanation for this strange phenomenon: "Roman imperial bronze coins with perfect obverses, but two dies of the same or different types overstruck on each other on the reverse, occur with some regularity; large public collections like BM or Vienna probably possess 50-100 of them each and I've been able to buy maybe 10-15 for my personal collection over a period of about 30 years. What I don't doubt is the correct explanation which was suggested to me by Colin Kraay c. 1972, when showing me an As of Caracalla of that sort that the Ashmolean Museum had just acquired: might it not have been quicker to employ two mobile rev. dies alternately at each obv. die set in its anvil, so that while one worker was removing his coin and getting a new blank, the second would be striking his own coin at the same obv. die? The overstrikes in question resulted from failure to remove the coin from the obv. die after the first strike! Robert Kokotailo suggested to me a year or two ago that such an alternation might also have prevented the reverse dies from overheating. Many modern scholars have proposed that different rev. types were struck at different officinae or workshops within the mint, so it's rather neat to be able to point out that in fact different types were often struck alternately at one and the same obverse die, Fides-Moneta-Fides-Moneta-Fides-Moneta and so on until there was some reason to stop work or replace the dies!"
1 commentsCharles S
Misc_Roman_3.jpg
Drawer Handles80 viewsI had originally labelled this as a possible helmet handle based on a few vendors and websites. It is now clear that these are handles for drawers or small chests. The coter pin went through a hole in the wood and was then bent wide inside the drawer or chest. Often the inside of the drawer or chest was protected/strengthened with a flat square of bronze with a hole in the middle. A full handle with both coter pins and the square bronze plates is displayed in the Archeologial Museum of Roman Poetovia in Ptuj, Slovenia. Circa 1st to 2nd century AD. These handles are designed as two dolphins facing, each with three pronged tails. Reports that these are often found at Roman military sites (including Poetovio), as well as civiliain sites, may indicate that the handle was used on small portable chests used by the military as well as civlian items but this is just a guess.otlichnik
EB0710_scaled.JPG
EB0710 Hadrian / Wreath11 viewsHadrian 117-138, Antioch ad Orontem, Syria, AE 27.
Obverse: [ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС Θ ΤΡ Π ΥΙ Θ ΝΕΡ ΥΙω ΤΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СΕΒΑС?], Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Countermark: laurel-branch with four leaves in rectangular punch.
Reverse: Large SC within laurel wreath; ΓΔ below.
References: Cf. RPC III, 3694; BMC Galatia 298,299, p186; McAlee 536(b). For ΓΔ meaning, see NUMERICAL LETTERS ON SYRIAN COINS by Kevin Butcher; For counterstamp see ANS Museum notes 22, pl.8 #9.
Diameter: 27.5mm, Weight: 14.595g.
EB
alexandria_gallienus_Dattari5288.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, Gallienus, Dattari 528833 viewsEgypt, Alexandria, Gallienus, AD 253-268
AE - Tetradrachm, 22mm
struck AD 266/267 (year 13)
obv. AVT KP LIK GALLIHNOC CEB
Bust, bearded, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. Eagle, advancing r., holding wreath in beak, palmbranch behind
in l. and r. field L - I Gamma (year 13)
ref. Dattari 5288; Emmett 3806; Milne 4119f.; Geissen 2928; SNG Copenhagen 789; 2236
VF+
Pedigree:
ex. Sayles & Lavender
ex Boston Museum of Fine Arts Art. 88.198 (acquired in 1888!)
ex coll. Benjamin Pierce Cheney

Benjamin Pierce Cheney (1815-1895) was an American businessman, director of Wells Fargo and a founder of the firm that became American Express. He was born as son of a blacksmith and he began working in his father's shop at age 10. In 1831 he started work as a stagecoach driver. With a reputation for honesty and reliability, he was frequently entrusted with large sums of money destined for banks on his route. Cheney was elected a director of Wells Fargo in 1854. Cheney sold United States & Canada Express in 1879 to American Express, at which time he became the company's largest shareholder as well as treasurer and a director. Cheney amassed a fortune estimated at $10,000,000.

He was widely social engaged. He donated $50,000 to Dartmouth College. He also helped develop the eastern part of Washington state with a railroad line. As a result, Cheney, Washington, is named in his honor, where he helped establish a school later evolved into Eastern Washington University. Cheney's estate in Wellesley, Massachusetts, has since become the Elm Bank Horticulture Center. He retired to this property on the Charles River in his last years and occupied himself with beautifying the land with conservatories and gardens

Cheney was a member of the New England Historic and Genealogical Society. In 1888 hedonated his big coin collection to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
Jochen
IMG_1288.JPG
Elagabalus139 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
Elis,_Olympia_Stater_-_Seltman_76.jpg
Elis, Olympia, 83rd-85th Olympiads, 448-440 BC, AR Stater 17 views Eagle flying right, grasping a snake with its talons and its beak; two countermarks (crab and mule's leg).
F-A Thunderbolt with volutes and wings.

Seltman 76 (same dies AS/βς Seltman pl. III); BCD Olympia 372.1 (this coin); HGC 5, 306 (R2). Zeus Mint 448-440 BC (83rd-85th Olympiads).

(24 mm, 11.71 g, 2h).
Harlan J Berk Buy or Bid Sale 175, 7 July 2011, 144; ex- BCD Collection: Leu Numismatik AG 90, 10 May 2004, 327.1.

Although the tip of the beak of the eagle is off-flan, it remains a portrayal with a great deal of elegance. Seltman’s obverse die AS was used to strike 8 emissions – Seltman 75-82. This is the fourth known example of Seltman 76 and the only one outside a museum collection.
n.igma
IMG_1287.JPG
empress141 viewsCapitoline museums

I can't remember who it is - maybe Herennia Etruscilla
Johny SYSEL
Harness_6.jpg
Equestrian Harness Hanger 1st century AD.90 viewsThis large thin bronze hanger is for an equestrian harness, circa 1st century AD. A parallel is found at the Romische Museum in Germany with finds from Vinonissa and Rheingonheim. The Dura Europos report, volume 7, shows and example on page 92, #230 and 272 and cites another from South Shields. This example is from near Sirmium.otlichnik
Eros_Nicopolis_Sofia.jpg
Eros of Parium25 viewsA Roman copy of the statue Eros of Parium made by Praxiteles, found in Nicopolis a Istrum, today in the Archaeological Museum Sofia/Bulgaria. Depicted on coins from Parium.Jochen
Larissa_Head_BCD_Thessaly_II_323_var.jpg
Facing Head of Larissa52 viewsThessaly Greece, the City of Larissa
Obv: Head of the nymph Larissa facing slightly l., round curl to the l. of he head, wearing ampyx flanked by two hornlike locks, a pendant earring represented by three pellets in a vertical line, and a simple necklace.
Rev: Horse crouching r., l. foreleg raised and bent (almost parallel with belly/ground), preparing to roll, small plant (control mark) below. ΛAPIΣ above horse and AIΩN in the exergue.
Denomination: Silver Drachm; Mint: Larissa; Date: c. 356 - 342 BC1; Weight: 5.869g; Diameter: 18.3mm; Die axis: 0 º; References, for example: BMC Thessaly p. 30, 61; BCD Thessaly I 1156; BCD Thessaly II 323 var. [same obv. die, but no trident (control mark) below the horse pointing to the left].

Notes:
1This is the date range stated in BCD Thessaly I. This coin appears to fall within Lorber’s Phase Late II or Phase Late III. See Lorber Hoard and Lorber 2008.
The city of Larissa was named after the local water nymph, said to be the daughter of Pelasgos. He was said to be the ancestor of the pre-Greek Pelasgians. According to myth Larissa drowned while playing ball on the banks of the Peneios river. (HGC p. 130).

Provenance: from the David Cannon Collection, ex Beast Coins.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

BCD Thessaly I: Nomos AG, Auction 4. Coins of Thessaly, the BCD Collection. (10 May 2011, Zurich).
BCD Thessaly II: Classical Numismatic Group, Inc. The BCD Collection of the Coinage of Thessaly. Triton XV Auction. (3 January 2012, New York).
BMC Thessaly: Gardner, Percy. A Catalogue of the Greek Coins in the British Museum, Thessaly to Aetolia. London, 1883.
HGC: Hoover, Oliver D. Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Greece: Achaia Phthiotis, Ainis, Magnesia, Malis, Oita, Perrhaibia, Thessaly, Akarnania, Aitolia, Lokris, Phokis, Boiotia, Euboia, Attica, Megaris, and Corinthia, Sixth to First Centuries BC, The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Vol. 4. Lancaster/London: Classical Numismatic Group, Inc, 2014.
Lorber Hoard: Lorber, Catharine C. “A Hoard of Facing Head Larissa Drachms” in Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau, vol. 79 (2000): 7 - 15.
Lorber, Catharine C. “Thessalian Hoards and the Coinage of Larissa” in American Journal of Numismatics, second series 20 (2008): 119 - 142.

3 commentsTracy Aiello
Larissa_Obe_and_Rev.jpg
Facing Head of Larissa28 viewsThessaly Greece, the City of Larissa

Obv: Head of the nymph Larissa 3/4 facing l., wearing ampyx flanked by two hornlike locks, round curl to the l. of the head1; earring on the r. (?), wearing wire necklace (?). Border of dots.
Rev: Horse crouching r., l. foreleg raised and bent (parallel with the lower part of the hind legs), preparing to roll, ΛAPIΣ above horse and AIΩN in the exergue.
Denomination: Silver Drachm; Mint: Larissa; Date: c. 356 - 346 BC2; Weight: 6.05g; Diameter: 19mm; Die axis: 130º; References, for example: Lorber Hoard, Phase L-III; SNG COP 121.

Notes:
1On p. 10 of Lorber Hoard Catharine Lorber observes that on later Phase L-III head types the round curl to the left of the head “...tends to evolve into a long wavy lock scarcely different from the others above and below it.” Therefore, perhaps this coin falls earlier in Phase L-III.
2This is the date range given in Lorber Hoard, p. 11. She states that the Third Sacred War must have been the historical context for the intensive Phase L-III drachm production.
The city of Larissa was named after the local water nymph, said to be the daughter of Pelasgos. He was said to be the ancestor of the pre-Greek Pelasgians. According to myth Larissa drowned while playing ball on the banks of the Peneios river. (HGC p. 130).

Provenance: ex. Pegasi Auction, A22, lot 117

Photo credits: Harlan J. Berk Ltd.

Sources

HGC: Hoover, Oliver D. Handbook of Coins of Northern and Central Greece: Achaia Phthiotis, Ainis, Magnesia, Malis, Oita, Perrhaibia, Thessaly, Akarnania, Aitolia, Lokris, Phokis, Boiotia, Euboia, Attica, Megaris, and Corinthia, Sixth to First Centuries BC, The Handbook of Greek Coinage Series, Vol. 4. Lancaster/London: Classical Numismatic Group, Inc, 2014.
Lorber Hoard: Lorber, Catharine C. “A Hoard of Facing Head Larissa Drachms” in Schweizerische Numismatische Rundschau, vol. 79 (2000): 7 - 15.
SNG COP: Sylloge Nummorum Graecorum, The Royal Collection of Coins and Medals, Danish National Museum: Thessaly - Illyricum. Copenhagen: Einar Munksgaard, 1943.
4 commentsTracy Aiello
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Fake RIC 840 viewsThese are often called "Museum replicas" and similar things are sold at museums. A copy of a real coin, cast in wrong metal and stamprd with "R" for replica. Without the "R" and the surface manipulated this can be very convincing as a heavily worn, affordable Otho.jmuona
Herakles_Farnese.jpg
Farnese Hercules13 viewsThe Farnese Hercules is one of the most famous ancient sculptures. It is a colossal copy made after a smaller Lysippos original, and intended to adorn the Baths of Caracalla. The sculpture was discovered and removed from the baths in 1546, entering the famous collection of Alessandro Farnese. It now resides in the museum of Naples.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farnese_Hercules
Joe Sermarini
FAVSSE14-2.jpg
Faustina Sr, RIC (A. Pius) 1104 var., Sestertius of AD 146-16111 viewsÆ Sestertius (24,56g, Ø33,6mm, 11h). Rome, AD 146-161.
Obv.: DIVAE AVSTINAE, draped bust right with hair waived & coiled on top head.
Rev.: AETERNITAS around, S C in ex., Aeternitas seated left, holding scepter and globe surmounted by phoenix.
RIC (A. Pius) 1104 (var.: obv. legend); BMCRE 1606; Cohen 19 (var.: same); Strack 1255 (only in B.M.); Banti 11 (2 spec.)
Ex FORVM (April 2015).

This is a very rare variant with obv. legend DIVAE FAVSTINAE. Cohen 19 and RIC 1104 describe a veiled bust with this legend; all specimens kown with this legend and bust type, are from the same obverse die: e.g. British Museum, Gadoury (Banti plate) and the Wildwinds (RIC 1104 from Roma Numismatics, 2010).
Charles S
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Fortuna137 viewsVatican museumsJohny SYSEL
France_365_Nimes_arena_museum.JPG
France, Nimes - Arena museum203 viewsvacationchick
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France, Paris, Roman Baths60 viewsThe Roman Baths of Cluny, Paris. Dated to the 3rd century AD, thought to have been paid for by the guild of "Lutetian Boatmen". The complex is now incorporated into the National Museum of the Middle Ages. Photo taken by me in May 2014.Masis
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Funeral Stele inspired by LRBC - GLORIA ROMANORVM150 viewsFuneral monument (presumably) inspired by (of after) the GLORIA ROMANORVM coins issued in the 350s by Magentius, Constantius II, Decentius & Nepotianus.

At the Landesmuseum at Koblenz, Germany.
Belisarius
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Gaius Caligula COS IIII Denarius152 viewsGaius (Caligula). AD 37-41. AR Denarius, 3.67 g. Rome mint. Struck January AD 41.
O: C CAESAR • AVG • PON • M • TR • POT IIII COS • IIII, laureate head right
R: S • P• Q • R •/P P/OB • C • S • in three lines within oak wreath.
- RIC I -; RIC I (1st ed.) 7 = BMCRE 32 = RSC 23a.

Extremely rare denarius of Caligula's fourth consulship, which only lasted from 1 January 41 until his assassination on 24 January. The fourth known.

Although the first of these three rare coins, the British Museum piece, was cataloged in the first edition of RIC I, it was left out of the revised edition. In that edition, Giard notes (p. 110, note *) that the BM piece was a misreading of TR POT III COS III. In fact, the first edition was correct, the piece was not misdescribed. The second known example of this type was sold as lot 56 in the Bourgey sale of 17 December 1913. Ironically, Bourgey misdescribed that coin as TR POT III COS III. A third example sold through CNG, printed auction 78 lot 1723.

"On the ninth day before the Kalends of February at about the seventh hour he hesitated whether or not to get up for luncheon, since his stomach was still disordered from excess of food on the day before, but at length he came out at the persuasion of his friends. In the covered passage through which he had to pass, some boys of good birth, who had been summoned from Asia to appear on the stage, were rehearsing their parts, and he stopped to watch and to encourage them; and had not the leader of the troop complained that he had a chill, he would have returned and had the performance given at once. From this point there are two versions of the story: some say that as he was talking with the boys, Chaerea came up behind, and gave him a deep cut in the neck, having first cried, "Take that," and that then the tribune Cornelius Sabinus, who was the other conspirator and faced Gaius, stabbed him in the breast. Others say that Sabinus, after getting rid of the crowd through centurions who were in the plot, asked for the watchword, as soldiers do, and that when Gaius gave him "Jupiter," he cried "So be it," and as Gaius looked around, he split his jawbone with a blow of his sword. As he lay upon the ground and with writhing limbs called out that he still lived, the others dispatched him with thirty wounds; for the general signal was "Strike again." Some even thrust their swords through his privates. At the beginning of the disturbance his bearers ran to his aid with their poles, and presently the Germans of his body-guard, and they slew several of his assassins, as well as some inoffensive senators. (Suetonius - Life of Caligula 58).
10 commentsNemonater
Unpublished_Galba_virtus.jpg
Galba AR Denarius44 viewsGalba, AD 68-69. Denarius, Spain (Tarraco ?), 68. AR 3.25 g.
Obv: GALBA - IMPERTOR Laureate head r., globe at point of bust.
Rev. VIRTVS Virtus, wearing short tunica, standing l., holding parazonium with her l. hand, on her outstretched r. hand Victoria with palm branch and wreath.
RIC 48a (R3) Supplementum Galbianum, Quaderni Ticinesi XII Numismatica E Antichita Classiche 1984. Cf. BMC 341, 194v.; BN III, 36, 34v.; C. 210; RIC 30var. (all with IMP on obv.).
Very rare variant. Toned. Small chips on flan. Almost very fine
Provenance: Auction UBS, Zurich 49 (2000), 365.
Ex: “The Galba Collection”
Hess Divo Auction 333, Lot 100 November 30, 2017
Hess Divo Auction 334 Lot 107 May 29, 2018

Here is another rare denarius of Galba. For a while I thought it was an unpublished variant. It did not appear in RIC 1  (1984).I have to thank Dr. Jryki Muona for supplying the correct reference for me. It appeared in a paper by Sutherland in 1984 entitled Supplementum Galbianum. In this paper several previously unpublished coins of Galba including mine were added. My coin type was given the reference number RIC 48a. Other information including corrections and further information is given in the paper. This coin does not occur in the major museum collections. There is one in the Oxford collection and this is the coin used in the paper cited above. There is one other that was auctioned in 2004 by Gorny & Mosch. I have been unable to find any further examples.

For me the most notable quality of this coin is not the rarity (it is R3: 6-10 examples known in the collections examines for RIC), it is the amazing portrait. I have 4 coins of Galba and not one of the portraits is close to any of the others. There is a remarkable variation in portraits on Galba's denarii, especially considering the short reign of the emperor.

Where was this coin minted? It has the globe at the terminus of the bust. This would seem to indicate Taracco in Spain. However, after some research I have discovered that other mints may have used the globe terminus. In other words, if there is no globe it was not minted in Taracco, if it has the globe it may be Taracco. 

The reverse with Virtvs holding victory does appear on other coins of Galba. However, on the vast majority of these the legend "Vitvus" is on the left and not the right. I have seen 2 other types with "Virtvs" on the right. However, on one the bust has no globe terminus so it is not a Tarraco mint coin. On the other, the obverse legend is different and the coin is probably a product of the Carthage mint in Africa because of the distinctive portrait.

I am very happy to have acquired this coin. It is unusual, interesting, and has a great portrait as well as an interesting reverse.

2 commentsorfew
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Galba AR Denarius33 viewsGalba. AD 68-69. AR Denarius
(17mm, 3.51 g, 6h).
Spanish mint (Tarraco?).
Struck circa April-late AD 68.
Obv: GALBA IMP Laureate bust right, [globe at point of bust]
Rev: VIRTVS, Virtus standing left, holding Victory in extended right hand, cradling parazonium with left arm.
RIC I 31; RSC 333a. Fine, toned
Ex: CNG 417, Lot 427 March 28, 2018
Ex: CNG 425, Lot: 403. July 25, 2018

It certainly pays to do one's research. I saw this in an online auction and I was interested in it. First, it has one of those interesting small head portraits.

From Sutherland "Supplementum Galbianum" (1984)

"There was, curiously,
a noticeable tendency towards much smaller and more compact portrait-
heads, seen for example in RIC I', nos. 14, 20, 23a, 28a, 29, 29a, 30, 30a,
31 (PL. I. 15) and 32."

Second, it is attributed to a Spanish mint. third it has an interesting die link.

From Sutherland (1984)
RIC F, no. 29a (B.M. (1935), rev. S P Q R on shield in wreath) shares an obv.
die with no. 31 (Oxford, rev. Virtus).

Most importantly I just liked it. When I researched the coin before the hammer fell I found out that this coin was the only example in CoinArchives. However it was listed twice. Today's auction was listed as upcoming, but the same coin was also listed in a another sale from March 2018. There were no examples on WildWinds or Acsearch and only the Brtish museum example on OCRE.

All things considered; the rarity, the Virtus reverse (that is 3 I have now) and the interesting portrait, made this coin a must have.
So now I will be on the lookout for Galba denarii minted in Narbo or otherwise in Gaul, and well as those minted in Carthage.
orfew
ID0147_MERGED.jpg
Gallienus - Goat Left34 viewsObverse:- [GA]LLIENVS[AVG], Head right with radiate crown
Reverse:- [IOVICON]SAVG, Goat left
Exergue:- Stigma

Possibly an ex-museum piece
2 commentsnogoodnicksleft
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Georgia: Giorgi IV Lasha (1208-1223) AE unit (Kap-66; Bennett-179)14 viewsObv: Design of six knots surrounding two-line central Mtavruli legend: ႢႨႻႤ / ႧႫႰႱႠ (Giorgi son of Tamar). Outside of knot design, circular Mtavruli legend: † ႱႾႤႪႨႧႠ ႶႧႠ ႨႵႬ ႽႤႣႠ ႥႺႾႪႱ ႠႫႱ ႵႩႱ ჃႪ († In the name of God, this coin was struck in the year 430 of the koronikon)

Rev: Central four-line Arabic inscription:

ملك الملوك (The King of kings,)
جلال الدنيا و الدين (Glory of the world and faith,)
كيوركى بن تامار (Giorgi, son of Tamar,)
حسام المسيح (sword of the Messiah)

Marginal Persian legend: بنام خداى پاك اين سيمرا زده اند بتاريح چهار صی وسی سال (In the name of God most pure, this coin was struck in the year 430)


The Georgian year is encoded using the "Paschal cycle". This dating system is based on the creation date being March 22, 5604 BC. From this date, they ran through a 532-year cycle. So, Year 1 was March 22, 5604 BC for the 1st cycle. And the 13th cycle's Year 1 was March 22, 781 AD. For years 346 to 532, add 780 to obtain the corresponding year in AD. The year starts off at March 22nd for each AD year. So, 430 + 780 = March 22, 1210 AD. For more information, please see Sweeny...

References:

Langlois, Victor, Numismatique de la Géorgie au Moyen Âge, A. Leleux, 1852
Пахомов, Евгений, Монеты Грузии, Мецниреба, 1970 (Pakhomov, Evgeny, Coins of Georgia, Metsnireba, 1970)
Sweeny, James O., Tempus in Nummis, Volume 1, Numismatics International, 1992
Paghava, Irakli, Georgian Coins in the Collection of the National Museum-Náprstek Museum in Prague, 2013
SpongeBob
Lang-13.jpg
Georgia: Queen Rusudan (1223-1245) AE fals (Lang-13; Langlois-30)33 viewsObv: In center; Asomtavruli ႰႱႬ (RSN), standing for RuSudaNi, surmounted by the queen’s monogram being a part of the ornamental device. Surrounded by a linear border. Asomtavruli characters ႵႩႬჃႫႦ (K’KNUMZ, standing for the date formula K’oroniKoN UMZ, i.e. 447, which corresponds to 1227, the frozen date) are placed into the right, bottom and left compartments between the ornamental device and the linear border
Rev: name and titles of Rusudan in Arabic in four lines across field surrounded by a beaded or a linear border;

الملكة الملوك والملكات; Queen of Kings and Queens
جلال الدنيا والدين; Glory of the World, Kingdom and Faith
روسدان بنت تامار ظهير المسح; Rusudan, daughter of Tamar, Champion of the Messiah
عزالله انصاره; May God increase [her] victories

The Georgian year is encoded using the "Paschal cycle". This dating system is based on the creation date being March 22, 5604 BC. From this date, they ran through a 532-year cycle. So, Year 1 was March 22, 5604 BC for the 1st cycle. And the 13th cycle's Year 1 was March 22, 781 AD. For years 346 to 532, add 780 to obtain the corresponding year in AD. The year starts off at March 22nd for each AD year. So, 420 + 780 = March 22, 1200 AD. For more information, please see Sweeny...

References:

Langlois, Victor, Numismatique de la Géorgie au Moyen Âge, A. Leleux, 1852
Пахомов, Евгений, Монеты Грузии, Мецниреба, 1970 (Pakhomov, Evgeny, Coins of Georgia, Metsnireba, 1970)
Sweeny, James O., Tempus in Nummis, Volume 1, Numismatics International, 1992
Paghava, Irakli, Georgian Coins in the Collection of the National Museum-Náprstek Museum in Prague, 2013
SpongeBob
The_propylon_of_the_Sanctuary_of_Athena_Nikephoros_from_the_Pergamon_Acropolis,_Pergamon_Museum_Berlin_(8404176285).jpg
Germany, Berlin, The propylon of the Sanctuary of Athena Nikephoros from the Pergamon Acropolis, Pergamon Museum Berlin123 viewsThe monumental gateway, which stood at the northeast corner of the sanctuary, was built by Eumenes II in the early 2nd century BC. The two-storey building, had a porch of four Doric columns (tetrastyle) on the ground floor, above which was a dedicatory inscription by Eumenes to Athena Nikephoros. The upper storey was a balcony with four Ionic columns and fronted by a military frieze depicting armour and weapons. The Sanctuary of Athena Nikephoros, on the southwest corner of the walled citadel on the Acropolis, was one of Pergamon's oldest religious centres, used for the worship of Athena and Nike. The cult of Athena at Pergamon had associations with the city's mythical founder Telephos, the son of Herakles and Auge, who was a priestess of Athena. The Attalid rulers of Pergamon claimed to be descendants of Telephos, and thus of Herakles and Auge.Joe Sermarini
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Geta, Stobi46 viewsStobi mint, Geta, 198-200 A.D. AR,
The only mention that I have found of this coin comes from the British Museum's "Catalogue of Greek Coins. Macedonia, Etc." by Barclay Head (1879) which lists it as:
O: P SEPTI GETA C, Bust of Geta r., wearing cuirass and paludamentum; head bare
R: MVN STOB, Nike advancing l., holding wreath and palm; in field l., crescent
#19 26mm 11.93g
1 commentscasata137ec
constantine_II_ric_184.jpg
GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, Thessalonica, RIC 1844 viewsConstantine II AE3, AD 316-340. 2.21 g. Obv: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C - Laureate bust right, cuirassed. Rev: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two Soldiers standing to the front, their heads turned inward at two standards erect between them, each holds a spear and leans on shield. Exe: SMTSA Thessalonica mint: AD 330-333 = RIC VII, 184, page 524 – British Museum.Podiceps
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Glykon Snake34 viewsStatuette of Glykon Snake, today in Museum of Constanta/Romania. Depicted on many coins from Thrace and Moesia inferior.Jochen
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goddes129 viewsVatican museumsJohny SYSEL
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Gordian III141 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
Lion_of_Amphipolis.jpg
Greece, Amphipolis, Lion of Amphipolis - Via Egnatia, west side of the Strymonas river71 viewsAmphipolis is best known for being a magnificent ancient Greek polis (city), and later a Roman city, whose impressive remains can still be seen. It is famous in history for events such as the battle between the Spartans and Athenians in 422 B.C., and also as the place where Alexander the Great prepared for campaigns leading to his invasion of Asia. Alexander's three finest admirals, Nearchus, Androsthenes and Laomedon, resided in this city and it is also the place where, after Alexander's death, his wife Roxane and their small son Alexander IV were exiled and later murdered. Excavations in and around the city have revealed important buildings, ancient walls and tombs. The finds are displayed at the archaeological museum of Amphipolis. At the nearby vast Kasta burial mound, an important ancient Macedonian tomb has recently been revealed. The unique and beautiful "Lion of Amphipolis" monument nearby is a popular destination for visitors.
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/70/Loewe_von_Amphipolis.jpg
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International
Date 16 June 2018
Author Neptuul
Joe Sermarini
nummuseum.jpg
Greece, Athens - Entrance to the Athens Numismatic Museum730 viewsThe former mansion of noted amateur archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann. What was inside those doors was truly marvelous.1 commentsmemphius
s_House_-_Athens.jpg
Greece, Athens - The Gate of Schliemann's House - Athens237 viewsNot exactly an ancient site but as the home of the Greek Numismatic Museum it houses one of the great collections of ancient coins .... a must see on any visit to Athens.

This is photo is of one of the wrought iron gates of Schliemann’s Athenian mansion constructed in 1878/9. The swastika motif derives from his Trojan excavations and borders a design of winged sphinxes and acanthus leaves capped by an owl with spread wings.
Lloyd T
DSC00767.jpg
Greece, Delphi - The Charioteer of Delphi281 viewsThe life-size statue of a chariot driver was found in 1896 at the Sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi. It is now in the Delphi Archaeological Museum.

The statue was erected at Delphi in 474 BC, to commemorate the victory of a chariot team in the Pythian Games, which were held at Delphi every four years in honor of Pythean Apollo.

The beauty of this work is breathtaking.
1 commentsLloyd T
Charioteer_of_Delphi_resized.JPG
Greece, Delphi - The Charioteer of Delphi213 viewsThe life-size statue of a chariot driver was found in 1896 at the Sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi. It is now in the Delphi Archaeological Museum.

The statue was erected at Delphi in 474 BC, to commemorate the victory of a chariot team in the Pythian Games, which were held at Delphi every four years in honor of Pythean Apollo.
Lloyd T
Head_of_the_Charioteer_of_Delphi_resized.JPG
Greece, Delphi - The Head of the Charioteer of Delphi240 viewsThe life-size statue of a chariot driver was found in 1896 at the Sanctuary of Apollo in Delphi. It is now in the Delphi Archaeological Museum.

The statue was erected at Delphi in 474 BC, to commemorate the victory of a chariot team in the Pythian Games, which were held at Delphi every four years in honor of Pythean Apollo.
Lloyd T
youth.jpg
Greek Youth - British Museum627 viewsGreek statue of a youth with a 'bowl' haircut2 commentsBacchus
10300146.jpg
GREEK, Akarnania, Leukas, AR Stater, circa 400-330 BC. 21.5mm 8.24g 11h134 viewsPegasos flying right with pointed wing mintmark below. Rev helmeted head of Athena right,beared ithyphallic Herm right on three steps, Kerykeion and mintmark behind. Pegasi 102 of Imhoof-Blumer,Akaraniens 26,BCD Akarnaia-HGC 4,823.
ex CNG 103 lot 146 9-14-16,ex Thomas Cederlind, exGorny and Mosch 233 lot 1400 10-16-16,ex Sotheby and co Zurich 4-4-73 lot 385 sold for 300 francs,The Property of The Metropolitan Museum of Art,ex J.Pierpont Morgan 1905,ex John Ward Greek coins and their parent cities 1902, PL.11 465 NNM No 53 1932 pl.10 No 123
1 commentsGrant H
Arachosia_(Quetta)_Hoard_2002_-_181_(this_coin)_~0.jpg
GREEK, Arachosia, ca. 220-200 BC, Lysimachos/Alexander Hybrid Imitative AR Tetradrachm - Coin Hoards X Plate 16, 181 (this coin)147 viewsDiademed head of deified Alexander right, with horn of Ammon.
Barbarized legend …ΛΕΞA... Zeus left seated on a backless throne, eagle in right hand, scepter held in left hand, pellet beneath throne above poorly defined dotted strut, indistinct possible mint control in left field.
Miller East Arachosia Hoard (Quetta Hoard, 2002 (CH 10.275), 181 (this coin) in Hoover, Meadows and Wattenberg Coin Hoards X Plate 16, 181 (this coin); SC p 483-488 Addenda III A Third Century Hoard from Arachosia.
(23 mm, 16.7 g, 6h)
ex- the East Arachosia (Quetta) Hoard 2001 (CH 10.275) buried ca. 206-200 BC.

This is a challenge for all but the cognoscenti. Notwithstanding its superficially shabby appearance, it qualifies as the best of its type because that is what it is, the best of four examples known. To appreciate this it is necessary to understand the background to the coin. This imitative hybrid was unknown to numismatists until 2001 when four examples were discovered in the East Arachosia (Quetta) Hoard in southwestern Pakistan, to date the only known find of the type. Three of the four examples, in lesser condition than this one, Miller (CH 10.275) 180 and 182 & 183 are now in the collection of the ANS as noted by van Alfen in AJN 14 (2002) p. 183-186 & pl. 29, #6, #7 & #8 (ANS 2002 acquisitions #460- #462; accession numbers: 2002.19.3 - 19.5). This fourth specimen is the only example outside of a museum collection.
3 commentsLloyd T
FotorCreated~34.jpg
GREEK, Calabria, Tarentum, AR Stater circa 340-335 BC 23mm 7.87g 1h.Coin World Vol 57 Issue 2952 Page 112-113 The Horsemen of Taras by David Vagi126 viewsNude youth on horseback right,holding rein in left hand,crowning horse with wreath held in right hand,to left.Nike flying right placing fillet on head of youth,AP below.Rev Phalanthos nude riding sideways on dolphin right,head turned slightly left ,spearing cuttlefish below with trident held in right hand.KA monogram to left TAPAE to right,all encircled by waves.
Fischer-Bossert Group 54,717 {V267-R561}Vlasto 501.Good VF lightly toned struck from artistic dies on a broad flan.Very rare issue,only ten examples noted by Fischer-Bossert,four of which are in museums {Berlin{2}Copenhagen,London.
1 commentsGrant H
Seleucid_Kingdom,_Seleukos_I_,_Tetradrachm,_Seleucia_on_Tigris_,_CSE_937_this_coin~0.jpg
GREEK, CSE 937 (this coin); CSE Plate 56, 937 (this coin)102 viewsSeleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312-281 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Seleukeia on the Tigris

Head of Herakles right wearing lion skin headdress.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY Zeus Nikephoros seated left, NO in left field.

SC 119.3(a); HGC 9, 16f; ESM 23 (same dies A27-P79); CSE 937 (this coin); CSE 2, 58 (AHNS 1047).
Seleukeia on the Tigris mint ca. 300-296 BC.

(25 mm, 16.91 g, 12h).
ex-William K. Raymond Collection; ex- Arthur Houghton Collection.

Some time in the last five years of the fourth century BC the mint at Seleukeia on the Tigris opened to issue coinage in the name of Seleukos. Initial issues maintained the Zeus Aëtophoros (eagle) reverse image. However, shortly thereafter, the Zeus Nikephoros (Nike) image was introduced in parallel with the Aëtophoros image. The Nikephoros reverse was a direct allusion to Seleukos victory over Antigonos at Ipsos in 301 BC. This is one of three known examples of SC 119.3(a). The others are ESM 23 in the Danish national collection Copenhagen and CSE 2, 58 (AHNS 1047). Seleucid Coins lists another from the Tricala 1979 hoard (CH IX, 000) in the Athens Numismatic Museum, but this is in fact an example of ESM 24 (Zeus Aëtophoros) that was incorrectly catalogued as ESM 23 by Oeconomides - refer Oeconomides Pl. 66, 109. All noted examples are from the same obverse die. The obverse of this coin is a die match to that of a Zeus Aëtophoros issue with identical NO primary control which is now found in the Berlin collection (ESM 24; Newell Pl V, 4).
n.igma
98000313.jpg
GREEK, Italy, Calabria, Tarentum, AR Nomos, 23mm 7.87g 1h160 viewsNude youth on horseback right holding rein in left hand,Crowning horse with wreath held in right hand .To left Nike flying right placing fillet on head of youth,AP below.Rev Phalanthos nude riding sideways on dolphin right head turned slightly left spearing cuttlefish below with trident held in right hand,Kto left,TAPAE to right,all encircled by waves.This coin was just in the November issues of coin world 2016 page112 by David Vagi.Fisher -Bossert group 54,717 v26-r561 Vlasto 501,HN Italy 886 SNG COP 822 same obv die.Struck from artistic dies on a broad flan and very rare issue only ten examples noted by Fisher Bossert of which four are in museums Berlin 2, Copenhagen, London3 commentsGrant H
saittai_pseudoautonom_BMC23.jpg
GREEK, pseudo-autonomous, Asia minor, Lydia, Saittai, BMC 23123 viewsAE 22, 5.82g, 225°
Struck early 3rd century
obv. AZIO - T - THNOC
bust of Men Aziottenos, r., wearing Phrygian cap ornamented with stars,
crescent behind shoulders
rev. CAITTHNWN
Youthfull river-god Hermos leaning l., holding reed in r. hand and cornucopiae
in l. arm; resting l. ellbow on inverted vase from which water is flowing l.
ERMOC in ex.
ref. BMC 23; SNG von Aulock 3089; Imhoof-Blumer p.127, 1; published in Patricia Lawrence, In Memory of
Eugene Numa Lane, in MVSE, vol. 42, Annual of the Museum of Art and Archeoloy, University of Missouri,
vol. 42, 2008, p. 31, fig. 6
rare, good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com
added to asiaminorcoins.com
The stars on the cap clearly seen on this specimen are not mentioned in BMC nor SNG von Aulock. Pat Lawrence: "A glorious coin!"

Hermos, today Gediz in Turkey.
1 commentsJochen
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Greek, Ravel; Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto - #1099102 viewsTaras, Calabria (Plate Coin)
302 - 281 BC (Period VI)
AR Drachm (16mm, 3.09g, 3h)
Nikokrates, magistrate.
O: Head of Athena right, wearing Attic helmet decorated with Skylla throwing stone.
R: Owl with closed wings standing right on Ionic capital, head facing; [NIKO]KPAT[HΣ] to left, TA to right.
Vlasto 1099 (this coin); HN Italy 1052
From the M.P. Vlasto Collection. ex CNG

“Michel P. Vlasto was born in Athens on the 1st February 1874 and Studied in Marseilles.
… He was a born artist and very good at drawing. His artistic feeling made him a real worshipper of Greek art; everything beautiful charmed him; if he could have done so a museum would have been his home. The real pleasure he felt in admiring a beautiful work of Greek art was so intense that he used to say he could not imagine life without Art and that beauty and Happiness went together. As a result he could not feel happy unless he was surrounded by Beauty. The room where he used to spend most of his leisure was a kind of temple in which a few perfect specimens of Greek art were the idols he worshipped in a real religious way.
… But all these splendid surroundings were only the frame of the world famous collection of Tarentine coins which represented his chief interest in life and really his sole hobby. But he did not limit himself to collecting coins as most collectors do; he was a real self-made scholar; his knowledge of Tarentine numismatic was complete; there was not a single coin in a public or private cabinet which he did not know, and nothing was said or written about Tarentum, its history and its art which escaped him. He published several contributions to numismatics and many of his books are famous.”
~ Oscar E. Ravel (Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto - 1947)
1 commentsEnodia
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Greek, Ravel; Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto - #148977 viewsTaras, Calabria (Plate Coin)
325-280 BC
AR Litra (11mm, 0.64g, 12h)
O: Scallop shell with nine teeth.
R: Dolphin leaping right; small dolphin left above, |-HP(?) below.
Vlasto 1489 (this coin); McGill II, 182; HN Italy 979
From the M.P Vlasto Collection. ex MNS

“The part of the small denominations, which owing to their small size, have always been ignored by the collectors, show such a sequence of small works of art, and so complete, that every museum would be pleased to have it in its cabinet. For many numismatists some of these tiny pieces, will be a real revelation.”
~ Oscar E. Ravel (Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto - 1947)
Enodia
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GREEK, Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312-281 BC, AR Hemidrachm - Babylonia, Uncertain Mint 6A 114 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lion skin.
AΛΕΞANΔPOY Zeus Aetophoros seated left, inverted anchor to left, EP beneath throne.
SC 70.1; HGC 9, 42; Price 3442 (Marathus); Müller 1493; Houghton Group III, Series A, 127.
Issued by Seleukos in the name of Alexander from Babylonia Uncertain Mint 6A, 311-305 BC.
(13 mm, 2.15 g, 7h)

Judge this coin remembering it is a hemidrachm of 13 mm diameter. It does not possess the large palette of a tetradrachm!

This coin is the best of four known examples of this emission and the only one known outside of a museum. It is an obverse die match to an example from the Hersh Collection, now housed in in the British Museum (BM 2002,0101.796). The progression of the die break on Herakles neck indicates that this coin was struck after the Hersh coin.
4 commentsLloyd T
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Greek, Seleukos I Nikator, 312-281 BC, Seleukid Kingdom, Babylon, AR Tetradrachm - urecorded with the anchor normally found in the left field erased from the die202 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lion skin. / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ AΛΕΞANΔPOY Zeus Aetophoros seated left, circled NE monogram in left field, large Π beneath throne; remnant die erased anchor symbol in outer left field.
Price 3347 var. (anchor in left field, attributed to Arados); Houghton Group II, Series H, 69-76 var. (anchor in left field); SC 94.3(c) var. (anchor in left field). Obverse die macth to SC 94.4; SNG Copenhage 670; HGC 9, 10g (C). Babylon II (Native or Satrapal Mint) 311-305 BC. A unique example of the type – undocumented with the erased anchor.
(27 mm, 17.29 g, 5h).

This is the only known example of SC 94.3c that bears a reverse struck from a die on which the anchor that is normally found in the outer left field has been erased. It is the one of two erased anchor issues in the name of Alexander outside of museum collections. The other example SC 94.5 is also to be found in the LT collection. The anchor erasure has not been documented on SC 94.3c, although it is known on three examples of SC 94.4 that bear a ΠAT monogram mint control in the place of the circled NE monogram found on this coin. The obverse of this coin is a die match to an example of SC 94.4, SNG Copenhagen 670, illustrated in Morkholm Plate V, 82. This previously unrecorded example of anchor erasure is further evidence that the erasure was a systematic and deliberate act in the Babylon II mint that appears to have occurred around the time that Seleukos adopted the royal title.
Lloyd T
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Hadrian AE As, RIC II 66446 viewsHadrian 117-138 A.D.
AE As, RIC II 664
Æ As 13.50g. 27mm. 125-128 A.D. Rome Mint
Ob: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS , Laureate and draped bust, r.
Rv: COS III, S C to either side. Minerva advancing r., brandishing javelin and holding shield;

Dark green patina with some earthen encrustation.
Reverse struck from worn die.

Ex Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Scotvs Capitis
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HADRIANVS BRITANNICUS933 viewsSestertius of Hadrian, AD 122. EXERC BRITANNICVS SC ("For the army of Britain, by order of the Senate") RIC 913.
The reverse shows Hadrian addressing the troops in England, standing on a low plinth, clearly showing the Roman soldiers with their standards.
Coin currently in the British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (gallery 49, case 14).
Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS 111 PP ("Hadrian Augustus, three times consul, father of his country")
5 commentsPetitioncrown
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Harpokrates Bronze63 viewsAn ancient Egyptian bronze statuette of the God Harpokrates, shown seated wearing the sidelock of youth, sun-disc and tripartite wig, dating to Egypt's Late Period, approximately 664-323 B.C.E.

Harpokrates is the Greek name for the Egyptian God Horus, depicted in his child form with finger to the mouth - a recognition of the Egyptian "child" hieroglyph. He was the God of the sunrise, and was often depicted as a falcon.

A suspension loop at the back would have enabled the figure to be worn as an amulet.

Height: 3 1/2 inches.

Provenance:
Ex. Collection of C.E.Best (died 1973). Cecil Best was an incredibly colorful character. Educated at Ardingley college in the late 1800's, Best trained as a banker but subsequently worked as a miner, soldier, merchant, editor and singer. He served as syllabus secretary at the Theosophical Society, England, where he met his future wife Inayat Khan, who converted him to the Sufism form of Islam and renamed him Shahbaz. Shahbaz Best, as he was now known, traveled to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil to spread his religion and work as a banker. It was during this time that he met H.E.Inman, a marine engineer, who gifted him his collection of antiquities that he had acquired in lieu of payment from the Egyptian government between 1910-1912. The antiquities were excavated from tombs in lower Egypt and were on display at the Southampton Museum in England after the death of Mr. Best in 1973.

Ex. ArtAncientLtd
Salaethus
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head of Alexander the Great144 viewsVatican museumsJohny SYSEL
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head of Aphrodite109 viewsmuseum on PalatinJohny SYSEL
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Head of Constantinus127 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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head of horse from Selene's chariot from east tympanum of Parthenon115 viewsThe British museum Elgin MarblesJohny SYSEL
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Hercules200 viewsCapitoline museums1 commentsJohny SYSEL
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Hermes Bearing the Infant Dionysos192 viewsHermes bearing the infant Dionysos, made by Praxiteles, around 364 BC. Hellenistic marble copy, now in the Archaeological Museum of Olympia/Greece. Depicted on a coin from Philippopolis.
Jochen
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Hermes with infant Dionysos132 viewsmuseum in OlympiaJohny SYSEL
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Horse Harness Junction Ring89 viewsThis ring links two straps allowing both to swing freely. Examples are known with three or four straps. Circa early- to mid-1st century AD. Parallels are known from the British Museum and the Romisches Museum Germany from Sirmium, Holtern and Vindonissa. Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 70, shows two examples from Rhingonheim and Kempten (UK).1 commentsotlichnik
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Imperial Japan: Anonymous (ca. 14-16th century) AE shima-sen (Hartill-2.6)14 viewsObv: 開元通寶 Kaigen Tsuho
Rev: Blank

References
Munro, Neil G., Coins of Japan, Box of Curios ,1904
Sakuraki et al., Catalogue of the Japanese Coin Collection (pre-Meiji) at the British Museum, Trustees of the British Museum, 2010
SpongeBob
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Isis from the Villa Hadriana94 viewsIsis, marble statue from the Hadrian period, found in the 17th century at the Villa Hadriana near Tivoli. Isis, crowned with small throne (= aset, Egyptian name for Isis), in long garment with Isis knot over her breast, holding situla in lowered l. hand and sistrum in raised r. hand.

The original statue was acquired 1753 for the Capitoline Museums/Rome, 1798 displaced by Napoleon to Paris, 1815 donated by Pope Pius VII to King Louis XVIII, and still in the Louvre/Paris.
Jochen
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Italy, Monza, Serpero Museum, Duomo di Monza.45 viewsIvory diptych of Stilicho, Roman General (magister militum), Patrician and Consul of the Western Roman Empire. The diptych depicts Stilicho, on the right and, on the left, his wife Serena standing with his son, Eucherius.

The Duomo di Monza is the main religious building of Monza. Although known in English as Monza Cathedral, the building is not in fact a cathedral, as Monza is part of the Diocese of Milan. The church is also known as the Basilica of San Giovanni Battista from its dedication to John the Baptist. In the right transept is the entrance to the Serpero Museum which houses the treasury.
*Alex
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Italy, National Museum Naples, Marble bust of Hannibal from Capua85 viewsA marble bust, reputedly of Hannibal, originally found at the ancient city-state of Capua in Italy (some historians are uncertain of the authenticity of the portrait). From Phaidon Verlag (Wien-Leipzig) - "Römische Geschichte", gekürzte Ausgabe (1932). Author died more than 70 years ago - public domain.Joe Sermarini
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Italy, Piombino, Museo Archeologico del Territorio di Populonia168 viewsPart of a coin deposit found in the sea near the beach of Populonia, totally weight 17 kg, now in the museum of Piombino in an aquarium. The hoard consists of Antoninians of the third century.Franz-Josef M
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Italy, Populonia - Content of an etruscian grave 153 viewsIn the museum of Piombino there is a Replica of an grave of the Populonia necropole, with the original content of this grave.Franz-Josef M
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Italy, Populonia - mosaic, nearly total view139 viewsA famous beautiful mosaic with a ship wreck and many different sea animals, fishes, octopus snail etc.; most animals can be identified. Now in the museum of PiombinoFranz-Josef M
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Italy, Populonia - necropole165 views2nd century BC - etruscian necropole, the content of all graves is robbed before the scientist could explore those, except the one at the bottom. the content of this grave could now be seen in the museum of piombino.Franz-Josef M
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Italy, Rome, Capitoline Museums, Capitoline Venus188 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Rome, Capitoline Museums, Diana177 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Rome, Capitoline Museums, Esquiline Venus210 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Rome, Column of Antoninus Pius, Cortile della Pigna, Vatican Museums35 viewsAbove are the four sides of the base of the Column of Antoninus Pius (Columna Antonini Pii) which was erected in the Campus Martius in memory of Antoninus Pius by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus c.A.D.158 on the twentieth anniversary of his reign. Constructed of red granite, the column was 14.75 metres high and 1.90m in diameter, unlike the otherwise similar column of Trajan it had no decorating reliefs. The masons' inscription shows that it was quarried out in A.D.106 and architecturally it belonged to the Ustrinum which was 25m north of it on the same orientation. It was surmounted by a statue of Antoninus Pius. Previous to the 18th century the base was completely buried, but the lower part of the shaft projected about 6m above the ground. In 1703, when some buildings were demolished in the area of Montecitorio, the rest of the column and the base were discovered and excavated. The base still survives and is now housed in the Cortile della Pigna in the Vatican Museums.*Alex
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Italy, Rome, National Museum of Rome, Suicide of a Gaul 169 viewsPallazo Altemps

Roman copy of Hellenistic original 230-220 BC, one of the bronze groups commissioned from Greek sculptors by Pergamon king Attalus I after his recent victories over the Gauls of Galatia.
Johny SYSEL
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Italy, Rome, Unidentified Bust, Museum on Palatine361 viewsMuseum on Palatine2 commentsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Rome, Vatican Museums, Marble busts160 viewsVatican MuseumsJohny SYSEL
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Italy, Sicily, View of Solanto from the ruins of Soluntum (aka Solus, Solous, and Kefra)63 viewsView of Solanto from the ruins of Soluntum (aka Solus, Solous, and Kefra), Sicily

Solus (or Soluntum, near modern Solanto) was an ancient city on the north coast of Sicily, one of the three chief Phoenician settlements on the island, about 16 kilometers (10 miles) east of Panormus (modern Palermo). It lay 183 meters (600 ft) above sea level, on the southeast side of Monte Catalfano 373 meters (1,225 ft), in a naturally strong situation, and commanding a fine view. The date of its founding is unknown. Solus was one of the few colonies that the Phoenicians retained when they withdrew to the northwest corner of the island before the advance of the Greek colonies in Sicily. Together with Panormus and Motya, it allied with the Carthaginians. In 396 B.C. Dionysius took the city but it probably soon broke away again to Carthage and was usually part of their dominions on the island. In 307 B.C. it was given to the soldiers and mercenaries of Agathocles, who had made peace with the Carthage when abandoned by their leader in Africa. During the First Punic War it was still subject to Carthage, and it was not until after the fall of Panormus that Soluntum also opened its gates to the Romans. It continued to under Roman dominion as a municipal town, but apparently one of no great importance, as its name is only slightly and occasionally mentioned by Cicero. But it is still noticed both by Pliny and Ptolemy, as well as at a later period by the Itineraries. Its destruction probably dates from the time of the Saracens.

Excavations have brought to light considerable remains of the ancient town, belonging entirely to the Roman period, and a good deal still remains unexplored. The traces of two ancient roads, paved with large blocks of stone, which led up to the city, may still be followed, and the whole summit of Monte Catalfano is covered with fragments of ancient walls and foundations of buildings. Among these may be traced the remains of two temples, of which some capitals and portions of friezes, have been discovered. An archaic oriental Artemis sitting between a lion and a panther, found here, is in the museum at Palermo, with other antiquities from this site. An inscription, erected by the citizens in honor of Fulvia Plautilla, the wife of Caracalla, was found there in 1857. With the exception of the winding road by which the town was approached on the south, the streets, despite the unevenness of the ground, which in places is so steep that steps have to be introduced, are laid out regularly, running from east to west and from north to south, and intersecting at right angles. They are as a rule paved with slabs of stone. The houses were constructed of rough walling, which was afterwards plastered over; the natural rock is often used for the lower part of the walls. One of the largest of them, with a peristyle, was in 1911, though wrongly, called the gymnasium. Near the top of the town are some cisterns cut in the rock, and at the summit is a larger house than usual, with mosaic pavements and paintings on its walls. Several sepulchres also have been found.

Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soluntum

Photo by Allie Caulfield from Germany.
Joe Sermarini
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Italy, Sorrento, Correale di Terranova Museum - Marble inscription10 viewsA marble inscription from the Correale di Terranova Museum, Sorrento.

From my visit to Sorrento in August 2015
maridvnvm
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Italy, Sorrento, Correale di Terranova Museum - Roman Trophy of Arms13 viewsA marble Trophy of Arms from the Correale di Terranova Museum, Sorrento.

From my visit to Sorrento in August 2015
maridvnvm
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Italy, Sorrento, Correale di Terranova Museum - Roman Trophy of Arms17 viewsA marble Trophy of Arms from the Correale di Terranova Museum, Sorrento.

From my visit to Sorrento in August 2015
maridvnvm
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Italy, Sybaris, Planning assumptions of Sybaris (Lucania)180 viewsPlanning assumptions of Sybaris by Archaeological Museum of Sibaritide (Sibari, Cs, Italy)Taras
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Italy, Thurium, Planning assumptions of Thurium (Lucania)253 viewsPlanning assumptions of Thurium, by Archaeological Museum of Sibaritide (Sibari, Cs, Italy).1 commentsTaras
Italy- Napoli Museum- A medic and his book.jpg
Italy- Napoli Museum- A medic and his book47 viewsJohn Schou
Italy- Napoli Museum- Bronze figures from Pompeii.jpg
Italy- Napoli Museum- Bronze figures from Pompeii53 viewsJohn Schou
Italy- Napoli Museum- Marble figures from Pompeii.jpg
Italy- Napoli Museum- Marble figures from Pompeii47 viewsJohn Schou
Italy- Napoli Museum- Model of Pompeii.jpg
Italy- Napoli Museum- Model of Pompeii53 viewsJohn Schou
Italy- Napoli Museum- Mosaic fontain from Pompeii.jpg
Italy- Napoli Museum- Mosaic fontain from Pompeii50 viewsJohn Schou
Italy- Napoli Museum- Mosaic from Pompeii.jpg
Italy- Napoli Museum- Mosaic from Pompeii52 viewsJohn Schou
Italy- Napoli Museum- Painting from Pompeii.jpg
Italy- Napoli Museum- Painting from Pompeii55 viewsJohn Schou
Italy- Napoli Museum- Sacrofaq and a woman from Pompeii.jpg
Italy- Napoli Museum- Sacrofaq and a woman from Pompeii57 viewsJohn Schou
Italy- Napoli Museum- Small Bronze figures from Pompeii.jpg
Italy- Napoli Museum- Small Bronze figures from Pompeii51 viewsJohn Schou
Italy- Napoli Museum- The famous couple Paquio and wife from Pompeii.jpg
Italy- Napoli Museum- The famous couple Paquio and wife from Pompeii47 viewsPortrait of Paquio and His Wife
Pompeii, Wall Painting, c. A.D. 70

Another relevante contribution to the Naples Museum, and under many aspects a peculiar one, derived from the excavations of the cities buried by the eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A.D. , mainly Herculaneum and Pompeii.

It was a sudden catastrophe which buried the cities under a layer of volcanic material, so that buildings, art works and often also remains of organic material have been miraculously preserved underground much better than on any other archaeological site, where gradual abandonment destruction have deprived us of most documents of its culture.
John Schou
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Italy- Pompeii- Brothel59 viewsSome of the most fascinating clues about the lives of the ancient peoples who made their lives in Pompeii can be found in the numerous brothels in the city. It is an indication of the prosperity of the city -- people had money to burn. Here is one example of the Pompeian "houses of ill repute". I chose this one because of its unusual architecture and fine frescoes.

Ancient Pompeii was full of erotic or pornographic frescoes, symbols, inscriptions, and even household items. The ancient Roman culture of the time was much more sexually permissive than most present-day cultures.

When the serious excavation of Pompeii began in the 18th century, a clash of the cultures was the result. A fresco on a wall that showed the ancient god of sex and fertility, Priapus with his extremely enlarged penis, was covered with plaster and only rediscovered because of rainfall in 1998.[1] In 1819, when king Francis I of Naples visited the exhibition at the National Museum with his wife and daughter, he was so embarrassed by the erotic artwork that he decided to have it locked away in a secret cabinet, accessible only to "people of mature age and respected morals." Re-opened, closed, re-opened again and then closed again for nearly 100 years, it was made briefly accessible again at the end of the 1960s (the time of the sexual revolution) and has finally been re-opened in the year 2000. Minors are not allowed entry to the once secret cabinet without a guardian or a written permission.As previously mentioned, some of the paintings and frescoes became immediately famous because they represented erotic, sometimes explicit, sexual scenes. One of the most curious buildings recovered was in fact a Lupanare (brothel), which had many erotic paintings and graffiti indicating the services available -- patrons only had to point to what they wanted. The Lupanare had 10 rooms (cubicula, 5 per floor), a balcony, and a latrina. It was one of the larger houses, perhaps the largest, but not the only brothel. The town seems to have been oriented to a warm consideration of sensual matters: on a wall of the Basilica (sort of a civil tribunal, thus frequented by many Roman tourists and travelers), an immortal inscription tells the foreigner, If anyone is looking for some tender love in this town, keep in mind that here all the girls are very friendly (loose translation).

The function of these pictures is not yet clear: some authors say that they indicate that the services of prostitutes were available on the upper floor of the house and could perhaps be a sort of advertising, while others prefer the hypothesis that their only purpose was to decorate the walls with joyful scenes (as these were in Roman culture). The Termae were, however, used in common by males and females, although baths in other areas (even within Pompeii) were often segregated by sex.

John Schou
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Italy- Pompeii- Entrance to the house of Fauno39 viewsHOUSE OF THE FAUN (VI,12,2)
With its 3000m² it is the largest house in Pompeii: built over a previous dwelling at the beginning of the 2nd century BC, its current form is the result of subsequent alterations. The entrance on the left leads directly into the public section, the door on the right to the private rooms: an atrium whose roof is supported by four columns, stalls, latrine, baths, kitchen. In the entrance is the Latin message HAVE. The ‘first style’ decoration, the floors of sectile opus, and the mosaic threshold (now at the Naples Museum) highlight the dignity of this house, more similar to the aristocratic Roman domus than local upper class dwellings. In the center of the impluvium is a bronze statue of the ‘faun’ (2nd cent. BC: original in Naples); around it are rooms that held mosaic paintings on the floor and ‘first style’ decorations on the walls. Between the two porticoed gardens is the exedra, the core of the dwelling, with Corinthian columns, stuccoed and painted capitals, a splendid mosaic (now at the N
aples Museum) depicting the victory of Alexander the Great over Darius, King of Persia, which has helped to suggest a connection between the Macedonian ruler and the unknown, educated, and wealthy owner of the
FLOOR PLAN OF THE HOUSE OF THE FAUN Pompeii 2nd Century Courtesy of Professor Barbette Spaeth, Tulane University (Excerpted from Professor Spaeth's accompanying text) This house was among the largest and most elegant of the houses of Pompeii. It took up an entire city block (c. 80 m. long by 35 m. wide or 315 by 115 ft.) and was filled with beautiful works of art, including the famous mosaic depicting Alexander the Great at the Battle of Issus, and wall paintings of the First, Second and Fourth Styles. The decoration of the house is heavily influenced by Hellenistic models. The House of the Faun was originally built in the early second century. In this period, the house was focused around two atria, one a large Tuscan atrium (3), and the other a smaller tetrastyle atrium (10), while the back of the house had a large kitchen garden. The two-atria plan represented an attempt to separate the formal functions of the atrium, i.e., the reception of clients and conduct of business by the patron of the house, from its private functions, i.e., the course of everyday family life. This type of plan is an intermediate step between the simple atrium house, with a single atrium complex, and the atrium and peristyle house. Apparently, the two-atria plan did not prove ultimately satisfactory for the owners of the House of the Faun. In the late second century B.C. they added a peristyle (8) to the north of the original two-atria nucleus, along with a service quarter to the eastern side (12-16), and reception rooms to the north. The rear of the house contained the kitchen garden. To this later period of the house belong its wall decorations in First Style and its famous mosaics. Finally, another peristyle was added around the time of the Early Roman Colony (20), that is, in the early first century B.C. This peristyle included more reception rooms along the south side (17 & 18), and smaller rooms, perhaps for servants, to the north (22) . The center of the new peristyle was occupied by the kitchen garden (19). With these renovations, the house acquired a new focus around the peristyles. The peristyles represented a private retreat for the family, a place where they could relax and entertain special guests. The front part of the house was kept for more formal occasions. The addition of service quarters reflects a further differentiation of function in the house, again separating the daily life of the family from the more public reception areas. The House of the Faun, with its elaborate decoration and extensive plan, represents one of the most important examples of Roman domus architecture of the second to first century B.C.
John Schou
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Italy- Pompeii- The big theatre and the Gladiator school in the background42 viewsThe big theatre
Built in the 2nd century BC, this theatre takes advantage of the natural slope of the land to create the tiers of seats (cavea), in a horseshoe shape divided into three zones, of which the lower (ima cavea), covered with marble, was reserved for the decurions and important citizens. The ring corridor supporting the upper tiers, and the 'balconies' above the side entrances, were added during the Augustan period: thus the theatre could hold approximately 5,000 spectators. The stage and opus latericium backdrop decorated with marbles and statues date from the restoration in 62 AD, after the earthquake. The works performed here quite likely included the Atellanae (popular farces in the Oscan language), the plays of Plautus and Terentius, mimes and pantomimes (with dancing and music).


Gladiators Barracks in the background.
This building was originally a meeting-place for spectators who went to the Great Theatre.
In Neros time it was converted to quarters for the gladiators who used to live there with their
families and used it to practice gladiatorial contests. The family living areas were spread over two floors.
Many fascinating weapons were discovered here and are on display in the Archeological Museum
John Schou
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Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino34 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
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Italy- Rome- Largo (di Torre) Argentina47 viewsLargo di Torre Argentina is a square in Rome that hosts four Republican Roman temples, and the reminings of Pompey's Theater. It is located in the ancient Campus Martius.

Common knowledge refers the name of the square to a Torre Argentina, which is not related to the South American country, but to the city of Strasbourg, whose original name was Argentoratum. In 1503, in fact, John Burckhardt from Strasbourg built in via del Sudario a palace (now at number 44), Casa del Bucardo, annexing a tower, called Torre Argentoratina from the name of his hometown.

After Italian unification, it was decided to reconstruct part of Rome (1909), demolishing the zone of Torre Argentina, where the remainings of a medieval tower, Torre Papito or Torre Boccamazzi, and of one temple were to be included in the new buildings. During the works (1927), however, the colossal head and arms of a marble statue were discovered. The archeological investigation brought to light the presence of a holy area, dating to the Republican era, with four temples and part of Pompey's Theater.

The buildings
The four temples, designated today by the letters A, B, C, and D, front onto a paved street, which was reconstructed in the imperial era, after 80 AD fire.

Temple A was built in the 3rd century BC, and is probably the Temple of Juturna built by Gaius Lutatius Catulus after his victory against Carthaginians in 241 BC. It was later rebuilt into a church, whoes aprses are still present.

Temple B, a circular temple with six columns remaining, was built by Quintus Lutatius Catulus in 101 BC to celebrate his victory over Cimbri; it was Aedes Fortunae Huiusce Diei, a temple devoted to the Luck of the Current Day. The colossal statue found during excavations and now kept in the Capitoline Museums was the statue of the goddess herself. Only the head, the arms, and the legs were of marble: the other parts, covered by the dress, were of bronze.

Temple C is the most ancient of the three, dating back to 4th or 3rd century BC, and was probably devoted to Feronia the ancient Italic goddess of fertility. After the fire of 80 AD, this temple was restored, and the white and black mosaic of the inner temple cell dates back to this restoration.

Temple D is the largest of the four, dates back to 2nd century BC with Late Republican restorations, and was devoted to Lares Permarini, but only a small part of it has been excavated (a street covers the most of it).

Teatro Argentina is a 18th century theater, where Gioachino Rossini's The Barber of Seville debuted in 1816, as well as Giuseppe Verdi's I due Foscari (1844) and La battaglia di Legnano (1849).

Located in the Largo Argentina is the Torre Argentina Cat Sanctuary, a no-kill shelter for homeless cats (of which Rome has many). The presence of the shelter proves to be a point of interest for both tourists and locals, as the historical area abounds with various breeds of cat, cavorting and lounging about on the ancient (and semi-ancient) ruins.
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great71 viewsArch of Constantine
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312 AD. Dedicated in 315 AD, it is the latest of the extant triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

General Description
The arch is 21 m high, 25.7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. The lower part of the monument is built of marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork revetted with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum. It has been suggested that the lower part of the arch is re-used from an older monument, probably from the times of the emperor Hadrian (Conforto et al., 2001; for a defence of the view that the whole arch was constructed in the 4th century, see Pensabene & Panella). The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill; immediately after the Arch of Constantine, the procession would turn left and march along the Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and on to the Capitoline Hill, passing both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus. During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.

Decoration
The decoration of the arch heavily uses parts of older monuments, which are given a new meaning in the context of the Constantinian building. As it celebrates the victory of Constantine, the new "historic" friezes illustrating his campaign in Italy convey the central meaning: the praise of the emperor, both in battle and in his civilian duties. The other imagery supports this purpose: decoration taken from the "golden times" of the Empire under Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius places Constantine next to these "good emperors", and the content of the pieces evokes images of the victorious and pious ruler. Another explanation given for the re-use is the short time between the start of construction (late 312 at the earliest) and the dedication (summer 315), so the architects used existing artwork to make up for the lack of time to create new one. As yet another possible reason, it has often been suggested that the Romans of the 4th century lacked the artistic skill to produce acceptable artwork and therefore plundered the ancient buildings to adorn their contemporary monuments. This interpretation has become less prominent in more recent times, as the art of Late Antiquity has been appreciated in its own right. It is, of course, possible that a combination of two or all three of those explanations are correct, as they are not mutually exclusive.

Attic
Above the middle archway, the main inscription (see below) takes the most prominent place of the attic. It is identical on both sides of the arch. Flanking the inscription on both sides, there are pairs of relief panels above the minor archways, 8 in total. They were taken from an unknown monument erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius, and show (north side, left to right) the emperor's return to Rome after the campaign (adventus), the emperor leaving the city and saluted by a personification of the Via Flaminia, the emperor distributing money among the people (largitio), the emperor interrogating a German prisoner, (south side, left to right) a captured enemy chieftain led before the emperor, a similar scene with other prisoners, the emperor speaking to the troops (adlocutio), and the emperor sacrificing pig, sheep and bull. Together with three panels now in the Capitoline Museum, the reliefs were probably taken from a triumphal monument commemorating Marcus Aurelius' war against the Sarmatians from 169 - 175, which ended with his triumphant return in 176. On the largitio panel, the figure of Marcus Aurelius' son Commodus has been eradicated after the latter's damnatio memoriae. On top of each of the columns stand marble statues of Dacian prisoners from the times of Trajan, probably taken from the Forum of Trajan. From the same time date the two large (3 m high) panels decorating the attic on the small sides of the arch, showing scenes from the emperor's Dacian Wars. Together with the two reliefs on the inside of the central archway, they came from a large frieze celebrating the Dacian victory. The original place of this frieze was either the Forum of Trajan, as well, or the barracks of the emperor's horse guard on the Caelius.

Main Section
The general layout of the main facade is identical on both sides of the arch. It is divided by four columns of Corinthian order made of Numidian yellow marble (giallo antico), one of which has been transferred into the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano and was replaced by a white marble column. The columns stand on bases showing victory figures on front, and captured barbarians and Roman soldiers on the sides. The spandrels of the main archway are decorated with reliefs depicting victory figures with trophies, those of the smaller archways show river gods. Column bases and spandrel reliefs are from the times of Constantine. Above each lateral archway are pairs of round reliefs dated to the times of emperor Hadrian. They display scenes of hunting and sacrificing: (north side, left to right) hunt of a boar, sacrifice to Apollo, hunt of a lion, sacrifice to Hercules, (south side, left to right) departure for the hunt, sacrifice to Silvanus, hunt of a bear, sacrifice to Diana. The head of the emperor (originally Hadrian) has been reworked in all medaillons: on the north side, into Constantine in the hunting scenes and into Licinius or Constantius I in the sacrifice scenes; on the south side, vice versa. The reliefs, c. 2 m in diameter, were framed in porphyry; this framing is only extant on the right side of the northern facade. Similar medaillons, this time of Constantinian origin, are placed on the small sides of the arch; on the eastern side, showing the Sun rising, and on the western side, the Moon, both on chariots. The main piece from the time of Constantine is the "historical" relief frieze running around the monument under the round panels, one strip above each lateral archway and at the small sides of the arch. These reliefs depict scenes from the Italian campaign of Constantine against Maxentius which was the reason for the construction of the monument. The frieze starts at the western side with the "Departure from Milan". It continues on the southern, "outward" looking face, with the siege of a city, probably Verona, which was of great importance to the war in Northern Italy; also on that face, the Battle of Milvian Bridge with Constantine's army victorious and the enemy drowning in the river Tiber. On the eastern side, Constantine and his army enter Rome; the artist here has avoided to use the imagery of the triumph, as Constantine probably did not want to be shown triumphant over the Eternal City. On the northern face, looking "towards" the city, two strips with the emperor's actions after taking possession of Rome: Constantine speaking to the citizens on the Forum Romanum, and distributing money to the people.

Inner Sides of the Archways
In the central archway, there is one of the large panels of Trajan's Dacian War on either wall. Inside the lateral archways, eight portraits busts (two on each wall), destroyed to such an extent that it is not possible to identify them any more.

Inscriptions
The main inscription reads:

IMP · CAES · FL · CONSTANTINO · MAXIMO · P · F · AVGUSTO · S · P · Q · R · QVOD · INSTINCTV · DIVINITATIS · MENTIS · MAGNITVDINE · CVM · EXERCITV · SVO · TAM · DE · TYRANNO · QVAM · DE · OMNI · EIVS · FACTIONE · VNO · TEMPORE · IVSTIS · REM-PUBLICAM · VLTVS · EST · ARMIS · ARCVM · TRIVMPHIS · INSIGNEM · DICAVIT

Which means in English:

To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he, inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs.

The words instinctu divinitatis ("inspired by the divine") have been much commented. They are usually read as sign of Constantine's shifting religious affiliation: The Christian tradition, most notably Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, relate the story of a vision of the Christian god to Constantine during the campaign, and that he was victorious in the sign of the cross at the Milvian Bridge. The official documents (esp. coins) still prominently display the Sun God until 324 AD, while Constantine started to support the Christian church from 312 on. In this situation, the vague wording of the inscription can be seen as the attempt to please all possible readers, being deliberately ambiguous, and acceptable to both pagans and Christians. As was customary, the vanquished enemy is not mentioned by name, but only referred to as "the tyrant", drawing on the notion of the rightful killing of a tyrannical ruler; together with the image of the "just war", it serves as justification of Constantine's civil war against his co-emperor Maxentius.

Two short inscriptions on the inside of the central archway transport a similar message: Constantine came not as conqueror, but freed Rome from occupation:

LIBERATORI VRBIS (liberator of the city) - FUNDATORI QVIETIS (founder of peace)

Over each of the small archways, inscriptions read:

VOTIS X - VOTIS XX SIC X - SIC XX

They give a hint on the date of the arch: "Solemn vows for the 10th anniversary - for the 20th anniversary" and "as for the 10th, so for the 20th anniversary". Both refer to Constantine's decennalia, i.e. the 10th anniversary of his reign (counted from 306), which he celebrated in Rome in the summer of 315 AD. It can be assumed that the arch honouring his victory was inaugurated during his stay in the city.




John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Mausoleum  of Hadrian.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Mausoleum of Hadrian33 views- Castel St.Angelo
(Hadrian's Mausoleum) -
This building has had a checkered history. Originally a dynastic tomb, it was converted into a fortress, then became a noble dwelling and finally a papal residence; between times it served as a barracks, a prison and a museum.
Hadrian (117-38 AD) built a tomb in Domizia's gardens that was to become the dynastic sepulcher of the Antonines. Work started in 123 but was only completed in 139, after's death. The Pons Aelius (the predecessor of the Ponte Sant'Angelo 239), inaugurated in 134, linked the monument to the Campo Marzio.

The Sepulchral Chamber. The present entrance (which is about 10 feet above the level of the ancient one) leads via a short corridor to a square hall. The semicircular niche hollowed out in the back wall was probably intended to contain a statue of Hadrian. On the right is a spiral ramp leading to the cella (mortuary chamber), the heart of the monument. In this square room, which was originally faced with marble, the funerary urns of Emperor Hadrian and his wife, sabina.

Sant'Angelo was Rome's most important fortified area, anyone who held it had virtually the whole town at his mercy. Consequently, its history reflected the city's turbulent internal conflicts. Between the 10th and 11th centuries it passed into the hands of the most powerful noble families before suffering a massive attack by the Roman people, who made up their minds to demolish it in 1379.

Fortifications and Modifications. Under Nicholas III the castle became papal property. Most of the alterations to the building carried out between the pontificates of Nicholas V (1447-55) and Urban VII (1623-44) had a military purpose. Access to the subterranean galleries was blocked, two towers were built at the entrance and four bastions at the corners, a moat was dug, pentagonal ramparts were erected with five small forts (today no longer standing) and, finally the Corridoio or Passetto, the fortified passageway linking St Peter's to the castle, was strengthened
John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino27 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores26 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn36 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum24 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
ChristPantocratorStCatherines.jpg
Jesus Christ, Pantocrator45 viewsThe iconic image of Christ Pantocrator (Christ, Ruler of All) was one of the first images of Christ developed in the Early Christian Church and remains a central icon of the Eastern Orthodox Church. In the half-length image, Christ holds the New Testament in his left hand and blesses with his right.

The oldest known surviving example of the icon of Christ Pantocrator was painted in encaustic on panel in the sixth or seventh century, and survived the period of destruction of images during the Iconoclastic Disputes that racked the Eastern church, 726 A.D. to 815 A.D. and 813 A.D. to 843A.D., by being preserved in the remote desert of the Sinai, in Saint Catherine's Monastery. The gessoed panel, finely painted using a wax medium on a wooden panel, had been coarsely overpainted around the face and hands at some time around the thirteenth century. It was only when the overpainting was cleaned in 1962 that the ancient image was revealed to be a very high quality icon, probably produced in Constantinople (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Pantocrator).

The Christ Pantocrator Icon at St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai

In 544 AD, a cloth bearing an image of Jesus was discovered hidden above a gate in Edessa's city walls. Six years later, an icon was produced at St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai.
(See: http://www.shroudofturin4journalists.com/history.htm)

There are startling similarities between the icon and the image we see on the Shroud of Turin. There are, perhaps, too many similarities for it to be a mere coincidence.

The general placement of facial features including eyes, nose and mouth. In fact, when a transparency of the Shroud face is superimposed over the icon, there are no significant variations.

The hair on the left side (your right) falls on the shoulder and swoops outward. The hair on the other side is shorter.

The eyes are very large.

The nose is particularly thin and long. The face is gaunt.

There is a gap in the beard below a concentration of facial hair that is just below the lower lip.

The neck is particularly long.

It is particularly interesting to note that starting about this time a dramatic change took place in the way Jesus was portrayed on coins, icons, frescoes and mosaics. Before this time, Jesus was usually portrayed in storybook settings such as a young shepherd or modeled after the Greek Apollo.

After the discovery of the Edessa Cloth, images of Jesus were suddenly full-frontal facial images.

The story of the Shroud of Turin is fascinating. It began, for me, ironically when I thought the "story" had finally been laid to rest. Carbon 14 dating conducted in 1988 had just proved that the Shroud was medieval. Along with most, I accepted these results--the fact that two of my former Alma Maters (The University of Arizona and Oxford University) were involved in the testing lent a comfortable sense of closure (to give them their due, scientists from the Institut für Mittelenergiephysik in Zurich, Columbia University, and the British Museum were also involved in the tests). I was re-engaged by the Shroud story in 2005 when an article in the scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal Thermochimica Acta by an equally eminent scientist, Raymond N. Rogers, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, subverted the 1988 tests. Very briefly, the sample cut from the Shroud in 1988 was shown not to be valid. In fact, the article noted, the Shroud was much older than the carbon 14 tests suggested. Curiouser and curiouser. . . and I'll leave the story at this juncture. If you are interested, see the following site:
http://www.shroudofturin4journalists.com/pantocrator.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
IMG_2095.JPG
Julia Domna142 viewsVatican museums
Johny SYSEL
Domna_RSC251a.jpg
Julia Domna (wife of Septimius Severus, mother of Caracalla and Geta), 193–217 CE75 viewsAR Denarius, Rome mint, 211 CE, 3.30g. BM 33a (p. 435), RIC-, RSC 251a (C.L. Clay and Vienna). Obv: IVLIA PIA - FELIX AVG; draped bust right. Rx: VOTA PVBLICA; Pietas (Julia?) standing left, dropping incense on lighted altar and holding open box.

Notes: Rare; none in Reka Devnia. A specimen was purchased by the British Museum in 1973; another in the G.R. Arnold Collection sold in the Glendining sale (21 November 1984), lot 113 (a pair of denarii), pl. V (this type illustrated); hammer price for the lot £120.
2 commentsMichael K5
brutus_EID_MAR_denar.jpg
JUNIA 52 - BRUTUS EID MAR denarius (replica)280 viewsobv: BRVT IMP L PLAET CEST (bare head of Brutus right)
rev: EID MAR (liberty cap and two daggers)
ref: RSC 15, Syd 1301, Cr502/4, Albert1617
3.53gms, 18mm
replica

This coin commemorates the most important single day event in ancient history. With this famous reverse type Brutus commemorates his assassination of Julius Caesar on the notorious Ides of March, 44 BC, and claims that the deed was done to secure liberty for the Roman people (the liberty cap).
Somewhat more than 50 of these remarkable coins exist. The fact that a lot of people would like to own one, along with the additional fact that most of these coins are in museums, has created the justifiable price structure that exists today.
berserker
EanredHvaetred1.jpg
King Eanred, Northumbria44 viewsThis coin is likely a counterfeit/reproduction of a genuine Eanred Base-Styca of c. 810AD. It is currently undergoing XRF analysis to determine this. The weight is suspicious at 1.85g though the coin itself, if fake, is dangerously good.

Given that Tony Abramson, an acknowledged specialist has given his initial opinion that it might be genuine from the photo, I sent it to him for a look in the hand.

Discussion with Tony here:

'Dear Alex,
The weight is a real concern but it's difficult to tell just from the photograph - there may be some casting bubbles on the surface. I attach the Museum Reproduction Limited's no. 382 which differs from your coin. Also your's doesn't appear to be dished, so isn't a new Ashmore. I would recommend that you have the coin analysed by XRF or similar to detemine the amount of silver and confirm the presence of trace elements - tin and zinc. This could be done as Sheffield Assay office or at most universities. The leading authority is Peter Northover at Oxford. I can put you in touch.
Regards,
Tony Abramson'

So off it went to Oxford. After XRF analysis at Oxford by Peter Northover, he stated the following, almost as a footnote having discussed at length two doubtful 'Vanimundas Thrymsa':

'The Eanred coin has a composition that matches other early 9th century silver coins in England and is probably OK, although it is a very crisp example.

Regards,
Peter

--
Dr Peter Northover,
BegbrokeNano - OMCS
Tel: +44 1865 283721; Fax +44 1865 848790
Mob: +44 7785 501745
e-mail; peter.northover@materials.ox.ac.uk'


Further notes added from research email to Tony Abramson:

Just done some basic research on my coin via the EMC. There are 600+ coins of Eanred on there so this really was a quick scan through. Results:

These coins are quite heavy, certainly over the 1.35g you'd 'expect'. In one case, a coin is 2.25g!:

1001.0270
1001.0295
1024.0250
1036.0035
1042.2430

These coins are the same style as mine but no weight recorded:

2001.0274
2001.0270
2001.0600
2001.0601

These are the same as Pirie 2000, P.66 no.146 and 147 in 2 of the cases. Find spots include Sherburn, Wharrem-Le-Street, Staxton, all in Yorkshire on A64, the old Roman road from York to Scarborough. The legend for EANRED is however retrograde on all these coins, but not on mine.

Stewart Lyon and Tony correspondance:

On 08/01/2012 23:56:
Dear Tony,

I just don't believe that a coin weighing 1.8g and having a diameter of close to 15 mm can be a genuine styca of Eanred's reign. It cannot have been difficult to forge styca dies in the 18th or 19th century (though who would want to do it today?) since the designs are simple and the lettering often straightforward, as on Hwaetred's coins. If Peter Northover finds that the trace elements in the silver are consistent with 9th century silver we may have to wonder how this came about, but it would take a lot of persuasion to make me change my opinion that it is false.

Kind regards,
Stewart

Biarnred May 2017 - Updating thoughts - no new news here but to summarise, I am happy to sit this one out. On the one hand I may have identified a fake/reproduction on the market, and this serves as a warning to others. On the otherhand, with its composition and accurate style, just maybe this coin is genuine and represents a coinage now long forgotten, at a higher weight. I suspect that this coin is of relatively modern construction - perhaps some old Stycas (they are common) have been melted down and new dies used to produce this. Further the patination looks false to me, which would back up the age claim. Why? Well you can pick up Stycas virtually for free, and if you have the ability it would be an easy way to make some cash. Saying that, why aren't there more of these? Maybe a short-term venture.
AlexB
Macedonian_Kingdom,_Tarsos,_Alexander_III_Tetradrachm_.jpg
Kings of Macedon, Alexander III The Great, 336-323 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Tarsos 32 viewsHead of young Herakles right in lion skin headdress, paws tied at neck.
ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, pellet under throne. ΔI monogram graffiti before head of Zeus.

Price 2993; Newell Tarsos 3 (Newell’s Officina A, dies IX/25) pl. II, 2 (same dies); Muller 1291.
Tarsos mint 333/2 BC.

(26 mm, 17.18 g, 11h).

ex- Gorny & Mosch.

Newell catalogued forty examples of this type from six obverse and thirty reverse dies indicating a far more prolific issuance than the inaugural Tarsos 1 emission to which it is die linked by five examples struck with Tarsos obverse die III. All of the specimens of Tarsos 3 catalogued by Newell originated in the Demanhur Hoard. Price did not catalog any additional specimens to those noted by Newell in the British Museum Collection, which holds five specimens from the Newell Collection.
2 commentsn.igma
Korinthos.jpg
Korinthos - AR drachm92 views350-300 BC
Pegasus left
qoppa
head of Aphrodite or nymph Peirene left
K
SNG Vol: III 2129 Lockett Collection (2,28g)
SNG Vol: VIII 879 Blackburn Museum
SNG Cop - (cf 148), BMC - (cf 366), BCD - (cf 179)
1,83g 16-14mm

A very rare variant with only K in left field and no additional letter or monogramm in right field.
Typical weight for this type is around 2,5 g.

ex Divus Numismatik
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Papius.jpg
L. Papius - AR serratus denarius7 views²Sardinia
¹Rome
²78 BC
¹79 BC
head of Juno Sospita right waering goat skin; bucket behind
Gryphon springing right; jug below
L.PAPI
¹Crawford 384/1 (symbol 11); Sydenham 773; Papia 1; British museum 1902,0206.106
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Solidus

Gens Papia was Samnite origin and family came from Lanuvium.
Johny SYSEL
roscius_fabatus_Crawford412.1.jpg
L. Roscius Fabatus, Crawford 412/168 viewsRoman Republic, L. Roscius Fabatus, gens Roscia
AR - denarius serratus, 18.10mm, 3.8g
Rome, 59 BC*
obv. bust of Juno Sospita wearing goat-skin cap, r., behind modius
beneath L.ROSCI
bankers mark in r. field
rev. Virgin in long clothes stg. r., feeding snake, which erects before her in several
coils, behind cista
in ex. FABATI
Crawford 412/1 (symbols 23); Sydenham 915; Roscia 3; Albert 1329
scarce, toned VF, appealing silver
Pedigree:
ex Harlan J. Berk

* Dated 64 B.C. by Crawford and hence also by Roman Silver Coins , Volume I. The revised date is based on the outstanding analysis of the Messagne Horad by Alan Walker and Charles Hersh, ANS Museum Notes No. 29, New York, 1984, pp. 103-134

For more information look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'.
Jochen
L_Thorius_Balbus.jpg
L. Thorius Balbus - AR denarius9 viewsRome
²102 BC
¹105 BC
head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin headdress
I·S·M·R (Ivno Seispes Mater Regina)
bull charging right
B
L·THORIVS
BALBVS
¹Crawford 316/1, SRCV I 192, Sydenham 598, RSC I Thoria 1 British Museum: R.7899
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Aurea auctions

Juno Sospita (=Savior) was goddes of fertility and protector of women. She was main deity in Lanuvium.
Bull - Taurus - is pun for moneyer's name Thorius.
Moneyer served as legate under Q. Caecilius Metellus in Spain 79 BC. Cicero wrote that he had lived as there was no pleasure in life.
Johny SYSEL
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Lunula Equestrian Harness Hanger 1st century AD.80 viewsA similar design is found in the Romisches Museum in Germany. These hung from the leather harness straps on Roman horses.otlichnik
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Lycian League, Rhodiapolis 7 viewsLycian League Rhodiapolis After 168 BC. AR Drachm (2.89 gm). Rare mint.. Laureate head of Apollo r., bow and quiver over shoulder / Kithara (lyre), P-O across fields, fillet to l., all within incuse square.  EF.   CNG 51 #479. SNG Cop. 132 (same obv. die); BMC 1 (same); Troxell, Lycian 40 (18 known, most in museums); Weber 7301 (same). cf. CNG EA 265 #163 Christian T
LydiaHypaepaHeraclesNike1_(exNicolasLouis).jpg
Lydia, Hypaepa. Pseudo-autonomous issue, time of the Antonines.30 viewsLydia, Hypaepa. Pseudo-autonomous issue, time of the Antonines (AD 138–192). Æ 19.33mm, 3.82 g, 6h.
Obverse: Bearded bust of Heracles right with club over left shoulder, seen behind neck.
Reverse: [V]Π[Α]ΙΠ – ΗΝ[Ω]Ν, Nike walking left, holding wreath in right hand with arm outstretched, and palm branch in left hand/arm.
References: RPC IV Online (temporary №) 3318; SNG Turkey 7 (Ödemiş Museum), 275; Altinoluk T9B.
Ex Nicolas Louis, 11-17-2014.
Mark Fox
LydiaHypaepaAthenaHerm1_(exSavoca).jpg
Lydia, Hypaepa. Pseudo-autonomous issue, time of Trajan. Unpublished. One of four known. 20 viewsLydia, Hypaepa. Pseudo-autonomous issue, time of Trajan (AD 98–117). Æ 17.25mm; 3.21 g; 6h.
Obverse: ΥΠΑΙΠΗΝΩΝ,draped bust of Athena right, wearing Corinthian helmet and aegis.
Reverse: ЄΠΙ [ΛΟ]ΥΚΙΟΥ, herm of Heracles right on low base, holding apple(?) in right hand and club in left.
References: To be published in RPC III. See the die-identical specimen in Harvard Art Museums: http://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/27566.
Ex Savoca Numismatik (eBay), 9-27-2014.
Mark Fox
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Lydia, Saittai, pseudo-autonomous, BMC 2397 viewsAE 22, 5.82g, 225°
Struck early 3rd century
obv. AZIO - T - THNOC
bust of Men Aziottenos, r., wearing Phrygian cap ornamented with stars,
crescent behind shoulders
rev. CAITTHNWN
Youthfull river-god Hermos leaning l., holding reed in r. hand and cornucopiae
in l. arm; resting l. ellbow on inverted vase from which water is flowing l.
ERMOC in ex.
ref. BMC 23; SNG von Aulock 3089; Imhoof-Blumer p.127, 1; Patricia Lawrence, In Memory of Eugene Numa Lane, in
MVSE, vol..42, Annual of the Museum of Art and Archeoloy, University of Missouri, vol. 42, 2008, p. 31, fig. 6
rare, good VF
added to www.wildwinds.com

The stars on the cap clearly seen on this specimen are not mentioned in BMC nor SNG von Aulock. Pat Lawrence: "A glorious coin!"

Hermos, today Gediz in Turkey.
3 commentsJochen
Trajan_37.jpg
M161 viewsTrajan AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC II, 128, Rome
Date: AD 103-111
Obverse: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate head r.,
slight drapery on l. shoulder
Reverse: COS V P P S P Q R OPTIMO PRINC, Victory stg. l., half draped,
wreath in r. hand, palm in l.
Size: 18 mm
Weight: 3.50 grams
(Image of Trajan courtesy of Pat Lawrence: British Museum, London)

“His association with the people was marked by affability and his intercourse with the senate by dignity, so that he was loved by all and dreaded by none save the enemy.” - Cassius Dio Roman History LXVIII.15

Pliny’s Panegyric provides evidence that Trajan had senatorial approval. Due to his prowess as a conqueror, the legions also extended their support to the popular emperor. The reverse of this coin is fitting for Trajan. His campaigns against Dacia are perhaps the highlight of his entire reign; so much so, that the senate erected Trajan’s column to commemorate the victory. This impressive stone column (100 ft. high) contains a spiral frieze retelling the glorious Dacian campaign against the “barbarian” ruler Decebalus. Trajan overcame several obstacles, but achieved success through the capture of Sarmizegethusa where the Dacian royal house was plundered. Decebalus escaped, but was pursued relentlessly. He eventually committed suicide rather than risk capture by the “ruthless" Romans. His severed head was recovered and exhibited on the steps leading up to the Capitol in Rome. Upon Trajan’s death in AD 117, a precedent was set which all rulers following him would be measured against.
9 commentsNoah
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Marcus Aurelius159 viewsCapitoline museums

this statue survived because in Christian times Romans thought it's statue of Constantine I.
Johny SYSEL
Marcus_Aurelius.jpg
Marcus Aurelius Equestrian statue162 viewsThis is the copy of the Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius on the Capitoline hill. The original is in the Capitoline Museum, this replica sits outside. It is said to have survived because it was mistakenly believed to be of Constantine the Great. Picture taken September 2008.2 commentsJay GT4
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Maxentius20 viewsAE Follis
Obv: IMP C MAXENTIVS PF AVG; laur. hd. r.
Rev: VICTOR IA AVGN / REP ; Victory walking left

RIC Rome 272 (Scarce). Officina P is cited from the British Museum.

Scarce
Tanit
Maximinus_II_RIC_VI_75b.JPG
Maximinus II, 309 - 313 AD31 viewsObv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG, laureate head of Maximinus II facing right.

Rev: HERCVLI VICTORI, Hercules standing right, leaning on club, holding lion-skin, eight-pointed star and Γ in left field; SMN in exergue.

Note: Hercules is depicted in the same pose as the Farnese Hercules, a massive marble sculpture, which depicts a muscular yet weary Hercules leaning on his club, which has his lion-skin draped over it. He has just performed the last of The Twelve Labors, which is suggested by the apples of the Hesperides he holds behind his back. The Farnese Hercules is probably an enlarged copy made in the early third century A.D., signed by Glykon, from an original by Lysippos that would have been made in the fourth century B.C. The copy was made for the Baths of Caracalla in Rome (dedicated in 216 A.D.), where it was recovered in 1546. Today it is in Naples National Archaeological Museum. The statue was well-liked by the Romans, and copies have been found in many Roman palaces and gymnasiums. It is one of the most famous sculptures of antiquity, and has fixed the image of the mythic hero in the human imagination. ~Credit: Forvm

Billon Follis, Nicomedia mint, 312 AD

3.6 grams, 21 mm, 180°

RIC VI 75b, S14860
1 commentsSPQR Coins
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Maximinus Thrax116 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
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Maya Jar with rabbit head14 viewsJar of the Guarumal-Texis type from El Salvador, late classic period, ca. 600 to 900 AD. Height 21cm, widest diameter 19cm. Jar with globular body and neck with large flared rim. Large central panel bordered by two vertical ridges. In the centre of the panel, a rabbit head with paws at both sides of its mouth. Dark red-orange paint was applied over the tan slip covering part of the jar and leaving other parts unpainted to form a decorative pattern with the tan slip. Only in the panel area, a light cream-coloured paint was used to form ondulating lines, circles and dots around the rabbit's head. Intact, except for a small part of the rim which was glued. Similar pieces can be found in the Toxtli Archeological Museum of El Salvador (http://www.fundaciondomenech.org.sv/toxtli/index.php?s=piezas&c=guarumal-texis)Charles S
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Medals of Numismatists86 viewsJouko Voionmaa, (1912 - 1991).
Curator of Coin Cabinet in National Museum.
AE, 70 mm, 371 g, (1972).
5 commentsPekka K
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MEDALS. Sir Edward Stanley G. Robinson. Keeper of Coins at the British Museum19 viewsMEDALS. Sir Edward Stanley G. Robinson. Keeper of Coins at the British Museum, 1912-1952. Æ Medal (51mm, 85.7 g, 12h). P. Vincze, engraver. SCRINII NUMM. IN MUS. BRITT. CUSTODI D. D. D. SOCII ET AMICI, Head of Edward Robinson left / SIC TIBI MVSA MEMOR, Half-nude woman seated left, writing in book set on Ionic column, placing hand on broken jar filled with coins . BHM -. EF.

Ex-CNG
ecoli
Zancle_incus_bis.jpg
Messana under Zancle Drachm6 viewsSicile, Messana sous le nom de Zancle, 520-493 av. J.C. AR Drachme 5.44g.
D:/DANKL(E) le port sous la forme d'une faucille. à l'intérieur un dauphin nageant à g.
R:/même type incus.
ref. HGC Sicily 767, Gorini p.33 n°2, SNG Ashmolean museum 1817 (ex Lockett collection, mêmes coins)
Brennos
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Minerva121 viewsVatican museumsJohny SYSEL
ABM116.jpg
MINT 1 (Principal Mint) style 1a (ABM116)7 viewsA coin in the common style 1a of the so-called Principal Mint with, as usual, a .PLG mintmark. Shares a reverse die with ABM313, and obverse and reverse dies with Woodeaton hoard no. 1537 in the Ashmolean Museum. Diameter 14.5mm. Weight 1.26g.Adrianus
ABM441.jpg
MINT 1 (Principal Mint) style 2e (ABM441)5 viewsA coin in style e of the Principal Mint with a typical .SLG mintmark. This coin shares a reverse die with a coin from Lamyatt Beacon in Somerset recorded in the Ashmolean Museum. From Lincolnshire. Diameter 15mm. Weight 1.79g.Adrianus
tohanover.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), United Kingdom, Victoria, 19th Century Gaming Token, To Hannover 1837/1848124 viewsMost 'To Hanover' counters depict Queen Victoria on the obverse. Victoria became Queen of Great Britain in 1837, but because she was a woman she could not become King of Hanover like her predecessors had also been. Her unpopular uncle the Duke of Cumberland went off to Hanover instead, and these counters celebrate his departure. They were made for over 30 years, mainly in Birmingham. In 1871 a new design was introduced on the gold sovereign which closely resembled the To Hanover pieces. Unscrupulous people began to pass the counters as gold coins and their production became illegal under the Counterfeit Medal Act of 1883.

Reign - Queen Victoria : Material - Brass : Production - 19th century at Birmingham in England
Event - Separation of the monarchy of Hanover from Great Britain (Duke of Cumberland and Queen Victoria)
Reference: Birmingham Museum and Art gallery & Heavenscent
oneill6217
markianopolis_sept_severus_geta_Hybrid_unbekann.jpg
Moesia inferior, Markianopolis(?), Septimius Severus, unpublished279 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
Hybrid(?)
AE 16, 2.01g, 15.62mm, 0°
obv. AV [K..] - [...]
Head, laureate, r.
rev. [...]IMIOC - GETAC [...]
Bare head, r.
ref. a) not in AMNG
b) not in Varbanov
c) not in Hristova/Jekov
F, dark green patina

This coin is an enigma because of several reasons:
(1) The ethnic is missed. Only the names are in the legends. Therefore it is difficult to tell the mint. Referring to the style I think the coin belongs to Northern Greece, i.e. Moesia or Thrace. There are small coins from Nicopolis with Severus and Domna on the rev. with strange abbreviations like IO DO. On the other side the scrubby hairstyle of Geta reminds strongly on Marcianopolis.
(2) The legends on both sides are unclear. IMIOC GETA on the rev. is sure and means naturally CEPTIMIOC GETA. But for the missing CEPT left behind the head seems to be not enough space. May be that CEPT can be found right before Geta's head? Then the legend would be perhaps [T[IMIOC - GETA[C CEP], an unusual legend distribution at all.
(3) The obv. legend is absolutely unclear. Actually we would await Severus, and it is his portrait on the obverse.The legend could begin left behind the bust with AV K (like AV KAI CE or AV KL CE). Then on the right side should appear CEVHROC! But the remaining letters don't match! May be that the CE of CEVHROC can be found too behind the bust and is followed by VHROC in front of the bust. But that too would be a strange legend break.

Gospodin Jekov: This coin seems to be unique, possibly an error-hybrid from Markianopolis.
Igor Lasarenko (Museum of Varna): Rather not Moesia, hybrid from Asia Minor may be.
Jochen
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Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 22. Geta, HrHJ (2018) 8.22.07.01 corr. #1 (plate coin)82 viewsGeta as Caesar, AD 198-209
AE 26, 11.38g, 26.03mm, 135°
struck under governor Aurelius Gallus
obv. L CEPTIMI GETAC KAICAR
bust, draped only, seen from front, bare-headed, r.
rev. VP A[VR GALL]OV NEIKOPOLITWN PROC IC
Apollo, naked, laureate, stg. r., with crossed legs, r. hand with arrow raised
behind, l. hand rested on tree before him; at the tree a lizard creeping upwards
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1654 (1 ex., Löbbecke)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3268 var. (cites AMNG 1654 but has OLIT PROC IC!)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.22.7.1 corr. (plate coin, writes "draped and cuirassed")
scarce, about VF, nice green patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

The depiction of Apollon Sauroktonos, a famous statue of Praxiteles, is known from a description by Pliny the Elder. The original is lost but we have 2 copies in the Vatican Museum and the Louvre. on these copies the r. hand is not raised. The statue in the Cleveland Museum of arts, acquired in 2004, is discussed.
Jochen
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Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 23. Macrinus, HrHJ (2018) 8.23.07.02 #270 viewsMacrinus, AD 217-218
AE 27, 13.42g, 26.82mm, 345°
struck under governor Marcus Claudius Agrippa
obv. AV K OPPEL CE - VH MAKRI NOC
laureate head r.
rev. [VP AG]RIPPA NIKOPOL - ITWN PROC IC
in l. and middle field TR - W
Apollo Sauroktonos, nude, with crossed legs, l. leg set behind r. leg, stg. r., l.
hand resting on tree-stump, in bent r. hand holding branch with which he touches
the tree
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1687, pl. XIV, 35 (5 ex.)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3372
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.23.7.2 (same dies)
d) Pat Lawrence obv. M, no.10 (gap between I and N on obv. not mentioned)
VF, dark green patina

Pick writes:"the left on a tree-stump from which a lizard(?) is jumping to him." But on this coin it is rather a branch with small round fruits.
Pat Lawrence (in 'The Pontianus and Agrippa Dies for Macrinus and Diadumenianus at Nicopolis ad Istrum"): Apollo Sauroktonos, so labeled by Pick (and Taf. XIV, 35) and earlier, though Postolakas at Athens: Achilles Postolakas, Catalogue of the Ancient Coins of Regions, Nations, Cities and Kingdoms, National Numismatic Museum, 1872, no.847, is at pains to describe what he sees: "...to one side and the other of Apollo, naked, stg. r., bending his l. knee, having his head laureate and holding with his r. hand a twig (or branch) slanting downwards, placing his raised l. hand on the little tree, stripped of its branches, stand in front of him." He, too, doubted wether we may read the elements between Apollo's torso and the tree trunk as a leaping lizard. Just as the 'Medici' Aphrodite of Agrippa's engraver is comically misconstrued, so is his Apollo Sauroktonos.
3 commentsJochen
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Moesia, Markianopolis, ? / lion, AE14107 views14mm, 1.6g
obv: bust of ?, wearing Taenia right
rev: MAPKIANOΠOΛITΩN; lion right

AMNG - ; Hristova/Jekov -; BMC -; Lindgren -; SNG Righetti -; Sear GICV -; Moushmov -
Not known to Ivan Varbanov and the Varna museum.
ex iNumis
5 commentsareich
800px-StatuenMozia.jpg
Motya Charioteer marble sculpture31 viewsThe remarkable and exquisite Motya Charioteer marble sculpture found in 1979 is world famous and is on display at the local Giuseppe Whitaker museum.

Motya was an ancient and powerful city on an island off the west coast of Sicily, between Drepanum (modern Trapani) and Lilybaeum (modern Marsala). The island was renamed San Pantaleo in the 11th century by Basilian monks. It lies in the Stagnone Lagoon, and is within the comune of Marsala. The island is nearly 850 metres (2,790 ft) long and 750 metres (2,460 ft) wide, and about 1 kilometer (0.62 mi) (six stadia) from the mainland of Sicily. It was joined to the mainland in ancient times by an artificial causeway (paved road), by which chariots with large wheels could reach the town.

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:StatuenMozia.jpg
Photo by: AEK
Released under the GNU Free Documentation License.
Joe Sermarini
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museum in Olympia - Zeus throwing lightning 200 viewsJohny SYSEL
Mysore_C#205.jpg
Mysore: Krishna Raja Wodeyar (1799-1868) AR 1/4 Rupee (C#205) 30 viewsObv: Persian legend in multiple lines - سک زد بر هفت کشور سید فضل الله خامی دین محمد شاه علم بادشاه (Sikka zad bar haft kashur saya fazl al khami din Muhammad Shah Alam badshah; Defender of the Muhammadan faith, Reflection of Divine excellence, the Emperor Shah Alam struck this coin to be current throughout the seven climates)
Rev: Persian legend in multiple lines with regal year - ضرب میسور سن ۴۸ جلوس میمنت مانوس (zarb Mahisur san 44 julus mayimanat manus; Struck at Mysore in the 44th year of the auspicious reign)

References
Thurston, E., Coins: Catalogue No. 1, Mysore, Government Central Museum, 1888
Rice, Benjamin L., Mysore: A Gazetter Compiled for Government - Vol. I Mysore in General, Archibald, Constable and Company, 1897
SpongeBob
Mysore_C#207.jpg
Mysore: Krishna Raja Wodeyar (1810-1868) AR Rupee (C#207)28 viewsObv: Persian legend in multiple lines - سک زد بر هفت کشور سید فضل الله خامی دین محمد شاه علم بادشاه (Sikka zad bar haft kashur saya fazl al khami din Muhammad Shah Alam badshah; Defender of the Muhammadan faith, Reflection of Divine excellence, the Emperor Shah Alam struck this coin to be current throughout the seven climates)
Rev: Persian legend in multiple lines with regal year - ضرب میسور سن ۴۸ جلوس میمنت مانوس (zarb Mahisur san 48 julus mayimanat manus; Struck at Mysore in the 48th year of the auspicious reign)

References
Thurston, E., Coins: Catalogue No. 1, Mysore, Government Central Museum, 1888
Rice, Benjamin L., Mysore: A Gazetter Compiled for Government - Vol. I Mysore in General, Archibald, Constable and Company, 1897
SpongeBob
neopaphos_cleoVII.jpg
Neopaphos, Cyprus, c. 51 - 30 B.C., Time of Cleopatra VII9 viewsNeopaphos, Cyprus, c. 51 - 30 B.C., Time of Cleopatra VII. Bronze hemiobol, Nicolaou, Paphos II, 469-509; Cox, Exc. at Curium 128; Museum of the History of Cypriot Coinage ch. 11, 35; Svoronos -, SNG Cop -, RPC -, F, Neopaphos mint, 2.291 g, 12.5 mm, 0o, c. 51 - 30 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse, statue of Zeus Salaminios standing left, stalks of grain in right and scepter in left, star above. While not noted in the standard references for Ptolemaic coinage, the coin is fairly common on Cyprus and is noted in Cypriot numismatic publications, and dated there to the time of Cleopatra VII. This denomination was commonly found in the excavations at Neopaphos. ex FORVMPodiceps
neopaphos_cleo.jpg
Neopaphos, Cyprus, c. 51 - 30 B.C., Time of Cleopatra VII (2)14 viewsNeopaphos, Cyprus, c. 51 - 30 B.C., Time of Cleopatra VII. Bronze hemiobol, Nicolaou, Paphos II, 469-509; Cox, Exc. at Curium 128; Museum of the History of Cypriot Coinage ch. 11, 35; Svoronos -, SNG Cop -, RPC -, F, Neopaphos mint, 2.291g, 12.5mm, 0o, c. 51 - 30 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse, statue of Zeus Salaminios standing left, stalks of grain in right and scepter in left, star above. ex FORVMPodiceps
neopaphos.jpg
Neopaphos, Cyprus, c. 51 - 30 B.C., Time of Cleopatra VII (3)7 viewsNeopaphos, Cyprus, c. 51 - 30 B.C., Time of Cleopatra VII. Bronze hemiobol, Nicolaou, Paphos II, 469-509; Cox, Exc. at Curium 128; Museum of the History of Cypriot Coinage ch. 11, 35; Svoronos -, SNG Cop -, RPC -, F, Neopaphos mint, 2.642g, 14.9mm, 0o, c. 51 - 30 B.C.; obverse laureate head of Zeus right; reverse, statue of Zeus Salaminios standing left, stalks of grain in right and scepter in left, star above. Ex FORVMPodiceps
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Nero122 viewsmuseum in KorinthJohny SYSEL
Nero_-_syria_-_Antioch.jpg
Nero c. AD 54-686 viewsRegion: Syria Ruler: NERO
AE Mint: Antioch ad Orontem
Obv: Laureate head of Zeus, r.
Rev: Boule, seated, l., placing vote in urn ΑΝΤΙΟΧΕΩΝ ETO EIP
Die Axis in numbers: 12 Diameter: 18 Weight: 4.45gm
ID: SNGuk_1202_2843
Ref. SNG Vol: XII Hunterian Museum Part II
ddwau
NeroSe18-2.jpg
Nero, RIC 334, Sestertius of AD 66 (Roma)19 viewsÆ Sestertius (26,3g, 34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P P P, laureate head left.
Rev.: ROMA in ex., S C across field, Roma seated left holding Victory and spear.
RIC 334
Ex CNG Triton XI; ex Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
Charles S
nerva_exBMA.jpg
Nerva55 viewsNerva 96-98 A.D. As
Æ As 11.26g. 27mm. 97 A.D. Rome Mint RIC II 98
Ob: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P II COS III P P, Laureate head, r.
Rv: FORTVNA AVGVST, Fortuna standing facing, head l., holding rudder and cornucopiae; S C to either side.

Ex Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Ex John H. Storer Collection
2 commentsScotvs Capitis
bpCM1CounterMark.jpg
Nice Coin with 4 Countermarks from Moesia201 viewsAs, 8 gm, 24.8 mm.
Obv: Three countermarks - AVG, TICA or TICAE (with AE ligate), and a Helmet (?).
Rev: One countermark - Dolphin (?).
Comments: Appear to be the same countermarks shown in the Pangerl Collection #90 (found under TICAE in the 'Museum of Countermarks' on the RNG Web page). Also a good match to Ecoli's exhibit shown next on this board. Possibilities include Tiberius, Caligula or Claudius as reigning Emperor.
From the collection of Massanutten.
2 commentsMassanutten
IMG_2102wp.jpg
Nilus 156 viewsNilus and his attributes: sphinx, crocodile, cornucopiae

Vatican Museums
Johny SYSEL
Nilus.jpg
NILUS152 viewsPtolemaic Bronze ca. 180BC - Ptolemy V - VI
Svoronos 1378 (K control letter in eagle's legs)
Rare type with expressive portrait of Nilus rather than typical Ptolemaic Zeus.
AE20 5.98gm 11h
Part of scarce series of coins with 'K' control letter, 5 sizes each with different designs.
Few specimens known in books, museum collections.
Some thought that the K might represent Kleopatra I, mother of Ptolemy VI. Exact date unknown but likely ca. 190-170BC. Apparently the only Ptolemaic bronze type with a representation of the 'River God', Nilus.
PtolemAE
Jovian_Compound.png
Nummus/Follis of Jovian7 viewsPurchased in London, on a business trip, from Coincraft- across the street from the British Museum. I checked out a few numismatic shops in London, including the ones I was told ‘should’ be more affordable – those were actually rather pricey. I was not too keen on dropping a couple hundred pounds in London, but I also really wanted to not leave town without getting a coin there... I eventually found the Coincraft – which I had been told in advance is the most expensive - to actually be the friendliest towards the casual, low-budget collector.Alex F
IMG_2098q.JPG
Octavianus Augustus127 viewsVatican museumsJohny SYSEL
dupondius_hybride.jpg
P M TR P III COS P P mule 28 viewsobv: IMP CAES GORDIANVS PIVS AVG laurate, draped and cuirassed bust of gordian right seen from behind
rev: P M TR P III COS P P S C Gordian veiled sacrificing left over an altar

RIC---
C ---

extremely rare mule, only the second specimen known (other is in Vienna museum) Obverse of middle 3rd issue (1st half of year 239) reverse of late 3rd issue (end of year 239) this obverse mus have P M TR P II COS P P as reverse and this reverse mus have IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG as obverse.

the 2 others type are known

IMP CAES GORDIANVS PIVS AVG / P M TR P II COS P P 1 specimen at the ANS
IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / P M TR P III COS P P 3 specimens known (1 in Vienna and 2 in Berlin)
leseullunique
IMG-20150524-00395.jpg
Painted Stucco13 viewsBits of painted stucco from the Roman Museum of Cambodunum in Kempten Germany. Most date to 2nd - 3rd c AD.otlichnik
pant_pan.jpg
Pantikapaion, Thrace, 325 - 310 B.C.90 viewsBronze AE 17, McDonald 67, SNG Puskin Museum 934-948, (SNG BM Black Sea 890), (SNG Cop 32), NGC Choice VF, Pantikapaion mint, weight 4.5g, max. diameter 17.4mm, Obv. beared head of saytr left; Rev. ΠAN, head of bull 3/4 left, (the bull's left horn continues off flan onto the sprue). Smooth clay-brown patina, rated by NGC 4/5 for strike and 4/5 for surface (some deposits) No longer encased in the plastic tomb.

Ex. Forvm Ancient Coins
2 commentsSteve E
Sellwood-39_6.jpg
Parthian Empire: Phraates III (ca. 70-57 BCE) AR Drachm, Mithradatkart Mint (Sellwood-39.6; Sunrise-343)34 viewsObv: Long bearded bust left in diadem bound tiara, decorated with a horn on side and a row of recumbent stags around the crest, pellet ended spiral torque, dotted border.
Rev: Archer enthroned right, monogram below bow, six-line Greek inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟY ΑΡΣΑΚΟY ΕYΕΡΓΕΤΟY ΕΠIΦΑNOYΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ

Former collection of the MoneyMuseum, Zurich
2 commentsSpongeBob
Sellwood-78_4.jpg
Parthian Empire: Vologases III (ca. 105-147 CE) AR Drachm, Ekbatana Mint (Sellwood-78.4)35 viewsObv: Bust left with long pointed beard, wearing double banded diadem with double loop and three pendent ends, spiral torque, earring visible, dotted border
Rev: Archer enthroned right, monogram below bow, seven-line Greek inscription ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩN ΑΡΣΑΚΟY EYEPΓETOY ΔΙΚΑΙΟY ΕΠIΦΑNOYΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ stylized

Former collection of the MoneyMuseum, Zurich
1 commentsSpongeBob
IMG_2112q.JPG
Peafowl141 viewsVatican museums

animal of Juno ~ Hera
Johny SYSEL
coins70.JPG
Pergamon, Mysia33 viewsPergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, 39°7′N 27°11′E) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, northwestern Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern day Bakırçay), that became an important kingdom during the Hellenistic period, under the Attalid dynasty, 282-129 BC. G34

The Attalids, the descendants of Attalus, the father of Philetaerus who came to power in 282 BC, were among the most loyal supporters of Rome among the Hellenistic successor states. Under Attalus I, they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II, against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.

The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids would support the growth of towns through sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the acropolis of Pergamum after the Acropolis in Athens. The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the Pergamon Museum of Berlin.

Pergamon had the second best library in the ancient Greek civilisation, after Alexandria. When the Ptolemies stopped exporting papyrus, partly because of competitors and partly because of shortages, the Pergamenes invented a new substance to use in codices, called pergaminus or parchment after the city. This was made of fine calf skin, a predecessor of vellum.

When Attalus III died without an heir in 133 BC he bequeathed Pergamon to Rome, in order to prevent a civil war.

Close to the city was a sanctuary of Asclepius, the god of healing. In this place people with health problems could bath in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asklepios would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. Archeology has found lots of gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed.

In the first century AD, the Christian Church at Pergamon was one of the Seven Churches to which the Book of Revelation was addressed (Revelation 1:11, NRSV).

Pergamon, Mysia, struck by Philetairos, 282-263 BC.
Obv: head of athena wearing attic helmet right.
Rev: FILETAIROU, Asklepios seated left, feeding snake from patera.
SNG BN 1643 ff.

ecoli
NektaneboMed.jpg
PHARONIC KINGS OF EGYPT, Nektanebo II, 360-343 BC40 viewsAE
15 mm (4 mm thick), 4.4 gm
Obv: Ram leaping left, head reverted.
Rev: Scales of Ma'at; countermark with helmeted bust right.
Ref: Weiser 1

A few months ago a friend, upon hearing that I was collecting ancient coins, said he would like to have a coin issued by a pharaoh. Hmm. "I don't think there are any", I replied. I hadn't come across any in my whirlwind but voluminous searching, although I hadn't been searching for such a coin.

Turns out there are some. Nektanebo II, the last native pharaoh of Egypt, issued coins in bronze, gold, and perhaps silver. Prior to that, Egypt did produce some coins for the purpose of international trading-- imitations of Athens, Attica tets, for instance-- but Nektanebo appears to be the first pharaoh to issue coins for local use. Maybe.

Per auction house sales information from half a decade ago, it seems these bronzes were extremely rare. I wonder if a small horde was recently found because the prices have fallen and there are currently six specimens in retail e-stores and at least two more were auctioned off recently.

There is not universal agreement regarding the issuer, purpose, and location of circulation of these coins. Sellers tout it as the "sole pharonic issue"-- I'm sure that boosts desirability-- but it may not be accurate. Hope it is though.

CNG, in the description of this coin (one similar to mine),

Nekht-her-hebet, or Nektanebo II as he was known to the Greeks, was the nephew of Pharaoh Tachos (Djed-her). Placed in command of the Egyptian army in Syria during the Satrapal Revolt, he turned his troops against his own king and took Egypt by force. In 351-350 BC he repelled a Persian invasion but was driven from his throne in 344-343 BC by a second assault. He fled Egypt, found refuge in Ethiopia, and retained control of Upper Egypt for another few years. As the last pharaoh, Alexander sought to connect himself with Nektanebo after conquering Egypt, allowing the rumor that he was in fact his son to spread. Alexander’s connection to the pharaoh lasted, and for years the sarcophagus of Nektanebo II, now in the British Museum, was considered to be Alexander’s own.

The traditional attribution of this issue to Nektanebo, however enticing, has been increasingly contested. Finds of the coins have been consistently noted outside of Egypt. Kevin Butcher has placed the bronzes at Antioch circa 1st century BC, where the leaping ram imagery would fit well.

I wanted this coin for several reasons.

First, well… a pharaoh's coin? That's just cool.

Second, it depicts the Scales of Ma'at. Such a device was used in Jitterbug Perfume, a book by Tom Robbins, one of my favorite authors. In it, at a limbo-like way station, the newly dead have their hearts weighed against a feather. The heart must be light as a feather to move on. I was unaware until seeing this coin that the scene was taken directly from Egyptian mythology.

Third, it is for an almost-finished themed collection I've been working on.

Nektanebo II (translated from Egyptian "Nakhthorheb (meryhathor)" or "Nekht-her-hebet" or "Nekht-harhebi" ; alternate spelling Nectanebo), the last native Egyptian pharaoh, part of the 30th dynasty. His 17 year reign spanned from 360 to 343 BC.
Birth name: Nakht-hor-heb (mery-hathor) “Strong is His Lord Horus, Beloved of Hathor”
Throne name: Snedjem-ib-re Setep-en-inhur “Pleasing to the Heart of Re, Chosen of Onuris”

Additional biographic information about Nektanebo II
http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/nectanebo1.htm

About Ma'at, the Scales of Ma'at, and the weighing of hearts:
http://www.egyptartsite.com/judgement.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maat
http://www.aldokkan.com/religion/hall_maat.htm

4 commentsTIF
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Philip the Arab132 viewsVatican museumsJohny SYSEL
Phlious_obol_.jpg
Phliasia, Phlious, late 6th-early 5th Century BC, AR Obol or One Twelfth Stater21 viewsBent leg right.
Incuse square divided into six irregular compartments.

HGC 5, 136; BCD Peloponnesos 78 (same dies); Gr. Mu. 803,pl. XIII, 24; Seltman, Athens, pl. XIV a (= NC 1890, pl. XIX, 21).

(8 mm, 0.91 g).
CNG; ex- BCD Collection

One of eighteen examples known.

The bent leg obols of Phlious are amongst the earliest coinage of the Peloponnesos. The coins were struck on the Milesian (Asiatic) weight standard with a stater of 14.1 gm, in contrast to the Aeginitic weight standard that came to prevail on the subsequent coinage and throughout the Peloponessos in the fifth century BC. This use of Milesian weight standard and the iconography of the bent leg, which has no later representation in the coinage of Phlious make for something of an enigma. The weight standard may reflect the dominant trade partners of Phlious at the time, while the bent leg is less readily explained. As a result of these enigmatic attributes, there has been controversy over attribution of this coin type. In the nineteenth century, the type was commonly attributed to Phaselis in Lycia. Subsequently, Seltman attributed the coinage as part of the Athenian Wappenmunzen series; specifically he attributed the type to the Alkmaeonid exiles of Athens in Phocis. However, recent studies refute these earlier attributions. Recorded find spots of all but one example have been in Phliasia or nearby Arkadia. This plus the fact that the largest associated denomination, a half stater bears the letter Φ make the attribution to Phlious certain. Eighteen examples of the type are known, one in each of the Berlin and London museum collections, twelve from the dispersal of the BCD collection and four others from other collections. Five obverse dies are accounted for in the series.
n.igma
byblos_SNGcop135.JPG
Phoenicia, Byblos, SNG Copenhagen 13516 viewsAE 22, 8.44g, 22.16mm, 315°
struck 1st century BC
obv. Bust of city goddess (Tyche), draped and veiled, wearing mural crown, r.
rev. [legend illegible]
El/Kronos, nude, stg. l., head r., with 3 pairs of wings (spread at shoulders and hips, lowered parallel to
legs) and feather helmet, holding in extended r. hand sceptre
ref. BMC 97, 13; SNG Copenhagen 135
very rare, F+, nearly black patina
pedigree:
ex. M&M 14.2.1972
ex coll. director of Museum Speyer

Often this deity is called Kronos. But it is the Phoenician god El! For further information take a look at the Mythology Thread.
Jochen
nerva_pho.jpg
Photo 2 of Nerva37 views Nerva 96-98 A.D. As
Æ As 11.26g. 27mm. 97 A.D. Rome Mint RIC II 98
Ob: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P II COS III P P, Laureate head, r.
Rv: FORTVNA AVGVST, Fortuna standing facing, head l., holding rudder and cornucopiae; S C to either side.

Ex Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; Ex John H. Storer Collection
1 commentsScotvs Capitis
colossae.jpg
Phrygia, Colossae. Commodus36 viewsPhrygia, Colossae. Commodus. A.D. 177-192. Æ 34 mm. Zosimos, strategos.
Obverse: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: Artemis standing right, quiver at shoulder, holding branch and antler of stag standing behind her.
Von Aulock, Phrygiens II 575 (same dies).
Near VF, brown patina. 34 mm, 21.04 g.

Extremely rare - one of two known, the other in the Vatican museum.
3 commentsb70
GRK_Pontos_Amyntos_Sear_3640.jpg
Pontos. Amyntos.11 viewsSear 3640; Malloy 26c; Hoover GC 7, 243; SNG British Museum Black Sea 1205-7; SNG Stancomb 697-698; SNG von Aulock 59.

AE unit, 7.74 g., 21.16 mm. max., 0°

Struck during reign of Mithradates VI Eupator, circa 85-65 B.C.

Obv.: Head of Mithradates VI as Dionysus, wearing ivy wreath.

Rev: Thyrsos (staff carried by Dionysus ) leaning against cista mystica (basket housing sacred snakes in connection with the initiation ceremony into cult of Dionysos) draped with panther’s skin, ΑΜΙΣΟΥ below, monogram to left.

Mithradates VI, king of Pontos (c. 120 to 63 B.C.), was of both Greek and Persian origin, claiming descent from both Alexander the Great and King Darius I of Persia. He was one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies. Amisos was a rich commercial center under the kings of Pontos, a royal residence and fortress of Mithridates.
Stkp
vespasian.jpg
Portrait of Vespasian435 viewsDigital paint of a sculpture, Capitoline Museum, Palazzo Nuovo, Rome. Photo from a series done in the early 1900s by the Alinari brothers.
ALINARI: Photographic documentation of art and architecture in Italy compiled by Alinari in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
4 commentsScotvs Capitis
price_3578.jpg
Price 3578 (2)61 viewsM to the left. Φ under the throne. One of the early Babylon issues. I couldn't find any other sales of a 3578 - only examples in the British Museum (all similar wear) Gerhard Hirsch Nachfolger 326 lot 1629 Feb 16 20172 commentsChance Vandal
IMG_1290.JPG
Probus228 viewsCapitoline museumsJohny SYSEL
7681_7682.jpg
Provincial, Odessos, Thrace, AE24, OΔΗCCεΙΤΩΝ10 viewsAE24
Roman Provincial: Odessos, Thrace
Septimius Severus
Augustus; 193 - 211AD
24.0 x 23.0mm 8.40gr 2h
O: AVK Λ CεΠ CενΗΡΟC; Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: OΔΗCC-εΙΤΩΝ; Great God of Odessos standing left, holding patera in right hand over lighted altar, cornucopia in left hand, drapery over left arm.
Moushmov 1602; AMNG I 2262
variana.museum/Dimitar Pavlov 153116589473
8/3/18 12/5/18
Nicholas Z
neopaphos.jpg
PTOLEMAIC KINGDOM, CLEOPATRA VII29 views51- 30 BC (Time of Cleopatra VII)
AE Hemiobol 17 mm max., 3.55 g
O: Laureate head of Zeus to right
R: Statue of Zeus Salaminios standing left, stalks of grain in right hand and scepter in left, star above.
Cyprus, Neopaphos;
Nicolaou, Paphos II, 469-509; Cox, Exc. at Curium 128; Museum of the History of Cypriot Coinage ch. 11, 35
laney
IMG_2108.JPG
Pupienus121 viewsVatican museumsJohny SYSEL
Marcus_Aurelius_39.jpg
Q128 viewsMarcus Aurelius Sestertius

Attribution: RIC III 964
Date: AD 168-169
Obverse: M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIII, laureate head r.
Reverse: SALVTI AVG COS III, Salus stg. l. feeding snake wrapped around altar, and holding scepter, S-C across fields
Size: 30-34 mm
Weight: 25.93 grams
(Image of Marcus Aurelius courtesy Phillip Harland: Archaeological Museum, Selçuk, Turkey)

“He studied philosophy with ardor, even as a youth. For when he was twelve years old he adopted the dress and, a little later, the hardiness of a philosopher, pursuing his studies clad in a rough Greek cloak and sleeping on the ground; at his mother’s solicitation, however, he reluctantly consented to sleep on a couch strewn with skins.” – Historia Augusta Life of Marcus II.6

Marcus Aurelius assumed the role of emperor upon the death of the Deified Antoninus Pius in AD 161. He quickly made his brother, Lucius Verus, joint emperor. This partnership endured successfully until the death of Verus in AD 169. Unfortunately, Marcus’ rule was one beleaguered by warfare (i.e. the Parthian War) made worse by the plague (brought back from the war), invasion (the Germanic Quadi and Marcomanni on the Danube front), and insurrection (the revolt of Cassius, governor of Syria). Marcus sought solace in his philosophical meanderings. His writings were not bright and cheerful, because, after all, they came from a man latent with preoccupations. During another campaign against the Germanic Quadi in AD 179-180, Marcus fell ill. He had dealt with stomach and chest problems for a few years prior to this (some historians speculate it was cancer). He took the drug theriac to endure the pain. Theriac contains opium, so Marcus may have been addicted to this “medication”. He lived only one week after the inception of this final malady. He died near Sirmium on March 17, AD 180. His body was placed in the Mausoleum of Hadrian, and he was subsequently deified by the senate.

“The first rule is, to keep an untroubled spirit; for all things must bow to Nature’s law, and soon enough you must vanish into nothingness, like Hadrian and Augustus. The second is to look things in the face and know them for what they are, remembering that it is your duty to be a good man. Do without flinching what man’s nature demands; say what seems to you most just – though with courtesy, modesty, and sincerity.” – Marcus Aurelius Meditations (To Myself) VIII.5
4 commentsNoah
0047.jpg
Q. Antonius Balbus, Denarius12 viewsRRC 364/1c
83-82 b.c.

"The issue presumable forms part of the preparations made to resist the return of Sulla; the symbolism of victory and triumph clearly reflects the expectations of Q. Antonius Balbus, as Praetor deputed to strike the issue, and his associates." (Crawford)

"Q. Antonius Balbus was a member of the Marian party, and in B.C. 82 was appointed praetor in Sardinia, from whence he was driven by L. Philippus, the legate of Sulla, and slain. (Livy, Epit. 86)" (Grueber, British Museum I)

ex B. Peus nachf. Auct 398, lot 340
Described as:
Republikanische Prägungen Denar. Q. Antonius Balbus 83/82 v. Chr. 3.81 g. Kopf des Jupiter, Stz. A und Punkt / Victoria in Quadriga. Cr. 364, 1c; Syd. 742a. Sehr schön
Norbert
Rama_V_1907_AR_Baht_rare.jpg
Rama V, King Chulalongkorn the Great (1853- 1910 AD), Thailand36 viewsKing Rama V, AR, 1 baht, R.S. 126, 1907 AD, 31m, 14.9 g, Royal Mint: Bangkok. Obverse: head of Rama V facing L, King's "first" name (สมเด็จพระปรมินทรมหาจุฬาลงกรณ์) above, his "last" name (พระจุลจอมเกล้าเจ้าอยู่หัว) below . Reverse: The Coat of Arms of Chulalongkorn--On the top of the coat of arms is the Great Victory Crown of Thailand, the most important royal regalia and the symbol of kingship. Under the crown is the symbol of the Royal House of Chakri, the King's royal family, which is a disc intersected with a trident. The royal multi-tiered umbrellas of state are also present on either side of the crown. To both sides of the coat of arms are the other regalia, the royal sword and the royal baton. In the background is the draped robe - either the Royal robe of the King or the robe of the Order of Chulachomklao - an order created by the King. The supporters are two mythical creatures, one is the Royal Lion, rajasiha, and the other is Elephant Lion, gaja-siha. The shield itself is partitioned into three parts, signifying the Thai part of the Kingdom (the 3-headed elephant) on the top, the Laotian suzerainty (another elephant), and the Malay suzerainty (two "kris", or Malayan short swords). The chain under the Arms is a necklace that is a part of the Order of Chulachomklao. The ribbon under the Arms is inscribed with the motto (in Pali, the language of the Buddhist canon) which may be translated as "Unity brings happiness." Khrueng Thep (กรุงสยาม--Bangkok) left, Rama V (รัชกาลที่) right, one baht (บาทหนึ่ง) below. RS 126 has the regnal date 40 over the 127; EF, Rare.

Rama V, King Chulalongkorn the Great (1853- 1910 AD); during his 42-year reign, King Chulalongkorn (the fifth king of the Chakri Dynasty) succeeded in establishing a government based on the western system, which ultimately paved the way for the present democracy. He reformed the rule of law, established a proper judicial system and introduced compulsory military service, improving the country's national defense. He introduced the Baht (still in use today) as the official currency and made taxes directly payable to the government, cutting out the corrupt middlemen. King Chulalongkorn also set up Siam's first hospital based on western medical practices, the first medical school and a nationwide education system.

The Thai Nation rightly reveres King Chulalongkorn. The preservation of Thailand's sovereignty and independence, in contrast to other Asian countries that capitulated to colonialism, was a direct result of his efforts. His skills of diplomacy abroad and ability to form a central government at home endeared him to the people. His reign was one of the most successful of any monarch in any country in the world and through his vision and leadership; a small, traditional Kingdom was transformed into a modern Nation at the heart of Asian affairs.
(http://www.chiangmai-chiangrai.com/chulalongkorn_rama_5.html)

On his first enthronement, King Chulalongkorn issued a royal decree that all the people born during his reign would be born free; he had determined that slavery should eventually disappear from his realm. In order not to create a social upheaval suddenly, King Rama V took gradual measures to release slaves to freedom, and in 1905 he issued a law for the abolition of slavery. Thus the Thai people won freedom without any struggle.

The first public museum was established by King Rama V in 1880 at the Concordia Building inside the Grand Palace compound. Later, when the viceroy or Uparat position was replaced by the crown Prince position, the Palace of the Uparat or the Front Palace was vacant. In 1887 the museum was moved to the Front Palace and developed to be the National Museum.


In 1917, Siam (Thailand) opened its first university. It was named after this beloved King: Chulalongkorn University was referred to as "the Harvard of Asia" by President Bill Clinton of the United States.

Cleisthenes
Bactria Dracma Antimachos GCTV 7546V.jpg
Reino Greco-Bactriano - Antimaco (171 - 160 A.C.)41 viewsAR Dracma 16 x 17 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv:”BAΣIΛΣΩΣ NIKHΦOρOY ANTIMAXOY“ - Nike alada avanzando a izquierda sosteniendo palma y rama.
Rev: Rey a caballo cabalgando hacia la derecha. Maharajasa Jayadharasa Amtimakhasa escritas en jaroshti, que indican lo mismo del anverso. Monograma en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada: 171 – 160 A.C.
Ceca: Bactria o Bactriana (norte de los actuales Afganistán, Pakistán e India).

Referencias: Mitchiner #135d Pag.76 – Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7546 Pag.710 - MACW #1674 - SNG Vol. VI (Fitzwilliam Museum ) #1174 - B.M.C. (India) #1-2 Pag.45 – SNGFab #471 - BN Bact #1 - SNG ANS #399-424 - Bopearachchi #1 Pag.197 - SNG Cop #352 var - HGC #124 Pag.14
mdelvalle
SGCV_7546_Dracma_ANTIMACO_Bactria.jpg
Reino Greco-Bactriano - Antimaco (171 - 160 A.C.)6 viewsAR Dracma 16 x 17 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv:”BAΣIΛΣΩΣ NIKHΦOρOY ANTIMAXOY“ - Nike alada avanzando a izquierda sosteniendo palma y rama.
Rev: Rey a caballo cabalgando hacia la derecha. Maharajasa Jayadharasa Amtimakhasa escritas en jaroshti, que indican lo mismo del anverso. Monograma en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada: 171 – 160 A.C.
Ceca: Bactria o Bactriana (norte de los actuales Afganistán, Pakistán e India).

Referencias: Mitchiner #135d Pag.76 – Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7546 Pag.710 - MACW #1674 - SNG Vol. VI (Fitzwilliam Museum ) #1174 - B.M.C. (India) #1-2 Pag.45 – SNGFab #471 - BN Bact #1 - SNG ANS #399-424 - Bopearachchi #1 Pag.197 - SNG Cop #352 var - HGC #124 Pag.14
mdelvalle
Fake_-_RIC_401.jpg
RIC 40130 viewsSestertius, 98-99
Obv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM P M
Laur. r.
Rev: TR POT COS II P P – S C
Pax seated l., holding branch and sceptre.

24g, 34mm
Sold on eBay, Nov. 23, 2011, for $15.99 by legendsfromancienttimes as a museum replica.

klausklage
Fake_-_RIC_455.jpg
RIC 455 tooled46 viewsSestertius, 103
Obv: IMP CAES NERVA TRAIAN AVG GERM DACICVS P M
Laur. r.
Rev: TR POT IMP VIII COS VI P P / SC
Pax seated l.

The legend has been re-engraved over the original TR P VII IMP IIII COS V P P
On offer on vcoins for € 990, described as "very interesting coin missing on every museum".

Phantasy-legend, re-engraved over the original TR P VII IMP IIII COS V P P
klausklage
Trajan_RIC_561_var.jpg
RIC 561 var.14 viewsAs, 103-111
Obv: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P
Laur. r., dr.
Rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI – S C
Dacia seated l. in attitude of mourning on shield and arms; before her, a trophy.

10.32g, 17 mm

Woytek 245 f (1 known in the British Museum, obverse struck from the same die).
klausklage
Trajan_AE25_FAC.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Trajan, AE25 Abdera Thrace Nike61 viewsObverse: AYTO TPAIANW KAISARI CEBACTW, laureate bust right.
Reverse: GERMA DAKI-KW - ABDHREITAI, Nike standing left on Pedestal, holding Wreath and Palm.

Diameter: 25.6 x 26.2 x 1.6 mm, Weight: 7.41 g, Die axis: 180 degrees
Mint: Abdera, Thracia, 102 - 117 A.D. Reference: RPC 803


On 29 July last year Michel Amandry kindly contacted me, after my inquiry with the British Museum's Coins and Medals Department, about this coin. Michel mentioned that only two examples had been known, one in the Ashmolean Museum collection, Oxford (= NC 1953, 21/2 and pl. I, n°2) and the other found during excavations at Abdera (Abdera excavations E 91/N 56).With many thanks to Michel, this coin will be cited in the upcoming RPC Volume III (British Museum Press, 1 October 2015)
Masis
a25.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caracalla antoninianus36 viewsCaracalla AD 196-217 Silver Antoninianus VF
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed
Rev: VENVS VICTRIX - Venus standing left, holding Victory and spear and leaning on shield. Rome mint: AD 213-217 = RIC IVi, 311d (s) Scarce, page 259 - British Museum
1 commentsNico
Treveri_(Trier)_mint~0.jpg
Roman Empire, City Commemorative, Urbs Roma, Follis, Trier149 viewsCommemorative Series. AD 330-354. Æ Follis (17mm, 2.61 g, 6h).
Treveri (Trier) mint, 2nd officina. Struck under Constantine I, AD 332-333. Helmeted and mantled bust of Roma left / She-wolf standing left, head right, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus; two stars above; TR•S. RIC VII 542; LRBC 65. EF, gray-brown patina.

From the collection of the MoneyMuseum, Zurich. Ex Münz Zentrum Köln 104 (6 September 2000), lot 613.
1 commentsLeo
divipmth.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Domitian, Denarius89 viewsSilver denarius, Rome later part of 81 A.D., Carradice 81.3b var.
IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMITIAN AVG P M, laureate head right
TR P COS VII DES VIII P P, Winged thunderbolt set on draped table.

Rare variant unlisted in the standard references. It appeared for the first time in the Reka Devnia hoard; another specimen belongs to Curtis Clay and RSC quotes another specimen in the Ashmolean Museum (RSC 575a). These coins inscribed DIVI VESP F seem to commemorate the deification of Vespasian two years before.

FORVM AUCTIONS
Domit_Minerva_standing1.jpg
Roman Empire, Domitian, Unlisted Minerva standing89 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP VI
Domitian laureate right
Rev: IMP XII COS XII [CENS P PP]
Minerva standing left

This coin was minted in 86 A.D. The Minerva standing is a very common reverse for Domitian's denarii. Neither RIC nor RSC list a Minerva standing for Domitian with TRP VI, IMP XII, COS XII. According to the seller, this coin was once part of the collection of the San Francisco Museum of Fine Arts. The reverse of the coin was reportedly damaged by an adhesive sticker which ate into the silver.
C. Caesar Germ.
Galba.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Galba Orichalcum AS42 viewsSER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG TR P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS AVGVS S-C, Liberty standing left with pileus & scepter. RIC 295 (?). 12.6 grams

*There is some confusion over this coins RIC (Roman Imperial Coin) number. It appears that it should be RIC 295, as suggested by a curator at the British Museum, but it has been suggested that it could be RIC 460a. This confusion has arisen due to the missing part of the reverse legend. RIC 295 would mean that the missing part would read AVGVS, whereas RIC 460a would have PUBLICA. We cannot be sure until we see another coin similar which has the same die, which can tell us what the other half of the missing reverse legend is.*
Stuart Francis
Gordian-III-RIC-177-87~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Gordian III.84 viewsAntoninianus, 238-239 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: AEQVIT LIBER / Body and feet of Aequitas holding scales; Body and feet of Libertas holding pileus (Liberty cap) .
5.00 gm, 22 mm.
RIC #177 over #187.

This is the exact coin that is described (but not pictured) in the footnote to RIC 231 (vol. IV, part III, p. 39):

"231. A strange Antoninianus (G. B. Pears Coll.) shows rev. type of AEQVIT[AS] apparently overstruck with type of LIBER[TAS] -- obv. of Gordian III, rev. of Philip overstruck with rev. of Trebonianus Gallus (?)."

There is a plaster cast of this coin in the British Museum. This cast is illustrated in Roger Bland's "unpublished" thesis on the coinage of Gordian III from Antioch: plate 10 18/21.

For more info, see http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=105681.0
1 commentsCallimachus
HADRIAN-BRITANICUS.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, HADRIAN - EXERC BRITANNICUS168 viewsSestertius of Hadrian, AD 122. EXERC BRITANNICVS SC ("For the army of Britain, by order of the Senate") RIC 913.
The reverse shows Hadrian addressing the troops in England, standing on a low plinth, clearly showing the Roman soldiers with their standards.
Coin currently in the British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (gallery 49, case 14).
Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS 111 PP ("Hadrian Augustus, three times consul, father of his country")
1 commentsPetitioncrown
HADRIAN-BRITANICUS~1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, HADRIANVS BRITANNICVS1175 viewsSestertius of Hadrian, AD 122. EXERC BRITANNICVS SC ("For the army of Britain, by order of the Senate") RIC 913. Coin currently in the British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (gallery 49, case 14).
Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS 111 PP ("Hadrian Augustus, three times consul, father of his country")
21 commentsPetitioncrown
149.jpg
Roman Empire, Lucius Verus AE Sestertius289 viewsLucius Verus AE Sestertius. IMP CAES L AVREL VERVS AVG, bare headed, cuirassed bust right / CONCORD AVGVSTOR COS II, Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus standing opposite, clasping hands. SC in ex.

POSSIBLY UNIQUE

Apparently this arrangement of the rev. legend is rare: usually it's COS II in exergue and S - C in field. Of seven specimens in the British Museum, only one has the arrangement like this one, with COS II in circular legend and SC in exergue.

That BM coin, no. 862, has a cuirassed bust like this, but head laureate rather than bare.

THIS COIN IS CERTAINLY UNPUBLISHED, IF NOT UNIQUE.
EXTREMELY FINE
Ex Künker 2007

- Thanks to Curtis Clay for his invaluable assistance.
1 commentsTrajan
79667q00.jpg
Roman Empire, Otho, Denarius CERES AVG 107 viewsSH79667. Silver denarius, Muona Otho 10b; Butcher-Ponting-Muona 6; ANSCD 1958.217.1; BnF III 1; RIC I 1 (7 spec. known, all minted with the same die-pair), Nice VF, the best portrait and most attractive of the seven known specimens, light rose toning, a few light marks and spots of porosity, Rome mint, weight 3.272g, maximum diameter 17.5mm, die axis 180o, 9 Mar - 17 Apr 69 A.D.; obverse IMP OTHO CAESAR AVG TRP, bare head right; reverse CERES AVG, Ceres standing left, grain-ears raised in right hand, cornucopia in left hand; from the Jyrki Muona Collection

This is the rarest Otho denarius type and one of the rarest 1st century Roman denarii. Only two museums, Paris and ANS, hold examples. A further specimen was found in archeological context in Denmark in 1990s. Besides these, four additional specimens are known. This coin has the best portrait and is clearly the most attractive of the seven known. Jyrki Muona obtained it in 2002 at the NYINC from Glenn Woods.

Otho minted three separate issues. The first and second issues followed Galba's standard of 90% silver. Otho's third issue was debased to 80% silver. All coins of the third issue share the reverse legend PONT MAX, perhaps to make it easy to distinguish the debased coins. One might think our rare coin is simply a reverse legend error for Otho's third issue, PONT MAX Ceres type. However, as Butcher et al. have shown, this is not the case. If CERES AVG was a simple reverse legend error, the flan would be 80% silver. This CERES AVG type was struck on second issue 90% silver flans, probably during planning for the third issue, and perhaps only for testing. The type was apparently not distributed, and was withdrawn, and melted when it was decided to debase the coinage and use the PONT MAX legend. It appears a small number were released, most likely by mistake.
4 commentsJoe Sermarini
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-PF-AVG_FORTVNA-REDUX_XXI-T_RIC-V-II-695legendvar_Siscia_Q-001_axis-0h_22,5mm_4,37g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in , Siscia, FORTVNA REDVX, Bust-F, -/-//XXIT, Extremely Rare!!!449 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in RIC, Siscia, FORTVNA REDVX, Bust-F, -/-//XXIT, Extremely Rare!!!
avers:- IMP-C-PROBVS-PF-AVG, Radiate, cuirassed bust right. (This avers legend not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
revers:- FORTVNA-REDUX, Fortuna seated left on shield, holding baton and cornucopiae.
"This is an extremely rare issue of Probus, which Pink attributes to the 4th emission of Siscia mint. It seems that RIC 695 is incorrectly described: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, bust type G (radiate helmeted, cuirassed bust l, holding spear and shield), cited from Voetter.
However, Alfoldy lists two examples with obverse legend IMP C PROBVS P F AVG: type 36/1 - Radiate, cuirassed bust right (specimen in Frankfurt) and type 36/2 - Radiate, cuirassed bust left (collection Missong, Vienna), in addition, another specimen of Alf 36/1 is kept in British Museum, coming from Gloucester hoard . All examples have -/-//XXIT mintmark. The same obverse is listed by Pink." by Incerum, thank you Incerum.
exergo: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 4,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 276 A.D. ref: RIC-V-II-Not in, (695var, p91, ???),Alföldi typ-36, No 1,
Q-001
quadrans
Severus_Alexander_Bimetallic_Medaillon_2.jpg
Roman Empire, Severus Alexander, Bimetallic Medaillon84 viewsObv. IMP CAES M AVREL SEV ALEXANDER PIVS FELIX AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, seen from behind.
Rev. PONTIF MAX TR P V COS II P P, Alexander on quadriga right, holding eagle-tipped scepter and olive branch, crowned by Victory.
Mint: Rome, 226 AD.

38mm 41.44g

Cohen 481?


Curtis Clay

"A spectacular acquisition!

I know of two other specimens of this medallion:

(1) In ANS, ex Newell Coll.; ex Naville X, 1926, 1765; ex Hirsch 29, 1910, Herzfelder Coll., 1221; ex Sotheby, 29 June 1893, Hermann Weber Coll., 230; doubtless ex Northwick Sale, 1860, 333 (description only). Published by Toynbee, Roman Medallions, p. 85, note 103 and Fagerlie, ANS Medallions, Museum Notes 15, 1969, p. 82.

From the same dies as yours, 55.14g, and also bimetallic according to the Naville X catalogue, though Fagerlie fails to mention this fact and it's not clear one way or the other from the photographs.

(2) In Paris according to Gnecchi no. 21, 50.0g, not illustrated, no mention of bimetallic, but personal examination would be needed to be sure!"
3 commentskc
9Ogj-UC42WY.jpg
Roman Empire, Trajan Decius, 249-251. Antoninianus.41 views(Silver, 22mm, 3.84 g 6), Rome, 250-251.
IMP C M Q TRAIANVS DECIVS AVG Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Decius to right.
Rev. PANNONIAE The Two Pannoniae standing left, both looking to left and raising their right hands, the one on the left with a standard next to her and the one on the right holding a vexillum.
RIC 23 var. (differing bust type). Very rare variety. Lustrous, sharp and very well struck. Virtually as struck.

From the Collection of the MoneyMuseum, Zurich. Ex Nomos 2 (17 May 2002), lot 214.
Ruslan K
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Roman Ephesus37 viewsIonia, Ephesus, Claudius, 41-54, AR Cistophoric Tetradrachm

TI. CLAVD CAES AVG. Claudius bare head, facing left.
DIAN-EPHE Cult statue of Diana (Artemis) of Ephesus inside a tetra style temple, set on three tiered base; pediment decorated by figures flanking three windows.

RIC I 118; RPC I 2222; BMCRE 229; RSC 30; Sear Millennium 1839. Ephesus ca. 41-42 AD.

(25 mm, 11.14 g, 6h).

The Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus was one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Depicted on this coin, which was minted shortly after Claudius’ accession to the throne, there remains no trace of the temple other than some recently stacked column remnants to mark the location. Pliny The Elder described the temple as 115 meters in length, 55 meters in width, made almost entirely of marble; consisting of 127 Ionic style columns 18 meters in height. The original temple, which stood on the site from about 550 BC, was destroyed by arson in 356 BC. It was rebuilt at the direction of Alexander III the Great around 330 BC, in the form depicted on the coin, only to be destroyed by the Goths in 262 AD. Again rebuilt, it was destroyed for the final time by Christians in 401 AD. The marble of the temple was used to construct other buildings. Some of the columns found their way into the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (Istanbul).

The site of the temple was rediscovered in 1869 by an expedition sponsored by the British Museum, but little remains to be seen today. A Christian inscription found at Ephesus reads Destroying the delusive image of the demon Artemis, Demeas has erected this symbol of Truth, the God that drives away idols, and the Cross of priests, deathless and victorious sign of Christ. This Christian zeal explains why so little remains of the site despite its repute in the ancient pre-Christian world.

This coin is rare with a few dozen examples known. In contrast to most examples, which show a four-tiered temple base, the reverse of this coin shows a three-tiered temple base, the same as that found on the Parthenon. The rectangles visible on the pediment of the temple are frequently identified as depictions of tables, or altars attended by flanking figures. However, architectural reconstructions of the temple show these rectangles as windows permitting light into the temple interior, a fact supported by the presence of pediment window frame moldings amongst the remains of other temples from the period in Asia Minor. The Ionic style of the temple’s columns, as described by Pliny, is clearly visible in the reverse image.
4 commentsn.igma
RG_1.jpg
Roman Glass Vessel121 viewsCirca 4th-5th century AD
5.5cm tall, 4.2cm wide.
ex Zurqieh

Nice Roman perfume bottle with flared rim, pinched neck and globular body, probably of Mid-Eastern origin.
Fully intact with a pale yellow tint.

“Then with fine oil, she smoothed herself, and this, her scented oil, unstoppered in the bronze-floored house of Zeus, cast fragrance over earth and heaven.”
~ Homer (Iliad 14, 142-145)

Update;
This item donated to the Hallie Ford museum in Salem Oregon.
6 commentsEnodia
Lsemisuncia.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - Luceria - AE Semuncia - Crawford 97/822 viewsRome, The Republic.
L Series, circa 211-208 BCE.
AE Semuncia (3.52g; 18mm).

Obverse: Mercury head facing right, wearing winged petasus.

Reverse: Prow r; above ε; be ROMA; before L; above, ε (mark-of-value).

References: Crawford 97/8; Sydenham 178g (R5); Kestner-Hannover 1090; BMCRR (Italy) ----.

Provenance: Ex Bertolami Fine Arts 24 (22 Jun 2016), Lot 371.

There are only four examples of this rare semuncia of Luceria in the Paris collection. There were no examples in the British Museum collection at the 1910 publication of BMCRR.
1 commentsCarausius
89477_l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, "Mule" Titia/Pansa AE As32 viewsRome, The Republic
Q. Titius, 90 BCE
AE As (10.78g; 27mm)

Obv: Head of Janus w/rounded beard (Pansa obv die).

Rev: Prow r; palm-branch behind prow; Q●TITI above (Titius rev die)

Reference: Crawford 341/4d; Hannover 2942 (dies); c.f. Hannover 2974 (Pansa)(obv die)

Provenance: Savoca 12 (22 Jan 2017) Lot 457

Hybrid mule of rare Q. Titius reverse with a "rounded-beard" Janus obverse of Pansa. See Hannover 2974 (Pansa) for only other known example bearing this reverse control mark.

Circa 90 B.C., during the time of the Social War, Q. Titius and C. Vibius C.F. Pansa were co-moneyers at Rome. The Social War was a civil war between Rome and her Italian allies who had broken-away in a demand for citizenship rights. It was a time of massive coinage output by the Rome mints, likely to pay the costs associated with the conflict. Not much is known of TItius or Pansa. TItius is the only member of the TItia gens for whom coins are known. Pansa was possibly the father of the later Pansa who struck coins in 49 BC and became consul in 43BC.

Some of TItius’ silver coin types feature a male head with long, pointed beard. There is speculation that the head represents Mutinus Titinus, another name of the minor god Priapus, and a naming pun for Titius. His AE asses overwhelmingly depict a Janiform head with atypical, long. pointy beard, resembling the head shown on his silver coins.

On the other hand, obverses of Pansa’s AE asses overwhelmingly depict Janus with a more traditional, curled beard. The fact that the obverse styles of Pansa’s and TItius’ contemporaneous asses are so different supports the argument that the pointy-bearded character on TItius’ coins represents someone other than Janus.

The fact that Titius and Pansa served as moneyers at the same time is evidenced by occasional mules of Titius’ pointy-bearded obverses with Pansa reverses and vice versa.

An online search of acsearch, Coin Archives and Coins of the Roman Republic Online yielded only four auction sales and one ANS example of this rare reverse, and all of them were paired with a pointy-bearded obverse. However, the Kestner Museum Hannover has a similar mule that may be a double die match to my coin (see Berger, Hannover 2942). Further, the Kestner Museum has a Pansa AE As in their collection with an apparent obverse die match to my mule (see Berger, Hannover 2974).

Are these Titius/Pansa mules indicative of particular administrative practices at the mint?

One possibility is that obverse dies, which contained no legends, were mixed freely among the two moneyers; however, the overwhelming conformity of pointy-bearded TItius asses and curled-beard Pansa asses refutes this suggestion. The mules are too scarce to suggest any freewheeling intent.

Second possibility is that all dies, TItius’ and Pansa’s, were controlled by a central mint repository which assigned the dies to teams at the commencement of work shifts and likely collected them for security at the end of work shifts. Care was certainly taken to pair pointy-bearded Janus obverses with TItius reverses, as evidenced by the super-majority of extant coins. Mistakes were inevitably made. How long it took the mint to correct such mistakes is unclear. The fact that my collection and the Kestner Museum share a mule from the same dies suggests that a good number of coins were made by those dies. The fact that Kestner Museum also has the same Pansa obverse die paired with a correct Pansa reverse proves that die combination was a likely mistake; whether the correct pairing was made at a previous work shift, at a subsequent work shift when dies were reassigned, or in the middle of the same work shift cannot be determined – the coins are not in such great condition that die states can be easily compared.

Third, the mules suggest that TItius’ and Pansa’s coins were struck at the same mint and perhaps in the same workshop by different striking teams. I don’t think it’s possible to extrapolate whether the dies were controlled on a workshop basis vs. a full mint basis.
Carausius
Roman_Republic_anonymous_Cr14_2.jpg
Roman Republic, anonymous, Crawford 14/2 (Museum's imitation)11 viewsAes Grave (Semis), 111g, 53.87mm, 330°
Rome, 280-276 BC
obv. helmeted head of Mars l.
beneath lying S
rev. Head of Venus l.
beneath lying S
ref. Crawford 14/2; Thurlow-Vecchi 2; Haeberlin pl. 38, 9-10 (for the original!)
From the Museum Andreasstift Worms, facsimile but lighter than than the original which weighs 160-170g.
Jochen
00264Q00.JPG
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L Series, AE Quadrans - Crawford 43 (unlisted) and 97/5b - EXTREMELY RARE!8 viewsRome, The Republic.
L Series, 214-212 BCE.
AE Quadrans (22.56g; 29mm).
Luceria Mint.

Obverse: Hercules facing r wearing lion skin; ●●● (mark-of-value=3 unciae), behind and below.

Reverse: Prow right; ROMA above; L●●● (mark-of-value=3 unciae), below.

References: Crawford 43 (unlisted) and 97/5b; Syd --; BMCRR --; RBW 400 (see discussion at 399); see Russo, “Unpublished Roman Republican Bronze Coins” (Essays Hersh, 1998), #37 discussion.

Provenance: Ex Kölner Münzkabinett Auction 109 (16 Nov 2018); ex Prof. Hildebrecht Hommel Collection; purchased from Cahn (Basel), 13 Mar 1973.

This type is extremely rare, with no examples appearing in the Paris collection as of 1974, none in Berger’s Kestner-Museum Hannover catalogue, and only 4 examples in addition to my coin on ACSEARCH as of 31 December 2018. Crawford cites an example in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, collection. Both Roberto Russo and Andrew McCabe have persuasively argued that Crawford 97/5b should be reassigned to the Crawford 43 L series, which otherwise lacks a quadrans. Both the weight and style of this coin are consistent with the earlier Crawford 43 series, which is based on an As of about 83 grams. McCabe notes that the Oxford example, on which Crawford based 97/5b, was badly corroded and probably lightweight. Subsequent examples of the type in trade have weighed 22+ grams, consistent with an As of about 85-90 grams.
Carausius
RosciaCombined.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Roscius Fabatus, AR Serrate Denarius19 viewsRome. The Republic.
L. Roscius Fabatus, 59 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (3.95g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Juno Sospita, wearing goat skin headdress tied at neck, facing right; L•ROSCI, below; control symbol (two-handled cup or bowl) behind.

Reverse: Female figure feeding serpent from fold of cloak; control symbol (pileus/cap?) behind; FABATI in exergue.

References: Crawford 412/1 (Symbols 199?); Sydenham 915; BMCRR 3394 -3510; Roscia 2.

Provenance: Ex John Barton Collection; Aes Rude Chiasso 4 (6 Apr 1979), Lot 240.

Crawford dated the issue to 64 BCE, but Hersh and Walker brought that date down to 59 BCE based on their analysis of the Mesagne hoard. Harlan picks a median date of 62 BCE based on some prosopographic assumptions.

The moneyer would go on to serve as lieutenant for Caesar in Gaul in 54 BCE. In 49 BCE, he was elected praetor and intermediated between Pompey and Caesar. He was killed at Mutina in 43 BCE.

Juno Sospita was a deity who’s temple was in Lanuvium, a Latin town 32 kilometers southeast of Rome, and it’s likely that both Roscius and L. Papius, whose 79 BCE coinage is a model for Roscius’ issue, came from that town. The reverse depicts an annual rite of the Juno Sospita cult in which a girl is sent into the grotto beneath the temple to feed the sacred snake. Only chaste girls could survive the ordeal.

Like Papius’s coins, these denarii are struck on serrated flans – the last of the Roman Republic to be produced with this fabric. Like Papius’s coins, Roscius’ denarii have obverse and reverse control symbols that are paired, with no pair of symbols appearing on more than one pair of dies. On both Roscius’ and Papius’s coins, the paired control symbols have some loose relationship to one another. Roscius re-used many of Papius’s symbol pairs, but reversed their locations on the coins.

The symbol pair on my coin is very rare. As of 10/1/18, there are no matching examples on Acsearch, Coinarchives or CNG’s website database. The pair is unlisted in Babelon, Sydenham, BMCRR and Banti. It resembles symbol pair 199 in Crawford, although some differences are evident. In his manuscript on Roman Republican series marks, Charles Hersh includes a hand drawn entry AI within the section of previously unpublished Roscia symbol pairs that is a precise match for the symbols on this coin. He cites the Vienna Museum (38465) and Vatican Museum (5158) for that entry.
2 commentsCarausius
BullWheelSemis.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Roma/Wheel Series, Aes Grave Semis - Crawford 24/423 viewsRome, The Republic.
Roma/Wheel Series, c. 230 BCE.
AE Aes Grave Semis (103g; 49mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Bull leaping to left; S (mark of value) below.

Reverse: Wheel with six spokes; S (mark of value) between two spokes.

References: Crawford 24/4; ICC 67; Sydenham 60.

Provenance: Ex H.D. Rauch Auction 95 (30 Sep 2014), Lot 272; Tkalec 2006, Lot 93.

The Roma/Wheel Series of aes grave is an interesting series for its types. This Semis depicts a leaping bull, a device that would be used on later Republican struck bronzes with a snake below the bull (see Crawford 39/2 and 42/2). The wheel on the reverse of this series is previously unseen on Roman coinage. There were several series of Etrurian aes grave bearing spoked wheels produced in the 3rd century BCE (see HN Italy 56-67; ICC 145-190). It is unclear whether these Etrurian aes grave were inspired by or inspiration for the Roman wheel series.

This example is on the light side of reported weights in Haeberlin; however, as museums and collectors tend to favor heavier examples of Aes Grave, Haeberlin’s reported weight range (based on museum and major private collections) is likely “overweight” in heavier specimens.
2 commentsCarausius
10400525.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius65 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius
Z8g54YYbCs8yjeQ97pGEKGx6D3zzRS.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, T. Cloulius, AR Quinarius16 viewsRome. The Republic.
T. Cloulius, 98 BCE.
AR Quinarius (1.79g; 16mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Jupiter, facing right; O control mark below

Reverse: Victory crowning trophy with wreath; T·CLOVLI between; captive seated below and carnyx to left of trophy; Q in exergue.

References: Crawford 332/1b; Sydenham 586a; BMCRR 1103; Cloulia 2.

Provenance: Ex Boston Museum of Fine Arts Collection [Triton I (2-3 Dec 1997), Lot 2313 (part)], acquired before 1968.

The silver quinarius, a half-denarius denomination, was introduced as part of the denarius reform of the silver coinage circa 212 BCE. The early quinarius and its fraction-sibling, the sestertius, were discontinued just a few years after their initial introduction. However, the contemporaneous victoriatus, a coin produced on the drachm standard largely for trade with Greek communities, continued in production until about 170 BCE. By the close of the second century and later, many worn victoriati continued to circulate but were valued as quinarii because of wear and their debased fabric. Thus, when the Romans reissued the quinarius, they employed the victoriatus imagery of Jupiter/Victory crowning trophy. Indeed, these new quinarii were referred to as victoriati. The denomination was particularly popular in Gaul and often turns up in first century Gallic hoards. 

This quinarius was struck by T. Cloulius, a partisan of Marius. The carnyx near the trophy on the reverse refers to Marius’ victories over invading Gauls in 102-101 BCE. The coins may have been issued in connection with Marius giving colonial lands to the veterans of these Gallic victories. No obverse control mark has more than one die. The reverse exergual letter Q likely refers to the moneyer's office of quaestor rather than a denominational mark.

The coin was formerly part of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts collection. In 1997, the MFA deaccessioned a group of 890 coins which had been acquired by the MFA between 1872 and 1968. 
1 commentsCarausius
411607.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Tiberius Claudius Nero, AR Serrate Denarius23 viewsRome. The Republic.
Ti. Claudius Ti.f. Ap.n. Nero, 79 BCE.
AR Serrate Denarius (4.13g; 19mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Draped bust of Diana facing right, with bow and quiver over shoulder; S.C, before.

Reverse: Victory driving biga galloping right; A.LXXXVIII below; TI CLAVD TI F AP N, in exergue.

References: Crawford 383/1; Sydenham 770a; BMCRR ;Claudia 5.

Provenance: Ex CNG Classical Numismatic Review (Fall 2015), Lot 411607; CNG Inventory 735603 (August 2003); Numismatica Ars Classica N (26 June 2003), lot 1540; Eton College Collection [Sotheby’s (1 December 1976), lot 195].

The moneyer is Tiberius Claudius Nero, son of Tiberius ("TI F") and grandson of Appius ("AP N"). He served under Pompey in the war against the pirates in 67 BCE, and was the grandfather of the Roman emperor Tiberius. There are two series of control marks for the reverse: one, marked from I to CLXV; the second marked with letter A and I to CLXXXII. Each reverse control mark has only one die. The letters S.C on the obverse mean that this coin was struck by special Senatorial decree, as opposed to routine coinage which was still authorized by the Senate but not specially marked. The reason for the special decree is not certain in this case. The obverse of the coin may refer to the introduction of the worship of Diana by the Sabines from whom the Claudii originated, though Crawford disputes this reading. The reverse may refer to the Second Punic War victories of C. Claudius Nero.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes.
2 commentsCarausius
vase.jpg
Roman, Bronze Vase, 1st Century A.D.65 viewsLathe-spun bronze vase, cf. Hayes, Greek, Roman, and Related Metalware in the Royal Ontario Museum #121; height 7 ½ inches, Choice, round body tapering to rim, slight raised foot ring, fine groove around outside of ring, another around the inside of the neck; green and encrusted patina, some separation at base.
EX: Alex G. Malloy Collection; FORVM
(notes and picture from FORVM website)
1 commentsMark Z
32591q00.jpg
Roman, Eastern Mediterranean, Glass Bottle, Late 2nd - 4th Century A.D.83 viewsOlive-green bottle; Isings Form 102a, cf. Ontario Museum 209
12.7 cm (5") tall
Choice, clear olive-green, cylindrical body widening slightly from shoulder to base,
flat shoulder, cylindrical short neck, flared rim
intact with some cracks, attractive weathering
Ex: FORVM, Alex Malloy Collection
(Notes and Picture from FORVM website)
3 commentsMark Z
HADRIAN-BRITANICUS~0.jpg
Roman, HADRIAN, BRITANNICVS766 viewsSestertius of Hadrian, AD 122. EXERC BRITANNICVS SC ("For the army of Britain, by order of the Senate") RIC 913. Coin currently in the British Museum Department of Coins and Medals (gallery 49, case 14).
Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS 111 PP ("Hadrian Augustus, three times consul, father of his country")
5 commentsPetitioncrown
Picture_002.jpg
Romano-Egyptian Votive Statue107 viewsCirca 1st century BC - 1st century AD
5.5 inches tall
ex Superior Galleries

Terracotta votive statue of the Hellenistic god Harpokrates.

Harpokrates, the god of silence, is the Hellenistic adaptation of the Egyptian child-god Horus, and as such was said to be the son of Isis and Serapis.

Update;
This item donated to the Hallie Ford museum in Salem Oregon.
3 commentsEnodia
1280px-Musei_vaticani_-_base_colonna_antonina_01106.JPG
Rome, Vatican Museum, Base of the Column of Antoninus Pius 117 viewsRome, gardens of the Vatican Museums, the base of the Antonine Column from Campo Marzio: the winged genius door between the gods Antoninus Pius and Faustina Annia deified; left, the genius of the Campus Martius, with the obelisk of Augustus; right, the goddess Roma. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Column_of_Antoninus_PiusJoe Sermarini
st-peter-1b.jpg
S.1006 St. Peter60 viewsViking penny in the name of St. Peter of York ca. 910-920
Moneyer: unknown
Mint: probably York
S.1006 (var.)
N.551 (var.)
O: ZCIIIT R, tree and key symbols
R: +B.RACEC

This a rare variant of the "swordless" St. Peter coinage, with a blundered version of "Sancti Petri" in one line, instead of the usual two lines.

Viking coinage in York began at around the start of the 10th century with a coinage in the names of Cnut and Siefred, a probably short-lived coinage but one which survives in great numbers due to the Cuerdale hoard. Subsequently, an anonymous coinage in the name of St. Peter follows, of which this coin is probably a late type. After the St. Peter coinage there was an inscribed coinage in the names of Ragnald and Sihtric Caech, Hiberno-Norse kings from Ireland who conquered Northumbria. A subsequent anonymous second coinage in 920s in the name of St. Peter features a sword (probably the Sword of Carlus, a 9th century Irish Viking hero), and Thor's hammer. The Vikings wrangled with the kings of Wessex throughout the 10th century until king Eadred of England brought Northumbria into the English fold. Viking coinage continued, mostly in the name of the kings of York, until the mid 10th century, culminating with Eric Bloodaxe.

All Viking coinage from York is rare, but the Cnut, Siefred, and St. Peter coinages are the most common, due to their survival in several large hoards.

The one-line St. Peter coins make up a rare subset of the earlier swordless type. There are only a handful known, and they all feature symbols, including the tree, the key (St. Peter's key to heaven), a candelabra, a star or propeller, and a large cross.

This particular coin is a die match to a coin in the British Museum, BMC 1141, which was found in Geashill, Ireland.

Ex- Hanson Historica Auction, PAS NMS-BDD828, EMC 2013.0245
2 commentsNap
matilda-bricmer-1.jpg
S.1326 Matilda23 viewsPenny of Matilda, queen of England (disputed) 1139-1148
Mint: Cardiff
Moneyer: Bricmer
S.1326
N.936
O: [MATI]LLIS IMP
R: [+BRIC]MER:CAIE[RDI]

This coin, cracked and somewhat crudely repaired by the Cardiff Museum, is from the famous Coed-y-Wenallt hoard found in 1980. This hoard tripled the number of coins of Matilda known up to that time. THe best of the hoard went to museums. Some of the coins were sold by Spink in 1982, many ended up in institutional collections. A good number of them were cracked and repaired by the museum.

Matilda was ultimately unsuccessful in her invasion and war against Stephen, but her son would become king Henry II and one of the most successful English monarchs.

Ex- DNW 3 Jul 2019 (lot 431), M Lessen, P Withers, Seaby Coins, Spink Auction 20 (lot 26), Coed-y-Wenallt hoard
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fledgling-1.jpg
S.832 Anglo-Saxon sceat20 viewsEclectic Anglo-Saxon sceat
S.832
"Fledgling" type
O: Wolf head right, protruding tongue (or a serpent facing the wolf)
R: Creature (possibly fledgling) right, walking with triquetra tail

This unusual type is only known from a few examples, and is not represented in the British Museum collection or in Rigold's papers. The wolf face is similar to some coins of series K, while the creature, sometimes called a fledgling, seems to have hands with fingers, a beak, a body twisted into a triquetra and a three-pronged tail. I don't see the "fledgling" but the name has stuck to some extent so I'll go with convention.

Ex- Jon Mann
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aethelred-i-hnifula.jpg
S.856 Æthelred I (Hnifula)61 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796
Moneyer: Hnifula
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 856
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
Booth var i
Abramson 84-10
O: +EDILRED
R: +HNIFVLA
Motif: 1/1a

Hnifula is the rarest of Æthelred's five/six moneyers (depending on whether one considers Eanbald a moneyer or the Archbishop).

The name Hnifula is a little obscure in its origin; it certainly is not a common Anglo-Saxon name. It sounds similar to Hunlaf, a later moneyer, but is probably not the same individual. The name might be related to the Old English word 'hnifol', a word that means forehead.

There are two coins of Hnifula documented in the EMC, a third in the Hermitage museum in St. Petersburg (SCBI 50: 35), a fourth worn example in the Norwich Castle Museum, two in the British Museum, from the Hexham hoard (BMC 429 and 430), and one pictured on Tony Abramson's website. This example is not one of those seven. It is from the same dies as BMC 429, the Norwich Castle specimen, the Abramson coin, and the Hermitage specimen. The other three specimens are from a different set of dies. With only two dies known for these eight examples, it suggests Hnifula's coinage for this issue was probably quite small.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
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aethelred-i-cuthgils-1b.jpg
S.857 Æthelred I (Cuthgils)36 viewsSceat of Æthelred I, king of Northumbria, second reign 789-796 (?)
Moneyer: Cuthgils
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 857
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
Abramson 85-10
O: +ED+Γ.RED
R: +CVD CLS
Motif: 1/shrine

Cuthgils (or Cudcils?) is a rare moneyer for Æthelred I. He also coined for Ælfwald (I or II). His coins, of crude design compared with others of Æthelred's second reign, suggest these coins might be an earlier issue, but since there is no hoard evidence there is no way to know. Cuthgils' coins depict a triangular design with a cross above. This has been called a "shrine" or "church roof" though the simplicity of the design prevents further interpretation. It has been suggested that this was an ecclesiastic issue, though there is no specific indication of this.

Lord Grantley believed the reverse of the coin was a tribute to St. Cuthberht, and misinterpreted the reverse as stating "SCT CVD" There were only 2-3 known at the time, and the discovery of more specimens with clearer legends showed that the legend is clearly "CVD CLS". The final nail that put he matter to rest was the discovery of coins of Ælfwald by the same moneyer Cuthgils. These are extremely rare and do not depict a 'shrine' or other fancy design.

Whether the shrine design on otherwise featureless coins had any specific meaning, such as being struck under the auspices of a clergyman, has been lost to history. Presumably the idea for the shrine image itself was copied from contemporary Merovingian or early Carolingian coins.

The Yorkshire museum does have a Cuthgils sceat (Pirie 22) but it is from different dies. I have not been able to trace an obverse die match, but the reverse matches coin 46 on Patrick Finn's Memorial List 'A' (in "Studies in Early Medieval Coinage vol 1", T. Abramson ed). The reverse is distinct and recognizable by the presence of most of the letters in the legend being recut on the die. While this issue is not as rare as it was 100 years ago when Grantley wrote about it, it still remains quite rare. There are only 5 listed in the EMC and a handful of others in private collections.

Ex- Mike Vosper
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eanred-cynwulf-1.jpg
S.860 Eanred (Cynwulf)53 viewsSceat of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Cynwulf
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 860
Pirie unlisted
Phase Ia
O: EAIRED REX (retrograde)
R: CYNVALF
Motif: 4/4

Cynwulf was one of Eanred's earlier moneyers, and his coins are silver sceats. They are fairly scarce. He is also known to coin for Archbishop Eanbald II.

This particular coin was struck from dies not listed in Pirie. This is not so surprising, as the source collections of York and Leeds are relatively weak in early silver sceat varieties, especially compared with their strength in the copper stycas from the later period of Eanred's reign to the end of Osberht's. I cannot track a die match through the Early Medieval Corpus either, though it is similar to several coins listed. I did note though that the coin seems to be a die match to one of the sceats found at Hexham (Eanred:24) in the Adamson plates, reproduced by Pirie in 'Coinage in Ninth-Century Northumbria'. The coins from Hexham form the backbone of the British Museum's Northumbrian collection, which as yet has not been illustrated in a Sylloge.

Ex- A.G.&S. Gillis
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eanred-badigils-1a.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Badigils)9 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Badigils
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
Pirie unlisted, Phase II Group Ciii
Abramson 2(unlisted obverse)/3
O: ƎɅ++NREⱭ R (retrograde)
R: +BADIGILS
Motif: 1/6

Badigils is a rare moneyer of Eanred. There is speculation that the name Badigils is related to other names seen on coins of Eanred: namely Aldates and Gadutels. They may even all be the same person. If this is not the case, Badigils was an unrelated moneyer whos name is probably Beadugils. Only a few coins of this moneyer have been found.

This coin is unlisted in Pirie, but mentioned as extant in section Phase II, Group Ciii. The coin itself seems to be a die match to a coin found at Hexham, illustrated by Adamson (Eanred:188). It is not the same coin. Adamson's plates were reproduced by Pirie for 'Coinage in Ninth-Century Northumbria'.

Known coins of Eanred/Badigils include 4 in the British museum (from Hexham hoard), 1 in the Yorkshire museum, 1 in another Northern Museum (SCBI 48: 265, from Bolton Percy), two coins listed in E. J. E. Pirie's "Early Northumbrian coins at auction, 1981" (one of which I believe is the aforementioned SCBI 48: 265, the other one I believe is the present coin), and supposedly 2 others in private collections traced by Abramson. There are four examples drawn on Adamson's plates of the Hexham hoard, which are probably the 4 in the British Museum.

Ex- York Coins, CNG eAuction 324 (lot 755 [part]), Peter Moffat, ?Stanley Gibbons. Probably ex- Charles Winn, William Fennell, Bolton Percy. I think this coin is plated in BNJ 51: Early Northumbrian Coins at Auction, 1981, coin #4 (However due to poor quality of the image I can't be 100% certain)
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eanred-wihtred-2.jpg
S.862 Eanred (Wihtred)28 viewsStyca of Eanred, king of Northumbria 810-841
Moneyer: Wihtred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 862
Pirie 160
Phase II, Group A
O: +EANRED REX
R: +ǷINTRMᛞ
Motif: 1/1

Rare styca of Eanred with moneyer's name in runic letters. Only used on this single reverse die. The Yorkshire museum has an impressive six specimens of this coin, there was one in the Mack collection (EMC 1020.0404), 3 other individual metal detecting finds recorded in the Early Medieval Corpus (EMC 2000.0372, EMC 2001.0304, EMC 2008.0098), one in UKDFD (5444), two on Adamson's plates from Hexham hoard (presumably are in British Museum) and two in the Peter Moffat collection (one is this coin). There are certainly other unrecorded specimens out there.

Besides what appears to be a high rate of survival from this die pair, the obverse die was also used to strike coins from 7 other reverse dies of Wihtred, and 5 reverse dies of the moneyer Monne. This is quite unusual for a single die to produce that quantity of coins.

Ex- eBay, Holding History Coins, CNG eAuction 342 (lot 1058 [part]), Peter Moffat
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redwulf-odilo.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Odilo)79 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Odilo
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
Pirie 1705
Phase II, Group Ciii
Abramson 4-20/27f
O: +REDVLF RE
R: +ODI.LO (retrograde)
Motif: 1/1

This coin may be a derivative or descendant issue, made during the irregular period of civil war c.850, years after Redwulf's brief reign (844). Metallurgical studies (Gilmore and Pirie, BAR: 180) of a sister coin to this one (same dies) show a significant difference in the composition of coin compared to other coins from Redwulf's reign. Interestingly, this coin's obverse die is known to have been paired with reverses of the moneyers Brother, Forthred, and Monne, along with somewhat blundered reverses in the names of Alghere, Herreth, and Coenred, as well as Odilo.

Three other coins inscribed Redwulf/Odilo can be traced: two in the Yorkshire museum (YM1628 and YM 1628a) and one in Denmark's Royal Collection in Copenhagen (SCBI 4: 368). The two in the Yorkshire collection are from the same die pair as this coin, the one in Copenhagen is from a different reverse die, not retrograde.

This particular coin appears to be identical to the specimen illustrated in the first volume of the British Numismatic Journal in 1903. I am not sure whether it belonged to the author, Major Creeke, or to Nathan Heywood, whom Major Creeke credits with lending some specimens for his research. In "Transactions of the Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society" vol XV (1897), Heywood lists a styca of Redwulf/Odilo as being in his collection, and being absent from the British Museum's collection.

Ex- CNG eAuction 324 (lot 643), Peter Moffat, Major A. B. Creeke (or Nathan Heywood), plated in BNJ 1: The regal sceatta and styca series of Northumbria, 1903
1 commentsNap
redwulf-wendleberht.jpg
S.867 Redwulf (Wendelberht)37 viewsStyca of Redwulf, king of Northumbria 844
Moneyer: Wendelberht
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 867
Pirie 1485
Abramson 4-10/30b
O: +REDVVLF REX
R: +VENDELBER.HT
Motif: 1/1

Wendelberht coined for Redwulf as well as for Aethelred II. His coins of Aethelred II are scarce, and his coins of Redwulf are rare.

This particular reverse die was also used to strike coins for Aethelred II.

Besides this coin, and another in the Moffat collection, the few Redwulf/Wendelberht coins that I can track down are: 5 in the Yorkshire museum, 1 in Leeds University, 2 in SCBI 30: American collections, 1 in the Bolton Percy hoard of 1847, 1 sold by Baldwin's in Sept 2005 (ex- B. Lowsley), and 1 in an American collection that has been published on the web.

Ex- CNG eAuction 324 (lot 644), Peter Moffat
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hoaud-hwaetred-1.jpg
S.872 Hoaud? (Hwætred)37 viewsIrregular styca in the name of "Hoaud"
Moneyer: Hwætred
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
O: [+HO]AVD RE
R: +HVAET[RD] (retrograde)
Motif: 1/1

A slightly chipped coin of King Hoaud, the king that most likely never was. This is an irregular styca which for many years was thought to be of an otherwise unknown king, Hoaud or Huath or some variation. The name itself does not seem to be Anglo-Saxon. Most likely this is a contemporary imitation of coins minted in the 850s, which does not, by die analysis, fit into the main body of die-linked coins of Osberht. Perhaps it was produced outside of the main minting center (presumably York)

D.C. Axe, in his article "Dating the so-called Hoaud stycas", determines that these coins are consistent with the metallic composition of coins made in the 850s, probably during the civil war between Osberht and Ælla, which ended with the attack of the Viking "Great Heathen Army," an event (probably 867) that closed the chapter on Northumbrian independence and styca coinage. There is no figure named "Hoaud" and the lettering is probably nonsensical, as are many of the coins produced at this time. However, during the 19th century, numismatists ran with the idea that 'Hoaud' was one of the kings of this early petty kingdom, and his stycas were evidence of this.

The moneyer, Hwætred, coined for Eanred early in his reign, which was a good 40 years before this coin was produced. Hwætred did not strike coins for any of Eanred's successors, suggesting he was no longer in the coining business by 850. Hwætred's coins are all good silver, unlike this issue which has negligible silver content. So the moneyer was imitative, as was the obverse, making the existence of King Hoaud quite unlikely.

Still, because of the history, this issue is quite collectible. Including museum specimens, there are probably less than 20 of these coins in existence, and when they sell, as with two specimens sold through CNG, they sell for far more than other irregular stycas of the same period.

Ex- eBay
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osberht-nonsense-1.jpg
S.872 Osberht (Æthelhelm?)36 viewsIrregular styca of Osberht, king of Northumbria 849-867
Moneyer: Æthelhelm?
Mint: York (presumably)
S. 872
Pirie 2219
Phase II, Group Dii
O: BOSBCRH (retrograde)
R: +EDVLHV (retrograde)
Motif: 4/5d

Nonsense reverse legend. Probably a blundered form of Æthelhelm. Same die as Pirie 2219, also shares obverse die with my coin of Osberht, with the moneyer Eardwulf

A die match can be found in Museum Victoria in Melbourne, Australia.

Ex- eBay
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wiglaf-1a.jpg
S.934 Wiglaf (Redmund)44 viewsPenny of Wiglaf, king of Mercia (second reign) 830-839
Moneyer: Redmund
Mint: Probably London
S. 934
N 401.2
O: +VVIGLAF REX M
R: N +REDMV D

Penny of Wiglaf, king of Mercia. Wiglaf was king from 827-839. His reign was interrupted from 829-830 by the conquest of Mercia by Ecgberht of Wessex, who took London in 829. The occupation was short lived however, and Wiglaf regained his throne the next year.

Despite a relatively long rule (compared to other 9th century Mercian kings), coins of Wiglaf are excessively rare. There are two major types, one with a portrait of the king by the moneyer Aethelhun, and a nonportrait type by the moneyers Burgherd and Redmund. Redmund also struck coins for King Ecgberht when he occupied Mercia. The portrait coins are typically assigned to Wiglaf's first reign while the nonportrait type is given to the second reign, but this is a guess at best. There are 8 coins (of all types) documented in the Early Medieval Corpus, but one is a forgery. Another is a fragment. Only one is the portrait variety. There are two other portrait coins in the British Museum and two non-portrait coins that have yet to be added to the corpus, giving a total known extant specimens of 11.

This particular coin is chipped, but otherwise readable and is of different dies than any other known specimen, and is the only non-portrait coin without reverse lunettes, and also does not have any pellets.

Ex- Downies, Glendinings 1992, Bonser 1123, EMC 2001.0960
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Old_Kilpatrick,_West_Dunbartonshire_-_Antonine_Wall.JPG
Scotland, Antonine Wall, Distance Slab24 viewsThese inscribed stones, known as distance slabs, are unique in the Roman Empire. They celebrate the work of the legions which constructed the Antonine Wall in Scotland. Evidence suggests that the slabs, all made of local sandstone, were set into stone frames along the length of the Wall and are likely to have faced South into the Empire.
Nineteen of these slabs are known of so far, the elaborate carving on many of them celebrating the culmination of a successful campaign by the triumphant Roman army.

IMP C T AE HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO P P VEX LEG XX VV FEC PP IIII CDXI
"For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, a detachment of the Twentieth Valient and Victorious Legion built this over a distance of 4411 feet"

This slab was found at Old Kirkpatrick, West Dunbartonshire and is now in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow.
*Alex
Found_at_Hutcheson_Hill,_West_Dunbartonshire_near_Cleddans_.jpg
Scotland, Antonine Wall, Distance Slab22 viewsThese inscribed stones, known as distance slabs, are unique in the Roman Empire. They celebrate the work of the legions which constructed the Antonine Wall in Scotland. Evidence suggests that the slabs, all made of local sandstone, were set into stone frames along the length of the Wall and are likely to have faced South into the Empire.
Nineteen of these slabs are known of so far, the elaborate carving on many of them celebrating the culmination of a successful campaign by the triumphant Roman army.

IMP C T AE HADRIANO ANTONINO AVG PIO P P VEX LEG XX VV FEC PP III
"For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, a detachment of the Twentieth Valient and Victorious Legion built this over a distance of 3000 feet"

This slab was found at Hutcheson Hill, near Cleddans, West Dunbartonshire and it is now in the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow.
*Alex
Found_near_Bridgeness,_Bo__ness,_West_Lothian.JPG
Scotland, Antonine Wall, Distance Slab21 viewsThese inscribed stones, known as distance slabs, are unique in the Roman Empire. They celebrate the work of the legions which constructed the Antonine Wall in Scotland. Evidence suggests that the slabs, all made of local sandstone, were set into stone frames along the length of the Wall and are likely to have faced South into the Empire.
Nineteen of these slabs are known of so far, the elaborate carving on many of them celebrating the culmination of a successful campaign by the triumphant Roman army.

IMP CAES TITO AELIO HADRI ANTONINO AVG PIO P P LEG II AVG PER M P IIIIDCLII FEC
"For the Emperor Caesar Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, Father of his Country, the Second Augustan Legion completed 4652 feet"

This slab was found at Bridgeness, Bo'ness in 1868, it is now in the National Museum of Scotland in Edinburgh.
*Alex
Sear_0281.jpg
Sear 028121 viewsJustinian I (527 – 565 CE) Nummus, weight 0.65g, diameter 9mm. Wroth ( i.e. the old British Museum Vandals, Ostrogoths and Lombards catalogue) attributed this type to Hilderic, but it is most likely a Byzantine imperial issue: from the mint at Carthage (or possibly another North African mint) and struck soon after the end of the Vandalic War in 534. Abu Galyon
othoRIC2.jpg
Second_RIC 2148 viewsThis is the rarest Otho denarius. Seven coins, all minted with the same die-pair, are known. ANS and Paris are the only major museums to have this one. 3.27 gr, die-axis 6.1 commentsjmuona
Seleucid_Kingdom,_Seleukos_I_,_Tetradrachm,_Seleucia_on_Tigris_,_CSE_937_this_coin.jpg
Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukos I Nikator, 312-281 BC, AR Tetradrachm - Seleukeia on the Tigris 23 viewsHead of Herakles right wearing lion skin headdress.
ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣEΛEYKOY Zeus Nikephoros seated left, NO in left field.

SC 119.3(a); HGC 9, 16f; ESM 23 (same dies A27-P79); CSE 937 (this coin); CSE 2, 58 (AHNS 1047).
Seleukeia on the Tigris mint ca. 300-296 BC.

(25 mm, 16.91 g, 12h).
ex-William K. Raymond Collection; ex- Arthur Houghton Collection.

Some time in the last five years of the fourth century BC the mint at Seleukeia on the Tigris opened to issue coinage in the name of Seleukos. Initial issues maintained the Zeus Aëtophoros (eagle) reverse image. However, shortly thereafter, the Zeus Nikephoros (Nike) image was introduced in parallel with the Aëtophoros image. The Nikephoros reverse was a direct allusion to Seleukos victory over Antigonos at Ipsos in 301 BC. This is one of three known examples of SC 119.3(a). The others are ESM 23 in the Danish national collection Copenhagen and CSE 2, 58 (AHNS 1047). Seleucid Coins lists another from the Tricala 1979 hoard (CH IX, 000) in the Athens Numismatic Museum, but this is in fact an example of ESM 24 (Zeus Aëtophoros) that was incorrectly catalogued as ESM 23 by Oeconomides - refer Oeconomides Pl. 66, 109. All noted examples are from the same obverse die. The obverse of this coin is a die match to that of a Zeus Aëtophoros issue with identical NO primary control which is now found in the Berlin collection (ESM 24; Newell Pl V, 4).
n.igma
Severus_RIC231.jpg
Septimius Severus, 193–211 CE90 viewsAR denarius, Rome, 209 CE; 3.34g. BMCRE 357, C 536 (Gosselin Sale, 5 Fr.), RIC 231. Obv: SEVERVS – PIVS AVG; head laureate r. Rx: PM TR P XVII COS III – PP; Septimius, laureate, bearded, and in military dress, on horse charging left, about to hurl spear at enemy on ground, who defends himself with spear and shield.

Notes: First special issue of the joint reign of Severus and Caracalla commemorating victories in Britain. Rare; according to Harlan J. Berk, Ltd., this type may specifically refer to "Severus’s attack on the tribes of Scotland: not in Paris in Cohen’s day, nor in the British Museum by 1975, though by a fluke the Reka Devnia hoard contained five specimens."

Provenance: Ex Berk BBS 175 (May 2011), lot 218; ex CNG 41 (19 March 1997), lot 2009.
3 commentsMichael K5
GI 064k img.jpg
Septimius Severus, AE19, Augusta Traiana, Dionysos 16 viewsObv:– AV K L CEVHPOC, Laureate bust right
Rev:– AYΓOYCTHC TPAIANHC, Dionysos holding Kantharos (cup) and Thyrsos
Minted in Augusta Traiana, Thrace
Reference(s) – Schönert-Geiss 176var, different obverse die: V67 instead of V61, unknown reverse die instead of R154 also: Varbanov² 967, Moushmov 3009; S-G 176 and the other two referring to the same specimen in the Sofia Museum
maridvnvm
rr_1073_revised_Large.jpg
Sextus Pompey -- Neptune and Naval Trophy89 viewsSextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet
[Youngest Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)]
Obv: [MAG or MA (ligatured) G]⦁PIVS⦁IMP⦁ITER; Portrait of Neptune facing r., diademed and bearded, trident over l. shoulder. Border of dots.
Rev: [PRAE (AE ligatured) F⦁CLAS⦁ET⦁ORAE (AE ligatured)]⦁MAR (ligatured) IT⦁EX⦁S⦁C⦁; Naval trophy with trident on top and anchor on bottom, prow stem on l. and aplustre on r., at base two representations of Charybdis and two dog heads of Scylla. Border of dots.
Denomination: silver denarius; Mint: Sicily, uncertain location1; Date: summer 42 - summer 39 BC2; Weight: 3.89g; Diameter: 17mm; Die axis: 30º; References, for example: Sear CRI 333; BMCRR v. II Sicily 15, 16, and 17 variant3; Sydenham 1347 variant3; Crawford RRC 511/2a or 2b4.

Notes:

Obverse legend: MAG[NUS]⦁PIVS⦁IMP[ERATOR]⦁ITER[UM]
Reverse legend: PRAEF[ECTUS]⦁CLAS[SIS]⦁ET⦁ORAE⦁MARIT[IMAE]⦁EX⦁S[ENATUS]⦁C[ONSULTO]

1Sear CRI, Crawford RRC, Sydenham, and DeRose Evans (1987) all place the minting of this coin type in Sicily, but they do not reference a possible location. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily suggests Messana.
2This is the date range argued for in Estiot 2006 (p. 145). Estiot recommends returning to Crawford’s proposal of 42 - 40 BC. Crawford RRC, p. 521 suggests the period in 42 BC after Sextus Pompey defeated Q. Salvidienus Rufus. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.562 proposes 38 - 36 BC and Sydenham, p. 210 adopts the same datation. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 129 offers a time between late summer 36 and September 36 BC.
3Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily 15, 16, and 17 and Sydenham 1347 only list a reverse legend containing MAR (ligatured) I but the coin here is MAR (ligatured) IT.
4It is impossible to see the full obverse legend, so it cannot be determined if MA is ligatured or not. The reverse legend is clearly the first variety of 2a or 2b, a variety not found on 2c.

Provenance: from the collection of W. F. Stoecklin, Amriswil, Switzerland; acquired from Hess AG in Luzern, from the Ernst Haeberlin collection, Cahn & Hess, Frankfurt, July 17, 1933, lot 2889.

Photo credits: Shanna Schmidt Numismatics

Sources

Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage v. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001 reprint with the 1982 corrections.
DeRose Evans, Jane. "The Sicilian Coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511)" in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 32 (1987): 97 - 157.
Estiot, Sylviane. “Sex. Pompée, La Sicile et La Monnaie: Problèmes de Datation.” In Aere Perennivs, en hommage á Hubert Zehnacker édité par Jacqueline Champeaux et Martine Chassignet. Paris: L’Université Paris - Sorbonne, 2006.
Grueber, H. A. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum v. II. London: 1910.
Sear, David R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. London: Spink, 1998.
Sydenham, Edward A. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. New York: Arno Press, 1975, rev. ed.
7 commentsTracy Aiello
Sextus_Pompey_Scylla.jpg
Sextus Pompey -- Pharos and Scylla66 viewsSextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet
[Youngest Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)]
Obv: MAG⦁PIVS⦁IMP⦁ITER; Pharos of Messana, Neptune on top standing r. with r. hand on a trident and l. hand on a rudder, resting l. foot on prow. Galley sailing l., aquila atop a tripod placed in prow and a scepter tied with a fillet in stern. Border of dots.
Rev: PRAEF⦁ORAE⦁MARIT⦁ET⦁CLAS⦁S⦁C [AEs and MAR ligatured]; Scylla attacking l. wielding a rudder in both hands, the torso of a nude woman with two fishtails and the foreparts of three dogs as the lower body. Border of dots.
Denomination: silver denarius; Mint: Sicily, uncertain location1; Date: summer 42 - summer 39 BC2; Weight: 3.566g; Diameter: 19.8mm; Die axis: 225º; References, for example: BMCRR v. II Sicily 20 variant3, Sydenham 1349 variant3; Crawford RRC 511/4d; Sear CRI 335b.

Notes:

Obverse legend: MAG[NUS]⦁PIVS⦁IMP[ERATOR]⦁ITER[UM]
Reverse legend: PRAEF[ECTUS]⦁ORAE⦁MARIT[IMAE]⦁ET⦁CLAS[SIS]⦁S[ENATUS]⦁C[ONSULTO]

1Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.557 and Sear CRI, p. 203 suggest Messana as a possible mint location. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 124 hesitatingly suggests Mitylene (on the island of Lesbos).

2This is the date range suggested by Estiot 2006, p. 145, as she recommends going back to Crawford’s proposal of 42 - 40 BC. Crawford RRC, p. 521 suggests the period in 42 BC after Sextus Pompey defeated Q. Salvidienus Rufus. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.556 proposes 38 - 36 BC. Sydenham, p.211 follows Grueber. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 129 submits 35 BC.

3Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily 20 and Sydenham 1349 list MAR (ligatured) I but the coin here is clearly MAR (ligatured) IT. Neither Grueber nor Sydenham record MAR (ligatured) IT as part of this reverse legend for this coin type. Crawford and Sear do.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage v. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001 reprint with the 1982 corrections.
DeRose Evans, Jane. "The Sicilian Coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511)" in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 32 (1987): 97 - 157.
Estiot, Sylviane. “Sex. Pompée, La Sicile et La Monnaie: Problèmes de Datation.” In Aere Perennivs, en hommage á Hubert Zehnacker, édité par Jacqueline Champeaux et Martine Chassignet. Paris: L’Université Paris - Sorbonne, 2006.
Grueber, H. A. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum v. II. London: 1910.
Sear, David R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. London: Spink, 1998.
Sydenham, Edward A. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. New York: Arno Press, 1975, rev. ed.
7 commentsTracy Aiello
rr_1074_revised_Large.jpg
Sextus Pompey -- Pompey the Great and Neptune with Catanaean Brothers36 viewsSextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet
[Youngest Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)]

Obv: [MAG⦁PIVS⦁IMP⦁ITER]; portrait of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus r.; behind jug; before lituus. Border of dots.
Rev: above, [PRAE (AE ligatured) F]; in exergue, CLAS⦁ET⦁[ORAE (AE ligatured)⦁MAR (ligatured) IT⦁EX⦁S⦁C]; Neptune standing l., wearing diadem, aplustre in r. hand, cloak over l. arm, r. foot on prow,; on either side a Catanaean brother bearing one of his parents on his shoulders1. Border of dots.
Denomination: silver denarius; Mint: Sicily, uncertain location2; Date: summer 42 - summer 39 BC3; Weight: 3.68g; Diameter: 17mm; Die axis: 30º; References, for example: Sear CRI 334; BMCRR v. II Sicily 7, 8, 9, and 10; Sydenham 1344; Crawford RRC 511/3a.

Notes:

Obverse legend: MAG[NUS]⦁PIVS⦁IMP[ERATOR]⦁ITER[UM]
Reverse legend: PRAEF[ECTUS]⦁CLAS[SIS]⦁ET⦁ORAE⦁MARIT[IMAE]⦁EX⦁S[ENATUS]⦁C[ONSULTO]

1Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily appears a bit hesitant in his pronouncement that the representation of the Catanaean brothers in fact refers to Sextus’ title Pius (p. 561), but Sear CRI appears to have no such hesitation when he states “...the type illustrates the theme of ‘Pietas’ in connection with the assumption of the name Pius.” (p.203). DeRose Evans (1987) goes further (pp. 115 - 116), arguing that Sextus chose the Catanaean brothers (“...he consciously identifies himself with the south Italian heroes”) as a way to deliberately contrast his Pietas with that of Octavian’s.
2Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily tentatively suggests Catana as a possible location and Sear CRI follows suit.
3This is the date range argued for in Estiot 2006 (p. 145). Estiot recommends returning to Crawford’s proposal of 42 - 40 BC. Crawford RRC, p. 521 suggests the period in 42 BC after Sextus Pompey defeated Q. Salvidienus Rufus. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.560 proposes 42 - 38 BC and Sydenham, p. 210 follows suit. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 129 offers a time between late summer 36 and September 36 BC.

Provenance: From the collection of W. F. Stoecklin, Amriswil, Switzerland, acquired from Hess AG in Luzern prior to 1975. Ex Dr. Jacob Hirsch 33, 17 November 1913, lot 1058

Photo credits: Shanna Schmidt Numismatics

Sources

BMCRR: Grueber, H. A. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum v. II. London: 1910.
Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage v. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019 reprint with the 1982 corrections.
DeRose Evans, Jane. "The Sicilian Coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511)" in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 32 (1987): 97 - 157.
Estiot, Sylviane. “Sex. Pompée, La Sicile et La Monnaie: Problèmes de Datation.” In Aere Perennivs, en hommage á Hubert Zehnacker, édité par Jacqueline Champeaux et Martine Chassignet. Paris: L’Université Paris - Sorbonne, 2006.
Sear, David R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. London: Spink, 1998.
Sydenham, Edward A. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. New York: Arno Press, 1975, rev. ed.
2 commentsTracy Aiello
Shapur2.jpg
Shapur II (A.D. 310–379)28 viewsHead of a king, probably Shapur II, Sasanian; A.D. 310–379
Iran
Silver, mercury gilding; H. 40 cm
Fletcher Fund, 1965 (65.126)

Description
The Sasanian dynasty of Iran ruled an area from the Euphrates River to Bactria from the third century A.D. until the Islamic conquest in the seventh century, controlling for much of that time the Silk Route from Byzantium to China.

Dating from the fourth century A.D., this silver head of a Sasanian king is an exquisite example of Sasanian metalwork. It is raised from a single piece of silver with chased and repoussé details. The king wears simple ovoid earrings and a beaded necklace of Sasanian fashion. His powerful stare and characteristic arched nose seem to suggest that the artist was attempting to convey a sense of majesty rather than an individual likeness. The identity of the subject of such representations, in relief or in the round, can often be determined by comparison of facial features and details of the crown with those of kings portrayed on Sasanian coins of the period. In this case, however, the crescent that decorates the crenellated crown and the striated orb that rises above it have no exact parallel. A combination of stylistic details suggests that it was made sometime in the fourth century, perhaps during the reign of Shapur II (A.D. 310–379). The lower section of this head has been cut away, so there is no way of knowing whether it was originally part of a larger sculpture composed of several pieces or a decorative bust intended to be seen alone.

Copyright © 2000–2007 The Metropolitan Museum of Art. All rights reserved. www.metmuseum.org. Used by permission.
Cleisthenes
Picture_179.jpg
Shiptonthorpe hoard coins44 viewsOld pictures, the quality's not good but these are coins from the Shiptonthorpe hoard which I found in September 2001. 523 late House of Constantine bronzes in a Lower Nene Valley ware jar. Declared treasure and currently housed in Hull museum in a tupperware box !2 commentshooverman
Picture_177.jpg
Shiptonthorpe hoard coins 237 viewsOld pictures, the quality's not good but these are coins from the Shiptonthorpe hoard which I found in September 2001. 523 late House of Constantine bronzes in a Lower Nene Valley ware jar. Declared treasure and currently housed in Hull museum in a tupperware box !hooverman
BeFunky_Collage~2.jpg
Sicily Gela AR Hexas-Dionkion 3mm 0.09g circa 480-470 BC very rare Jenkins list one coin in the British Museum24 viewsHorse head right.Rev two dots,mark of valueGrant H
249560_m.jpg
Sicily Gela AR Hexas-Dionkion 3mm 0.09g circa 480-470 BC very rare Jenkins list one coin in the British Museum34 viewsBridle horse head to right in circle of dots.Rev Two pellets {mark of value} in linear circle.2 commentsGrant H
BeFunky_Collage~4.jpg
Sicily Gela AR Hexas-Dionkion 3mm 0.09g circa 480-470 BC very rare Jenkins list one coin in the British Museum28 viewsHorse head right.Rev two dots mark of value.Grant H
thumb03024.jpg
Sicily Gela AR Hexas-Dionkion circa 480-475 0.11g22 viewsBridled. horse head right in dotted circle.Rev two dots for value.
Jenkins Gela 199 one coin listed the British Museum.very rare
Grant H
simi.JPG
simi69 viewsMy Wife, Museum Negara, KL.rexesq
1a_50_75.jpg
Sinope, Paphlagonia43 views125-100 B.C.
Bronze AE21
8.30 gm, 21 mm
Obv: Bust of Artemis right wearing stephane, bow and quiver over shoulder.
Rev: ΣINΩ-ΠHΣ to either side of tripod with lebes
Sear 3712;
BMC 13, p.100, 51;
SNG Vol: IX 1524 British Museum
HGC 7, 417;
[SNG Cop 313]
2 commentsJaimelai
ger.JPG
Slovakia, Gerulata 177 viewsRoman military camp located near today's Rusovce, a borough of Bratislava, Slovakia. It was part of the Roman province Pannonia and built in the 2nd century as a part of the Limes Romanus system. It was abandoned in the 4th century, when Roman legions withdrew from Pannonia.

Today there is a museum, which is part of the Bratislava City Museum.

The most preserved object is a quadrilateral building 30 metres long and 30 metres wide, with 2.4 metre thick walls.
Bohemian
statue2.jpg
Spain, Santiponce, Italica.32 viewsThe copy of the statue of Venus is placed close to the entrance. The original, now in the Archelogical Museum in Sevilla, was found in Italica.jmuona
trajanus.jpg
Spain, Santiponce, Italica.43 viewsBust of Trajanus, copy at the ticket booth in Italica, original in Archelogical Museum, Sevilla.
Trajanus was born in this city. May, 2002.
jmuona
wall.jpg
Spain, Santiponce, Italica.64 viewsFragments of old painted wall. very little is left of this type of structures.
The largest floor mosaics are in the Archelogical Museum in Sevilla but many fine ones were at the orginal site in May, 2002.
jmuona
Spain- Taragona- Entrance to the Roman Circus.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Entrance to the Roman Circus and Provicial Forum29 viewsThe Roman Circus


The circus was the most popular of the buildings used for spectacles during Roman times. This was where chariot races were held (with two or four horse chariots). It was build in the late 1st century AD and was part of a large monumental area organized into three terraces, of which it occupied the lower one. The circus is exceptionally well preserved and sections of the ruins can be seen in some of the business in the Placa de la Font (square) and Trinquet Vell Street, as well as in the interior of the Pizzeria Pulvinar and in the Placa Sedassos.
The circus was constructed on strong cement vaults that served a twin purpose. They were the foundations on which the stands, staircases and upper platforms were built, as well as the interior corridors through which the spectators could move about the whole building. It was in use until the 5th century.
During the Middle Age (12th and 13th centuries) the wall separating the circus and forum was turned into a defensive wall (Mur vell). The area of the circus remained outside the walls. It became known as the “corral” and was used for industrial and mercantile activities. In the time of king Pere III “the Ceremonious” the threat of war caused it to be reincorporated into the walled area when a second defensive line known as La Muralleta was built along the façade of the circus in 1368.
The circus was partially destroyed by Napoleon´s troops in 1813.

Provincial Forum

The Provincial Forum was built in the upper part of the city around the year 73 AD, during the time of the emperor Vespasian, and functed as the political and economic administrative center of the province.
It was laid out on two terraces, taking advantage of the slope of the terrain. The upper terrace was the site of the Imperial worship area, and lower terrace housed the Plaza of Representation, from where the whole province was administered. This is where such important buildings as the tabularium (state archive) and the arca (state treasury) were located.
The Forum was a large square with gardens and was bordered on three sides by colonnades and a series of galleries situated on different levels. To provide access to the different areas there were lateral towers housing stairways. The Praetorian Tower was one of these.
With the restoration of the city after 1129, the tower was converted into a residence, initially for the Norman, Robert Bordet. From 1171, it was the King´s castle and for brief periods members of the royal family lived there. During the time of James I and also of Peter III it underwent major restauration work.
By the end of the 15th century the building was no longer used as a royal residence. It took on a military role until the arrival in the city of Napoleon´s army in 1811. From the middle of the 19th century it was the Provincial Prison, and since 1971 it has been a museum
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus inside Tunnels.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus inside Tunnels31 viewsThe Roman Circus


The circus was the most popular of the buildings used for spectacles during Roman times. This was where chariot races were held (with two or four horse chariots). It was build in the late 1st century AD and was part of a large monumental area organized into three terraces, of which it occupied the lower one. The circus is exceptionally well preserved and sections of the ruins can be seen in some of the business in the Placa de la Font (square) and Trinquet Vell Street, as well as in the interior of the Pizzeria Pulvinar and in the Placa Sedassos.
The circus was constructed on strong cement vaults that served a twin purpose. They were the foundations on which the stands, staircases and upper platforms were built, as well as the interior corridors through which the spectators could move about the whole building. It was in use until the 5th century.
During the Middle Age (12th and 13th centuries) the wall separating the circus and forum was turned into a defensive wall (Mur vell). The area of the circus remained outside the walls. It became known as the “corral” and was used for industrial and mercantile activities. In the time of king Pere III “the Ceremonious” the threat of war caused it to be reincorporated into the walled area when a second defensive line known as La Muralleta was built along the façade of the circus in 1368.
The circus was partially destroyed by Napoleon´s troops in 1813.

Provincial Forum

The Provincial Forum was built in the upper part of the city around the year 73 AD, during the time of the emperor Vespasian, and functed as the political and economic administrative center of the province.
It was laid out on two terraces, taking advantage of the slope of the terrain. The upper terrace was the site of the Imperial worship area, and lower terrace housed the Plaza of Representation, from where the whole province was administered. This is where such important buildings as the tabularium (state archive) and the arca (state treasury) were located.
The Forum was a large square with gardens and was bordered on three sides by colonnades and a series of galleries situated on different levels. To provide access to the different areas there were lateral towers housing stairways. The Praetorian Tower was one of these.
With the restoration of the city after 1129, the tower was converted into a residence, initially for the Norman, Robert Bordet. From 1171, it was the King´s castle and for brief periods members of the royal family lived there. During the time of James I and also of Peter III it underwent major restauration work.
By the end of the 15th century the building was no longer used as a royal residence. It took on a military role until the arrival in the city of Napoleon´s army in 1811. From the middle of the 19th century it was the Provincial Prison, and since 1971 it has been a museum
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus inside Tunnels 1.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus inside Tunnels 119 viewsThe Roman Circus


The circus was the most popular of the buildings used for spectacles during Roman times. This was where chariot races were held (with two or four horse chariots). It was build in the late 1st century AD and was part of a large monumental area organized into three terraces, of which it occupied the lower one. The circus is exceptionally well preserved and sections of the ruins can be seen in some of the business in the Placa de la Font (square) and Trinquet Vell Street, as well as in the interior of the Pizzeria Pulvinar and in the Placa Sedassos.
The circus was constructed on strong cement vaults that served a twin purpose. They were the foundations on which the stands, staircases and upper platforms were built, as well as the interior corridors through which the spectators could move about the whole building. It was in use until the 5th century.
During the Middle Age (12th and 13th centuries) the wall separating the circus and forum was turned into a defensive wall (Mur vell). The area of the circus remained outside the walls. It became known as the “corral” and was used for industrial and mercantile activities. In the time of king Pere III “the Ceremonious” the threat of war caused it to be reincorporated into the walled area when a second defensive line known as La Muralleta was built along the façade of the circus in 1368.
The circus was partially destroyed by Napoleon´s troops in 1813.

Provincial Forum

The Provincial Forum was built in the upper part of the city around the year 73 AD, during the time of the emperor Vespasian, and functed as the political and economic administrative center of the province.
It was laid out on two terraces, taking advantage of the slope of the terrain. The upper terrace was the site of the Imperial worship area, and lower terrace housed the Plaza of Representation, from where the whole province was administered. This is where such important buildings as the tabularium (state archive) and the arca (state treasury) were located.
The Forum was a large square with gardens and was bordered on three sides by colonnades and a series of galleries situated on different levels. To provide access to the different areas there were lateral towers housing stairways. The Praetorian Tower was one of these.
With the restoration of the city after 1129, the tower was converted into a residence, initially for the Norman, Robert Bordet. From 1171, it was the King´s castle and for brief periods members of the royal family lived there. During the time of James I and also of Peter III it underwent major restauration work.
By the end of the 15th century the building was no longer used as a royal residence. It took on a military role until the arrival in the city of Napoleon´s army in 1811. From the middle of the 19th century it was the Provincial Prison, and since 1971 it has been a museum
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus Model.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus Model21 viewsThe Roman Circus


The circus was the most popular of the buildings used for spectacles during Roman times. This was where chariot races were held (with two or four horse chariots). It was build in the late 1st century AD and was part of a large monumental area organized into three terraces, of which it occupied the lower one. The circus is exceptionally well preserved and sections of the ruins can be seen in some of the business in the Placa de la Font (square) and Trinquet Vell Street, as well as in the interior of the Pizzeria Pulvinar and in the Placa Sedassos.
The circus was constructed on strong cement vaults that served a twin purpose. They were the foundations on which the stands, staircases and upper platforms were built, as well as the interior corridors through which the spectators could move about the whole building. It was in use until the 5th century.
During the Middle Age (12th and 13th centuries) the wall separating the circus and forum was turned into a defensive wall (Mur vell). The area of the circus remained outside the walls. It became known as the “corral” and was used for industrial and mercantile activities. In the time of king Pere III “the Ceremonious” the threat of war caused it to be reincorporated into the walled area when a second defensive line known as La Muralleta was built along the façade of the circus in 1368.
The circus was partially destroyed by Napoleon´s troops in 1813.

Provincial Forum

The Provincial Forum was built in the upper part of the city around the year 73 AD, during the time of the emperor Vespasian, and functed as the political and economic administrative center of the province.
It was laid out on two terraces, taking advantage of the slope of the terrain. The upper terrace was the site of the Imperial worship area, and lower terrace housed the Plaza of Representation, from where the whole province was administered. This is where such important buildings as the tabularium (state archive) and the arca (state treasury) were located.
The Forum was a large square with gardens and was bordered on three sides by colonnades and a series of galleries situated on different levels. To provide access to the different areas there were lateral towers housing stairways. The Praetorian Tower was one of these.
With the restoration of the city after 1129, the tower was converted into a residence, initially for the Norman, Robert Bordet. From 1171, it was the King´s castle and for brief periods members of the royal family lived there. During the time of James I and also of Peter III it underwent major restauration work.
By the end of the 15th century the building was no longer used as a royal residence. It took on a military role until the arrival in the city of Napoleon´s army in 1811. From the middle of the 19th century it was the Provincial Prison, and since 1971 it has been a museum
John Schou
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus Model fracture.jpg
Spain- Taragona- Roman Circus Model fracture37 viewsThe Roman Circus


The circus was the most popular of the buildings used for spectacles during Roman times. This was where chariot races were held (with two or four horse chariots). It was build in the late 1st century AD and was part of a large monumental area organized into three terraces, of which it occupied the lower one. The circus is exceptionally well preserved and sections of the ruins can be seen in some of the business in the Placa de la Font (square) and Trinquet Vell Street, as well as in the interior of the Pizzeria Pulvinar and in the Placa Sedassos.
The circus was constructed on strong cement vaults that served a twin purpose. They were the foundations on which the stands, staircases and upper platforms were built, as well as the interior corridors through which the spectators could move about the whole building. It was in use until the 5th century.
During the Middle Age (12th and 13th centuries) the wall separating the circus and forum was turned into a defensive wall (Mur vell). The area of the circus remained outside the walls. It became known as the “corral” and was used for industrial and mercantile activities. In the time of king Pere III “the Ceremonious” the threat of war caused it to be reincorporated into the walled area when a second defensive line known as La Muralleta was built along the façade of the circus in 1368.
The circus was partially destroyed by Napoleon´s troops in 1813.

Provincial Forum

The Provincial Forum was built in the upper part of the city around the year 73 AD, during the time of the emperor Vespasian, and functed as the political and economic administrative center of the province.
It was laid out on two terraces, taking advantage of the slope of the terrain. The upper terrace was the site of the Imperial worship area, and lower terrace housed the Plaza of Representation, from where the whole province was administered. This is where such important buildings as the tabularium (state archive) and the arca (state treasury) were located.
The Forum was a large square with gardens and was bordered on three sides by colonnades and a series of galleries situated on different levels. To provide access to the different areas there were lateral towers housing stairways. The Praetorian Tower was one of these.
With the restoration of the city after 1129, the tower was converted into a residence, initially for the Norman, Robert Bordet. From 1171, it was the King´s castle and for brief periods members of the royal family lived there. During the time of James I and also of Peter III it underwent major restauration work.
By the end of the 15th century the building was no longer used as a royal residence. It took on a military role until the arrival in the city of Napoleon´s army in 1811. From the middle of the 19th century it was the Provincial Prison, and since 1971 it has been a museum
John Schou
HADRIAN_CONSECRATIO.JPG
Struck A.D.139 under Antoninus Pius. DIVUS HADRIAN. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome18 viewsObverse: DIVVS HADRIANVS AVG. Bare head of Hadrian facing right.
Reverse: CONSECRATIO. Eagle standing facing on globe, head turned left.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.2gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC II : 389b
VERY RARE.

The Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome was completed in the year this coin was struck, the emperor Antoninus Pius cremated the body of Hadrian and placed his ashes together with that of his wife Vibia Sabina and his adopted son, Lucius Aelius in the tomb.
The mausoleum was originally a towering decorated cylinder topped with a garden and a golden quadriga. The building, used by the popes in later centuries as a fortress and castle, is known today as the Castel Sant'Angelo. It is situated in Parco Adriano, Rome and is now a museum.
2 comments*Alex
DIVOPIO_COLUMN.JPG
Struck A.D.164 under Marcus Aurelius. DIVUS ANTONINUS PIUS. Commemorative AR Denarius of Rome6 viewsObverse: DIVVS ANTONINVS. Bare head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Reverse: DIVO PIO. Column of Antoninus Pius surmounted by statue of the emperor and surrounded by enclosure.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 3.1gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC III : 439 | VM : 137/2 | Sear : 5195

The Column of Antoninus Pius (Columna Antonini Pii) was erected in the Campus Martius in memory of Antoninus Pius by Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus c.A.D.158 on the twentieth anniversary of his reign. Constructed of red granite, the column was 14.75 metres high and 1.90m in diameter, unlike the otherwise similar column of Trajan it had no decorating reliefs. The masons' inscription shows that it was quarried out in A.D.106 and architecturally it belonged to the Ustrinum which was 25m north of it on the same orientation. It was surmounted by a statue of Antoninus Pius, as is represented on the coin. Previous to the 18th century the base was completely buried, but the lower part of the shaft projected about 6m above the ground. In 1703, when some buildings were demolished in the area of Montecitorio, the rest of the column and the base were discovered and excavated. The base, all four sides of which are shown below, still survives and is now housed in the Cortile della Pigna in the Vatican Museums.
*Alex
CITYCOM_APOLLO.JPG
Struck A.D.310 - 313 under Maximinus II. CITY COMMEMORATIVE AE3/4 of Antioch22 viewsObverse: GENIO ANTIOCHENI. The Tyche of Antioch seated facing with the river-god Orontes swimming facing below.
Reverse: APOLLONI SANCTO. Apollo standing facing left, holding lyre in his left hand and patera in his right; in right field, A; in exergue, SMA.
Diameter: 16mm | Weight: 1.6gms | Die Axis: 12
Vagi 2954

This coin, often called a quarter nummus or twelfth follis, the exact denomination being uncertain, is assigned to the time of the great persecution of Christians under Galerius and Maximinus II.
The obverse of the coin shows the famous Tyche of Antioch which was made by Eutychides of Sikyon in the second half of the 4th century B.C. The reverse possibly represents the statue of Apollo of Antioch which was made my Bryaxis around 400-350 B.C.
The statue below is a late Roman marble copy of the original Greek bronze statue of the Tyche of Antioch by Eutychides and it is now in the Vatican Museum (Galleria dei Candelabri).
3 comments*Alex
MAXIMINUS_2_FOLLIS_HERC.JPG
Struck A.D.312. MAXIMINUS II as AUGUSTUS. AE Follis of Nicomedia9 viewsObverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Maximinus facing right.
Reverse: HERCVLI VICTORI. Hercules standing facing right, his right hand on his hip, his left hand holding lionskin and resting on club; in left field, A with star above; in exergue, SMN.
RIC VI : 75. Weight 5.7gms.

On this coin Hercules is depicted in the same pose as the Farnese Hercules, a massive marble sculpture, which depicts a muscular Hercules leaning on his club, which has his lion-skin draped over it. The Farnese Hercules is probably a copy made in the early third century A.D., signed by Glykon, from an original by Lysippos that would have been made in the fourth century B.C. The copy was recovered from the Baths of Caracalla in Rome (dedicated in 216 A.D.) in 1546. It can be seen today in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples. The statue was popular with the Romans, and copies of it have been found at several Roman sites. It is one of the most famous sculptures of Hercules that have come down to us from antiquity.
1 comments*Alex
URBSROMA_TRS.JPG
Struck A.D.332 - 333 under Constantine I. AE3 "URBS ROMA" COMMEMORATIVE ISSUE of Treveri (Trier)4 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA. Helmeted and plumed bust of Roma facing left.
Reverse: No legend. She-wolf, double crescent or plate in perspective symbol on shoulder, standing facing left, suckling Romulus and Remus; above, two stars; in exergue, TR•S.
RIC VII : 542

This coin is from the Grassmoor Hoard, Derbyshire, England. This hoard, consisting of some 1375 coins, was deposited about A.D.340. It was found by a metal detectorist near Chesterfield on 7th January 2001. The find site at Grassmoor lies close to the route of a Roman Road, the modern-day A61, running south from Rotherham to Derby. However, there is no evidence of any Roman settlement in the immediate area so it is thought that the hoard was either buried by a traveller along the road or by someone living close to the nearby Chesterfield fort, which seems to have been abandoned by this date. All the coins were professionally conserved and identified by the British museum. Some of the coins from the hoard were retained by the British Museum to be displayed both there and at the Chesterfield Museum, the remainder were put up for auction and this is one of those.
*Alex
Athalaric.JPG
SUB-ROMAN, Ostrogoths, Athalaric 526-534 AD, Rome Mint75 viewsObv: Bust of Justinian Right, ...NIAN...
Rev: Monogram of Athalaric in Wreath
Wroth 47-56, p. 66-67
MEC 135
British Museum Catalog of Western and Provincial Byzantine COins #47-48, plate 8, #16-17
Laetvs
roman_buckles_4.jpg
Sword Belt (Cingulum) Hinged Buckle105 viewsThis buckle, with iron hinge and portion of the belt plate, is for a Roman military sword belt - a cingulum or balteus. Circa 1st century AD. It can be distinguished by the buckle design and the fleur-de-lys pin. Examples are found in Bishop and Coulston's Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 62 #8 (from Rheingonhiem Germany) and #19 (from Velsen Netherlands). A silver example is found in the Dura Europos excavation report volume 7, page 77, # 52. Examples can be seen in the British Museum and the Romische Museum in Germany. It likely dates to the first half of the 1st century AD.otlichnik
roman_buckles_3.jpg
Sword Belt Buckles108 viewsTwo non-hinged buckles for Roman sword belts (balteus or cingulum). The example on the left dates to the 3rd century AD; the right to the 1st or 2nd century AD.

An exact example of the left hand version can be found in Roman Military Equipment 2nd edition, figure 124, #11 from Corbridge UK, dated to the 3rd century. The Dura Europos report notes similar finds dating to 200-250 AD from Syria, Germany, Serbia, Romania, UK and Spain. The Ashmolean Museum collection notes an example found in a Sarmatian grave in Kerth Crimea.

An example of the right hand version can be found in Roman Military Equipment, 1st edition, figure 97, #15 from Hod Hill, UK, dated to the 1st century AD.
otlichnik
Belt_1a.jpg
Sword Belt Plate 1st century122 viewsThis large rectangular sword belt (cingulum) late is made of bronze with niello inlay in a vine design and traces of silvering and dates to the early 1st century AD. Similar examples can be seen in the legionnary's sword belt display in the British Museum and in Roman Military Equipment, 2nd edition, figure 62, #1-4 from Hod Hill UK and Rheingonheim Germany. When new the sword belt would have been covered in these shiny silvered plates with their with black decoration.otlichnik
Belt_6.jpg
Sword Belt Plates 2nd-3rd century AD.65 viewsTwo sword belt (cingulum) plates circa 2nd-3rd century AD. Parallels for the top example can be found in the Dura Europos report, volume7, figure 38, #85 and at the Carnuntum Museum in Bad Altenbach. A parallel for the lower example can be found in the Dura Europos report, volume 7, figure 38, #84. The centre portions may have been blank revealing the belt fabric or may have contained an enamel insert. otlichnik
Belt_5.jpg
Sword Belt Plates 3rd century AD.65 viewsTwo sword belt (cingulum) plates circa 3rd century AD. Similar examples for the top example, which may have been found at the buckle end of the belt - hence its assymetrical shape -, can be found in the Dura Europos report, volume7, figure 38, #85 and at the Carnuntum Museum in Bad Altenbach. A similar example for the lower example can be found in the Dura Europos report, volume7, figure 38, #84.otlichnik
Persephone_tetradrachm.JPG
Syracuse, Reign of Agathokles94 views317-289 BC
AR Tetradrachm (24mm, 17.14g)
O: Wreathed head of Kore (Persephone) right, wearing pendant earring and necklace; KOPAΣ behind.
R: Nike standing right, hammer in right hand, erecting trophy; triskeles to lower left, [ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΙΟΣ] behind, all within dotted border.
Struck between 313–295 BC.
HGC 2, 1536; SNG ANS 670-76; SNG Cop 766ff; Sear 972v; BMC 388v
ex Museum Surplus

“Kore, the Girl, is so intimately associated with her mother Demeter that they are often referred to simply as the Two Goddesses or even as Demeteres. Kore’s own enigmatic name is Persephone, or Phersephone, and in Attic Pherrephatta. In Homer she is mentioned alone and also in conjunction with her husband, Hades-Aidoneus, the personification of the underworld; her Homeric epithets are venerable, agaue, and awesome, epaine. Her two aspects, girl-like daughter of the Corn Goddess and Mistress of the Dead, are linked in the myth which, though ignored in heroic epic, is responsible almost exclusively for defining the picture of Demeter. The earliest extended version is the Homeric Hymn to Demeter, but Hesiod already alludes to it in the Theogony as an ancient and well known story, and aspects of the later tradition seem to preserve very ancient material.”
~ Walter Burkert (Greek Religion, 1985)
2 commentsEnodia
coins61.JPG
Syria, Apameia23 viewsApamea is located on the right bank of the Orontes river about 55 km to the north west of Hama. It overlooks the Ghab valley and was built by Seleucus Nicator, the first king of the Seleucids in Syria in 300 BC. He named it after his parisian wife, Afamea.

The city flourished to an extent that its population numbered half a million. As an Eastern crossroads, it received many distinguished visitors: Cleopetra, Septimus Severus and the Emperor Caracalla. In the Christian era, Apamea became a center of philosophy and thought, especially of Monophostism.

Most of the uncovered ruins in it date back to the Roman and Byzantine ages. It is distinguished for its high walls and the main thoroughfare surrounded by columns with twisted fluting. The street is 1850 meters long and 87 meters wide. The ruins of the Roman theater which have been frequently disturbed, are now a great mass of stone.

Its colonnade (The Cardo Maximus) is 145 meters long. Erected in the 2nd century, it was destroyed in the 12th century by two violent earthquakes; some columns are still standing nevertheless.

To the west of the city, stands the Mudiq citadel, which once formed a defense line along the Orontes.

Fierce battles with Crusaders attempting to conquer it took place in the 12th century, and Nour Eddin finally surrendered it in 1149.

The citadel has huge towers, overlooking the Ghab valley. It also has a Khan (Inn) built by Ottomans in the 16th century which was transformed into an archaeological museum housing Apamea's wonderful mosaics, paintings, and 15,000 cuneiform clay tablets.

Apameia, Syria: Athena / Nike

2nd c. BC. 22mm. Helmeted bust of Athena right / Nike walking left, As SG 5868 but variant legend. aVF. Ex-Sayles
ecoli
Vlasto_1489.JPG
Taras, Calabria57 views325-280 BC
AR Litra (11mm, 0.64g, 12h)
O: Scallop shell with nine teeth.
R: Dolphin leaping right; small dolphin left above, |-HP(?) below.
Vlasto 1489 (this coin); McGill II, 182; HN Italy 979
From the M.P Vlasto Collection. ex MNS

Vlasto plate coin, #1489.
“... The part of the small denominations, which owing to their small size, have always been ignored by the collectors, show such a sequence of small works of art, and so complete, that every museum would be pleased to have it in its cabinet. For many numismatists some of these tiny pieces, will be a real revelation.”
~ Oscar E. Ravel (Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto - 1947)

1 commentsEnodia
Vlasto_1099.JPG
Taras, Calabria91 views302 - 281 BC (Period VI)
AR Drachm (16mm, 3.09g, 3h)
Nikokrates magistrate.
O: Head of Athena right, wearing Attic helmet decorated with Skylla throwing stone.
R: Owl with closed wings standing right on Ionic capital, head facing; [NIKO]KPAT[HΣ] to left, TA to right.
Vlasto 1099 (this coin); HN Italy 1052
From the M.P. Vlasto Collection. ex CNG

Vlasto plate coin, #1099.
“Michel P. Vlasto was born in Athens on the 1st February 1874 and studied in Marseilles.
… He was a born artist and very good at drawing. His artistic feeling made him a real worshipper of Greek art; everything beautiful charmed him; if he could have done so a museum would have been his home. The real pleasure he felt in admiring a beautiful work of Greek art was so intense that he used to say he could not imagine life without Art and that Beauty and Happiness went together. As a result he could not feel happy unless he was surrounded by Beauty. The room where he used to spend most of his leisure was a kind of temple in which a few perfect specimens of Greek art were the idols he worshipped in a real religious way.
… But all these splendid surroundings were only the frame of the world famous collection of Tarentine coins which represented his chief interest in life and really his sole hobby. But he did not limit himself to collecting coins as most collectors do; he was a real self-made scholar; his knowledge of Tarentine numismatic was complete; there was not a single coin in a public or private cabinet which he did not know, and nothing was said or written about Tarentum, its history and its art which escaped him. He published several contributions to numismatics and many of his books are famous.”
~ Oscar E. Ravel (Descriptive Catalogue of the Collection of Tarentine Coins formed by M. P. Vlasto - 1947)
4 commentsEnodia
Tibese10-2~0.jpg
TEMPLE, Tiberius, sestertius - temple of Concordia120 viewsÆ Sestertius (26,50g, Ø 35mm, 12h). Rome, AD 36-37.
Obv.: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXXIIX around large S C.
Rev.: Hexastyle temple on podium of five steps with flanking walls to r. and l.; Concordia seated within, holding patera and cornucopiae, flanked by the statues of Hercules and Mercurius; Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Victories and other figures above empty pediment.
RIC 67 (R); BMC 133; Cohen 70; RCV 1766
Ex Varesi Numismatica Auction 65, 10 Feb. 2015; ex Ex Astarte XII, 12 Sep. 2003, lot 485.

The temple of Concordia in the Roman Forum was restored and embellished under Tiberius. It housed so many antique statues that Pliny the Elder called it a museum of art and Greek sculpture.
1 commentsCharles S
2007_09110236.JPG
The British museum - Nereid monument172 viewsTetrastyl temple in ionic styl built by pieces from Xanthos in Lycia.
Johny SYSEL
003-HGH.JPG
The Holey Gold Hat35 viewsA closer shot of my trademark headgear. The beads are semiprecious gemstone beads which I bought for something ridiculous at a museum gift shop- like two bucks for the entire lot. I thought they were classy. Will add pictures of the coins themselves when I can, and then move on to the non-gold coins on the vest. That's a work in progress. All of the gold coins on the hat, as well as the other coins on the vest, range in date from ancient times to the year 1900. I chose to cut it off the entire collection the end of the 19th century, because I had little interest in more modern holeys. I also exclude anything with a mintmade hole, or else I would be forced to wear 300 pounds of Chinese cash coins.lordmarcovan
26720289.jpg
The Lion of Knidos128 viewsThe British MuseumJohny SYSEL
telephosFriezeTelephosFriezec6p15.jpg
The Telephos Frieze66 viewsTelephos was the mythic founder of Pergamon, one of the most beautiful cities of the Hellenistic age. Some scenes which describe Telephos' adventures, housed at the Pergamon Museum in the former East Berlin, were on exhibit at the Palazzo Ruspoli in 1996-7. Originally, 22 centuries ago, this beautiful sculpture was placed along the perimeter of the inner walls of the Zeus Altar at Pergamum. The Telephos Frieze was composed of a sequence of 52 panels. In the 19th century, German archaeologists were able to "save" only a portion of this magnificent work of ancient art.

To view 12 of these panels see: http://www.1stmuse.com/Pergamon/frieze.html
Cleisthenes
Felix_Ravenna_Victory_ab.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Ravenna - 5 nummi156 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). Æ 5 Nummi (15 mm, 1.67 g), Ravenna. Obverse: crowned head of Ravenna right, [FELIX R]-AVENNA (retrograde). Reverse: Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm branch, R-V in fields. Metlich 81; Ranieri 252-4; MEC –.

Rare. Metlich (2004) cites six coins, four of which are in museums (Ravenna, Milan, Torino, Vienna), and suggests that they belong to the very earliest of Theoderic's Æ coinage from the 490's. This is the only Æ coin of Theoderic that is believed to belong to Ravenna; all other Æ coins where minted in Rome.

Ex Dix Noonan Webb 2009, A8, Lot 5968.
1 commentsjbc
Felix_Ravenna_eagle_ab.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Rome - 10 nummi95 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). Æ 10 Nummi (16 mm, 2.72 g), Rome. Obverse: crowned head of Ravenna right, FELIX R-AVENNA. Reverse: Eagle left between two stars, X in exergue. Metlich 77; Ranieri 255-6; MEC –.

Approximately 20-30 coins known. Metlich (2004) cites thirteen coins in museums and sold at major auctions. Metrological evidence suggests that this type was emitted at about the same time as the more common type with the Ravenna monogram on the reverse (Metlich, 2004).
jbc
Theoderic_nummus.jpg
Theoderic the Great - Rome - 2 nummi101 viewsTheoderic the Great (454-526), Ostrogothic king (471-526), ruler of Italy (494-526). Æ 2 Nummi (10 mm, 0.84 g), Rome. Obverse: diademed head right, [D N] ANA[STASIVS]. Reverse: Monogram of Theoderic, a simplified variant of the monogram in the inset. Metlich 79.

This type is represented in the museums in Rome (x2) and Copenhagen (x3), and in the Massafra hoard (Hahn, 1987).
Jan (jbc)
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Tiber or other rivergod139 viewsCapitoline MuseumsJohny SYSEL
Tibese10-2.jpg
Tiberius, RIC 67, Sestertius of AD 36-37 (temple of Concordia)16 viewsÆ Sestertius (26,50g, Ø 35mm, 12h). Rome, AD 36-37.
Obv.: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVST PM TR POT XXXIIX around large S C.
Rev.: No legend, Hexastyle temple on podium of five steps with flanking walls to r. and l.; Concordia seated within, holding patera and cornucopiae, flanked by the statues of Hercules and Mercurius; Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, Victories and other figures above empty pediment.
RIC 67 (R); BMC 133; Cohen 70; RCV 1766
Ex Varesi Numismatica Auction 65, 10 Feb. 2015; ex Ex Astarte XII, 12 Sep. 2003, lot 485.

The temple of Concordia in the Roman Forum was restored and embellished under Tiberius. It housed so many antique statues that Pliny the Elder called it a museum of art and Greek sculpture.
Charles S
Daric.jpg
Time of Darius I - Xerxes II132 viewsACHAEMENID PERSIAN EMPIRE. Time of Darius I - Xerxes II Circa 485-420 B.C.E. AV daric. 16mm, 8.36g. O:Persian king or hero in kneeling-running stance right, holding spear and bow. R: Incuse punch. Carradice Type IIIb A/B (pl. XIII, 27).

In 550 BC Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Persian Empire by amalgamating the Iranian tribes of the Medes and the Persians. Cyrus then looked to the west. His army defeated the Lydians and their king Croesus in 547 BC and in the following year the Persian army marched into the kingdoms of Ionia, Caria and Lykia, on what is now the west coast of Turkey.

It was there that the Persians first came into contact with coinage. From here it spread over the next century throughout the Persian Empire as far as Afghanistan and Egypt. After conquering Lydia in 547 BC, the Persians adopted the Lydian tradition of minting coins. Soon the local 'lion and bull' croesid coins were replaced by a new Achaemenid coinage.

The gold daric, named after the Persian king Darius I (521-486 BC), and the silver siglos (or shekel) were the main denominations. An archer, representing the Persian king, appeared on the obverse (front) of the coin. The reverse consisted of a rectangular punch. These coins were minted in the western part of the Achaemenid Empire. Their production continued long after the death of Darius, until the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great at the end of the fourth century BC. (Comments from britishmuseum.org)

After the destruction of the Kingdom of Judah, the Jews were taken into the seventy-year Babylonian captivity. When ancient Persia took control of Babylon, Haman, the royal vizier, convinced King Ahasuerus to destroy all the Jews. Esther, Ahasuerus's queen and, unknown to him, a Jew, interceded on behalf of her people. By law the King could not rescind the order to slaughter the Jews, so he issued a second decree that permitted the Jews to defend themselves with armed force.

The King replaced Haman with Mordecai, a palace official, cousin and foster parent of Esther. The Jews defeated Haman, killing his ten sons that were leading the attacks, and then hanged Haman. The day after the battle was designated as a day of feasting and rejoicing. Scholars identify King Ahasuerus as the historical king Xerxes I, 486 - 465 BCE. Xerxes is the Greek version of his name but the Babylonians knew him as Khshayarsha. The Hebrew name Ahasuerus, appears to be derived from Khshayarsha, with the letter A added at the beginning.
3 commentsNemonater