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Search results - "Mithridates"
CnCorneliusLentulusMarcellinusARDenariusSear323.jpg
(503f) Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius87 viewsCn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus Silver Denarius, Sear-323, Cr-393/1a, Syd-752, RSC-Cornelia 54, struck 76-75 BC at Spanish Mint, 3.94 grams, 18 mm. EF. Obverse: GPR above Diademed, draped and bearded bust of the Genius of the Roman People facing right, sceptre over shoulder; Reverse: EX in left field, SC in right field; CN LEN Q in exergue, Sceptre with wreath, terrestrial globe and rudder. An exceptional example that is especially well centered and struck on a slightly larger flan than normally encountered with fully lustrous surfaces and a most attractive irridescent antique toning. Held back from the Superb EF/FDC by a small banker's mark in the right obverse field, but still worthy of the finest collection of Roman Republican denarii. Ex Glenn Woods.

Re: CORNELIA 54:

“Cn. Cornelius Lentulus Marcellinus may be the same moneyer whose issues have been already described (no.s 702-704). Mommsen suggested that these coins were struck in 74 B.C. as a special issue, authorized by the Senate, to defray the cost of armaments against Mithridates of Pontus and the Mediterranean pirates. But Grueber’s view that they were struck in 76 B.C. by Cn. Cornelius Lentulus acting in the capacity of quaestor of Pompey, seems more in accordance with the evidence of finds" (see: G. ii, p. 359n and The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 1).

H. A. Seaby shows the coin with the smaller head (Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus pg. 33) while David R Sear shows a coin sporting a larger version (Roman Coins and Their Values, pg. 132).

“Cn. Lentulus strikes in Spain in his capacity as quaestor to the proconsul Pompey, who had been sent to the peninsula to assist Q. Caecillus Metellus Piusagainst sertorius”(Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132).

This is not an imperatorial minted coin for Pompey. At the time these coins were minted the Procounsel Pompey was sent to Spain to aid in the war against Sertorius. The moneyer Cn Lentulus served as his Quaestor where he continued to mint coins for Rome.

CN = Cneaus; LEN = Lentulus

Cneaus was his first name. His last, or family name is Lentulus and this clan is a lesser clan within the Cornelii, which is what his middle name of Cornelius implies.

Q = This tells us that he was a Quaestor, or Roman magistrate with judicial powers at the time when the coin was issued, with the responsibility for the treasury. Had this been a position that he once held it would be noted on the coin as PROQ or pro [past] Questor.

For Further Reading on the Cornelia 54 & 55:

Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum, by H. A. Grueber. London, 1910, Vol. II, pgs. 358, 359, 52, 57

Roman Silver Coins Vol. I, Republic to Augustus, by H.A.Seaby 1952, pgs. 32-33

The Coinage of the Roman Republic, by Edward A. Sydenham, 1976, pgs. 122, 241

Roman Coins and Their Values, by David Sear, Vol.1, 2000, pg. 132, 133

Roman Republican Coinage Volume I by Michael H. Crawford 2001, pg. 407

by Jerry Edward Cornelius, April 2006, THE 81 ROMAN COINS OF THE CORNELIA
http://www.cornelius93.com/Cornelia54.html
1 commentsCleisthenes
mithridatesviamastris2.jpg
Amastris, Paphlagonia26 viewsAncient Greek City Issue
Amastris, Paphlaognia
(Under Reign of Mithridates VI 'the Great' of Pontus)

Obverse: Aegis with facing head of gorgon in middle


Reverse: Nike advancing right, palm across shoulders, AMAΣ-TPEΩΣ in fields

Bronze Unit (20mm, 7.1g)
Minted in Amastris 85-65BC

Reference: SNG Copenhagen 246


Translations and explanations:

Amastris was founded circa 300BC by a Persian princess of the same name, niece of King Darius III and is now Amasra in modern day Turkey.

Mithridates VI was a thorn in Rome's side for 40 years until finally being defeated by Pompey the Great.

An aegis is the shield or breastplate of Zeus or Athena.

Nike is the Greek god of victory.

AMAΣTPEΩΣ means 'of the Amastrians'.






Sphinx357
pontos_1000.jpg
Amisos, Pontos, time of Mithridates VI27 viewsAE 18mm; 4.6g, circa 120-63 BC.
Obv.: Bust of Mithridates as Perseus right, wing at his temple.
Rev.: Cornucopiae between two pilei (caps of the Dioskuri) each surmounted by a star; AMI-ΣOY.
Reference: SNG Stockholm 1848; SNG Cop. 161; BMC 65; Waddington 32.
1 commentsJohn Anthony
Antiochus_IV.jpg
Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175 - 164 BC22 viewsAntiochus IV Epiphanes "God Manifest" c. 215 BC – 164 BC) ruled the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC. He was a son of King Antiochus III the Great. His original name was Mithradates (alternative form Mithridates); he assumed the name Antiochus after he ascended the throne.
Antiochos IV Epiphanes. Seleukid Kingdom AE 12mm, 2,88gr. Veiled bust of Laodike IV right / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ANTIOXOY, elephant's head left. No symbols in fields. Hoover 685; SC 1421-1422.
ddwau
68411q00.jpg
Athens, Mithradatic War Issue, 87-86 B.C.27 views"In 87 B.C., Mithridates moved his forces into Greece and established Aristion as a tyrant in Athens. Sulla landed in Epirus and marched through Boeotia into Attica. Most cities declared their allegiance to Rome, foremost among them Thebes. Athens, however, remained loyal to Mithridates. After a long and brutal siege, Sulla's rough battle hardened legions, veterans of the Social War, took Athens on the Kalends of March 86 B.C. They looted and burned temples and structures built in the city by various Hellenistic kings to honor themselves and gain prestige. Months later, only after they ran out of water, Aristion surrendered the Akropolis. Athens was looted and punished severely. Roman vengeance ensured Greece would remain docile during later civil wars and Mithridatic wars."

Bronze chalkous, SNG Cop 307, BMC Attica p. 81, 554; Kroll 97; Svoronos Athens pl. 84, 45 - 48, F, thick flan, 9.775g, 19.7mm, 45o, Athens mint, Mithradates VI of Pontos & Aristion, 87 - 86 B.C.; obverse head of Athena right, wearing crested Corinthian helmet; reverse Zeus advancing right, nude, hurling thunderbolt with right, left extended, A/Q-E flanking below arms, star between two crescents (one above and one below) in lower right field;
jimmynmu
Cappadocia.JPG
Cappadocia13 viewsThe Cappadocians, supported by Rome against Mithridates VI of Pontus, elected a native lord, Ariobarzanes, to succeed (93 BC); but in the same year Armenian troops under Tigranes the Great (Tigran) entered Cappadocia, dethroned king Ariobarzanes and crowned Gordios as the new client-king of Cappadocia, thus creating a buffer zone against the encroaching Romans. It was not until Rome had deposed the Pontic and Armenian kings that the rule of Ariobarzanes was established (63 BC). In the civil wars Cappadocia was now for Pompey, now for Caesar, now for Antony, now against him. The Ariobarzanes dynasty came to an end and a certain Archelaus reigned in its stead, by favour first of Antony and then of Octavian, and maintained tributary independence until AD 17, when the emperor Tiberius, on Archelaus' death in disgrace, reduced Cappadocia at last to a Roman province. Much later it was a region of the Byzantine Empire.ancientone
Cilicia.JPG
Cilicia13 viewsCilicia Trachea became the haunt of pirates, who were subdued by Pompey in 67 BC following a Battle of Korakesion (modern Alanya), and Tarsus was made the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia. Cilicia Pedias became Roman territory in 103 BC first conquered by Marcus Antonius Orator in his campaign against pirates, with Sulla acting as its first governor, foiling an invasion of Mithridates, and the whole was organized by Pompey, 64 BC, into a province which, for a short time, extended to and included part of Phrygia. It was reorganized by Julius Caesar, 47 BC, and about 27 BC became part of the province Syria-Cilicia Phoenice. At first the western district was left independent under native kings or priest-dynasts, and a small kingdom, under Tarcondimotus, was left in the east; but these were finally united to the province by Vespasian, AD 72. It had been deemed important enough to be governed by a proconsul.

ancientone
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Cr 401/1 AR Denarius Mn. Aquillius Mn.f. Mn.n34 viewso: VIRTVS - III VIR Helmeted and draped bust of Virtus to right, with large head
r: MN F MN N / MN AQVIL / SICIL. Mn. Aquilius (Cos. 101) raising fallen Sicily
65 BCE  Denarius Serratus (19 mm, 3.82 g, 6 h), Rome.
Babelon (Aquilia) 2. Crawford 401/1. Sydenham 798. Toned and struck on a broad flan.
This coin is somewhat unintentionally ironic. The moneyer's honored grandfather was accused of fleecing the people of Sicily, when he was governor of the province after the slave revolts. He later managed to antagonize Mithridates VI of Pontus, leading to widespread slaughter of Romans in Asia.
As Wikipedia summarizes the aftermath: "Mithridates defeated Aquillius in 88 near Protostachium. Aquillius was attempting to make his way back to Italy and managed to make it to Lesbos, where he was delivered to Mithridates by the inhabitants of Mytilene. After being taken to the mainland, he was then placed on a donkey and paraded back to Pergamon. On the trip, he was forced to confess his supposed crimes against the peoples of Anatolia. Aquillius's father, the elder Manius Aquillius, was a former Roman governor of Pergamon and was hated for the egregious taxes that he imposed. It was generally thought that Manius Aquillius the younger would follow in the footsteps of his father as a tax profiteer and was hated by some of the local peoples."
Grandpa was thereafter killed by Mithridates by having molten gold poured down his throat.
2 commentsPMah
mithra~0.jpg
Greek, Mithradates I (171-138 BC), AR Drachm164 viewsAn exceptional portrait of an aging but still formidable ruler. Most Parthian coin portraits are fairly pedestrian but this artist captures the tangled beard and wrinkled eyes and brow of Mithridates I in what must be the last years of his reign.

Sellwood 11.1
daverino
Pontic_Kingdom,_Mithradates_Vi_ATG_Tetradrachm,_Odessos_.jpg
Greek, Mithridates VI (The Great) as Herakles192 viewsPontic Kingdom, Thrace, Odessos, Mithridates VI Megas, 120-63 BC, AR Tetradrachm in the name of Alexander the Great, struck ca. 88-86 BC.
Head of Mithridates VI (the Great) as Herakles, wearing lion's skin headdress / ΒΑΣIΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡOΥ.
(Reverse is of Zeus seated left, legs draped, confronting eagle held on outstretched right arm and grasping lotus-tipped sceptre, ΛAK before, OΔΗ (Odessos ethnic) in exergue.)
Callata˙ Group 3; Price 1192. Odessos ca. 88-86 BC
(30 mm, 16.04 gm, 1h)

This is amongst the last of the coinages in the style of Alexander the Great to be minted. In this final incarnation the portrait of Herakles was adapted to the features of Mithridates VI the Great, to the extent that the image of Herakles is in fact a portrait of Mithridates. Comparison with his portrait on tetradrachms minted in Pontus proves this point.
1 commentsLloyd T
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GREEK, Pontos, Amisos, Mithridates VI43 viewsPontos, Amisos - Circa 125-100 BC. Ę (19mm, 8.63 g). Struck under Mithradates VI, circa 120-111 BC or 110-100.
Bust of Artemis right, wearing stephane; bow and quiver over shoulder / Tripod.
SNG BM Black Sea 1139-40; HGC 7, 240.
3 commentsgapalp
panti1.png
GREEK, Thrace, Tauric Chersonesos, Pantikapaion, 2nd - 1st Century B.C19 viewsBronze AE 14, SNG Stancomb 579, SNG Cop 55, BMC Thrace p. 9, 41, VF, weight 2.6 g, maximum diameter 13 mm, die axis 90o, Pantikapaion mint, obverse head of Pan right; reverse ΠΑΝΤ, pilei (caps) of the Dioscuri, each with a star above

Panticapaeum (Kerch, Ukraine) was an important city and port in Tauric Chersonesos on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. In the 5th century B.C. it became the capital of the Thracian kings of Bosporus. The last of the kings of Bosporus left it to Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus. He commited suicide at Panticapaeum in 63 B.C. after his defeat to Rome. In that same year, the city was partly destroyed by an earthquake.
superflex
panti2.jpg
GREEK, Thrace, Tauric Chersonesos,, c. 2nd - 1st Century B.C15 viewsBronze AE 14, aVF, weight 2.4 g, maximum diameter 13 mm, Pantikapaion mint.

Panticapaeum (Kerch, Ukraine) was an important city and port in Taurica (Tauric Chersonesos) on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus. In the 5th - 4th centuries B.C., the city was the residence of the Thracian kings of Bosporus. The last of these kings, left his realm to Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus. He commited suicide at Panticapaeum in 63 B.C. after his defeat to Rome. In that same year, the city was partly destroyed by an earthquake.
superflex
SullaTorquatusI.jpg
L. Manlius Torquatus and L. Cornelius Sulla54 viewsL. Manlius Torquatus and L. Cornelius Sulla (82 BC). AR denarius 3.99 g. Military military mint with Sulla.
O: Helmeted bust of Roma right, with peaked visor, cruciform earring and necklace, hair in three locks; L MANLI before; PRO•Q behind
R: Sulla, togate, driving triumphal quadriga right, holding branch and reins; above, Victory flying left crowning Sulla with laurel wreath; L•SVLLA•IM in exergue. - Crawford 367/5. Sydenham 757. Manlia 4.
Fine style, light golden toning.

As consul for the year 88 BC, Sulla was awarded the coveted assignment of suppressing the revolt of Mithradates VI of Pontus, but political maneuvers resulted in this assignment being transferred to Marius. In response, Sulla turned his army on Rome, captured it, and reclaimed his command against Mithradates. His prosecution of the first Mithradatic War was successful, but he spared the Pontic king for personal gain. In 83 BC, Sulla returned to Italy as an outlaw, but he was able to win the support of many of the leading Romans. Within a year, he fought his way to Rome, where he was elected dictator. It was during this campaign to Rome that this denarius was struck. The obverse type represents Sulla's claim to be acting in Rome's best interest. The reverse shows Sulla enjoying the highest honor to which a Roman could aspire: the celebration of a triumph at Rome.

We learn from Plutarch that L. Manlius Torquatus was one of Sulla’s generals. This type was struck during Sulla’s political campaign to be elected dictator, following his return to Rome after his victory against Mithridates. Prior to the Mithridatic Wars, L. Manlius Torquatus had been Sulla’s quaestor - a post he had resigned to assume his military role; hence on this issue he is proquaestor.
1 commentsNemonater
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Manius Aquillius Mn. f. Mn. n. , Denarius23 viewsRRC 40171
71 b.c.

Obverse: Helmeted and draped bust of Virtus right "VIRTVS" before and "III VIR" behind.
Reverse: Warrior, (Mn. Aquillius, consul in 101 BC) standing facing, looking right, holding shield, raising figure of Sicilia who is slumped to the left, "MN. AQVIL." on right and "MN. F. MN. N." on left (both MN in monogram). In ex. "SICIL."

Mn. Aquillius (the moneyer's grandfather) was consul in 101 B.C. and sent as proconsul to end the second slave war in Sicily. The slaves were under the control of Athenion, a Cilician, one of their commanders, who had already defeated L. Licinius Lucullus. Aquillius succeeded the next year in defeating Athenion and this coin type commemorates his valour (Virtus). The coin was minted during the famous slave war led by Spartacus, when Rome was trembling, which may or may not be a coincidence.

Mn. Aquillius was not so lucky after the defeat of the slaves. In 88 B.C. he went to Asia as one of the consular legates in the Mithridactic war; he was defeated and handed over by the inhabitants of Mytilene to Mithridates, who put him to death by pouring molten gold down his throat.
(FORVM)


Ex Numismatica Ars Classica, Auction 73, Lot 127
The Collection of Roman Republican Coins of a Student and his Mentor Part II
18 November 2013
1 commentsNorbert
mithridates.jpg
Mithradates II (123-88 B.C.)27 viewsAR Drachm 3.88g (PDC 39564)
Mint: Rhagae
Obv: long-bearded bust left wearing tiara (T28vii) with eight-point star; griffin-ended torque; circular border of pellets
Rev: beardless archer wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; no border; five-line Greek inscription = ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ

Weight : 3.88 g.
Size : 21 mm.
1 commentsBritanikus
BOTH_MITHRADATES_ODESSOS_D_5_R7a_COMPARISON~0.jpg
Mithradates Odessos tetradrachm 3rd war (c 74-63 BC).Coin comparison2 viewsCoin is group 3

D5 R7a
cicerokid
MithridatesI.jpg
Mithridates I10 viewsarash p
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Mithridates II8 viewsEx Peus 388 (1 Nov 2006), lot 332 (this coin) from Robert Gonella collectionarash p
Mithridates II S28.7.jpg
Mithridates II S28.7109 viewsMithridates II C123-88BC. Drachm. 20mm, 4.22g.

Obverse: Long-bearded bust L, wearing tiara, border of dots, earring visible.

Reverse: Archer seated R on throne, holding bow. BASIEWS/BASILEWN/METALOY/ARSAKOY EPIPHANOUS

Sellwood 28.7.
1 commentsRobert_Brenchley
Mithridates II S7378var.jpg
Mithridates II S7378 var57 viewsChalkous, 13mm, 1.68g.

Obverse: diademed & cuirassed bust L with long pointed beard.

Reverse: BASILEWS BASILEWN ARSAKOY DIKAIOY EYERGETOY KAIFILELLHNE, bow in case.

Sellwood 7378 var, 123-88BC.
Robert_Brenchley
MithridatesII.jpg
Mithridates III10 viewsarash p
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Mithridates VI (120 - 63 B.C.)9 viewsAE 20, 100 – 85 B.C., Amisos, 20mm, 7.67g, 0°, GCV 3643.
Obv: Head of young Ares right, wearing helmet.
Rev: ΑΜΙΣΟϒ. Sword in sheath with strap, star & crescent; monogram in field.
Marti Vltori
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Mithridates VI Eupator 79 viewsMithridates VI Eupator Bronze AE 20
Amisos mint c.85-65 BC
8.517g 20.9mm
Obv: Head Mithridates as dionysos right,
wearing ivy wreath
Rev: AMIEOY, cista mystica on which rests
panther skin and thyrsos, monogram upper
left (htpk?)
SNG BM 1205, SNG Stancomb 698,
SNGvA 59, BMC Pontius p.18,53,
SGCV II 3640
1 commentssean c2
0E09E80A-EB08-4083-ABEB-ABBE1B501A10.jpeg
MITHRIDATES VI of PONTUS AE19. EF-/VF+. Amisos mint.25 viewsObverse:Aegis with gorgoneion
Reverse:Nike advancing right, holding wreath and palm branch. Monogram and mint legend AMIΣΟΥ in field.

Very good exemplar of this popular issue, in EF-/VF+ condition, conserving complete details in both sides and precious dark green patina totally natural. Uncommon in this condition.

SNG BM 1177-1191. Amisos mint, circa 105-85 b.C. 8,35 g - 19 mm
1 commentsMark R1
nero.jpg
Nero,Assarion, Prymnessos, Phyrigia.42 viewsΝΕΡΩΝΑ ΚΑΙΣΑΡΑ - ΠΡΥΜΝΗΣΣΕΙΣ, laureate head right

ΕΠΙ ΚΛΑΥΔΙΟΥ ΜΙΘΡΙΔΑΤΟΥ, scales.

Issued under Magistrate Claudius Mithridates.

RPC I 3210; Von Aulock, Phrygiens II 1057-9.
Will Hooton
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Pantikapaion (Kerch, Ukrain) 2nd - 1st Century BCE18 viewsObverse: Laureate head of Apollo right
Reverse: IIAN, Bow in bow case
1.637g, 10.79 mm diam.
SNG Stancomb 573, Anokhin 169, SNG Cop 62
Panticapaeum was an important city and port in Taurica
on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus.
In the 4th-5th centurys BCE, the city was the residence
of the Thracian kings of the Bosporus. The last of these
kings, left his realm to Mithridates VI Eupator, king of Pontus
NORMAN K
pan,pan1.jpg
Pantikapaion, Tauric Chersonesos, Thrace, 310 - 304 BC.96 viewsAE 20, McDonald 70, SNG Pushkin 886, Sear GCV I 1701, Lindgren II 677, , weight 5.1 g, max. diameter 19.84 mm, Pantikapaion mint, c. 310 - 304 BC; Obv. head of youthful satyr left, wreathed in ivy; Rev. Π Α Ν in legend, head of roaring lion left, sturgeon fish left below. Chestnut brown patina.

Background info; Pantikapaion (Panticapaeum) is present-day Kerch, an important Greek city and port in Taurica (Tauric Chersonese), situated on a hill (Mt. Mithridates) on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Kerch Strait), between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. It was founded by Milesians in the late 7th or early 6th century B.C. Originally called Apollonia. Wikipedia.
2 commentsSteve E
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Pantikapaion, Tauric Chersonesos, Thrace, 310 - 304 BC. 120 viewsAE 20, McDonald 69, SNG Pushkin 818, Sear GCV I 1700, weight 7.29 g, max. diameter 20.8 mm, Pantikapaion mint, c. 310 - 304 BC; Obv. bearded head of satyr right; Rev. Π Α Ν in legend, forepart of griffin left, sturgeon fish left below. Shiny green patina with a few corrosion pits. A sharp strike with little wear!

Background info; Pantikapaion (Panticapaeum) is present-day Kerch, an important Greek city and port in Taurica (Tauric Chersonese), situated on a hill (Mt. Mithridates) on the western side of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Kerch Strait), between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov. It was founded by Milesians in the late 7th or early 6th century B.C. Originally called Apollonia. Wikipedia.
6 commentsSteve E
Parthia_MithridatesIII_Sellwood35_1.jpg
Parthia, Mithridates III17 viewsParthia, Mithridates III (sold as Orodes I). 87-80/79 BC. AR Drachm (3.61 gm). Bust of Mithridates III r. wearing smooth-topped cap with decorated ear pieces. / Archer king enthroned, r. with bow outstretched. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜEΓAΛOY ARΣAKOY AYTOKPATOPOΣ ΦΙΛΟΠΑΤΟΡΟΣ ΣΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛEΛΛHNΟΣ. VF. This issue has traditionally been assigned to Orodes I, but has been reattributed to Mithradates III by Assar. Sellwood 31.5 (Orodes I); Shore 124 (Orodes I); SGC 7389; ZDZ89.Christian T
Parthia_SinatrukesI_Sellwood33-3Gotarzes.jpg
Parthia, Sinatrukes (Brother of Mithridates II). 15 viewsParthia, Sinatrukes (Brother of Mithridates II). Sold as Gotarzes I 93/2-70/69 BC. AR Drachm (3.60 gm) Rhagae mint. Bust of Sinatrukes l. (or Gotarzes), long bearded bust wearing diademed tiara decorated with bull horn and crest of stags. / Beardless Arsaces enthroned, r. wearing kyrbasia and cloak, with bow outstretched. Legend II. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜEΓAΛOY ARΣAKOY ΘEOΠΑΤΟY ΝIKATΟΥ (Great King Arsaces, son of God, Victor). EF. Sellwood 33-3 (Gotarzes I); Shore 113 (Gotarzes I); BMC Parthia pg. 51, 55 (Phraates III?); MACW 543 var. (Phraates III; tiara style); SNG Cop. 71ff (Phraates III); MIG 639v. Christian T
GRK_Parthia_Orodes_II_Sear_7442.JPG
Parthia. Orodes II (57-38 B.C.)24 viewsAR Drachm, Nisa mint, 18 mm.

Sear 7442, Sellwood Type 46_, Shore 233 var. (per dealer's attribution)

Obv: Short-bearded bust left wearing diadem and pellet-ended torque, crescent behind; wart not visible on forehead; circular border of pellets cannot be confirmed.

Rev: Beardless archer (Arsakes I) wearing bashlyk and cloak seated right on throne, holding bow in right hand; _______ behind archer; NI below bow [mintmark]; no border; seven-line Greek inscription (ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ [above] ΑΡΣΑΚΟΥ [to right] ΕΥΕΡΓΕΤΟΥ ΔΙΚΑΙΟΥ [below] ΕΠΙΦΑΝΟΥΣ ΦΙΛΕΛΛΗΝΟΣ [to left]) (= Of the King of Kings, Arsakes [founder of the Arsacid Dynasty] ...).

Orodes was a son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 B.C., with the assistance of his brother Mithridates III. In the power struggle that ensued, Mithridates allied himself with Rome, but was captured and slain in 54 B.C. In 53 B.C., Marcus Licinius Crassus invaded Parthia in belated support of Mithridates, but was defeated at the Battle of Carrhae and killed. His severed head was presented to Orodes II during a performance of Euripides' tragedy, The Bacchae, where it was used as a prop, carried by one of the actors in the play.
Stkp
Persisk- Orodes.jpg
Parthian- Orodes35 viewsOrodes II or Phraates IV

It does seem to resemble coins of Orodes II, Phraates IV or thereabouts; they issued a chalkous of similar size; and the reverse seems a good chance.

King Orodes II of Parthia (also called Hyrodes) ruled the Parthian Empire from 57 to 38 BC. He was the son of Phraates III, whom he murdered in 57 BC, assisted by his brother Mithridates

Size: 10 mm

I don't collect this series, but a look at www.parthia.com gives more information.
John Schou
Mitrha.jpg
Pontic Bronze Coin of Mithridates VI19 viewsA Pontic Bronze coin of Mithridates IV minted in Amisos between 85-65 AD. 21 mm, 7.17 g.

Obverse: Aegis with Medusa's head at center.

Reverse: AMI-EOY across Nike advancing right carrying palm branch.

Attribution: SNG Black Sea 1177-1191
chuy1530
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Pontic Bronze Coin of Mithridates VI13 viewsA Pontic bronze coin of Mithridates VI minted in Amisos, Pontus between 100-85 BC. 20mm, 7.6g.chuy1530
Pontos_Amisos_HGC241.jpg
Pontos, Amaseia9 viewsPontos, Amaseia. 85-65 BC Time of Mithridates VI Eupator. AE19 (7.85 gm). Head of Ares r. in Attic helmet. / Sword in its belted scabbard, AMI-Σ●, star in crescent over R✽ to l., IB to r.  VF.  Bt Gables Coin 1998. HGC 7 241; BMC Black Sea 1147-1165; SNG Ashmolean IX 97; Waddington Recueil General 31, plate VII #24var (no AP monogram to r.). Christian T
GRK_Pontos_Amisos_Sear_3642.jpg
Pontos, Amisos10 viewsSear 3642; SNG Copenhagen 170 (monogram on left also not visible); cf. SNG BM 1177 ff.; SNG Stancomb 688 ff.; BMC Pontus p. 19, 69 ff.

AE unit, 7.49 g., 19.97 mm. max., 0°

Struck during reign of Mithradates VI Eupator, circa 85-65 B.C.

Obv: Aegis with facing head of gorgoneion in center.

Rev: AMI−ΣOY, Nike advancing right, holding palm frond across shoulders behind, AMTE monogram to lower right.

Mithradates VI, king of Pontos (c. 120 to 63 B.C.), was of both Greek and Persian origin, claiming descent from both Alexander the Great and King Darius I of Persia. He was one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies. Amisos was a rich commercial center under the kings of Pontos, a royal residence and fortress of Mithridates.
Stkp
Greek_Q-053_axis-11h_20mm_7,88g-s.jpg
Pontos, Amisos, during the reign of Mithridates VI., Circa 120-63 B.C., AE-20mm, Sword in sheath,87 viewsPontos, Amisos, during the reign of Mithridates VI., Circa 120-63 B.C., AE-20mm, Sword in sheath,
avers:- Helmeted head of Mars right.
revers:- AMI-ΣOY, Sword in sheath.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 20mm, weight: 7,88g, axes: 11h,
mint: Pontos, Amisos , date: Circa 120-63 B.C., During the reign of Mithridates VI.,
ref: SNG BMC Black Sea 1148,
Q-001
quadrans
Pontus,_Amisus,_Time_of_Mithradates_VI_Eupator__Circa_85-65_BC_Helm__head_of_Ares,_Sword_in_sheath,_monograms_flanking,SNG_Cop_150_Q-001_0h,18,5-19,5mm,8,23g-s.jpg
Pontos, Amisos, Time of Mithradates VI. Eupator. (cc. 85-65 B.C.), AE-19, SNG BM Black Sea 1154-5, AMI-ΣOY, Sword in sheath,132 viewsPontos, Amisos, Time of Mithradates VI. Eupator. (cc. 85-65 B.C.), AE-19, SNG BM Black Sea 1154-5, AMI-ΣOY, Sword in sheath,
avers:- Helmeted head of Mars or Ares right.
revers:- AMI-ΣOY, Sword in sheath, monograms flanking, AT left, AMTE(?) right.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 8,23g, axes: 0h,
mint: Pontos, Amisos , date: cc. 85-65 B.C., During the reign of Mithridates VI.,
ref: SNG BM Black Sea 1154-5, SNG Copenhagen 150.,
Q-001
quadrans
mithridates_vi_res.jpg
PONTOS, AMISOS: PONTIC KINGDOM--MITHRIDATES VI (THE GREAT)29 viewsca. 120 - 63 BC (probably struck ca. 85 - 65 BC)
AE 23.5 mm 12.91 g
O: head of Mithridates VI as Perseus right, wearing diadem and Phrygian helmet;
R: AMISOY, Pegasus grazing left, monograms left and below (MA)
BMC Pontus p. 19, 63 var; SNG Von Aulock 62 var, SNG Cop 158 - 159 var (all monogram variations)
(according to Forum Ancient Coins: "BMC lists two examples with the same monogram left and the MP monogram below, but omits the A below. The other references have completely different monograms."
laney
GRK_Pontos_Amyntos_Sear_3640.jpg
Pontos. Amyntos.11 viewsSear 3640; Malloy 26c; Hoover GC 7, 243; SNG British Museum Black Sea 1205-7; SNG Stancomb 697-698; SNG von Aulock 59.

AE unit, 7.74 g., 21.16 mm. max., 0°

Struck during reign of Mithradates VI Eupator, circa 85-65 B.C.

Obv.: Head of Mithradates VI as Dionysus, wearing ivy wreath.

Rev: Thyrsos (staff carried by Dionysus ) leaning against cista mystica (basket housing sacred snakes in connection with the initiation ceremony into cult of Dionysos) draped with panther’s skin, ΑΜΙΣΟΥ below, monogram to left.

Mithradates VI, king of Pontos (c. 120 to 63 B.C.), was of both Greek and Persian origin, claiming descent from both Alexander the Great and King Darius I of Persia. He was one of Rome's most formidable and successful enemies. Amisos was a rich commercial center under the kings of Pontos, a royal residence and fortress of Mithridates.
Stkp
10400525.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Spinther AR Denarius70 viewsRome, The Republic.
Pub. Lentulus P.f.L.n. Spinther, 71 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.85g; 18mm).
Rome Mint

Obv: Q●S●C; Hercules head right.

Rev: P●LENT●P●F / [L]●N; Genius Romani seated facing on chair, holding coruncopia and scepter, being crowned by Victory.

Provenance: ex Collection of a Director [Triton XX (10 Jan 2017) Lot 525; ex Eton College Collection [Sotheby's (1 Dec 1976) Lot 219).

In my humble opinion, this is one of the more artistic reverse types of the Roman Republic denarius series – almost Greek in execution. It depicts Genius of the Roman People exerting dominance over the world with one foot on the globe while being crowned victorious. The message may be related to the ongoing wars with Sertorius in Spain, Mithridates in the East and possibly the servile revolt led by Spartacus in Italy (if the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker is accepted, see below). Other members of the Cornelia gens also depicted Genius of the Roman People on their coinages, so the cult of Genius may have been important to the family, or it may be coincidental that the Corneliae happened to strike these coins during strife when the message of the Genius of the Roman People would have been appropriate. Crawford agrees with the latter explanation. SC [Senatus consulto] in the obverse legend suggests it was struck by special decree of the Roman Senate.

The coin is scarce and missing from many major hoards, making it difficult to precisely date. In fact, it’s listed in only four hoards on Table XIII in Crawford’s Roman Republican Coin Hoards. Of those four hoards: in two hoards (Cosa and Palestrina), it’s deemed the final issue (terminus ante quem), lacking the context of later coins; in the third hoard (Tolfa), it’s the next to last issue with the last being a serrate denarius of Q. Creperei Rocus, which Crawford dates to 72BC; and in the fourth hoard (San Gregorio), it appears in the middle context in which Rocus is again the next latest coin. Crawford’s Roman Republican Coinage dates the coin 74BC, concurring with Grueber’s dating in the British Museum Catalogue. David Sear stuck with Crawford’s dating of 74BC in the Millennium Edition of Roman Coins and Their Values. However, in their 1984 analysis of the Mesagne Hoard (which contained no examples of this coin), Hersh and Walker revised the dating to 71BC, which lumps the Spinther issue with several other, non-serrate, “SC” issues of the late 70s. Hersh and Walker re-date the serrate Rocus issue to 69BC, where it is lumped with other serrate issues. In my collection catalogue, I’ve chosen to use the 71BC date proposed by Hersh and Walker, because it fits neatly with the fabric and special circumstances of the coinage and is consistent with the cursus honorum dates discussed in the following paragraph.

The moneyer was the Quaestor, P. Cornelius Lentulus, whose nickname was Spinther (reportedly because he resembled an actor by that name). It was a nickname that he clearly liked as both he and his son later used it on coins. Spinther, an aristocrat of the Cornelia gens, was liked by Julius Caesar and rose through the cursus honorum, beginning with his Quaestorship when this coin was struck. He was elected Aedile in 63BC and worked with Cicero in suppressing the Cataline conspiracy. The date of his Aedileship is important in that 6-8 years was the required waiting period between Quaestor and Aedile in the cursus honorum, the career path for a Roman politician, which is consistent with Hersh and Walker’s proposed dating of this coin issue to 71BC; Crawford’s dating of 74BC implied that Spinther failed to reach the Aedileship for several years after he qualified for the position (being elected in the first qualification year was an important distinction to the Romans, though certainly an accomplishment that many Roman aristocrats failed to attain). He was later governor of part of Spain. With Caesar’s help, he was elected consul in 57BC, when he recalled Cicero from exile. Thereafter he governed Cilicia, at which time Cicero wrote him a still-surviving letter. As relations deteriorated between Caesar and Pompey, Spinther sided with Pompey. Despite initial offers of amnesty by Caesar, Spinther would not remain neutral and was eventually killed or committed suicide during the civil wars. His son later allied with Caesar’s assassins and struck the well-known LENTVLVS SPINT coins for both Brutus and Cassius.

This example comes from the Eton College Collection, which was auctioned by Sotheby’s in 1976. Eton College initiated its ancient coin collection by acquiring a large group of British Museum duplicates in the 1870s, and Eton added to this collection in the ensuing years. By the mid-1970s, the ancient coin market was white-hot, and Eton decided to cash-out the lion’s share of its collection, keeping a representative core for study purposes. I’ve contacted the British Museum’s Department of Coins and Medals to link this coin to the original tranche of BM duplicates purchased by Eton. Unfortunately, before adoption of modern curatorial standards, the BM did not accession duplicates into the BM collection; rather, they simply put duplicates into the “duplicates cabinet” without cataloging them. These uncatalogued duplicates would be sold or traded from time to time to acquire needed specimens for the BM collection. There might be record of the transaction somewhere at the BM, but there would be no description of the duplicates sold. By 1980 or so, the BM began cataloguing all coins, even duplicates. There is an 1880s book published about Eton's Roman coin collection, but it describes only a representative sample of the collection and this coin is not included.

6 commentsCarausius
Mn_Aquillius~0.jpg
RRC 401/1 (Mn. Aquillius Mn. F. Mn. N.) Serrate denarius49 viewsObv. Helmeted and draped bust of Virtus right, VIRTVS before, IIIVIR behind, border of dots
Rev. Consul Mn. Aquillius in military dress standing facing, head left, holding shield in left, raising the female figure of Sicily slumped at his feet, facing right; MN AQVIL before, MN. F. MN.N behind (Mn. in ligature three times), SICIL in exergue, border of dots
Rome, 71 B.C. or 65 B.C.
Serrate; 19 mm, 3,88 g
References: RRC 401/1, Sear 336, RSC Aquillia 2

Mn. Aquillius chose to represent his father who was responsible for crushing the slave rebellion in Sicily in 101 B.C. If the date of 71 B.C. for this coin can be upheld, then the image was a commentary on the moneyer's own time - 71 B.C. was the last year of the Third Servile War (the Spartacus uprising). Mn. Aquillius may have found it opportune to remind people of his ancestors deed during the previous slave rebellion - Crassus must have been seething, with Pompey stealing his victory and a junior magistrate putting in his two cent as well.

The obverse is to be read in combination with the reverse, as Aquillius pater was famous for his Virtus. Despite being shown as raising Sicily, he was actually accused of maladminisration of the province (with good cause, says Cicero), but his laywer exposed his war-wounds, and had Aquillius acquitted because of his military Virtus. (Diod. Sicil. 36.10.3; Cicero, pro Flacco, 98 de Oratore 47).

Mn. Aquilius came to a horrid end, in 88 B.C. when he was betrayed by Mytilene and delivered to Mithridates of Pontus, to be executed in Pergamum by having molten gold poured down his throat.

This coin was also the first where the title of IIIVir occured.
3 commentsSyltorian
RRC422-1.jpg
RRC422/1 (M. Aemilius Scaurus, P. Plautius Hypsaeus)89 viewsObv. King Aretas of Nabatea kneeling beside camel, raising olive branche with fillet; M SCAVR(VS) | AED CVR above, [E]X – SC at sides; [R]EX ARETAS in exergue
Rev. Jupiter in quadriga left, reins in right, hurling thunderbolt with left, horses trampling scorpion; P HYPSAEVS | AED CV(R) above, CAPTV[M] on right, C HYPSAE COS | PREIVER(NVM) in exergue
18 mm, 3.80 grams
Rome, 58 B.C.

Allusions: Scaurus refers to his own deed on the obverse, the first time a Roman dared to do so on a coin. In 62 B.C., he had defeated Haritha (Aretha) III of Nabatea, who was marching on Jerusalem, to help the rightful king John Hyrcanus II. Scaurus, a lieutenant of Pompey's, was bribed by Aristoboulos with 400 talents, then took another 300 from Aretas to spare the Nabetean capital of Petra (Josephus, BJ I.127, Ant. Jud. 14.2, 14.5). His colleague chose a more distant motive: C. Plautius Decianus had captured the Volscian city of Privernum (Piperno) in 329 B.C. Any direct relations between Hypsaeus and Decianus are most likely invented, however.

Moneyers: The moneyers of this coin were not the IIIViri Monetales, but the Curule Aediles of 58 B.C., M. Aemilius Scaurus and P. Plautius Hypsaeus. Both were Pompeian supporters ultimately dropped by their patron in 52 B.C. M. Scaurus, stepsone of Sulla, who had already battled in Judaea and Nabatea (where his massacred are mentioned in the Dead Sea Scrolls) would rise to be praetor in 56 B.C. and propraetor of Sardinia the following year. Accused of extortion, he was defended by Cicero and aquitted, only to be exiled on the charge of ambitus in 52. B.C. He was also the first major Roman collector of engraved gemstones, put together in a dactyliotheca exceeding even that of Mithridates of Pontus (Pliny, NH 37.5.11). Less is known about his colleague during his aedileship. P. Plautius Hypsaeus rose to the praetorship in 55 B.C. but was tried for bribery in 52 B.C. whilst standing for consul. He convicted and fled into exile.

On this issue: M. Aemilius Scaurus' aedileship is known and can be securely dated. It became famous for the unparalleled lavishness of its games. These included the construction of an artificial lake to show off crocodiles and hippopotamuses; Scaurus also brought a huge skeleton from Joppa, believed to be the monster to which Andromeda was to be sacrificed (Pliny NH 9.4.11). He also had a temporary theatre capable of holding 80,000 spectators built, standing for just one month, and adorned with all kinds of luxuries (Pliny, NH 36.2.5; 36.24.113ss). After the games, he had the huge marble columns transferred to his house, for which the sewer contractors demanded a hefty security fee, in case their weight caused the drains to cave in (ibid. 36.2.6). According to Pliny, the remains of the theatre alone were worth 30 million sesterces (or 7,500,000 denarii).
Syltorian
Thrace_Odessos_SNG-Lockett_1463.jpg
Thrace, Odessos.13 viewsThrace, Odessos. 75-71 BC. AR Tetradrachm (14.76 gm). Head of Heraklis wearing lionskin headdress, features of Mithridates VI Eupater; issued i/n/o Alexander the Great. / ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΑΛΕΞΑΝΔΡΟΥ. Zeus enthroned, l. Magistrate ΛΑΚ to l., ex: ethnic ΟΔΗ. VF. CNG EA 1999-12-08. Callatay 1997 pp 88-89 gp 3; HGC 3.2 #189 (R1); Price 1192; SNG Lockett 1463.Christian T
tomis_lysimachos_AMNG2480.jpg
Thracia, Tomis, in the name of Lysimachos, AMNG I/2, 248039 viewsLysimachos, kingdom of Thracia
AV - Stater, 8.30g, 20mm, 0°
Tomis, 44-42 BC
obv. head of deified Alexander r., diademed and with horn of Ammon, behind dot and
monogram(?)
rev. BASILEW[S] l., LYSIMAXOY r.
in between Athena Nikophoros sitting l., in extended r. hand holding Nike, crowning the
name of the ruler, l. elbow leaning on shield, spear leaning behind, QEM in l. field,
TO in field below throne; under throne trident to l., dolphin above and below
ref. AMNG I/2, 2480, pl. XXI,6 (crude style, portrait is reminiscent of Pharnakes II); De Callatay p.141 (D4/R1);
Fabricius 308 (obv. same die); Müller 273; SNG Copenhagen 1091(same dies); SNG Stockholm 839 (obv. same die)
EF, mint state
pedigree:
ex Harlan J.Berk

Imitation of a gold stater of Lysimachos (323-281 BC), struck to pay the Thracian mercenaries of Brutus, the assassin of Julius Caesar, for his campaign against Octavian and Marcus Antonius. The style more crude than the original. There is an alternative interpretation: Issued under Mithridates VI, 88-87 BC.
Jochen
g244_w.jpg
Thunderbolt in rectangle, Macedonian(?) helmet with cheek flaps, Gorgoneion203 viewsPontus, Mithridates VI Eupator (120-63 BC), Ae 25 (Head HN p.502). Obv Young head in leather helmet, Rev. Star. Head comments of this issue, 'usually countermarked'. Identical countermarks to SNG Vol: XI 649 William Stancomb Collection
Collection Manzikert
Manzikert
CyzARHemio.jpg
[103e] Cyzikos, Mysia, Asia Minor (2)76 viewsCyzikos, Mysia, 480 - 400 B.C. Silver hemiobol, BMC 120, S 1505, VF, Cyzikus mint, .343g, 9.5mm, 0o, 480 - 400 B.C.; Obverse: forepart of boar running left, tunny fish upwards behind; Reverse: head of roaring lion left, star of four rays above, all in incuse square. Ex FORVM.

Cyzkios (Cyzicum, Kyzikos): Located in modern Turkey, at the northern end of the isthmus between the Kapidag peninsula and the mainland, beside the Bandirma road about 10km/6mi southwest of Erdek, lie the remains of the ancient trading colony of Kyzikos (or Belkis), known by the poetic name of Dindymos. It was probably settled from Miletus in the second millennium B.C. and was certainly inhabited by Miletian settlers by 756 B.C. It is mentioned in the story of Jason and the Argonauts which tells how in error they killed the hospitable king who had earlier made them welcome. In 334 Alexander the Great built two bridges joining the southern tip of the island to the mainland. After Kyzikos declined, sand continuously washing up against the piles of the bridges caused the channel slowly to silt up and the isthmus was formed. Following Lucullus's decisive victory over Mithridates, Kyzikos became a "free" city and capital of Mysia. Badly damaged on several occasions by earthquakes (particularly in 543 and 1063) and by Arab assault (673), and further ravaged in fighting between Byzantines, Seljuks and Crusaders, it was finally abandoned in 1224. Little now remains to be seen, only a section of the walls, the site of the theater and some ruins of the amphitheater and of Hadrian's Temple to Zeus from which in the 16th century columns were removed to embellish Istanbul's mosques. Finds from Kyzikos are displayed in the museum in Erdek.
http://www.planetware.com/bandirma/kyzikos-tr-bl-bakz.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
PhiletairosMyFirstCoinPortrait250408.jpg
[2400d] Pergamene Kingdom, Mysia, Western Asia Minor, Philetairos I, 282 - 263 B.C.47 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Meydancikkale 3000, SNG Paris 1603 var, SNG Von Aulock -, SNG Cop -, VF, Pergamon mint, 16.629g, 28.1mm, 0o, c. 265 - 263 B.C. Obverse: head of Philetaerus right in taenia; Reverse: FILETAIROU downward on right, Athena enthroned left, right hand on shield before her, spear over shoulder in left, leaf above arm, bow right; high relief portrait; very rare. Ex FORVM. Photo by jpfjr.

This coin bears the first portrait of Philetairos, the founder of the Pergamene Kingdom, 282 -263 B.C. Hoard evidence and recent studies indicate it was struck at the end of his reign. Philetairos first struck in the name of Lysimachos, then posthumous Alexander types under Seleukos I, then Seleukos and Herakles (see coin 309p) portrait types under Antiochos I, and lastly this type with his own portrait. This same reverse was used for the Seleukos I portrait types. Philetairos' coinage is known for its magnificent realistic portraits and this coin is an excellent example. Very rare and absent from most major collections (Joseph Sermarini).

Attalid Dynasty(270-133 BC) - capital at Pergamum

Founded by Philetairos, the Greek secretary of Alexander the Great's general Lysimachus.

In his monograph "The Pergamene Mint Under Philetaerus" (The American Numismatic Society, No.76, 1936), Edward T. Newell notes, "The event which precipitated the end of Lysimachus' empire and resulted in the rise to power of the Attalid Dynasty, was the execution in 286-5 B.C. of his son, the heir apparent Agathocles. For Philetareus the situation had now become impossible. He belonged to the faction which had gathered about that able and much beloved young man--in opposition to the party headed by Lysimachus' wife, the ambitious Arsinoe, scheming for the preferment of her own children. So after having functioned for many years as the governor of Pergamum and the trusted guardian of the great treasure there deposited, Philetaerus was now forced to take steps for his own safety. Sometime between 284 and 282 B.C. many of the Asiatic cities and certain officers of Lysimachus openly rebelled and called upon Seleucus for aid. Philetaerus also wrote to the Syrian king, placing himself, and the treasure under his care, at the latter's disposal. Seleucus led his army, together with a large contingent of elephants, into the Asiatic provinces of Lysimachus. On the plain of Corupedium in Lydia there occurred the final and decisive battle in which, as is well known, Lysimachus lost both life and empire" (3-5).

When [Lysimachus] fell fighting Seleucus, Philetairos (a eunuch) withdrew with his commander's military war chest to a mountain fortress that ultimately became his palace acropolis of Pergamum. He gained royal recognition through his successful efforts at repulsing the Gallic invasion of western Anatolia in 270-269 BC. Philetairos drove the Gauls into the Phrygian highlands where they settled in the region thereafter known as Galatia. He became recognized by the Greek cities of the coastal region as a liberator and savior and established his hegemony over them. Since he had no children, his domain passed to the four sons of his brother, Attalus I. Normally, so many rival dynasts would have spelled disaster (as it eventually did in Syria and Egypt), but the Attalids became celebrated for their cooperation at state building. They handed the royal authority from one to another in succession and managed to elevate their realm into the top echelon of Mediterranean states.

Particularly skillful diplomacy with Rome enabled the Attalids to enjoy further success during the early second century BC. At their peak under Eumenes II, c. 190-168 BC, they controlled the entire western seaboard of Anatolia and much of Phrygian highland as well. In direct competition with the Ptolemies and the Seleucids, the Attalids succeeded at establishing Pergamum as a leading cultural center, its library second only to that of Alexandria, its sculpture, woven tapestries, and ceramics prized throughout the Mediterranean. An expressive, highly baroque style of sculpture known as the Asian school, set important trends in the Greek world and profoundly influenced artistic development at Rome. The Attalids likewise competed for control of the eastern luxury trade, relying on the overland route of the now ancient Persian Royal Road across Anatolia.

When a dynastic dispute threatened to undermine the stability of Pergamum at the end of the second century BC, King Attalus III (138-133) left his royal domain to the people of the Roman Republic in his will. His nobles were concerned about security after his passing, and to prevent a dynastic dispute (which ultimately did arise) he wrote this into his will as a form of "poison pill." At his demise in 133 BC, ambassadors brought the report of his bequest to Rome, where it was accepted and secured by military intervention. By 126 BC the royal territories of Pergamum became the Roman province of Asia, the richest of all Roman provinces.

Abusive exploitation by Roman tax collectors (publicans) induced a province-wide revolt in Asia in 88 BC (encouraged by Mithridates VI Eupator), culminating in the massacre reportedly of some 80,000 Romans, Italians, their families, and servants throughout the province. L. Cornelius Sulla restored order in 84 BC just prior to his assumption of the dictatorship at Rome. Indemnities imposed by Sulla remained burdensome throughout the following decade, but the resilience and economic vitality of the province ultimately enabled impressive recovery.

In 63 BC the Roman orator and senator, M. Tullius Cicero, stated that approximately 40% of tribute raised by the Republican empire came from Asia alone. The merger of Greco-Roman culture was probably most successfully achieved here. In the imperial era, cities such as Pergamum, Ephesus, Sardis, and Miletus ranked among the leading cultural centers of the Roman world.

http://72.14.235.104/search?q=cache:n9hG5pYVUV0J:web.ics.purdue.edu/~rauhn/hellenistic_world.htm+Philetairos&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=29

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
1stPhiletairosTet.jpg
[2400d] Pergamene Kingdom, Mysia, Western Asia Minor, Philetairos I, 282 - 263 B.C.53 viewsSilver tetradrachm, Meydancikkale 3000, SNG Paris 1603 var, SNG Von Aulock -, SNG Cop -, VF, Pergamon mint, 16.629g, 28.1mm, 0o, c. 265 - 263 B.C. Obverse: head of Philetaerus right in taenia; Reverse: FILETAIROU downward on right, Athena enthroned left, right hand on shield before her, spear over shoulder in left, leaf above arm, bow right; high relief portrait; very rare. Ex FORVM.

This coin bears the first portrait of Philetairos, the founder of the Pergamene Kingdom, 282 -263 B.C. Hoard evidence and recent studies indicate it was struck at the end of his reign. Philetairos first struck in the name of Lysimachos, then posthumous Alexander types under Seleukos I, then Seleukos and Herakles (see coin 309p) portrait types under Antiochos I, and lastly this type with his own portrait. This same reverse was used for the Seleukos I portrait types. Philetairos' coinage is known for its magnificent realistic portraits and this coin is an excellent example. Very rare and absent from most major collections.

Attalid Dynasty(270-133 BC) - capital at Pergamum

Founded by Philetairos, the Greek secretary of Alexander the Great's general Lysimachus.

In his monograph "The Pergamene Mint Under Philetaerus" (The American Numismatic Society, No.76, 1936), Edward T. Newell notes, "The event which precipitated the end of Lysimachus' empire and resulted in the rise to power of the Attalid Dynasty, was the execution in 286-5 B.C. of his son, the heir apparent Agathocles. For Philetareus the situation had now become impossible. He belonged to the faction which had gathered about that able and much beloved young man--in opposition to the party headed by Lysimachus' wife, the ambitious Arsinoe, scheming for the preferment of her own children. So after having functioned for many years as the governor of Pergamum and the trusted guardian of the great treasure there deposited, Philetaerus was now forced to take steps for his own safety. Sometime between 284 and 282 B.C. many of the Asiatic cities and certain officers of Lysimachus openly rebelled and called upon Seleucus for aid. Philetaerus also wrote to the Syrian king, placing himself, and the treasure under his care, at the latter's disposal. Seleucus led his army, together with a large contingent of elephants, into the Asiatic provinces of Lysimachus. On the plain of Corupedium in Lydia there occurred the final and decisive battle in which, as is well known, Lysimachus lost both life and empire" (3-5).

When [Lysimachus] fell fighting Seleucus, Philetairos (a eunuch) withdrew with his commander's military war chest to a mountain fortress that ultimately became his palace acropolis of Pergamum. He gained royal recognition through his successful efforts at repulsing the Gallic invasion of western Anatolia in 270-269 BC. Philetairos drove the Gauls into the Phrygian highlands where they settled in the region thereafter known as Galatia. He became recognized by the Greek cities of the coastal region as a liberator and savior and established his hegemony over them. Since he had no children, his domain passed to the four sons of his brother, Attalus I. Normally, so many rival dynasts would have spelled disaster (as it eventually did in Syria and Egypt), but the Attalids became celebrated for their cooperation at state building. They handed the royal authority from one to another in succession and managed to elevate their realm into the top echelon of Mediterranean states.

Particularly skillful diplomacy with Rome enabled the Attalids to enjoy further success during the early second century BC. At their peak under Eumenes II, c. 190-168 BC, they controlled the entire western seaboard of Anatolia and much of Phrygian highland as well. In direct competition with the Ptolemies and the Seleucids, the Attalids succeeded at establishing Pergamum as a leading cultural center, its library second only to that of Alexandria, its sculpture, woven tapestries, and ceramics prized throughout the Mediterranean. An expressive, highly baroque style of sculpture known as the Asian school, set important trends in the Greek world and profoundly influenced artistic development at Rome. The Attalids likewise competed for control of the eastern luxury trade, relying on the overland route of the now ancient Persian Royal Road across Anatolia.

When a dynastic dispute threatened to undermine the stability of Pergamum at the end of the second century BC, King Attalus III (138-133) left his royal domain to the people of the Roman Republic in his will. His nobles were concerned about security after his passing, and to prevent a dynastic dispute (which ultimately did arise) he wrote this into his will as a form of "poison pill." At his demise in 133 BC, ambassadors brought the report of his bequest to Rome, where it was accepted and secured by military intervention. By 126 BC the royal territories of Pergamum became the Roman province of Asia, the richest of all Roman provinces.

Abusive exploitation by Roman tax collectors (publicans) induced a province-wide revolt in Asia in 88 BC (encouraged by Mithridates VI Eupator), culminating in the massacre reportedly of some 80,000 Romans, Italians, their families, and servants throughout the province. L. Cornelius Sulla restored order in 84 BC just prior to his assumption of the dictatorship at Rome. Indemnities imposed by Sulla remained burdensome throughout the following decade, but the resilience and economic vitality of the province ultimately enabled impressive recovery.

In 63 BC the Roman orator and senator, M. Tullius Cicero, stated that approximately 40% of tribute raised by the Republican empire came from Asia alone. The merger of Greco-Roman culture was probably most successfully achieved here. In the imperial era, cities such as Pergamum, Ephesus, Sardis, and Miletus ranked among the leading cultural centers of the Roman world.

http://72.14.235.104/search?q=cache:n9hG5pYVUV0J:web.ics.purdue.edu/~rauhn/hellenistic_world.htm+Philetairos&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=29

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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