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Search results - "Militum"
Tetricus_Ier_-_1ere_emision_-_fides_militum.jpg
9 viewsIMP C G P ESVVIVS TETRICVS AVG
FIDES MILITVM
buste drapé et cuirassé
PYL
commod_concord_milit_RESIZED.jpg
(0177) Commodus (Concordia Militum)282 views177 - 192 AD
Struck 185 AD
Sestertius 28mm 20.51 g
OBV: Laur Head R
REV: Concordia Militum standing L holding 2 legionary standards/SC

Coin was minted in 186 AD and refers to the unity of purpose among legions that enabled the suppression of Perennis' plot against Commodus in 185 AD
laney
commod_concord_milit_RESIZED~0.jpg
(0177) COMMODUS--CONCORDIA MILITUM56 views177 - 192 AD
Struck 185 AD
Sestertius 28mm 20.51 g
OBV: Laur Head R
REV: Concordia Militum standing L holding 2 legionary standards/SC

Coin was minted in 186 AD and refers to the unity of purpose among legions that enabled the suppression of Perennis' plot against Commodus in 185 AD
laney
Probus_fides.jpg
015 - Probus (276-282 AD) Antoninianus - RIC 16939 viewsObv: IMP PROBVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: FIDES MILITUM, Fides standing left, holding two ensigns.
Minted in Rome (R thunderbolt Epsilon in exe), 6th emission 281 AD.
Bust type F.
1 commentspierre_p77
Domitian_as_caesar_legionary_standard.jpg
06 Domitian as Caesar RIC-1081113 viewsAR Denarius, 3.45g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Clasped hands holding legionary eagle set on prow
RIC 1081 (C2). BMC 269. RSC 393. BNC 240.
Acquired from Beast Coins, April 2007.


The reverse represents 'Concordia Militum', harmony of the troops. Domitian quite possibly was plotting against Titus after Vespasian's death by appealing to the troops with a double donative. This coin might provide numismatic evidence of such. Suetonius states: " On the death of his father he hesitated for some time whether to offer a double largess to the soldiers, and he never had any compunction about saying that he had been left a partner in the imperial power, but that the will had been tampered with."

A nice coin with average wear and an interesting history behind it.


Vespasian70
image~1.jpg
108. Didius Julianus58 views193 A.D. - The Year of Five Emperors. On 1 January, the Senate selected Pertinax, against his will, to succeed the late Commodus as Emperor. The Praetorian Guard assassinated him on 28 March and auctioned the throne to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, who offered 300 million sesterces. Outraged by the Praetorians, legions in Illyricum select Septimius Severus as emperor; in Britannia the legions select their governor Clodius Albinus, and in Syria the legions select their governor Pescennius Niger. On 1 June Septimius Severus entered the capital, put Julianus put to death and replaced the Praetorian Guard with his own troops. Clodius Albinus allied with Severus and accepted the title of Caesar. Pescennius Niger was defeated, killed and his head displayed in Rome.


SH67895. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC VI 14, BMCRE V 20, Cohen 3, Cayon III 1, SRCV II 6075, aF, weight 19.437 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, obverse IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONCORD MILIT, S - C, Concordia Militum standing half left, flanked by legionary eagle before in right and standard behind in left.

Ex-FORVM


1 commentsecoli
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)70 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)79 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
postume-fidesmilitum.jpg
1er Emission - 3e Phase - (261) - Trèves -FIDES MILITVM8 viewsIMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
FIDES MILITVM
EG 16
CUNETIO 2386
RIC 59
ELMER 133
AGK 21
de Witte 54
Cohen (67)
PYL
2014-058-3_ProbusConcordiaMilitum-Forum.jpg
2014.058.37 viewsCyzicus, 3.81 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from back.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM; T/XXIMC; Emperor, on right, standing left; holds spear in left and extending right hand, receiving wreath from Victory on left, standing right; wreath in raised right hand and palm in left.
Ref: cf RIC 908 [Bust/Inscription combination not listed]
gordian_guy
diocletian-Cocordia-militum.jpg
284-305 AD Diocletian Silvered Antoninianus - Concordia Militum76 viewsIMPCCVALDIOCLETIANVSAVG - radiate, and draped bust right
CONCORDIAMILITVM, Emperor standing right, holding scepter, recieving Victory on globe from jupiter standing Left and holding scepter. Gamma between, XXI in Exergue

Perhaps Antioch Mint, Ric 306 ??? ( the gamma between is what throws me...)
This coin came from a uncleaned lot.
jimwho523
MARIUS-concordia_militum.JPG
2e Emission - Trèves - (269)16 viewsIMP C MARIVS P F AVG
CONCORDIA MILITVM
buste drapé et cuirassé
deux mains jointes - la Bonne Foi
EG 173
Cunetio 2504
RIC 7
Elmer 632
AGK 3b
de Witte 2
Cohen 4
PYL
coin394.JPG
514. Valentinian II34 viewsValentinian II (371 - 392) was elevated as Western Roman Emperor at the age of four in 375, along with his half-brother Gratian.

Valentinian and his family lived in Milan, and the empire was nominally divided between them. Gratian took the trans- Alpine provinces, while Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina. Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan struggled against the Catholics of that city, led by their bishop Ambrose. The popularity of Ambrose was so great that the emperors' authority was materially shaken. In 387, Magnus Maximus, a Roman consul who had commanded an army in Briton, and in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) had declared himself emperor of Western Rome, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.

The emperor Valentinian II and his mother fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor and Valentinian's brother in law. Valentinian was restored in 388 by Theodosius, following the death of Magnus Maximus.

On May 15, 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in the town of Vienne in Gaul. The Frankish soldier Arbogast, Valentinian's protector and magister militum, maintained that it was suicide. Arbogast and Valentinian had frequently disputed rulership over the Western Roman Empire, and Valentinian was also noted to have complained of Arbogast's control over him to Theodosius. Thus when word of his death reached Constantinople Theodosius believed, or at least suspected, that Arbogast was lying and that he had engineered Valentinian's demise. These suspicions were further fueled by Arbogast's elevation of a Eugenius, pagan official to the position of Western Emperor, and the veiled accusations which Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, spoke during his funeral oration for Valentinian.

Valentinian II's death sparked a civil war between Eugenius and Theodosius over the rulership of the West in the Battle of the Frigidus. The resultant Eastern victory there led to the final brief unification of the Roman Empire under Theodosius, and the ultimate irreparable division of the Empire after his death.

Bronze AE3, RIC 22, VF, 2.19g, 17.7mm, 0o, Arelate mint, 378-383 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE AVGGG, Victory advancing left holding wreath in right and palm frond in left, [S]CON in ex;Ex Aiello;Ex Forum
ecoli
coin402.JPG
516a Johannes42 viewsAfter the death of Honorius on August 15, 423, his closest male relative was Valentinian, son of Galla Placidia. Valentinian was currently at Constantinople. This power vacuum allowed Ioannes, the primicerius notariorum (chief notary) to seize power in the west. Virtually nothing is known of Ioannes himself, though he was said to have had a mild character. He was supported by the magister militum Castinus and by Aetius, son of the magister militum Gaudentius. After his acclamation at Rome, Ioannes transferred his capital to Ravenna. Ioannes' rule was accepted in Gaul, Spain and Italy, but not in Africa. Ioannes' attempts to negotiate with the eastern emperor Theodosius II were unsuccessful. He seems not to have had a firm grasp of power and this encouraged eastern intervention. In 425, Theodosius II sent an expedition under the command of Ardabur the Elder to install Valentinian as emperor in the west. Ardabur was captured, but treated well, as Ioannes still hoped to be able to negotiate with Theodosius. Ardabur, however, persuaded some of Ioannes' officials to betray him. After his capture, Ioannes was taken to Aquileia where he was mutilated, then executed. Three days after Ioannes's execution, one of his generals, Aetius, arrived in Italy with a large force of Huns. Rather than continue the war, Valentinian bought off the Huns with gold and Aetius with the office of comes.
1 commentsecoli
coin410.JPG
517. Arcadius32 viewsFlavius Arcadius (377/378–May 1, 408) was Roman Emperor in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from 395 until his death.

Arcadius was the elder son of Theodosius I and Aelia Flaccilla, and brother of Honorius, who would become a Western Roman Emperor. His father declared him an Augustus in January, 383. His younger brother was also declared an Augustus in 393.

As Emperors, Honorius was under the control of the Romanized Vandal magister militum Flavius Stilicho while Arcadius was dominated by one of his ministers, Rufinus. Stilicho is alleged by some to have wanted control of both emperors, and is supposed to have had Rufinus assassinated by Gothic mercenaries in 395, but definite proof of these allegations is lacking. In any case, Arcadius' new advisor Eutropius simply took Rufinus' place as the power behind the Eastern imperial throne. Arcadius was also dominated by his wife Aelia Eudoxia, who convinced her husband to dismiss Eutropius in 399. Eudoxia was strongly opposed by John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who felt that she had used her family's wealth to gain control over the emperor. Eudoxia used her influence to have Chrysostom deposed in 404, but she died later that year.

Arcadius was dominated for the rest of his rule by Anthemius, the Praetorian Prefect, who made peace with Stilicho in the West. Arcadius himself was more concerned with appearing to be a pious Christian than he was with political or military matters, and he died, only nominally in control of his empire, in 408.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 67d and 70a, choice aEF, 1.14g, 13.8mm, 180o, Antioch mint, 383-395 A.D.; obverse D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICE, Victory advancing left holding trophy over right shoulder, dragging captive with left, staurogram left, ANTG in ex; Ex Aiello; Ex Forum
ecoli
Denario_Severo_Alejandro_RIC_193_1.jpg
59-09 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)30 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP SEV ALE - XAND AVG" – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FIDES – M – I – LITVM" – Fides (La Fidelidad) sentada a izquierda, portando insignias legionarias en ambas manos.

Acuñada 12 ava. Emisión 231 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Off. 5ta.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #193a Pag.85 – Sear (1988) #2206 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7863 Pag.644 - BMCRE Vol.6 #684-7 - Cohen Vol.IV #51 Pag.407 - RSC Vol. III #51 Pag.132 - DVM #___
mdelvalle
RIC_193a_Denario_Severo_Alejandro_1.jpg
59-09 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)5 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "IMP SEV ALE - XAND AVG" – Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FIDES – M – I – LITVM" – Fides (La Fidelidad) sentada a izquierda, portando insignias legionarias en ambas manos.

Acuñada 12 ava. Emisión 231 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Off. 5ta.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #193a Pag.85 – Sear (1988) #2206 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7863 Pag.644 - BMCRE Vol.6 #684-7 - Cohen Vol.IV #51 Pag.407 - RSC Vol. III #51 Pag.132 - DVM #___
mdelvalle
coin411.JPG
601. Eudoxia24 viewsAelia Eudoxia (d. 6 October 404) was the wife of the Eastern Roman emperor Arcadius.

The daughter of a certain Bauto, a Frankish magister militum serving in the Western Roman army during the 380s, Eudoxia owed her marriage to the youthful Emperor Arcadius on 27 April 395 to the intrigues of the eunuch of the palace, Eutropius. She had very considerable influence over her husband, who was of rather weak character and who was more interested in Christian piety than imperial politics.

In 399 she succeeded, with help from the leader of the Empire's Gothic mercenaries, in deposing her erstwhile benefactor Eutropius, who was later executed over the protests of John Chrysostom, the Patriarch of Constantinople.

John Chrysostom was already becoming unpopular at court due to his efforts at reforming the Church, and in 403 Eudoxia and Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, succeeded in having the outspoken Patriarch condemned by a synod and then deposed. He was exiled to Armenia the next year after a brief return to power resulting from popular disgust at his fall and an earthquake which reinforced those feelings.

Eudoxia had a total of seven pregnancies, five of which were successful. Her final pregnancy ended in a miscarriage which led to her death on October 6, 404. One of her children was the future emperor Theodosius II.

In 403, Simplicius, Prefect of Constantinople, erected a statue dedicated to her on a column of porphyry. Arcadius renamed the town of Selymbria (Silivri) Eudoxiopolis after her, though this name did not survive.

Bronze AE 4, RIC 102, S 4241, VM 6, VF, 2.14g, 17.0mm, 180o, Nikomedia mint, 401-403 A.D.; obverse AEL EVDOXIA AVG, diademed and draped bust right with hand of God holding wreath over her head; reverse SALVS REIPVBLICAE, Victory seated on cuirass inscribing Christogram on shield, SMNA in ex; softly struck reverse; rare
ecoli
Antoniniano Tetrico I RIC 70.jpg
92-02 - TETRICO I (271 - 274 D.C.)56 viewsBillon Antoniniano 19 x 18 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP TETR[ICVS P F] AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[FIDES M]ILITVM" - Fides (La Fidelidad) de pié a izquierda, portando un estandarte militar en cada mano de sus brazos extendidos.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión finales 271 D.C.
Ceca: Colonia Alemania
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #70 Pag.407 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #11234 var. Pag.391 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3176 - Cohen Vol.VI #37 Pag.96 - DVM #3 Pag.270 - Cunieto #2638 - Elmer #784 - AGK #3f
1 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_70_Antoniniano_Tetrico_I.jpg
92-02 - TETRICO I (271 - 274 D.C.)10 viewsAE Antoniniano 19 x 18 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP TETR[ICVS P F] AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[FIDES M]ILITVM" - Fides (La Fidelidad) de pié a izquierda, portando un estandarte militar en cada mano de sus brazos extendidos.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión finales 271 D.C.
Ceca: Colonia Alemania

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte II #70 Pag.407 (C) - Sear RCTV Vol.III #11234 var. Pag.391 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3176 - Cohen Vol.VI #37 Pag.96 - DVM #3 Pag.270 - Cunetio #2638 - Elmer #784 - AGK #3f (C3) - L.E.G.PPS #298 P.LXXIV
mdelvalle
Antoniniano_Aureliano_RIC_244bis.jpg
96-19a - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)38 viewsAE Antoniniano 22 mm 2.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONCORDIA MILITVM" – Emperador laureado y con toga de pié a derecha, le da su mano a Concordia/Severina vestida de pié a izquierda. "V*" en exergo.

Acuñada 7ma. Emisión Primavera 274 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off. 5ta.) - Sisak Croacia.
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #244 Pag.292 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3265 - Cohen Vol.VI #60 Pag.182/3 - DVM #7 Pag.257 - LV.#982 – Göbl#214 a5 - La Venera. II.1/7941
mdelvalle
RIC_244_Doble_Antoniniano_Aureliano_1.jpg
96-19a - AURELIANO (270 - 275 D.C.)8 viewsAE Antoniniano 22 mm 2.6 gr.

Anv: "IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG" - Busto radiado y con coraza, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "CONCORDIA MILITVM" – Emperador laureado y con toga de pié a derecha, le da su mano a Concordia/Severina vestida de pié a izquierda. "V*" en exergo.

Acuñada 7ma. Emisión Fase 2 Primavera 274 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off. 5ta.) - Sisak Croacia.

Referencias: RIC Va #244 P.292, Sear RCTV '88 #3265, Cohen VI #60 Pag.182/3, DVM #7 P.257, Göbl#214 a5, La Venera 7941/64, BNC #850/1
mdelvalle
Antoniniano_Severina_RIC_20_P.jpg
97-02 - SEVERINA (Augusta 274 - 275 D.C.)44 viewsEsposa de Aureliano, lo acompañaba en sus campañas.

Billon Antoniniano 23 mm 3.70 gr.
Totalmente plateado

Anv: "SEVERINA AVG" - Busto con diadema, vestido, viendo a derecha, sobre una medialuna (L15).
Rev: "CONCORDIAE MILITVM" – Concordia de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un estandarte militar en cada mano. "XXI" en exergo y "P" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada: Sexta Emisión, Inicio Octubre 275 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía – Hoy Antakya -Turquía (Off. 1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #20 Pag.318 - Sear RCTV (1988) #3285 var - Cohen Vol.VI #7 Pag.210 (2f) - DVM #4 Pag.258 - Göbl#383-a1
mdelvalle
RIC_20_Doble_Antoniniano_Severina.jpg
97-04 - SEVERINA (Augusta 274 - 275 D.C.)11 viewsEsposa de Aureliano, lo acompañaba en sus campañas.

Vellón Antoniniano 23 mm 3.70 gr.
Totalmente plateado

Anv: "SEVERINA AVG" - Busto con diadema, vestido, viendo a derecha, sobre una medialuna (L15).
Rev: "CONCORDIAE MILITVM" – Concordia de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un estandarte militar en cada mano. "XXI" en exergo y "P" en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada: Sexta Emisión, Inicio a Setiembre 275 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquía – Hoy Antakya -Turquía (Off. 1ra.)

Referencias: RIC Va #20 (C) P.318, RIC2 Temp.#3187, Sear RCTV III @11706 var.(Ley.anv.), Sear RCTV (1988) #3285 var., Cohen VI #7 P.210 (2f), DVM #4 P.258, Göbl#383-a1, BNC #1347/9, Hunter #32
mdelvalle
513ForumNaso.jpg
AE 216 views Bronze AE 21, c. 241 - 50 BCE Panormus (Palermo) mint, (4.595g, maximum diameter 20.9mm, die axis 315o)
magistrate (L. Axius?) Naso
o: laureate head of Zeus left
r: warrior standing left, sword in extended right, spear vertical behind in left, grounded shield behind leaning on spear, NAS/O left
very rare magistrate

per Forum notes: NASO named on this coin could be Lucius Axius L. f. Naso, who was a moneyer in Rome, c. 73 - 70 B.C. Two inscriptions discovered at Cordoba dedicated to a Lucio Axio Luci filio Polia tribu Nasoni, indicate his honors. He was first decemvir stlitibus iudicandis, then tribunus militum pro legato, then quaestor. Or, this NASO could be completely unrelated.
Calciati I p. 351, 125 (one specimen); HGC 2 1071 (C)
PURCHASED FROM FORUM ANCIENT COINS
PMah
Anto_FIDES_MILITVMs_FAC.jpg
Antoninianus Gordian III Imitation FIDES MILITVM41 viewsIMP CAES MANT GORDIANVS
FIDES MILITVM

RIC : No number, but the prototype is RIC 1

Coin : fourree

Weight : 3,46gr

A very unusual style. The portrait is very strange and typical. The reverse is also strange : FIDES looks like a man with a crown.

I think it's the same celator as for this other imitations (also from my collection ) :
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58496
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-58585
1 commentsChut
elagabalus.JPG
AR Antoninianus of Elagabalus , AD 21968 viewsObv: IMP ANTONINUS AVG, Laurate draped bust rt.
Rev. FIDES MILITUM, Fides standing Hd rt, holding vexillum and military eagle standard.
RIC 72, RSC 29 (Wildwinds)
1 commentsdaverino
aurelianrome.JPG
Aurelian AE Antoninianus - Siscia Mint55 viewsObv:IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust rt. Rev:CONCORDIA MILITUM, Aurelian and Concord clasping hands, S between, Ex: XXI
RIC 244F
daverino
aurvirtus.JPG
Aurelian Billon Antoninianus 270-275 AD88 viewsOBV: IMP AURELIANUS AVG; Radiate and Cuirassed bust Rt
REV: VIRTUS MILITUM; Emperor standing left holding spear and globe receiving victory from a soldier carrying transverse spear.
EXERGUE: T (3rd officina)

Milan mint, Not in RIC but listed as Goebl 62b3, rated scarce (personal communciation from Dane Kurth) Also, my first contribution to the Wildwinds database
daverino
milit.JPG
Aurelian Bronze Antonianus, Siscia 272-274 AD83 viewsOBV: IMP AURELIANUS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and Cuirassed bust (Type A) rt.
REV: CONCORDIA MILITUM; Aurelian standing right clasps hands with Concordia standing left; S* in Exergue

RIC 216 is perhaps the most common type from Siscia but it covers a wide variety of styles including this dramatic portrait design. The template is exactly the same for other examples of this coin (for example in Wildwinds) and I think must all have been done by the same engraver. A beautiful design with many different textures.
1 commentsdaverino
Aurelian_Concordia_Militum.JPG
Aurelian Concordia Militum38 viewsAurelian, Antoninianus, 272 - 274 AD, 2.82g, 24mm, RIC V 216, Cohen 61, Sear 5 11522/11523 var.
OBV: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Aurelian and Concordia stdg. facing each other, clasping right hands,
star P in exergue
1 commentsRomanorvm
Aurelian_Concordia_Militvm.jpg
Aurelian Concordia Militum 245288 viewsAurelian
AD 270-275
Billon Antoninianus
RIC V-1, 245 Siscia
Siscia mint

O:IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG,
radiate Cuirassed bust right

R: CONCORDIA MILITVM,
Aurelian and Concord facing each other, clasping hands, XXIQ in exergue
Gao
aureli.JPG
Aurelian Silvered Antoninianus 272-274 AD93 viewsOBV: IMP AURELIANUS AVG; His radiate draped and cuirassed bust rt.
REV: CONCORDIA MILITUM; Aurelian standing right clasping hands with Concordia standing left; S* in Exergue
RIC 216 (Ref. W'winds) Siscia Mint

weight 3.7 gms
2 commentsdaverino
Aurelian- Concordia Militum.jpg
Aurelian- Concordia Militum141 viewsAurelian, August or September 270 - October or November 275 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate and cuirassed bust right

IMP AVRELIANVS AVG

IMP: Imperator, leader of the army
AVRELIANVS: Aurelian
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse
CONCORD • MILIT, Accordance with the army

CONCORD • : Accordance
MILIT: Army

The dot in legend appears on the specimen illustrated by Göbl. Göbl 276a3 (2). He says "Moneta Comitatentis (later in Byzantium), 2nd. Emission"
He dates that to middle of 272. Göbl's concordance is -> Göbl (MiR 47) 276 = RIC 391 = Rohde 119, 120


Aurelian standing right, holding sceptre and clasping hand of Concordia standing left.

Domination: Bronze, size 23 mm

Mint: Cyzicus Γ (3.rd Officina), scarce or RIC V/1, 391; unattributed mint. It is Cohen 25. It could be RIC V/1, 342. I can't tell the difference! The description in RIC is the same for both types. Moneta Comitatensis, but it may be obsolete in any case.


Comment: In Estiot, Monnaies de l'Empire romain, vol.II, it is #987, pl.31; atelier Balkanique. The portrait on the obverse looks very strange. It is strange in the sense that there are very odd pictorial trends in the portraiture of Aurelian, but within the context it's not that unusual.
John Schou
Caracalla_Fides_2c.jpg
Caracalla | Fides * Rome * AR Denarius - 198-217 AD.97 views
Caracalla | Fides * Silver Denarius

Obv: Laureate bust right. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Rev: Fides Militum facing, head left, standing between and holding two standards either side in left and right hands. PM TR P XVIII COS IIII PP

Exergue: Clear

Mint: Rome
Struck: 198-217

Size: 20.40 mm.
Weight: 2.83 grm.
Die axis: 0°

Condition: Excellent. Clean, clear, well centered and struck, superb images and good legends. Lustrous silver with some light toning on the obverse.

Refs:*
Sear, 1937
Van Meter, 63/11

Status: TCJH, Private Collection.
3 commentsTiathena
Claudius II Gothicus- Fides Militum.jpg
Cladius II Gothicus- Fides Militum50 viewsClaudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.

Obverse:
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

IMP CLAVDIVS P F AVG

IMP: Imperator
Cladivs: Cladius
PF: Pius Felix, Pious and happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
FIDES MILI, Fidelity of the army

FIDES: Fidelity
MILIT: Army

Fides standing left holding two ensigns.

Domination: Bronze Antoninianus, AE 3, size 18mm

Mint: Mediolanum struck 238-270 A.D. RIC 149, common.
John Schou
Claudius_UII_fides_militum.JPG
Claudius II RIC V-1 Rome 3617 viewsAE 19 mm 3.3 grams 269 AD
OBV :: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG. Radiate and cuirassed bust right
REV :: FIDES EXERCI. Fides standing left holding vertical standard and transverse standard
EX :: none
REF :: RIC V-1, Rome 36
Johnny
Constance clore follis ticinium.jpg
Constance Clore, Follis,37 viewsAE, 25mm, 305/306 A.D., Ticinium (Italy)
Obv: Imp C Constantius PF Aug
Rev: Fides Militum
Ex: T.T. for tercia Ticinium
Ref: CMIR vol. III, Juan R. Cayon p. 1832/1833 # 167
Jean Paul D
constantius I concordia militum com.JPG
Constantius I RIC VI Alexandria 59A170 viewsAE 21 mm 2.6 grams
OBV :: IMP C CONSTANTIVS PF AVG.Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV ::CONCORDIA MI-LITVM. Emperor receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter holding a scepter gamma in center
EX :: ALE (Alexandria)
RIC VI Alexandria 59A
RIC rated Common
From uncleaned lot 07/2007
Johnny
Constantius_I_Concordia_Militum.JPG
Constantius I Concordia Militum20 viewsConstantius I, Heraclea, Officinae 5, 294 AD, 2.6g, 20mm, RIC VI pg. 531, 15
OBV: FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES, radiate, cuirassed bust right
REV: CONCORDIA MILI-TVM, prince standing right, receiving victory from Jupiter
Romanorvm
MAntDeL14.jpg
Crawford 544/29, Marc Antony, for Legio XIV, Denarius, 32-31 BC.84 viewsMarc Antony, for Legio XIV (Gemina Martia Victrix), Patras mint (?), 32-31 BC.,
Denarius (16-17 mm / 3,63 g),
Obv.: above: [AN]T AVG , below: [III VI]R R P C , under oar right, filleted scepter or mast with fluttering banners on prow.
Rev.: LEG - XIV , Aquila (legionary eagle) between two military standards.
Crawf. 544/29 ; Bab. (Antonia) 123 ; BMC 208 ; Sear 369 ; Syd. 1234 .

Die Legio XIV wurde 41 v. Chr. von Augustus aufgestellt. Sie war seit 9 n. Chr. in Moguntiacum (Mainz) stationiert und kämpfte später unter Claudius in Britannien, wo sie 60 oder 61 n. Chr. half, Boudicca niederzuwerfen. Später war die Legion u. a. in Vindobona (Wien) und Carnuntum stationiert. Sie war an den Usurpationen des Saturninus und Regalianus beteiligt.

Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire, levied by Octavian after 41 BC. The cognomen Gemina (twin in Latin) suggests that the legion resulted from fusion of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the Fourteenth legion that fought in the Battle of Alesia. Martia Victrix (martial victory) were cognomens added by Nero following the victory over Boudica. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn, as with many of the legions levied by Augustus.
Invasion of Britain
Stationed in Moguntiacum, Germania Superior, since AD 9, XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix was one of four legions used by Aulus Plautius and Claudius in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and took part in the defeat of Boudicca in 60 or 61. In 68 it was stationed in Gallia Narbonensis.
Rebellion on the Rhine
In 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, rebelled against Domitian, with the support of the XIVth and of the XXI Rapax, but the revolt was suppressed.
Pannonian defense
When the XXIst legion was lost, in 92, XIIII Gemina was sent in Pannonia to substitute it, camping in Vindobona (Vienna). After a war with the Sarmatians and Trajan's Dacian Wars (101-106), the legion was moved to Carnuntum, where it stayed for three centuries. Some subunits of Fourteenth fought in the wars against the Mauri, under Antoninus Pius, and the legion participated to the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus. During his war against the Marcomanni, Emperor Marcus Aurelius based his headquarters in Carnuntum.
In support of Septimius Severus
In 193, after the death of Pertinax, the commander of the Fourteenth, Septimius Severus, was acclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions, and above all by his own. XIIII Gemina fought for its emperor in his march to Rome to attack usurper Didius Julianus (193), contributed to the defeat of the usurper Pescennius Niger (194), and probably fought in the Parthian campaign that ended with the sack of the capital of the empire, Ctesiphon (198).
In support of imperial candidates
In the turmoil following the defeat of Valerian, tXIIII Gemina supported usurper Regalianus against Emperor Gallienus (260), then Gallienus against Postumus of the Gallic empire (earning the title VI Pia VI Fidelis — "six times faithful, six times loyal"), and, after Gallienus death, Gallic Emperor Victorinus (269-271).
5th century
At the beginning of the 5th century, XIIII Gemina still stayed at Carnuntum. It probably dissolved with the collapse of the Danube frontier in 430s. The Notitia Dignitatum lists a Quartodecimani comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Thracias; it is possible that this unit is XIV Gemina.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
Diocletian concordia militum com.JPG
Diocletian concordia militum289 viewsAE 20 -23 mm 2.6 g
OBV :: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG..Radiate, cuirassed bust right
REV :: CONCORDIA MI-LITVM.. Emperor standing on left with scepter receiving victory on globe from Jupiter standing on right holding long scepter
K gamma in center
EX:: none
Ric VI Cyzicus 15a
RIC rated C2
from uncleaned lot 10/07
Johnny
COMBINED~3.jpg
Diocletian CONCORDIA MILITUM28 viewsDiocletian

Denomination Ae Follis
Date Struck 294-305 AD
Mint Heraclea
Obverse IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS PF AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Reverse - CONCORDIA MILITUM - Diocletian standing left receiving victory on globe from naked Jupiter standing right, holding sceptre; HB in field between their feet.
Weight 2,4 g
Diameter 19,3 mm
Flamur H
diocletian.jpg
Diocletian Follis, Concordia (RIC6 viewsObverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG Radiate bust of Diocletian, draped and cuirassed, looking right.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM Diocletian receiving a Victory on a globe from Jupiter. HB on center.

Heracleia mint, 2nd officina, 295-296.

21 mm, 2.64 g, 180º.

Reference: RIC VI Heracleia 13/21.
Manuel
domit2323.jpg
Domitian as Caesar Denarius RIC 9615 viewsAR Denarius , 17.93mm, 3.42g. Rome mint, Struck 80 AD under Titus the reverse shows clasped hands over an aquila set on a prow, representing "Concordia Militum" - "Harmony of the troops" RIC 96 (C). BMC 85. RSC 395.

Britanikus
CA-JB518LG.jpg
Domitian as Caesar RIC 9690 viewsAR Denarius, 3.39g
Rome mint, 80 AD (Titus)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Hands clasped over aquila on prow
RIC 96 (C). BMC 85. RSC 395. BNC 71.
Acquired from Imperial Coins, August 2011.

Struck in 80 AD under Titus, the reverse shows clasped hands over an aquila set on a prow, apparently representing "Concordia Militum" - "Harmony of the troops" (BMC II, xlii-xliii). An odd choice to be sure for anyone other than the emperor to issue. According to Suetonius - "After the death of his father, he (Domitian) hesitated for a long time whether he should offer the soldiery a double bounty and he never had any hesitation in stating that he had been left as a partner in the imperial position but that fraud had been applied to the will." (Suet., Dom., 2)

There is a COS VI of this reverse type assigned under Vespasian in both RIC and BMCRE but certainly post dates Vespasian's death.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
Elagabalus_Fides_Militum.jpg
Elagabalus Fides Militum15 viewsElagabalus, Silver denarius, Rome, Struck 219 - 220 AD, 2.6g, 17.8mm, RIC IVb 73, Cohen 38
OBV: IMP ANTONINVS AVG, Laureate and draped bust right
REV: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, head right holding standard and vexillium
Romanorvm
Philippus_I_FIDES_MILIT_bo_b.jpg
FIDES MILIT23 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
Probus_-_Fides_Militum_(1).jpg
Fides Militum53 viewsObv. IMP PROBVS PF AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right,
Rev. FIDES MILITVM, Fides facing left, holding to legionary standards, R{lightning}E in exergue,
Rome mint,
21mm, 3,92 gr.
RIC 169

Historia Augusta 10 and 20 "[10] cognito itaque quod imperaret Probus milites Florianum, qui quasi hereditarium arripuerat imperium, interemerunt, scientes neminem dignius posse imperare quam Probum. ita ei sine ulla molestia totius orbis imperium et militum et senatus iudicio delatum est. - [20]. cum per Illyricum iter faceret, a militibus suis per insidias interemptus est. causae occidendi eius haec fuerunt: primum quod numquam militem otiosum esse perpessus est, si quidem multa opera militari manu perfecit, dicens annonam gratuitam militem comedere non debere. his addidit dictum eis grave, si umquam eveniat, salutare rei publicae, brevi milites necessarios non futuros.

"[10] And so, when it was well known that Probus was emperor, the soldiers killed Florian, who had seized the imperial power as though an inheritance, for they knew well that no one could rule more worthily than Probus. Accordingly, without any effort of his, the rule of the whole world was conferred upon him by the voice of both army and senate. - [20]. While on the march through Illyricum he was treacherously killed by his soldiers. The causes of his murder were these: first of all, he never permitted a soldier to be idle, for he built many works by means of their labour, saying that a soldier should eat no bread that was not earned. To this he added another remark, hard for them, should it ever come true, but beneficial to the commonwealth, namely, that soon there would be no need of such soldiers."
Syltorian
V10105TN~0.jpg
Fides Militum (Maximinus denarius)225 viewsFIDES MILITUM - "The Loyal Military"
Rome Mint, AD 235-236
Zam
Fides_militum_Cld.jpg
Fides Militum Cld59 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEV_ALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped
Reverse: FIDES_M_I_LITVM SC left and right in field
Fides draped, standing front, head left, holding a vertical standard in each hand
BMC 230, RIC 554
Weight, 10.44g; die axis, 11h.
1 commentsmix_val
Fides_militum_Cld~0.jpg
Fides Militum Cld dup48 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped
Reverse: FIDES_M_I_LITVM SC left and right in field
Fides draped, standing front, head left, holding a vertical standard in each hand
BMC 228, RIC 552
Weight, 19.581g; die axis, 6h.
1 commentsmix_val
Gordianus_FIDES_MILITVM_fe_b.jpg
FIDES MILITVM26 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
draped and cuirassed bust
very rare
Tibsi
Gordianus_FIDES_MILITVM_go4_b.jpg
FIDES MILITVM29 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antochia mint
ancient barbarian imitation
very rare
Tibsi
Gordianus_FIDES_MILITVM_eq_b.jpg
FIDES MILITVM26 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
rare
Tibsi
Fides_militum.jpg
FIDES MILITVM59 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust radiant right, draped
Reverse: FIDES_M_I_LITVM SC left and right in field
Fides draped, standing front, head left, holding a vertical standard in each hand
BMC 229*, RIC 553
Weight, 11.546g; die axis, 12h
mix_val
Gordianus_FIDES_MILITVM_cx_b.jpg
FIDES MILITVM50 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
Obv.: ...GORDIANS... (instead of ...GORDIANVS...)
very rare
Tibsi
Gordianus_FIDES_MILITVM_dx_b.jpg
FIDES MILITVM38 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
very rare
Tibsi
Philippus_I_FIDES_MILITVM_bx_b.jpg
FIDES MILITVM13 viewsPhilippus I. antoninianus
Rome mint
Tibsi
Gordianus_FIDES_MILITVM_en_b.jpg
FIDES MILITVM28 viewsGordianus III. antoninianus
Antiochia mint
Tibsi
fides_militum_19_92g.JPG
FIDES MILITVM16 viewsDouble sesterce
atelier officiel
19.92g
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG
FIDES MILITVM
Bastien 77
de Witte 56
Cohen 74
RIC 123
Elmer 233
PYL
fides_militum_17_07g.JPG
FIDES MILITVM12 viewsSesterce
atelier officiel
IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
FIDES MILITVM
17,07g
Bastien 74
de Witte ...
Cohen 69
RIC 124
Elmer 227
PYL
fides_militum_12_37g.jpg
FIDES MILITVM10 viewsSesterce
atelier officiel
12.37g
IMP C POSTVMVS . P . F . AVG
FIDES MILITVM
Bastien 73
de Witte ...
Cohen 69
RIC 124
Elmer 227
PYL
fides_militum_16_17g_2.jpg
FIDES MILITVM18 viewssesterce
atelier officiel
IMP C POSTVMVS PIVS F AVG
FIDES MILITVM
16,17g
Bastien 72
de Witte 58
Cohen 72
RIC 128
Elmer 228
PYL
fides_militum_2.JPG
FIDES MILITVM9 viewsdouble sesterce
atelier officiel
19,98g
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS . P . F . AVG
FIDES MILITVM
Bastien 76
de Witte 56
Cohen 74
RIC 123
Elmer 233
PYL
fides_militum_1.JPG
FIDES MILITVM11 viewsdouble sesterce
atelier II
18,56g
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG
FIDES MILITVM
Bastien 143 graveur 1
de Witte 56
Cohen 74
RIC 123
Elmer 233
PYL
fides_militum_3.JPG
FIDES MILITVM5 viewsDouble sesterce
atelier officiel
14,10g
IMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS P F AVG
FIDES MILITVM
Bastien 77
de Witte 56
Cohen 74
RIC 123
Elmer 233
PYL
Fides_Militum_Cld_odd.jpg
Fides Militvm Cld51 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped
Reverse: FIDES_M_I_LITVM SC left and right in field
Fides draped, standing front, head left, holding a vertical standard in each hand
BMC 228, RIC 552
Weight, 17.05g; die axis, 12h.
Strange portrait for Alexander, early or just tooled
1 commentsmix_val
Fides_Militum_Cldc.jpg
Fides Militvm Cldc43 viewsObverse: IMPCAESMAVRSEVALEXANDERAVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed
Reverse: FIDES_MI_LITVM SC left and right in field
Fides draped, standing front, head left, holding a vertical standard in each hand
BMC 228 (see note C 54, Paris), RIC 552
Weight, 24.13g; die axis, 12h.
1 commentsmix_val
Galerius_Concordia_Militum.JPG
Galerius Concordia Militum34 viewsGalerius, AD 295 - 299, AE Post Reform Fractional Radiate, RIC VI Cyzicus 19B, SEAR 3713
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES - Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: CONCORDIA MILITVM - Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Galerius.  Exe: above the line KB

SCARCE
Romanorvm
Coin1001_quad_sm.jpg
Galerius Concordia Militum Ӕ post-reform radiate fraction (295 - 299), Cyzicus mint6 viewsGAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped (?) and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MI-LITVM + KB in lower centre, Prince (the left figure) standing right in military dress, holding parazonium or baton of imperium, receiving small Victory with a wreath and palm branch on globe from naked Jupiter (the right figure) standing left holding tall scepter.

Ӕ, 20mm, 2.36g, die axis 6h, base metal seems red, high copper content.

Galerius ruled as Caesar from 293 to 305, but most sources give minting years for this type of coin as 295-299.

RIC VI Cyzicus 19b (18b?), Sear 3713. 19b has cuirassed and draped bust, 18b -- only cuirassed. I think the edge of the military cape on the shoulder means it is draped in this case, but distinction seems very vague to me. Looking at coins identified as 18b and 19b I cannot see any clear pattern, it seems that many are confused in this respect just like myself.

GALerius VALerius MAXIMIANUS NOBilitas CAESar (in this era the title of "junior" emperor while Augustus was a "senior" one), CONCORDIA MILITVM = [Dedicated to] harmony with the soldiers, K = Kysikos (Cyzicus) mint, B = officina Beta (workshop #2). The figure to the right is naked except for a cape, so it is a god, the sceptre points to him being Jupiter, the ruler of gods. Jupiter is also typically associated with Victory, he was often depicted with Victory in the right hand and sceptre in the left. The line across his head probably designates a wreath, also a common feature of Jupiter. Victory holds her common attributes, the triumphal wreath and a palm branch, the orb she stands on represents the world (thus meaning dominion over it). Round Earth was a firmly established concept in Roman times. The left figure, the prince (Galerius in this case) is identified by his full battle dress and the hand-held short elongated shape, which is either the ivory baton of imperium (the high command) or, more likely, a parazonium, a long triangular dagger, typically cradled in the bearer's left arm. A Roman parazonium blade tended to be leaf shape and approximately 15"-19" long. It was a ceremonial weapon, a mark of high rank, used to rally the troops.

GALERIUS, * c. 250, near Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) or in a Dacian place later called Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad, Serbia) † late Apr or early May 311 (aged ~60), Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) ‡ 1 Mar or 21 May 293 – 1 May 305 (as Eastern Caesar, under Diocletian), 1 May 305 – late Apr or early May 311 (as Eastern Augustus with many co-emperors).

Galerius was born of humble parentage and had a distinguished military career. On March 1, 293, he was nominated as Caesar by Diocletian, the supreme ruler of the empire, to help him govern the East. Galerius divorced his wife and married Diocletian’s daughter, Valeria. After ruling from Egypt from 293 to 295, Galerius assumed command of defensive operations against the Sasanians in 297. After being defeated, he then won a decisive victory that increased his influence with Diocletian. Galerius next proceeded to the Balkans and won numerous victories in the region. A staunch pagan, he persuaded the emperor to initiate the persecution of the Christians at Nicomedia in 303.

When Diocletian abdicated on May 1, 305, Galerius became Augustus of the East, ruling the Balkans and Anatolia. Since Galerius had arranged the appointment of two of his favourites, Maximinus (his nephew) and Flavius Valerius Severus, to be Caesars in both East and West, he was in effect the supreme ruler. When Constantius Chlorus died in 306, Galerius insisted that Severus govern the West as Augustus, but he grudgingly conceded the subordinate title of caesar to Chlorus’s son, Constantine, who was correctly suspected of Christian sympathies. Galerius’s supremacy was, however, short-lived. Severus was soon overthrown (306) and killed by Maxentius (son of the former emperor Maximian). Galerius invaded Italy but was forced to retreat. In 308 he induced Diocletian and Maximian to meet him at Carnuntum on the Danube and to declare Maxentius a usurper. On November 11, Galerius proclaimed as Augustus of the West his friend Licinius, who had effective control only in the region of the Danube.

A ruthless ruler, Galerius imposed the poll tax on the urban population and maintained the persecution of the Christians. In the winter of 310–311, however, he became incapacitated with a horrible disease. Fearing, perhaps, that his illness was the vengeance of the Christian God, he issued on April 30, 311, an edict grudgingly granting toleration. Shortly afterward he died. He was succeeded by his nephew Maximinus Daia.

Diocletian's money reform of 293.

Trying to fight the runaway inflation that he did not understand and to return people's faith in Roman coins, Diocletian did a complete overhaul of the Roman monetary system. He introduced a new theoretical base monetary unit called the denarius communis or d.c. (only rarely represented by actual coins, one example being old pre-Aurelian antoniniani still in circulation, valued now at 1 d. c., another – minted only on a small scale 1.5g coin with the reverse legend VTILITAS PVBLICA, "for public use"). Then he started minting new types of coins including a gold aureus of new purity and weight standard (1/60 pound of pure gold), a quality silver coin, argenteus, roughly similar to the early imperial denarius in size and weight, a new billon coin, of a copper alloy but with a small fraction of silver mostly in the form of coating, roughly similar to the old antoninianus when it was just introduced, however bearing now a laureate rather than a radiate bust. This type of coin is now commonly referred to as a follis or a nummus. Finally, a new radiate bronze coin, now referred to as a "radiate fraction" or a radiatus was introduced, similar to the early imperial aes in value, but much smaller in weight and size. There were also rare issues of ½ and ¼ nummus coins, mostly in connection to some celebration. Interestingly, the obverses of these new coins were chosen to represent some identical "generic" image of a "good emperor" independent of the actual likeness of the August or Caesar in whose name they were issued, thus affirming the unity of all the tetrarchy rulers. Very roughly one may think of a new radiatus as a price of one loaf of bread, a new argenteus as a very good daily wage, and a new aureus as a price of a good horse. An approximate relationship between these units was as follows: 1 aureus ≈ 20 argentei ≈ 1000 d.c. (some scholars prefer 25 argentei and 1250 d.c.); 1 argenteus ≈ 5 nummi ≈ 50 d.c.; 1 nummus ≈ 5 radiati ≈ 10 d.c.; 1 radiatus ≈ 2 d.c. Of course we know that this reform was ineffective and inflation continued, so all these values were constantly shifting due to changing markets. Diocletian himself stopped minting argenteus in c. 305, and Constantine in his monetary reforms only re-established a new and highly successful gold standard, solidus (1/72 pound of pure gold, surprisingly actually first introduced also by Diocletian in 301, but only as a pilot version). As for billon and bronze coins, "folles" or "nummi", they were minted in all shapes and sizes all over the 4th century, often horribly debased by inflation, and their values at each point can only be guessed. It seems that in later times up to 1000 small bronze coins were sealed in a leather pouch to produce a reasonable unit of payment, thus giving rise to the name follis (lit. "bag" in Latin), which is now anachronistically applied to many billon and bronze coins of the late 3d and 4th century.
Yurii P
Galerius_OBV.JPG
Galerius Obv11 viewsGalerius; AD 295-299
Bronze; AE Post Reform
Radiate Fraction 21mm/3.9g
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANUS NOB CAES
Radiate draped & cuirassed, Bust R
REV: CONCORDIA MILITUM; Maximianus standing right receiving Victory on a globe from Jupiter standing left, KA between
Philip G
Galerius_REV.JPG
Galerius Rev12 viewsGalerius; AD 295-299
Bronze; AE Post Reform
Radiate Fraction 21mm/3.9g
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMIANUS NOB CAES
Radiate draped & cuirassed, Bust R
REV: CONCORDIA MILITUM; Maximianus standing right receiving Victory on a globe from Jupiter standing left, KA between
Philip G
Gallien_-_fides_militum__2.JPG
Gallien - FIDES MILITVM15 viewsIMP GALLIENVS PIVS AVG
FIDES MILITVM
L'aigle légionnaire sur un globe tenant une couronne dans son bec, il est entre deux vexillum.
Cologne - 1ere Émission - phase a - septembre 256
Bourdel 197
Göbl 871b
Eauze 1461
Elmer 18
PYL
Gallien_-_fides_militum.JPG
Gallien - FIDES MILITVM11 viewsGALLIENVS AVG GERM V
FIDES MILITVM
L'aigle légionnaire tenant en son bec une couronne, il est posé sur un globe entre deux vexillum
Cologne - 2e Émission - phase a - printemps 257
Bourdel 276a
Göbl 871q
Eauze 1483
Elmer 46
PYL
Gallien_-_fides_militum~0.jpg
Gallien - FIDES MILITVM12 viewsGALLIENVS . P . F . AVG
FIDES MILITVM
L'aigle légionnaire sur un globe tenant une couronne dans son bec, il est entre deux vexillum.
Cologne - 2e émission - printemps 257
Bourdel 276b
Göbl 871m
Eauze 1478
Elmer 39
PYL
Gallien_-_Fides_Militum_3.jpg
Gallien - FIDES MILITVM22 viewsGALLIENVS . P . F . AVG
FIDES MILITVM
1 commentsPYL
coin_1_quart.jpg
GALLIENVS AVG / FIDES MILIT AE/Bi. antoninianus (260-268 A.D.)23 viewsGALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right, one ribbon behind, one forward across shoulder/ FIDES MILIT, Fides Militum standing left, holding vexillum and long scepter, MP or MD in exergue.

AE3, 17mm, 1.27g, die axis 6 (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

AVG = Augustus. Fides was the Roman goddess of trustworthiness and good faith. Fides Militum = "Military confidence" or "Army's loyalty". Sceptres, often two to three foot ivory rods topped with a globe or an eagle, were introduced by Augustus as a symbol of Rome's power. They would be carried by emperors while riding in chariots to celebrate military victories and thus a scepter is a symbol of emperor's leadership and victory. Vexillum -- ensign of a section of legion. MD may mean Mediolanum mint, MP may mean Mediolanum pecunia (coin) or Mediolanum mint, prima officina (workshop #1). Either way, it was probably minted at Mediolanum.

Very similar to a coin (with MP mintmark), listed at WildWinds with references to RIC V-1, Milan 481K; Goebl 1370a; Sear 10214. http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/gallienus/RIC_0481.jpg

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus. The son of emperor Valerian and his wife Mariniana. Born c. 218. Co-emperor with his father since Oct 253. His sons Valerian II and Saloninus were named his co-emperors and heirs, but both died early (Valerian II in 258 and Saloninus in 260). His father was infamously captured after the Battle of Edessa by Sassanian Persian king Shapur I, also in 260, leaving Gallienus a sole ruler. His whole career was spent dealing with innumerable invasions and revolts, which speaks to his credit, because despite this he managed to stay in power for so long. Famous for his military reforms and the first decree of tolerance of Christianity. Despite this some martyrologies mention his as a persecutor, probably mistaking him for his father's actions during their joint reign. Infamous for losing Gaul and Palmyra. Died in Sept 268 in Mediolanum as a result of yet another military coup, Fides Militum finally failed him. Succeeded by one of his generals Claudius Gothicus, later known as Claudius II. There were some rumors that Claudius was the one who murdered Gallienus, but this was never proved.
Yurii P
Gordian_Fides.jpg
Gordian III Fides Militvm29 viewsAD 238-244
AR Antoninianus
Rome mint
RIC 209

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed

R: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left with two standards
Gao
STILICHO_DIPTYCHE.JPG
Italy, Monza, Serpero Museum, Duomo di Monza.47 viewsIvory diptych of Stilicho, Roman General (magister militum), Patrician and Consul of the Western Roman Empire. The diptych depicts Stilicho, on the right and, on the left, his wife Serena standing with his son, Eucherius.

The Duomo di Monza is the main religious building of Monza. Although known in English as Monza Cathedral, the building is not in fact a cathedral, as Monza is part of the Diocese of Milan. The church is also known as the Basilica of San Giovanni Battista from its dedication to John the Baptist. In the right transept is the entrance to the Serpero Museum which houses the treasury.
*Alex
maximianus.JPG
Large Follis of Maximianus Herculius74 viewsRIC VI 55b (or similar) Ticinium Mint 305 AD
o: IMPC MAXIMIANUS PF AVG
r: FIDES MILITUM / Fides seated left w/ two standards
ex. TT with dot in right
2 commentsdaverino
rjb_prob_lug79.jpg
Lugdunum 7957 viewsAntoninianus
IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG
Radiate, cuirassed bust right
FIDES MILITVM
Fides standing left with two standards
Lugdunum, -/-//III
RIC 79
2 commentsmauseus
Macrinus1.jpg
Macrinus52 viewsfr: IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINUS AUG
re: FIDES MILITUM
1 commentspax
Marcus_Aurelius_dupondius_fides.jpg
Marcus Aurelius Dupondius23 viewsAE Dupondius
Marcus Aurelius, 161-180 CE
Diameter: 24 mm, Weight: 11.40 grams, Die axis: 11h

Obverse: IMP M ANTONINVS AVG TRP XXV
Radiate bust to right.

Reverse: FIDES EXERCITVVM COS III
Fides militum standing left, holding victory and standard.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- This coin can be dated between December 170 to 171 CE.
- Quite a scarce reverse type for the dupondius; also minted on Marcus Aurelius sestertii.

Ex D Hendy Collection, Ex Mike Vosper Coins, 2006
Pharsalos
Maximian_Radiate.jpg
Maximian Post Reform Radiate12 viewsMaximianus
Reigned AD 286-305, 306-308, 310
Coin Struck AD 295-296
AE Post-Reform Radiate
RIC VI Heraclea 22
Heraclea Mint

O: IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right

R: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Maximianus, HΓ between
Gao
Maximianus_Virtus_Militum.jpg
Maximianus - AR argenteus3 viewsTicinum
295 AD
laureate head right
MAXIMIA_NVS AVG
tetrarchs sacrificing before six-turreted enclosure
VIRTVS_MILITVM
RIC 18b; RSC 622d
2,92g
ex Aurea numismatika
Johny SYSEL
maxconcord.JPG
Maximianus Post Reform Radiate, 296-297AD57 viewsOBV:IMP C M A MAXIMIANUS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: CONCORDIA MILITUM, Emperor standing right in military dress, short sceptre in left hand, receiving victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre, Greek_Delta; between, ALE in Exergue

RIC VI 46b, Alexandria mint (Ref: Wildwinds); wt 3.0 gms

I think this coin captures the blunt personality of Maximian who influenced Rome at the highest levels from the time of his appointment as Caesar in 285 AD, through numerous political reincarnations and rebellions until his death by suicide under Constantine in 310 AD, he was about 60 years of age. Through his daughters Flavia Theodora and Fausta he was grandfather or great-grandfather to every reigning Roman Emperor from 337-363
3 commentsdaverino
maximinus.jpg
MAXIMINUS I28 viewsAE sestertius. 235-236 AD. 17.48 gr. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG. / Fides Militum standing facing, head left, holding military standards. FIDES MILITVM. Across field S C. RIC IV 43. Cohen 10.benito
00maximinussest.jpg
MAXIMINUS I43 viewsAE sestertius. 235-236 AD. 17.48 gr. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right. IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG. / Fides Militum standing facing, head left, holding military standards. FIDES MILITVM. Across field S C. RIC IV 43. Cohen 10.
1 commentsbenito
maxthrax.jpg
Maximinus I Denarius 235-236 AD27 viewsObverse: IMP MAXIMINUS PIUS AVG; Laureate draped bust right
Reverse: FIDES MILITUM; Fides standing left holding two standards.

A very nice, rather idealized portrait coin without the usual pointed jaw and bulging forehead.
RIC 7A, weight 3.30 grams
daverino
roman61.jpg
Maximinus I Thrax AE Sestertius42 views235-6 AD. Rome mint.
Obv.: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG - Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Maximinus I right.
Rev.: FIDES MILITVM - Fides Militum standing facing, head left, holding two standards.
RIC 43. Alram 9-5/A. BMC 63. Cohen 10.
3 commentsMinos
maximinus sest-.jpg
MAXIMINUS I Thrax AE sestertius - 236-238 AD23 viewsobv: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM (laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: FIDES MILITVM (Fides standing left, holding two standards), S C across field
ref: RIC IV 78; Cohen 13
17.33gms, 30mm
berserker
Maximinus_I_pan.jpg
Maximinus I, 19 Mar.235 to May/Jun. 238 AD, Rome mint49 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC IV 43, Sear RCV 8327, (BMCRE 2, 63), (Cowen 10); Rome mint; Weight 27.13gr., Max. Diameter 30.58mm; 235-6 A.D.; Obv. IMP MAXIMINUS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped and cuirassed bust right, Rev. FIDES MILTVM S C, Fides Militum stg. l., holding standard in each hand. Thin brown/green patina worn on high spots.
Pleasant portrait without the usual exagerrated chin and nose!

Ex. Roma Numismatics
1 commentsSteve E
maxthrax.jpg
Maximinus Thrax Denarius35 viewsIMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG, laureate & draped bust right

FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, a standard in each hand

RIC 7A

ex-Roma Numismatics
3 commentsWill Hooton
Nerva_Concordia.jpg
Nerva173 viewsIMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR P COS III P P
Head of Nerva right

CONCORDIA EXERCITVVM
clasped right hands

Rome January-September 97 A.D.

3.51g

Sear 3020, RIC 14, RSC 20

Ex-Forum

VF with amazing toning
6 commentsJay GT4
Philip_FidesMilitum.jpg
Philip I AE Sestertius, Fides Militum RIC 172a37 viewsPhilip I Sestertius "Fides Militum" Philip I "the Arab" Brass Sestertius "The Legions are brave and true." Obv: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed. Rev: FIDES MILITVM SC - Fides standing left, holding a standard in the each hand. Rome mint: AD 245 (3rd Issue, 1st Officina) = RIC IViii, 172a, page 90 - Cohen 59 /18.8g. Sear 8994mattpat
postume_-_double_sesterce_réduit_-_fides_militum_2-2_88g-17mm.JPG
Postume5 viewsdouble-sesterce réduit
FIDES MILITVM
2.88g - 17mm
PYL
postume_-_double_sesterce_réduit_-_fides_militum-6_36g-24mm.JPG
Postume7 viewsdouble-sesterce réduit
FIDES MILITVM
6.36g - 24mm
PYL
PostumeDbleSesterce.JPG
POSTUMUS double sestertius66 viewsIMP C M CASS LAT POSTVMVS PF AVG
Radiated and cuirassed bust right
FIDES MI - LITVM
Fides holding 2 standards

gb29400
ProbRic908.JPG
Probus - Concordia Militum66 viewsIMP CM AVR PROBVS AVG
Bust type C, right, radiate, draped
CONCORDIA MILITVM/ V mid. field
Victory, left, presenting wreath to Probus holding standard
Ex. XXIMC
RIC 908, Cyzicus, 5th officina
whitetd49
ProbRic169~0.JPG
Probus - Fides Militum94 viewsIMP PROBVS PF AVG
Bust type F, right, radiate, cuirassed
FIDES MILITVM
Fides standing lft, holding two standards
Ex. R lightening epsilon
RIC 169, Rome, 6th emission, 5th officina, 281 AD
1 commentswhitetd49
probus.jpg
Probus Antoninian, Fides Militum (RIC Rome 170)7 viewsObverse: PROBVS P F AVG Radiate bust of Probus, cuirassed, looking right.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM Fides standing, holding two military standards.

Rome mint, 5th officina, 276-282.

21 mm, 3.88 g, 180º.

Reference: RIC V, part 2, Rome 170.
Manuel
florian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - FLORIAN33 viewsFlorian (276 C.E.) Silvered Antoninianus. Cyzicus mint. IMP FLORIANVS AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MILITUM, Victory standing right presenting wreath to Florianus standing left, P in ex. Cohen 15. RIC 116.dpaul7
PT-Aur50__9.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aurelian90 viewsBillon Antoninianus of Ticinum of A.D.274-275

Obv: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev: PROVIDEN DEOR Fides Militum standing right, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol standing left, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand. Officina and mint mark Q XX T in exergue.
Weight: 4.05g

RIC.152 Sear RCV III 11587

In A.D.274 Aurelian attempted a currency reform that did bring a certain amount of stability. The antoninianus was restored to approximately its original size. The actual silver content was increased slightly, but remained very low at around 4.5% overall. These reformed antoninianii often bear a mint mark of XXI that is thought to represent the ratio of 20 parts copper to 1 of silver. However, coins produced at Ticinum, as shown here, have the letter T instead of the I in the value mark.
2 commentsnemesis
PT-Aur50__9~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Aurelian23 viewsBillon Antoninianus of Ticinum of A.D.274-275

Obv: IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG Radiate, cuirassed bust right
Rev: PROVIDEN DEOR Fides Militum standing right, holding standard in each hand, facing Sol standing left, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand. Officina and mint mark Q XX T in exergue.
Weight: 4.05g

RIC.152 Sear RCV III 11587

In A.D.274 Aurelian attempted a currency reform that did bring a certain amount of stability. The antoninianus was restored to approximately its original size. The actual silver content was increased slightly, but remained very low at around 4.5% overall. These reformed antoninianii often bear a mint mark of XXI that is thought to represent the ratio of 20 parts copper to 1 of silver. However, coins produced at Ticinum, as shown here, have the letter T instead of the I in the value mark.

nemesis
14847q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Caracalla, AR Denarius62 viewsAugustus 198-217. Denarius (3,06 g), Rome 215.
Rv.: PM TR P XVIII COS IIII PP, Fides Militum with two standards.
RIC:266
1 commentsNico
CONSTANTIUS_I_FIDES_MILITUM.JPG
Roman Empire, CONSTANTIUS I CHLORUS as Augustus. AE Follis of Aquileia. Struck c.A.D.305 - 306. 34 viewsObverse: IMP CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Laureate head of Constantius I facing right.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM AVGG ET CAESS NN. Fides standing facing left holding two standards; in exergue, AQS.
RIC VI : 60a. Weight 8.9gms.
*Alex
Picture_2~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximianus, AE33 viewsAE follis of Maximianus. Obverse radiate bust with legend `IMP C M A MAXIMIANUS P F AUG. Reverse: Maximianus standing reveiving Victory on a globe from Jupiter with legend `CONCORDIA MILITUM'.jessvc1
Maximianus_Virtus_Militum~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximianus, AR argenteus50 viewsTicinum
295 AD
laureate head right
MAXIMIA_NVS AVG
tetrarchs sacrificing before six-turreted enclosure
VIRTVS_MILITVM
RIC 18b; RSC 622d
2,92g
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
700821.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I sestertius55 viewsMAXIMINUS I. 235-238 AD. Æ Sestertius (27.47 g, 12h). Struck 236-237 AD. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Fides Militum standing facing, head left, holding standards. RIC IV 78; BMCRE 139; Cohen 13. VF, dark green and brown patina, light smoothing in fields, small die break on neckNico
700821.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus sestertius36 viewsMAXIMINUS I. 235-238 AD. Æ Sestertius (27.47 g, 12h). Struck 236-237 AD. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Fides Militum standing facing, head left, holding standards. RIC IV 78; BMCRE 139; Cohen 13. VF, dark green and brown patina, light smoothing in fields, small die break on neck.
1 commentssseverus
maxconcord~0.JPG
Roman, Maximian Post-reform Radiate 296-297 AD161 viewsIMP C M A MAXIMIANUS PF AVG/CONCORDIA MILITUM
RIC v.VI 46b Alexandria Mint

The "big-head" style of the Tetrarchy is usually not my favorite - nor anyone else's to judge by the fact that there are no others in the Portrait Gallery. However, this portrait of Maximian really succeeds in being monumental rather than just dorky. It reminds one that Maximian was at the top of Imperial politics for 25 years between 285 and 310 AD and his descendants wore the purple for another 50 years after his death.
2 commentsdaverino
salu_militum_26_52g.jpg
SALV MILITVM - SC12 viewsSesterce
atelier officiel
26,52g
IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG
SALV MILITVM
S C
monnaie présentant la particularité d'une surfrappe du revers (plutôt bien réussi).
un mixte entre SALVS AVGVSTI et FIDES MILITVM
on voit à droite le début de la légende SALV(sic) et le serpent sortant de son panier.
La surfrappe est assez raccord, le listel n'a pas l'aire d'être interrompu, le SC à l'exergue est bien positionné, les pieds de la Fidélité se trouvent au même niveau que le panier...
Monnaie très mystérieuse
PYL
E208.jpg
Septimus Severus31 viewsL SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX
CONCORDIAE MILITUM
mint : Laodicea ad mare
198 - 202 AD
2 commentsfrederic
CONSTANTIUS_II_CONCORDIA_MILITUM_ASIS.JPG
Struck A.D.350. CONSTANTIUS II as Augustus. AE2 Maiorina of Siscia5 viewsObverse: D N CONSTANTIVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Constantius II facing right. Behind head, A; below chin, star.
Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM. Constantius II standing facing left, star above head, holding labarum in each hand. In left field, A; in exergue, •ASIS•.
RIC VIII : 284.
SCARCE
*Alex
apol3~0.jpg
TACITUS18 viewsBI antoninianus. Serdica. 276 AD. 4.41grs. Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right. IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG / Mars standing right, holding spear and presenting globe to emperor standing left, holding scepter. Γ between . CONSERVATOR MILITUM . KA in exergue.
RIC - . Venera - . BN p404, note a = BN sup 454.
benito
VICTORIN-trêves-1em-fides_militum.JPG
Trèves - 1er Emission - (fin 269) - FIDES MILITVM15 viewsIMP C M PIAVVONIVS VICTORINVS P F AVG
FIDES MILITVM
EG 187
Cunetio 2515
RIC 108
Elmer 648
AGK 5a
de Witte 21
Cohen 34
PYL
VICTORIN-trêves-2_em-fides_militum.JPG
Trèves - 2e Emission - (fin 269) - FIDES MILITVM15 viewsIMP C PIAV VICTORINVS P F AVG
FIDES MILITVM
EG 192
Cunetio 2522
RIC 108
Elmer 654
AGK 5b
de Witte 22
Cohen 36
PYL
fides_militum.JPG
Trèves - 2e Emission - (fin 269) - FIDES MILITVM17 viewsIMP C PIAV VICTORINVS P F AVG
FIDES MILITVM
EG 192
Cunetio 2522
RIC 108
Elmer 654
AGK 5b
de Witte 22
Cohen 36
PYL
Severina_Concordiae_Militvm_Large.jpg
Ulpia Severina - A Coin of an Interregnum?10 viewsUlpia Severina, Augusta (274 AD), wife of Aurelian
Obv: SEVERINA AVG; Bust of Severina, diademed, draped, on a lunar crescent, facing right.
Rev: CONCORDIAE MILITVM; Concordia standing left, facing left, flanked by two standards, one in each hand, VI in left field, XXI in exergue.
Denomination: billion antoninianus; Mint: Antioch; Officina: 6th; Issue: 6; Date: early 275 to September 275 AD; Weight: 3.77g; Diameter: 23.3mm; Die axis: 180º; References, for example: RIC V v.1 20; MER - RIC 3198.

Notes:

Is this a coin of an interregnum?
That there was an interregnum, in the literal meaning of the word, between the murder of Aurelian and the Senatorial appointment of Tacitus as emperor is undisputed. What is disputed, however, is the length of the interregnum as well as its meaningfulness, i.e. for whatever period of interregnum that did exist, did Severina or the Senate actually rule the empire and thereby make decisions that engendered consequences and/or directed actions? This coin type (although not the only coin type) has played a part in the interregnum story. In Aurelian and the Third Century (London and New York: Routledge, 1999) Alaric Watson dedicates seven and a half pages (pp. 109 - 116) to discussing the interregnum, where he vociferously argues that there was no meaningful interregnum. As part of this discussion he references, on p. 115, this particular coin type and in footnote 66 he cites a number of sources that assign this type in the name of Severina to the period after Aurelian’s death. For example:
Percy Webb in RIC, vol. V, part 1 (1927), pp. 4, 35, and 253 does not take a stance on the possible length of the interregnum, but on p. 253 he states that if the interregnum lasted eight months, then the mints certainly could not have been closed and so “...it is necessary to find coins representing their output.”1 This coin type, dedicated to Concordia and in the name of Severina alone, might represent that output. In “The Imperial Recovery” (chapter nine of The Cambridge Ancient History, vol. XII, The Imperial Crisis and Recovery AD 193 - 324. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1939) Harold Mattingly acknowledges that although the length of the interregnum is in debate “... the coinage shows clearly that for some considerable period government was carried on in the name of the Empress Severina for the the dead Aurelian.” (p. 310). In all officina for several mints the coinage of Severina, such as the “Concordia Militum” type “...bear witness to the conditions of the interregnum.” (p. 310). In “The Reform of Aurelian” (Revue Numismatique, 6th series, vol. 7, 1965: 225 - 235) R. A. G. Carson mentions on pp. 233 and 234 that Severina’s Concordia Militum type is for Severina alone, and that as such it was minted after the death of Aurelian (p. 233). Carson is not concerned with the question of an interregnum, but his placement of this coin type for Severina alone after Aurelian’s death allows this coin type to be taken as evidence of an interregnum. Eugen Cizek in L’Empereur Aurélien Et Son Temps (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1994) also refers to this coin type (not by specific legend, but by reference to “concord with the soldiers”) when discussing the interregnum. He notes that other scholars assign this coinage to the interregnum, a position that he appears to adopt. In Repostiglio della Venèra Nuovo Catalogo Illustrato Aureliano II/I (Rome: L'Erma di Bretschneider, 1995) Sylviane Estiot also assigns this coin type to the period after Aurelian’s death.2

But what of the coin here, this coin actually attributed to the 6th officina, mint of Antioch, 6th issue? Estiot attributes this coin not to an interregnal period between Aurelian and Tacitus, when Severina might have ruled in her own right. Rather, on p. 90 of “Aureliana” (Revue Numismatique, 6th series, vo. 150, 1995: 50 - 94) Estiot attributes this coin, because of exact parallelisms to Aurelian’s coinage at Antioch at this time, to a period of joint coinage between Aurelian and Severina.3

Footnotes:

1He actually allows for the possibility of coinage even if the interregnum was short. See footnote 1, p. 253.
2I assume this to be the case. Although I have no reason to doubt Watson’s citation I was unable to verify it because I am unable to obtain a copy of this book by Estiot.
3Also see Estiot, Monnaies de L’Empire romain XII.1: D’Aurelian à Florien (270 - 276 apres J.-C.). Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2004, pp. 28 (table 1) and 122.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins
Tracy Aiello
fides militum red.jpg
Unlisted FIDES MILITVM46 viewsObverse: IMPCMAVRSEVALEXANDAVG, laureate draped bust right, curassed
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM, Fides seated left, holding holding a standard in left hand, an eagle in right and another standard in the ground before her.
Wt, 3.000 g; die axis, 12h.
mix_val
Valerian_I_Fides_RIC_Va_89.JPG
Valerian I Fides RIC Va 8928 viewsValerian I, Rome, Rome, 253 AD, 20mm, 3.09g, RIC Va 89, Cohen 71, Sear 9938
OBV: IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: FIDES MILITVM, Fides Militum standing left, holding two standards
1 commentsSRukke
0430-220.jpg
Valerian, Antoninianus72 viewsRome mint, AD 253-255
IMP C P LIC VALERIANVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
FIDES MILITVM, Fides Militum standing left, holding two standards
3.66 gr
Ref : RCV # 9938(45), Cohen # 65
3 commentsPotator II
Elagabal-Antoninian-FIDESMILITUM-RIC_72.jpg
VI - ELAGABALUS -a- Antoninian- RIC IV/II/07224 viewsAv) IMP ANTONINVS AVG
Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right

Rv) FIDES MILITVM
Fides standing front, head right, holding standard and vexillum.

Weight: 5.52 g ; Ø: 23mm; Reference: RIC IV/II/72;
ROME mint
1 commentssulcipius
s-l400_(15)_(1).jpg
Zz - Maximianus (286 - 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, Antioch17 viewsEmperor Maximianus ( 286 - 305 AD )
Bronze Antoninianus. 3.2 grams. Antioch Mint.

rev:" CONCORDIA MILITUM "
"ANT" - Mintmark below, for the mint in Antioch.

*note: reddish sand colored patina, as if from being buried in the sands for centuries...
1 commentsrexesq
s-l400_(16)_(2).jpg
Zz - Maximianus (286 - 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, Antioch. Reverse.26 viewsEmperor Maximianus ( 286 - 305 AD )
Bronze Antoninianus. 3.2 grams. Antioch Mint.

rev:" CONCORDIA MILITUM "
"ANT" - Mintmark below, for the mint in Antioch.

*note: reddish sand colored patina, as if buried in the sands for centuries...
rexesq
TheodosiusRIC83b.jpg
[1601a] Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. 67 viewsBronze AE 2, RIC 83(b), EF, Constantinople mint, 4.389g, 22.1mm, 180o, 25 Aug 383 - 28 Aug 388 A.D.; Obverse: D N THEODO-SIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: VIRTVS E-XERCITI, Emperor standing right holding standard and globe, foot on captive, cross in left field, CONSA in exergue. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Justinan1Nikomedia.jpg
[1611a] Justinian I, 4 April 527 - 14 November 565 A.D.68 viewsBronze follis, S 201, choice VF, 22.147g, 43.8mm, 180o, 2nd officina, Nikomedia mint, 541 - 542 A.D.; Obverse: D N IVSTINIANVS PP AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust facing, globus cruciger in right, shield decorated with a horseman brandishing a spear, cross right; Reverse: large M, cross above, ANNO left, Xu (= year 15) right, B below, NIKO in ex; full circle strike on a huge flan. Ex FORVM.



De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Justinian (527-565 A.D.).

James Allan Evans
University of British Columbia

Introduction
The reign of Justinian was a turning-point in Late Antiquity. It is the period when paganism finally lost its long struggle to survive, and when the schism in Christianity between the Monophysite east and the Chalcedonian west became insurmountable. From a military viewpoint, it marked the last time that the Roman Empire could go on the offensive with hope of success. Africa and Italy were recovered, and a foothold was established in Spain. When Justinian died, the frontiers were still intact although the Balkans had been devastated by a series of raids and the Italian economy was in ruins. His extensive building program has left us the most celebrated example of Byzantine ecclesiastical architecture that still survives: Hagia Sophia in modern Istanbul. His reign was a period when classical culture was in sharp decline and yet it had a last flowering, with historians such as Procopius and Agathias working within the tradition inherited from Herodotus and Thucydides, and poets such as Paul the Silentiary who wrote some of the most sensuous poems that the classical tradition has ever produced. The Codex Justinianus, the Institutes and the Digest of Roman jurisprudence, all commissioned by Justinian, are monuments to the past achievements of Roman legal heritage. Justinian's reign sums up the past. It also provides a matrix for the future. In particular, there was the bubonic plague, which appeared in Constantinople in 542, for the first time in Europe, and then travelled round the empire in search of victims, returning to the capital for a new crop in 558. The plague ended a period of economic growth and initiated one of overstrained resources.

The 'Nika' Revolt
The 'Nika' Revolt which broke out in January, 532, in Constantinople, was an outburst of street violence which went far beyond the norms even in a society where a great deal of street violence was accepted. Every city worth notice had its chariot-racing factions which took their names from their racing colors: Reds, Whites, Blues and Greens. These were professional organizations initially responsible for fielding chariot-racing teams in the hippodromes, though by Justinian's time they were in charge of other shows as well. The Blues and the Greens were dominant, but the Reds and Whites attracted some supporters: the emperor Anastasius was a fan of the Reds. The aficionados of the factions were assigned their own blocs of seats in the Hippodrome in Constantinople, opposite the imperial loge, and the Blue and Green "demes" provided an outlet for the energies of the city's young males. G. M. Manojlovic in an influential article originally published in Serbo-Croat in 1904, argued that the "demes" were organized divisions of a city militia, and thus played an important role in the imperial defense structure. His thesis is now generally disregarded and the dominant view is that of Alan Cameron, that demos, whether used in the singular or plural, means simply "people" and the rioting of the "demes", the "fury of the Hippodrome", as Edward Gibbon called it, was hooliganism, which was also Gibbon's view. Efforts to make the Greens into supporters of Monophysitism and the Blues of Orthodoxy founder on lack of evidence. However, in support of Manojlovic's thesis, it must be said that, although we cannot show that the Blue and Green "demes" were an organized city militia, we hear of "Young Greens" both in Constantinople and Alexandria who bore arms, and in 540, when Antioch fell to the Persians, Blue and Green street-fighters continued to defend the city after the regular troops had fled.

Justinian and Theodora were known Blue supporters, and when street violence escalated under Justin I, Procopius claims that they encouraged it. But since Justinian became emperor he had taken a firmer, more even-handed stand. On Saturday, January 10, 532, the city prefect Eudaemon who had arrested some hooligans and found seven guilty of murder, had them hanged outside the city at Sycae, across the Golden Horn, but the scaffold broke and saved two of them from death, a Blue and a Green. Some monks from St. Conon's monastery nearby took the two men to sanctuary at the church of St Lawrence where the prefect set troops to watch. The following Tuesday while the two malefactors were still trapped in the church, the Blues and Greens begged Justinian to show mercy. He ignored the plea and made no reply. The Blues and Green continued their appeals until the twenty-second race (out of twenty-four) when they suddenly united and raised the watchword 'Nika'. Riots started and the court took refuge in the palace. That evening the mob burned the city prefect's praetorium.

Justinian tried to continue the games next day but only provoked more riot and arson. The rioting and destruction continued throughout the week; even the arrival of loyal troops from Thrace failed to restore order. On Sunday before sunrise, Justinian appeared in the Hippodrome where he repented publicly and promised an amnesty. The mob turned hostile, and Justinian retreated. The evening before Justinian had dismissed two nephews of the old emperor Anastasius, Hypatius and Pompey, against their will, from the palace and sent them home, and now the mob found Hypatius and proclaimed him emperor in the Hippodrome. Justinian was now ready to flee, and perhaps would have done so except for Theodora, who did not frighten easily. Instead Justinian decided to strike ruthlessly. Belisarius and Mundo made their separate ways into the Hippodrome where they fell on Hypatius' supporters who were crowded there, and the 'Nika' riot ended with a bloodbath.

A recent study of the riot by Geoffrey Greatrex has made the point that what was unique about it was not the actions of the mob so much as Justinian's attempts to deal with it. His first reaction was to placate: when the mob demanded that three of his ministers must go, the praetorian prefect of the East, John the Cappadocian, the Quaestor of the Sacred Palace Tribonian and the urban prefect Eudaemon, Justinian replaced them immediately. He hesitated when he should have been firm and aggravated the situation. It may well have been Theodora who emboldened him for the final act of repression. Procopius imagines Theodora on the last day engaging in formal debate about what should be done, and misquoting a famous maxim that was once offered the tyrant of Syracuse, Dionysius the Elder "Tyranny is a good shroud." Theodora emends it to "Kingship is a good shroud" and readers of Procopius may have thought wryly that the emendation was unnecessary. The formal debate, and Theodora's great scene, was probably a creation of Procopius' imagination, but a splendid one.

The 'Nika' revolt left Justinian firmly in charge. The mob was cowed and the senatorial opposition that surfaced during the revolt was forced underground. The damage to Constantinople was great, but it cleared the way for Justinian's own building program. Work in his new church of Hagia Sophia to replace the old Hagia Sophia that was destroyed in the rioting, started only forty-five days after the revolt was crushed. The two leaders of the Hippodrome massacre, Mundo and Belisarius, went on to new appointments: Mundo back to Illyricum as magister militum and Belisarius to make his reputation as the conqueror of the Vandals in Africa. The 530s were a decade of confidence and the 'Nika' riot was only a momentary crisis.

(for a detailed account of the reign of Justinian I, see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/justinia.htm)

Last Years
Misfortune crowded into the final years of Justinian's reign. There was another Samaritan revolt in midsummer, 556. Next year, in December, a great earthquake shook Constantinople and in May of the following year, the dome of Justinian's new Hagia Sophia collapsed, and had to be rebuilt with a new design. About the same time, the plague returned to the capital. Then in early 559 a horde of Kutrigur 'Huns' (proto-Bulgars) crossed the frozen Danube and advanced into the Balkans. It split into three columns: one pushed into Greece but got no further than Thermopylae, another advanced into the Gallipoli peninsula but got no further than the Long Wall, which was defended by a young officer from Justinian's native city, while the third, most dangerous spearhead led by the 'Hun' khan, Zabergan himself, made for Constantinople. Faced with this attack and without any forces for defense, Justinian called Belisarius out of retirement, and Belisarius, using a scratch force, the core of which was 300 of his veterans, ambushed the Kutrigur horde and routed it. Once the immediate danger was over, however, Justinian recalled Belisarius and took charge himself. The news that Justinian was reinforcing his Danube fleet made the Kutrigurs anxious and they agreed to a treaty which gave them a subsidy and safe passage back across the river. But as soon as they were north of the Danube, they were attacked by their rivals the Utigurs who were incited by Justinian to relieve them of their booty. The Kutrigurs raided Thrace again in 562, but they and the Utigurs were soon to fall prey to the Avars who swept out of the Asian steppes in the early 560s.

There was discontent in the capital. Street violence was on the increase again. There were bread shortages and water shortages. In late 562, there was a conspiracy which almost succeeded in killing the emperor. The chief conspirator was Marcellus, an argyroprates, a goldsmith and banker, and the conspiracy probably reflected the dissatisfaction of the business community. But Justinian was too old to learn to be frugal. He resorted to forced loans and requisitions and his successor found the treasury deeply in debt.

What remained of the great emperor's achievement? His successor Justin II, out of a combination of necessity and foolhardiness, denied the 'barbarians' the subsidies which had played a major role in Justinian's defense of the frontiers, and, to be fair, which had also been provided by emperors before him. Subsidies had been part of Anastasius' policy as well, but that was before the plague, while the imperial economy was still expanding. The result of Justin II's change of policy was renewed hostility with Persia and a shift of power in the Balkans. In 567 the Avars and Lombards joined forces against the Gepids and destroyed them. But the Lombards distrusted their allies and next year they migrated into Italy where Narses had just been removed from command and recalled, though he disobeyed orders and stayed in Rome until his death. By the end of the century only a third of Italy was in Byzantine hands. On the eastern frontier, Justin alienated the Ghassanid allies and lost the fortress of Daras, a reverse which overwhelmed his frangible sanity. For this Justinian can hardly be blamed. No one can deny his greatness; a recent study by Asterios Gerostergios even lionizes him. But if we look at his reign with the unforgiving eye of hindsight, it appears to be a brilliant effort to stem the tide of history, and in the end, it was more a failure than a moderate success.

Copyright (C) 1998, James Allan Evans. Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

The Church we know today as Hagia Sophia - or Divine Wisdom, its true name - was dedicated by the Emperor Justinian in 537AD. Through many visitudes Justinian's cathedral church of Constantinople still stands, its soring vaults and amazing dome testiments to the human spirit, the engineering talents of its builders and Divine inspiration. In the same fashion that Vespasian's Collesium (the Flavian Amphitheatre) is symbolic of Rome, Justinian's Hagia Sophia is a symbol of Byzantium.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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