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Search results - "Maximus"
maximusprincCrow.jpg
103 viewsMaximus Crowvs
Maximus (Caesar, 235/6-238). AR Denarius Rome mint, 236-7.
O: MAXIMVS CAES GERM; Rvssell Crowvs Bareheaded and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS; Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear; two signa to right
- RIC IV ?
8 commentsNemonater
Maximus_AE25_Deultum.jpg
31.5 Maximus15 viewsAE25 of Deultum
Sosius
magnus26a.jpg
Magnus Maximus, RIC VIII 26a Arles, 383-388 CE.17 viewsMagnus Maximus AE2
Obverse: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPB, Emperor standing left, raising kneeling woman.
PCOM in ex. Arles mint, 21.9 mm, 4.4 g.
NORMAN K
00005x00.jpg
24 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 3.15 g, 12 h)
Togate priest standing left, holding patera
Modius with three grain ears, A C flanking
Rostowzew 1571 var. (size, no modius)

AC may stand for “Antoninus Caesar”, thereby making the togate figure the emperor in the guise of Pontifex Maximus. The presence of a modius also suggests a relation to the annona, implying a reading of “Annona Caesaris.”
Ardatirion
magnus-maximus-silique-virtvs-treves.JPG
RIC.84b Magnus Maximus (siliqua, Virtvs Romanorvm)9 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Siliqua: Virtvs Romanorvm (383-388, Trèves mint)

silver 900‰, 18 mm diameter, 2.24 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS RO-MANORVM / TRPS in exergue; Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and spear

Die breaking on the cheek
Droger
magnus-maximus-spes-romanorvm.JPG
RIC.29a Magnus Maximus (AE4, Spes Romanorvm)24 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Nummus AE4 : Spes Romanorvm (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 12 mm diameter, 1.40 g, die axis: 5 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM / PCON; open camp-gate with star between its two turrets

RIC.29a
NBD.55515
Ferrando II 1677 (C2)
Droger
magnus-maximus-votvmvltx-LVGS.JPG
RIC.35 Magnus Maximus (AE4, Vot V Mvlt X)11 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Nummus AE4 : Vot V Mvlt X (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 14 mm diameter, 1.72 g, die axis: 6 h,

A/ [D N MA]G MAXI-MVS P F AV[G]; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VOT / V/ MVLT / X / LVCS in exergue; in wreath
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-arles.JPG
RIC.26a1 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)16 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 4.23 g, die axis: 5 h

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / PCON in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 26.a.1(C)
Ferrando II 1669 (C4)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-SCON.JPG
RIC.26a2 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)10 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 21 mm diameter, 5.04 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / SCON in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 26.a.2(C)
Ferrando II 1670 (C4)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-lyon.JPG
RIC.32.(6 or 7) Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)17 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 3.95 g, die axis: 7 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / LVG? in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 32.(6 ou 7)(S)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-treves.JPG
RIC.85 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)14 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Trèves mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 5.23 g, die axis: 7 h,

A/ D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / SMTRP; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 85.1(S)
Droger
magnus-maximus-victoria.JPG
RIC.33 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Victoria Avg)20 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Victoria Avgg (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 21 mm diameter, 4.41 g, die axis: 6 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VICTOR-IA AVGG / LVGP; emperor standing left, holding victory and standard

RIC.IX 33.1(S)
Droger
helio_jup_temple_res.jpg
(0193) SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS34 views193 - 211 AD
AE 24 mm; 9.36 g
O: Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Heliopolitanus, viewed in perspective from above; numerous columns and flight of steps in front
Syria, Heliopolis; cf. SNG Cop 429; SNG München 1031
laney
maximus_caesar_b.jpg
(0235) MAXIMUS CAESAR22 views235 - 238 AD
AE27 mm max., 7.33 g
O: G IOV OVHP MAZIMOC KAICA, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: NIKOMEDEWN DIC NEWKORWN, Serapis standing left with raised hand and leaning on sceptre
Bithynia, Nicomedia; Recuiel General 347 v.
laney
mag_max_5.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS37 views383 - 388 AD
AE 22 mm 4.29 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
LVGP IN EXE
LUGDUNUM
SCARCE
laney
mag_max_4.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS28 views383 - 388 AD
AE 24 mm 4.16 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
PCON IN EXE
ARELATE
laney
mag_max_3.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS30 views383 - 388 AD
AE 22 mm 5.07 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
R: VICTORIA AVGG, emperor stading facing, head left, holding Victory & standard
LVGP IN EXE
LUGDUNUM
laney
mag_max_2.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS34 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21.5 mm X 25 mm 4.48 g
O DN MAG MAXI[MV]S PF AVG
DIAD DRAPED AND CUIR BUST R
R: REPARATIO REI[PVB]
MAGNUS STANDING L HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
laney
mag_max_1.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS43 viewsMAGNUS MAXIMUS
383 - 388 AD
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
SCON IN EXE
ARELATE
RIC 26(a) IX
laney
mag_max_7.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS54 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21.5 mm 4.28 gO: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
laney
mag_max_6.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS53 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21 mm 4.62 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
laney
magnus_maximus_scon_b.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS11 views383 - 388 AD
AE 22 mm; 6.25 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG diademed bust right
R: REPARATIO REIPVB Emperor standing head left, holding Victory on globe and raising kneeling female; SCON in exe
Arleate mint; RIC 26(a) IX
laney
mag_max_b.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS16 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21.5 mm X 25 mm 4.48 g
O DN MAG MAXI[MV]S PF AVG diademed, craped and cuirassed bust right
R: REPARATIO REI[PVB] Magnus staging left holding Victory on globe and raising kneeling female
laney
mag_max_reparatio.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS9 views383-388 AD
AE 22 mm, 4.81 g
O: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right;
R:REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing facing, head left, raising turreted woman with right hand, Victory on globe in left hand, Victory crowning him with wreath and holding palm frond
laney
LPisoFrugiDenarius_S235.jpg
(502a) Roman Republic, L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 B.C.158 viewsSilver denarius, S 235, Calpurnia 11, Crawford 340/1, Syd 663a, VF, rainbow toning, Rome mint, 3.772g, 18.5mm, 180o, 90 B.C. obverse: laureate head of Apollo right, scorpion behind; Reverse naked horseman galloping right holding palm, L PISO FRVGI and control number CXI below; ex-CNA XV 6/5/91, #443. Ex FORVM.


A portion of the following text is a passage taken from the excellent article “The Calpurnii and Roman Family History: An Analysis of the Piso Frugi Coin in the Joel Handshu Collection at the College of Charleston,” by Chance W. Cook:

In the Roman world, particularly prior to the inception of the principate, moneyers were allotted a high degree of latitude to mint their coins as they saw fit. The tres viri monetales, the three men in charge of minting coins, who served one-year terms, often emblazoned their coins with an incredible variety of images and inscriptions reflecting the grandeur, history, and religion of Rome. Yet also prominent are references to personal or familial accomplishments; in this manner coins were also a means by which the tres viri monetales could honor their forbearers. Most obvious from an analysis of the Piso Frugi denarius is the respect and admiration that Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who minted the coin, had for his ancestors. For the images he selected for his dies relate directly to the lofty deeds performed by his Calpurnii forbearers in the century prior to his term as moneyer. The Calpurnii were present at many of the watershed events in the late Republic and had long distinguished themselves in serving the state, becoming an influential and well-respected family whose defense of traditional Roman values cannot be doubted.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, who was moneyer in 90 B.C., depicted Apollo on the obverse and the galloping horseman on the reverse, as does his son Gaius. However, all of L. Piso Frugi’s coins have lettering similar to “L-PISO-FRVGI” on the reverse, quite disparate from his son Gaius’ derivations of “C-PISO-L-F-FRV.”

Moreover, C. Piso Frugi coins are noted as possessing “superior workmanship” to those produced by L. Piso Frugi.

The Frugi cognomen, which became hereditary, was first given to L. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 133 B.C., for his integrity and overall moral virtue. Cicero is noted as saying that frugal men possessed the three cardinal Stoic virtues of bravery, justice, and wisdom; indeed in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, a synonym of frugalitas is bonus, generically meaning “good” but also implying virtuous behavior. Gary Forsythe notes that Cicero would sometimes invoke L. Calpurnius Piso’s name at the beginning of speeches as “a paragon of moral rectitude” for his audience.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi’s inclusion of the laureled head of Apollo, essentially the same obverse die used by his son Gaius (c. 67 B.C.), was due to his family’s important role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares, the Games of Apollo, which were first instituted in 212 B.C. at the height of Hannibal’s invasion of Italy during the Second Punic War. By that time, Hannibal had crushed Roman armies at Cannae, seized Tarentum and was invading Campania.

Games had been used throughout Roman history as a means of allaying the fears
of the populace and distracting them from issues at hand; the Ludi Apollinares were no different. Forsythe follows the traditional interpretation that in 211 B.C., when C. Calpurnius Piso was praetor, he became the chief magistrate in Rome while both consuls were absent and the three other praetors were sent on military expeditions against Hannibal.

At this juncture, he put forth a motion in the Senate to make the Ludi Apollinares a yearly event, which was passed; the Ludi Apollinares did indeed become an important festival, eventually spanning eight days in the later Republic. However, this interpretation is debatable; H.H. Scullard suggests that the games were not made permanent until 208 B.C. after a severe plague prompted the Senate to make them a fixture on the calendar. The Senators believed Apollo would serve as a “healing god” for the people of Rome.

Nonetheless, the Calpurnii obviously believed their ancestor had played an integral role in the establishment of the Ludi Apollinares and thus prominently displayed
the head or bust of Apollo on the obverse of the coins they minted.

The meaning of the galloping horseman found on the reverse of the L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi coin is more complicated. It is possible that this is yet another reference to the Ludi Apollinares. Chariot races in the Circus Maximus were a major component of the games, along with animal hunts and theatrical performances.

A more intriguing possibility is that the horseman is a reference to C. Calpurnius Piso, son of the Calpurnius Piso who is said to have founded the Ludi Apollinares. This C. Calpurnius Piso was given a military command in 186 B.C. to quell a revolt in Spain. He was victorious, restoring order to the province and also gaining significant wealth in the process.

Upon his return to Rome in 184, he was granted a triumph by the Senate and eventually erected an arch on the Capitoline Hill celebrating his victory. Of course
the arch prominently displayed the Calpurnius name. Piso, however, was not an infantry commander; he led the cavalry.

The difficulty in accepting C. Calpurnius Piso’s victory in Spain as the impetus for the galloping horseman image is that not all of C. Piso Frugi’s coins depict the horseman or cavalryman carrying the palm, which is a symbol of victory. One is inclined to believe that the victory palm would be prominent in all of the coins minted by C. Piso Frugi (the son of L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi) if it indeed signified the great triumph of C. Calpurnius Piso in 186 B.C. Yet the palm’s appearance is clearly not a direct reference to military feats of C. Piso Frugi’s day. As noted, it is accepted that his coins were minted in 67 B.C.; in that year, the major victory by Roman forces was Pompey’s swift defeat of the pirates throughout the Mediterranean.

Chrestomathy: Annual Review of Undergraduate Research at the College of Charleston. Volume 1, 2002: pp. 1-10© 2002 by the College of Charleston, Charleston SC 29424, USA.All rights to be retained by the author.
http://www.cofc.edu/chrestomathy/vol1/cook.pdf


There are six (debatably seven) prominent Romans who have been known to posterity as Lucius Calpurnius Piso:

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: (d. 261 A.D.) a Roman usurper, whose existence is
questionable, based on the unreliable Historia Augusta.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus: deputy Roman Emperor, 10 January 69 to15 January
69, appointed by Galba.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 27 A.D.

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 1 B.C., augur

Lucius Calpurnius Piso: Consul in 15 B.C., pontifex

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus: Consul in 58 B.C. (the uncle of Julius Caesar)

Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi: Moneyer in 90 B.C. (our man)


All but one (or two--if you believe in the existence of "Frugi the usurper" ca. 261 A.D.) of these gentlemen lack the Frugi cognomen, indicating they are not from the same direct lineage as our moneyer, though all are Calpurnii.

Calpurnius Piso Frugi's massive issue was intended to support the war against the Marsic Confederation. The type has numerous variations and control marks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucius_Calpurnius_Piso
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


2 commentsCleisthenes
Maximus_44.jpg
*SOLD*16 viewsMaximus Caesar As

Attribution: RIC IV 10, Cohen 13, rare
Date: AD 236
Obverse: C IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, bare-headed, draped bust as seen from behind (scarcer obverse inscription)
Reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Maximus stg. l. holding baton in r.hand & transverse spear in l., to r. behind, two legionary standards, S C in r. and l. fields
Size: 25 mm
Weight: 9.6 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
Caesar_AR-Den-plated_CAESAR-elephant-right__Syd-1014_Crawf_443-1_C-49_Gaul-mint_49-48-BC_Q-002_5h_17x20mm_2,26g-s~0.jpg
001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), AR-denarius, Crawf 443-1, Plated (Fouree), Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), #266 views001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), AR-denarius, Crawf 443-1, Plated (Fouree), Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), #2
avers:-CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent.
revers:- Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf's head) and priest's hat.
exerg:-/-//CAESAR, diameter: 17-20mm, weight: 2,66g, axes: 5h,
mint: Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), date: 49-48 B.C., ref: Crawford-443/1, Sydneham-1006, RSC-49, BMCRR (Gaul) 27
Q-002
"This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus."
1 commentsquadrans
Caesar_AR-Den_CAESAR-elephant-right__Syd-1006_Crawf_443-1_C-49_Gaul-mint_49-48-BC_Q-001_axis-7h_xxmm_x,xxxg-s.jpg
001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, #1186 views001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, #1
avers:-CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent.
revers:- Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf's head) and priest's hat.
exerg:-/-//CAESAR, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,65g, axes: 10h,
mint: Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), date: 49-48 B.C., ref: Crawford-443/1, Sydneham-1006, RSC-49, BMCRR (Gaul) 27
Q-001
"This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus."
quadrans
Caesar_AR-Den-plated_CAESAR-elephant-right__Syd-1014_Crawf_443-1_C-49_Gaul-mint_49-48-BC_Q-002_5h_17x20mm_2,26g-s.jpg
001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, Plated (Fouree), #2121 views001 Caesar (100-44 B.C.), Crawf 443-1, Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), AR-denarius, Plated (Fouree), #2
avers:-CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent.
revers:- Simpulum, sprinkler, axe (surmounted by a wolf's head) and priest's hat.
exerg:-/-//CAESAR, diameter: 17-20mm, weight: 2,66g, axes: 5h,
mint: Military mint travelling with Caesar (Gaul), date: 49-48 B.C., ref: Crawford-443/1, Sydneham-1006, RSC-49, BMCRR (Gaul) 27
Q-002
"This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus."
quadrans
Caesar_Elephant.jpg
01 01 Julius Caesar 106 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-44 B.C. AR Denarius. Military mint traveling with Caesar in Gaul. c. 49-48 B.C. (3.72g, 19.0m, 4h). Obv: CAESAR in ex., elephant r. trampling serpent. Rev: simpulum, sprinkler, axe surmounted by wolf’s head, and apex. Cr 443/1; Syd. 1006.

This is the first issue in Caesar’s name. The obverse could symbolize the victory of good over evil in general, or the victory of Caesar’s forces over the Pompeians specifically. The reverse clearly refers to Caesar’s status as Pontifex Maximus.
3 commentsLucas H
536Hadrian_RIC551a.jpg
0150 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 118 AD Fortuna52 viewsReference.
RIC III, 150; RIC II, 551a; Banti 414; Strack 515

Bust A4

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bare bust with drapery

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II S C FORT RED (S-C in ex.)
Fortuna, draped, seated left on low seat, holding rudder on ground in right hand and cornucopiae in left.

26.04 gr
33 mm
h

Note. Matt Smith
Legend: reads PONT(ifex) MAX(imus) TR(ibunicia) POT(estate) COS [II], or “Pontifex Maximus, Tribunicia Potestas [i.e. endowed with power of tribune], Consul for the second time.
okidoki
1397Hadrian_RIC_III150.jpg
0150 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 118 AD Fortuna seated9 viewsReference.
RIC III, 150; Strack 515; RIC II, 551a; Banti 416

Bust A4 with Aegis

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bare bust with Aegis

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II S C FORT RED (S-C in ex.)
Fortuna, draped, seated left on low seat, holding rudder on ground in right hand and cornucopiae in left.

25.10 gr
33 mm
6h

Note.
Legend: reads PONT(ifex) MAX(imus) TR(ibunicia) POT(estate) COS [II], or “Pontifex Maximus, Tribunicia Potestas
[i.e. endowed with power of tribune], Consul for the second time.
okidoki
ClaudI97or113.jpg
041-054 AD - Claudius - RIC I 097 or 113 - Libertas Reverse47 viewsEmperor: Claudius (r. 41-54 AD)
Date: 41-54 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P?)
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Emperor Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas Imperator (Pater Patriae?)
Bare head left

Reverse: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA
S - C to left and right
The Emperor restores liberty.
Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, right holding pileus, left extended.

Rome mint
RIC I Claudius 97 or 113; VM 16
6.38g; 29.3mm; 210°
1 commentsPep
Personajes_Imperiales_5.jpg
05 - Personalities of the Empire51 viewsDiadumenian, Elagabalus, Julia Maesa, Julia Soaemias, Aquilia Severa, Annia Faustina, Severus Alexander, Julia Mamaea, Orbiana, Maximinus I, Paulina, Maximus and Gordian Imdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_5~0.jpg
05 - Personalities of the Empire63 viewsDiadumenian, Elagabalus, Julia Maesa, Julia Soaemias, Aquilia Severa, Annia Faustina, Severus Alexander, Julia Mamaea, Orbiana, Maximinus I, Paulina, Maximus and Gordian I1 commentsmdelvalle
63.jpg
063 Maximus. AR denarius13 viewsobv: IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES drp. bust r.
rev: PIETAS AVG jug between lituus and knife to l. simpulum
and sprinkler to r.
hill132
067_Maximus,_(235-238_A_D__as_Caesar),_AE-Sest_,_MAXIMVS_CAES_GERM,_PRINCIPI_IVVENTVTIS,_S-C,_Rome,_BMCRE_213_,_RIC_13_,_235-38_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_29-30mm,_18,73g-s.jpg
067 Maximus (235-238 A.D. as Caesar), RIC IV 13, AE-Sestertius, Roma, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar standing left in military attire, #170 views067 Maximus (235-238 A.D. as Caesar), RIC IV 13, AE-Sestertius, Roma, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar standing left in military attire, #1
avers: MAXIMVS CAES GERM, Bare, draped bust right.
reverse: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Caesar standing left in military attire, holding short scepter and transverse spear, two standards behind.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29,0-30,0mm, weight: 18,73g, axis: 0h,
mint: Roma, date: 235-238 AD., ref: RIC IV 13, BMCRE 213, Cohen 14, BMC 213, RCTV 8411,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
067_Maximus_(235-238_A_D_),_AE-19,_Nikaia_in_Bithynia,__#915;_IOV_OVH_MAXIMOC_K,__#925;__#921;_#922;__#913;_#921;__#917;__#937;N,_Howgego_65,_Q-001,_1h,_18,5mm,_3,67g-s.jpg
067p Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, Howgego 65, AE-19, Ν ΙΚ ΑΙ Ε /ΩN, Between and beneath three standards,66 views067p Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, Howgego 65, AE-19, Ν ΙΚ ΑΙ Ε /ΩN, Between and beneath three standards,
avers: Γ IOV OVH MAXIMOC K, Bare, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Ν ΙΚ ΑΙ Ε /ΩN, Between and beneath three standards.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,67g, axis: 1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: 235-38 AD., ref: Howgego 65, BMC Bithynia Not in!
Q-001
quadrans
067_Maximus,_(235-238_A_D__as_Caesar),_AE-22_Nicaea_in_Bithynia,_G-IOY-OYH-MAXIMINOS-K_NIKAIEWN_235-38-AD_001_Q-001_6h_22mm_6,68g-s~0.jpg
067p Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, RecGen 676, AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Homonoia (Concordia) standing left,65 views067p Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, RecGen 676, AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Homonoia (Concordia) standing left,
avers: Γ IOV OVH MAXIMOC K, Bare, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: ΝΙΚ ΑΙ ΕΩN, Homonoia (Concordia) standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 6,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: 235-38 AD., ref: RecGen 676,
Q-001
quadrans
067_Maximus_AE-23_C-IVL-VER-MAXIMVS-CAES_COL-F-L-PAC-DE-VLT_Deultum-Thrace_Mushmov-3660_Jurukova-228_235-237-AD_Q-001_1h_23mm_6,79g-s~0.jpg
067p Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Thrace, Deultum, Mushmov-3660, AE-23, COL F L PAC DEVLT, River god reclining left,66 views067p Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Thrace, Deultum, Mushmov-3660, AE-23, COL F L PAC DEVLT, River god reclining left,
avers: C IVL VER MAXIMVS CAES, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: COL F L PAC DE VLT, River god reclining left, holding reed and cornucopia, resting on an urn from which waters flow.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 23 mm, weight:6,79g, axis:1h,
mint: Thrace, Deultum, date: 235-237 A.D., ref: Mushmov 3660, Jurukova 228,
Q-001
quadrans
Commodus-RIC-192.jpg
069. Commodus.16 viewsDenarius, 189 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT / Laureate bust of Commodus.
Reverse: OPTIME MAXIME C V P P / Jupiter standing, holding thunderbolt and spear.
3.37 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #192; Sear #5664.

Jupiter was called optimus for his beneficence, and maximus for his power. These were also qualities Commodus attributed to himself. This coin and a similar brass coin also of Commodus, represent the only time the inscription OPTIME MAXIME appear on Roman coinage.
Callimachus
Philippus-I__IMP-C-M-IVL-PHILIPPVS-PF-AVG-P-M_PAX-FVND-ATA-CVM-PERSIS_RIC-069_C-113_Antioch_244-AD_Q-001_21mm_3_95g-s.jpg
074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0069, Antioch, AR-Antoninianus, PAX FVNDATA CVM PERSIS, Pax standing facing, Scarce, #166 views074 Philippus I. (244-249 A.D.), RIC IV-III 0069, Antioch, AR-Antoninianus, PAX FVNDATA CVM PERSIS, Pax standing facing, Scarce, #1
avers:- IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS P F AVG P M, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- PAX FVNDATA CVM PERSIS, Pax standing facing, head left, holding olive-branch and transverse sceptre
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 21mm, weight: 3,95g, axis: h,
mint: Antioch, date: 244 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-069, p-76, C-113,
Q-001
History: The reverse legend on this coin "peace established with Persia" makes reference to one of Philip's first acts as emperor - the peace treaty with the Sasanian king Shapur I. Also, the P M used in the obverse legend refers to 'Persicus Maximus' as opposed to 'Pontifex Maximus.'
quadrans
aquileia1.jpg
075 Magnus Maximus. AE423 viewsobv: DN MAG MA_XIMVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAQS
1 commentshill132
aquileia2.jpg
076 Magnus maximus. AE415 viewsobv: DN MAG MA_XIMVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAQP
hill132
arelate1.jpg
078 Magnus maximus. AE420 viewsobv: DN MAG MAXI_NVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. uir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SCON
hill132
arelate2.jpg
079 Magnus Maximus AE416 viewsobv: DN MAG MAXI_MVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SCON
hill132
IMG_4759.JPG
092. Maximus Caesar (235-238 A.D.)21 viewsAv.: MAXIMVS CAES GERM
Rv.: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS / S-C

AE Sestertius Ø30 / 17.7g
RIC IV 13 Rome, Cohen 14
Juancho
Cornelia51QuinVict.jpg
0aa Defeat of Hannibal on Sicily, 222 BC11 viewsCn. Lentulus, moneyer
90-85 BC

Quinarius

Laureled head of Jupiter, right
Victory crowning trophy, CN LENT in ex

Seaby, Cornelia 51

Possibly a reference to this event: [Q. Fabius Maximus, afterwards called Cunctator] broke up his camp at Suessula and decided to begin by an attack on Arpi. . . . Now at last the enemy was roused; there was a lull in the storm and daylight was approaching. Hannibal's garrison in the city amounted to about 5000 men, and the citizens themselves had raised a force of 3000. These the Carthaginians put in front to meet the enemy, that there might be no attempt at treachery in their rear. The fighting began in the dark in the narrow streets, the Romans having occupied not only the streets near the gate but the houses also, that they might not be assailed from the roofs. Gradually as it grew light some of the citizen troops and some of the Romans recognised one another, and entered into conversation. The Roman soldiers asked what it was that the Arpinians wanted, what wrong had Rome done them, what good service had Carthage rendered them that they, Italians-bred and born, should fight against their old friends the Romans on behalf of foreigners and barbarians, and wish to make Italy a tributary province of Africa. The people of Arpi urged in their excuse that they knew nothing of what was going on, they had in fact been sold by their leaders to the Carthaginians, they had been victimised and enslaved by a small oligarchy. When a beginning had been once made the conversations became more and more general; at last the praetor of Arpi was conducted by his friends to the consul, and after they had given each other mutual assurances, surrounded by the troops under their standards, the citizens suddenly turned against the Carthaginians and fought for the Romans. A body of Spaniards also, numbering something less than a thousand, transferred their services to the consul upon the sole condition that the Carthaginian garrison should be allowed to depart uninjured. The gates were opened for them and they were dismissed, according to the stipulation, in perfect safety, and went to Hannibal at Salapia. Thus Arpi was restored to the Romans without the loss of a single life, except in the case of one man who had long ago been a traitor and had recently deserted. The Spaniards were ordered to receive double rations, and the republic availed itself on very many occasions of their courage and fidelity.

Livy, History of Rome, 24.46-47
Blindado
TrajSe51.JPG
102 AD: Triumph of Trajan in the first Dacian war and dedication of triumphal arch to Jupiter Optimus Maximus 341 viewsorichalcum sestertius (20.83g, 33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 103-104.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate head of Trajan facing right.
S·P·Q·R·OPTIMO PRINCIPI [r.b.,] S C [in ex.] monumental richly decorated triumphal arch; in the panel above pediment inscribed IOM (= Iovi Optimo Maximo)(nearly invisible on this specimen)
RIC 572 [R]; BMC 844; Cohen 547; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 100:18
Ex CNG eAuct. 266; ex Deyo Collection
1 commentsCharles S
Personajes_Imperiales_11.jpg
11 - Personalities of the Empire51 views
Magnentius, Decentius, Vetranius, Constantius Gallo, Julian II, Jovian, Valentinianus I, Valens, Procopius, Gratianus, Valentinianus II, Theodosius I, Aelia Flacilla and Magnus Maximus
mdelvalle
Filius.jpg
119 BC M. Furius L. f. Philus79 viewsM FOVRI L F
Laur. head of Janus

ROMA to right PHILI in ex (PHI in monogram)
Roma standing left crowning trophy with carnyx and shield on each side, star above Roma

Rome 119 BC

3.89g

Crawford 281/1; Sydenham 529; BMC 555

Commemorates the victories over the Allobroges and the Arverni in Gaul in 121 BC by CN Domitius Ahenobarbus and Q. Fabius Maximus only a few years earlier


Ex-Baranowsky Roma
4 commentsJay GT4
tiberius_RIC28.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AR denarius - struck 14-37 AD53 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM (Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; ornate legs to chair)
ref: RIC I 28, RSC 16b (2frcs)
mint: Lugdunum
3,57gms, 18mm

The story of the Tribute Penny may be the best-known Biblical reference to a coin. Tiberius reigned during the ministry of Jesus and it is logical that his silver denarius was the coin used by Christ ("Give unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and give unto the Lord that which is the Lord's"). Although the inscription refers to Tiberius' position as Pontifex Maximus and there are no overt references to Livia, many scholars feel that users of the coins would have associated the figure with Livia and that this association was probably intended by Tiberius. An obligatory issue for collectors.
1 commentsberserker
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
jovian.jpg
1410a, Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.78 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 179, aVF, Constantinople, 3.126g, 21.6mm, 180o. Obverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: VOT V MVLT X within wreath, CONSPG in exergue; scarce.

Flavius Jovianuswas born in 331 at Singidunum, modern Belgrade. His distinguished father, Varronianus, had been a tribune of the legion Ioviani and a comes domesticorum, perhaps under Constantius II, who had retired to private life shortly before Jovian's elevation to the purple. Jovian married a daughter of Lucillianus, perhaps named Charito, and by her produced at least two children.

Jovian himself was a protector domesticus under Constantius II and Julian and, under Julian, primicerius domesticorum. Various Christian sources maintain that Jovian's Christianity led to his deposition by Julian, though most modern scholars dismiss this as ex post facto Christian apologetic. Jovian, recalled to the ranks if he had ever been dismissed, marched with Julian against Sapor in 363, and on 27 June, the day after that emperor's death, was acclaimed Augustus.

Ammianus and Zosimus, among others, detail the difficult straits of the Roman army during its withdrawal from Persian territory, Ammianus from the perspective of a proud soldier confident even in defeat of the superiority of Roman arms, Zosimus, in a much shorter and confused version, concentrating on the predicament of Jovian's troops and on the dire effects to the empire of the peace terms agreed to with Sapor. These terms entailed the cessation to Persia of Roman territory beyond the Tigris -- the cities of Singara and Nisibis, however, to be surrendered on the condition of the safe passage of their inhabitants -- and the guarantee of the neutrality of Rome's ally Arsaces, King of Armenia, in the event of future hostilities between Roman and Persia. Ammianus asserts that in agreeing to these terms Jovian misjudged his tactical strength and wasted an opportunity presented by negotiations with Sapor to move his forces closer to supplies at Corduena, and that Jovian acted on the advise of flatterers to preserve the fighting strength of his forces in the event of an attempt by Julian's relative Procopius to seize the throne. Others present the treaty terms as unavoidable given the Roman predicament.

Jovian appears to have treaded cautiously with regard to religious matters during the early months of his reign. Eunapius says that Jovian continued to honor Maximus and Priscus, the Neoplatonist advisors of Julian, and, upon reaching Tarsus, Jovian performed funeral rites for Julian. Nonetheless, various Christians, most notably Athanasius, took the initiative in an effort to gain Jovian's favor and support. An adherent of the Nicaean creed, Jovian did eventually recall various bishops of homoousian disposition and restore to their followers churches lost under earlier emperors. But in spite of such measures, unity among various Christian sects seems to have been the foremost concern of Jovian, whose ipsissima verba Socrates Scholasticus purports to give: "I abhor contentiousness, but love and honor those hurrying towards unanimity" (Hist. Eccl. 3.25).

Jovian died at the age of thirty-two on 17 February 364 at Dadastana on the boundary of Bithynia and Galatia. The cause of his death was most probably natural and is variously attributed to overeating, the consumption of poisonous mushrooms, or suffocation from fumes of charcoal or of the fresh paint on the room in which he was sleeping. Ammianus' comparison of the circumstances of Jovian's death to those of Scipio Aemilianus suggest the possibility of foul play, as does John of Antioch's reference to a poisoned rather than a poisonous mushroom, while John Chrysostom -- in a highly suspect literary context of consolatio-- asserts outright that the emperor was murdered. Eutropius records that he was enrolled among the gods, inter Divos relatus est. Zonaras says he was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles and that his wife, Charito, was eventually laid to rest beside him.

Ancient authors agree that Jovian was of modest intellect but imposing physique and disposed to excessive eating and drinking.

By Thomas Banchich, Canisius College
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited By J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
145.jpg
145 Magnus Maximus. AR silique 1.7gm22 viewsobv: DN MAG MAX_IMVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: VIRTUVS RO_MANORVM Roma seated facing, holding globe and reversed spear
ex: TRPS
1 commentshill132
12957p00.jpg
1503a, Gratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D.58 viewsGratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D. Bronze AE 3, F, 2.352g, 19.13mm, 0o. Obverse: emperor's diadmed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor draging captive, * in left field.

Gratian, son of Valentinian I, became the sole ruler of the Western empire in 375 A.D., and after the catastrophic defeat of the Roman forces at Hadrianopolis the Eastern empire also came under his rule. To better cope with the empire, he elevated general Theodosius to the Eastern throne. Because of a shortage of coinage to meet the payroll, Gratian was abandoned by his troops during the revolt of Magnus Maximus. He was overtaken and killed while fleeing to the Alps.
Cleisthenes
verus_dup_RIC1445.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE dupondius - struck 165-166 AD28 viewsobv: L VERVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (radiate head right)
rev: TR POT VI IMP III COS II (parthian captive seated right at base of trophy, hands tied behind back, arms before), S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1445 (M.Aurelius) (C), C202 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
12.08gms, 24mm
Scarce

History: Between 162 and 166 Verus was in the East, nominally commanding a campaign against the Parthian empire for the control over the Armenian kingdom. Statius Priscus, Avidius Cassius and Martius Verus generals were entrusted with real command of the legions. Cassius led the overall campaign, destroyed the city of Seleucia on the Tigris and burned to the ground the palace at the capital Ctesiphon; Priscus led the invasion of Armenia that took the capital of Artashat (Artaxata); Martius Verus is limited only to the mention of his name by the ancients, but he was later the governor of Cappadocia. Lucius Verus received the title Parthicus Maximus in Aug. 165 AD.
berserker
lverus_RIC1309.jpg
161-169 AD - LUCIUS VERUS AE sestertius - struck 162 AD37 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.L.AVREL.VERVS.AVG (laureated head right)
rev: CONCORD.AVGVSTOR.TRP.II (Verus and Aurelius standing with clasping hand), COS II in ex, S-C in field
ref: RIC III 1309 (M.Aurel) (C), C.36 (4frcs)
mint: Rome
23.03gms, 30mm

This coin is better in hand than the picture allow.
History: Never before had Rome been ruled jointly by two emperors, but their authority was not shared equally. Marcus clearly had more power than his younger brother, although officially his only additional title was "pontifex maximus," while Lucius was simply "pontifex".Joint rule was revived by Diocletian's establishment of the Tetrarchy in the late 3rd century.
berserker
MAurel RIC178.jpg
161-180 AD - MARCUS AURELIUS AR denarius - struck 167-168 AD30 viewsobv: M ANTONINVS AVG ARM PARTH MAX (laureate head right)
rev: TR P XXII IMP IIII COS III (Equitas standing left, holding scales & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC III 178, C.892
mint: Rome
3.02gms, 18mm,

Aurelius received the title Parthicus Maximus in Febr 166 AD
berserker
Magnus_Maximus_AE2__D_N_MAG_MAXIMVS_P_F_AVG_REPARATIO-REIPVB_SCON_Arles_RIC-IX-26a-S_383-388-AD_Q-001_6h_22,0-24,0mm_5,8g-s.jpg
162 Magnus Maximus (383-388 A.D.), Arles, RIC IX 026a-S, -/-//SCON, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor, #1137 views162 Magnus Maximus (383-388 A.D.), Arles, RIC IX 026a-S, -/-//SCON, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor, #1
avers:- D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing left, holding Victory on globe and raising kneeling, turreted woman.
exergo: -/-//SCON, diameter: 22,0-24,0mm, weight: 5,80g, axis: 6h,
mint: Arles, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC-IX-26a-S, p-, Sear 20650,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI_185a_img.jpg
185 - Magnus Maximus, AR Siliqua, RIC IX 84b133 viewsObv:– D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe & spear
Minted in Trier (TRPS), A.D. 383-388
Reference:– RIC IX, 84b1. RSC 20a.
maridvnvm
IMG_4377~0.jpg
194. Magnus Maximus (Pretender under Theodosius I)14 viewsAv.: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
Rv.: REPARATIO REIPVB
Ex.: LVGP

AE Maiorina Ø22 / 5.8g
RIC IX 32 Lyons
Scarce!
Juancho
SabinaAsCeres.jpg
1bf Sabina31 viewsWife of Hadrian. Died 137.

As
Diademed bust right, braided hair coiled on top of head, SABINA AVGVSTA HADRIANI AVG P P
Ceres seated on basket, holding grain ears & torch

RIC 1023

The Historia Augusta asserts, "[Hadrian] took to wife the daughter of the Emperor's sister, a marriage advocated by Plotina, but, according to Marius Maximus, little desired by Trajan himself."
Blindado
ClodAlbDenRoma.jpg
1br Clodius Albinus38 views195-197

Denarius

Bare head, right, D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES
Roma seated on shield holding Palladium and scepter, ROMAE AETERNAE

RIC 11

According to the Historia Augusta, which in the case of Albinus is thought to be of dubious veracity: After the death of Pertinax, who was slain at Albinus' advice, various men were hailed emperor at about one and the same time by the senate Julianus at Rome, and by the armies, Septimius Severus in Illyricum, Pescennius Niger in the East, and Clodius Albinus in Gaul. According to Herodian, Clodius had been named Caesar by Severus. But as time went on, each chafed at the other's rule, and the armies of Gaul and Germany demanded an emperor of their own naming, and so all parts of the empire were thrown into an uproar. . . .

It is an undeniable fact, moreover, and Marius Maximus also relates it, that Severus at first intended to name Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus as his successors, in case aught befell him. Later, as it happened, in the interest of his growing sons, and through envy of the affection in which Albinus was held, and most of all becau-e of his wires entreaties, he changed his purpose and crushed both of them in war. But he did name Albinus consul, and this he never would have done had not Aibinus been a worthy man, since he was ever most careful in his choice of magistrate. . . .

As soon as he came of age he entered military service, and by the aid of Lollius Serenus, Baebius Maecianus and Ceionius Postumianus, all his kinsmen, he gained the notice of the Antonines. In the capacity of a tribune he commanded a troop of Dalmatian horse: he also commanded soldiers of the I and the IV legions. At the time of Avidius' revolt he loyally held the Bithynian army to its allegiance. Next, Commodus transferred him to Gaul; and here he routed the tribes from over the Rhine and made his name illustrious among both Romans and barbarians. This aroused Commodus' interest, and he offered Albinus the name of Caesar and the privilege, too, of giving the soldiers a present and wearing the scarlet cloak. But all these offers Albinus wisely refused, for Commodus, he said, was only looking for a man who would perish with him, or whom he could reasonably put to death. . . .

[A]fter a decisive engagement, where countless of his soldiers fell, and very many fled, and many, too, surrendered, Albinus also fled away and, according to some, stabbed himself, according to others, was stabbed by a slave. At any rate, he was brought to Severus only half alive. . . . Albinus' head was cut off and paraded on a pike, and finally sent to Rome.
Blindado
MaximusSestPrinc.jpg
1ci Maximus15 viewsCaesar 235-238

Sestertius

Bare-headed draped bust, right, MAXIMVS CAES GERM

Maximus stg. w/ spear & rod, PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS SC

Son of Maximinus, he died with dad.

RIC 13
Blindado
BalbinusSestFelicit.jpg
1cj Balbinus21 views238

Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, seen from front, right, IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG
Felicitas standing facing, head left, holding caduceus in right hand, PM TR P COS II PP SC

RIC 18

Herodian wrote, continuing the story of the rebellions against Maximinus: When the death of the elder Gordian was reported at Rome, . . . the senate therefore thought it best to meet and consider what should be done. Since they had already cast the die, they voted to issue a declaration of war and choose two men from their own ranks to be joint emperors. . . . Other senators received votes, but on the final count [Pupienus] Maximus and Balbinus were elected joint emperors by majority opinion. . . .

[Pupienus] had held many army commands; appointed prefect of Rome, he administered the office with diligence and enjoyed among the people a good reputation for his understanding nature, his intelligence, and his moderate way of life. Balbinus, an aristocrat who had twice served as consul and had governed provinces without complaint, had a more open and frank nature. After their election, the two men were proclaimed Augusti, and the Senate awarded them by decree all the imperial honors.

While these actions were being taken on the Capitoline Hill, the people, whether they were informed by Gordian's friends and fellow countrymen or whether they learned it by rumor, filled the entire street leading up to the Capitol. The huge mob was armed with stones and clubs, for they objected to the Senate's action and particularly disapproved of [Pupienus]. The prefect ruled the city too strictly for the popular taste, and was very harsh in his dealings with the criminal and reckless elements of the mob. In their fear and dislike of [Pupienus], they kept shouting threats to kill both emperors, determined that the emperor be chosen from the family of Gordian and that the title remain in that house and under that name.

Balbinus and [Pupienus] surrounded themselves with an escort of swordsmen from the young equestrians and the discharged soldiers living in Rome, and tried to force their way from the Capitol. The mob, armed with stones and clubs, prevented this until, at someone's suggestion, the people were deceived. There was in Rome at that time a little child, the son of Gordian's daughter, who bore his grandfather's name.

The two emperors ordered some of their men to bring the child to the Capitol. Finding the lad playing at home, they lifted him to their shoulders and brought him to the Capitol through the midst of the crowd. Showing the boy to the people and telling them that he was the son of Gordian, they called him "Gordian," while the mob cheered the boy and scattered leaves in his path. The senate appointed him caesar, since he was not old enough to be emperor. The mob, placated, allowed the imperial party to proceed to the palace.

Blindado
GratianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1es Gratian39 views367-383

AE3

Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, D N GRATIANVS P F AVG
Gratian standing right, holding labarum with Chi-rho on banner, and holding captive by hair, GLORIA ROMANORVM; Q to left, K over P to right, DSISCR in ex.

RIC 14c

Zosimus reports: [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death.
Blindado
ValentinianIIAE3UrbsRom.jpg
1et Valentinian II19 views373-392

AE3, Nicomedia

Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust rightt, D N VALENTINIANVS IVN P F AVG
Roma seated on cuirass, holding spear and Victory on globe, VRBS ROMA

The SMN mintmark indicates that the coin was minted in Nicomedia, but RIC does not list this reverse type for that mint.

Sim to RIC 51

Zosimus reports: Valentinian being dead, the tribunes Merobaudes and Equitius, reflecting on the distance at which Valens and Gratian resided, the former being in the east, and the latter left by his father in the western part of Gaul, were apprehensive lest the Barbarians beyond the Ister should make an effort while the country was without a ruler. They therefore sent for the younger son of Valentinian, who was born of his wife the widow of Magnentius, who was not far from thence with the child. Having clothed him in purple, they brought him into the court, though scarcely five years old. The empire was afterwards divided between Gratian and the younger Valentinian, at the discretion of their guardians, they not being of age to manage their own affairs. The Celtic nations, Spain, and Britain were given to Gratian; and Italy, Illyricum, and Africa to Valentinian. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina, who, as I before mentioned, had been the wife of Magnentius, but after his decease was taken in marriage by the emperor Valentinian on account of her extraordinary beauty. She carried along with her her daughter Galla. After having passed many seas, and arriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. He was astonished at hearing of this, and began to forget his extravagance, and to lay some restraint on his wild inclination for pleasure. . . . Theodosius then delivered to Valentinian as much of the empire as his father had possessed; in which he only acted as he was enjoined by his duty to those who so merited his kindness. . . .

intelligence was brought that the emperor Valentianian was no more, and that his death happened in this manner: Arbogastes, a Frank, who was appointed by the emperor Gratian lieutenant to Baudo, at the death of Baudo, confiding in his own ability, assumed the command without the emperor's permission. Being thought proper for the station by all the soldiers under him, both for his valour and experience in military affairs, and for his disregard of riches, he attained great influence. He thus became so elevated, that he would speak without reserve to the emperor, and would blame any measure which he thought improper. This gave such umbrage to Valentinian. . . .

Eugenius became the sincere friend of Arbogastes, who had no secret which he did not confide to him. Recollecting Eugenius, therefore, at this juncture, who by his extraordinary learning and the gravity of his conversation seemed well-adapted for the management of an empire, he communicated to him his designs. But finding him not pleased with the proposals, he attempted to prevail on him by all the arts he could use, and entreated him not to reject what fortune so favourably offered. Having at length persuaded him, he deemed it advisable in the first place to remove Valentinian, and thus to deliver the sole authority to Eugenius. With this view he proceeded to Vienna, a town in Gaul, where the emperor resided; and as he was amusing himself near the town in some sports with the soldiers, apprehending no danger, Arbogastes gave him a mortal wound.
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1eu Theodosius25 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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1ew Magnus Maximus45 views383-388

AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
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20. Philip I.14 viewsAntoninianus, 244-245 AD, Antioch mint (or "Unknown mint").
Obverse: IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS PF AVG PM / Radiate bust of Philip I.
Reverse: PAX FVNDATA CVM PERSIS / Pax holding branch and transverse sceptre.
3.25 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #69; Sear #8941.

On Roman coins, PM usually stands for Pontifex Maximus. However, the PM at the end of the obverse legend on this coin (and on the following 2 coins) is usually taken to mean Persicus Maximus -- a title Philip took for himself to commemorate his "victory" over the Persians. It exists only on the earliest coins of Philip I minted in Antioch, but was soon dropped as word got out that the "victory" was really a hastily concluded peace treaty which gave the Romans no advantages whatsoever. The PM is found at the end of the obverse legend or under the bust.
The reverse legend celebrates the lasting peace with Persia.

Recent research indicates that the first series of coins attributed to Antioch by RIC may have been produced at what is currently being called the "Unknown mint." This coin and the next 2 coins are from that mint.
Callimachus
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201769 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
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201c. Pescennius Niger128 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Æ 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli
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235a27 viewsMaximus 235-8 AD
AE 24 mm
Deultum in Thrace
Zeus seated left
Jurukova 205
mauseus
rjb_2014_04_01.jpg
235a19 viewsMaximus 235-8 AD
AE Sestertius
Obv: "MAXIMVS CAES GERM"
Draped bust right
Rev: PIETAS AVG SC"
Priestly implements
Rome mint
RIC 11
mauseus
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301a. Maximus Caesar80 viewsMaximus Caesar AS / Sacrificial Implements

Attribution: RIC IV 7 S
Date: 235-236 AD
Obverse: C IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES, bust r.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG, lituus, knife, patera, vase, simpulum, and sprinkler, SC in ex.
Size: 26.3 mm
Weight: 9.8 grams
Description: A nice and scarcer sestertius with attractive detail
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402. Maximianus54 viewsMarcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (c. 250 - July, 310), known in English as Maximian, was Roman Emperor (together with Diocletian) from March 1, 286 to 305.

Born to a poor family near Sirmium (city in Pannonia), Maximian made a career in the army until 285, when the new emperor Diocletian, a friend of his, made him caesar (sub-emperor) and the ruler of the western part of the empire. The next year Maximian became augustus next to Diocletian, and in 293, when Diocletian introduced the Tetrarchy, Constantius Chlorus became Maximian's caesar and married Maximian's daughter Flavia Maximiana Theodora.

During his reign, Maximianus had several military successes, against the Alemanni and Burgundians in northern Germany, against the Carpi on the Danube frontier and against Carausius, who had rebelled in Britain and declared himself emperor there. He also strengthened the frontier defenses in Africa.

On May 1, 305, Diocletian and Maximian retired together; it is clear that this was not a voluntary act of Maximian's, but that he was forced to do so by Diocletian. Galerius and Constantius Chlorus became the new emperors; Flavius Valerius Severus and Maximinus Daia became their caesars. When Constantius died the next year, Maximian's son Maxentius took the western emperorship, and named Maximian to be his augustus. Maximian resolved the conflicts around this emperorship by defeating Severus and Galerius in battle and bringing Constantius' son Constantine on his side by having Constantine marry his daughter Fausta.

However, in 308 Maximian rebelled against his own son, and marched upon Rome, but was beaten and forced to find refuge with Constantine in Gaul. In 310 he declared himself emperor for the third time, but was unable to defend himself against Constantine, who forced him to commit suicide.

For his own and his colleagues' victories, Maximian received the titles Germanicus Maximus V, Sarmaticus Maximus III, Armeniacus Maximus, Medicus Maximus, Adiabenicus Maximus, Persicus Maximus II, Carpicus Maximus, Britannicus Maximus.

Maximianus 286-305, Reform Follis - Siscia Mint
9.16g
Obv: Bust of Maximianus right "IMP MAXIMIANVS PF AVG"
Rev: Moneta standing left holding a scale and cornucopiae "SACRA MONET AVGG E CAESS NOSTR" "SIS" in the exergue.
RIC 134b
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403. Carausius37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (d. 293) was a Roman usurper in Britain and northern Gaul (286–293, Carausian Revolt).

Carausius was a man of humble origin, a Menapian from Belgic Gaul who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul in 286. As a result, he was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coast. However, he was suspected of keeping captured treasure for himself, and even of allowing the pirates to carry out raids and enrich themselves before taking action against them, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul.

He could count on the alliegance of the three legions based in Britain, as well as one in northern Gaul. How he was able to win support from the army when his command had been sea-based is uncertain. The emperor briefly assumed the title Britannicus Maximus in 285, and the British towns of Wroxeter and Caistor by Norwich towns show signs of destruction around this time, so it is possible Carausius won the army's support during military action in Britain shortly before his rebellion. Alternatively, if the accusations of larceny are true, he could perhaps afford to buy their loyalty. He also appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule: he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae (Restorer of Britain) and Genius Britanniae (Spirit of Britain).

Maximian, busy with wars on the Rhine, was unable to challenge him immediately, but in the Autumn of 288 he began massing troops and ships for an invasion. In 289 an invasion of Britain intended to dislodge him failed badly due to storms, although a naval defeat is also possible. An uneasy peace continued until 293, during which Rome prepared for a second effort to retake the province, while Carausius began to entertain visions of legitimacy and official recognition. He minted his own coins and brought their value in to line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and then Diocletian. Coinage is the main source of information about the rogue emperor; his issues were initially crude but soon became more elaborate and were issued from mints in Londinium, Rotomagnus and a third site, possibly Colonia Claudia Victricensis. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.

It has been speculated (namely, by the historian Sheppard Frere) that the rebellion of Carausius endangered Diocletian's vision of a strong, centralized government based on his tetrarchy. In any case, by early 293 Constantius Chlorus had gained control of northern Gaul, including the rebel's stronghold and port of Bononia, on which Carausius was heavily dependent. Constantius built a mole across the harbour mouth to ensure it did not receive maritime aid.

Constantius also regained the allegiance of the rebellious Gallic legion and defeated the Franks of the Rhine mouth who seem to have been working in league with Carausius. Weakened by these setbacks, Carausius was assassinated, possibly at York, by his treasurer, Allectus.

aVF/aVF Carausius Antoninianus / Pax / Green Patina and Nice Style

Attribution: RIC 895
Date: 287-293 AD
Obverse: IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.
Size: 20.91 mm
Weight: 3 grams
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409. Maximinus II Daza37 viewsCaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus, more commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Daza, was from Illyricum and was of peasant origin. He was born 20 November perhaps in the year 270. Daia was the son of Galerius' sister and had served in the army as a scutarius, Protector, and tribunus. He had been adopted by Galerius ; his name had been Daia even before that time. He had a wife and daughter, whose names are unknown, while his son's name was Maximus. When Diocletian and Maximianus Herculius resigned their posts of emperor on 1 May 305, they were succeeded by Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius as Augusti; their new Caesars were Severus and Maximinus Daia respectively. Constantius and Severus ruled in the West, whereas Galerius and Daia served in the East. Specifically, Daia's realm included the Middle East and the southern part of Asia Minor.[[1]]

Immediately after his appointment to the rank of Caesar, he went east and spent his first several years at Caesarea in Palestine. Events of the last quarter of 306 had a profound effect on the Emperor Galerius and his Caesar Daia. When Constantius I Chlorus died in July 306, the eastern emperor was forced by the course of events to accept Constantius' son Constantine as Caesar in the West; on 28 October of the same year, Maxentius , with the apparent backing of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps. Both the attempt to dislodge Maxentius by Severus, who had been appointed Augustus of the West by Galerius after the death of Constantius in late 306 or early 307, and the subsequent campaign of Galerius himself in the summer of 307 failed. Because of the escalating nature of this chain of events, a Conference was called at Carnuntum in October and November 308; Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place and Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum. Daia, however, unsatisfied with this sop tossed to him by Galerius, started calling himself Augustus in the spring of 310 when he seems to have campaigned against the Persians.[[2]] Although, as Caesar, he proved to be a trusted servant of Galerius until the latter died in 311, he subsequently seized the late emperor's domains. During the early summer of that year, he met with Licinius at the Bosporus; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. Several yea rs later, after the death of Daia, Licinius obtained control of his domain. Like his mentor the late emperor, Daia had engaged in persecution of the Christians in his realm.[[3]]

In the autumn of 312, while Constantine was engaged against Maxentius, Daia appears to have been campaigning against the Armenians. In any case, he was back in Syria by February 313 when he seems to have learned about the marital alliance which had been forged by Constantine and Licinius. Disturbed by this course of events and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia left Syria and reached Bythinia, although the harsh weather had seriously weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, garrisoned by Licinius' troops; when the city refused to surrender, he took it after an eleven day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege; he then moved his forces to the first posting station. With only a small contingent of men, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was besieging Heraclea. On 30 April 313 the two armies clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. Divesting himself of the purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomdeia. Subsequently, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there; Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, and Daia fled to Tarsus where he was hard pressed on land and sea. Daia died, probably in July or August 313, and was buried near Tarsus. Subsequently, the victorious emperor put Daia's wife and children to death.

Maximinus II Daza. 309-313 AD. ? Follis. Laureate head right / Genius standing left holding cornucopiae.
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501b. Crispus BEATA Trier16 viewsTrier

The Romans under Julius Caesar subdued the Celtic Treverans in 58 to 50 BC. When the Roman provinces in Germany were reorganised in 16 BC, Augustus decided that Trier, then called Augusta Treverorum, should become the regional capital. From 259 to 274 Trier was the capital of the break away Gallic Empire. Later for a few years (383 - 388) it was the capital of Magnus Maximus, who ruled most of the western Empire.


The ruins of the Roman baths.Sacked by Attila in 451, it passed to the Franks in 463, to Lorraine in 843, to Germany in 870, and back to Lorraine in 895, and was finally united to Germany by Henry I the Fowler. The Archbishop of Trier was, as chancellor of Burgundy, one of the electors of the empire, a right which originated in the 12th or 13th century, and which continued until the French Revolution. The last elector removed to Koblenz in 1786; and Trier was the capital of the French department of Sarre from 1794 till 1814, after which time it belonged to Prussia.

RIC VII Trier 308

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513. Gratian30 viewsFlavius Gratianus Augustus (April 18/May 23, 359 - August 25, 383), known as Gratian, was a Western Roman Emperor from 375 to 383. He was the son of Valentinian I by Marina Severa and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia.

On August 4, 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus. On the death of Valentinian (November 17, 375), the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son (by a second wife Justina) emperor under the title of Valentinian II.

Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Milan. The division, however, was merely nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian.

The Eastern Roman Empire was under the rule of his uncle Valens. In May, 378 Gratian completely defeated the Lentienses, the southernmost branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria, near the site of the modern Colmar. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9.

In the same year, the government of the Eastern Empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he promoted Theodosius I on January 19, 379 to govern that portion of the empire. Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Balkans of barbarians in the Gothic War (377–382).

For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success but gradually sank into indolence, occupying himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose of Milan.

By taking into his personal service a body of Alani, and appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, he aroused the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops. A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army. Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on August 25, 383.

RIC IX Antioch 46b S

DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG
CONCOR-DIA AVGGG
ecoli
coin394.JPG
514. Valentinian II34 viewsValentinian II (371 - 392) was elevated as Western Roman Emperor at the age of four in 375, along with his half-brother Gratian.

Valentinian and his family lived in Milan, and the empire was nominally divided between them. Gratian took the trans- Alpine provinces, while Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina. Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan struggled against the Catholics of that city, led by their bishop Ambrose. The popularity of Ambrose was so great that the emperors' authority was materially shaken. In 387, Magnus Maximus, a Roman consul who had commanded an army in Briton, and in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) had declared himself emperor of Western Rome, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.

The emperor Valentinian II and his mother fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor and Valentinian's brother in law. Valentinian was restored in 388 by Theodosius, following the death of Magnus Maximus.

On May 15, 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in the town of Vienne in Gaul. The Frankish soldier Arbogast, Valentinian's protector and magister militum, maintained that it was suicide. Arbogast and Valentinian had frequently disputed rulership over the Western Roman Empire, and Valentinian was also noted to have complained of Arbogast's control over him to Theodosius. Thus when word of his death reached Constantinople Theodosius believed, or at least suspected, that Arbogast was lying and that he had engineered Valentinian's demise. These suspicions were further fueled by Arbogast's elevation of a Eugenius, pagan official to the position of Western Emperor, and the veiled accusations which Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, spoke during his funeral oration for Valentinian.

Valentinian II's death sparked a civil war between Eugenius and Theodosius over the rulership of the West in the Battle of the Frigidus. The resultant Eastern victory there led to the final brief unification of the Roman Empire under Theodosius, and the ultimate irreparable division of the Empire after his death.

Bronze AE3, RIC 22, VF, 2.19g, 17.7mm, 0o, Arelate mint, 378-383 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE AVGGG, Victory advancing left holding wreath in right and palm frond in left, [S]CON in ex;Ex Aiello;Ex Forum
ecoli
coin267.JPG
515b. Magnus Maximus35 viewsA Spaniard, Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in 383, while serving with the army in Britain. Later legend made him King of the Britons; he handed the throne over to Caradocus when he went to Gaul to pursue his imperial ambitions.

Following his destruction of Gaul, Maximus went out to meet his main opponent, Gratian, who he defeated near Paris. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed at Lyon on August 25, 383. Soon after, Maximus managed to force Valentinian II out of Rome after which he fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor. Maximus made his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) in Gaul. He became a popular emperor, although also a stern persecutor of heretics.

Theodosius I and Valentinian II campaigned against Magnus Maximus in July-August 388. Maximus was defeated in the Battle of the Save, near Emona, and retreated to Aquileia. Andragathius, magister equitum of Maximus and killer of Gratian, was defeated near Siscia, his brother Marcellinus again at Poetovio. Maximus surrendered in Aquileia and although pleaded for mercy was executed. However, his wife and two daughters were spared. Maximus' son, Flavius Victor, was defeated and executed by Valentinian's magister peditum Arbogast in the fall of the same year.

What happened to his family is not related, although it is clear that they survived and that his descendants continued to occupy influential posts. We encounter a possible daughter of Magnus Maximus, Sevira, on the Pillar of Eliseg, an early medieval inscribed stone in Wales which claims her marriage to Vortigern, king of the Britons. Another daughter was possibly married to Ennodius, proconsul Africae (395). Their grandson was Petronius Maximus, who was another ill-fated emperor, ruling in Rome for but 77 days before he was stoned to death while fleeing from the Vandals on May 24, 455. Other descendants included Anicius Olybrius, emperor in 472, but also several consuls and bishops such as St. Magnus Felix Ennodius (Bishop of Pavia c. 514-21).

Magnus Maximus AE-4

Obv: MM right, DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG; Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with two turrets and star above. Coin is nice VF for this small issue.
ecoli
coin268.JPG
515c. Flavius Victor29 viewsFlavius Victor was the infant son of Magnus Maximus by his wife Helen, allegedly the daughter of Octavius. He was proclaimed an Augustus from 384 to his death in 388.

Victor's father was considered a usurper of the Western Roman Empire. He negotiated receiving recognition by the legitimate Augusti Valentinian II and Theodosius I. When negotiations failed, Maximus pressed the matter by proclaiming his son an Augustus, indicating an attempt to secure a succession. This method had been used by former Emperor Valentinian I who declared his son and heir Gratian an Augustus in 367 and by Theodosius who had declared his own son and heir Arcadius an Augustus in 383.

Maximus and Victor gained recognition of their legitimacy for their co-reign by Theodosius in 386. In 387, Maximus campaigned in Italy against Valentinian II. Victor was left behind in Trier. His father defeated Valentinian but failed against a then hostile Theodosius in 388. Theodosius send Arbogastes in Trier to slay Victor.

Victor's death left Valentinian II, Theodosius and Arcadius as the sole Augusti in the Empire

RIC IX Aquileia 55b
ecoli
91Hadrian__RIC547.jpg
547 Hadrian Orichalcum Sestertius, Roma 118 AD Roma52 viewsReference.
RIC 547

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II in ex. ADVENTVS AVG / S C
Roma seated right on cuirass, holding spear and clasping hands with Hadrian, who stands left, wearing togate (toga)

25.65 gr
mm
h

Note. Matt Smith
Legend: reads PONT(ifex) MAX(imus) TR(ibunicia) POT(estate) COS [II], or “Pontifex Maximus, Tribunicia Potestas [i.e. endowed with power of tribune], Consul for the second time.” The reverse exergue reads ADVENTVS [AVG](usti), or “the arrival of Augustus,” and S(enatus) C(onsulto), which indicates the coin’s value is supported “by the decree of the Senate.”
okidoki
1249Hadrian_RIC547.jpg
547 Hadrian Orichalcum Sestertius, Roma 118 AD Roma35 viewsReference.
RIC 547; Strack 511; C. 91; BMC 1120

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II in ex. ADVENTVS AVG / S C
Roma seated right on cuirass, holding spear and clasping hands with Hadrian, who stands left, wearing togate

28.79 gr
35 mm
6h


Legend: reads PONT(ifex) MAX(imus) TR(ibunicia) POT(estate) COS [II], or “Pontifex Maximus, Tribunicia Potestas [i.e. endowed with power of tribune], Consul for the second time.” The reverse exergue reads ADVENTVS [AVG](usti), or “the arrival of Augustus,” and S(enatus) C(onsulto), which indicates the coin’s value is supported “by the decree of the Senate.”
1 commentsokidoki
Sestercio_Maximo_RIC_11.jpg
64-02 - MAXIMO (Cesar 235 - 238 D.C.)40 viewsAE Sestercio 30 mm 17.4 gr.

Hijo de Maximino I y su Cesar y compañero de campañas durante todo su reinado.


Anv: "MAXIMVS CAES GERM" - Busto a cabeza desnuda, vistiendo Paludamentum (Capote militar), viendo a derecha, visto desde detrás.
Rev: "PIETAS AVG" – Implementos religiosos: Lituus (Atributo pontifical, báculo o cayado (vara con un extremo curvo) usado por los Augures (Adivinación “Augurium Praesagium”), Cuchilla de sacrificio y Patera (Plato, adoptado de los etruscos, usado en ceremonias religiosas para derramar vino sobre el altar) a la izquierda, de una Gran urna o Vasija de sacrificio, y Simpulum (cucharon usado por los sacerdotes durante los sacrificios) y sprinkler/Aspersoir ¿? a la derecha. "S C " en el exergo.

Acuñada: 4ta. Emisión Tarde en 236 a marzo/Abril 238 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Italia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #11 Pag.156 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8316 - BMCRE #204 - Cohen Vol.IV #7 Pag.525 - DVM # Pag. – Alram #36-5
mdelvalle
RIC_11_Sestercio_Maximo.jpg
64-02 - MAXIMO (Cesar 235 - 238 D.C.)12 viewsAE Sestercio 30 mm 17.4 gr.

Hijo de Maximino I y su Cesar y compañero de campañas durante todo su reinado.


Anv: "MAXIMVS CAES GERM" - Busto a cabeza desnuda, vistiendo Paludamentum (Capote militar), viendo a derecha, visto desde detrás.
Rev: "PIETAS AVG" – Implementos religiosos: Lituus (Atributo pontifical, báculo o cayado (vara con un extremo curvo) usado por los Augures (Adivinación “Augurium Praesagium”), Cuchilla de sacrificio y Patera (Plato, adoptado de los etruscos, usado en ceremonias religiosas para derramar vino sobre el altar) a la izquierda, de una Gran urna o Vasija de sacrificio, y Simpulum (cucharon usado por los sacerdotes durante los sacrificios) y sprinkler/Aspersoir ¿? a la derecha. "S C " en el exergo.

Acuñada: 4ta. Emisión Tarde en 236 a marzo/Abril 238 D.C.
Ceca: Roma – Italia
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #11 Pag.156 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8316 Pag.80 - BMCRE #204 - Cohen Vol.IV #7 Pag.525 - DVM # Pag. – Alram #36-5 - MIR #12-3
mdelvalle
02343p00~0.jpg
66. Septimius Severus Denarius50 viewsRome Mint, late 201 A.D.

Parthicus Maximus
comemorates Severus' victory over the Parthians in 201 AD.
two parthian captives at the feet of a Roman.
Zam
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.74 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
VitelliusARdenariusVesta.jpg
709a, Vitellius, 2 January - 20 December 69 A.D.44 viewsVITELLIUS AR silver denarius. RSC 72, RCV 2200. 19mm, 3.2 g. Obverse: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right; Reverse - PONT MAXIM, Vesta seated right, holding scepter and patera. Quite decent. Ex. Incitatus Coins. Photo courtesy of Incitatus Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Vitellius (69 A.D.)

John F. Donahue
College of William and Mary


It is often difficult to separate fact from fiction in assessing the life and reign of Vitellius. Maligned in the ancient sources as gluttonous and cruel, he was also a victim of a hostile biographical tradition established in the regime of the Flavians who had overthrown him. Nevertheless, his decision to march against Rome in 69 was pivotal, since his subsequent defeat signalled the end of military anarchy and the beginning of an extended period of political stability under Vespasian and his successors.

Early Life and Career

Aulus Vitellius was born in September, 15 AD, the son of Lucius Vitellius and his wife Sestilia. One of the most successful public figures of the Julio-Claudian period, Lucius Vitellius was a three-time consul and a fellow censor with the emperor Claudius. Aulus seems to have moved with equal ease in aristocratic circles, successively winning the attention of the emperors Gaius, Claudius, and Nero through flattery and political skill.

Among his attested public offices, Vitellius was a curator of public works, a senatorial post concerned with the maintenance and repair of public buildings in Rome, and he was also proconsul of North Africa, where he served as a deputy to his brother, perhaps about 55 A. D. In addition, he held at least two priesthoods, the first as a member of the Arval Brethren, in whose rituals he participated from 57 A.D., and the second, as one of the quindecemviri sacris faciundis, a sacred college famous for its feasts.

With respect to marriage and family, Vitellius first wed a certain Petroniana, the daughter of a consul, sometime in the early to mid thirties A.D. The union produced a son, Petronianus, allegedly blind in one eye and emancipated from his father's control as a result of being named his mother's heir. Tradition records that Vitellius killed the boy shortly after emancipation amid charges of parricide; the marriage soon ended in divorce. A second marriage, to Galeria Fundana, daughter of an ex-praetor, was more stable than the first. It produced another son, who was eventually killed by the Flavians after the overthrow of Vitellius, as well as a daughter. Galeria is praised by Tacitus for her good qualities, and in the end it was she who saw to Vitellius' burial.

Rise to Power and Emperorship

Without doubt, the most fortuitous moment in Vitellius' political career was his appointment as governor of Lower Germany by the emperor Galba late in 68. The decision seemed to have caught everybody by surprise, including Vitellius himself, who, according to Suetonius, was in straitened circumstances at the time. The choice may have been made to reduce the possibility of rebellion by the Rhine armies, disaffected by Galba's refusal to reward them for their part in suppressing the earlier uprising of Julius Vindex. Ironically, it was Vitellius' lack of military achievement and his reputation for gambling and gluttony that may have also figured in his selection. Galba perhaps calculated that a man with little military experience who could now plunder a province to satisfy his own stomach would never become disloyal. If so, it was a critical misjudgement by the emperor.

The rebellion began on January 1, 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), when the legions of Upper Germany refused to renew their oath of allegiance to Galba. On January 2, Vitellius' own men, having heard of the previous day's events, saluted him as emperor at the instigation of the legionary legate Fabius Valens and his colleagues. Soon, in addition to the seven legions that Vitellius now had at his command in both Germanies, the forces in Gaul, Britain, and Raetia also came over to his side. Perhaps aware of his military inexperience, Vitellius did not immediately march on Rome himself. Instead, the advance was led by Valens and another legionary general, Aulus Caecina Alienus, with each man commanding a separate column. Vitellius would remain behind to mobilize a reserve force and follow later.

Caecina was already one hundred fifty miles on his way when news reached him that Galba had been overthrown and Otho had taken his place as emperor. Undeterred, he passed rapidly down the eastern borders of Gaul; Valens followed a more westerly route, quelling a mutiny along the way. By March both armies had successfully crossed the Alps and joined at Cremona, just north of the Po. Here they launced their Batavian auxiliaries against Otho's troops and routed them in the First Battle of Bedriacum. Otho killed himself on April 16, and three days later the soldiers in Rome swore their allegience to Vitellius. The senate too hailed him as emperor.

When Vitellius learned of these developments, he set out to Rome from Gaul. By all accounts the journey was a drunken feast marked by the lack of discipline of both the troops and the imperial entourage. Along the way he stopped at Lugdunum to present his six-year-old son Germanicus to the legions as his eventual successor. Later, at Cremona, Vitellius witnessed the corpse-filled battlefield of Otho's recent defeat with joy, unmoved by so many citizens denied a proper burial.

The emperor entered Rome in late June-early July. Conscious of making a break with the Julio-Claudian past, Vitellius was reluctant to assume the traditional titles of the princes, even though he enthusiastically made offerings to Nero and declared himself consul for life. To his credit, Vitellius did seem to show a measure of moderation in the transition to the principate. He assumed his powers gradually and was generally lenient to Otho's supporters, even pardoning Otho's brother Salvius Titianus, who had played a key role in the earlier regime. In addition, he participated in Senate meetings and continued the practice of providing entertainments for the Roman masses. An important practical change involved the awarding of posts customarily held by freedmen to equites, an indication of the growth of the imperial bureaucracy and its attractiveness to men of ambition.

In other matters, he replaced the existing praetorian guard and urban cohorts with sixteen praetorian cohorts and four urban units, all comprised of soldiers from the German armies. According to Tacitus, the decision prompted a mad scramble, with the men, and not their officers, choosing the branch of service that they preferred. The situation was clearly unsatisfactory but not surprising, given that Vitellius was a creation of his own troops. To secure his position further, he sent back to their old postings the legions that had fought for Otho, or he reassigned them to distant provinces. Yet discontent remained: the troops who had been defeated or betrayed at Bedriacum remained bitter, and detachments of three Moesian legions called upon by Otho were returned to their bases, having agitated against Vitellius at Aquileia.

Flavian Revolt

The Vitellian era at Rome was short-lived. By mid-July news had arrived that the legions of Egypt under Tiberius Julius Alexander had sworn allegiance to a rival emperor, Titus Flavius Vespasianus, the governor of Judaea and a successful and popular general. Vespasian was to hold Egypt while his colleague Mucianus, governor of Syria, was to invade Italy. Before the plan could be enacted, however, the Danube legions, former supporters of Otho, joined Vespasian's cause. Under the leadership of Antonius Primus, commander of the Sixth legion in Pannonia, and Cornelius Fuscus, imperial procurator in Illyricum, the legions made a rapid descent on Italy.

Although his forces were only half of what Vitellius commanded in Italy, Primus struck first before the emperor could muster additional reinforcements from Germany. To make matters worse for the Vitellians, Valens was ill, and Caecina, now consul, had begun collaborating with the Flavians. His troops refused to follow his lead, however, and arrested him at Hostilia near Cremona. They then joined the rest of the Vitellian forces trying to hold the Po River. With Vitellius still in Rome and his forces virtually leaderless, the two sides met in October in the Second Battle of Bedriacum. The emperor's troops were soundly defeated and Cremona was brutally sacked by the victors. In addition, Valens, whose health had recovered, was captured while raising an army for Vitellius in Gaul and Germany; he was eventually executed.

Meanwhile, Primus continued towards Rome. Vitellius made a weak attempt to thwart the advance at the Apennine passes, but his forces switched to the Flavian side without a fight at Narnia in mid-December. At Rome, matters were no better. Vespasian's elder brother, Titus Flavius Sabinus, the city prefect, was successful in an effort to convince Vitellius to abdicate but was frustrated by the mob in Rome and the emperor's soldiers. Forced to flee to the Capitol, Sabinus was set upon by Vitellius' German troops and soon killed, with the venerable Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus set ablaze in the process. Within two days, the Flavian army fought its way into Rome. In a pathetic final move, Vitellius disguised himself in dirty clothing and hid in the imperial doorkeeper's quarters, leaning a couch and a mattress against the door for protection. Dragged from his hiding place by the Flavian forces, he was hauled off half-naked to the Forum, where he was tortured, killed, and tossed into the Tiber. The principate could now pass to Vespasian.

Assessment

Vitellius has not escaped the hostility of his biographers. While he may well have been gluttonous, his depiction as indolent, cruel, and extravagant is based almost entirely on the propaganda of his enemies. On the other hand, whatever moderating tendencies he did show were overshadowed by his clear lack of military expertise, a deficiency that forced him to rely in critical situations on largely inneffective lieutenants. As a result he was no match for his Flavian successors, and his humiliating demise was perfectly in keeping with the overall failure of his reign.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Mag-Max-Aqu-55a.jpg
72. Magnus Maximus.21 viewsAE 4, summer 387 - Aug. 28, 388, Aquileia mint.
Obverse: DN MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Maximus.
Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM / Camp gate with star between its two turrets.
Mint mark: SMAQ(?)
1.32 gm., 13 mm.
RIC #55a; LRBC #1003; Sear #20657.

The last letter of the mint mark is not readable. It should be a P or S.
Callimachus
Maximus-Caesar-RIC-3.jpg
90. Maximus Caesar.16 viewsDenarius, 236 - 238 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: MAXIMVS CAES GERM / Bust of Maximus.
Reverse: PRINC IVVENTVTIS / Maximus standing, holding baton and spear. Two standards behind him.
2.52 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #8346.
1 commentsCallimachus
Nummus Magno Maximo RIC IX Aquileia 55a P.jpg
A144-02 - Magno Máximo (383 - 388 D.C.)56 viewsAE4 Nummus 11 x 12 mm 1.1 gr.

Anv: "DN MAG MA - XIMVS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[SPES RO] - MA - NORVM " - Puerta de campamento, sin puertas ni ventanas, dos torres, " * " arriba, cuatro capas de piedras. "SMAQP" en exergo.

Acuñada 387 - 388 D.C.
Ceca: Aquileia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Aquileia) #55a Pag.105 - Cohen Vol.VIII #7 Pag.167 - DVM #16 Pag.314 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9264.d. Pag.291 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4206
mdelvalle
Maiorina Magno Maximo Reparatio Reipvb.jpg
A144-10 - Magno Máximo (383 - 388 D.C.)53 viewsAE2 Maiorina 22 x 20 mm 3.9 gr.

Anv: "DN MAG MA[XI] - MVS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "REPARATIO REIPVB" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié de frente, viendo a izquierda, ayudando a la República con corona torreada a levantarse con el brazo derecho y portando una Victoriola en su mano izquierda. "[SVGP ó S]" en exergo. Estimo la ceca en función de la leyenda del anverso, única Lyon con esta leyenda.

Acuñada 383 - 386 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Lyon (Off.Incierta)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Lugdunum) #32 Pag.49 - Cohen Vol.VIII #3 Pag.167 - DVM #13 Pag.313 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9261.b. Pag.291 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4203
mdelvalle
philip_I_spes.jpg
Antoninianus; SPES FELICITATIS ORBIS; RIC 7015 viewsPhilip I, 244-249 Antoninianus, Antioch Mint, AD 244-245, 20mm, 2.88g. Obverse: Radiate, draped bust right. 
IMP C M IVL PHILIPPVS P F AVG P M 
Reverse: Spes advancing left, holding a flower in her right hand and holding up the hem of her skirt with her left. 
SPES FELICITATIS ORBIS 
Reference: Sear RCV (2005) 8967; RIC IV 70. The obverse legend gives Philip the titles of 'Pius Felix', not used for him at Rome, and 'P. M.' which here must represent not 'Pontifex Maximus', but 'Persicus Maximus', 'greatest of Persian conquerors' – though actually, he negotiated a peace with the Persians. Ex Moremoth1 commentsPodiceps
Trajse49-2.jpg
ARCH, TRAJAN, Sestertius162 viewsorichalcum sestertius (25.62g, 34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck 103-104.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate head of Trajan facing right.
S·P·Q·R·OPTIMO PRINCIPI [r.b.,] S C [in ex.] monumental richly decorated triumphal arch; on the sides, can be seen a biga driven by Victory; in the pediment Jupiter between two seated figures, panel above pediment inscribed IOM (= Iovi Optimo Maximo), the whole surmounted by six-horse chariot driven by Jupiter and flanked by Victories.

RIC 572 [R]; BMC 844; Cohen 547; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 100:18
ex Künker, Auction 174
1 commentsCharles S
Arpi.JPG
Arpi, Apulia30 views325-275 BC
AE20 (20mm, 7.07g)
O: Laureate head of Zeus left; [thunderbolt] behind.
R: Kalydonian boar running right; spearhead above, [Α]ΡΠΑΝ[ΟΥ] below.
SNG ANS 639; SNG Cop 605; HN Italy 642; Sear 569; BMC 1, 4
ex Andre C

Situated about 20 miles inland from the Adriatic Sea, Arpi was an ancient city which legend tells us was founded by the hero Diomedes. Arpi allied with Rome at the end of the 4th century BC, and supplied them with infantry and cavalry in the war against Pyrrhus.
After the annihilation of the Roman army at Cannae in 216 Arpi defected to the Carthaginian cause, and Hannibal made the city his winter headquarters in 215. However upon his departure to move his army south the Roman consul Quintus Fabius Maximus retook the city in 213, and Arpi never again regained its’ former importance.
Enodia
Maximus_1.jpg
Asia Minor, Kilikia, Koropissos, Maximus Caesar18 viewsMaximus Caesar, 235-238 AD
Kilikia, Koropissos, AE28
Obv.: Γ I OVH MAΞIMON KЄCAPA, Radiate and draped bust right, seen from behind.
Rev.: [ΚOPOΠIC]CЄΩNT-HC KHT-ΩN MHTP/[O]ΠOΛЄΩC, Tyche seated left in tetrastyle temple
Ae, 11.99 g, 28 mm
Ref.: SNG Levante 591
Ex Lanz Numismatik
shanxi
Æ_32_15_80g_city-gate_augusta_traiana_LVerus.jpg
Augusta Traiana Lucius Verus Tullius Maximus71 viewsAUGUSTA TRAIANA

AE 32 15.80g

Lucius Verus

Q. Tullius Maximus (161-169 AD)

Obv: AV KAI Λ AVPH | ΛIOC OVHPOC
Laureate head right

Rev: HΓE TOVΛ MAΞIMOV AVΓOVCTHC
Ex: TPAIANHC
City-gate with three turrets with battlements

rough patina; decent detail on rx

Schönert-Geiss "Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis" #80 p. 65 depicted Tafel 5; Varbanov (E) II 919 p. 83 ( Lanz specimen depicted); BMC -; Mionnet -
Petrus Elmsley
Marcus_Aurelius_Augusta_traiana_Zeus_enthroned_31mm,_14_39g_.jpg
Augusta Traiana Marcus Aurelius Q. Tullius Maximus (161-169 AD)41 viewsMarcus Aurelius

AE 31 14.39g

Q. Tullius Maximus (161-169 AD)

Obv: AV KAI M AVPH | ANTΩNEINOC
Laureate cuirassed bust right

Rev: HΓE TOVΛ M[AΞI]MOV AVΓOVC[THC
Ex: TPAIANHC
Zeus enthroned left holding scepter and patera


Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis # 20 p. 57 depicted Tafel 2 rev, obv Tafel 1; Varbanov ( E) II 876-7; BMC -; Mionnet –


Dark tan patina
rennrad12020
Augusta_Traiana_MAur_Tull_fleuve_1.JPG
Augusta Traiana Marcus Aurelius Tullius Maximus River-god38 viewsAE 32 20.17g

Marcus Aurelius

Q. Tullius Maximus (161-169 AD)

Obv: AV KAI M AVPH | ANTΩNEINOC
Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: HΓE TOVΛ MAΞIMOV AVΓOVCTHC TPAIANHC (inscribed circularly)
Recumbent river god left holding waterplant; water flowing from overturned urn underneath

thick fabric with contrasting, rough patina

Schönert-Geiss Die Münzpragung von Augusta Traiana und Traianopolis #8 (depicted Tafel 1); Varbanov (E) II 870 (depicted p.79); BMC -; Mionnet -; SNG Cop-


rennrad12020
Augustus~0.jpg
Augustus86 viewsAugustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.

Obverse:

Augustus with his bare head right

CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT

CAESAR: Ceasar, emperor
AVGVST: Agustus
PONT MAX: Pontifix Maximus,
TRIBVNIC: Tribunicia, tribunal
POT: POTESTAS, the people

Reverse:

M MAECILIVS TVLLVS III VIR A A A F F

M: Marcus
MAECILLIS: Maelcilius
TVLLVS: Tullus
IIIVIR: Triumviri
AAAFF: Auro, Argento, Aeri, Flando, Feriundo,

S . C, Senatus Consultum

I think the dots were used as centering devices, one see them sometimes on Soldiers/Standards coins although on this coin it is certainly a large dot.

Domination: AS, Copper

Mint: Rome

The Roman Moneyers (or you may prefer the title of Mint Magistrates) were also responsible for the minting of gold, silver and bronze coinage and they reported to the Senate. They were known as the Triumviri Monetales or Triumviri Auro, Argento, Aeri, Flando, Feriundo which is abbreviated as III VIR. A.A.A. F.F. which may be translated as 'Commision (or college) of three men under whom gold, silver and bronze coins were struck'. (Note that the order of the metals varies according to different references.) The title 'III VIR. A.A.A. F.F.' occurs rarely on Republic coins and when it is present it is usually seen in an abbreviated form such as 'III VIR'. It is interesting to note that the full title occurs frequently on the reverses of Augustan Aes

The College of the Three Moneyers was a revived republican tradition. This coin was struck under the supervision of Marcus Salvius Otho, an ancestor of the future emperor Otho. Later, the number of members was increased to four, and their names were not included on the coins.

TRP = This is short for tribunicia potestate - "with the power of the Tribune of the Plebs." The government of Rome was split into the Patricians (who were Senators) and the Plebians. Nine Tribunes of the Plebs were elected by both Plebs and Patricians every year to be in charge of the Plebian assembly. These Tribunes could not be injured because it could be punishable by death. They had veto powers, and they could prevent a law from being passed or an election. An emperor cannot technically rule on the Plebian assembly since he is a Patrician, but by taking the title he could be free from injury. On a coin, if this symbol is followed by a number, it depicts how many times he has been elected Tribune of the Plebs.
John Schou
067_Maximus_(235-238_A_D_),_AE-19,_Nikaia_in_Bithynia,__#915;_IOV_OVH_MAXIMOC_K,__#925;__#921;_#922;__#913;_#921;__#917;__#937;N,_Howgego_65,_BMC-,_Q-001,_1h,_18,5mm,_3,67g-s.jpg
Bithynia, Nikaia, 067 Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Howgego 65, AE-19, Ν ΙΚ ΑΙ Ε /ΩN, Between and beneath three standards,68 viewsBithynia, Nikaia, 067 Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Howgego 65, AE-19, Ν ΙΚ ΑΙ Ε /ΩN, Between and beneath three standards,
avers: Γ IOV OVH MAXIMOC K, Bare, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Ν ΙΚ ΑΙ Ε /ΩN, Between and beneath three standards.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,67g, axis: 1h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: 235-38 AD., ref: Howgego 65, BMC Bithynia Not in !
Q-001
quadrans
067_Maximus,_(235-238_A_D__as_Caesar),_AE-22_Nicaea_in_Bithynia,_G-IOY-OYH-MAXIMINOS-K_NIKAIEWN_235-38-AD_001_Q-001_6h_22mm_6,68g-s.jpg
Bithynia, Nikaia, 067 Maximus (235-238 A.D.), RecGen 676, AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Homonoia (Concordia) standing left,65 views067 Maximus (235-238 A.D.), Bithynia, Nikaia, RecGen 676, AE-22, ΝΙΚΑΙΕΩN, Homonoia (Concordia) standing left,
avers: Γ IOV OVH MAXIMOC K, Bare, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- ΝΙΚ-ΑΙ-ΕΩN, Homonoia (Concordia) standing left, holding patera and cornucopia.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 6,68g, axis: 6h,
mint: Bithynia, Nikaia, date: 235-38 AD., ref: RecGen 676,
Q-001
quadrans
Bramsen 0631.JPG
Bramsen 0631. Sejour a Osterode, 1807.166 viewsObv. Head of Napoleon laureated. Under the head, ANDRIEU F. DENON DIRT. Legend, NAPOLEON A OSTERODE.
Rev. the head of Fabius Cunctator. Legend, FABIUS CUNCTATOR. Under the head, or exergue, DENON DIRT.

Commemorates Napoleons rest at Osterode in 1807 and alludes to his military prowess with a comparison to the Roman military leader during the Second Punic War, Q. Maximus Fabius.
LordBest
Claudius.jpg
Bronze Quadrans minted under Claudius13 viewsA bronze quadrans minted under Claudius. 16 mm, 3.4 g.

Obverse: a hand holding up a set of scales, and between the pans of the scales are the letters PNR, which possibly mean PONDUS NUMMORUM RESTITUTUM = "The Weight of the Coinage Restored", or something similar. Around the edge is the partially-visible inscription [TI] CLAVDIV[S CAESAR AVG] = "Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus".

Reverse: a large SC standing for SENATUS CONSULTO = "By Decree of the Senate", with the encircling inscription PON M TR P IMP COS DES IT = "Pontifex Maximus, Holding Tribunician Power, Consul Designate for the Second Time".

Attribution: RIC 1 Claudius 85
chuy1530
135.jpg
Bust right (laureate)156 viewsBITHYNIA. Nicaea. Maximus. Æ 21. A.D. 235-238. Obv: Г(.?)IOV.OVHMAΞIMOC.K. Draped and cuirassed bust right; Countermark behind. Rev: N-IK-AI-E, ΩN in ex. Three standards. Ref: BMC -. Axis: 30°. Weight: 3.96 g. CM: Laureate bust right, in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 65 (130 pcs). Collection Automan.Automan
Maximus_V_5521.JPG
Caius Julius Verus Maximus (as Caesar), 235 - 238 AD18 viewsObv: Γ IOVΛ OVHP MA(ΞIMOC KA)IC, bare head of Maximus (son of Maximinus I) facing right.

Rev: MHPO ΠON TO(MEΩC), Nike advancing left holding a wreath and a palm; Γ in left field.

Æ 24, Tomis, Moesia Inferior mint

8.7 grams, 24 mm, 180°

Varbanov I 5521
SPQR Coins
Caligula_Divo.jpg
Caligula AE Sestertius, Pietas / Divo Avg RIC 3698 viewsObv: C CAESAR AVG GERMANICVS P M TR POT, PIETAS in exergue, Pietas seated left on stool, holding patera in extended left hand and resting right forearm on small draped figure standing facing on basis
Rev: DIVO AVG above S C across field, Gaius, toga draped over his head, standing left, holding patera over garlanded altar; victimarius standing facing, holding bull for sacrifice; second attendant standing behind Gaius, holding a patera on either side; garlanded hexastyle temple of Divus Augustus in background, pediment decorated with sacrificial scene; triumphal quadriga and Victories as acroteria, statues of Romulus and Aeneas along roof line.
RIC I 36; BMCRE 41; BN 51; Cohen 9. aF/aVF, dark brown patina, with brassy highlights. Numerous light scratches and bumps on obverse, some pitting, reverse near VF with great details. RARE and important architectural type.
This coin commemorates the dedication of the temple of Divus Augustus, completed in 37 AD, with a remarkable scene of Gaius Caligula in his role of pontifex maximus leading the sacrificial ceremonies.
2 commentsmattpat
MMCGd.jpg
CAMPGATE, Magnus Maximus311 views Magnus Maximus (383-388 AD), AE4 (13mm)

Obv: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG
diademed, draped,cuirassed facing right bust.
Rev: SPES RO-MA-NORVM; Campgate with star between two
turrets. RIC IX Arles 29a R

1 commentsOWL365
Magnus_Maximus_on_Pencil_Eraser.jpg
CAMPGATE, Magnus Maximus, Aquilea AE4134 viewsCoin supported on pencil eraser.Curtis
Magno_massimo_unita.jpg
Campgate: Magnus Maximus (383-388 d.C.), zecca di Aquileia28 viewsMagnus Maximus (383-388 d.C.)
AE, 1,6 gr, 12,0 mm
D/ D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, diademed bust right
R/ SPES ROMANORVM, camp gate with star between two turrets, SMAQ in ex
RIC IX Aquileia 55
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (29 novembre 2012, numero catalogo 172); ex Borislav P. Kirev collection (Rector Orbis Inc., Tampa, Saint Petersburg, Florida, Usa, fino al 2012)
paolo
1Magno_Lugdunum_unita.jpg
Campgate: Magnus Maximus, AE2 (383-388 d.C.) zecca di Lugdunum9 viewsMagnus Maximus, Lugdunum mint, R
AE2. 1,22 gr., 13,50 mm, B
D/ DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG, Busto drappeggiato e corazzato verso destra
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM campgate. LVG [.] in ex
RIC IX 36 var. (obverse legend)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 20 dicembre 2015, numero catalogo 243); ex Asta Tintinna 51, Dea Moneta (San Marino, 20 dicembre 2015) lotto 2195; ex collezione Massimo Campani (Scandiano, Reggio Emilia, Italia, fino al 2015)
paolo
1Magno_Massimo_unita.jpg
Campgate: Magnus Maximus, zecca di Arles15 viewsMagnus Maximus (383-388). , Arelate mint
AE, 13 mm., gr. 1.15, S
D/ DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R/ SPES ROMANORVM. Camp-gate with star between its two turrets; in ex S CON
RIC IX, 29
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 17 gennaio 2015, numero catalogo 231), ex Artemide aste 28E, lotto 349 (San Marino, 17 gennaio 2015)
paolo
1Magno_massimo_Roma.jpg
Campgate: Magnus Maximus, zecca di Roma, I officina (387-388 d.C.)14 viewsMagnus Maximus, Bronze half centenionalis, 1st officina, Rome mint, R
AE, 0.931gr, 13.1 mm, 225°,
D/ D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with star between two turrets, RP in exergue
RIC IX Rome 59.1, LRBC II 795, SRCV V 20658, Cohen VIII 7
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, 25 settembre 2015, numero catalogo 246); ex FAC fino al 25 settembre 2015, ex Seaver Collection (Morton&Eden Ltd, , auction 57/2012, lot 400)
paolo
Temporum.jpg
Caracalla211 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate head of Caracalla right

LAETITIA TEMPORVM
The spina of the Circus Maximus decorated as a ship facing l., with the turning posts at its prow and stern, a sail mounted on the central obelisk, and the spina's other monuments visible in between; above the ship, four quadrigas racing l.; below, seven animals: an ostrich at l. and bear at r.; between them a lion and a lioness chasing a wild ass and a panther attacking a bison.

Rome 206 AD

3.34g

Ex-Londinium coins, Ex Professor K.D. White with original envelope.

Sear 6813, RIC 157, BMCRE 257, CSS 793

Very rare! Only 2 examples in the Reka Devnia hoard

Better in hand

Notes by Curtis Clay:

This famous type commemorates the chariot races and animal hunt that took place on the seventh and final day of Severus' Saecular Games in 204 AD, as described in the inscriptional acts of those games which were found in Rome in the 1870s and 1930s. According to the acts, after three days of sacrifices and three days of honorary stage shows, Severus and Caracalla held circus games on the seventh day, consisting of chariot races and then a hunt of 700 beasts, 100 each of "lions, lionesses, panthers, bears, bisons, wild asses, ostriches". Dio Cassius describes the same hunt, adding the detail that the cage from which the animals were discharged was formed like a boat: "The entire receptacle in the theater had been fashioned in the shape of a boat and was capable of receiving or discharging four hundred beasts at once; and then, as it suddenly fell apart, there came rushing forth bears, lionesses, panthers, lions, ostriches, wild asses, bisons, so that 700 beasts in all, both wild and domesticated, at one and the same time were seen running about and were slaughtered. For to correspond with the duration of the festival, which lasted seven days, the number of the animals was also seven times one hundred." In Dio's text this passage follows directly on his account of Severus' Decennalian Games in 202 AD, causing scholars to accuse Dio of misdating the hunt or to postulate that similar hunts of 700 animals were held both in 202 and in 204. But the true explanation, in my opinion, is that Dio's Byzantine epitimator Xiphilinus, on whom we are dependent for this section of Dio's text, has simply jumped without warning or transition from Dio's description of the Decennalian Games of 202 to his description of the circus spectacle concluding the Saecular Games of 204. This hypothesis easily explains why Dio's text as we have it makes no mention of the Saecular Games themselves or of any event of 203: Xiphilinus omitted this whole section of Dio's history! The seven kinds of animals named by both Dio and the inscriptional acts are also depicted in the coin type: on good specimens, especially the aureus BM pl. 34.4, the ostrich and the bear are clear, the lion has a mane, the ass has long ears, the bison has horns and a hump. Two large felines remain, of which we may suppose that the one accompanying the lion is the lioness and the one attacking the bison is the panther. The animals are named somewhat differently in Cohen, BMC, and other numismatic works: though numismatists have long cited Dio's text to explain the coin type, no one previously seems to have posed the question whether the seven animals in the lower part of the type might not be the same seven that Dio and now the inscriptional acts too name! These circus games with the ship and 700 animals were held in 204 AD, but the coin type commemorating them did not appear until two years later: on aurei of Septimius the type is die linked to a dated type of 206 AD, and for Caracalla the type passes from a draped and cuirassed obverse type on the aureus to the "head only" type on his denarii, a transition that took place in 206 AD according to his dated coins.


SOLD October 2014
10 commentsJay GT4
car5.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius75 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Head Right
Rev. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P Pax left holding branch

Ref. RIC 268, RSC 314, BMC 147
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
car4.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius66 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Head right
Rev. P.M.TR.P.XVII.COS.IIII.P.P. Apollo seated left resting hand on lyre
Ref. Sear 1835
Year 214AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the seventeenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
car6.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius53 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Head Right
Rev. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P Pax left holding branch and scepter
Ref. RIC 268, RSC 314, BMC 147
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
x5.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius57 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM Head Right
Rev. P M TR P XVIII COS IIII P P Fides standing left holding two standards
Ref. Sear 1837, RIC 266, RSC 315, BMC 143
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x2.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius64 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Head right
Rev. P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P. Jupiter left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; at feet, eagle.
Ref. RIC240, BMC94
Rome mint

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the seventeenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

Jupiter was the father of the gods and is normally shown with a scepter and thunderbolt. He may be standing or seated. He can be accompanied with an eagle (as here) or a small Victory.

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x9.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius43 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right
Rev. P M TR P XVIIII COS IIII P P, Jupiter enthroned left, holding Victory & scepter, eagle at foot left.
Ref. RSC 343, RIC 277c
Rome mint
Year 216

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
x11.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius38 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right
Rev. PM TR P XV COS III PP, Serapis standing left holding right hand high & transverse scepter.
Ref. RSC 195, RIC 193
Mint Rome

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS BRITANNUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Britains
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XV CONSUL III PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the fiftheenth time, Consul for the third time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
cara33.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius40 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Laureate bust right
Rev. P.M.TR.P.XVIII.COS.IIII.P.P. Aeskulapis standing, Globe on ground
Ref. RIC 253
Year 215AD

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XVIII CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the eighteenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
car111.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius33 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate draped bust right
Rev. VICT PART PONT TR P IIII Two captives, seated r. and l., mourning, at foot of trophy.
Ref. RIC 54a

ANTONINVS PIVS AVG Antionus Pius is your Emperor and Augustus
VICTOR PARTHICO PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS IIII Victor over the Parthians,High Priest, Tribune of the People for the forth time

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
car112.jpg
Caracalla 198-217 denarius57 viewsOb. ANTONINUS PIVS AVG GERM Head right
Rev. P M TR P XVII COS IIII P P. Jupiter left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre; at feet, eagle. Rome mint
Ref. RIC 240

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XX CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the seventeenth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
ant11.jpg
Caracalla Antoninianus Serapis60 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, radiate, draped bust right
Rev. P M TR P XX COS IIII P P, Serapis standing left, wearing polos & holding wreath of corn ears & transverse scepter

Ref. RIC 289d, RSC 383b
Weight 4.9g

ANTONIUS PIUS AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS - Antonius Pius is your Emperor and Augustus and has conquered the Germans
PONTIFEX MAXIMUS TRIBUNICIA POTESTAS XX CONSUL IIII PATER PATRIAE - High priest, Tribune of the People for the twentieth time, Consul for the fourth time and father of the country

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
Trajse28-4.JPG
CIRCUS MAXIMUS, Trajan144 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.27g, Ø32.95mm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 103-104.
Obv.: IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate bust of Trajan right with aegis.
Rev.: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI around, S C in ex., bird's-eys view on the Circus Maximus in Rome, as seen from the Forum Boarium, showing portico in foreground with eleven arched entrances and monumental gate surmounted by quadriga on right, two additional arches, each surmounted by quadriga behind the portico at both ends, the central spina adorned with tall obelisk of Rameses II at center flanked by equestrian statue of Trajan on left and shrine of Cybele on right , the two metae (turning posts) placed at the extremities; at the far side of the Circus, a curved wall incorporating a tetra-style shrine of Sol.
RIC 571 [R] and pl. x, 187 (rev. only); Cohen 546 (Fr.60); Strack 391; BMC 856; Banti 275 (4 spec.); MIR 175c and pl. 28 (citing 20 examples of this variety; same obv. die as plate 175c1; same rev. die as 175a3); RCV 3208 var. (different bust type).

ex G. Henzen (Netherlands, 2000)

The reverse of this sestertius commemorates the completion in AD 103 of a major restoration of the Circus Maximus, following a great fire that had severely damaged the famous arena in the time of the Flavian emperors. The origin of the Circus Maximus, situated in the Murcia valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills, is quite obscure. An enclosure for chariot racing, it had parallel sides and one semicircular end, all fitted with seats for spectators, and an axial rib (spina) marked at each end by turning-posts (metae) dividing the arena into two runs. At the open end were the curved stables (carceres) sufficient to accommodate twelve teams of horses. Traditionally founded by King Tarquinius Priscus, it does not seem to have become a permanent structure until 329 BC (Livy viii. 20.1). In later times, it was much embellished, notably by Augustus who erected on the spina the great Egyptian obelisk of Rameses II from Heliopolis (it now stands in the Piazza del Populo). The vast arena was frequently damaged by the fires that afflicted the imperial capital; on several occasions, there was loss of life when structural failure occurred under the weight of the huge crowds that attended the events. Trajan was himself an ardent fan of the Circus so it is scarcely surprising that he took on the task of restoring the arena. The present specimen is a good example of the rare issue that commemorated the completion of this undertaking. More than a century later (AD 213), the Emperor Caracalla issued a similar type to record his own restoration work on the Circus Maximus. The last recorded games in this celebrated arena took place under the Ostrogothic king Totila in AD 550.
1 commentsCharles S
CivilWarsJupiter_RIC_125a.jpg
Civil Wars of 68-69 Jupiter / Vesta49 viewsCivil Wars. Silver Denarius (3.09 g), AD 68-69 Uncertain mint in Southern Gaul, ca. AD 69.
O: I O M CAPITOLINVS, diademed and heroic bust of Jupiter Capitolinus left, small branch before, with slight mantle showing on near shoulder.
R: VESTA P R QVIRITIVM, Vesta seated left, holding patera and torch.
- RIC 125a (Group IV); AM 96; BMC 72; RSC 432. Ex Dr. Rainer Pudill; Ex Auktionshaus H. D. Rauch GmbH Summer 2010 Lot 490

Struck for Vitellius, perhaps by his commander Fabius Valens, in southern Gaul shortly before the First Battle of Bedriacum, which saw the annihilation of Otho's forces in mid-April, AD 69. This type draws on the two most important cults in Rome. The figure of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus invokes the invincible might of Rome, while the figure of Vesta, who was the goddess of the Rome's sacred hearth, symbolizes the Empire's permanence.
1 commentsNemonater
Claudius_Libertas_2.JPG
Claudius LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C27 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.

Obverse:
Bare head left

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
TI: Tiberius
CLAVDIVS: Claudius
CAESAR: CAESAR

AVG: Augustus, emperor
P M: PP: Pontifix Maximus, high priest
TR P: Tribunicia Potestate. The tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.
IMP: Imperator, leader of the army

Reverse:

LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C
LIBERTAS: Libertas
AVGVSTA: AVGVSTA

The title of Augusta denotes a woman with significant imperial power. Minting coins with Libertas on Roman coins was a political statement by many who succeeded tyrants

S C
S C: Senatus Consulto, by Decree of the Senate

LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, pileus in right (cap worn by freed slaves), extending left hand

Domination: Copper AS, size 27 mm, die axis 180o

Mint: Rome mint, 50- 54 A.D, RIC 1-113_C47
John S
Claudius_Minerva_1.JPG
Claudius S C Minerva22 viewsClaudius, 25 January 41 - 13 October 54 A.D.

Obverse:
Bare head left

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP

TI: Tiberius
CLAVDIVS: Claudius
CAESAR: CAESAR
AVG: Augustus, emperor
P M: PP: Pontifix Maximus, high priest
TR P: Tribunicia Potestate. The tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.
IMP: Imperator, leader of the army

Reverse:

S C

S C: Senatus Consulto, by Decree of the Senate


Minerva advancing right brandishing javelin in right, shield in left

Domination: Copper AS, size 25 mm

Mint: Rome mint, 50-54 A.D¸ RIC-I-116_C-84
John S
Commodus- Victoria.jpg
Commodus- Denarius Victoria51 viewsCommodus, marts eller april 177 - 31 December 192

Obverse:
Commodus with laurete head right

M COMM ANT FEL AVG P BRIT

M: Marcus
COMM: Commodus
ANT: Antoninus, Antoninus
FEL: Happy
AVG: Augustus, emperor
P: Pius, pious
BRIT: Britannicus

Reverse:
SAEC FEL PM TR P XI IMP VII COS V PP

SAEC: Happy age, refers to the secular games
FEL: Felix, happy
PM: Pontifix Maximus, literally ”head priest”, the ruler´s title as supreme head of the roman religion.
TRP: Tribunicia Potestas, The Tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.
XI: 11th time
IMP: Imperator, head of the army
VII: 7 th time
COS: Consul,
V: 5 th time
PP: Pater Patria, father of his country

Victoria standing right, foot on helmet, inscribing VO DE (VOTA DECENNALES, every 10 year) on a shield set on upon a palme.

Domination: Denarius, silver, size 18 mm

Mint: Rome, struck 183-184 A.D. RIC 101, type B.

TRP = This is short for tribunicia potestate - "with the power of the Tribune of the Plebs." The government of Rome was split into the Patricians (who were Senators) and the Plebians. Nine Tribunes of the Plebs were elected by both Plebs and Patricians every year to be in charge of the Plebian assembly. These Tribunes could not be injured because it could be punishable by death. They had veto powers, and they could prevent a law from being passed or an election. An emperor cannot technically rule on the Plebian assembly since he is a Patrician, but by taking the title he could be free from injury. On a coin, if this symbol is followed by a number, it depicts how many times he has been elected Tribune of the Plebs.
John Schou
Commodus- Jupiter.jpg
Commodus- Jupiter85 viewsCommodus, March or April 177 - 31 Dec 192 A.D.

Obverse:
Laureate head right

M COMMODVS ANT P FELIX AVG BRIT

M: Marcus
COMMODVS: Commodus
ANT: Antoninus, Antoninus
PFELIX: Pius Felix,
AVG: Augustus,
BRIT: Britannicus

Reverse:
IOVI IVVENI P M TR P XIIII IMP VIII COS V P P S—C

IOVI: Jupiter
IVVENI: Young
P M: Pontifix Maximus, ypperste præst
TRP: Tribunicia Potestas, folkets tribunat
XIIII: 14
IMP: Imperator,
VIII: 8
COS: Consul,
V:
PP: Pater Patria,

S—C: Senatus Consulto

Showing: Jupiter with his head left, naked except for cloak hanging from shoulder: Jupiter holding thunderbolt and sceptre, and there is a eagle at left foot. There is an S at left and an C right for Jupiter.


Domination: Sestertius, Orichalcum, size 30 mm
Mint: Rome

TRP = This is short for tribunicia potestate - "with the power of the Tribune of the Plebs." The government of Rome was split into the Patricians (who were Senators) and the Plebians. Nine Tribunes of the Plebs were elected by both Plebs and Patricians every year to be in charge of the Plebian assembly. These Tribunes could not be injured because it could be punishable by death. They had veto powers, and they could prevent a law from being passed or an election. An emperor cannot technically rule on the Plebian assembly since he is a Patrician, but by taking the title he could be free from injury. On a coin, if this symbol is followed by a number, it depicts how many times he has been elected Tribune of the Plebs.
John Schou
Constantine The Great- GLORIA EXERCITVS 1.jpg
Constantine The Great- GLORIA EXERCITVS98 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Obverse:
Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
MAX: Maximus, the greatest
AVG: Augustus, emperor


Reverse:
GLORIA EXERCITVS, The glory of the army

GLORIA: The glory
EXERCITVS: Army

Two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards

Domination: Bronze AE3, size 17 mm

Mint: CONSΑ ”dot”, Constantinople A (alpha, 1.st Officina).
Could be:
RIC VII Constantinople 73 CONSA dot or RIC VII Constantinople 80 dot CONSA dot. Hard to say which being the dot could be cut off on flan- both are rated r2
John Schou
Constantine The Great- GLORIA EXERCITVS new.jpg
Constantine The Great- Gloria EXERCITVS162 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Obverse:Rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine

MAX: Maximus,

AVG: Augustus

Reverse:

GLORIA EXERCITVS

GLORIA. Glory
EXERCITVS: Army

Showing: Two helmeted soldiers holding spears and shields on ground flanking two standards

Domination: Bronze, AE 3, size 18 mm

Mint: SMANΓ ANTIOCH and Gamma Γ(Gamma = 3)
John Schou
Constantine_The_Great_GLORIA_EXERCITVS_1.JPG
Constantine The Great- GLORIA EXERCITVS66 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Obverse:
Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right

CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
MAX: Maximus, the great
AVG: Augustus, emperor


Reverse:
GLORIA EXERCITVS, the glory of the army

GLORIA: Glory
EXERCITVS: Army

Two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking two standards

Domination: Bronze AE 3, diameter 18 mm

Mint: SMTSB, Thessalonica mint, 330 - 333 A.D, RIC VII Thessalonica 183. C
Comment: I am not sure about exe.
John S
Constantine I- VOT XX.jpg
Constantine The Great- VOT XX48 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Obverse
Laureate head right

CONSTANTINVS AVG

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse
D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, around wreath enclosing VOT / XX; Our Lord Constantine The Greart, Emperor, (VOT / XX ) Indicating 20 years of vows to the gods.

D N: Dominus Noster, our lord
CONSTANTINI: Constantine
MAX: Maximus, the Great
AVG: Emperor


VOT: Vota: Vows
XX: 20 years

Domination: Bronze AE 3, size 19 mm

Mint: PT in exergue Prima TICINUM, 1. st Officina, RIC VII TICINUM 140, rarity C2 (very common), year 320-321
John Schou
Constantine 1- Vot XX 1.jpg
Constantine The Great- Vot XX55 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Obverse
Laureate head right

CONSTANTINVS AVG

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse
D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, around wreath enclosing VOT / XX; Our Lord Constantine The Greart, Emperor, (VOT / XX ) Indicating 20 years of vows to the gods.

D N: Dominus Noster, our lord
CONSTANTINI: Constantine
MAX: Maximus, the Great
AVG: Emperor


VOT: Vota: Vows
XX: 20 years

Domination: Bronze AE 3, size 18 mm

Mint: RQ, Rome mint, Q= quarta fourth Officina, minted 321 A.D. RIC VII Rome 237 c3, considered VF (very Fine).
John Schou
Constantine_I__Vot_XX.jpg
Constantine The Great- VOT XX48 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Obverse:
Laureate head right

CONSTANTINVS AVG

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, around wreath enclosing VOT / XX
Our Lord Constantine The Greart, Emperor, (VOT / XX ) Indicating 20 years of vows to the gods.

D N: Dominus Noster, our lord
CONSTANTINI: Constantine
MAX: Maximus, the Great
AVG: Emperor

VOT: Vota: Vows
XX: 20 years

Domination: Bronze AE 3, size 19 mm

Mint: RQ, Rome mint, Q= quarta fourth Officina, minted 321 A.D. RIC VII ROME 237
John S
Constantin_I_Vot_XXX_c.jpg
Constantine the Great- VOT XXX47 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Obverse
Laureate head right

CONSTANTINVS AVG

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse
D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG,
Around wreath enclosing VOT / XXX; Our Lord Constantine The Greart, Emperor, (VOT / XXX ) Indicating 30 years of vows to the gods.

D N: Dominus Noster, our lord
CONSTANTINI: Constantine
MAX: Maximus, the Great
AVG: Emperor

VOT: Vota: Vows
XXX: 30 years

Domination: Bronze AE 3, size 19 mm

Mint: SMH Γ, Heraclea Γ is third Oficina (Γ= 3 rd Oficina). RIC VII 82G(amma), R2
John S
coin11_quart.jpg
CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG (the 1st) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE3 follis (306-337 A.D.) 23 viewsCONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, (laureate?) and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields, facing each other, two standards between them, dots on banners. Mintmark SMKB in exergue

AE3, 17.5-19mm, 1.50g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

MAX AVG = Maximus Augustus, the Great Emperor, Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", SMKB = Sacra Moneta of Cyzicus (Κύζικος, now Erdek, Balıkesir Province, Turkey), officina #2

Because of the horrible surface it was very difficult to determine the type of this coin. And then I suddenly realized that the head breaks the obverse legend, and so even though it is mostly undecipherable, this immediately excludes all the ...IVN NOB C types of the three Constantine's sons. And thus we can be sure that it is a ...MAX AVG obverse of the father! By carefully looking at the second part of the legend and counting the letters I have confirmed that it is indeed NVS...AVG. Of course, the larger size and the general outlook of the head also points towards Constantine I.

The mintmark is, luckily, much more readable and with significant certainty one can see SMKB. Which points towards RIC VII Cyzicus 78 type. There is a good WildWinds example of a different officina of the same type: http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/constantine/_cyzicus_RIC_vII_078.4.jpg The sources mention that this coin was minted on 330-335 A.D.

Constantine I the Great (reign 306-337), see more info at
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147487
Yurii P
coin_5_quart.jpg
CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG (the 1st) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE3/4 follis (306-337 A.D.)19 viewsCONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, (laurel and?) rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers standing inward facing each other, holding spears, shields and two standards between them, "dot" (clearly filled) on banners. Mintmark: SMNE (?) in exergue.

AE3/4, 16.5-17mm, 2.46g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

MAX AVG = Maximus Augustus, the Great Emperor, Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", SMNE = Sacra Moneta Nicomedia, "officina epsilon", i. e. workshop#5.

Limiting information to only what is known for sure: the legends with the particular breaks, two standards and four-letter mintmark starting with SM, we conclude that this is definitely Constantine I, and only 3 mints are possible: SMN... Nicomedia (RIC VII Nicomedia 188), SMH... Heraclea (RIC VII Nicomedia 111) and SMK... Cyzicus (RIC VII Cyzicus 76-79). All are minted in 330-335 A.D. If the mintmark is indeed SMN..., two variations are listed: rosette-diademed and laurel- and rosette-diademed (laurels typically designated by longish shapes and rosettes as squares with dots). Since the obverse is worn, it is difficult to judge which one is the case here. One can definitely see the rosettes, but as for laurels... probably, not. Officina may be E or S, but I think E fits better.

Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, aka Constantine the Great, aka Saint Constantine, born 27 Feb c. 272 to Flavius Valerius Constantius (aka Constantius I), a Roman Army officer of Illyrian origins, and a Greek woman of low birth Helena (aka Saint Helena). His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius raised himself to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father's death in 306 AD, and he emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. He did so many a great deed that there is no point to list them here. Best known for (having some sort of Christ-related mystical experience in 312, just before the decisive Battle of the Milvian Bridge with Maxentius) being the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity and for being a champion of this faith, in particular, he played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire, and called the First Council of Nicaea in 325 that produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed. Died 22 May 337, famously being baptized on his deathbed. Succeeded by his 3 sons: Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans.
Yurii P
maxmin13.jpg
Countermark Crazy! :)128 viewsMaximinus I --AE33, Ninica-Claudiopolis. Draped bust of Maximinus R/Draped bust of Maximus R.. SNG France 2, 796. Multiple c/m.4 commentsfeatherz
Domitian.jpg
Domitian31 viewsRoman Empire
Imperator Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus
(Reign as 11th Emperor: Sept. 14th, 81-Sept. 18th, 96)
(Born: Oct. 24th, 51, Died: Sept. 18th, 96 [age: 44])

Obverse: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TRP XI, Head of Domitian wearing laurel wreath and facing right

Reverse: IMP XXI COS XVI CENS P PP, Minerva standing on a galley's prow (or a rostral column), holding spear and shield, owl at feet

Silver Denarius (18.2mm, 3.63g)
Minted in Rome circa 92


Understanding the inscriptions:

IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM=Imperator Caesar Domitianus Augustus Germanicus
Sphinx357
D4.JPG
Domitian RIC 04101 viewsAR Denarius, 3.18g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVG; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII; Seat, draped; above, thunderbolt
RIC 4 (C). BMC 1. RSC 554. BNC 1.

The early issues of Domitian show a progression of the titles he assumed soon after his accession. This denarius is part of the first issue, evident by Domitian's sparse titles of IMP, AVG and TRP only, he is not yet Pontifex Maximus (PONT or PM) or Pater Patriae (P P). The reverse is a pulvinaria type carried over from Titus. The style is identical to the Domitian as Caesar denarii struck under Titus as well. NB: Thunderbolt is not winged.

A good example of the early portrait style.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D16.jpg
Domitian RIC 16100 viewsAR Denarius, 3.43g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: P P COS VII DES VIII; Seat, draped; above, semicircular frame decorated with three crescents
RIC 16 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC 8.
Acquired from Germania Inferior, June 2018.

Domitian seems to have been somewhat in a hurry to strike coins as Augustus after Titus' death in mid September 81 AD, presumably for a legionary donative. This denarius was struck before Domitian had been awarded the power of the tribunate (TR P) and pontifex maximus (PM). Here his only titles are Augustus (AVG), Imperator (IMP), Consul for the 7th time (COS VII), and pater patriae, father of the country (P P). Perhaps it may have taken a few days for the Senate to award the power of the tribunate to Domitian because they had assembled at the small town of Reate where Titus had died and needed to be in Rome in order to vote him the right. The religious ceremonies required for Domitian to assume the title pontifex maximus had not yet finished by this time either, here he is simply PONT, or in other words a member of the College of Pontiffs. Some have argued that PONT is the same as PM, I disagree. Titus as Caesar early on had also used the title PONT on his denarii and he was never pontifex maximus under Vespasian - only the emperor can be Pontifex Maximus or greatest priest. Although this Group 2 denarius is not part of Domitian's first RIC issue, it is very likely to have been struck within the first few days of him assuming the purple. RIC notes the chronology is not precise with these issues from 81 and they are grouped only for 'convenience'. Judging by the rarity of the Group 2 denarii they could not have been struck for any great length of time.

Dark cabinet toning with a stylish early portrait.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
D21aa.jpg
Domitian RIC 2122 viewsAR Denarius, 2.87g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Curule chair, wreath above
RIC 21 (R2). BMC p. 299 note. RSC 58. BNC -.
Ex Andrew Short Collection.

This denarius was issued very early in Domitian's reign, perhaps just prior to him being elected Pontif Maximus, hence the abbreviation PONT in the obverse legend.

Worn, but with a fine style portrait.
1 commentsDavid Atherton
D31.JPG
Domitian RIC 31134 viewsAR Denarius, 2.90g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, semicircular frame decorated with three crescents
RIC 31 (R2). BMC 7. RSC 59. BNC 7.

A rare "PONT" denarius minted very early in Domitian's reign. The "T" in PONT is just off flan. The "PONT" denarii were minted before Domitian completed the religious rites required to be Pontifex Maximus. Same obverse die as the BM and Paris specimens (BMC 7 & BNC 7).

A coin only a collector could love. Corroded and polished (!), but still lovely, IMHO.

NB: Thanks to Curtis Clay for additional attribution assistance.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
D40.jpg
Domitian RIC 40114 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Altar, garlanded and lighted
RIC 40 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.
Acquired from London Ancient Coins, June 2017.

An early rare 'PONT' denarius struck towards the end of 81. The abbreviation 'PONT' for Ponitfex Maximus must have come early in the sequence of titles Domitian employed on his denarii and likely was short lived if its rarity is any indication. The records of the Arval brothers do not show Domitian as Pontifex Maximus by 30 October, so presumably he acquired the title in either November or December. Interestingly, the obverse legend displays the Greek influenced 'Y' instead of 'V', perhaps evidence of a Greek engraver's handiwork. The altar on the reverse is a carry-over pulvinaria type struck for Domitian as Caesar under Titus, perhaps representing the pulvinar of Vesta and Vulcan.

A sharp VF denarius struck when the dies were fresh. Good early style.

7 commentsDavid Atherton
D44.JPG
Domitian RIC 4488 viewsAR Denarius, 2.56g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DIVI VESP F DOMIT AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Altar, garlanded and lighted
RIC 44 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.

An extremely rare and early denarius of Domitian. This coin was minted before Domitian became Pontifex Maximus, as shown by the obverse legend which only shows him as PONT. Presumably the official ceremonies for this elevation had not been completed when the coin was struck. Domitian, always a stickler for the correct procedures, probably insisted the correct form of his titles be struck. This coin also indicates how quickly new coins were struck for Domitian after he became emperor. Also, notice the nice mention of Vespasian in the obverse legend - DIVI VESP F, "Son of the Divine Vespasian".

The style is very typical of the early denarii of Domitian before his coinage reform the following year. Notice the veristic style with the hook nose. Later his portraits became more idealized.

Not listed in the BM nor Cohen. The new RIC cites examples at the Ashmolean and a private sale.
2 commentsDavid Atherton
D52sm.jpg
Domitian RIC 5277 viewsAR Denarius, 2.62g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Dolphin coiled around anchor
RIC 52 (R2). BMC p. 299, ||. RSC -. BNC -.
Ex Lanz (eBay), February 2017.

Nothing more quite shows how much of a stickler Domitian was for keeping to the letter of the law than the 'PONT' denarii struck very early in his reign. Domitian would not call himself by the full title Pontifex Maximus until the proper religious ceremonies voting him as such were concluded. The PONT denarii provide numismatic evidence for Suetonius' claim that Domitian scrupulously observed the proper formalities (Dom. VII - IX). The coins themselves are quite rare, struck in a brief window of time while Domitian was being awarded his full titles.The resulting sequence of titles is quite fascinating!

Interestingly, the 'V' in AVG here looks more like a 'Y'. Some have speculated that this shows evidence of a Greek engraver working at the mint early in Domitian's reign.

Struck in good metal with a minor flan crack.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
D56best2.jpg
Domitian RIC 5687 viewsAR Denarius, 3.22g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Minerva adv r., with spear and shield (M1)
RIC 56 (R2). BMC p. 299, ‡. RSC 560a. BNC -.
Ex eBay, September 2017.

Here is a rare Domitian 'PONT' denarius with the legend variant of DOMITIANVS fully spelled out. Denarii with 'PONT' instead of PM in the obverse legend come very early in the reign. Historically, PONT did not stand for Pontifex Maximus under Augustus, but did so under Nero (PONT was used after Nero was already Pontifex Maximus, BMC 9). It is possible Domitian followed Nero's example and used PONT as an abbreviation for Pontifex Maximus. Conversely, it is also possible he followed in Augustus' footsteps and used the temporary title 'PONT' until the ceremony electing him to the position was completed. We simply do not know. The records of the Arval brothers do not show Domitian as Pontifex Maximus by 30 October, so presumably he acquired the title in either November or December. The office seems to have had no fixed date of appointment. Knowing how much of a stickler Domitian was to keeping to the proper forms, the mint likely waited until his election as Pontifex Maximus before the title was displayed on the coinage. Whether or not that title on the coinage after the election was abbreviated as 'PONT' for a brief time is a mystery.

Struck in fine early style with a well centred obverse.
6 commentsDavid Atherton
D68.JPG
Domitian RIC 68110 viewsAR Denarius, 3.08g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: TR P COS VII DES VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt
RIC 68 (R2). BMC -. RSC -. BNC -.

The early pulvinar denarii struck by Domitian tell the story of an emperor who was awarded titles in stages. The "PONT" series were minted before Domitian obtained the full title Pontifex Maximus, presumably until the proper religious rites were completed. Most "PONT" denarii are listed as R2 or R3. Interestingly, this Group 4 denarius shares the same obverse die as my very rare Group 3 RIC 34 with the same reverse type but with a different legend, proof that the two groups were struck simultaneously. At this time the mint was divided up into different officinae based on reverse types. No obverses die matches are found with different reverse types.

A great early style portrait and finely toned.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
Nero_37.jpg
E79 viewsNero AE As

Attribution: RIC I 313, Rome
Date: AD 65
Obverse: NERO CAESAR AVG GERM IMP laureate head l.
Reverse: Victory advancing l. holding shield with “ S P Q R” inscribed, S-C in fields
Size: 26 mm
Weight: 12.3 grams
(Bust of Nero: Museo Nazionale, Rome)

“He was about the average height, his body marked with spots and malodorous, his hair light blond…His health was good for though indulging in every kind of riotous excess, he was ill but three times in all during the fourteen years of his reign.” –Seutonius Life of Nero LI

Upon the death of Claudius in AD 54, 16 year-old Nero was accepted as the next emperor. At first, he pampered the senate, made financial promises to the praetorian guard, and generally appeared to be headed in the direction of the superior reign of the divine Augustus. Problems soon became evident upon the poisoning of Britannicus, Claudius’ son. The murder of Nero’s mother, Agrippina, in AD 59 was the single most notoriously sordid act of the emperor’s entire reign. Still, he was noted for numerous other disdainful exploits as well. Nero became infatuated with Poppaea, the wife of a close friend, Marcus Otho. He had Otho appointed governor of Lusitania and soon began an affair with Poppaea. His marriage to Octavia, of course, was a problem as well, so Nero had her exiled on the island of Pandateria in AD 62. There she was accused of adultery and subsequently killed not long after. Sadly, in AD 65, while throwing a temper tantrum, Nero kicked a pregnant Poppaea to death. He did remarry again, but eventually became lovers with the boy Sporus who resembled Poppaea.

“Rumour had it that he used to roam the streets after dark, visiting taverns with his friends, mugging people in the street, attacking women, and thieving from shops and stalls. He was also accused of abusing married women and freeborn boys.” – from Chronicle of the Roman Emperors by Chris Scarre (1995)

Nero’s reign is marked by a time of financial bleeding of the imperial coffers. His “projects” and excesses were so vast, that the emperor needed to find money wherever he could. One of his most heinous rampages saw him coercing wealthy citizens to will their possessions and fortunes to him prior to forcing them to commit suicide. The Great Fire of AD 64, which started in the neighborhood of the Circus Maximus and spread rapidly to 10 of Rome’s 14 regions, brought the emperor’s popularity further down as tensions reached the boiling point. This is partially due to the fact that he diverted the blame for the fire in the direction of an emerging religious “cult”, the Christians (who were persecuted unmercifully). It is said that he even tied some Christians to posts and had them tarred and lit to illuminate his parties in the royal gardens. Later several conspiracies were unraveled and quelled, but in the end, Nero pushed his luck too far. The revolts of Vindex, Rufus, and Galba were the beginning of the end for the emperor. He was abandoned by his guards and found himself alone at the palace. One of his freedmen, Phaon, led him out of the city to a villa. There Nero committed suicide by stabbing himself in the neck (although his private secretary Epaphroditus finished the job). His last words were, “What an artist the world is losing!” He died in AD 68 at age 30.
4 commentsNoah
EB0564_scaled.JPG
EB0564 Maximus Caesar / Kilikarch Crown12 viewsMaximus Caesar, AE 33 of Tarsus, Cilicia, 235-238 AD.
Obv: Γ IOY OYH MAXIMOC KAIC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: THC MHTRO TARCOV around, EΠA RΞIK ΩN in three lines inside, Kilikarch (or Cilicarch) Crown decorated with 6 imperial heads topped by Nike standing left with wreath.
References: BMC 19 S208,238(1); SNG FRANCE 2 1615(1).
Diameter: 33mm, Weight: 14.816 grams.

"The Cilicarch (note spelling with added C, since it derives from "Cilicia") is the High Priest of Cilicia.
His most important function was as chief priest of the provincial temple or temples of the emperors.
The busts on his crown, which vary considerably from depiction to depiction, are those of the emperors and empresses who were honored in those provincial temples." - Curtis Clay in forumancientcoins.com discussion.
EB
Lg3_quart_sm.jpg
FAVSTINA AVGVSTA / AVGVSTI PII FIL / Ӕ As or Dupontius (156-161 A.D.)20 viewsFAVSTINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right, hair arranged in a chignon (bun) behind the head / AVGVSTI PII FIL, Venus standing left holding Victory and leaning on shield set on a helmet, S-C across fields in the lower half

Ӕ, 22.5-24+mm, 9.56g, die axis 11h

There may be a countermark across the front part of the face on obverse, but due to its location it is difficult to be sure and identify it.

AVGVSTI PII FIL(ia) = daughter of August Antoninus Pius, points out to the ruling of Fausta's father Antoninus Pius rather than her husband Marcus Aurelius. Reverse: Unlike Greek Aphrodite, in addition to her other aspects Roman Venus was also a goddess of victory, this embodied in her representation as Venus Victrix (Victorious) or Victris (of Victory), like in this case: she offers a little winged representation of victory, resting on defensive military attributes (as a female goddess, she represented passive, defensive aspects of war, active ones being the domain of male Mars). SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious).

Of two Ӕ coins with the same legends and Venus with shield, RIC 1367 and 1389a, the first is a sestertius and its typical dimensions are characteristic of the type: 30+ mm and 20+g. This one is definitely smaller. Material seems reddish, so this one is more likely an as. Minted in Rome. Some sources give issue dates as 156-161 (the end of Faustina's father's reign), others as 145-146 (her marriage).

Annia Galeria Faustina Minor (Minor is Latin for the Younger), Faustina Minor or Faustina the Younger (born probably 21 September c. 130 CE, died in winter of 175 or spring of 176 CE) was a daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius and Roman Empress Faustina the Elder. She was a Roman Empress and wife to her maternal cousin Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius. She was held in high esteem by soldiers and her own husband and was given divine honours after her death. Faustina, named after her mother, was her parents' fourth and youngest child and their second daughter; she was also their only child to survive to adulthood. She was born and raised in Rome. Her great uncle, the emperor Hadrian, had arranged with her father for Faustina to marry Lucius Verus. On 25 February 138, she and Verus were betrothed. Verus’ father was Hadrian’s first adopted son and his intended heir; however, when Verus’ father died, Hadrian chose Faustina’s father to be his second adopted son, and eventually, successor. Faustina’s father ended the engagement between his daughter and Verus and arranged for Faustina's betrothal to her maternal cousin, Marcus Aurelius; Aurelius was also adopted by her father.

In April or May 145, Faustina and Marcus Aurelius were married, as had been planned since 138. Since Aurelius was, by adoption, Antoninus Pius' son, under Roman law he was marrying his sister; Antoninus would have had to formally release one or the other from his paternal authority (his patria potestas) for the ceremony to take place. Little is specifically known of the ceremony, but it is said to have been "noteworthy". Coins were issued with the heads of the couple, and Antoninus, as Pontifex Maximus, would have officiated. Marcus makes no apparent reference to the marriage in his surviving letters, and only sparing references to Faustina. Faustina was given the title of Augusta on 1 December 147 after the birth of her first child, Galeria Faustina (or Domitia? sources differ which of them was born in 147 and was the first child).

When Antoninus died on 7 March 161, Marcus and Lucius Verus ascended to the throne and became co-rulers. Faustina then became empress. Unfortunately, not much has survived from the Roman sources regarding Faustina's life, but what is available does not give a good report. Cassius Dio and the Augustan History accuse Faustina of ordering deaths by poison and execution; she has also been accused of instigating the revolt of Avidius Cassius against her husband. The Augustan History mentions adultery with sailors, gladiators, and men of rank; however, Faustina and Aurelius seem to have been very close and mutually devoted.

Faustina accompanied her husband on various military campaigns and enjoyed the love and reverence of Roman soldiers. Aurelius gave her the title of Mater Castrorum or ‘Mother of the Camp’. She attempted to make her home out of an army camp. Between 170–175, she was in the north, and in 175, she accompanied Aurelius to the east.

That same year, 175, Aurelius's general Avidius Cassius was proclaimed Roman emperor after the erroneous news of Marcus's death; the sources indicate Cassius was encouraged by Marcus's wife Faustina, who was concerned about her husband's failing health, believing him to be on the verge of death, and felt the need for Cassius to act as a protector in this event, since her son Commodus, aged 13, was still young. She also wanted someone who would act as a counterweight to the claims of Tiberius Claudius Pompeianus, who was in a strong position to take the office of Princeps in the event of Marcus’s death. The evidence, including Marcus's own Meditations, supports the idea that Marcus was indeed quite ill, but by the time Marcus recovered, Cassius was already fully acclaimed by the Egyptian legions of II Traiana Fortis and XXII Deiotariana. "After a dream of empire lasting three months and six days", Cassius was murdered by a centurion; his head was sent to Marcus Aurelius, who refused to see it and ordered it buried. Egypt recognized Marcus as emperor again by 28 July 175.

Faustina died in the winter of 175, after a somewhat suspicious accident, at the military camp in Halala (a city in the Taurus Mountains in Cappadocia). Aurelius grieved much for his wife and buried her in the Mausoleum of Hadrian in Rome. She was deified: her statue was placed in the Temple of Venus in Rome and a temple was dedicated to her in her honor. Halala’s name was changed to Faustinopolis and Aurelius opened charity schools for orphan girls called Puellae Faustinianae or 'Girls of Faustina'. The Baths of Faustina in Miletus are named after her.

In their thirty years of marriage, Faustina bore Marcus Aurelius thirteen children, of whom 6 reached adulthood and were significant in history. The best known are emperor Commodus and the closest to him sister Lucilla (both depicted in a very historically inaccurate movie "Gladiator" and, together with their parents, in a much more accurate 1st season "Reign of Blood" of the TV series "Roman Empire").
Yurii P
Flavius_Victor_(usurper_384-388)_follis_(AE4).png
Flavius Victor (usurper 384-388) follis (AE4)16 viewsObv.: DN FL VICTOR PF AVG (Draped and cuirassed bust of emperor with labarum) Rev.: SPES ROMANORVM (Turreted campgate, star between turrets) Exergue: S(MAQ?) Diameter: 13.5 mm Weight: 1,06 g RIC 55b

The son of Magnus Maximus, near to nothing is known about Flavius Victor. He seems to have been elevated only nominally.
Nick.vdw
flavius_victor_aquileia_55(b).jpg
Flavius Victor, RIC IX, Aquileia 55(b)25 viewsFlavius Victor, 387-388, son of Magnus Maximus
AE 4, 0.9g, 13mm
Aquileia, 1st officina
obv. DN FL VIC - TOR PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademd, r.
rev. SPES RO - MA - NORVM
City gate with 2 towers, star between, open door
in wx. SMAQP
ref. RIC IX, Aquileia 55(b); C. 3
Scarce, VF

In spite of his depiction Flavius Victor was 4-5 years old when his coins were struck.
Jochen
Julius_Caesar.jpg
Gaius Julius Caesar212 viewsFebruary-March 44 BC. AR Denarius (19mm, 3.90 g, 5h). Rome mint. P. Sepullius Macer, moneyer. Laureate and veiled head right / Venus standing left, holding Victory and scepter; shield at base of scepter. Crawford 480/13; CRI 107d; Sydenham 1074; RSC 39. From the Jörg Müller Collection.

Alföldi arranges Crawford 480 series coins in (44 BC) month order as follows:

RRC 480/1, Buca - January
RRC 480/2, DICT QVART - early February
RRC 480/3/4/5, CAESAR IMP - late February
RRC 480/6/7/8/9/10/11/12/13/14, DICT PERPETVO - early to mid March
RRC 480/17/18, CAESAR IMPER - late March
RRC 480/19/20, PARENS PATRIAE - April
RRC 480/15/16, MARIDIANVS - April
RRC 480/21/22, CLEMENTIAE CAESARIS and Mark Antony - April

"Iconography, historical meaning:

The rev. can be understand easily: The Iulians ascribed their gens back to Aeneas who was the son of Venus (Aphrodite) and Anchises.Venus was the tutelary goddess of the gens Iulia and hence of Caesar. 46 BC Caesar has consecrated together with his new built forum also the temple of Venus Genetrix, the ancestress of his gens. On this denarius with Victory, spear and shield it is rather Venus Victrix.

The portrait on obv. is imposing by its realistic depiction. It was for the first time that a living ruler was pictured on a Roman coin. This too raised suspicion that Caesar - even if he wasn't acclaimed king - would behave as such.

Caesar's portrait attracts attention by the wreath he is wearing. It protrudes notable wide beyond his forehead. Furthermore it is padded and very ragged. This characteristic received too little attention until now. There is every indication that it is not a usual wreath but a corona graminea, a Grass or Blockade crown. This crown was dedicated by the army to that commander who has freed them from an encirclement and saved them from certain death. The crown was composed from flowers and tuft of grass which was plucked at the location of their liberation. This crown was regarded as the highest of all crowns! Pliny (nat. 22, 6) has known only of 8 persons with this honour:
1. Lucius Siccius Dentatus, tribunus plebis 454 BC
2. Publius Decius Mus, 343 BC, 1st Samnite War, dedicated even by 2 armies!
3. Marcus Calpurnius Flamma, 258 BC, at Carmina on Sicily
4. Quintus Fabius Maximus, after the departure of the Carthaginians from Italy, 203 BC
(dedicated by the Senate and the people of Rome, possibly posthumous)
5. Scipio Aemilianus Africanus
6. Gnaeus Petreius Atinas, centurio during the war against the Cimbri
7. Lucius Cornelius Sulla, during the Allied War at Nola 89 BC
8. Quintus Sertorius, 97 BC aa military tribune in Spain under Titu Ddius.
To Caesar and Augustus the crown was dedicated by the Senate!

The veil Caesar is wearing as Pontifex Maximus for lifetime.

DICTATOR PERPETVVS

During Republican times a dictator was designated when the state was in an emergency situation. His position was always temporally limited, yes, sometimes designated only for a single task. In the beginning Caesar too was dictator limited to 1 year and had to be designated again for the next year. Already 46 BC Caesar has been nominated dictator for 10 years but the title had to be renewed each year. So we know of coins with DICT, DICT ITER (= again, for the second time), IC TER (for the third time) and DICT QVART.

Since the proclamation as king has failed the title dictator disappeared from the denarii and were replaced by IMP. But soon behind Caesar's head appeares a star, a crescent, or Victory's spear stands on a star. These celestial signs - and that was understod by all - stand for divinity and should raise Caesar high above all Romans. Incompatible with the idea of a republican constituted Rome.

The point of culmination in this series is the legend DICT PERPETVO of this coin. Now the title of dictator was no more temporally limited but was valid like his office as Pontifex Maximus for all his life and it no more was necessary to confirm the title each year. That actually was a spectacular violation of the Roman constitution! The fact that he appeared at the Lupercalia on February 15. 44 BC in the ancient robe of kings strengthened the suspicion that he was looking for the kingship. In fact he has publicly
refused the royal crown that was offered to him by Marcus Antonius, but his authority to exert power was equal a king even without bearing the title of king. That was the most hateful title of the Roman Republic.

Now he has passed a line that his republican enimies couldn't tolerate any more if they still wanted to be taken seriously. So this coin actually led to his murder by the conspirators. So "The coin that kills Caesar" is by no means an exaggeration.

The planned Parthian War:

Caesar has planned a war against the Parthians. In March 44 BC he wanted to start for a campaign to the east. His assassination inhibited this intention. In science disputed are the goals which Caesar has had in mind with his war. They are reaching from a boundary adjustment, as Mommsen suggested, to world domination like Alexander the Great, as Plutarch is writing: According to him Caesar after the submission of the Parthians would go across Hyrcania at the Caspian Sea, then round the Black Sea via the Caucasus, invade the land of the Scyths, attack Germania and would finally return to Italy through the land of the Celts. In this way he would have conquered the world known to the Ancients and his limits were only the shores of the surrounding Okeanos.

Probably Sueton who was sitting directly at the sources was more realistic. And we know of the campaigns of Marcus Antonius and Augustus who surely have known Caesar's plans and have used them for their own purposes. It's clear that Caesar doesn't want to repeat the errors of Crassus who perished at Carrhae, and has tried to avoid he Parthian cavalry units. Therefore a route through Lesser Armenia is most probable. And there was hope that the Mesopotamian cities would raise against the Parthians. Caesar had gathered an army of 16(!) legions, a huge power that alone by its mere bigness would ensure the victory. Caesar was no gambler, rather a cautious and prudential commander.The famous "veni, vidi, vici" doesn't exist longer. What he actually had in mind we don't know. It's speculative. But there is every indication that it was a reorganisation of the east. And that rather by establishing client-kingdoms than creating new Roman provinces.

Probably the conspirators were afraid of Caesar's Parthian War, because a victory, which was possible or even probable, would have strengthen Caesar's position and has made him practically invulnerable." - Jochen
4 commentsNemonater
Geta_Sacrificial_Implements~0.JPG
Geta Sacrificial Implements14 viewsGeta as Caesar, Silver Denarius, Rome, 198 - 212 AD (struck 198 - 200 AD), 2g, 17.78mm
OBV: L SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES - Bareheaded bust right, draped
REV: SEVERI PII AVG FIL - Lituus, knife, jug, simpulum and sprinkler.
RIC Ivi, 3D(s), Cohen 188, SEAR RCV II (2002) 7201v
Silver Denarius "Behold the instruments of the Pontifex Maximus"

SCARCE
Romanorvm
GordII.jpg
Gordian II Africanus / Victory64 viewsGordian II Africanus. Silver Denarius, AD 238. Rome.
O: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian II right.
R: VICTO-RIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
- RIC 2; BMC 28; RSC 12.

Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus), was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. The double "GG" in "AVGG" (Augustus) on the reverse was to show that power was shared between the two men although Gordian II did not receive the additional title of high priest or Pontifex Maximus. He died in battle outside of Carthage.

Confronted by a local elite that had just killed Maximinus's procurator, Gordian's father (Gordian I) was forced to participate in a full-scale revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22.

Due to his advanced age, Gordian I insisted that his son, Marcus Antonius Gordianus (Gordian II), be associated with him. A few days later, Gordian entered the city of Carthage with the overwhelming support of the population and local political leaders. Meanwhile in Rome, Maximinus' praetorian prefect was assassinated and the rebellion seemed to be successful. Gordian in the meantime had sent an embassy to Rome, under the leadership of Publius Licinius Valerianus, to obtain the Senate’s support for his rebellion. The senate confirmed the new emperor on 2 April and many of the provinces gladly sided with Gordian.

Opposition would come from the neighboring province of Numidia. Capelianus, governor of Numidia, loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, and who held a grudge against Gordian, renewed his alliance to the former emperor and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationed in the region, III Augusta, and other veteran units. Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed, and Gordian I took his own life by hanging himself with his belt. The Gordians had reigned only twenty-two days.
3 commentsNemonater
63712q00.jpg
Hadrian38 viewsRoman Empire
Hadrian
(Reign as 14th Emperor of the Roman Empire 117-138AD)
(b. 76, d. 138AD)

Obverse: IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III, Laureate bust of Hadrian facing right

Reverse: RELIQVA VETERA HS. NOVIES MILL. ABOLITA, Lictor standing facing left, fasces in left hand, lighting a heap of bonds with a torch in his right, three citizens facing him

Orichalcum Sestertius

Minted in Rome 119-121 AD


This design commemorated Hadrian's forgiveness of debts early in his reign. He canceled the arrears of taxes due by individuals from Rome, Italy, and the provinces, for a total of 900 million sestertii and over a period of 16 years. The ceremony took place on the forum where a monument was erected to commemorate the event.



Translations:

IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III=Imperator(Commander-in-Chief) Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus, Pontifex Maximus(Greatest Priest,) Tribune of the Plebs, Consul for the 3rd time
RELIQVA VETERA HS. NOVIES MILL. ABOLITA=nine times a hundred thousand sestertii of outstanding debts cancelled

The legend RELIQVA VETERA HS NOVIES MILL ABOLITA literally translates to “old receipts in the amount of nine times a hundred thousand sestertii cancelled." The HS is a standard abbreviation for sestertii and, depending upon its context, it can mean a single sestertius, a unit of one thousand sestertii, or a unit of one hundred thousand sestertii. Novies means "nine times" and applies to the sestertius as a unit of one thousand sestertii. Considering the monumental inscription, the HS in the legend of this sestertius should be interpreted with the thousand, or mille, understood. Thus, the figure should be increased to 900 million sestertii, equaling the sum named on Hadrian’s monumental inscription.


Orichalcum=Brass

Reference: RIC 592a
1 commentsSphinx357
RIC_Hadrian_SRCV_-_PM_genius.jpg
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) (117-138 A.D.)5 viewsSRCV ---, RIC II 88-90, Van Meter 46/5.
AR Denarius, 2.86 g., 18.94 mm. max., 0°
Rome mint, 119-122 A.D.
Obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev: P M TR P C-OS III (=Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia Potestas/High priest and holder of Tribunitian power), Genius standing facing, head left, sacrificing from patera in right over lit and garlanded altar, two stalks of grain in left.

RIC rarity __, Van Meter VB2.
Stkp
RIC_Hadrian_SRCV_3250_PM____aequitas.jpg
Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus) (117-138 A.D.)5 viewsSRCV 3250, RIC II 80, Van Meter 46/11.

AR Denarius, 3.10 g., 18.0 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, 119-122 A.D.

Obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder.

Rev: P M TR P C-OS III (=Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia Potestas/High priest and holder of Tribunitian power), Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB2.
Stkp
Hadrian11.jpg
HADRIAN AR Denarius RIC II 141, Pietas36 viewsOBVERSE: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG, laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder
REVERSE: VOT (left), PVB (right), “public vows,” in the field. PM TR P COS III, “Pontifex Maximus, endowed with tribunician power, Consul for the third time, Pietas standing, hands extended before her
3.46g. 17mm
Struck at Rome, 121 AD
1 commentsLegatus
Portus_Claaudii-2.jpg
HARBOUR, NERO, AE Sestertius (Portus Claudii)141 viewsÆ sestertius (22.54g, maximum Ø34.24mm, 6h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG P MAX TR P P P, laureate head of Nero right, globe below tip of bust.
Rev.: PORT AVG (below) S C (above), aerial view of the harbour of Ostia, showing pier, breakwaters, lighthouse surmounted by the statue of Neptune, seven ships, and the figure of Tiber reclining left in foreground, holding rudder and dolphin.
Mac Dowall (The western Coinages of Nero, ANS SSN 161) 476; RIC 586 (R2); BMCRE 323 var. (different obv. legend); Cohen 253 var. (emperor's head to left); CBN 74 var. (different obv. legend); Sear (RCV) 1953var.

Rome's original harbour was Ostia, situated at the mouth of the Tiber. It could not easily handle large sea-going vessels such as those of the grain fleet. Therefore, Claudius initiated the construction of a new all-weather harboru at Portus, about 4 km north of Ostia. The project was completed under Nero who renamed the harbour "Portus Augusti".

It was a huge project enclosing an area of 69 hectares, with two long curving moles projecting into the sea, and an artificial island, bearing a lighthouse, in the centre of the space between the moles. The foundation of this lighthouse was provided by filling with concrete and sinking one of the massive ships that Caligula had used to transport an obelisk from Egypt for the Circus Maximus. These giant ships had a length of around 100m and displaced a minimum of 7400 tons. The harbour opened directly to the sea on the northwest and communicated with the Tiber by a channel on the southeast. However, it was very exposed to the weather and under Trajan was superseded by a new land-locked inner basin linked to the Tiber by a canal.
3 commentsCharles S
lg1_quart_sm.jpg
IMP•CAESAR•DIVI•F•AVGVSTVS•IMP•XX / •PONTIF•MAXIM•TRIBVN•POT•XXXIIII / Ӕ As (10-12 A.D.)12 viewsIMP • CAESAR • DIVI • F • AVGVSTVS • IMP • XX, bare head left / • PONTIF • MAXIM • TRIBVN • POT • XXXIIII, huge letters S•C, no field or mint marks.

Ӕ, 26-27mm, 5.77g, die axis 5h (slightly turned coin alignment), material: supposed to be pure red copper.

IMPerator (originally meant "supreme commander", Augustus started to use it as a title)
CAESAR (Augustus adopted the last name from Julius, this is not a title yet)
DIVI Filius (Son of the divine [Julius], Augustus was thus named, having been adopted by Caesar as his son) AVGVSTVS (following his defeat of Mark Antony and Cleopatra in 31 BC Senate granted Octavian this new name, meaning "majestic")
IMPerator XX (Vicesimum) (i. e. "invested with the twentieth imperial acclaim", second 'imperator' means his military title, a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed) PONTIFex MAXIMus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion)
TRIBVNitia POTestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins)
XXXIIII (Augustus got his tribunal power for life in 23 BC, during the Second Settlement with the Senate, so the 34th tribunal year of Augustus gives us 11 AD as the year of issue of the coin, ±1 since the coin could have been minted slightly before or after, and there is alos some uncertainty about when exactly the tribunal year number was increased by)
SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious)
As or assarius – the lowest-valued Roman coin (in times of Augustus minted of pure red copper).

The size and weight of the coin, large SC and the bare head of the emperor (who actually looks really like a typical official portrait of Augustus) all point towards an early imperial as. Unfortunately due to a very poor condition of the coin all that can be reliably gathered from the legends: IMP… left of the neck, …(DI)VI… top of the head on obverse and …XII… 10-11 o'clock on reverse, perhaps also …PONTI… at 2 o'clock and a few other letters, that get increasingly unreliable. Fortunately to my knowledge this excludes all of the coins except just one as of Augustus: RIC 471, Cohen 226, BMC 275, minted in Rome, with the legends as given above and very common. The closest other coin fitting the general outlook is Ӕ as of Tiberius (RIC 44, Cohen 25, BMC 91), but for it the obverse legend starts with TI and DIVI never gets close to 12 o'clock. And the face of Tiberius typically looks noticeably different.

Still, I will be very grateful if anybody looking at this coin points out any other possibilities for identification.

No biographical info here, since Augustus (reign 27 BC - 14 AD) is too well known.
Yurii P
Beit_She__an_Tel___Silvanus_Street.jpg
Israel, Scythopolis (Beit She'an)99 viewsScythopolis is the only one of the ten ‘Decapolis’ towns situated within the borders of modern Israel. The classical city was destroyed by an earthquake in 749 CE; its ruins are extensive and quite well-preserved. Prominent in the photo is the colonnaded Byzantine ‘Silvanus Street’ (the excavators named it after a local magistrate mentioned in an inscription as responsible for its renewal) which follows the route of the earlier Roman cardo maximus.

Sythopolis was built in the shadow of the earlier Canaanite city of Beit She’an, where (according to 1 Samuel 31) the Philistines, after their victory on Mount Gilboa, displayed the bodies of King Saul and his sons on the city walls. The vast mound of Tel Beit She’an is conspicuous in the background. Twenty settlement strata have been identified there, the earliest dating back to the Neolithic (5th millennium BCE). A section of the eastern Canaanite city walls has also been excavated and is visible in the photo.
Abu Galyon
IMG_1721wp.jpg
Italy, Rome, Circus Maximus183 views600m x 200m
+- 320000 spectators
last race in 549 AD
Johny SYSEL
Italy- Rome -circusmaximus model.jpg
Italy- Rome -circusmaximus model58 viewsA circus designates a circle or course for chariot racing. Aside from the Circus Maximus, the largest and oldest, there were three other circuses in Rome: the Circus Flaminius (221 BC), which actually was not a circus at all but a public square; the Circus Gaii et Neronis (circa AD 40), where many of the Christian martyrdoms occurred and on which St. Peter's basilica was built (the obelisk brought to Rome by Caligula to adorn its spina still stands in the square); and the Circus Maxentius (AD 309), built as part of his villa on the Via Appia and the best preserved.

In this view, the starting gates are in the foreground, with the royal box dominating the viewing standing on the left" or "and the royal box dominating the viewing stands on the left. The palace overlooks the Circus from the Palatine Hill.

The Circus Maximus was another public entertainment center, and was just a single, specific facility in Rome. The Maximus was used mostly for chariot racing. It could seat 250,000 people! There were other circuses in ancient Rome.

This oval basin, nearly 600 meters long, is almost entirely filled in with dirt. It was once a race track. It was made in the time of the Etruscan kings (presumably Tarquinio Prisco). Augustus adorned the brick structure with an imperial stage, which was rebuilt by Trajan, enlarged by Caracalla and restored by Constantine. During the reign of Constantine, the Circus could hold more than 200,000 spectators. Today only the outline remains (the area it occupied is now a public garden).


The most popular events were the chariot races held in the Circus Maximus, an arena that held up to 300,000 spectators. Competing teams with brightly decorated horses attracted fierce loyalty, and up to a dozen four-horse chariots crowded together through the dangerous turns, lap after lap. Successful charioteers became so wealthy that even emperors envied their riches.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Circus Maximo seen from outside 1.jpg
Italy- Rome- Circus Maximo seen from outside 134 viewsCircus Maximus
The Circus Maximus is an ancient arena and mass entertainment venue located in Rome, Italy.

Situated in the valley between the Aventine and Palatine hills the location was first utilised for public games and entertainment by the Etruscan kings of Rome. Certainly, the first games of the Ludi Romani (Roman Games) were staged on the location by Tarquinius Priscus, the first Etruscan ruler of Rome. Somewhat later, the Circus was the site of public games and festivals influenced by the Greeks in the 2nd century BC. Meeting the demands of the Roman citizenry for mass public entertainment on a lavish scale, Julius Caesar expanded the Circus around 50 BC, after which the track measured approximately 600 metres in length, 225 metres in breadth and could accommodate an estimated 150,000 seated spectators (many more, perhaps an equal number again, could view the games by standing, crowding and lining the adjoining hills). Later, Titus Flavius built the Arch of Titus above the closed end, on the Forum Romanum, while the emperor Domitian connected his new palace on the Palatine to the Circus in order that he could more easily view the races. The emperor Trajan later added another 5000 seats and expanded the emperor's seating in order to increase his public visibility during the games.

The most important event at the Circus was chariot racing. The track could hold 12 chariots, and the two sides of the track were separated by a raised median termed the spina. Statues of various gods were set up on the spina, and Augustus erected an Egyptian obelisk on it as well. At either end of the spina was a turning post, the meta, around which chariots made dangerous turns at speed. One end of the track extended further back than the other, to allow the chariots to line up to begin the race. Here there were starting gates, or carceres, which staggered the chariots so that each travelled the same distance to the first turn.

Very little now remains of the Circus, except for the now grass-covered racing track and the spina. Some of the starting gates remain, but most of the seating has disappeared, the materials no doubt employed for building other structures in medieval Rome. This obelisk was removed in the 16th century by Pope Sixtus V and placed in the Piazza del Popolo. Excavation of the site began in the 19th century, followed by a partial restoration, but there are yet to be any truly comprehensive excavations conducted within its grounds.

The Circus Maximus retained the honour of being the first and largest circus in Rome, but it was not the only example: other Roman circuses included the Circus Flaminius (in which the Ludi Plebeii were held) and the Circus of Maxentius.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum constructed by Flavius and seen from outside~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum constructed by Flavius and seen from outside53 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside48 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside 1~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Coliseum seen from outside 145 viewsColosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre (lat. Amphitheatrum Flavium), is an amphitheatre in Rome, capable of seating 50,000 spectators, which was once used for gladiatorial combat. It was built by Emperor Vespasian and his son, Titus, between AD 72 and AD 90. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea. The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero which once stood nearby.

Construction
The construction of the Colosseum began under the Emperor Vespasian in AD 72 and was completed by his son, Titus, in the 80s AD. It was built at the site of Nero's enormous palace, the Domus Aurea, which had been built after the great fire of Rome in AD 64. Some historians are of the opinion that the construction of the Colosseum might have been financed by the looting of King Herod the Great's Temple in Jerusalem which occurred about AD 70. Dio Cassius said that 9,000 wild animals were killed in the one hundred days of celebration which inaugurated the amphitheatre opening. The arena floor was covered with sand to sop up the blood.

The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals (venationes), the killing of prisoners by animals and other executions (noxii), naval battles (naumachiae, via flooding the arena), and combats between gladiators (munera). It has been estimated that between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people died in the Colosseum games.

History of the name Colosseum
The Colosseum's name is derived from a colossus (a 130-foot or 40-metre statue) of Nero nearby. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Sol, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. The link to Nero's colossus seems to have been forgotten over time, and the name was corrupted to Coliseum in the Middle Ages. Both names are frequently used in modern English, but "Flavian Amphitheatre" is generally unknown. In Italy, it is still known as il colosseo, but other Romance languages have gone for forms such as le colisée and el coliseo.

Description
The Colosseum measured 48 metres high, 188 metres long, and 156 metres wide. The wooden arena floor was 86 metres by 54 metres, and covered by sand. Its elliptical shape kept the players from retreating to a corner, and allowed the spectators to be closer to the action than a circle would allow.

The Colosseum was ingeniously designed. It has been said that most spectacle venues (stadiums, and similar) have been influenced by features of the Colosseum's structure, even well into modern times. Seating (cavea) was divided into different sections. The podium, the first level of seating, was for the Roman senators, and the emperor's private, cushioned, marble box was also located on this level. Above the podium was the maenianum primum, for the other Roman aristocrats who were not in the senate. The third level, the maenianum secundum, was divided into three sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. A third, wooden section (the maenianum secundum in legneis) was a wooden structure at the very top of the building, added by Domitian. It was standing room only, and was for lower class women.

Underneath the arena was the hypogeum (literally, "underground"), a network of tunnels and cages where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. There were also numerous trap doors in the arena floor for the various animals hidden underneath. The arena floor no longer exists, and the hypogeum walls and corridors are clearly visible in the ruins of the building. The entire base of the Colosseum was equivalent to 6 acres (160,000 m²).

A most ingenious part of the Colosseum was its cooling system. It was roofed using a canvas covered net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center. This roof sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors manipulated the ropes. The Colosseum also had vomitoria - passageways that open into a tier of seats from below or behind. The vomitoria of the Colosseum in Rome were designed so that the immense venue could fill in 15 minutes, and be evacuated in 5 minutes. Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. There were 80 entrances at ground level, 76 for ordinary spectators, two for the imperial family, and two for the gladiators. The vomitoria quickly dispersed people into their seats and upon conclusion of the event disgorged them with abruptness into the surrounding streets - giving rise, presumably, to the name.

Later history
The Colosseum was in continuous use until 217, when it was damaged by fire after it was struck by lightning. It was restored in 238 and gladiatorial games continued until Christianity gradually put an end to those parts of them which included the death of humans. The building was used for various purposes, mostly venationes (animal hunts), until 524. Two earthquakes (in 442 and 508) caused a great damage to the structure. In the Middle Ages, it was severely damaged by further earthquakes (847 and 1349), and was then converted into a fortress. The marble that originally covered it was burned to make quicklime. During the Renaissance, but mostly in the Baroque age, the ruling Roman families (from which many popes came) used it as a source of marble for the construction of St. Peter's Basilica and the private Palazzi. A famous description is in the saying Quod non fecerunt Barbari, fecerunt Barberini; what the Barbarians weren't able to do, was done by the Barberinis (one such family).

The Venerable Bede (c. 672-735) wrote

Quandiu stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; (As long as the Colosseum stands, so shall Rome)
Quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma (When the Colosseum falls, so shall Rome)
Quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus. (When Rome falls, so shall the world)
Note that he used coliseus, i.e. he made the name a masculine noun. This form is no longer in use.

In 1749, as a very early example of historic preservation, Pope Benedict XIV forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry. He consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who were thought to have perished there. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects. Every Good Friday the pope leads a procession within the ellipse in memory of Christian martyrs. However, there is no historical evidence that Christians were tortured and killed in the Colosseum [2]. It is presumed that the majority of Christian martyrdom in Rome took place at the Circus Maximus.

In recent years, the local authorities of Rome have illuminated the Colosseum all night long whenever someone condemned to the death penalty gets commuted or released.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- Forum Romanum and Palatino34 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great71 viewsArch of Constantine
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312 AD. Dedicated in 315 AD, it is the latest of the extant triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

General Description
The arch is 21 m high, 25.7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. The lower part of the monument is built of marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork revetted with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum. It has been suggested that the lower part of the arch is re-used from an older monument, probably from the times of the emperor Hadrian (Conforto et al., 2001; for a defence of the view that the whole arch was constructed in the 4th century, see Pensabene & Panella). The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill; immediately after the Arch of Constantine, the procession would turn left and march along the Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and on to the Capitoline Hill, passing both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus. During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.

Decoration
The decoration of the arch heavily uses parts of older monuments, which are given a new meaning in the context of the Constantinian building. As it celebrates the victory of Constantine, the new "historic" friezes illustrating his campaign in Italy convey the central meaning: the praise of the emperor, both in battle and in his civilian duties. The other imagery supports this purpose: decoration taken from the "golden times" of the Empire under Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius places Constantine next to these "good emperors", and the content of the pieces evokes images of the victorious and pious ruler. Another explanation given for the re-use is the short time between the start of construction (late 312 at the earliest) and the dedication (summer 315), so the architects used existing artwork to make up for the lack of time to create new one. As yet another possible reason, it has often been suggested that the Romans of the 4th century lacked the artistic skill to produce acceptable artwork and therefore plundered the ancient buildings to adorn their contemporary monuments. This interpretation has become less prominent in more recent times, as the art of Late Antiquity has been appreciated in its own right. It is, of course, possible that a combination of two or all three of those explanations are correct, as they are not mutually exclusive.

Attic
Above the middle archway, the main inscription (see below) takes the most prominent place of the attic. It is identical on both sides of the arch. Flanking the inscription on both sides, there are pairs of relief panels above the minor archways, 8 in total. They were taken from an unknown monument erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius, and show (north side, left to right) the emperor's return to Rome after the campaign (adventus), the emperor leaving the city and saluted by a personification of the Via Flaminia, the emperor distributing money among the people (largitio), the emperor interrogating a German prisoner, (south side, left to right) a captured enemy chieftain led before the emperor, a similar scene with other prisoners, the emperor speaking to the troops (adlocutio), and the emperor sacrificing pig, sheep and bull. Together with three panels now in the Capitoline Museum, the reliefs were probably taken from a triumphal monument commemorating Marcus Aurelius' war against the Sarmatians from 169 - 175, which ended with his triumphant return in 176. On the largitio panel, the figure of Marcus Aurelius' son Commodus has been eradicated after the latter's damnatio memoriae. On top of each of the columns stand marble statues of Dacian prisoners from the times of Trajan, probably taken from the Forum of Trajan. From the same time date the two large (3 m high) panels decorating the attic on the small sides of the arch, showing scenes from the emperor's Dacian Wars. Together with the two reliefs on the inside of the central archway, they came from a large frieze celebrating the Dacian victory. The original place of this frieze was either the Forum of Trajan, as well, or the barracks of the emperor's horse guard on the Caelius.

Main Section
The general layout of the main facade is identical on both sides of the arch. It is divided by four columns of Corinthian order made of Numidian yellow marble (giallo antico), one of which has been transferred into the Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano and was replaced by a white marble column. The columns stand on bases showing victory figures on front, and captured barbarians and Roman soldiers on the sides. The spandrels of the main archway are decorated with reliefs depicting victory figures with trophies, those of the smaller archways show river gods. Column bases and spandrel reliefs are from the times of Constantine. Above each lateral archway are pairs of round reliefs dated to the times of emperor Hadrian. They display scenes of hunting and sacrificing: (north side, left to right) hunt of a boar, sacrifice to Apollo, hunt of a lion, sacrifice to Hercules, (south side, left to right) departure for the hunt, sacrifice to Silvanus, hunt of a bear, sacrifice to Diana. The head of the emperor (originally Hadrian) has been reworked in all medaillons: on the north side, into Constantine in the hunting scenes and into Licinius or Constantius I in the sacrifice scenes; on the south side, vice versa. The reliefs, c. 2 m in diameter, were framed in porphyry; this framing is only extant on the right side of the northern facade. Similar medaillons, this time of Constantinian origin, are placed on the small sides of the arch; on the eastern side, showing the Sun rising, and on the western side, the Moon, both on chariots. The main piece from the time of Constantine is the "historical" relief frieze running around the monument under the round panels, one strip above each lateral archway and at the small sides of the arch. These reliefs depict scenes from the Italian campaign of Constantine against Maxentius which was the reason for the construction of the monument. The frieze starts at the western side with the "Departure from Milan". It continues on the southern, "outward" looking face, with the siege of a city, probably Verona, which was of great importance to the war in Northern Italy; also on that face, the Battle of Milvian Bridge with Constantine's army victorious and the enemy drowning in the river Tiber. On the eastern side, Constantine and his army enter Rome; the artist here has avoided to use the imagery of the triumph, as Constantine probably did not want to be shown triumphant over the Eternal City. On the northern face, looking "towards" the city, two strips with the emperor's actions after taking possession of Rome: Constantine speaking to the citizens on the Forum Romanum, and distributing money to the people.

Inner Sides of the Archways
In the central archway, there is one of the large panels of Trajan's Dacian War on either wall. Inside the lateral archways, eight portraits busts (two on each wall), destroyed to such an extent that it is not possible to identify them any more.

Inscriptions
The main inscription reads:

IMP · CAES · FL · CONSTANTINO · MAXIMO · P · F · AVGUSTO · S · P · Q · R · QVOD · INSTINCTV · DIVINITATIS · MENTIS · MAGNITVDINE · CVM · EXERCITV · SVO · TAM · DE · TYRANNO · QVAM · DE · OMNI · EIVS · FACTIONE · VNO · TEMPORE · IVSTIS · REM-PUBLICAM · VLTVS · EST · ARMIS · ARCVM · TRIVMPHIS · INSIGNEM · DICAVIT

Which means in English:

To the Emperor Caesar Flavius Constantinus, the greatest, pious, and blessed Augustus: because he, inspired by the divine, and by the greatness of his mind, has delivered the state from the tyrant and all of his followers at the same time, with his army and just force of arms, the Senate and People of Rome have dedicated this arch, decorated with triumphs.

The words instinctu divinitatis ("inspired by the divine") have been much commented. They are usually read as sign of Constantine's shifting religious affiliation: The Christian tradition, most notably Lactantius and Eusebius of Caesarea, relate the story of a vision of the Christian god to Constantine during the campaign, and that he was victorious in the sign of the cross at the Milvian Bridge. The official documents (esp. coins) still prominently display the Sun God until 324 AD, while Constantine started to support the Christian church from 312 on. In this situation, the vague wording of the inscription can be seen as the attempt to please all possible readers, being deliberately ambiguous, and acceptable to both pagans and Christians. As was customary, the vanquished enemy is not mentioned by name, but only referred to as "the tyrant", drawing on the notion of the rightful killing of a tyrannical ruler; together with the image of the "just war", it serves as justification of Constantine's civil war against his co-emperor Maxentius.

Two short inscriptions on the inside of the central archway transport a similar message: Constantine came not as conqueror, but freed Rome from occupation:

LIBERATORI VRBIS (liberator of the city) - FUNDATORI QVIETIS (founder of peace)

Over each of the small archways, inscriptions read:

VOTIS X - VOTIS XX SIC X - SIC XX

They give a hint on the date of the arch: "Solemn vows for the 10th anniversary - for the 20th anniversary" and "as for the 10th, so for the 20th anniversary". Both refer to Constantine's decennalia, i.e. the 10th anniversary of his reign (counted from 306), which he celebrated in Rome in the summer of 315 AD. It can be assumed that the arch honouring his victory was inaugurated during his stay in the city.




John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Obelisk of Ramses II.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Obelisk of Ramses II31 viewsObeliscus Augusti in Circo Maximo: brought from Heliopolis by Augustus at the same time as the gnomon (v. supra). This is shown by the identical inscriptions on the bases of the two (CIL vi.701 = 702). It was dedicated to the Sun (Cassiod. Var. iii.51.8, wrongly says that it was dedicated to Luna), and erected on the spina of the circus Maximus (Strabo xvii.805; Amm. Marcell. xvii.4.12; Plin. NH xxxvi.71; Not. Brev.; Chron. 145). The hieroglyphics on the shaft were cut partly by Seti I and partly by Rameses II, 1292‑1325 ( Amm. Marcell. xvii.4.17‑23; BC 1896, 145‑173, 250‑259 = Ob. Eg. 51‑90). The height of the obelisk is 23.70 metres (cf. Plin. loc. cit.; Not. Brev.; Chron. 145; CIL i283 = AL 1552, 83; Jord. ii.187). Nothing is known of the history of the obelisk after the fourth century until the sixteenth, when fragments of the base and inscription were found during the pontificate of Gregory XIII (1572‑1585), and the obelisk itself, broken into three pieces, in 1587. It was then removed and erected on its present site, in the Piazza del Popolo John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Obelisk of Ramses II 1.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Obelisk of Ramses II 151 viewsObeliscus Augusti in Circo Maximo: brought from Heliopolis by Augustus at the same time as the gnomon (v. supra). This is shown by the identical inscriptions on the bases of the two (CIL vi.701 = 702). It was dedicated to the Sun (Cassiod. Var. iii.51.8, wrongly says that it was dedicated to Luna), and erected on the spina of the circus Maximus (Strabo xvii.805; Amm. Marcell. xvii.4.12; Plin. NH xxxvi.71; Not. Brev.; Chron. 145). The hieroglyphics on the shaft were cut partly by Seti I and partly by Rameses II, 1292‑1325 ( Amm. Marcell. xvii.4.17‑23; BC 1896, 145‑173, 250‑259 = Ob. Eg. 51‑90). The height of the obelisk is 23.70 metres (cf. Plin. loc. cit.; Not. Brev.; Chron. 145; CIL i283 = AL 1552, 83; Jord. ii.187). Nothing is known of the history of the obelisk after the fourth century until the sixteenth, when fragments of the base and inscription were found during the pontificate of Gregory XIII (1572‑1585), and the obelisk itself, broken into three pieces, in 1587. It was then removed and erected on its present site, in the Piazza del Popolo John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino27 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores~0.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores27 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the 3 columns of the temple of the Castores and view of the temple of Saturn51 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Palatino and view of the Forum Romanum24 viewsPalatine Hill
The Palatine Hill (Latin Palatium) is the centermost of the seven hills of Rome and is one of the most ancient parts of the city of Rome in Italy.

Legend tells us that Rome has its origins on the Palatine. Indeed, recent excavations show that people lived there since approximately 1000 BC. According to Roman mythology, the Palatine hill was where Romulus and Remus were found by the she-wolf that kept them alive. According to this legend, the shepherd Faustulus found the infants and, with his wife, Acca Larentia, raised the children. When they were older this is where Romulus decided to build Rome. (See Founding of Rome for a more detailed account of the myth.)

The emperors of Rome built their palaces on the Palatine. The ruins of the palaces of Caesar Augustus, Tiberius and Diocletianus are still to be seen. The term 'palace' itself stems from Palatium.

Palatine hill is some 70 meters high and looks down on one side upon the Forum Romanum and on the other side upon the Circus Maximus. The site is now a large open-air museum and can be visited during day time. The entrance can be found near the Arch of Titus on the Forum Romanum.

John Schou
Gerasa.JPG
Jordan, Jerash (Ancient Gerasa), The Oval Forum in Jerash, and the Cardo Maximus6 viewsThe Greco-Roman city of Gerasa, the Oval Forum in Jerash, and the Cardo Maximus, with modern Jerash in the background.

Ancient Greek inscriptions from the city support that the city was founded by Alexander the Great and his general Perdiccas, who allegedly settled aged Macedonian soldiers there during the spring of 331 BC, when he left Egypt and crossed Syria en route to Mesopotamia. However, other sources, namely the city's former name of "Antioch on the Chrysorrhoas, point to a founding by Seleucid King Antioch IV, while still others attribute the founding to Ptolemy II of Egypt.

After the Roman conquest in 63 BC, Jerash and the land surrounding it were annexed to the Roman province of Syria, and later joined the Decapolis league of cities. The historian Josephus mentions the city as being principally inhabited by Syrians, and also having a small Jewish community.[19] In AD 106, Jerash was absorbed into the Roman province of Arabia, which included the city of Philadelphia (modern day Amman). The Romans ensured security and peace in this area, which enabled its people to devote their efforts and time to economic development and encouraged civic building activity.[20]

Jerash is considered one of the largest and most well-preserved sites of Roman architecture in the world outside Italy. And is sometimes misleadingly referred to as the "Pompeii of the Middle East" or of Asia, referring to its size, extent of excavation and level of preservation.

Jerash was the birthplace of the mathematician Nicomachus of Gerasa (Greek: Νικόμαχος) (c. 60 – c. 120 AD).

In the second half of the 1st century AD, the city of Jerash achieved great prosperity. In AD 106, the Emperor Trajan constructed roads throughout the province, and more trade came to Jerash. The Emperor Hadrian visited Jerash in AD 129–130. The triumphal arch (or Arch of Hadrian) was built to celebrate his visit.

The city finally reached a size of about 800,000 square meters within its walls. The Persian invasion in AD 614 caused the rapid decline of Jerash. Beneath the foundations of a Byzantine church that was built in Jerash in AD 530 there was discovered a mosaic floor with ancient Greek and Hebrew-Aramaic inscriptions. The presence of the Hebrew-Aramaic script has led scholars to think that the place was formerly a synagogue, before being converted into a church.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerash

Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Place_ovale_de_Gerasa_new.JPG
Azurfrog, 2 November 2013
Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license.
Joe Sermarini
julianapostatastier.jpg
Julian II. Apostate, double maiorina63 viewsJulian II. Apostate,
Double maiorina, 361-363, HERACLA in ex., Heraclea, 1. Offizin, 8.52g, 30 mm.
Obv.: D N FL C L IVLIANVS P F AVG; bareheaded beardes bust right.
Rev.: SECVRITAS REI PVB; bull right, two stars above.
RIC 104; Sear 4072
good VF
nice black patina, some roughness in fields.

The bull on the reverse cannot be, as often assumed, the one of apis, as it is always depicted with the sun betwenn its horns and the crescent moon above. Probably the picture shows us Julians horoscope, but not as in Augustus' capricorn coins the horoscope of his birth, but his conception. The idea came probably from his religious advisor Maximus of Ephesus. It was interpreted as a fortunate sign for the upcoming war against the Persians. After his military debacle and his death Christian theologists and historians used this as an argument against fortune-telling and astrology.

1 commentshelcaraxe
syd1023.jpg
Julius Caesar43 viewsJulius Caesar
46 BC
Africa (perhaps Utica) or Spain
3.45 g
20 mm
--- COS TERT DICT ITER (Consul Tertius Dictator Iterum)
Head of Ceres, right.
--- AVGVR PONT MAX (Augurus Pontifex Maximus)
Simpulum, sprinkler, capis and lituus. Letter D.
Sydenham 1023 - Crawford 467/1a
1 commentsArgentoratum
Julius_caesar.jpg
Julius Caesar48 viewsJULIUS CAESAR DICTATOR AR silver denarius. Struck 49-48 BC. CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent. Reverse - Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat. RCV 1399, RSC 49.
This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil and/or Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus.


1 commentsSoxfan
JC_Elephant.jpg
Julius Caesar178 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius (19 mm, 3.66 g). Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat. - Crawford 443/1; CRI 9; Sydenham 1006; RSC 49.
Variant type recognized by B. Woytek, in cruder style and with the elephant's two front legs and two back legs virtually parallel with each other.

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar's military expenses, the mint traveled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar's military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

"It is the inscription CAESAR in the exergue that has led to the modern identification of the elephant as Caesar. But the exergue is the traditional place for the moneyer’s name and Caesar is separated from the field by the ground line. When Hirtius minted, he put his own name there. Presumably the Caesarian message remained the same with or without CAESAR inscribed on the coin. So whatever that message was, it had to be using symbols easily recognized by the people he was speaking to.

The main problem with a Good over Evil interpretation is that the snake was not a symbol of evil in the pagan Roman mind. As for the elephant, the most frequent use of the elephant on coinage had been by the Metelli. Of all the families of Rome they had done more to connect their name with the elephant image than any other family line. And Metellus Scipio himself even used the elephant again (without snake, of course) after Caesar minted his coin.

As others have pointed out, the other side of the coin with the implements of the pontifex maximus makes an unmistakable reference to Caesar with or without the name Caesar. But that also got me to thinking. Why did he want to advertise that position? Simply put, the main concern of the Roman state religion was the Salus of the state, hence it was Caesar’s chief concern as Pontifex Maximus. If the Metellan elephant was trampling on the Salus of the state, it was his duty as Pontifex Maximus to protect and restore Salus." - mharlan, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.0
4 commentsNemonater
JCaesarFatEle.jpg
Julius Caesar160 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius (18.07 mm, 3.87 g). Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Emblems of the pontificate - Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.
- Crawford 443/1; Sear (History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators) 9; Sydenham 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27; Cohen/RSC 49; Babelon (Voconia) 1; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values I) 1399.

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar's military expenses, the mint traveled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar's military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

"It is the inscription CAESAR in the exergue that has led to the modern identification of the elephant as Caesar. But the exergue is the traditional place for the moneyer’s name and Caesar is separated from the field by the ground line. When Hirtius minted, he put his own name there. Presumably the Caesarian message remained the same with or without CAESAR inscribed on the coin. So whatever that message was, it had to be using symbols easily recognized by the people he was speaking to.

The main problem with a Good over Evil interpretation is that the snake was not a symbol of evil in the pagan Roman mind. As for the elephant, the most frequent use of the elephant on coinage had been by the Metelli. Of all the families of Rome they had done more to connect their name with the elephant image than any other family line. And Metellus Scipio himself even used the elephant again (without snake, of course) after Caesar minted his coin.

As others have pointed out, the other side of the coin with the implements of the pontifex maximus makes an unmistakable reference to Caesar with or without the name Caesar. But that also got me to thinking. Why did he want to advertise that position? Simply put, the main concern of the Roman state religion was the Salus of the state, hence it was Caesar’s chief concern as Pontifex Maximus. If the Metellan elephant was trampling on the Salus of the state, it was his duty as Pontifex Maximus to protect and restore Salus." - mharlan, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.0
5 commentsNemonater
caes.jpg
Julius Caesar (Died 44 B.C.)194 viewsAR Denarius
O: CAESAR below elephant right trampling on snake.
R: Emblems of the pontificate – culullus (cup) or simpulum (ladle), sprinkler, axe and apex (priest's hat).
Military Mint, Traveling with Caesar 49 B.C.
3.96g
18.5mm
RSC I 49, SRCV I 1399, Sydenham 1006, Crawford 443/1

This was the first coin issued in Caesar's name. It was minted after his invasion of Italy and crossing of the Rubicon on 10 January 49 B.C. until his defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus. The symbolism on the obverse appears to be the triumph of good over evil. The reverse refers to Caesar's office of Pontifex Maximus.
8 commentsMat
Caesar_elephant.jpg
Julius Caesar - AR denarius11 viewsmoving mint (Cisalpine Gaul or Hispania)
I 49 - VIII 48 BC
elephant right, trampling on serpent
CAESAR
sacrificial implements - simpulum (laddle), sprinkler, axe, apex (priest's hat)
RSC I 49, SRCV I 1399, Sydenham 1006, Crawford 443/1
4,00g

According to Harlan this issue is Caesar's answer to the issue of Mn. Acilius Glabrio from 50 BC (incorrectly 49 according to Crawford) which presented Pompeyans as protectors of Salus of the Republic. Elephant as traditional symbol of Metteli family symbolizes Caesar's most vehement enemy in senate Quintus Caecilius Metellus Pius Scipio who in Caesar's view was the biggest threat for the Salus of the Repubic represented by snake. Caesar was careful to avoid blaming Pompey directly so he claimed that Pompey had been led astray and corrupted by Caesar’s enemies who were jealous of his glory, while he himself had always promoted Pompey’s honor and dignity. Caesar showed Rome that Metellus Scipio and his supporters were the true threat to the health and safety of the Republic, the true cause of the civil war. Sacrificial implements reminds Caesar as Pontifex Maximus.
Johny SYSEL
caesar denar.jpg
JULIUS CAESAR AR denarius - 49-48 BC51 viewsobv: CAESAR in exergue, elephant right, trampling on serpent
rev: Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.
ref: Cr443/1; Syd 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27, SRC 1399, RSC 49
Military mint travelling with Caesar.
3.62gms, 18.5mm
This is the first coin struck in the name of Julius Caesar. The symbolism on the obverse apparently alludes to the conquest of good over evil, Caesar's victory over the Gauls, while the reverse refers to Caesar's possession of the office of Pontifex Maximus.
berserker
JCElephantII.jpg
Julius Caesar Elephant Denarius62 viewsJulius Caesar. 49-48 BC. AR Denarius. Military mint traveling with Caesar.
O: Elephant right, trampling on serpent
R: Emblems of the pontificate - Simpulum, sprinkler, axe and priest's hat.
- Crawford 443/1; Sear (History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators) 9; Sydenham 1006; BMCRR (Gaul) 27; Cohen/RSC 49; Babelon (Voconia) 1; Sear (Roman Coins & Their Values I) 1399. Ex HJBerk 90th Buy or Bid Sale, 4/17/96, Lot 232, listed as Mint state.

Julius Caesar and his armies assembled on the banks of the Rubicon River on 10 January 49 BC, ready to invade Italy. Since large quantities of denarii were necessary to pay Caesar's military expenses, the mint traveled with them. This issue was ordered, not by a moneyer, as was usual, but by Julius Caesar himself. In all likelihood, this type was used by Caesar's military forces at least until the decisive battle of Pharsalus.

"It is the inscription CAESAR in the exergue that has led to the modern identification of the elephant as Caesar. But the exergue is the traditional place for the moneyer’s name and Caesar is separated from the field by the ground line. When Hirtius minted, he put his own name there. Presumably the Caesarian message remained the same with or without CAESAR inscribed on the coin. So whatever that message was, it had to be using symbols easily recognized by the people he was speaking to.

The main problem with a Good over Evil interpretation is that the snake was not a symbol of evil in the pagan Roman mind. As for the elephant, the most frequent use of the elephant on coinage had been by the Metelli. Of all the families of Rome they had done more to connect their name with the elephant image than any other family line. And Metellus Scipio himself even used the elephant again (without snake, of course) after Caesar minted his coin.

As others have pointed out, the other side of the coin with the implements of the pontifex maximus makes an unmistakable reference to Caesar with or without the name Caesar. But that also got me to thinking. Why did he want to advertise that position? Simply put, the main concern of the Roman state religion was the Salus of the state, hence it was Caesar’s chief concern as Pontifex Maximus. If the Metellan elephant was trampling on the Salus of the state, it was his duty as Pontifex Maximus to protect and restore Salus." - mharlan, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/board/index.php?topic=88757.0
2 commentsNemonater
den001_quad_sm.jpg
L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?] / P M TR P V COS II P P / Septimius Severus Fortuna denarius (197 AD) 18 viewsL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?], laureate head right / P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

AR (post 196 mint, so probably 54% purity), 17 mm, 3.48g, die axis 12h.

Both small flan and image style (bust, wreath, shape of the rudder etc.) point towards the mint of Rome rather than the Eastern one. A bit heavier than expected (the standard supposed to be 3.41g), but WildWinds reports a 3.63g denarius of this type. Unfortunately it is impossible to read the number after IMP (it can be either VIIII or X for TR P V), but based on the spacing and, perhaps, a hint of V I think it is VIIII. So this must be RIC IV 104, BMCRE 229, RSC 442 type. Two other, less probable ID possibilities: RIC 115A (Rome, IMP X) and RIC 493 (Eastern mint, Laodicea ad Mare(?) IMP VIIII).

Lucius SEPTimius SEVeverus PERTinax AVGustus IMPerator (in this case not just an imperial title, but a military one, "invested with the Nth imperial acclaim", a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed); Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins) V (5th year means 193+4=197, give or take the actual date of renewing the title), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II (during or after the consulship of 194 and before next one in 202), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but was usually not assumed at the very beginning of the reign). Denarius was the staple of Roman monetary system from 211 BC to mid 3d century AD.

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, *11 Apr 145 in Leptis Magna (Khoms, Libya) † 4 Feb 211 (aged 65) Eboracum (York, England) ‡ 14 April 193 – 4 February 211

Septimius Severus was born in the Roman province of Africa. He came from a wealthy and distinguished family of equestrian rank, had Roman ancestry on his mother's side (gens Fulvia was one of the most famous plebeian clans in Rome) and descended from Punic, and perhaps also Libyan, forebears on his father's side. Several members of his family held important imperial offices (although, strangely, not his father who seemed to have no career to speak about). He was trilingual, speaking Punic, Latin and Greek, and got some classical education, but probably less than he wanted to. At 17 he was helped by his influential relatives to relocate to Rome, to be presented to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and start his political career. With some difficulty he started to advance through the cursus honorum, holding a variety of offices. His career was helped by the Antonine Plague of 166, Septimius avoided it by returning to Leptis Magna for a while, and when he was back in Rome he found his competition conveniently thinned out. Despite him going through an impressive number of offices in a very short time there is very little record of his actual accomplishments in 170s and 180s.

In 191 Severus was appointed governor of Pannonia Superior (one of the provinces on Danube frontier) by Emperor Commodus (on advice from one of Septimius' friends). When the hell was unleashed by the assassination of Commodus on 31 December 192 and 193, , the infamous Year of the Five Emperors started, as a general in charge of significant army Severus was able to fight for the highest office. While he moved on Rome, Pertinax, the first Emperor of 193, was killed by the Praetorian Guard, and the next one, Didius Julianus, who famously bought the emperorship at an auction, was condemned by the Senate and executed, so Septimius entered Rome virtually unopposed. He then wisely appeased the powerful governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, who was also proclaimed the Emperor, by offering him the title of Caesar, which implied some degree of co-ruling and a chance to succession (Albinus did not give up that easy, reasserting his claim in three years, but then he was easily dealt with at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul). Afterwards he had to fight off the final pretender, Pescennius Niger, the former governor of Syria, who was proclaimed the Emperor by the eastern legions. Losing no time, Severus sent a considerable vanguard force to the East and, later, joined in with additional armies. In a series of battles in 193-195 Niger and his supporters were defeated. The last to surrender was Byzantium, which held even after the head of Niger was sent there. It is interesting to note that during this campaign Septimius visited the tomb of his famous fellow countryman, Hannibal Barca in Libyssa (Gebze, Turkey) and ordered to cover it with fine marble. Severus also took an opportunity to wage a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province.

After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. He then enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202 he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern desert frontier of the empire. In 208 he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In the same year he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210, dying in early 211 at Eboracum (York, England), and was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta, thus founding the Severan dynasty. It was the last dynasty of the Roman empire before the Crisis of the Third Century.

In the context of this coin it is interesting to note, that, due to huge military expenses, upon his accession Severus decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 81.5% to 78.5%, although the silver weight actually increased, rising from 2.40 grams to 2.46 grams. Nevertheless, the following year he debased the denarius again because of rising military expenditures. The silver purity decreased from 78.5% to 64.5% – the silver weight dropping from 2.46 grams to 1.98 grams. In 196 he reduced the purity and silver weight of the denarius again, to 54% and 1.82 grams respectively [corresponds to this issue]. Severus' currency debasement was the largest since the reign of Nero.
Yurii P
L__Porcius_Licinius.jpg
L. Porcius Licinus - AR serratus denarius6 viewsL. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus
³issue struck partly in Sardinia and partly in Gallia in two or three different mint locations
¹Narbo
²120-119 BC
¹118 BC
helmet head of Roma right
L·PORCI__LICI (XVI)
naked Gallic warrior riding in biga right, holding spear, reins, shield and carnyx
L·LIC·CN·DOM
¹Crawford 282/5, SRCV I 158, Sydenham 520, RSC I Porcia 8
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
³Mark Passehl
3,9g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

Narbo, the first colony in Gaul, was founded 118-117 BC. L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus were officials charged with founding colony (duoviri coloniae deducendae). L. Porcius Licinus was one of 5 officials charged with production of denarii (curatorec denariorum flandorum). Reverse probably commemorates victory of Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus (consul 122 BC) in southern Gaul. He and Q. Fabius Maximus attacked united Gallic tribes of Allobrogi and Averni led by Bituitus at the confluence of Rhone and Isere. Their triumph was celebrated in 120 BC.
Johny SYSEL
075n.jpg
Laureate bust and Δ149 viewsBITHYNIA. Nicaea. Maximus. Æ 23. A.D. 235-238. Obv: (ΓI)OVOVHMAΞIMOCK. Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right; 2 countermarks: (1) behind bust, (2) on bust. Rev: N(IKAI)-EΩN.Athena seated left, holding figure of Nike in outstretched right hand, shield behind. Ref: BMC -; Weiser 61. Axis: 210°. Weight: 6.94 g. CM(1): Laureate bust right, in circular punch, 6.5 mm.Howgego 65 (130 pcs). Dating of the countermark is problematic, and it seems likely that it was applied over a period of time. CM(2): Δ in circular punch, 6 mm. Howgego 788. Collection Automan.Automan
coin537.JPG
Licinius I IOVI CONSERVATORI Antioch19 viewsJupiter

In Roman mythology, Jupiter held the same role as Zeus in the Greek pantheon. He was called Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Jupiter Highest, Greatest) as the patron deity of the Roman state, in charge of laws and social order. Jupiter is, properly speaking, a derivation of Jove and pater (Latin for father)

This article focuses on Jupiter in early Rome and in cultic practice. For information on mythological accounts of Jupiter, which are heavily influenced by Greek mythology, see Zeus.

The name of the god was also adopted as the name of the planet Jupiter, and was the original namesake of the weekday that would come to be known in English as Thursday (the etymological root can be seen in various Romance languages, including French jeudi, Castillian jueves, and Italian jovedi all from Jovis Dies). Linguistic studies identify his name as deriving from *dyēus ph2ter ("god-father"), the Indo-European deity who also evolved into the Germanic *Tiwaz (after whom Tuesday was named), the Greek Zeus, and Dyaus Pita of the Vedic religion. Jove is a vocative form of the name, evolved from Dyeus.

Licinius I Follis. 313-4 AD. IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right / Jupiter standing left holding Nike & scepter, eagle at feet, (wreath) S III right, ANT in ex.
RIC VII Antioch 8 R3

ecoli
M__Furius_L_f__Philus~0.jpg
M. Furius L.f. Philus - AR denarius8 viewsRome
¹²119 BC
laureate head of Janus
M·FOVRI·L·F
Roma standing left, transverse long scepter in left hand, with right hand placing wreath on trophy of captured Gallic arms with carnyx and shield on each side, star above
ROMA
(PHI)LI
¹Crawford 281/1, SRCV 156, Sydenham 529, RSC I Furia 18
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Gitbud and Naumann

This coin vary from traditional iconography. Reverse commemorates victory over Ligurians and Gauls of moneyer's ancestor P. Furius Philus in 223 BC or depicts contemporary victory by Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and Q. Fabius Maximus over the Allobrogoges and the Averni in Gaul in 121 B.C.
Johny SYSEL
M__Volteius_M__f_.jpg
M. Volteius M. f. - AR denarius6 viewsRome
²77 BC
¹78 BC
laureate head Jupiter right
tetrastyle temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, thunderbolt in pediment M·VOLTEI·M·F
¹Crawford 385/1, SRCV I 312, Sydenham 774, RSC I Volteia 1
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,1g
ex Failla

Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus consecrated in 509 BC burnt down in 83 BC and new temple was consecrated 69 BC. It's not clear if this is actual shape of the old temple. Reverse should perhaps commemorate ludi Romani in Circus Maximus.
Johny SYSEL
0054.jpg
M. Volteius M.f., Denarius33 viewsRRC 385/1
78 b.c.

The front of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus standing on the Capitole.

The temple was originally build during the time of the Kings; reportedly decided by Numa Pompilus himself, finished only in the founding year of the Republic under Marcus Horatius Pulvillus, on September 13, 509 BC
Destroyed in 83 bc and not yet rubuilt when this coin was minted.
Also this temple front (or rather the front of the newly rebuild one) can be found on coins of Petillius Capitolinus in 43 BC

ex HD Rauch
88. COINS AUCTION, Lot 238, 17th -18th, Mai, 2011

Described as:
Denarius (3,78g), Roma, 78 v.Chr. Av.: Kopf des Iuppiter mit Lorbeerkranz n.r. Rv.: M VOLTEI M F (im Abschnitt), tetrastyle Tempelfront (des Iuppiter Optimus Maximus auf dem Kapitol), im Tympanon Fulmen. -- Dünner Schrötlingsriss, Oberflächen minimal rauh, stellenweise etwas porös. Cr 385/1, Albert 1280. s.sch.-vzgl.
2 commentsNorbert
MaximusThessalonica.jpg
Macedonia, Thessalonica. Maximus Caesar AE2865 viewsAE 28, 12.52 gr. G IOULOUHR MAXIMOC KE, bare-headed, draped bust right / QECCALONIKEWN, Nike walking left, holding Kabeiros and palm branch. Mionnet Supp. III, 985; BMC 115 var.ancientone
magnusmaximus.jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS30 viewsAR siliqua. Treveri 383-388 AD. 2,09 grs. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from front. DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG / Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe and spear. VIRTVS ROMANORVM . In exergue TRPS.
RIC IX 84b.1. RSC 20†a
benito
mag.jpg
Magnus Maximus25 viewsMagnus Maximus. AD 383-388. AR Siliqua (18mm, 2.52 g, 7h). Treveri (Trier) mint, 2nd officina. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe and scepter; TRPS. RIC IX 84b; RSC 20†a. 2 commentsTLP
00505-MagnusMaximus.JPG
Magnus Maximus32 viewsMagnus Maximus Siliqua
16 mm 1.9 gm
O: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Pearl Diademed Draped + Cuirassed Right.
R: VIRTVS ROMANORVM
Roma seated holding globe and sceptre.
1 commentsJohn Campbell
magnus-maximus.jpg
Magnus Maximus14 viewsMagnus Maximus
D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right /
REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing left, raising kneeling female;
xokleng
Magnus_Maximus_1.jpg
Magnus Maximus17 viewsMagnus Maximus
Æ, Aquileia mint
Obv.: D N MAG MA[XIMVS P F AVG], Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: [SPES] RO-MA-NOR[VM] / SMAQP, Campgate with two turrets; star above
Æ, 12mm, 0.9g
Ref.: RIC IX 55a
Ex Lanz Numismatik
shanxi
magnusmaximus~0.jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS31 viewsAR siliqua. Treveri 383-388 AD. 2,09 grs. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from front. DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG / Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe and spear. VIRTVS ROMANORVM . In exergue TRPS.
RIC IX 84b.1. RSC 20†a
benito
magnus.jpg
Magnus Maximus (383 - 388 A.D.)37 viewsÆ13
O: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: SPES ROMANORVM; Camp-gate with star between its two turrets // RT
Rome Mint 387-388 A.D.
13mm
1.1g
RIC IX 59.3, p. 131, rare.

From the Doug Smith Collection #1507
3 commentsMat
MAGMAX-RIC84b.jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS (383-388) - TREVES - RIC 84b(1)11 viewsSilique, 383-388, S
A/D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Magnus maximus Pius Felix Augustus, Notre seigneur le grand Maxime pieux heureux auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VIRTVS RO-MANORVM//TRPS
Virtus Romanorum, La vertu des romains
Rome casquée assise de face sur un trône, la tête à gauche, tenant un globe nicéphore de la main droite et une lance renversée de la main gauche.
Argent - 2.2 gr - 18.3 mm - 12h
RIC IX 84b(1), RSC 20a
Siliquae
00453.jpg
Magnus Maximus (RIC 33, Coin #453)15 viewsRIC 33, AE2, Lugdunum, 383 - 388 AD.
Obv: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGG emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe and standard.
Size: 25.0mm 4.42gm
MaynardGee
759_Magnus_Maximus_PCON.jpg
Magnus Maximus - AE 24 viewsArelatum
25.8.383 - 28.7.388 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N MAG MAXI_MVS P F AVG
emperor standing facing, head left, in left Victory on a globe crowns him, with right raising turreted woman
REPARATIO_REIPVB
PCON
RIC IX Arles 26a
ex Lucernae
Johny SYSEL
Magnus_Maximus_opt.jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS AE2 RIC 26a, REPARATIO-REIPVB12 viewsOBV: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; SCON in ex.
4.6g, 22mm

Minted at Arelate, 383-88 AD
Legatus
magnus-maximus-reshoot.jpg
Magnus Maximus AE2, 383-387 AD, Arles17 viewsRoman Imperial, Magnus Maximus AE2, 383-387 AD, Arles, 5.1g, 24mm

Obverse: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female. mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known. "Restoration of the Republic"

Reference: RIC Arles 26a, Sear 4203
Gil-galad
Magnus_Maximus_AE2,_383_-_388_AD,_Arles.JPG
Magnus Maximus AE2, 383-388 AD, Arles28 viewsMagnus Maximus
AE2
Arles, 383-388 AD
DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust r.
REPARATIO REIPVB
emperor raising woman
TCON in ex
RIC IX Arles 26a
Ardatirion
Magnus_Maximus_2_opt.jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS AE2, RIC 32, REPARATIO-REIPVB16 viewsOBV: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV: REPARATIO-REIPVB, Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe in left hand and raising kneeling woman, turreted headdress. P or D in right field. LVGP in ex.
4.6g, 23mm

Minted at Lugdunum, 383-88 AD
Legatus
101B.jpg
Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua44 viewsRIC IX 84b1 Trier, RSC 20a
2.07 g, 17 mm
D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe & spear
TRPS in ex.
EX: Roma Numis.
2 commentsMark Z
Magnus_Maximus_Reparatio_Reipub~0.JPG
Magnus Maximus Reparatio Reipub19 viewsMagnus Maximus, AE3, Lyons, RIC IX Lyons 32, 23.12mm max., 5.7g
OBV: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV: REPARATIO-REIPVB, Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe in left hand and raising kneeling woman, turreted headdress. LVG below

SCARCE
Romanorvm
MMCGd[1].jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS RIC IX 29a29 viewsObv: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: SPES ROMANORVM,
Camp gate with two
turrets and star abovel
Arles mint
12mm 1.1gm
OWL365
magnus.JPG
Magnus Maximus RIC IX Arles 26a41 viewsAE 20-24 mm 2.8 grams 383-388 AD
OBV :: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG. Pearled diadem, draped and cuirassed, bust right
REV :: REPARATIO REIPVB. Emperor standing left , helping turreted woman to rise. holding victory on globe in left hand
EX :: ( T, S or P ) CON
RIC IX Arles 26a
Purchased 12/2008
Johnny
Magnus_Maximus,_campgate,_Rome.JPG
Magnus Maximus, RIC IX Rome 5913 viewsMagnus Maximus, 383 - 388 AD, 13mm, 1.3g. Obverse: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with star between two turrets. Attribution: RIC IX Rome 59, r, ex areich, photo credit areich

1 commentsPodiceps
3357_3358_(1).jpg
Magnus Maximus, AE2, REPARATIO REIPVB4 viewsAE2
Magnus Maximus
Augustus: 383 - 388AD
Issued: 383 - 388AD
21mm 4.30gr
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: REPARATIO REIPVB; Magnus Maximus standing left, holding hand of kneeling Republica and Victory on globe.
Exergue: TCON
Arelate Mint
Aorta: 28: B1, O1, R2, T9, M2.
RIC IX Arles, 269, T; Sear 20650
numismaticaprados 201670622380
11/16/16 1/20/17
Nicholas Z
Magnus_Maximus_RIC_29a.JPG
Magnus Maximus, RIC 29a9 viewsDN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
SPES ROMANORVM
AE4, 14mm, 1.41g
Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Campgate with four rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top
SCON in ex.
Arles mint
novacystis
mmRICIXLyons32OR.jpg
Magnus Maximus, RIC IX Lyons 3225 viewsLyons mint, Magnus Maximus, 383-388 A.D. AE, 23mm 5.28g, RIC IX Lyons 32
O: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG pearl diadem, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: REPARATIO-REIPVB Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe in left hand and raising kneeling woman, wearing crown with right hand
Ex: LVGP
casata137ec
magnus_max_trier_84(b).jpg
Magnus Maximus, RIC IX, Trier 84(b)28 viewsMagnus Maximus, AD 383-388
AR - Siliqua, 1.49g, 17.34mm, 315°
Trier, 2nd officina
obv. DN MAG MAX - IMVS PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
rev. VIRTVS Ro - MANORVM
Roma, helmeted, enthroned facing, head l., l. knee exposed, holding in l. hand inverted spear and in
extended r. hand globe
in ex. TRPS
ref. RIC IX, Trier 84(b), pl. II, 16; C. 30
VF, toned
Pedigree:
ex KPM auction 46, 6/1994, lot 295
ex coll. Rudolf Hynek, Reutlingen
ex Klassische Münzen, Dr.Brandt, Tübingen
Jochen
Copy_(1)_of_mm26a.jpg
Magnus Maximus, RIC VIII 26a Arles, 383-388 CE.11 viewsMagnus Maximus AE2
Obverse: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPB, Emperor standing left, raising kneeling woman.
PCOM in ex. Arles mint, 24.1 mm, 4.4 g.
NORMAN K
0752-210np_noir.jpg
Magnus Maximus, Siliqua93 viewsSiliqua struck in Treveri, 2nd officina
D N MAG MAX IMVS P F AVG, draped, cuirassed and diademed bust right
VIRTVS RO MASORVM (sic !!) Roma seated facing, holding globe and spear.
TRPS at exergue
1.91 gr
Ref : Cohen # 20 var, Roman coins # 4201
Potator II
MAGMAX-1-ROMAN.jpg
Magnus Maximus, Treveri RIC IX-84b28 viewsAR Siliqua
Treveri mint, 383-388 A.D.
16mm, 1.63g
RIC IX-84b

Obverse:
D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
VIRTVS ROMANORVM
TRPS
Roma seated facing, head left, on throne, holding globe and reversed spear.
2 commentsrubadub
Magnus_Maximus.JPG
Magnus Maximus, Usurper and Emperor of Britain, Spain, Gaul & Africa, 383-388 AD.12 viewsMagnus Maximus, AE2, Trier. 387-388 AD. DN MAG MAX-IMVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / REPARATIO-REIPVB, emperor standing left, raising kneeling woman. Mintmark SMTRP. RIC IX Trier 85. Antonivs Protti
mag_maximus.jpg
Magnus_Maximus_Maiorina_REPARATIO_REIPVB6 viewsNumis-Student
Magnus_Maximus_RIC_IX_26.jpg
Magnvs Maximvs RIC IX 26(?)23 viewsMagnus Maximus RIC IX 26

Obv: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: REPARATIO-REIPVB, emperor standing left, holding Victory on globe and raising kneeling, turreted woman. (?)CON in ex.
Mint: Arles, 383-388AD
Size: 23mm, 5.12g
Id:. RIC IX Arles 26(?) Sear 20650
1 commentsickster
Mallia_2.jpg
Mallia 2103 viewsMallia 2 (111/110BC) moneyers: T. Manlius Mancinus (sic Crawford) Tr. Pl. 107BC
Ap. Claudius Pulcher, praetor 89, cos. 79 and Q. Urbinius father of Q. Urbinius
quaestor 74(?)

Denarius
Ob: Helmeted head of Roma, behind quadrangular device, border of dots
Rev: Victory in Triga right, in exergue T ∙ MAL(monogram) P ∙ CL ∙ Q V[R

BMCRR I 1293

Sydenham 570 (106BC) T. Mallius

Crawford 299/1b

Northumberland Tablet X 10:

“(the triga on reverse)… a curious device, inasmuch, except with the three monetal triumvirs here named, the triga is found only on the denaries of the Naevia family. Adverting to this inscription, Eckhel remarks- “ Hitherto all have read the colligated letters Mal as MANL; but there is no trace of an N. Vaillant says that Manlius was sometimes called Mallius; however that be, we know from the Fasti, and from Gruter, that there actually was a Mallian race.” He might have added that Cn. Mallius Maximus- though apparently a worthless man- had the honor of being consul in the year B.C. 105: and that a C. Mallius was one of Catiline’s conspirators.”

Crawford: There is some controversy over who the monogram indicates: T. Mallius or T. Maloleius.

This coin has beautiful iridescent toning. It does have three deep old scratches on obverse, but is a very handsome coin nonetheless. 16 mm, 3.97 g, 11 h
7 commentsPetrus Elmsley
Marcus_Aurelius_Juventas~0.JPG
Marcus Aurelius Juventas57 viewsRIC 1238 [pius] Marcus Aurelius as Caesar AE As. 25mm, 10.6g, 140 AD.
OBV: AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII F COS, head right / IVVENTAS S-C, Juventas, draped, standing left dropping incense onto altar left,
and holding patera.
REV: IVVENTAS S-C, Juventas, draped, standing left dropping incense onto altar left, and holding patera.
Commemorates Marcus' assumption of the 'Toga virilis.' The custom was that
sacrifices were made at the shrine of Juventas, who personified
youthfulness, at the Circus Maximus. RIC 1238, Sear 4831
(possibly a dupondius, based on the weight,)

VERY SCARCE
1 commentsRomanorvm
Marcus Aurelius- Salus.jpg
Marcus Aurelius- Salus57 viewsMarcus Aurelius, 7 marts 161- 17 marts 180 A.D.

Obverse:
Marcus Aurelius with radiate head right.

IMP CAES M AVREL ANTONINVS AVG P M

IMP: Imperator, general
CAES: Caesar
M: Marcus
AVREL: Aurelius
ANTONINVS: Antoninus
AVG: Augustus, emperor
P M: Pontifix Maximus, high priest.

Reverse:
SALVTI AVGVSTOR TR P XVII S-C, COS III below the buste.

SALVTI: Salus
AVGVSTOR: Augustus, emperor
TR P: Tribunicia Potestate. The tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.
XVII: 17
S-C: Senatus Consultum, by the decret of the senate.
COS III: Consul for the third time. One of the two chief magistrates of the Roman state, and often the emperor was one.

Salus standing left offering a patera to snake arising from altar, and holding sceptre

Comment: The reverse is Salus. If it was a male, the garment would not go all the way to the ground.


Domination: Orichalcum Dupondius, size 23 mm

Mint: Rome. The coin has been struck 162/163 AD. Cohen 568. RIC 846
John Schou
Marcus_Lepidus.jpg
Marcus Lepidus Imperator129 viewsLaureate head of Roma (?) right

M LEPIDVS
Below equestrian statue of M. Aemelius Lepidus (consul 187 and 175 BC) right, carrying trophy

Rome, 61 BC

3.79g

Rare!

Sear 371, RPC 419/1, CRR 827-828b

Freed from a NGC Holder, graded strike 4/5; surface 4/5.

Marcus Lepidus strikes this coin early in his career as moneyer. After Julius Caesar's assassination he became Pontifex Maximus and formed the Second Triumvirate with Antony and Octavian. He would keep his post as Pontifex Maximus until his death. The office then became the sole procession of the Emperors.
7 commentsJay GT4
Leg VII.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary denarius LEG VII87 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

Rev LEG VII legionary eagle between two standards


Patrae mint 32-31BC

SOLD!

Legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis (faithful and loyal Claudian legion) dates back to the four legions used by Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars and played a crucial role in The Battle of Pharsalus in 58 BC, and it existed at least until the end of the 4th century, guarding middle Danube. The emblem of this legion, as well as of all Caesar's legions, was the bull, together with the lion.

Legio VII was one of the two legions used in Caesar's invasions of Britain.

Tiberius Claudius Maximus the Roman soldier who brought the head of Decebalus to emperor Trajan was serving in Legio VII Claudia.
Titus Pullo
Legion_VII~0.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG VII 81 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

LEG VII
legionary eagle between two standards

Patrae mint 32-31BC

Legio VII Claudia Pia Fidelis (faithful and loyal Claudian legion) dates back to the four legions used by Julius Caesar in his Gallic Wars and played a crucial role in The Battle of Pharsalus in 58 BC, and it existed at least until the end of the 4th century, guarding middle Danube. The emblem of this legion, as well as of all Caesar's legions, was the bull, together with the lion.

Legio VII was one of the two legions used in Caesar's invasions of Britain.

Tiberius Claudius Maximus the Roman soldier who brought the head of Decebalus to emperor Trajan was serving in Legio VII Claudia.

2 commentsJay GT4
00191-MaximusI.JPG
Maximinus I15 viewsMaximinus I Sestertius
31 mm 18.78 gm
O: MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG GERM
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R:PAX AVGVSTI
Pax standing left, holding olive branch and sceptre
1 commentsKoffy
maxmin13~0.jpg
Maximinus I --AE33, Ninica-Claudiopolis. 492 viewsDraped bust of Maximinus R/Draped bust of Maximus R.. SNG France 2, 796. Multiple c/m. (featherz)2 commentsfeatherz
maximinusI sest-victory.jpg
MAXIMINUS I Thrax AE sestertius - 235-236 AD26 viewsobv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG (laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right)
rev: VICTORIA AVG (Victory advancing right bearing wreath & palm), S-C across fields
ref: RIC 67, Cohen 100, BMC 108
24.82gms, 31mm
History: The first "soldier-emperor," Gaius Julius Verus Maximinus spent the winter of AD 235-36 at Sirmium and then led successful campaigns against Dacian and Sarmatian tribes. The Senate granted the titles Sarmaticus Maximus and Dacicus Maximus for him, but these titles aren't on his coins.
berserker
MaxThrax_Selge_Temple_AE12_1_6g.jpg
Maximinus, Selge (Pisidia), Artemis Pergeia, AE1223 viewsAE12, 1.6g
obv: A K IOV MAXIMINOC; laureate head right
rev: simulacrum of Pergaean Artemis in distyle temple
Aulock 5312

Maximinus not Maximus
areich
00200-Maximus.JPG
Maximus16 viewsMaximus
24 mm 8.28 gm
O: Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
R: Horse grazing right.
Provincial of Alexandria Troas
1 commentsKoffy
00193-Maximus.JPG
Maximus14 viewsMaximus Sestertius
31 mm 21.72 gm
O: MAXIMVS CAES GERM
Draped bust right
R: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS S C
Maximus standing left with baton & spear, standards behind.
Koffy
00maximus.jpg
MAXIMUS40 viewsAE sestertius. 236-238 AD. 22,87 grs. Bare-headed and draped bust right. MAXIMVS CAES GERM. / Maximus in military attire standing left, holding baton and transverse spear; two signa behind. PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS.
s 8411. RIC 13. C 14.
1 commentsbenito
00maximus~0.jpg
MAXIMUS32 viewsAE sestertius. 236-238 AD. 22,87 grs. Bare-headed and draped bust right. MAXIMVS CAES GERM. / Maximus in military attire standing left, holding baton and transverse spear; two signa behind. PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS.
s 8411. RIC 13. C 14.
benito
maximusprov~0.jpg
MAXIMUS17 viewsAE 26. Tomis ( Thrace ). 236 - 238 AD. 11,42 grs. Bare headed , draped and cuirassed bust right. Γ IOVΛ OVHP MAΞIMOC KAIC / Eagle standing facing,head right,holding crown in beak. MHTPO ΠONTOV TOMЄWC.
AMNG 3353. Varbanov I 5514
Lanz 151, lot 849.
benito
maximustomis44.png
MAXIMUS27 viewsAE 26. Tomis ( Thrace ). 236 - 238 AD. 11,42 grs. Bare headed , draped and cuirassed bust right. Γ IOVΛ OVHP MAΞIMOC KAIC / Eagle standing facing,head right,holding crown in beak. MHTPO ΠONTOV TOMЄWC.
AMNG 3353. Varbanov I 5514
Lanz 151, lot 849.
benito
F89D9708-3B35-4CCC-A871-4135D95B0ACB.jpeg
Maximus17 viewsMaximus, AE Sestertius (22.03g), MAXIMVS CAES GERM, draped bust right / PRICIPI IVVENTVTIS S-C, Maximus standing left with baton & spear, standards behind. RIC 13, Cohen 14, BMC 213.Molinari
00492.jpg
Maximus (RIC 11, Coin #492)38 viewsRIC 11 (C), AE Sestertius, Rome, 236 - 239 AD.
Obv: MAXIMVS CAES GERM Draped bust right.
Rev: PIETAS AVG S C Priestly emblems. Jug between lituus, knife and patera to left, simpulum and sprinkler to right.
Size: 31.0mm 21.24gm
1 commentsMaynardGee
376_Maximus.JPG
Maximus - AE sestertius6 viewsRome
236 AD
2nd emission
draped bust right from behind
C IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES
Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear, two legionary standards behind
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS
S C
RIC 9, Cohen 12, BMC 123
24,35g
ex CNG
Johny SYSEL
Maximus_RIC_13.jpg
Maximus - sestertius RIC 1321 viewsMaximus Caesar. Sestertius; minted in Rome, 236-238 AD; 18.93g; obv. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, draped bust right; rev. PRICIPI IVVENTVTIS S-C, Maximus standing left with baton & spear, standards behind. RIC 13, BMC 213.Bartosz Awianowicz
maximusprincRIC3.jpg
Maximus / Princeps90 viewsMaximus (Caesar, 235/6-238). AR Denarius Rome mint, 236-7.
O: MAXIMVS CAES GERM; Bareheaded and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS; Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear; two signa to right
- RIC IV 3; RSC 10

Gaius Julius Verus Maximus (Maximvs Caesar) was the son of Maximinus I Thrax. Maximus was most likely given the rank of Caesar at the same time or shortly after his father assumed the rank of Augustus. He was reportedly a very handsome youth. Maximvs Caesar was loyal to his father and remained by his side during his campaign on the Danube. He was also present at the disastrous siege of Aquileia in 238 AD.

After the revolt of Gordian I and Gordian II and ascension of Balbinus and Pupienus, Maximinus and Maximus marched on Rome. They first reached the city of Aquileia, expecting an easy victory as the city's walls had long been in disrepair. However, under the leadership of senators Rutilius Pudens Crispinus and Tullus Menophilus, the walls had been repaired and the city rallied to defend itself in a siege. The Aquileians had plenty of food and good morale.

According to Herodian of Antioch, "The army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair when the soldiers found that those whom they had not expected to hold out against a single assault were not only offering stout resistance but were even beating them back. The Aquileians, on the other hand, were greatly encouraged and highly enthusiastic, and, as the battle continued, their skill and daring increased. Contemptuous of the soldiers now, they hurled taunts at them. As Maximinus rode about, they shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. Unable to vent his wrath upon the enemy, he was enraged at most of his troop commanders because they were pressing the siege in cowardly and halfhearted fashion. Consequently, the hatred of his supporters increased, and his enemies grew more contemptuous of him each day."

Condemned by the Senate, Maximus and his father were murdered by their own troops just outside Aquileia on June 24th, 238 AD.
2 commentsNemonater
Maximus 16 D~0.jpg
Maximus As21 viewsAE As. Obv.: C IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES ; Obv.: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS S C ;
Caesar standing with baton and transverse spear between two standards.
RIC 10b Scarce (=rare)
Tanit
MaximusC08dp01DaR~0.jpg
Maximus Caesar - Dupondius28 viewsRugser
maximus sest.jpg
MAXIMUS Caesar AE sestertius - 235-238 AD24 viewsobv: MAXIMVS CAES GERM (bare-headed, draped bust right)
rev: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS (Maximus standing left, holding baton & spear, two standards behind him), S-C across field
ref: RIC 13(Maximinus), Cohen 14, BMC 213
19.10gms, 30mm
berserker
maximus-caesar-deultum-reshoot-1.jpg
Maximus Caesar AE25 of Deultum, Thrace. 235-238 AD15 viewsRoman Provincial, Maximus Caesar AE25 of Deultum, Thrace, (235-238 AD), 9.0g, 25mm

Obverse: C IVL VER MAXIMVS CES Bare-headed and draped bust right.

Reverse: COL F L PAC DEVLT Concordia standing left with cornucopiae and patera over altar.

Reference: Varbanov 2454

Ex: Imperator Coins
Gil-galad
033A.jpg
Maximus Caesar Æ2534 viewsVarbanov (Eng.) 2454 Deultum, Thrace
9.95 g. 26 mm
C IVL VER MAXIMVS CES (sic), bare head right
COL F L PAC DEVLT , Concordia stg. l. with cornucopiae and patera over altar.
Rare
(Many thanks to FORVM member "archivum" for attribution!)
Mark Z2
Maximus_Caesar_Tyche_Cilicia.JPG
Maximus Caesar Tyche Cilicia20 viewsMaximus Caesar, Casae in Cilicia, 235 - 238 AD, 31mm, 18.1g, SLG Lindgren 1 A1465B(5),
SNG AUL 8686(1), SLG Duesseldorf 5709 and 9357, SNG Levante 299, Ziegler, Münzen Kilikiens.. p. 13, no. 15
OBV: G IOVL OYHPOC MAXIMOC KAICAP, bare bust right
REV: KACATWN, Tyche standing left holding rudder and cornucopiae.

RARE
Romanorvm
maximus_deultum_l.jpg
Maximus Deultum26 viewsareich
Maximus_ric_13.jpg
Maximus RIC 1319 viewsMaximus Caesar
AE Sestertius.
Roma 236-238 AD.
MAXIMVS CAES GERM, draped bust right
PRICIPI IVVENTVTIS S-C, Maximus standing left
with baton & spear, standards behind.
1 commentsxokleng
maximus_3.jpg
Maximus RIC IV, 372 viewsMaximus, Caesar 236 - 238, son of Maximinus I
AR - Denar, 3.12g, 19mm
Rome, spring 236 - March/April 238
obv. MAXIMVS CAES GERM
draped bust, bare head r.
rev. PRINC IVVENTVTIS
Maximus standing l., holding rod in r. hand and
reversed spear in l. hand; behind him 2 standards.
RIC IV, 3; C.10
Scarce; good EF
added to www.wildwinds.com

Maximus, made Caesar by his father AD 236 and killed together with him at Aquileia AD 238.
2 commentsJochen
Maximus_1.jpg
MAXIMUS Sestertius, RIC 9, Prince14 viewsOBV: MAXIMVS CAES GERM, bare-headed, draped bust right
REV: PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left, holding baton & spear, two standards behind him
18.3g, 28.5mm

Minted at Rome, 236-8 AD
Legatus
0252-210np_noir.jpg
Maximus, Denarius68 viewsDenarius struck in Rome in 236 AD
MAXIMVS CAES GERM, Bare bust of Maximus right
PRINC IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left with two standards
3.31 gr
Ref : Cohen #10, RCV #8406

Superbe
Potator II
maxime.jpg
Maximus, denarius26 viewsMint of Rome.
IVL VERVS MAXIMVS CAES - Bare-headed, draped bust right.
PIETAS AVG - Sacrificial implements.

November 235 - February 236AD.

Ref:RIC 1, Cohen 1.
1 commentsbyzancia
Maximus_Kios_Athena_AE18_3_59g.jpg
Maximus, Kios, Athena, AE1825 views18mm, 3.59g
obv: ΓIOV OVH MAXIMOC K [?]; bare-headed and draped bust right
rev: KIAN&Onega;N, helmeted bust of Athena right, wearing aegis

SNG Aulock -; Lindgren -; SNG Righetti -; SNG Leypold -; GICV -; BMC -;
areich
Maximus_Nikomedia_Hygieia_AE25_8_11g.jpg
Maximus, Nikomedia, Hygieia, AE25116 viewsobv: Γ IOV OVH MAΖIMOC K; bare-headed and draped bust right
rev: NIKOMHΔEΩN ΔIC NEΩKOPΩN; Hygieia on throne right, feeding snake from patera in left hand, right hand raised to head, cornucopia on throne behind

ex Tkalec (e-Auction)

SNG Aulock 803 (same dies)
2 commentsareich
Maximus_Perge_Artemis_AE18_3.4g.jpg
Maximus, Perge, Artemis, AE1858 viewsobv: ΓAI IOV OVH MAΧIMON CEB; bare head right
rev: ΠEPΓAIΩN; Artemis holding bow and torch right
Thanks, Jochen!

SNG France 3 nn 492-493
1 commentsareich
0252-310np_noir.jpg
Maximus, Sestertius - *154 viewsSestertius struck in Rome in 236-238 AD
MAXIMVS CAES GERM, Draped bust of Maximus right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left with two standards behind him, SC in field
18.64 gr
Ref : RCV #8411, Cohen #14
2 commentsPotator II
MilitaryDiploma.jpg
Military Diploma fragment issued by Severus Alexander149 viewsDated by line 3 to 229-230, 233-235: COS III, preceded by II, the last two digits of the TRIB POT number. He became COS III in 229, and remained this until his death in 235, so the possible years are 229 (TRIB POT VIII), 230 (VIIII), 233 (XII), 234 (XIII) and 235 (XIIII). (78x54 mm)

... M]AGNI II FIL
“Son of Magnus Pius”
... ALEXAN]DER PIVS FELIX AVG
“Alexander Pius Felix Augustus”
... TRIB POT?]II COS III P P
“In the ? year of Tribunician and Conul power, Pater Patriae”
... MI]LITAVERVNT IN
“Who served in”
... SE]VERIANIS DECEM
“Ten Severan”
... ] PIIS VINDICIBVS
“Loyal and Avenging”
... MILI]TIA FVNCTI SVNT
“Performed their military function”
... ] CVM SINGV
“With one”
?LIS ... ETIA]M SI PEREGRI
“Even if foreign”
NI IVRIS ... ] ...

"The underlined portions being the words that are visible on the fragment:

'The Emperor Caesar, son of the deified Antoninus Pius the Great [i.e. 'Caracalla'], grandson of Severus Pius [i.e. Septimius Severus], Marcus Aurellius [thus usually written] Severus Alexander Pius Felix ['happy'] Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, in the [...]IIth year of his Tribunician Power, Consul three times [i.e. 229 or later: see above], Father of his Country. The names of the soldiers who have served in the ten Severan Praetorian Cohorts (numbered) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, Pius Vindex ['dutiful, avenging'], who have dutifully and bravely completed their service, (to them) I have granted the right of Roman marriage, provided it is with one woman only and she their first wife, so that even if they marry women of non-Roman status ...'" - Great thanks to the Classics Faculty in Oxford.

After serving twenty-five years in the Roman auxiliary units, a soldier was granted Roman citizenship as well as the legalization of his existing or future marriage. This was of relevance for his children who thus became Roman citizens and his full legal heirs under Roman law. His wife was not granted Roman citizenship. A diploma, copied from an original posted in Rome , served as evidence of these civic rights and no doubt was preserved as an important legal document by its recipient and his descendants.

Why have so few diplomas survived to the present? Is it possible that veterans received copies in wood, papyrus or bronze depending on what the could afford? Or perhaps only a select few received the small bronze copies of the public imperial constitutions? Whichever the case, far more questions surround these pieces than answers!

The old Praetorian Guard was disbanded by Septimius Severus after he seized Rome in 193 A.D., and was replaced by a new Guard of ten cohorts, each 1000-men strong, drawn from the Danubian legions which had supported his usurpation. It continued to be largely recruited from this source, with many Guardsmen being of Thracian origin, until it was finally disbanded by Constantine in 312 A.D.
4 commentsNemonater
ANCIENT_ROMAN_COIN_-_Dupondius_NERO.JPG
NERO - Roman Emperor: 54-68 A.D. Bronze Dupondius34 viewsCoin minted in Lugdunum between 64-67 AD
Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG TR P P P P Maximus
Laureate bust of emperor facing right.
Reverse: VICTORIA A-VGVSTI, SC on both sides of the field. Victory advancing left, holding wreath in her right hand and left palm.
WEIGHT: 13.1grm. DIAMETER: 29mm. _8250
2 commentsAntonivs Protti
NeroSe19-2.jpg
Nero, RIC 107, Sestertius of AD c.63 (Decursio)112 viewsÆ sestertius (25.59g, Ø37mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD c.63.
Obv.: NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM PM TR P IMP P P, laureate head of Nero facing right.
Rev.: DECVRSIO (in ex.), Nero on horseback riding right, holding a spear; before, a foot soldier with a shield and banner, behind a second foot soldier.
RIC 107 (C); BMC 139
ex G. Henzen

This belongs to an early issue characterised by the omission of the "S C" on the reverse. The legend DECVRSIO derives from DECVRRO (=run downwards, charge), a word applied to military or equestrian manoeuvrings. Here, it refers to Nero leading a formal cavalry parade in the Circus Maximus.
Charles S
nerose10-4.jpg
Nero, RIC 164, Sestertius of AD 64-66 (Decursio)93 viewsÆ Sestertius (28.7g, Ø37mm, 6h), Rome mint, struck AD 64-66.
Obv.: NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PM TR P IMP P P, laureate head of Nero left.
Rev.: DECVRSIO (in ex.) S C (in field), Nero on horseback riding left, holding spear; behind mounted soldier riding left with vexillum.
RIC 164 (S); Cohen 92; Sear (RCV 2K) 1957var.
ex G.Henzen

The reverse legend DECVRSIO derives from DECVRRO (=run downwards, charge), a word applied to military or equestrian manoeuvres. On this type, it refers Nero leading a formal cavalry parade in the Circus Maximus.
1 commentsCharles S
nerose07-2.jpg
Nero, RIC 509, Sestertius of AD 66 (Decursion, scan)66 viewsÆ sestertius (24.7g, Ø36mm, 7h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONTIF MAX TRIB POT P P, laureate head of Nero facing right, globe below bust.
Rev.: DECVRSIO (in ex.) S C (left and right in field), Nero on horseback riding right, holding spear; behind mounted soldier riding right with vexillum.
RIC 509 (S); BMC 318; Sear (RCV 2K) 1957var.

The reverse legend DECVRSIO derives from DECVRRO (=run downwards, charge), a word applied to military or equestrian manoeuvres. On this type, it refers Nero leading a formal cavalry parade in the Circus Maximus.
3 commentsCharles S
nerose07-3.jpg
Nero, RIC 509, Sestertius of AD 66 (Decursio)76 viewsÆ sestertius (24.7g, Ø36mm, 7h), Lugdunum mint, struck AD 66.
Obv.: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONTIF MAX TRIB POT P P, laureate head of Nero facing right, globe below bust.
Rev.: DECVRSIO (in ex.) S C (in field), Nero on horseback riding right, holding spear; behind mounted soldier riding right with vexillum.
RIC 509 (S); BMCRE 318; Sear (Roman Coins & their Values I) 1957var.
ex D.Ruskin (Oxon, UK, 1994)

The reverse legend DECVRSIO derives from DECVRRO (=run downwards, charge), a word applied to military or equestrian manoeuvres. On this type, it refers Nero leading a formal cavalry parade in the Circus Maximus.
Charles S
Lg008_quad_sm.jpg
Nerva Aequitas Ӕ As (c. 97 A.D.)8 viewsIMP NERVA CAES [AVG P M TR P ? COS ? P P], laureate head right / AEQVITAS AVGVST + S - C across fields, Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopiae

Ӕ, oval 25+ to 28mm, 10.23g, die axis 7.5h, base metal seems yellow, orichalcum? Can it be a dupontius?

Mint: Rome. Regnal period is end 96 – Jan 98 AD, so 97 is the most probable minting year.

End of the obverse legend is missing, so TR P and COS numbers are unknown. Thus three types are possible:

TR P COS II --> RIC II 51, Sear 3060 var
TR P COS III --> RIC II 77, Cohen 7, BMC 127, Sear 3060
TR P II COS III --> RIC II 94, Cohen 10

IMPerator NERVA CAESar AVGustus Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins, no number means first year of reign, II second), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II or III (Nerva started his 3d consulship in 97, so II would mean minting year of 96, he also became a consul for 98, but since he died in January, COS IIII is very rare), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but usually not at the very beginning of the reign, in this case it was probably assumed immediately because of Nerva's old age). Aequitas = justice, equality, conformity, symmetry. Nemesis was originally understood as honest distributor of fortune, neither bad nor good, but in due proportion. Later it gained aspects of justice and divine retribution, but in Nemesis-Aequitas her qualities of honest dealing is emphasized. Aequitas Augusti symbolizes honesty, equality and justice of the emperor towards his subjects. The scales here mean honest measure rather than justice, and the cornucopia is self explanatory. SC = [Ex] Senatus Consulto (Senatus is genitive, Consulto is ablative of Consultum) = by decree of the Senate, i. e. the authority of the Senate approved minting of this coin (necessary to justify issue of copper alloy coins for which the intrinsic value was not obvious). As or assarius – the basic Roman bronze coin, reintroduced and firmly established for centuries by Augustus (often minted of pure red copper).

On the obverse to the right of the neck there is a mysterious symbol (looks like a special field mint mark in LRB, but these were not used before 4th century I think), which is too far in to be a distorted letter of the legend.

NERVA, *8 Nov 30 (or 35) AD (Narni, central Italy) † 27 Jan 98 AD (aged 67 or 62) Gardens of Sallust, Rome ‡ 18 Sep 96 – 27 Jan 98 (effectively abdicated in autumn 97 naming Trajan as his successor)

Marcus Cocceius Nerva was born in the village of Narni, 50 kilometers north of Rome. Ancient sources report the date as either 30 or 35. He had at least one attested sister, named Cocceia, who married Lucius Salvius Titianus Otho, the brother of the earlier Emperor Otho. Like Vespasian, the founder of the Flavian dynasty, Nerva was a member of the Italian nobility rather than one of the elite of Rome. Nevertheless, the Cocceii were among the most esteemed and prominent political families of the late Republic and early Empire, attaining consulships in each successive generation. The direct ancestors of Nerva on his father's side, all named Marcus Cocceius Nerva, were associated with imperial circles from the time of Augustus.

Not much of Nerva's early life or career is recorded, but it appears he did not pursue the usual administrative or military career. He was praetor-elect in the year 65 and, like his ancestors, moved in imperial circles as a skilled diplomat and strategist. He received many high honors during the reign of Nero and Flavians, including two ordinary (!) consulships of 71 and 90, usually for services that remained unclear, so probably of highly delicate and clandestine nature, e. g. he played a prominent role of uncovering at least two major conspiracies against the ruling emperors. During 69, the transitional Year of the Four Emperors he was nowhere to be seen, but then emerged on the winning Flavian side, which was quite a feat for a former Neronian loyalist and a relative of one of the defeated emperors, Otho. It is also known that Nerva had excellent literary abilities praised by his contemporaries.

On 18 September, 96, Domitian was assassinated in a palace conspiracy organised by court officials. The same day the Senate proclaimed Nerva emperor in somewhat obscure circumstances. Modern historians believe Nerva was proclaimed Emperor solely on the initiative of the Senate, within hours after the news of the assassination broke, to avoid the inevitable civil unrest, and neither him nor the Senate had anything to do with the conspiracy. The change of government was welcome particularly to the senators, who had been harshly persecuted during Domitian's reign. As an immediate gesture of goodwill towards his supporters, Nerva publicly swore that no senators would be put to death as long as he remained in office. He called an end to trials based on treason, released those who had been imprisoned under these charges, and granted amnesty to many who had been exiled. All properties which had been confiscated by Domitian were returned to their respective families. Nerva also sought to involve the Senate in his government, but this was not entirely successful.

Nerva had to introduce a number of measures to gain support among the Roman populace. As was the custom by this time, a change of emperor was to bring with it a generous payment of gifts and money to the people and the army. This was followed by a string of economic reforms intended to alleviate the burden of taxation from the most needy Romans. Furthermore, numerous taxes were remitted and privileges granted to Roman provinces. Before long, Nerva's expenses strained the economy of Rome and necessitated the formation of a special commission of economy to drastically reduce expenditures. The most superfluous religious sacrifices, games and horse races were abolished, while new income was generated from Domitian's former possessions. Because he reigned only briefly, Nerva's public works were few, instead completing projects which had been initiated under Flavian rule. This included extensive repairs to the Roman road system and the expansion of the aqueducts. The only major landmarks constructed under Nerva were a granary, known as the Horrea Nervae, and a small Imperial Forum begun by Domitian, which linked the Forum of Augustus to the Temple of Peace.

Despite Nerva's measures to remain popular with the Senate and the Roman people, support for Domitian remained strong in the army, which led to problems. Upon his accession, he had ordered a halt to treason trials, but at the same time allowed the prosecution of informers by the Senate to continue. This measure led to chaos, as everyone acted in his own interests while trying to settle scores with personal enemies.

The situation was further aggravated by the absence of a clear successor, made more pressing because of Nerva's old age and sickness. In October 97 these tensions came to a head when the Praetorian Guard laid siege to the Imperial Palace and took Nerva hostage. He was forced to submit to their demands, agreeing to hand over those responsible for Domitian's death. Nerva was unharmed in this assault, but his authority was damaged beyond repair. He realized that his position was no longer tenable without the support of an heir who had the approval of both the army and the people. Shortly thereafter, he announced the adoption of Trajan as his successor, and with this decision all but abdicated.

On 1 January, 98, at the start of his fourth consulship, Nerva suffered a stroke during a private audience. Shortly thereafter he was struck by a fever and died. His largest legacies were avoiding the civil war after the fall of Flavians and establishing a new dynasty that ruled almost until the end of the 2nd century and achieved "the golden age" of the Roman empire.
Yurii P
Nerva.jpg
Nerva, RIC 9, 96 AD, Rome, Italy11 viewsHead of Nerva, laureate, right. Salus, draped, seated left on throne, holding two corn-ears in extended right hand, left arm resting on side of throne.

IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TRP COS II PP
SALVS PVBLICA
The Revered Emperor Nerva Caesar Imperator Pontifex Maximus Father of the Country Tribune of the People Consul for the 2nd time Father of the Country.
Health of the public.
Jonathan N
collage2~9.jpg
Otacilia Severa, Hippo106 viewsAe Sestertius; 12.65g; 27-30mm

MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG
diademed draped bust right

SAECVLARES AVGG / S C
Hippopotamus standing right

struck for the games celebrating of the 100th Anniversary of Rome in which exotic animals were battled and killed for spectacle in the Circus Maximus

RIC 200
2 commentsarizonarobin
1286_487_Capitolinus.JPG
Petillius Capitolinus - AR denarius11 viewsRome
43 BC
eagle on thunderbolt half right
PETILLIVS / CAPITOLINVS
hexastyle temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus (Roman Capitol), richly decorated roof
F__S
Crawford 487/2b; SRCV I 486, RSC I Petillia 3, Sydenham 1151
3,90g
ex Aurea
ex Helios

The first temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was finished by Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and consecrated in the first year of Republic in 509 BC. In 83 BC the temple burned down and new temple was built again in 69 BC. Moneyer could be a person from Satires of Horace where Petillius, curator of the temple, was supposedly stealing valuables from it.
Johny SYSEL
petillius_Crawford487.2b.jpg
Petillius Capitolinus, Crawford 487/2b168 viewsPetillius Capitolinus, gens Petillia
AR - denarius, 18.1mm, 3.82g
Rome, 43 BC
obv. Eagle with spread wings, stg. half-right on thunderbolt
above PETILLIVS, beneath CAPITOLINVS
rev. Hexastyle temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus with three-stepped base;
garlandes hanging down in the three middle intercolumnaries, on the
pediment frontal seated figur(?), on acroteries horse-protomes, above figures
stg. with sceptres, on top biga r. with charioteer.
S - F at sides
Crawford 487/2b; Sydenham 1151; Petillia 3
about VF
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

SF stands for Sacris Faciundis and should say that Petillius Capitolinus was member of the XV viri sacris faciundis responsible for the religious ceremonies. Jupiter Optimus Maximus was the highest god in Rome, one of the Roman Triad. His temple stood on the Capitoline Hill.
For more information please look at the thread 'Mythological interesting coins'!
Jochen
Antiochia_(Pisidien)_BMC19_(197)_Nr119.jpg
Philip Arab2 viewsAv. IMP MIVL PHILIPPVS AVG PM
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rv. CAES ANTIOCH COL -SR-
Pax, wearing Long Chiton, running l.; in r. olive-branch, in l. sceptre
BMC 19 197 Nr.119, 27mm 10,83g, -City Antiochia-
(Error in the BMC, because Philip II. was not Persicus Maximus (PM), the bust is Gordian III.)
Priscus
Antiochia_(Pisidien)_BMC19_(197)_Nr120.jpg
Philip Arab3 viewsAv. IMP MIVL PHILIPPVS AVG PM
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rv. CAES ANTIOCH COL -SR-
Female figure (turreted) Standing to front, wearing Long Chiton and Peplos; l. rests on spear, in r. short staff; at her feet, globe
BMC 19 197 Nr.120, 26mm 11,43g, -City Antiochia-
(Error in the BMC, because Philip II. was not Persicus Maximus (PM), the bust is Gordian III.)
Priscus
Antiochia_(Pisidien)_BMC19_(-)_Nr_unpublished.jpg
Philip Arab2 viewsAv. IMP MIVL PHILIPPVS AVG PM
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rv. CAES ANTIOCH COL -SR-
priestly emblems
BMC 19 - Nr. unpublished , 26,5mm 11,48g, -City Antiochia-
(Error in the BMC, because Philip II. was not Persicus Maximus (PM), the bust is Gordian III.)
Priscus
Antiochia_(Pisidien)_BMC19_(197)_Nr_-_Krzyzanowska_IV_30.jpg
Philip Arab10 viewsAv. IMP MIVL PHILIPPVS AVG P (!)
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rv. ANTIO-CHI CO, -SR-
draped bust of Mên right, wearing Phrygian cap decorated with stars, all on crescent
BMC 19 197 Nr. - , 22,7mm 5,63g, -City Antiochia-
(Error in the BMC, because Philip II. was not Persicus Maximus (PM), the bust is Gordian III.)
Priscus
Philippus1 ant02-.jpg
PHILIP I billon antoninianus - 247-248 AD35 viewsobv: IMP.C.M.IVL.PHILIPPVS.PF.AVG.P.M. (radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right)
rev: SPES.FELICITAS.ORBIS (Spes walking left, holding flower and raising skirt)
ref: RIC70, C.113
mint: Antioch, 3.97gms
Scarce
In obverse the P.M. = Persicus Maximus
1 commentsberserker
Lucius_Verus_Zeus_Philippopolis_A_#928;O_#916;_V_#928;AT.JPG
Philippopolis Lucius Verus Governor Q. Tullius Maximus (161-9 AD)38 viewsAE 30

Ob: AV KAI Λ AVPH | ΛIOC OVHPOC
Au(tokrater) Kai(sar) L(ucius) Aure(lius) Verus
Bare bearded head
Rx: HΓE TOVΛ MAΞIMOV AΠOΔ VΠAT
Hege(moneuontos) Tul(liou) Maximou apod(edeigmenou) hupat(ou)

Ex: ΦIΛIΠΠO


Zeus enthroned left; holding upright scepter in left hand and patera in outstretched right

BMC-; Minnet Supp. II-; Varbanov (E) III-; Mushmov "Les Monnaies Antiques de Philippopolis" (1924) -; apparently unpublished;

This coin was issued under the legate of Thrace Quintus Tullius Maximus (161-169AD)
Apodedeigmenou is a passive perfect participle of apodeiknumi, which is often used to denote holding or being appointed to an office. hupatou generally means consul or leader in this context (Polybius uses this greek word specifically for consul; 6.12.1 in plural). Both words in genitive absolute.

Stein reported the conjecture of R. Munsterburg, who in his article, “Verkannte Titel auf griechischen Munzen” from Jahreshefte des Osterreicheschen Archaologischen Institutes in Wien XVIII (1915) pp.312-313, avers that a coin incorrectly reported by A. Degrand in Numismatique Revue 1900 pp.414 #38 (a Lucius Verus River-god; with no plate unfortunately), HGE. TO.YL MAXIMOY APODYIGD(?) to read as, HGE TOUL MAXIMOU APOD(DEIGMENOU) HUPA(TOU) = consulis designati.

The pi and alpha of hupatou are incorrectly read by Degrand as an iota +gamma+delta; sic VIΓΔ = VΠA.

Varbanov correctly divides the APOD from the VPA on coins for M. Aurelius and L. Verus, where it is present. Cf. Varbanov(E) III 903-906 for L. Verus; 797-802 for M. Aurelius.

What is so interesting about this coin is that it has that extra terminal tau, unlike the coin reported by the specimens in Varbanov or by Degrand (which was in Philippopolis (Plovdiv) Bulgaria where he was some sort of French minister at the turn of the 19th century). This tau adds some more credence to Munsterburg’s conjecture, (not that it was in doubt).

A. Degrand "Monnaies Inedites ou peu connues de la Moesie Inferieure et de la Thrace" Numismatique Revue ser. 4 vol 4 pp. 402-422 (1900).
Petrus Elmsley
LVerus_homonoia__philippo_AE_30_15_71g.JPG
Philippopolis Lucius Verus Q. Tullius Maximus (161-169 AD)44 viewsAE 30 15.71g

Lucius Verus Philippopolis

Q. Tullius Maximus (161-169 AD)

Obv: AV KAI Λ AVP | HΛIOC OVHPOC
Bare head right

Rev: HΓ K TO[VΛ MAΞIMOV ΦIΛI]ΠΠOΠOΛETIΩ (sic)
Homonoia standing facing, head left holding cornucopiae in left and patera over lit altar

Varbanov (E) III-; Mushmov "Les Monnaies Antiques de Philippopolis"(1924) -; Mionnet Supp. II -; BMC –


Reverse die exhibits the kappa for the praenomen Quintus.

smooth chocolate patina

Petrus Elmsley
concordia_AVGG_L__Verus_Philippo.JPG
Philippopolis Lucius Verus Q. Tullius Maximus (161-9 AD)114 viewsAE 31 19.92 gr.

Ob: AV KAI Λ AV | PHΛIOC OVHPOC
Draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: OMON AV HΓ TOVΛ M | AΞI | MOV ΦIΛIΠΠO
Ex: [ΛEI]TΩN?
Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus togate clasping right hands.

It came from the seller with an envelope that stated it was part of lot #856 from Freeman &Sear 3/10/95 (Mail Bid Sale 1).

Neither the obverse nor reverse are listed in Varbanov (E) III; cf. 125 pp. 24 for Marcus Aurelius at Perinthus, which has OMONOIA AVTOKPATOPΩN ΠEPINΘIΩN as the reverse legend.

I’m still unsure on the reverse legend, but comparing it to the one for Perinthus above, with some abbreviations, I think this is a reasonable conjecture. Orthography in exergue is speculative. The abbreviation of OMON for OMONOIA could be compared to CONCORD for CONCORDIA on bronzes of the co-emperors.

BMC-; Varbanov (E) III-; Mionnet Supp.II-; Mushmov "Les Monnaies Antiques de Philippopolis" (1924) -
2 commentsPetrus Elmsley
moushmov_89.png
Philippopolis Marcus Aurelius Q. Tullius Maximus42 viewsAE30 16.8g

Marcus Aurelius

Philippopolis

Q. Tullius Maximus (161-9 AD)


Ob: AV K]AI M AVPH | ANTΩNEINOC
Bare head right

Rev: HΓE TO[VΛ MAΞIMOV A]ΠOΔVΠA ΦIΛIΠΠO
Emperor dressed in military attire standing right, holding inversed spear in right hand, parazonium in left,right foot on disproportionately small captive.

Mushmov (1924) p. 223 #89; Varbanov (E) III 797 not depicted; RPC Antonine project-; BMC -: Mionnet Supp II-; SNG Cop.-

This coin exhibits the AΠOΔ VΠA title abbreviated for apod(edeigmenou) hupa(tou) denoting Tullius Maximus as the consul designatus
Petrus Elmsley
HadrianopolisSebasteMaximus.JPG
Phrygia, Hadrianopolis Sebaste. Maximus Caesar AE2052 viewsObv: K MAX IMOC. Bust of Maximus Caesar r., bare-headed, in cuirass and paludamentum.
Rev: ADRIAN EPI C' LOYKIOY. Tyche wearing polos, holding patera in r. and cornucopia in l.
20mm. 5.63gm.
IMHOOF RSN 1913 S67,187(1)
ancientone
SeptimiusPisidiaAntiochAE22.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. 105 viewsPisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. AE 22mm (5.21 gm). Obverse: Laureate, head left. Reverse: Mên standing facing, head right, foot on bucranium, holding sceptre and Nike on globe; cock at feet left. SNG France 3, 1118. Cleaning scratches, very fine. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Porcia_8.JPG
Porcia 8 serratus23 viewsPorcia 8 (118 BC) moneyer L. Porcius Licinius Mint-Narbo

Denarius Serratus
Ob: Helmeted head of Roma around LICI * L ∙ PORCI
Rev: Naked, bearded warrior in biga right, holding shield, carnyx and reigns in left hand and hurling spear with right hand, in exergue L ∙ LIC ∙ CN ∙ DO[M

BMCRR I 1187

Sydenham 520

Crawford 282/5

This reverse is said by Grueber to commemorate the victory in Gaul of Gnaeus Domitus Ahenobarbus, the father of the Censor, over the Allobroges and their ally, Bituitus, king of the Arverni, who was shortly afterwards taken prisoner by C Fabius Maximus and figured in Rome in his own chariot of silver at the triumph of Fabius.
The figure on the reverse is clearly a Gaul; Crawford does not think anything else can be stated definitely. Cf. Valerius Maximus ix.6.3 and Eutropius iv.22
Petrus Elmsley
PupienusMVTAVG.jpg
Pupienus Antoninianus96 viewsPupienus silver antoninianus, Rome mint, weight 2.927g, maximum diameter 22.0mm, die axis 180o,
O: IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: AMOR MVTVVS AVGG (Mutual Love of the Emperors), clasped hands.
- SRCV III 8518; RIC IV, part 2, 9b; RSC III 2; BMCRE VI 82, ex-Forvm.

A.D. 238 was the year of six emperors. Maximinus Thrax was killed (along with his son Maximus Caesar) when his soldiers mutinied. Gordian II was killed in battle. Gordian I hanged himself. Pupienus and Balbinus were beaten and dragged naked through the streets of Rome before being killed by the Praetorians. Gordian III lived to become sole emperor.

The ironic reverse of this coin refers to the mutual affection and friendship of the emperors Balbinus and Pupienus. Because they were quarreling they were unable to put up a joint defense against the praetorians. They were both murdered after a reign of only 99 days. - FAC
3 commentsNemonater
coin92.jpg
Ref Maximus AE Sestertius, RIC 13, Cohen 14, 10 viewsRef Maximus AE Sestertius, RIC 13, Cohen 14,
BMC 213Maximus Caesar Æ Sestertius.
MAXIMVS CAES GERM, draped bust right /
PRICIPI IVVENTVTIS S-C, Maximus standing left
with baton & spear, standards behind.
RIC 13, Cohen 14. Coin #92
cars100
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RIC 002130 viewsDomitian AR Denarius, 81 CE (Group 3)
3.24g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Curule chair, wreath above
RIC 21 (R2). BMC p. 299 note. RSC 58
Ex: Harry N. Sneh Collection
Ex: David Atherton Collection



Though I already had an example of RIC 21, when this became available I had to have it. First of all it is a rare PONT denarius. This refers to the use of PONT in the obverse legend. The speculation is that PONT was used before Domitian was officially named Pontifex Maximus.

Another reason I wanted the coin is the condition. Just look at that expressive portrait. These early portraits of Domitian have a lot of character. 

Another reason I wanted the coin is that it was once owned by Mr. Harry Sneh. After Mr. Sneh passed away his collection was dispersed to many other collectors through auctions. Mr. Sneh certainly had good taste in coins. He also had many rarities such as this coin.

This coin rates as R2 or very few examples known to the authors of RIC II part 1 (Carradice and Buttrey, 2007). I have 1, there is one in Vienna, one in Copenhagen (RIC), and one at Albert-Ludwigs university (OCRE). I have not been able to find any others.

I would love to add more of these PONT denarii to my collection.
2 commentsorfew
Screen_Shot_2019-10-07_at_11_24_26_AM.jpg
RIC 003427 viewsDomitian AR Denarius, 81 CE (Group 3)
3.23g
Rome mint, 81 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG PONT; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS VII DES VIII P P; Seat, draped; above, winged thunderbolt
RIC 34 (R3). BMC -. RSC -
Ex: Harry N. Sneh Collection.
Ex: David Atherton Collection




This very rare denarius of Domitian was struck in 81 CE, Domitian's first year as Augustus. Just how rare is this coin? It is marked as R3- one example known to Carradice and Buttrey, the authors of RIC II part 1 (2007). This coin appears to be a double die match for the RIC plate coin. This is hardly surprising. It would have been surprising if this coin had different dies which would have suggested a larger mintage. This coin appears to be the second one known of its type.

It is also not surprising that this coin is a PONT denarius. Many of the rarest issues in 81 CE are PONT denarii. These coins are particularly prized by collectors because of their rarity and because they are interesting. It is surmised that the use of PONT in the obverse legend was used before Domitian officially took the title of PM or Pontifex Maximus. In fact PM is used in many of the obverse legends in the 4 groups of denarii struck for Domitian in 81 CE.

There is another reason that I am thrilled to have this coin-the provenance. This coin was part of the collection of Harry Sneh. Mr. Sneh was a well known collector who had collected many interesting Flavian coins. After his passing, the coins were distributed in auctions. Mr. Sneh had a great eye for coins and I would love to have more from his collection. In fact, when I acquired this coin it came with another PONT denarius that was also once the property of Harry Sneh.

This will take an important place in my coins of Domitian collection.
1 commentsorfew
RIC_817_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 0817 Vespasianus142 viewsObv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M T P P P COS VI, Laureate head right
Rev: S C (in exergue), The temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus: Hexastyle temple within which, statue of Jupiter seated facing flanked by statues of Juno and Minerva standing facing; on either side of the temple, a statue. The pediment is decorated with statues of the Capitoline Triad and other figures; roof surmounted by quadriga on top, and eagles on either side.
AE/Sestertius (33.19 mm 24.39 gr 6h) Struck in Rome 75 A.D.
RIC 817 (R3, same obverse die), BMCRE-BNF unisted
ex N.A.C. Auction 100 part 2 lot 1810
8 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
DomitianCistophorus.jpg
RIC 0841 Domitian Cistophorus133 viewsIMP CAES DOMITIAN AVG P M COS VIII
laureate head of Domitian to right

CA PIT across field, RESTIT in exergue
tetrastyle temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus, containing statues of the Capitoline Triad, Jupiter seated left between standing figures of Juno and Minerva

Ephesus or more likely Rome for circulation in the East
A.D. 82

Rare
10.83g

RIC 841 (C), S.2715, BMC 251, RSC 23, RPC 864

From the MS collection
Ex-G&M auction 147 lot 1813 March 2006
Ex-Calgary Coin
4 commentsJay GT4
magnusmax.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - MAGNUS MAXIMUS21 viewsMAGNUS MAXIMUS (383-388) AE2. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right. Reverse - REPARATIO REIPVB, Magnus standing left, raising kneeling captive, LVG below. RIC 32. 22mm, 3.9g. Lugdunum mint.dpaul7
Philip_I_Antoninianus__Liberalitas.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE / Emperor Philip I , The Syrian.60 viewsPhilip I, 244 - 249 A.D. Silver Antoninianus.
Obverse: “IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG ” Radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: “LIBERALITAS AVGG II” Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
Rome mint , 244 - 247 A.D., XF .
RIC 38b.
4.99 grams, 21 millimeters
EX CNG 328, part of Lot 761.
High relief portrait.

Marcus Julius Phillipus was born around 204 A.D. His father was a Syrian chieftain named Marinus, and Phillip became known as , as he was the first man of that race to hold the imperial power. Phillip was the deputy praetorian prefect (leader of the emperor’s bodyguards) under Gordian III, and accompanied that emperor on his Eastern Campaigns. In 243, Phillip became praetorian prefect in place of Timesitheus, whom he was accused of murdering. He promptly proceeded to incite the legions to mutiny, and became emperor in 244 A.D., upon Gordian’s death.
Faced with the dilemma of whether to pursue Roman success against Persia, or to return to Rome and consolidate his power, Phillip quickly put together a treaty with the Persians and returned to Rome. In 246 and 247, Phillip won battles against the Germans and the Carpi, and took the titles Germanicus Maximus and Carpicus Maximus. Using his newfound popularity, Phillip took the opportunity to raise his son, Phillip II, to the rank of Augustus. In 248, Rome selebrated her 1000’th anniversary. This was the highpoint of Phillip’s reign.
That same year, no fewer then three generals rose separate rebellions. Phillip sent the city prefect, Trajan Decius, to deal with the uprisings, and the general disaffection of the legions in the East. Decius was proclaimed emperor by his troops in 249 A.D., and would defeat and kill Phillip at Verona.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
1 commentsSam
cl3.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Claudius, AE Dupondius110 viewsMint:Roma
41/42 AD(D.Sear)
Dimensions:27mm/14.11grms,état:TTB
Obverse:TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP PP
"Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestate Imperator Pater Patriae "
Reverse: LIBERTAS AVGUSTA/ S C
Réf: Cohen47(2f)-RIC113-RCV1860
Conservation:TTB

2 commentsmoneta romana
CL1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Claudius, AE Sestertius60 viewsMint:Roma
41/ 42AD
Dimensions 35mm/26.7grms état de conservation:TTB/TB+
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR. AVG. P. M. TR. P. IMP.
“Tiberius Claudius Cæsar Augustus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas Imperator
Reverse : SPES AVGVSTA// S.C.
“Spes Augusta”
Réf:C.85 (4f.) - RIC.99 - BMC/RE.192 - BN/R.165 - RCV.1853
Conservation:TB+

moneta romana
bpS1O8Gallienus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Gallienus (254-268)52 viewsObv: GALLIENVS P F AVG
Radiate and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: VICT GERMANICA
Victory on globe advancing right with trophy over left shoulder. Captives seated left and right.
Antoninianus, 3.7 gm, 21.8 mm, Cologne RIC 49.
Commentary: Celebrates his expulsion of the Jethungi from Italy.
History (As co-Augustus, 253-260): He was raised to the rank of co-Augustus in 253 by his father, Valerian, and tasked to bring order to the Western half of the Empire. Until 256 he concentrated his efforts against the barbarian hordes crossing the Danube. Having largely met with success, he then turned to the Rhine where until 258, he continued his string of successes in securing the borders against the German invasions. Between 255 and 258, the Senate awarded him the title of Germanicus Maximus five times for his stupendous victories and a belated Dacicus Maximus in 257. In 258 he returned to the Danube to meet fresh incursions by the Goths. In the following year, the Jethungi crossed the Upper Danube and invaded Italy forcing Gallienus to return to the homeland. Initial success was met at Milan followed by complete victory in early 260 at Augsburg with the recovery of thousands of Roman captives. But those successes were marred by the capture of his father by Shapur I.
Massanutten
GERM.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Germanicus, AE As, struck by Claudius, RIC 106198 viewsMint:Roma
42 AD .
Dimensions: 29.8mm/9,66grms ,
Obverse: GERMANICVS CAESAR TI AVG F DIVI AVG N "Germanicus Caesar Tiberius Augustus Filius Divi Augusti Nostri)
Reverse:TI CLAVDIUS AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P"Tiberius Claudius Augustus Germanicus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestate Imperator Pater Patriae/ S.C
Réf:C.9(3f) RIC106 RCV1905
Conservation:TTB
Struck by Claudius in memory of his brother
2 commentsmoneta romana
magmaxweb.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Magnus Maximus - VICTORIA39 viewsAttribution:RIC 33:Cohen 10:Sear 4204
Mint:Lugdunum(Lyon)
Obv.DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG Diademed,draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.VICTOR_IA AVGG Emperor standing,head left,holding victory and standard
Ex.LVGP
AE2 23mm
Comments:Rarer reverse type
black-prophet
101C.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua87 viewsRIC IX 84b1 Trier, RSC 20a
2.07 g, 17 mm
D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe & spear
TRPS in exergue
1 commentsMark Z
bpLRE1G1MagMax.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Magnus Maximus, Ae2, Arelate, RIC IX 26(a), LRBC 554, 383-87 AD33 viewsObv: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: REPARATIO REIPVB
The emperor standing left, holding Victory and raising kneeling woman.
4.75 gm, 22.1 mm, Exergue: PCON
Massanutten
bpLRE1G1aMagMax.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Magnus Maximus, Ae2, Arelate, RIC IX 26(a), LRBC 554, 383-87 AD29 viewsObv: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: REPARATIO REIPVB
The emperor standing left, holding Victory and raising kneeling woman.
4.8 gm, 22.7 mm, Exergue: PCON
Massanutten
bpLRE1G3MagMax.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Magnus Maximus, Ae4, Arelate, RIC 29(a) (C), LRBC 560, 387-88 AD39 viewsObv: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: SPES ROMANORVM
Four tiered campgate with two beacons and star above.
1.2 gm 13.5 mm Exergue: PCON
Massanutten
bpS1M3MaximinusThrax2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus I Thrax (235-238)106 viewsObv: IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: SALVS AVGVSTI
Salus seated left, feeding serpent rising from altar.
Denarius, 3 gm, 19mm, Rome RIC 14
History: Proclaimed Emperor by the Legions of the Rhine after they murdered Severus Alexander. He remained popular with the Army, but eventually lost the support of the Patricians and the Senate because of his oppressive domestic policies and declared a public enemy. In response to this and the Senate's recognition of opposition Augustii, he decided to crush Italy, but became bogged down in the unsuccessful siege of Aquilea in Northern Italy. Maximinus and his son, Maximus, were murdered by his troops who were discontent over the invasion of the homeland and likely encouraged by Rome to revolt.
Massanutten
coins1 100.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximinus II Caesar46 viewsmaximinus II,as caesar, 308-310 A.D.
OBV: GAL VAL MAXIMINVS NOB CAES, laureate head right
REV: GENIO CAESARIS CMH, Genius standing left with modius on head, patera from which liquor flows, & cornucopiae.
EX: SMNT(Nicomedia (Izmit, Turkey)
ancientcoins
5zusa.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximus Caesar, AE Sestertius15 viewsNumis-Student
Maximus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximus Caesar, AR Denarius147 viewsMaximus 235-236 A.D.

Obv: MAXIMVS CAES GERM
Rev: PRINC IVVENTVTIS
RIC IV ii : 3
1 commentsBarry
maximusprincRIC3~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximus Caesar, AR Denarius108 viewsMaximus (Caesar, 235/6-238). AR Denarius Rome mint, 236-7.
O: MAXIMVS CAES GERM; Bareheaded and draped bust right
R: PRINC IVVENTVTIS; Maximus standing left, holding baton and spear; two signa to right
- RIC IV 3
3 commentsNemonater
0252-310.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, MAXIMUS sestertius RIC 13417 viewsRome mint, AD 236-238
MAXIMVS CAES GERM, Draped bust of Maximus right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, Maximus standing left with two standards behind him, SC in field
18.64 gr
Ref : RIC # 13, RCV #8411, Cohen #14
6 commentsPotator II
sestertius15.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximus, Rome mint, struck 236-238 AD, AE Sestertius31 viewsMAXIMVS CAES GERM bare-headed and draped bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, S-C Maximus standing left
RIC 13, Cohen 14
dupondius
Maximus01.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Maximus, Rome mint, struck 236-238 AD, Æ Sestertius308 viewsMAXIMVS CAES GERM bare-headed and draped bust right
PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS, S-C Maximus standing left
RIC 13, Cohen 14 (10 Fr.)
dupondius
190208018bz.jpg
Roman Empire, Maximus, Sestertius196 viewsObv. MAXIMVS CAES GERM, draped bust right.
Rev. PRINCIPI IVVENTVTIS S C, emperor standing left, holding baton and spear, at the right two standards.
Mint: Rome, 236-238 AD.

32mm 21.38g

RIC 13; Cohen 14; BMC 213

Ex Münzenhandlung Manfred Olding, Lagerliste
Ex Reusing /Schürer Collection
Ex Münzenhandlung A. Riechman 1930 (65 Reichsmark)

Princeps Juventutis was a name of dignity even in the most flourishing days of the republic. It was an honorary appellation given to him who took the lead of the greater and lesser boys appointed to perform a part in the game of Troy (ad ludum Troja). The prince of the youth was, in the earlier times, the chief of the Equestrian Order. Under the empire, and from the very commencement of that monarchical form of government, this title, although simply honorary, appears to have been given, as an apanage, to such young princes of the imperial family as were destined to reign, and was sometimes conferred on them at a very early age. (Numiswiki, FAC)
6 commentskc
a12.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Vespasian49 viewsVespasian Den "Lituus, et al" NICE Ancient Roman Coin Vespasian AD 69-79 Silver Denarius "The priestly instruments I use as Pontifex Maximus." Obv: IMP CAES VESPA AVG P M - Laureate head right. Rev: AVGVR TRI POT - Simpulum, aspergillum, jug and lituus. Rome mint: AD 70-72 = RIC II, 30, page 18 - Cohen 43 - SEAR RCV I (2000), #2282, page 435 Mike Deigan
Divo_Victorino_Pio_Consacratio~0.JPG
Roman Empire, VICTORINUS. Commemorative AE antoninianus of Cologne. Struck A.D.271 under Tetricus I.48 viewsObverse: DIVO VICTORINO PIO. Radiate head of Victorinus facing right.
Reverse: CONSACRATIO. Eagle facing right, head turned left, standing on globe and holding wreath in beak.
Diameter: 18mm | Weight: 2.4gms | Die Axis: 6
RIC Vii : 85 | AGK 1 | Elmer 785 | Cunetio 2633
VERY RARE

A.D.271
Early in this year Victorinus was assassinated by Attitianus, an actuarius (regimental quartermaster), reportedly for reasons of personal revenge but more likely part of an officer coup. The most likely interpretation of the evidence is that Domitianus II was involved in this officer coup and, having presumably been hailed as Emperor by some of the troops, managed to secure temporary control of one of the 'Gallic' mints. However, those forces favouring Tetricus I as the new Emperor were able to assert themselves so swiftly and decisively that Domitianus’s elevation was unlikely to have lasted more than a few days. This coin, deifying Victorinus, was struck by Tetricus I towards the end of the year.
This year too, Aurelian, the central emperor, pushed the Vandals back from Pannonia and forced them to withdraw over the Danube. He also pursued the Alamanni who had entered Lombardy, closed the passes in the Alps and encircled the invaders near Pavia. The Alamanni were destroyed and Aurelian received the title Germanicus Maximus.
Also this year, Felicissimus, financial minister of the state treasury, led an uprising of mint workers in Rome against Aurelian but he was defeated and killed on the Caelian Hill.
3 comments*Alex
IMG-20180410-WA0021.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORIAL, Julius Caesar, AR Denarius28 viewsRome. The Imperators.
Julius Caesar, 49-44 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.93 g; 19mm).
Military mint travelling with Caesar, 49-48 BCE.

Obverse: Elephant walking right, trampling serpent; CAESAR in exergue.

Reverse: Simpulum, aspergillum, axe and apex.

References: Crawford 443/1: HCRI 9; Sydenham 1006; Julia 9.

Provenance: Ex Ploil Collection [NAC 101 (24 Oct 2017), Lot 10]; privately purchased December 1980.

Caesar’s “elephant” issue was massive, with Crawford estimating 750 obverse and 833 reverse dies. Stylistic variations range from elephants depicted accurately to elephants with pig-like characteristics. The CAESAR inscriptions on the well-executed elephant varieties typically have letters with serifs; while inscriptions on the piggish varieties have letters without serifs. Woytek believes the series was struck in Gallia Narbonensis and Hispania Citerior in circa 49BC during Caesar’s campaign against Pompey loyalists in Spain. Other scholars, like Crawford and Sear, believe the issue was commenced shortly after Caesar invaded Italy in 49 and continued until the defeat of Pompey at Pharsalus in 48 BCE. What’s clear is that Caesar struck these coins without authority, as he did not hold the office of moneyer or legate. As for interpretation of this coin type, many scholars, including Crawford and Sear, interpret the obverse (elephant trampling the serpent) as representing good (Caesar) triumphing over evil. Michael Harlan interprets the obverse as blaming the civil war on Pompey’s faction; the elephant representing Pompey’s supporter, Metellus Pius Scipio (whose family badge, frequently seen on Metellan coins, is an elephant), trampling the snake symbol of Salus, the health and safety of Rome. The reverse clearly depicts the emblems of the priesthood and alludes to Caesar’s office of pontifex maximus.
1 commentsCarausius
10412s00.jpg
Roman imperial seal of Maximinus I and Maximus Caesar267 viewsRoman lead seal of Maximinus I AD 235-238
Draped and laureate bust of Maximinus to r., confronted by draped, bareheaded bust of Maximus Caesar to l.; above, P and an uncertain letter to the right
17x16x4; 3.23g. Dutch private collection.


3 commentsGert
magnus.jpg
Roman Magnus Maximus AE48 viewsMagnus Maximus, AE4, 11-12 mm. Aquileia. 387-388 AD.

Obv: DN MAG MA(-XIMVS PF AVG), diademed, draped and
cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SPES ROMANORVM , Campgate, 6 rows, two turrets with beacons, star above.
Mintmark SMAQS,

RIC IX Aquileia 55a; Sear 20657.

Scarce.
Tanit
Screenshot_2019-03-28_11_16_53.png
Roman Provincial, Bithynia, Maximus, AE24 - 4 Assarion, Unpublished, Added to the Wildwinds site.9 viewsNicomedia, 235-238 A.D. 6.25g - 23.9mm, Axis 5h.

Obv: Γ IOY OYH MAZIMOC K / Δ - Bare-headed, draped cuirassed bust right. Countermark: Δ (Denomination).

Rev: NIKOMHΔEΩN ΔIC NEΩKOΡΩN - Nemesis holding scales and cubit-rule, wheel at feet.

RecGen 352 var (Dikaoisyne with scales and cornucopiae). Unpublished. Not in RecGen, RecGen Additions, Isegrim, SNG Turkey volumes.
Very Rare.
Christian Scarlioli
image00236.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - L. Piso Frugi - AR Denarius27 viewsRome, The Republic
L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 BCE.
AR Denarius (4.01g; 18mm)
Rome mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right; VII (control mark) behind.

Rev: Rider with palm on horse galloping right; VII (control mark) above; L PISO FRVG below; Roma monogram in exergue.

References: Crawford 340/1; Sydenham 661; Banti 44/1 (this coin illustrated); BMCRR 1900; Calpurnia 11.

Provenance: Ex Stoeklin Collection [Nomos 14 (17 May 2017) Lot 236; ex Haeberlin Collection [Cahn-Hess (17 Jul 1933) Lot 1184].

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi was moneyer in 90 BCE, during the time of the Social War. He later attained the office of Praetor in 74 BCE, but did not appear to distinguish himself further.

The Social War was a civil war between Rome and her Italian allies who had broken-away in a demand for citizenship rights. It was a time of massive coinage output by the Rome mints, likely to pay the costs associated with the conflict. As a result, Frugi’s coins are among the most common in the entire Roman Republican series. Crawford estimates 864 obverse and 1080 reverse dies were used to produce Frugi’s denarii. Both obverse and reverse dies bear control marks of varying complexity, and no control mark has more than one die.

This type alludes to the annual celebration of the Ludi Apollinares instituted by Frugi’s ancestor during the Second Punic War. These games were held at the Circus Maximus in July of each year and lasted 8 or 9 days, consisting of horse racing and performances.
1 commentsCarausius
1680698l.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC - L. Piso Frugi - AR Denarius18 viewsRome, The Republic
L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.90 g; 19mm)
Rome mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right; Q (control mark) behind head and D (control mark) under chin.

Rev: Rider with palm on horse galloping right; L PISO FRVG below; E (control mark) in exergue.

References: Crawford 340/1; Sydenham 665a; Banti 89/6; Calpurnia 11.

Provenance: Ex Student and Mentor Collection [NAC 83 (20 May 2015) Lot 322; ex Nicolas Collection [Leu 17 (May 1977) Lot 337].

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi was moneyer in 90 BCE, during the time of the Social War. He later attained the office of Praetor in 74 BCE, but did not appear to distinguish himself further.

The Social War was a civil war between Rome and her Italian allies who had broken-away in a demand for citizenship rights. It was a time of massive coinage output by the Rome mints, likely to pay the costs associated with the conflict. As a result, Frugi's coins are among the most common in the entire Roman Republican series. Crawford estimates 864 obverse and 1080 reverse dies were used to produce Frugi's denarii. Both obverse and reverse dies bear control marks of varying complexity, and no control mark has more than one die.

This type alludes to the annual celebration of the Ludi Apollinares instituted by Frugi's ancestor during the Second Punic War. These games were held at the Circus Maximus in July of each year and lasted 8 or 9 days, consisting of horse racing and performances.
Carausius
3640169.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Censorinus, AE As - Crawford 346/4a10 viewsRome, The Republic.
C. Censorinus, 88 BCE.
AE As (11.73g; 27mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: NVMA POMPILI ANCVS MARCI; Jugate heads of Pompilius and Ancus Marcius facing right.

Reverse: Prows of crossing ships; to right, a spiral column surmounted by statue of Victory; C.CENSO and ROMA in field.

References: Crawford 346/4a; RBW 1321; Sydenham 715; BMCRR 2415-2418; Marcia 21.

Provenance: Ex RBW Collection [CNG e-Sale 364 (2 Dec 2015), Lot 169]; purchased privately from Frank Kovacs, 3/27/1992.

The moneyer, C. Marcius Censorinus, was a supporter of Marius in the struggle against Sulla. He was killed during the conflict circa 82 BCE. He was a member of the gens Marcia, who claimed descent from the early Roman kings Numa Pompilius and Ancus Marcius. The jugate heads of Pomplius and Marcius are used on much of Censorinus’ silver and bronze coinage. Numa Pompilius was the legendary 2nd king of Rome, who is crediting with establishment of Roman religion and religious institutions. Among these institutions were the sacred college of priests and the position of Pontifex Maximus. Ancus Marcius was the legendary 4th king of Rome. Ancus Marcius ordered the Pontifex Maximus to display some of Numa Pompilius’ religious commentaries to the people of Rome to facilitate proper religious observance.

The reverse of the coin may refer to a naval victory of one of the moneyer’s ancestors, though the precise victory is uncertain.

3 commentsCarausius
1525025004332976248117.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Piso Frugi, AR Denarius21 viewsRome. The Republic.
Caius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 61-59 BCE
AR Denarius (3.96g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Laureate head of Apollo facing right; wheel with four spokes (control mark), behind.

Reverse: Horse with rider carrying palm, galloping right; II or П above; C PISO L F FRVG, below.

References: Crawford 408/1a (O17/R31); Sydenham 850f; Hersh O-17/R-1023; Banti 245/2 (this coin illustrated); Calpurnia 24.

Provenance: Ex Naville Numismatics 39 (29 Apr 2018), Lot 472; DeFalco FPL 80 (1968); Munzen und Medaillen XVII (2-4 Dec 1957), Lot 185.

Caius Piso Frugi, was the son of Lucius Piso Frugi who produced a huge coinage during the Social War in 90 BCE. Caius was son-in-law to Cicero, marrying Cicero’s daughter Tullia in 63 BCE. He was quaestor in 58 BCE, during which time he fought hard for repeal of Cicero’s exile. He died in 57 BCE, just before Cicero returned to Rome. Cicero thought very highly of him.

Crawford dated Caius’ coinage to 67 BCE, the year of his engagement to Tullia. The near mint state condition of Caius’ coins in the Mesagne Hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of Caius’ mint magistracy toward the close of the hoard material, circa 61 BCE. In “Roman Republican Moneyers and Their Coins” (2nd ed.), Michael Harlan suggests a slightly later date of 59 BCE, which would be the latest possible date for the series given the hard dates of Caius’ quaestorship in 58 and death in 57.

With his coinage, Caius reissued the coin types of his father which allude to the celebration of the Ludi Apollinares instituted by Frugi's ancestor during the Second Punic War. These games were held at the Circus Maximus in July of each year and lasted 8 or 9 days, consisting of horse racing and performances.

While his father’s 90 BCE coinage was hurriedly and sloppily produced due to wartime exigency (dies were often used to the brink of destruction), Caius’ coinage was considerably well made – struck in high relief and good style. Reverse dies were convex – resulting in characteristic “cupped” reverses – to fully-strike the high relief obverses. Obverses are in two varieties: the first, with Apollo’s hair bound with a fillet or taenia; the second with his hair laureate. Hersh (1976) knew of 204 obverse dies. Laureate dies are considerably fewer than fillet/taenia dies. The reverses are quite varied, depicting the horsemen wearing various caps or capless and carrying whip, torch, palm or nothing. Hersh knew of 232 reverse dies. Obverse and reverse dies bear a series of control marks consisting of symbols, letters, Greek and Roman numbers and fractional signs. The obverse/reverse die links in the series are very random within the estimated three workshops, and are considered evidence for the “die box” method of die management by the mint officials.
1 commentsCarausius
1995381.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, C. Piso Frugi, AR Denarius10 viewsRome. The Republic.
Caius Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 61-59 BCE
AR Denarius (3.98g; 18mm).
Rome Mint.

Obverse: Head of Apollo facing right, hair tied with fillet or taenia; eagle head (control mark), behind.

Reverse: Horse and rider galloping right; C PISO L F FRV, below; grain ear in exergue.

References: Crawford 408/1b; Sydenham 841d; Hersh O-252/R-2060; Banti 196 (this coin illustrated); Calpurnia 24.

Provenance: Ex JD Collection [NAC 78 (26 May 2014) Lot 447]; ex A. Galerie des Monnaies Geneva (Nov 1976), No. 33.

Caius Piso Frugi, was the son of Lucius Piso Frugi who produced a huge coinage during the Social War in 90 BCE. Caius was son-in-law to Cicero, marrying Cicero’s daughter Tullia in 63 BCE. He was quaestor in 58 BCE, during which time he fought hard for repeal of Cicero’s exile. He died in 57 BCE, just before Cicero returned to Rome. Cicero thought very highly of him.

Crawford dated Caius’ coinage to 67 BCE, the year of his engagement to Tullia. The near mint state condition of Caius’ coins in the Mesagne Hoard caused Hersh and Walker to bring down the date of Caius’ mint magistracy toward the close of the hoard material, circa 61 BCE. In “Roman Republican Moneyers and Their Coins” (2nd ed.), Michael Harlan suggests a slightly later date of 59 BCE, which would be the latest possible date for the series given the hard dates of Caius’ quaestorship in 58 and death in 57.

With his coinage, Caius reissued the coin types of his father which allude to the celebration of the Ludi Apollinares instituted by Frugi's ancestor during the Second Punic War. These games were held at the Circus Maximus in July of each year and lasted 8 or 9 days, consisting of horse racing and performances.

While his father’s 90 BCE coinage was hurriedly and sloppily produced due to wartime exigency (dies were often used to the brink of destruction), Caius’ coinage was considerably well made – struck in high relief and good style. Reverse dies were convex – resulting in characteristic “cupped” reverses – to fully-strike the high relief obverses. Obverses are in two varieties: the first, with Apollo’s hair bound with a fillet or taenia; the second with his hair laureate. Hersh (1976) knew of 204 obverse dies. Laureate dies are considerably fewer than fillet/taenia dies. The reverses are quite varied, depicting the horsemen wearing various caps or capless and carrying whip, torch, palm or nothing. Hersh knew of 232 reverse dies. Obverse and reverse dies bear a series of control marks consisting of symbols, letters, Greek and Roman numbers and fractional signs. The obverse/reverse die links in the series are very random within the estimated three workshops, and are considered evidence for the “die box” method of die management by the mint officials.
Carausius
33158.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, L. Piso Frugi, AR Denarius - Crawford 340/118 viewsRome, The Republic
L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi, 90 BCE.
AR Denarius (3.78g; 19mm)
Rome mint.

Obv: Laureate head of Apollo facing right; N (control mark) below chin.

Rev: Horseman galloping to right, holding whip; dolphin above; L·PISO·FRVG and ROMA below.

References: Crawford 340/1; Sydenham 658a; Hersh Class IV, Series 20.

Provenance: Ex Spink & Son Ltd; Mario Ratto Fixed Price List (Feb 1966) Lot 297.

Apparently overstruck with remnants of undertype visible on reverse.

L. Calpurnius Piso Frugi was moneyer in 90 BCE, during the time of the Social War. He later attained the office of Praetor in 74 BCE, but did not appear to distinguish himself further.

The Social War was a civil war between Rome and her Italian allies who had broken-away in a demand for citizenship rights. It was a time of massive coinage output by the Rome mints, likely to pay the costs associated with the conflict. As a result, Frugi’s coins are among the most common in the entire Roman Republican series. Crawford estimates 864 obverse and 1080 reverse dies were used to produce Frugi’s denarii. Both obverse and reverse dies bear control marks of varying complexity, and no control mark has more than one die. The earlier dies in the series which bear ROMA, either spelled-out (as on this coin) or in monogram, in the reverse exergue, are typically of finer style than the later dies without ROMA or monogram. For another fine-style example with ROMA in monogram form, see my gallery coin at: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-146453

This type alludes to the annual celebration of the Ludi Apollinares instituted by Frugi’s ancestor during the Second Punic War. These games were held at the Circus Maximus in July of each year and lasted 8 or 9 days, consisting of horse racing and performances.
2 commentsCarausius
43BC_Petillius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Petillius Capitolinus. AR denarius, Rome, 43 BC.43 viewsObv. Eagle standing on thunderbolt, wings spread, head right. Above PETILLIVS, under CAPITOLINVS.
Rev. Hexastyle temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Palatine with armed figures on the pediment.
Ref. Albert 1544, Crawford 487/2, Sear 486.
19 mm
1 commentsBohemond
Crawford-265_1.jpg
Roman Republic: Q. Fabius Maximus (127 BCE) AR Denarius, Rome (Crawford 265/1; Sydenham 478; Fabia 5)24 viewsObv: Helmeted head of Roma right; mark of value below chin; ROMA behind, Q. MAX before
Rev: Cornucopia over thunderbolt; all within wreath


2 commentsQuant.Geek
claude_Avers_hightF.jpg
Roman, Claudius, Amazing "Medallic" Clavdivs472 viewsAS
Mint: Roma
41 AD
Dimensions: 32mm/17,52grms ( theorical weight: 10,82grms)
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG PM TR P IMP
"Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Pontifex Maximus Tribunitia Potestas Imperator".
Reverse: S-C
"Senatus Consulto"
Réf : Cohen 84 var. (f.) - RIC. 100 - BMC. 149 - BN. 179.
Conservation: SUP
to see the reverse follow this link:
http://storage.canalblog.com/85/25/140642/30815258.jpg
6 commentsmoneta romana
RRC413-1.jpg
RRC413/1 (L. Cassius Longinus)41 viewsbv. Anepigraphic, draped vestal virgin facing left, shallow vessel (culullus) behind, control letter (L?) before; punch marks.
Rev. Male togate figure left, left hand on hips, right hand placing a tablet inscribed with V(ti rogas) in a cista. LONGIN(VS) IIIV(ir) ro right.
Rome, 63 B.C. or 52 B.C.
RRC 413/1, Sear 364, RSC Cassia 10

This coin was struck by the brother of the famous Cassius who, with Brutus, was the head of the conspiracy to kill Caesar. L. Cassius rose to proconsul under Caesar, and was Tribune of the People in 44 B.C. He was later reconciled to the triumvirs, however (Appian B.C. 5.7).

On both sides of the coin, the allusion is made to L. Cassius Longinus Ravilla (cos. 127 B.C.; censor 125 B.C.), who was responsible for the condemnation of wayward Vestals, which had previously been acquitted by the Pontifex Maximus (Cassius Dio 26.87, Asconius, Comm. in Pis. 32). The penalty for the Vestals would have been live burial, and for their accomplices, death by flogging.

While he was a tribune of the people (137 B.C.), Cassius Longinus introduced the secret vote for jury trials (following the Lex Gabinia of 139 B.C., which had made the vote at elections secret). This made Cicero (consul the year this coin seems to have been struck) see Ravilla as a traitor to the Boni (Cicero, de leg. 3.35, pro Sest. 48.103). The scene thus shows a voter placing a tablet marked with Vti Rogas ("as you ask", "aye") in the polling box. A "nay" would have been marked "A(ntiquo)".
Syltorian
coins276.JPG
Selinus,Cilicia, Maximus. Caesar16 viewsobv:
rev: TRAIANO SELINOYSIÔ
Demeter(?) and Kore(?) veiled
SNG Levante
ecoli
Septimius_Severus_Urbs.jpg
Septimius Severus Denarius Urbs18 viewsAR Denarius
Septimius Severus, 193-211 CE
Diameter: 18 mm, Weight: 3.23 grams, Die axis: 6h

Obverse: SEVERVS AVG PART MAX
Laureate bust to right.

Reverse: RESTITVTOR VRBIS
Severus, wearing military dress, standing left and sacrificing over tripod while holding spear.

Mint: Rome

Notes:
- Refers to the urban renewal program begun in Rome circa 201 CE
- Severus was awarded the title of Parthia Maximus in 198 CE
- Severus denarii minted after 198 had a target weight of 3.4 grams and a silver purity of 56%.

Ex Colonial Coins & Medals, Brisbane 2011
Pharsalos
sept_severus_167a.jpg
Septimius Severus RIC IV, 167a24 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AR - denarius, 3.53g, 18.0mm, 180°
Rome, AD 200/01
obv. SEVERVS AVG - PART MAX
Head, laureate, r.
rev. RESTITVTOR - VRBIS
Emperor in military cloak and with boots, stg. l., holding inverted spear in raised l. hand and sacrificing from
patera in r. hand over flaming tripod
ref. RIC IV/1, 167a; C. 599; BMCR 203, pl. 32, 2
VF+, small flan crack at 4 o'clock, impressive portrait!
From Forum Ancient Coins, thanks!

The title PARTHICUS MAXIMUS Severus got in January 198 after the 2nd Parthian War whose victory (Victoria Parthica) was celebrated in Rome on 28. Jan. AD 198.
RESTITVTOR VRBIS at Severus means putting things in the order in which he felt they ought to be, not just that in which they had been before. He was no conservative by nature (BMCR V, p.cxli)
Jochen
Septimius_Severus.jpg
Septimius Severus, RIC 176, 211 AD, Rome10 viewsLaureate head of Septimius Severus right. Two captives, each wearing pointed cap and draped to ankles, seated in mourning aptitude back to back, left and right of central trophy.

SEVERVS PIVS AVG
PART MAX P M TR P VIIII
Severus the godly revered emperor.
Greatest conqueror of the Parthians Pontifex Maximus Tribune of the People for the 9th time.
Jonathan N
GRATIAN_AE2_BSISC.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. GRATIAN. AE2 of Siscia4 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Gratian standing facing, holding Victory on globe in his left hand and raising kneeling turreted female figure with his right; in exergue, BSISC.
RIC IX : 26a | LRBC : 1512-18

The son of Valentinian I and Severa, Flavius Gratianus was born around A.D.360. He was murdered at Lugdunum by supporters of Magnus Maximus on 25th August, A.D.383.
*Alex
Magnus_Maximus_AE2.JPG
Struck A.D.383 - 388. MAGNUS MAXIMUS. AE2 of Lugdunum (Lyons)4 viewsObverse: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Magnus Maximus facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Magnus Maximus standing facing left, holding Victory on globe in his left hand and reaching out with his right hand to raise kneeling turreted female figure facing right. In right field, P; in exergue, LVGP.
RIC IX : 32 | 5.0gms
SCARCE
*Alex
coins61.JPG
Syria, Apameia23 viewsApamea is located on the right bank of the Orontes river about 55 km to the north west of Hama. It overlooks the Ghab valley and was built by Seleucus Nicator, the first king of the Seleucids in Syria in 300 BC. He named it after his parisian wife, Afamea.

The city flourished to an extent that its population numbered half a million. As an Eastern crossroads, it received many distinguished visitors: Cleopetra, Septimus Severus and the Emperor Caracalla. In the Christian era, Apamea became a center of philosophy and thought, especially of Monophostism.

Most of the uncovered ruins in it date back to the Roman and Byzantine ages. It is distinguished for its high walls and the main thoroughfare surrounded by columns with twisted fluting. The street is 1850 meters long and 87 meters wide. The ruins of the Roman theater which have been frequently disturbed, are now a great mass of stone.

Its colonnade (The Cardo Maximus) is 145 meters long. Erected in the 2nd century, it was destroyed in the 12th century by two violent earthquakes; some columns are still standing nevertheless.

To the west of the city, stands the Mudiq citadel, which once formed a defense line along the Orontes.

Fierce battles with Crusaders attempting to conquer it took place in the 12th century, and Nour Eddin finally surrendered it in 1149.

The citadel has huge towers, overlooking the Ghab valley. It also has a Khan (Inn) built by Ottomans in the 16th century which was transformed into an archaeological museum housing Apamea's wonderful mosaics, paintings, and 15,000 cuneiform clay tablets.

Apameia, Syria: Athena / Nike

2nd c. BC. 22mm. Helmeted bust of Athena right / Nike walking left, As SG 5868 but variant legend. aVF. Ex-Sayles
ecoli
Crisis_and_Decline_Comp.jpg
The Year of the Six Emperors (And a Caesar) 60 viewsIn order from top left to right: Maximinus Thrax, murdered; Maximus Caesar, murdered; Gordian I suicide; Gordian II killed in battle; Pupienus, murdered; Balbinus, murdered; Gordian III, probably murdered but possibly died in battle. 4 commentsNemonater
067_Maximus_AE-23_C-IVL-VER-MAXIMVS-CAES_COL-F-L-PAC-DE-VLT_Deultum-Thrace_Mushmov-3660_Jurukova-228_235-237-AD_Q-001_1h_23mm_6,79g-s.jpg
Thrace, Deultum, 067 Maximus (235-238 A.D.), AE-23, Mushmov-3660, COL F L PAC DEVLT, River god reclining left,83 viewsThrace, Deultum, 067 Maximus (235-238 A.D.), AE-23, Mushmov-3660, COL F L PAC DEVLT, River god reclining left,
avers:- C-IVL-VER-MAXIMVS-CAES,Bare-headed, draped and cuirased bust right.
revers:- COL-F-L-PAC-DE-VLT, River god reclining left, holding reed and cornucopia, resting on urn from which waters flow.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 23 mm, weight:6,79g, axis:1h,
mint:Thrace, Deultum, date: 235-237 A.D., ref: Mushmov-3660, Jurukova-228,
Q-001
quadrans
Philippopolis_Q__Tullius_Maximus.jpg
Thrace, Philippopolis. Marcus Aurelius AE30. Q. Tullius Maximus Magistrate 47 viewsObv: ΑΥ ΚΑΙ Μ ΑΥΡΗ ΑΝΤΩΝΕΙΝΟΣ / bare head of Marcus Aurelius, r.
Rev: ΗΓΕ ΤΟΥΛ ΜΑZIΜΟΥ ΑΠΟΔ ΥΠΑ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΠΟΛΙ / Zeus seated, l., holding patera and long scepter.
Magistrate Quintus Tullius Maximus, Legatus Augusti pro praetore provinciae Thraciae.
30mm., 17.4g.
1 commentsancientone
Titus_PontifMaxim.jpg
Titus / Pontif Maxim Mule106 viewsTitus. As Caesar, AD 69-79. AR Denarius, Rome mint. Struck under Vespasian, AD 73.
O: Laureate head right; T CAES IMP VESP CENS
R: Vespasian seated right on curule chair, feet on footstool, holding scepter and olive branch.
- RIC II 554 (R) (Vespasian); BMC 113; RSC 158. Struck from the same obverse die as the aureus illustrated for Calicó 746.

An interesting mule. When this coin was struck, Titus was only Pontifex not Pontifex Maximus. The same reverse type was also struck for Titus with his correct titles, PONTIF TRI POT.
The reverse type clearly copies the PONTIF MAXIM Livia seated type of Tiberius. Vespasian may have copied this and other earlier aureus and denarius reverse types as restorations, since he was melting down and recoining the originals to take advantage of Nero's debasement of 64 AD. According to CClay, "Use of the SAME dies for both aurei and denarii was the rule up until Titus and continued in some issues until about Hadrian. Thereafter the style and size of the two denominations diverged, though gold and silver QUINARII often continued to be struck from the same dies."
5 commentsNemonater
titus1.jpg
Titus 79-81 denarius39 viewsOb. IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIANV AVG P M Laurete bust right (Imperator Titus Caesar Vespasian Augustus Pontifex Maximus)
Rev. TR P V T IIII IMP X T III COS VI P P Semi nude Venus leaning on cippus holding helmet and spear
Ref RIC 9

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
T516.jpg
Titus RIC-516147 viewsAR Cistophorus, 10.55g
Rome mint (for Asia), 80-81 AD
Obv: IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M; Head of Titus, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: Aquila between two standards, one surmounted by a banner, the other by a hand
RIC 516 (R). BMC 149. RSC 398. RPC 861 (4 spec.). BNC -.
Ex CNG E400, 28 June 2017, lot 609.

A small issue of Asian cistophori were struck under Titus in 80 or 81 AD. Style and the six o'clock die axis point to Rome as the likely mint. Two types were coined for Titus - Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus and Aquila between two standards. These are the only coins of Titus that are identifiable as being struck after the fire of 80 since one of the types commemorates the restoration of the Capitoline Temple. The issue continued into Domitian's reign with the same two reverse types. The fact that Titus' cistophori are much rarer than those of Domitian may indicate they were struck near the end of Titus' reign in 81 rather than 80. The aquila between two standards copies similar reverse types from Nero's denarii and the bronze of Galba. The portraits on Titus' cistophori are in the same style as his pulvinaria denarii.

Struck in fine Roman style. Golden toned with hints of a rainbow hue.
11 commentsDavid Atherton
060617a.jpg
Titus, 24 June 79 - 13 September 81 A.D.25 views
SH70237. Silver denarius, RIC II, part 1, 124; RSC II 313a; BMCRE II 61;
BnF III 50; SRCV I 2515, F, nice portrait, toned, Rome mint, weight 3.418g,
maximum diameter 17.5mm, die axis 135o, 1 Jan - 30 Jun 80 A.D.;
obverse IMP TITVS CAES VESPASIAN P M•, laureate head right;
reverse TR P IX IMP XV COS VIII P P, facing empty throne of a deity (pulvinar)

with a triangular back, back ornamented with uncertain objects and a cross
at the peak, seat draped with a fringed cover

At the Circus Maximus, a stone platform (pulvinar) was raised high above the
track-side seats with empty thrones (also called pulvinar) for the gods to watch
the games. The imperial family watched from there, alongside the gods.
This coin, struck at the time the Colosseum opened, likely depicts one of the
seats reserved for the gods in the new amphitheater
Sold 2-2018
1 commentsNORMAN K
IMG_9236.JPG
Trajan12 viewsTrajan. A.D. 98-117. AE sestertius (33.76 mm, 19.57 g, 6 h). Rome mint, ca. A.D. 103-104. Laureate bust right, slight drapery / The Circus Maximus, showing outer colonnade and partial view of interior. RIC 571 var. (bust type); Woytek 175b; Banti 273. Fair, brown patina, two long scratches across obverse. Rare.ecoli
traj1.jpg
Trajan 97-11737 viewsOb. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P Laurate head right
(Imperator Trajanus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas) The supreme commander Trajanus, sovereign, victor over the Germans and Dacians, High Priest and Tribune of the people
Rev. COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC Winged Victory
(Consul V Pater Patriae Senatus Populusque Romanus Optimus Princeps) Consul for the fifth time, father of his country, the senate and the Roman people to the highest prince
Ref. RIC II 131

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
traj2.jpg
Trajan 97-117 denarius41 viewsOb. IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P
(Imperator Trajanus Augustus Germanicus Dacicus Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas) The supreme commander Trajanus, sovereign, victor over the Germans and Dacians, High Priest and Tribune of the people
Rev. COS V P P SPQR OPTIMO PRINC Roma seated left holding spear and Victory
(Consul V Pater Patriae Senatus Populusque Romanus Optimus Princeps) Consul for the fifth time, father of the country as recognised by the Senate and the people of Rome, the most perfect Prince.
Ref. RIC 116

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
Trajan_FELICITAS_AVGVST.jpg
Trajan FELICITAS AVGVST27 viewsTrajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D.
Obverse:
Laureate bust right, draped far shoulder

IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P

IMP: Imperator
TRAIANO: Trajan
AVG: Augustus
GER: Grmanicus
DAC: Dacicus (Honorary title for a Dacian victory)
P M: Pontifix Maximus, (Head of the priests)
TR P: Tribunicia Potestate, (The tribunician power, the emperor as civil head of the state.)
COS V P P : consul for the fifth time, Pater Patriae

Reverse:

FELICITAS AVGVST
The happiness of the emperor

FELICITAS: The happiness
AVGVST: Emperor

Felicitas with caduceus in right hand

Domination: Copper, size 19 mm.

Mint: Rom
John S
Trajan_Cos_VIBlack.jpg
Trajan RIC 337; Woytek 520v74 viewsTrajan 98-117 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Winter 114-start of 116 AD. (3.2g; 19mm) Obv: IMP CAES NER TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC, Laureate and draped bust right. Rev: P M TR P COS VI P P SPQR, Mars advancing right with spear and trophy over shoulder.
RIC 337; RSC 270; Woytek 520v

Ex: G&N

Here we see how "Optimo" has finally become a part of the emperor's name - the transition from the title "Optimo Princeps" to the name "Optimo Augustus".

Curtis Clay:
"It's the difference between allowing others to call you "the best", and allowing that title to become part of your official name.
As Pliny records in his Panegyric, from early in his reign on the Senate wanted to call Trajan "best", but Trajan modestly refused to accept "best" as part of his name.
In the course of 103, after Trajan had celebrated his first Dacian triumph and renovated the Circus Maximus with the addition of seats for 5000 additional spectators, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI became the standard rev. legend on Trajan's coins in all metals, meaning "The Senate and the Roman People (acclaim, or dedicate this coin to) the Best Emperor". Here Optimus is still an unofficial title: Trajan is allowing others to call him that, but is not permitting it to become part of his official name. Princeps is a general description of Trajan's function, "first man in the state" or simply "ruler, emperor", not part of his personal name.
In 114 Trajan conquered Armenia, the Senate once again voted him the name "Best", and this time he accepted it as part of his name, along with IMP, CAES, AVG, and his victory titles GERM and DAC. So from here on Optimus becomes part of Trajan's nomenclature on the obverse of his coins, and the rev. legend SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI disappears."

1 commentsPaddy
Trajse28-2.jpg
Trajan, RIC 571, Sestertius of AD 103-4 (Circus Maximus)135 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.27g, Ø32.95mm, 5h). Rome mint. Struck AD 103-4.
Obv/ IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate bust of Trajan facing right wearing aegis on chest.
Rev/ SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around] S C [in ex.], bird's-eys view on the Circus Maximus in Rome, as seen from the Forum Boarium, showing portico in foreground with eleven arched entrances and monumental gate surmounted by quadriga on right, two additional arches, each surmounted by quadriga behind the portico at both ends, the central spina adorned with tall obelisk of Rameses II at center flanked by equestrian statue of Trajan on left and shrine of Cybele on right , the two metae (turning posts) placed at the extremities; at the far side of the Circus, a curved wall incorporating a tetra-style shrine of Sol.
RIC 571 [R] and pl. x, 187 (rev. only); Cohen 546 (Fr.60); Strack 391; BMC 856; Banti 275 (4 spec.); MIR 175c and pl. 28 (citing 20 examples of this variety; same obv. die as plate 175c1; same rev. die as 175c1); RCV 3208 var. (bust draped instead of aegis)

ex G. Henzen (Netherlands, 2000)

Certificate of Authenticity issued by David Sear / A.C.C.S. Ref. 104CR/RI/C/CR, January 10, 2015 graded F, very rare and of considerable historical interest

Extract of the Certificates' Historical & Numismatic Note: "The reverse of this orichalcum sestertius commemorates the completion in AD 103 of a major restoration of the Circus Maximus, following a great fire that had severely damaged the famous arena in the time of the Flavian emperors. The origin of the Circus Maximus, situated in the Murcia valley between the Palatine and Aventine hills, is quite obscure. An enclosure for chariot racing, it had parallel sides and one semicircular end, all fitted with seats for spectators, and an axial rib (spina) marked at each end by turning-posts (metae) dividing the arena into two runs. At the open end were the curved stables (carceres) sufficient to accommodate twelve teams of horses. Traditionally founded by King Tarquinius Priscus, it does not seem to have become a permanent structure until 329 BC (Livy viii. 20.1). In later times, it was much embellished, notably by Augustus who erected on the spina the great Egyptian obelisk of Rameses II from Heliopolis (it now stands in the Piazza del Populo). The vast arena was frequently damaged by the fires that afflicted the imperial capital; on several occasions, there was loss of life when structural failure occurred under the weight of the huge crowds that attended the events. Trajan was himself an ardent fan of the Circus so it is scarcely surprising that he took on the task of restoring the arena. The present specimen is a good example of the rare issue that commemorated the completion of this undertaking. More than a century later (AD 213), the Emperor Caracalla issued a similar type to record his own restoration work on the Circus Maximus. The last recorded games in this celebrated arena took place under the Ostrogothic king Totila in AD 550."
3 commentsCharles S
Trajse49-2~0.jpg
Trajan, RIC 572, Sestertius of AD 103-104 (Triumphal arch)49 viewsÆ Sestertius (25.62g, Ø34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck 103-104.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate head of Trajan facing right.
S·P·Q·R·OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around] S C [in ex.] monumental richly decorated triumphal arch; on the sides, can be seen a biga driven by Victory; in the pediment Jupiter between two seated figures, panel above pediment inscribed IOM (= Iovi Optimo Maximo), the whole surmounted by six-horse chariot driven by Jupiter and flanked by Victories.

RIC 572 [R]; BMC 844; Cohen 547; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 100:18
ex Künker, Auction 174

This issue celebrates the triumph of Trajan in the first Dacian war and the dedication of a triumphal arch to Jupiter Optimus Maximus in AD 102.
1 commentsCharles S
TrajSe51~0.JPG
Trajan, RIC 572, Sestertius of AD 103-104 (Triumphal arch)107 viewsÆ Sestertius (20.83g, Ø33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 103-104.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate head of Trajan facing right.
S·P·Q·R·OPTIMO PRINCIPI [around] S C [in ex.] monumental richly decorated triumphal arch; in the panel above pediment inscribed IOM (= Iovi Optimo Maximo)(nearly invisible on this specimen)
RIC 572 [R]; BMC 844; Cohen 547; Woytek 187a; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 100:18
Ex CNG eAuct. 266; ex Deyo Collection

This issue celebrates the triumph of Trajan in the first Dacian war and the dedication of a triumphal arch to Jupiter Optimus Maximus in AD 102
Charles S
TrajSe48.jpg
Trajan, RIC 573, Sestertius of AD 103-104 (Triumphal arch)54 viewsÆ Sestertius (20.83g, 33mm, 6h), Rome mint, Struck AD 103-104.
IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V P P laureate, draped bust of Trajan right.
S·P·Q·R·OPTIMO PRINCIPI [round border] S C [in ex.] monumental richly decorated triumphal arch; in the panel above pediment inscribed IOM (= Iovi Optimo Maximo)(nearly invisible on this specimen)
RIC 573 [R]; BMC 844; Cohen 547; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 100:18
Ex Hirsch Auction 269

This issue celebrates the triumph of Trajan in the first Dacian war and the dedication of a triumphal arch to Jupiter Optimus Maximus in AD 102
Charles S
alexandria_troas_philippII_BellingerA394(obv)_unbekannt.jpg
Troas, Alexandreia, Philip II, Bellinger A394 (obv. only), unpublished?42 viewsPhilip II, AD 244-249
AE 25, 8.09g, 24.3mm
obv. M IVLI[V]S - PILIPP[VS](sic!) C
Bust, draped, bare-headed, r.
rev. COL AV - G TROAD
Cult-statue of Apollo Smintheus, in long garment, stg. r. on small base, holding bow and arrow and patera in extended hands; cypress behind
ref. not in Bellinger:
obv. Bellinger A394 (the only type for Philip II)
rev. Bellinger type 3 (for Maximus)
probably unpublished
good F-about VF, dimple above head on obv.
Jochen
maximus_troas_alex.jpg
Troas, Alexandria; Horse grazing r. AE 2314 viewsMaximus Caesar Troas Alexandria Troas; 235-238 A.D. AE 23.2mm, 7.3g; Obverse: Bare-headed and draped bust of Maximus right. Reverse: Horse grazing right. SGI 3585. Podiceps
julia_domna_388.jpg
Venus Genetrix237 viewsJulia Domna, died AD 217(?), wife of Septimius Severus
AR - Antoninianus, 4.89g, 21mm
Rome AD 216
obv.: IVLIA PIA - FELIX AVG
draped bust on crescent, diademed head r.
rev.: VENVS GENETRIX
Venus sitting l. on throne, holding long sceptre l. and extending r. hand
RIC IV/1, Caracalla 388(a); C.211; BMCR.434
Scarce; about VF

VENUS GENETRIX. After the defeat at the Trasumenian lake AD 217 under Q.Fabius Maximus begin of the mythos of the troian origin of the Romans as anti-karthag.-pro-greek propaganda. Getting political importness in the 1st century BC as Aeneadum Genetrix and so becoming mother of the Gens Iulia and the Roman People. V.Genetrix first used by Sulla, then at the height by Caesar, reflected in Vergil's Aeneis.
1 commentsJochen
x32.jpg
Vespasian 69-79 denarius118 viewsOb. IMP CAES VESP AVG CENS Laureate head right
(Imperator Caesar Vespasian Augustus Censor) The supreme commander Vespasian of great dignity, sovereign, Censor of the Senate
Rev. PONTIF MAXIM Vespasian seated right, holding branch and sceptre.
(Pontifex Maximus) High Priest
Ref. RIC65
Year AD73 (latter)

-:Bacchus:-
Bacchus
Vespasian_Mars~0.JPG
Vespasian Mars19 viewsVespasian denarius, Rome, 17.59mm, 3.3g, 77 - 78 AD
OBV: IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG - Laureate head right.
REV: COS VIII - Mars standing left, holding trophy and spear
"My eighth year as Pontifex Maximus."
SEAR RCV I 2288v (no corn ear at feet), RIC 937, Cohen 125, BMC 200, Van Meter 24/1 (VB2)

SCARCE
Romanorvm
vesp pon max implements.JPG
Vespasian RIC 42150 viewsAR Denarius, 3.20g
Rome Mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VE-SP AVG P M; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: Above, AVGVR, below, PON MAX; Simpulum, sprinkler, jug and lituus
RIC 42 (R). BMC 48. RSC 42. BNC 35.
Acquired from Rudnik, May 2007.

A reverse which underlines Vespasian's role as 'pontifex maximus'. In November of 70, Vespasian added PM to his title, hence the religious nature of many of the reverses of this issue.

A Very rare reverse to find with the PON MAX legend, most examples have TRI POT instead.

The coin itself suffers from some light scratches due to cleaning but this does not detract from it's over all appeal.
Vespasian70
vesp priestly implements.jpg
Vespasian RIC 43 (1)144 viewsAR Denarius, 3.39g
Rome mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VES-P AVG P M; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: Above AVGVR, below, TRI POT; Simpulum, sprinkler, jug, and lituus
RIC 43 (C2). BMC 50. RSC 43. BNC 36.
Acquired from Beast coins, May 2007.

The most common obverse legend with this reverse type. This reverse commemorates Vespasian's religious role as Pontifix Maximus, symbolised by the simpulum, sprinkler, and jug. The lituus is the symbol of the augurate.

A fairly decent coin in good shape. The flan is a bit ragged, owed no doubt to lack of the mint's quality control early in Vespasian's reign.
Vespasian70
V43.jpg
Vespasian RIC 43 (2)84 viewsAR Denarius, 3.14g
Rome mint, 71 AD
Obv: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M; Head of Vespasian, laureate, r.
Rev: Above AVGVR, below, TRI POT; Simpulum, sprinkler, jug, and lituus
RIC 43 (C2). BMC 50. RSC 43. BNC 36.
Acquired from Germania Inferior, June 2018.

The vast majority of denarii from this issue with the shortened obverse legend have a legend break above the portrait, normally seen between VE-SP or VES-P (see my other RIC 43). This is a rare variant without the break above the portrait. I suppose it was a whim of the engraver whether the legend was continuous or not. The reverse commemorates Vespasian being voted pontifex maximus by the Senate in November of 70, shortly after his arrival in Rome. It copies a type struck for Julius Caesar.

Workman-like portrait with beautiful gold toning and rainbow hints.
3 commentsDavid Atherton
SeptSeverus.jpg
[1001a] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.63 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 32, RSC 301, VF, 2.966g, 16.8mm, 180o, Rome mint, 194 A.D.; obverse L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP III, laureate head right; reverse LIBERO PATRI, Liber (Bacchus) standing left, in right ocnochoe over panther, thysus in left; excellent portrait; scarce. Ex FORVM.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
SeptSevArDen.jpg
[1001b] Septimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D.45 viewsSeptimius Severus, 9 April 193 - 4 February 211 A.D., Silver denarius, RIC 119A. aF. Rome. Obverse: L. SEP. SEVERVS PER. AVG. P. M. IMP. XI, His bearded and laureated head right. Reverse: SALVTI AVGG. Salus seated left feeding serpent arising from altar(?). Scarce. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves.[[3]] By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
SeverusAlexanderRIC70RSC325s.jpg
[1009a] Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.83 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 70, RSC 325, S -, EF, Rome mint, 2.803g, 20.7mm, 0o, 227 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right; Reverse: P M TR P VI COS II P P, Emperor standing left, sacrificing from patera in right over a tripod, scroll in left; cameo-like obverse with toned portrait and legend and bright fields, slightly frosty surfaces, details of head on reverse figure unstruck, slightly irregular flan. Ex FORVM.

In this year Ardashir invaded Parthia and established the Sassanid Dynasty, which claimed direct descent from Xerxes and Darius. The Eastern power grew stronger and the threat to the Romans immense.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imeratoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth, of only seventeen years of age, the reins of government were in the hands of two women, of his mother Mamaea, and of Maesa, his grandmother. After the death of the latter, who survived but a short time the elevation of Alexander, Mamaea remained the sole regent of her son and of the empire." (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 6: Modern Library Edition, p. 130)

"As the imperial system developed, it disclosed its various arcana one by one. How much does the personality of the ruler matter? Less and less, it should seem. Be he boy, buffoon, or philosopher, his conduct may not have much effect on the administration. Habit and routine took over, with groups and grades of bureaucrats at hand to fill the posts." (Syme, Emperors and Biography, 146)

The passages quoted above emphasize two important aspects of the principate of Severus Alexander (or Alexander Severus), his youth and the influence of women during his reign. The significance of the latter invites brief discourse about the four women known as the "Severan Julias," whose origin was Syria. Julia Domna became the second wife of Septimius Severus and bore him two sons, the later emperors Caracalla and Geta. Her role in the administration of her husband was significant, which her expansive titulature, "mother of the camp and the senate and the country," reflected. Her sister, Julia Maesa, had two daughters, each of whom produced a son who was to become emperor. Julia Soaemias was the mother of Elagabalus, and shared his fate when he was assassinated. Julia Mamaea bore Alexander, who succeeded his cousin; he was very young and hence much under the control of grandmother and mother. For the first time in its imperial history, the empire of Rome was de facto, though not de iure, governed by women.

The literary sources, while numerous, are limited in value. Chief among them, at least in scope, is the biography in the Historia Augusta, much the longest of all the lives in this peculiar collection. Though purporting to be the work of six authors in the early fourth century, it is now generally considered to have been produced by one author writing in the last years of this century. Spacious in its treatment of the emperor and extremely favorable to him on the whole, it has little historical merit, seeming rather an extended work of fiction. It must be used with the utmost caution.

Herodian, whose history covered the period 180-238, was a contemporary of Severus Alexander, and his coverage of the latter's reign is extensive. Another contemporary, Dio Cassius, who was consul in 229 and whose judgments would have been most valuable, is unfortunately useless here, since his history survives only in abbreviated form and covers barely a page of printed text for the whole reign (Book 80). Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, the Epitome de Caesaribus, and other Latin sources are extremely brief, informing us of only the occasional anecdote. Christian writers make minimal contribution; legal texts offer much instruction, particularly those dealing with or stemming from Ulpian; coins, inscriptions, papyri, and archaeology help fill the gaps left by the literary sources.

Early Life and Education
The future emperor was born in Arca Caesarea in Phoenicia on October 1, 208 although some sources put the date three years earlier (as Gibbon assumed, see above), the son of Gessius Marcianus, whose career advanced in the equestrian cursus, and of Julia Mamaea, niece of the then empress, Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. He was raised quietly and well educated, at the instance of his mother. He came into the public eye only in 218, when, after Macrinus' murder of Caracalla and accession to the purple, he and his mother were declared hostes publici. In June of that year, Elagabalus defeated Macrinus and succeeded him as emperor. Alexander and Mamaea were soon rehabilitated. As his cousin's activities, religious, political, and personal, became increasingly unacceptable, Alexander was drawn ever more into public life. In mid 221, he assumed the toga virilis, was adopted by Elagabalus as a colleague, was granted the name Alexander, and elevated to the rank of Caesar. There had been talk that he was the illegitimate child of Caracalla, which won him support among the army, and this was confirmed, at least for public consumption, by his filiation in the official titulature back to Septimius. He was now styled Imp. Caes. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. fil., divi Antonini Magni Pii nepos, divi Severi pronepos M. Aurelius Alexander, nobilissimus Caesar imperi et sacerdotis, princeps iuventutis. The connection with Septimius Severus was crucial, since he was the only one of these predecessors who had been deified. Alexander was about 12½ years old. Less than a year later, on March 13, 222, with the murder of Elagabalus, Alexander was hailed as emperor by the army. He considered this date as his dies imperii. He became thereby the youngest emperor in Rome's history. He was immediately thereafter given the titles of Augustus, pater patriae, and pontifex maximus.

His Principate; Grandmother, Mother, Ulpian
Having had no experience in government, the young emperor was largely dependent upon the two senior women in his life to guide his actions. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, may well have died as early as 223, so that his mother, Julia Mamaea, played the major role in the empire's administration from early on until the end. The only other figures who could rival her were the two Praetorian Prefects, both eminent jurists, Ulpian and Paulus, who are well-known to us because of the numerous citations of their legal views and administrative decisions preserved in the Corpus Iuris Civilis. Both were members of Alexander's consilium. Alexander attempted to restore some of the senate's prestige and functions, but with little success. He was even unable to protect Ulpian against the anger of the praetorians, who then murdered the jurist in 223.

Had his principate been peaceful, he might have developed into a significant emperor, certainly in comparison with his immediate predecessors. He was married once, in 225 to Sallustia Orbiana, who received the official titulature Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta, but she was banished to Libya two years later. Her father, L. Seius Sallustius, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

According to the HA life, Alexander was a "good" person, and his mother certainly attempted to guide him well, but much of the last decade of his reign was preoccupied with serious military threats against the empire's prestige, nay existence. In those dangerous circumstances, his abilities, which had not earlier been honed, proved inadequate.

Domestic Policy
Perhaps the greatest service which Alexander furnished Rome, certainly at the beginning of his reign, was the return to a sense of sanity and tradition after the madness and fanaticism of Elagabalus. He is said to have honored and worshipped a variety of individuals, including Christ. His amiability assisted his relationship with the senate, which gained in honor under him without any real increase in its power. Besides jurists in high office, literary figures were also so distinguished; Marius Maximus, the biographer, and Dio Cassius, the historian, gained second consulships, the former in 223, the latter in 229.

The emperor's building program made its mark upon the face of Rome. The last of the eleven great aqueducts, the aqua Alexandrina, was put into service in 226; he also rebuilt the thermae Neronianae in the Campus Martius in the following year and gave them his own name. Of the other constructions, perhaps the most intriguing are the Diaetae Mammaeae, apartments which he built for his mother on the Palatine.

The Persian and German Wars
The first great external challenge appeared in the east, where the Parthian dynasty, which had ruled the Iranian plateau and other large areas for centuries, and who for long had been one of Rome's great rivals, was overthrown by the Persian family of the Sassanids by 227. They aspired to restore their domain to include all the Asian lands which had been ruled in the glory days of the Persian Empire. Since this included Asia Minor as well as all other eastern provinces, the stage was set for continuing clashes with Rome.

These began late in the decade, with significant success early on for the Sassanids. But Rome gradually developed a defense against these incursions, and ultimately the emperor, with his mother and staff, went to the east in 231. There actual military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. Persia's early successes soon faded as Rome's armies brought their power and experience to bear. The result was an acceptance of the status quo rather than a settlement between the parties. This occurred in 233 and Alexander returned to Rome. His presence in the west was required by a German threat, particularly along the Rhine, where the tribes took advantage of the withdrawal of Roman troops for the eastern war.

In 234, Alexander and Julia Mammaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Upper Germany. The military situation had improved with the return of troops from the east, and an ambitious offensive campaign was planned, for which a bridge was built across the Rhine. But Alexander preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the enemy. This policy outraged the soldiers, who mutinied in mid March 235 and killed the emperor and his mother. He had reached the age of 26½ years and had been emperor for almost precisely half his life. He was deified by the senate and received other posthumous honors. With the accession of Maximinus Thrax, the Severan dynasty came to an end.

Death and Evaluation
Tacitus' famous dictum about Galba, that he was properly considered capax imperii, capable of being emperor, until he showed, when emperor, that he was not, could never have been applied to Severus Alexander. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imeratoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/alexsev.htm . Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
SevAl.jpg
[1009b] Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.110 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 19, S -, aF, Rome, 2.806g, 20.0mm, 0o, 223 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right; reverse P M TR P II COS P P, Jupiter standing left cloak over arms, holding long scepter and thunderbolt. Nice portrait. Ex FORVM.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother (Joseph Sermarini).


De Imeratoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth, of only seventeen years of age, the reins of government were in the hands of two women, of his mother Mamaea, and of Maesa, his grandmother. After the death of the latter, who survived but a short time the elevation of Alexander, Mamaea remained the sole regent of her son and of the empire." (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 6: Modern Library Edition, p. 130)

"As the imperial system developed, it disclosed its various arcana one by one. How much does the personality of the ruler matter? Less and less, it should seem. Be he boy, buffoon, or philosopher, his conduct may not have much effect on the administration. Habit and routine took over, with groups and grades of bureaucrats at hand to fill the posts." (Syme, Emperors and Biography, 146)

The passages quoted above emphasize two important aspects of the principate of Severus Alexander (or Alexander Severus), his youth and the influence of women during his reign. The significance of the latter invites brief discourse about the four women known as the "Severan Julias," whose origin was Syria. Julia Domna became the second wife of Septimius Severus and bore him two sons, the later emperors Caracalla and Geta. Her role in the administration of her husband was significant, which her expansive titulature, "mother of the camp and the senate and the country," reflected. Her sister, Julia Maesa, had two daughters, each of whom produced a son who was to become emperor. Julia Soaemias was the mother of Elagabalus, and shared his fate when he was assassinated. Julia Mamaea bore Alexander, who succeeded his cousin; he was very young and hence much under the control of grandmother and mother. For the first time in its imperial history, the empire of Rome was de facto, though not de iure, governed by women.

The literary sources, while numerous, are limited in value. Chief among them, at least in scope, is the biography in the Historia Augusta, much the longest of all the lives in this peculiar collection. Though purporting to be the work of six authors in the early fourth century, it is now generally considered to have been produced by one author writing in the last years of this century. Spacious in its treatment of the emperor and extremely favorable to him on the whole, it has little historical merit, seeming rather an extended work of fiction. It must be used with the utmost caution.

Herodian, whose history covered the period 180-238, was a contemporary of Severus Alexander, and his coverage of the latter's reign is extensive. Another contemporary, Dio Cassius, who was consul in 229 and whose judgments would have been most valuable, is unfortunately useless here, since his history survives only in abbreviated form and covers barely a page of printed text for the whole reign (Book 80). Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, the Epitome de Caesaribus, and other Latin sources are extremely brief, informing us of only the occasional anecdote. Christian writers make minimal contribution; legal texts offer much instruction, particularly those dealing with or stemming from Ulpian; coins, inscriptions, papyri, and archaeology help fill the gaps left by the literary sources.

Early Life and Education
The future emperor was born in Arca Caesarea in Phoenicia on October 1, 208 although some sources put the date three years earlier (as Gibbon assumed, see above), the son of Gessius Marcianus, whose career advanced in the equestrian cursus, and of Julia Mamaea, niece of the then empress, Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. He was raised quietly and well educated, at the instance of his mother. He came into the public eye only in 218, when, after Macrinus' murder of Caracalla and accession to the purple, he and his mother were declared hostes publici. In June of that year, Elagabalus defeated Macrinus and succeeded him as emperor. Alexander and Mamaea were soon rehabilitated. As his cousin's activities, religious, political, and personal, became increasingly unacceptable, Alexander was drawn ever more into public life. In mid 221, he assumed the toga virilis, was adopted by Elagabalus as a colleague, was granted the name Alexander, and elevated to the rank of Caesar. There had been talk that he was the illegitimate child of Caracalla, which won him support among the army, and this was confirmed, at least for public consumption, by his filiation in the official titulature back to Septimius. He was now styled Imp. Caes. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. fil., divi Antonini Magni Pii nepos, divi Severi pronepos M. Aurelius Alexander, nobilissimus Caesar imperi et sacerdotis, princeps iuventutis. The connection with Septimius Severus was crucial, since he was the only one of these predecessors who had been deified. Alexander was about 12½ years old. Less than a year later, on March 13, 222, with the murder of Elagabalus, Alexander was hailed as emperor by the army. He considered this date as his dies imperii. He became thereby the youngest emperor in Rome's history. He was immediately thereafter given the titles of Augustus, pater patriae, and pontifex maximus.

His Principate; Grandmother, Mother, Ulpian
Having had no experience in government, the young emperor was largely dependent upon the two senior women in his life to guide his actions. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, may well have died as early as 223, so that his mother, Julia Mamaea, played the major role in the empire's administration from early on until the end. The only other figures who could rival her were the two Praetorian Prefects, both eminent jurists, Ulpian and Paulus, who are well-known to us because of the numerous citations of their legal views and administrative decisions preserved in the Corpus Iuris Civilis. Both were members of Alexander's consilium. Alexander attempted to restore some of the senate's prestige and functions, but with little success. He was even unable to protect Ulpian against the anger of the praetorians, who then murdered the jurist in 223.

Had his principate been peaceful, he might have developed into a significant emperor, certainly in comparison with his immediate predecessors. He was married once, in 225 to Sallustia Orbiana, who received the official titulature Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta, but she was banished to Libya two years later. Her father, L. Seius Sallustius, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

According to the HA life, Alexander was a "good" person, and his mother certainly attempted to guide him well, but much of the last decade of his reign was preoccupied with serious military threats against the empire's prestige, nay existence. In those dangerous circumstances, his abilities, which had not earlier been honed, proved inadequate.

Domestic Policy
Perhaps the greatest service which Alexander furnished Rome, certainly at the beginning of his reign, was the return to a sense of sanity and tradition after the madness and fanaticism of Elagabalus. He is said to have honored and worshipped a variety of individuals, including Christ. His amiability assisted his relationship with the senate, which gained in honor under him without any real increase in its power. Besides jurists in high office, literary figures were also so distinguished; Marius Maximus, the biographer, and Dio Cassius, the historian, gained second consulships, the former in 223, the latter in 229.

The emperor's building program made its mark upon the face of Rome. The last of the eleven great aqueducts, the aqua Alexandrina, was put into service in 226; he also rebuilt the thermae Neronianae in the Campus Martius in the following year and gave them his own name. Of the other constructions, perhaps the most intriguing are the Diaetae Mammaeae, apartments which he built for his mother on the Palatine.

The Persian and German Wars
The first great external challenge appeared in the east, where the Parthian dynasty, which had ruled the Iranian plateau and other large areas for centuries, and who for long had been one of Rome's great rivals, was overthrown by the Persian family of the Sassanids by 227. They aspired to restore their domain to include all the Asian lands which had been ruled in the glory days of the Persian Empire. Since this included Asia Minor as well as all other eastern provinces, the stage was set for continuing clashes with Rome.

These began late in the decade, with significant success early on for the Sassanids. But Rome gradually developed a defense against these incursions, and ultimately the emperor, with his mother and staff, went to the east in 231. There actual military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. Persia's early successes soon faded as Rome's armies brought their power and experience to bear. The result was an acceptance of the status quo rather than a settlement between the parties. This occurred in 233 and Alexander returned to Rome. His presence in the west was required by a German threat, particularly along the Rhine, where the tribes took advantage of the withdrawal of Roman troops for the eastern war.

In 234, Alexander and Julia Mammaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Upper Germany. The military situation had improved with the return of troops from the east, and an ambitious offensive campaign was planned, for which a bridge was built across the Rhine. But Alexander preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the enemy. This policy outraged the soldiers, who mutinied in mid March 235 and killed the emperor and his mother. He had reached the age of 26½ years and had been emperor for almost precisely half his life. He was deified by the senate and received other posthumous honors. With the accession of Maximinus Thrax, the Severan dynasty came to an end.

Death and Evaluation
Tacitus' famous dictum about Galba, that he was properly considered capax imperii, capable of being emperor, until he showed, when emperor, that he was not, could never have been applied to Severus Alexander. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imeratoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/alexsev.htm . Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
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[1114a] Claudius II Gothicus, September 268 - August or September 270 A.D.59 viewsSilvered antoninianus, RIC V 197 var (pellet in exergue), aEF, 3.880g, 21.1mm, 0o, Antioch mint, 268 - 270 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas standing left, scales in right, cornucopia in left, • in exergue; full silvering, bold str