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Search results - "Magnus"
magnus26a.jpg
Magnus Maximus, RIC VIII 26a Arles, 383-388 CE.17 viewsMagnus Maximus AE2
Obverse: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPB, Emperor standing left, raising kneeling woman.
PCOM in ex. Arles mint, 21.9 mm, 4.4 g.
NORMAN K
hugues-france-denier-orelans~0.JPG
Hugh Magnus: denier (Orléans)12 viewsHugh Magnus (Hugues de France in french) (1007-1025)
Denier (Orléans)

Billon, 1.28 g, diameter 17.5 mm, die axis 12h
O/ +D-I DEXTRA BE; city gate with an H on the left, a V below, a G on the right and a O on the top
R/ +AVRELIANIS CIVITAS; cross pattée

Hugh was the elder son of Robert II (the Pious), second capetian king of the Franks (996-1031). Hugues was crowned as an associate king in 1017. However, he died before his father and consequently he never ruled. No other son of a king of France had been called Hugh.

The obverse legend is a Christian one: dei dextra benedictus (blessed on God's right). As usual for Orléans mint, the I after the L in Avrelianis is in the angle.
Droger
magnus-maximus-silique-virtvs-treves.JPG
RIC.84b Magnus Maximus (siliqua, Virtvs Romanorvm)9 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Siliqua: Virtvs Romanorvm (383-388, Trèves mint)

silver 900‰, 18 mm diameter, 2.24 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG; pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R/ VIRTVS RO-MANORVM / TRPS in exergue; Roma seated left on throne, holding Victory on globe and spear

Die breaking on the cheek
Droger
magnus-maximus-spes-romanorvm.JPG
RIC.29a Magnus Maximus (AE4, Spes Romanorvm)24 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Nummus AE4 : Spes Romanorvm (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 12 mm diameter, 1.40 g, die axis: 5 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM / PCON; open camp-gate with star between its two turrets

RIC.29a
NBD.55515
Ferrando II 1677 (C2)
Droger
magnus-maximus-votvmvltx-LVGS.JPG
RIC.35 Magnus Maximus (AE4, Vot V Mvlt X)11 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Nummus AE4 : Vot V Mvlt X (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 14 mm diameter, 1.72 g, die axis: 6 h,

A/ [D N MA]G MAXI-MVS P F AV[G]; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VOT / V/ MVLT / X / LVCS in exergue; in wreath
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-arles.JPG
RIC.26a1 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)16 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 4.23 g, die axis: 5 h

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / PCON in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 26.a.1(C)
Ferrando II 1669 (C4)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-SCON.JPG
RIC.26a2 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)9 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Arles mint)

bronze, 21 mm diameter, 5.04 g, die axis: 1 h

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / SCON in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 26.a.2(C)
Ferrando II 1670 (C4)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-lyon.JPG
RIC.32.(6 or 7) Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)17 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 3.95 g, die axis: 7 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / LVG? in exergue, C in the field; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 32.(6 ou 7)(S)
Droger
magnus-maximus-reparatio-treves.JPG
RIC.85 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Reparatio Reipvb)14 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Reparatio Reipvb (383-388, Trèves mint)

bronze, 23 mm diameter, 5.23 g, die axis: 7 h,

A/ D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ REPARATIO-REIPVB / SMTRP; emperor standing facing left, with right hand raising kneeled turreted woman, and holding Victory on globe in left hand

RIC.IX 85.1(S)
Droger
magnus-maximus-victoria.JPG
RIC.33 Magnus Maximus (AE2, Victoria Avg)19 viewsMagnus Maximus, usurpor (383-384), western roman emperor (384-388)
Maiorina pecunia AE2 : Victoria Avgg (383-388, Lyon mint)

bronze, 21 mm diameter, 4.41 g, die axis: 6 h,

A/ D N MAG MAXI-MVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ VICTOR-IA AVGG / LVGP; emperor standing left, holding victory and standard

RIC.IX 33.1(S)
Droger
mag_max_5.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS36 views383 - 388 AD
AE 22 mm 4.29 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
LVGP IN EXE
LUGDUNUM
SCARCE
laney
mag_max_4.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS27 views383 - 388 AD
AE 24 mm 4.16 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
PCON IN EXE
ARELATE
laney
mag_max_3.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS30 views383 - 388 AD
AE 22 mm 5.07 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
R: VICTORIA AVGG, emperor stading facing, head left, holding Victory & standard
LVGP IN EXE
LUGDUNUM
laney
mag_max_2.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS34 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21.5 mm X 25 mm 4.48 g
O DN MAG MAXI[MV]S PF AVG
DIAD DRAPED AND CUIR BUST R
R: REPARATIO REI[PVB]
MAGNUS STANDING L HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
laney
mag_max_1.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS43 viewsMAGNUS MAXIMUS
383 - 388 AD
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
SCON IN EXE
ARELATE
RIC 26(a) IX
laney
mag_max_7.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS53 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21.5 mm 4.28 gO: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
laney
mag_max_6.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS52 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21 mm 4.62 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
DIAD BUST R
R: REPARATIO REIPVB
EMPEROR STANDING, HEAD L. HOLDING VICTORY ON GLOBE AND RAISING KNEELING FEMALE
laney
magnus_maximus_scon_b.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS11 views383 - 388 AD
AE 22 mm; 6.25 g
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG diademed bust right
R: REPARATIO REIPVB Emperor standing head left, holding Victory on globe and raising kneeling female; SCON in exe
Arleate mint; RIC 26(a) IX
laney
mag_max_b.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS16 views383 - 388 AD
AE 21.5 mm X 25 mm 4.48 g
O DN MAG MAXI[MV]S PF AVG diademed, craped and cuirassed bust right
R: REPARATIO REI[PVB] Magnus staging left holding Victory on globe and raising kneeling female
laney
mag_max_reparatio.jpg
(0383) MAGNUS MAXIMUS9 views383-388 AD
AE 22 mm, 4.81 g
O: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right;
R:REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing facing, head left, raising turreted woman with right hand, Victory on globe in left hand, Victory crowning him with wreath and holding palm frond
laney
DCons.jpg
(Deceased) Constantine I Magnus59 views(Deceased) Constantine I Magnus, (338-340 CE)
Constantine I, veiled head/Constantine riding quadriga right, reaching up towards the hand of god (Manus Dei).
Trier Mint (?)
AE 12
Belisarius
Cons.jpg
(Deceased) Constantine I Magnus29 viewsFuneral issue of Constantine I (347-348 CE)
Veiled head of Constantine, right/Constantine standing right, wearing toga and veil. Legend: Veneranda Memoria.
Minted in Constantinople.
AE
Belisarius
coins2.JPG
000c. Sextus Pompey76 viewsSextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). He was the last focus of opposition to the second triumvirate.

Sextus Pompeius was the youngest son of Pompey the Great (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) by his third wife, Mucia Tertia. His older brother was Gnaeus Pompeius, from the same mother. Both boys grew up in the shadow of their father, one of Rome's best generals and originally non-conservative politician who drifted to the more traditional faction when Julius Caesar became a threat.

When Caesar crossed the Rubicon in 49 BC, thus starting a civil war, Sextus' older brother Gnaeus followed their father in his escape to the East, as did most of the conservative senators. Sextus stayed in Rome in the care of his stepmother, Cornelia Metella. Pompey's army lost the battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC and Pompey himself had to run for his life. Cornelia and Sextus met him in the island of Mytilene and together they fled to Egypt. On the arrival, Sextus watched his father being killed by treachery on September 29 of the same year. After the murder, Cornelia returned to Rome, but in the following years Sextus joined the resistance against Caesar in the African provinces. Together with Metellus Scipio, Cato the younger, his brother Gnaeus and other senators, they prepared to oppose Caesar and his army to the end.

Caesar won the first battle at Thapsus in 46 BC against Metellus Scipio and Cato, who committed suicide. In 45 BC, Caesar managed to defeat the Pompeius brothers in the battle of Munda. Gnaeus Pompeius was executed, but young Sextus escaped once more, this time to Sicily.

Back in Rome, Julius Caesar was murdered on the Ides of March (March 15) 44 BC by a group of senators led by Cassius and Brutus. This incident did not lead to a return to normality, but provoked yet another civil war between Caesar's political heirs and his assassins. The second triumvirate was formed by Octavian, Mark Antony and Lepidus, with the intention of avenging Caesar and subduing all opposition. Sextus Pompeius in Sicily was certainly a rebellious man, but the Cassius and Brutus faction was the second triumvirate's first priority. Thus, with the whole island as his base, Sextus had the time and resources to develop an army and, even more importantly, a strong navy operated by Sicilian marines.

Brutus and Cassius lost the twin battles of Philippi and committed suicide in 42 BC. After this, the triumvirs turned their attentions to Sicily and Sextus.

But by this time, Sextus was prepared for strong resistance. In the following years, military confrontations failed to return a conclusive victory for either side and in 39 BC, Sextus and the triumvirs signed for peace in the Pact of Misenum. The reason for this peace treaty was the anticipated campaign against the Parthian Empire. Antony, the leader, needed all the legions he could get so it was useful to secure an armistice in the Sicilian front. The peace did not last for long. Octavian and Antony's frequent quarrels were a strong political motivation for resuming the war against Sextus. Octavian tried again to conquer Sicily, but he was defeated in the naval battle of Messina (37 BC) and again in August 36 BC. But by then, Octavian had Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, a very talented general, on his side. Only a month afterwards, Agrippa destroyed Sextus' navy off Naulochus cape. Sextus escaped to the East and, by abandoning Sicily, lost all his base of support.

Sextus Pompeius was caught in Miletus in 35 BC and executed without trial (an illegal act since Sextus was a Roman citizen) by order of Marcus Titius, Antony's minion. His violent death would be one of the weapons used by Octavian against Antony several years later, when the situation between the two became unbearable.

Sicilian Mint
Magn above laureate Janiform head
PIVS above, IMP below, prow of galley right
Sear RCV 348, RPC 671, Sydenham 1044a, Cohen 16
43-36 BC

Check
ecoli
aquileia1.jpg
075 Magnus Maximus. AE423 viewsobv: DN MAG MA_XIMVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAQS
1 commentshill132
aquileia2.jpg
076 Magnus maximus. AE415 viewsobv: DN MAG MA_XIMVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SMAQP
hill132
arelate1.jpg
078 Magnus maximus. AE420 viewsobv: DN MAG MAXI_NVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. uir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SCON
hill132
arelate2.jpg
079 Magnus Maximus AE416 viewsobv: DN MAG MAXI_MVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES RO_MA_NORVM campgate with two turrents star above
ex: SCON
hill132
Personajes_Imperiales_11.jpg
11 - Personalities of the Empire48 views
Magnentius, Decentius, Vetranius, Constantius Gallo, Julian II, Jovian, Valentinianus I, Valens, Procopius, Gratianus, Valentinianus II, Theodosius I, Aelia Flacilla and Magnus Maximus
mdelvalle
Faust.jpg
137 BC Sextus Pompeius56 viewsHelmeted head of Roma right, X below chin, jug behind

FOSTLVS SEX POM
ROMA in Ex.
She-wolf standing rightsuckling the twins Romulus and Remus, fig tree in background with three birds, the shepherd Faustulus standing right behind

Rome 137 BC
Sear 112
CRR 461

ex-ANE

This moneyer was the husband of Lucilia (sister of the poet C. Lucilius) and father to Cn. Pompeius Sex. f Strabo, and grandfather of Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great). He may also have been praetor in 119 BC.
2 commentsJay GT4
145.jpg
145 Magnus Maximus. AR silique 1.7gm22 viewsobv: DN MAG MAX_IMVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: VIRTUVS RO_MANORVM Roma seated facing, holding globe and reversed spear
ex: TRPS
1 commentshill132
12957p00.jpg
1503a, Gratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D.53 viewsGratian, 24 August 367 - 25 August 383 A.D. Bronze AE 3, F, 2.352g, 19.13mm, 0o. Obverse: emperor's diadmed bust right; reverse GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor draging captive, * in left field.

Gratian, son of Valentinian I, became the sole ruler of the Western empire in 375 A.D., and after the catastrophic defeat of the Roman forces at Hadrianopolis the Eastern empire also came under his rule. To better cope with the empire, he elevated general Theodosius to the Eastern throne. Because of a shortage of coinage to meet the payroll, Gratian was abandoned by his troops during the revolt of Magnus Maximus. He was overtaken and killed while fleeing to the Alps.
Cleisthenes
Magnus_Maximus_AE2__D_N_MAG_MAXIMVS_P_F_AVG_REPARATIO-REIPVB_SCON_Arles_RIC-IX-26a-S_383-388-AD_Q-001_6h_22,0-24,0mm_5,8g-s.jpg
162 Magnus Maximus (383-388 A.D.), Arles, RIC IX 026a-S, -/-//SCON, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor, #1137 views162 Magnus Maximus (383-388 A.D.), Arles, RIC IX 026a-S, -/-//SCON, AE-2 Follis, REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor, #1
avers:- D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing left, holding Victory on globe and raising kneeling, turreted woman.
exergo: -/-//SCON, diameter: 22,0-24,0mm, weight: 5,80g, axis: 6h,
mint: Arles, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC-IX-26a-S, p-, Sear 20650,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
1701.JPG
1701 - États de Nantes6 viewsLouis XIV
6,16g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS. MAGNUS. REX.
"Louis le Grand Roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature R
.IETONS. DES. ESTAS. DE. BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue 1701
Daniel 52
PYL
1707.JPG
1707 - États de Dinan13 viewsLouis XIV
6,56g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX.
"Louis le Grand roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature TB en monogramme
.IETONS. DES. ESTAS. DE. BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
1707 à l'exergue
Daniel 62
PYL
1709_2.JPG
1709 - États de Saint-Brieuc9 viewsLouis XIV
6,71g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS. MAGNUS REX.
"Louis le Grand roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature TB en monogramme
.JETTON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
1709 à l'exergue
Daniel 64
PYL
1709.JPG
1709 - États de Saint-Brieuc8 viewsLouis XIV
6,85g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS. MAGNUS REX.
"Louis le Grand roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature TB en monogramme
.JETTON DES ESTATS DE BRETAGNE.
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
1709 à l'exergue
Daniel 64
PYL
1711.JPG
1711 - États de Dinan15 viewsLouis XIV
6,47g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS. MAGNUS REX.
"Louis le Grand roi"
Tête à droite de Louis XIV, le col nu et les cheveux longs,
au-dessous signature TB en monogramme
IETONS. DES. ESTAS. DE. BRETAGNE
Écu couronné écartelé aux 1 et 4 de France,
aux 2 et 3 de Bretagne,
sur un manteau semé de fleurs de lis et d’hermines
à l'exergue .1711.
Daniel 66
PYL
1715.JPG
1715 - États de Saint-Brieuc 12 viewsLouis XIV
6,75g
28 mm
argent
LUDOVICUS. MAGNUS REX .
"Louis le Grand Roi"
Buste à droite de Louis XIV signé TB
IETONS DES ESTAS DE BRETAGNE
Écu écartelé de France et de Bretagne couronné sur un manteau fleurdelisé
à l'exergue 1715.
Daniel 71
PYL
RI_185a_img.jpg
185 - Magnus Maximus, AR Siliqua, RIC IX 84b133 viewsObv:– D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe & spear
Minted in Trier (TRPS), A.D. 383-388
Reference:– RIC IX, 84b1. RSC 20a.
maridvnvm
IMG_4377~0.jpg
194. Magnus Maximus (Pretender under Theodosius I)14 viewsAv.: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
Rv.: REPARATIO REIPVB
Ex.: LVGP

AE Maiorina Ø22 / 5.8g
RIC IX 32 Lyons
Scarce!
Juancho
MagnMaxAE2RepReip.jpg
1ew Magnus Maximus45 views383-388

AE2

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known, REPARATIO REIPVB

RIC 26a

Zosimus reports: While the affairs of Thrace were, thus situated, those of Gratian were in great perplexity. Having accepted the counsel of those courtiers who usually corrupt the manners of princes, he gave a reception to some fugitives called Alani, whom he not only introduced into his army, but honoured with valuable presents, and confided to them his most important secrets, esteeming his own soldiers of little value. This produced among his soldiers a violent hatred against him, which being gradually inflamed and augmented incited in them a disposition for innovation, and most particulary in that part of them which was in Britain, since they were the most resolute and vindictive. In this spirit they were encouraged by Maximus, a Spaniard, who had been the fellow-soldier of Theodosius in Britain. He was offended that Theodosius should be thought worthy of being made emperor, while he himself had no honourable employment. He therefore cherished the animosity of the soldiers towards the emperor. They were thus easily induced to revolt and to declare Maximus emperor. Having presented to him the purple robe and the diadem, they sailed to the mouth of the Rhine. As the German army, and all who were in that quarter approved of the election, Gratian prepared to contend against Maximus, with a considerable part of the army which still adhered to him. When the armies met, there were only slight skirmishes for five days; until Gratian, |115 perceiving that the Mauritanian cavalry first deserted from him and declared Maximus Augustus, and afterwards that the remainder of his troops by degrees espoused the cause of his antagonist, relinquished all hope, and fled with three hundred horse to the Alps. Finding those regions without defence, he proceeded towards Rhaetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and the Upper Moesia. When Maximus was informed of his route, he was not negligent of the opportunity, but detached Andragathius, commander of the cavalry, who was his faithful adherent, in pursuit of Gratian. This officer followed him with so great speed, that he overtook him when he was passing the bridge at Sigidunus, and put him to death. . . .

The reign of Gratian being thus terminated, Maximus, who now considered himself firmly fixed in the empire, sent an embassy to the emperor Theodosius, not to intreat pardon for his treatment of Gratian, but rather to increase his provocations. The person employed in this mission was the imperial chamberlain (for Maximus would not suffer an eunuch to preside in his court), a prudent person, with whom he had been familiarly acquainted from his infancy. The purport of his mission was to propose to Theodosius a treaty of amity, and of alliance, against all enemies who should make war on the Romans, and on refusal, to declare against him open hostility. Upon this, Theodosius admitted Maximus to a share in the empire, and in the honour of his statues and his imperial title. . . .

Affairs being thus situated in the east, in Thrace, and in Illyricum, Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire, if possible totally, but should he fail in the whole, to secure at least some part. . . . he immediately entered Italy without; resistance, and marched to Aquileia. . . .

Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. Such was the end of Maximus and of his usurpation. Having fraudulently overcome Valentinian, he imagined that he should with ease subdue the whole Roman empire. Theodosius, having heard, that when Maximus came from beyond the Alps he left his son Victor, whom he had dignified with the title of Caesar, he immediately sent for his general, named Arbogastes, who deprived the youth both of his dignity and life.
Blindado
coin264.JPG
403. Carausius37 viewsMarcus Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (d. 293) was a Roman usurper in Britain and northern Gaul (286–293, Carausian Revolt).

Carausius was a man of humble origin, a Menapian from Belgic Gaul who distinguished himself during Maximian's campaign against the Bagaudae rebels in Gaul in 286. As a result, he was appointed to command the Classis Britannica, a fleet based in the English Channel, with the responsibility of eliminating Frankish and Saxon pirates who had been raiding the coast. However, he was suspected of keeping captured treasure for himself, and even of allowing the pirates to carry out raids and enrich themselves before taking action against them, and Maximian ordered his execution. In late 286 or early 287 Carausius learned of this sentence and responded by declaring himself Emperor of Britain and northern Gaul.

He could count on the alliegance of the three legions based in Britain, as well as one in northern Gaul. How he was able to win support from the army when his command had been sea-based is uncertain. The emperor briefly assumed the title Britannicus Maximus in 285, and the British towns of Wroxeter and Caistor by Norwich towns show signs of destruction around this time, so it is possible Carausius won the army's support during military action in Britain shortly before his rebellion. Alternatively, if the accusations of larceny are true, he could perhaps afford to buy their loyalty. He also appears to have appealed to native British dissatisfaction with Roman rule: he issued coins with legends such as Restitutor Britanniae (Restorer of Britain) and Genius Britanniae (Spirit of Britain).

Maximian, busy with wars on the Rhine, was unable to challenge him immediately, but in the Autumn of 288 he began massing troops and ships for an invasion. In 289 an invasion of Britain intended to dislodge him failed badly due to storms, although a naval defeat is also possible. An uneasy peace continued until 293, during which Rome prepared for a second effort to retake the province, while Carausius began to entertain visions of legitimacy and official recognition. He minted his own coins and brought their value in to line with Roman issues as well as acknowledging and honouring Maximian and then Diocletian. Coinage is the main source of information about the rogue emperor; his issues were initially crude but soon became more elaborate and were issued from mints in Londinium, Rotomagnus and a third site, possibly Colonia Claudia Victricensis. A milestone from Carlisle with his name on it suggests that the whole of Roman Britain was in Carausius' grasp.

It has been speculated (namely, by the historian Sheppard Frere) that the rebellion of Carausius endangered Diocletian's vision of a strong, centralized government based on his tetrarchy. In any case, by early 293 Constantius Chlorus had gained control of northern Gaul, including the rebel's stronghold and port of Bononia, on which Carausius was heavily dependent. Constantius built a mole across the harbour mouth to ensure it did not receive maritime aid.

Constantius also regained the allegiance of the rebellious Gallic legion and defeated the Franks of the Rhine mouth who seem to have been working in league with Carausius. Weakened by these setbacks, Carausius was assassinated, possibly at York, by his treasurer, Allectus.

aVF/aVF Carausius Antoninianus / Pax / Green Patina and Nice Style

Attribution: RIC 895
Date: 287-293 AD
Obverse: IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG, radiate and draped bust right
Reverse: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding branch and transverse sceptre.
Size: 20.91 mm
Weight: 3 grams
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501b. Crispus BEATA Trier13 viewsTrier

The Romans under Julius Caesar subdued the Celtic Treverans in 58 to 50 BC. When the Roman provinces in Germany were reorganised in 16 BC, Augustus decided that Trier, then called Augusta Treverorum, should become the regional capital. From 259 to 274 Trier was the capital of the break away Gallic Empire. Later for a few years (383 - 388) it was the capital of Magnus Maximus, who ruled most of the western Empire.


The ruins of the Roman baths.Sacked by Attila in 451, it passed to the Franks in 463, to Lorraine in 843, to Germany in 870, and back to Lorraine in 895, and was finally united to Germany by Henry I the Fowler. The Archbishop of Trier was, as chancellor of Burgundy, one of the electors of the empire, a right which originated in the 12th or 13th century, and which continued until the French Revolution. The last elector removed to Koblenz in 1786; and Trier was the capital of the French department of Sarre from 1794 till 1814, after which time it belonged to Prussia.

RIC VII Trier 308

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507a. Decentius86 viewsMagnus Decentius (d. 18 August 353) was a Roman usurper against Roman Emperor Constantius II.

Probably brother of Magnentius, Decentius was made Caesar by him in winter 350/351, and was consul in 352 and 353. When Magnentius was defeated by Constantius at the Battle of Mons Seleucus and killed himself, Decentius, who was leading reenfocement, hanged at Senonae.

Decentius as Caesar, AD 350-353, AE Double Cententionalis (25mm, 8.11g)
O: DN DECENTIVS NOB CAES; Cuirassed bust facing right.
R: SALVS DD NN AVG ET CAES; Large Chi-Rho flanked by A and w; LSLG in exergue.
RIC 155 (Scarce), VM 6.
This is a full weight AE1 size of this Christogram series.

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513. Gratian27 viewsFlavius Gratianus Augustus (April 18/May 23, 359 - August 25, 383), known as Gratian, was a Western Roman Emperor from 375 to 383. He was the son of Valentinian I by Marina Severa and was born at Sirmium in Pannonia.

On August 4, 367 he received from his father the title of Augustus. On the death of Valentinian (November 17, 375), the troops in Pannonia proclaimed his infant son (by a second wife Justina) emperor under the title of Valentinian II.

Gratian acquiesced in their choice; reserving for himself the administration of the Gallic provinces, he handed over Italy, Illyria and Africa to Valentinian and his mother, who fixed their residence at Milan. The division, however, was merely nominal, and the real authority remained in the hands of Gratian.

The Eastern Roman Empire was under the rule of his uncle Valens. In May, 378 Gratian completely defeated the Lentienses, the southernmost branch of the Alamanni, at the Battle of Argentovaria, near the site of the modern Colmar. Later that year, Valens met his death in the Battle of Adrianople on August 9.

In the same year, the government of the Eastern Empire devolved upon Gratian, but feeling himself unable to resist unaided the incursions of the barbarians, he promoted Theodosius I on January 19, 379 to govern that portion of the empire. Gratianus and Theodosius then cleared the Balkans of barbarians in the Gothic War (377–382).

For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success but gradually sank into indolence, occupying himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose of Milan.

By taking into his personal service a body of Alani, and appearing in public in the dress of a Scythian warrior, he aroused the contempt and resentment of his Roman troops. A Roman general named Magnus Maximus took advantage of this feeling to raise the standard of revolt in Britain and invaded Gaul with a large army. Gratian, who was then in Paris, being deserted by his troops, fled to Lyon. There, through the treachery of the governor, Gratian was delivered over to one of the rebel generals and assassinated on August 25, 383.

RIC IX Antioch 46b S

DN GRATIA-NVS PF AVG
CONCOR-DIA AVGGG
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514. Valentinian II34 viewsValentinian II (371 - 392) was elevated as Western Roman Emperor at the age of four in 375, along with his half-brother Gratian.

Valentinian and his family lived in Milan, and the empire was nominally divided between them. Gratian took the trans- Alpine provinces, while Italy, Illyricum in part, and Africa were to be under the rule of Valentinian, or rather of his mother, Justina. Justina was an Arian, and the imperial court at Milan struggled against the Catholics of that city, led by their bishop Ambrose. The popularity of Ambrose was so great that the emperors' authority was materially shaken. In 387, Magnus Maximus, a Roman consul who had commanded an army in Briton, and in 383 (the year of Gratian's death) had declared himself emperor of Western Rome, crossed the Alps into the valley of the Po and threatened Milan.

The emperor Valentinian II and his mother fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor and Valentinian's brother in law. Valentinian was restored in 388 by Theodosius, following the death of Magnus Maximus.

On May 15, 392, Valentinian was found hanged in his residence in the town of Vienne in Gaul. The Frankish soldier Arbogast, Valentinian's protector and magister militum, maintained that it was suicide. Arbogast and Valentinian had frequently disputed rulership over the Western Roman Empire, and Valentinian was also noted to have complained of Arbogast's control over him to Theodosius. Thus when word of his death reached Constantinople Theodosius believed, or at least suspected, that Arbogast was lying and that he had engineered Valentinian's demise. These suspicions were further fueled by Arbogast's elevation of a Eugenius, pagan official to the position of Western Emperor, and the veiled accusations which Ambrose, the Bishop of Milan, spoke during his funeral oration for Valentinian.

Valentinian II's death sparked a civil war between Eugenius and Theodosius over the rulership of the West in the Battle of the Frigidus. The resultant Eastern victory there led to the final brief unification of the Roman Empire under Theodosius, and the ultimate irreparable division of the Empire after his death.

Bronze AE3, RIC 22, VF, 2.19g, 17.7mm, 0o, Arelate mint, 378-383 A.D.; obverse D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICTORIAE AVGGG, Victory advancing left holding wreath in right and palm frond in left, [S]CON in ex;Ex Aiello;Ex Forum
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515b. Magnus Maximus35 viewsA Spaniard, Maximus was proclaimed emperor by his troops in 383, while serving with the army in Britain. Later legend made him King of the Britons; he handed the throne over to Caradocus when he went to Gaul to pursue his imperial ambitions.

Following his destruction of Gaul, Maximus went out to meet his main opponent, Gratian, who he defeated near Paris. Gratian, after fleeing, was killed at Lyon on August 25, 383. Soon after, Maximus managed to force Valentinian II out of Rome after which he fled to Theodosius I, the Eastern Roman Emperor. Maximus made his capital at Augusta Treverorum (Treves, Trier) in Gaul. He became a popular emperor, although also a stern persecutor of heretics.

Theodosius I and Valentinian II campaigned against Magnus Maximus in July-August 388. Maximus was defeated in the Battle of the Save, near Emona, and retreated to Aquileia. Andragathius, magister equitum of Maximus and killer of Gratian, was defeated near Siscia, his brother Marcellinus again at Poetovio. Maximus surrendered in Aquileia and although pleaded for mercy was executed. However, his wife and two daughters were spared. Maximus' son, Flavius Victor, was defeated and executed by Valentinian's magister peditum Arbogast in the fall of the same year.

What happened to his family is not related, although it is clear that they survived and that his descendants continued to occupy influential posts. We encounter a possible daughter of Magnus Maximus, Sevira, on the Pillar of Eliseg, an early medieval inscribed stone in Wales which claims her marriage to Vortigern, king of the Britons. Another daughter was possibly married to Ennodius, proconsul Africae (395). Their grandson was Petronius Maximus, who was another ill-fated emperor, ruling in Rome for but 77 days before he was stoned to death while fleeing from the Vandals on May 24, 455. Other descendants included Anicius Olybrius, emperor in 472, but also several consuls and bishops such as St. Magnus Felix Ennodius (Bishop of Pavia c. 514-21).

Magnus Maximus AE-4

Obv: MM right, DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG; Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with two turrets and star above. Coin is nice VF for this small issue.
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515c. Flavius Victor29 viewsFlavius Victor was the infant son of Magnus Maximus by his wife Helen, allegedly the daughter of Octavius. He was proclaimed an Augustus from 384 to his death in 388.

Victor's father was considered a usurper of the Western Roman Empire. He negotiated receiving recognition by the legitimate Augusti Valentinian II and Theodosius I. When negotiations failed, Maximus pressed the matter by proclaiming his son an Augustus, indicating an attempt to secure a succession. This method had been used by former Emperor Valentinian I who declared his son and heir Gratian an Augustus in 367 and by Theodosius who had declared his own son and heir Arcadius an Augustus in 383.

Maximus and Victor gained recognition of their legitimacy for their co-reign by Theodosius in 386. In 387, Maximus campaigned in Italy against Valentinian II. Victor was left behind in Trier. His father defeated Valentinian but failed against a then hostile Theodosius in 388. Theodosius send Arbogastes in Trier to slay Victor.

Victor's death left Valentinian II, Theodosius and Arcadius as the sole Augusti in the Empire

RIC IX Aquileia 55b
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72. Magnus Maximus.21 viewsAE 4, summer 387 - Aug. 28, 388, Aquileia mint.
Obverse: DN MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Maximus.
Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM / Camp gate with star between its two turrets.
Mint mark: SMAQ(?)
1.32 gm., 13 mm.
RIC #55a; LRBC #1003; Sear #20657.

The last letter of the mint mark is not readable. It should be a P or S.
Callimachus
Nummus Magno Maximo RIC IX Aquileia 55a P.jpg
A144-02 - Magno Máximo (383 - 388 D.C.)55 viewsAE4 Nummus 11 x 12 mm 1.1 gr.

Anv: "DN MAG MA - XIMVS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[SPES RO] - MA - NORVM " - Puerta de campamento, sin puertas ni ventanas, dos torres, " * " arriba, cuatro capas de piedras. "SMAQP" en exergo.

Acuñada 387 - 388 D.C.
Ceca: Aquileia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Aquileia) #55a Pag.105 - Cohen Vol.VIII #7 Pag.167 - DVM #16 Pag.314 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9264.d. Pag.291 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4206
mdelvalle
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A144-10 - Magno Máximo (383 - 388 D.C.)53 viewsAE2 Maiorina 22 x 20 mm 3.9 gr.

Anv: "DN MAG MA[XI] - MVS PF AVG " - Busto con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "REPARATIO REIPVB" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié de frente, viendo a izquierda, ayudando a la República con corona torreada a levantarse con el brazo derecho y portando una Victoriola en su mano izquierda. "[SVGP ó S]" en exergo. Estimo la ceca en función de la leyenda del anverso, única Lyon con esta leyenda.

Acuñada 383 - 386 D.C.
Ceca: Lugdunum - Lyon (Off.Incierta)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Lugdunum) #32 Pag.49 - Cohen Vol.VIII #3 Pag.167 - DVM #13 Pag.313 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9261.b. Pag.291 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4203
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As, Sex. Pompeius Magnus2 viewsAs, Sextus Pompey Magnus

RRC: 479/1
45 bc
19,64 gr

AV:Laureate head of Janus, with the features of Cn. Pompeius Magnus; MAGN above
RV:Prow right; PIVS above, IMP below.

ex Savoca, Silver 22, Lot 426, 29.04.2018
Norbert
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CAMPGATE, Magnus Maximus311 views Magnus Maximus (383-388 AD), AE4 (13mm)

Obv: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG
diademed, draped,cuirassed facing right bust.
Rev: SPES RO-MA-NORVM; Campgate with star between two
turrets. RIC IX Arles 29a R

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CAMPGATE, Magnus Maximus, Aquilea AE4134 viewsCoin supported on pencil eraser.Curtis
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Campgate: Magnus Maximus (383-388 d.C.), zecca di Aquileia28 viewsMagnus Maximus (383-388 d.C.)
AE, 1,6 gr, 12,0 mm
D/ D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, diademed bust right
R/ SPES ROMANORVM, camp gate with star between two turrets, SMAQ in ex
RIC IX Aquileia 55
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (29 novembre 2012, numero catalogo 172); ex Borislav P. Kirev collection (Rector Orbis Inc., Tampa, Saint Petersburg, Florida, Usa, fino al 2012)
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Campgate: Magnus Maximus, AE2 (383-388 d.C.) zecca di Lugdunum9 viewsMagnus Maximus, Lugdunum mint, R
AE2. 1,22 gr., 13,50 mm, B
D/ DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG, Busto drappeggiato e corazzato verso destra
R/ SPES RO-MA-NORVM campgate. LVG [.] in ex
RIC IX 36 var. (obverse legend)
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 20 dicembre 2015, numero catalogo 243); ex Asta Tintinna 51, Dea Moneta (San Marino, 20 dicembre 2015) lotto 2195; ex collezione Massimo Campani (Scandiano, Reggio Emilia, Italia, fino al 2015)
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Campgate: Magnus Maximus, zecca di Arles14 viewsMagnus Maximus (383-388). , Arelate mint
AE, 13 mm., gr. 1.15, S
D/ DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R/ SPES ROMANORVM. Camp-gate with star between its two turrets; in ex S CON
RIC IX, 29
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia dal 17 gennaio 2015, numero catalogo 231), ex Artemide aste 28E, lotto 349 (San Marino, 17 gennaio 2015)
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Campgate: Magnus Maximus, zecca di Roma, I officina (387-388 d.C.)14 viewsMagnus Maximus, Bronze half centenionalis, 1st officina, Rome mint, R
AE, 0.931gr, 13.1 mm, 225°,
D/ D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
R/ SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with star between two turrets, RP in exergue
RIC IX Rome 59.1, LRBC II 795, SRCV V 20658, Cohen VIII 7
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, 25 settembre 2015, numero catalogo 246); ex FAC fino al 25 settembre 2015, ex Seaver Collection (Morton&Eden Ltd, , auction 57/2012, lot 400)
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Cn. Pompeius Magnus and Terentius Varro89 viewsCn. Pompeius Magnus and Terentius Varro. Denarius, mint moving with Pompey 49 BC, 4 grs.
Obs. : (VARRO·PRO – Q) Terminal bust of Jupiter r., wearing diadem.
Rev. : Sceptre between dolphin and eagle; in exergue, MAGN·PRO / COS.
Babelon Terentia 15 and Pompeia 7. Sear Imperators 8. C 3. Sydenham 1033 var. Woytek Arma et Nummi p. 558. RBW –. Crawford 447/1a.
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CNAEUS POMPEIUS MAGNUS Pompey the Great.58 viewsAR denarius. (4.51 gr). 49-48 BC. Uncertain mint in Greece. Diademed head of Numa Pompilius right. CN PISO PRO Q. / Prow right, MAGN above, PRO COS below. Crawford 446/1; RSC 4. Smyth XII/35. Iridescent toning .
CNG 64, Lot: 812
CNG photograph
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CNAEUS POMPEIUS MAGNUS Pompey the Great. 43 viewsAR denarius. (4.51 gr). 49-48 BC. Uncertain mint in Greece. Diademed head of Numa Pompilius right. CN PISO PRO Q. / Prow right, MAGN above, PRO COS below. Crawford 446/1; RSC 4. Smyth XII/35.

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Constantine I Magnus13 viewsConstantine I Magnus (313-319 CE)
Diademed bust of Constantine/Sol standing, holding globe (with victory on globe?). No captive in left field.
AE 18mm Follis
Belisarius
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Constantinople6 viewsConstantine I Magnus,
Helmeted head reprisenting the city of Constantinople, left/Victory standing on boad, left, with shield.
Snipped into square.
Belisarius
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crw 479/1 Roman Republic . Sextus Pompey, Younger Son of Pompey the Great, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet . Æ As. 43 - 36 B.C.21 viewsRoman Republic . Sextus Pompey, Younger Son of Pompey the Great, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet . Æ As. 43 - 36 B.C.
18.242g, 31.2mm . Sicilian or Spanish mint . 43 - 36 B.C.
Obverse : MAGN (above, MA ligate), laureate head of Janus with the features of Cn. Pompeius Magnus .
Reverse : Prow of galley right, PIVS above, IMP below .
Crawford 479/1, Sydenham 1044, RPC I 671, Sear CRI 366
Ex Forum .
Vladislav D
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Divo 157. 1676, Levee du siege de Maastricht.195 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. Pallas standing holding spear and shield with three Fleur de Lys PULSIS AD MOSAM BATAVIS TRAIECT LIBERAT MDCLXXVI

Commemorates the lifting of the Siege of Maastricht. Curiously. the medal is dated 1676 while the siege ended in 1673. Maastricht was given back to the Dutch in the Treaty of Nijmegan in 1678-9. This siege is where the historical figure of Comte d'Artagnan, the inspiration for Alexandre Dumas' character, was killed.
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Divo 168. 1677, Prise de Saint-Ghislain.160 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. Pallas standing right holding spear and wreath, shield at feet ANNUS FELICITER CLAUSUS FANUM S. GISLENI CAPTUM MDCLXXVI
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Divo 176. 1678, Combat de Saint-Denis.161 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. Mars advancing left holding branch and trophy mounted on spear MARS PACIS VINDEX PUGNA AD FANUM DVONESII XIII AVG MDCLXXVIII
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Divo 180. 1680, Marriage du Dauphin avec Marie-Anne de Baviere.203 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. The Cardinal of Bouillon centre, marrying the Dauphin Louis left and Anne Marie of Bavaria right, temple behind VICTORIA ET PACE AUSPICES MARIE ANNA BAVAR?? LUD DELPH NUPTA? MDCLXXX

Commemorates the mariage of the Dauphin Louis to Anna Marie of Bavaria in 1680.
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Divo 199. 1683, 800 gens d'elite enroles pour la marine de guerre.178 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. King flanked by two figures, one kneeling, nautical scene with ship behind LECTI JUVENES INNAVALEM MILLITIAM CONSCRIPTI DCCC MDCLXXXIII
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Divo 222. 1688, Prise de Phillipsbourg.189 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. Victory standing on urn from which water flows, holding arrow, fortified city behind PROVIDENTER PHILLIPIBURGUM EXFUG MDCLXXXVIII

Commemorates the capture of the German city of Phillipsbourg by French forces.
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Divo 237. 1691, Nice et Mons prises le meme jour.196 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. Two airborne Victories facing each other, bearing trumpets and wreaths, from each trumpet a banner bearing NICEA CAPTA and MONTES HANN EXPVG, a city below each angel AB AUSTRO ET AB AQUILONE INEVNTE APRILI MDCLXXXXI

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Divo 256. 1694, Prise de Gerona.186 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. Hercules leaning on pillar, prone figure at his feet GERUNDA CAPTA MDCXCIIII
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Divo 266. 1697, Prise d'Ath.183 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. Mars approaching prone figure resting on urn from which water pours, each clasping the same banner TENERA GALLIS PATENS ATRA CAPTA MDCXCVII
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Divo 271. 1697, Les conqueres du Roi entre 1643 et 1697 165 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. Mound of cannon and other paraphernalia of war, crown above VICTORI PERPETVO OB EXPUG CCCL URB AD AN MDCXLIII AB AN MDCXCVII

Divo 271. Commemorates the "perpetual victories" of France under Louis XIV, 1643 to 1697. It is worth noting that in 1701, four years after this medal is dated, the War of Spanish succession broke out which was ultimately a defeat for France and weakened the nations influence considerably. France's iron grip on continental Europe was broken and the concept of 'balance of power' was developed during the Treaty of Utrecht which ended the war in 1713 though some small hostilities continued.
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Divo 286. 1700, Union de la France et de l'Espagne.238 viewsObv. Bust right LUDOVICUS MAGNUS REX CHRISTIANISSIMUS
Rev. Personficiations of France and Spain, each holding a shield, clasping hands CONCORDIA FRANCIAE ET HISPANIAE MDCC

Commemorating the alliance between France and Spain.
LordBest
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Faustus Cornelius Sulla169 viewsAR denarius. 56 BC. 4.05 g, 9h. Head of young Hercules right, wearing lion's skin headdress, paws knotted below his chin; SC above FAVSTVS monogram behind. / Globe surrounded by four wreaths, the larger jewelled and tied with fillet; aplustre and stalk of grain below. Crawford 426/4a. RSC Cornelia 61 .
This coin is one of ten million denarii that the Senate of Rome commissioned for the purchase of wheat in the year 56 BC. All those extra denarii, struck alongside the normal coin issues, bear the letters S.C for "Senatus Consulto" (by decree of the Senate) on their obverse, behind the head of Hercules. The ligated letters FAVS refer to the moneyer, Faustus Cornelius Sulla.

The ear of grain on the reverse illustrates that this denarius was indeed minted in connection with the purchase of wheat. Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, who transacted the business, was the father in law of the moneyer Sulla, and effectually used his son in law's position to advertise himself. Three of the wreaths on the reverse commemorate the three triumphs of Pompey: He was the first Roman to celebrate a triumph on each of the three then-known continents. With this Pompey had made Rome a world power, which is symbolized by the globe in the middle. The fourth wreath, larger than the others, stands for the extraordinary honor that Pompey was bestowed with in 63 BC, when he was allowed to wear a golden headdress when going to the circus or the theater.
1 commentsbenito
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Flavius Magnus Magnentius, 350 - 353 AD21 viewsObv: IM CAE MAGNENTIVS AVG, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust of Magnentius facing right.

Rev: FELICITAS REIPVBLICAE, Magnentius standing left, holding a globe surmounted by a statue of Victory in his right hand and a labarum in his left; A in right field; TRP in exergue.

Copper Centenionalis, Trier mint, 351 - 353 AD

4.9 grams, 23 mm, 180°

RIC VIII Trier 264
SPQR Coins
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Flavius Victor (usurper 384-388) follis (AE4)16 viewsObv.: DN FL VICTOR PF AVG (Draped and cuirassed bust of emperor with labarum) Rev.: SPES ROMANORVM (Turreted campgate, star between turrets) Exergue: S(MAQ?) Diameter: 13.5 mm Weight: 1,06 g RIC 55b

The son of Magnus Maximus, near to nothing is known about Flavius Victor. He seems to have been elevated only nominally.
Nick.vdw
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Flavius Victor, RIC IX, Aquileia 55(b)23 viewsFlavius Victor, 387-388, son of Magnus Maximus
AE 4, 0.9g, 13mm
Aquileia, 1st officina
obv. DN FL VIC - TOR PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademd, r.
rev. SPES RO - MA - NORVM
City gate with 2 towers, star between, open door
in wx. SMAQP
ref. RIC IX, Aquileia 55(b); C. 3
Scarce, VF

In spite of his depiction Flavius Victor was 4-5 years old when his coins were struck.
Jochen
FRANCE_JETON_PVCA_AD_SENEFFAM.jpg
FRANCE - Jeton, Louis XIV132 viewsFRANCE -- Jeton, brass. Theme: Victory at Battle of Seneffe. Made by Lazarus Gottlieb Lauffer, Nuremberg, Germany, 1663-1709. Obverse: Bust of Louis XIV., to r.: LVDOVICVS . MAGNUS . REX . LGL. under bust. Reverse: Winged Victory flying above field of military equipment with armour, weapons, flags; carrying a flag in right hand and laurel wreath in left: PVCNA AD . SENEFFAM . Weight: 4.56 grams, 25.9 mm. Reference: Mitchiner.1808.
The Battle of Seneffe was fought on 11 August 1674 between French army under the command of Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé and the Dutch-German-Spanish army under William III of Orange. During the Franco-Dutch war, William III commanded a Dutch-German-Spanish army through the southern Netherlands into the territory of Northern France. France defended this area with an army under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé. For five weeks the two armies manoeuvred without getting into combat with each other. On the 10th of August, William III decided to head for Paris in order to force the enemy into fighting. Condé sent a detachment of about 500 horsemen to keep the Dutch vanguard busy near the village of Seneffe, blocking the advance of William. In the meantime, Condé tried to surround the 60,000 allied troops with the 45,000 men at his disposal. The horsemen managed to keep the Dutch vanguard busy, but the envelopment of the main allied force failed. After ten hours Condé had 8,000 dead or wounded and William - 11,000. Both armies retreated from the battlefield and although the battle was indecisive; both sides claimed victory.
dpaul7
cnmag.jpg
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus 107 viewsCN MAG

Lead sling shot reportedly from the battle of Munda.

Found in Estepa, Spain
74.19g

49x28mm


The Battle of Munda took place on March 17, 45 BC in the plains of Munda, which is in modern southern Spain. This was the last great battle of Julius Caesar's civil war against the republican armies. After this victory, and the deaths of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius (Pompey's oldest son), Caesar was free to return to Rome and govern as dictator. Tens of thousands of Romans died at Munda. About one month after defeat, Gnaeus was captured and executed. His brother Sextus survived to initiate another rebellion, on Sicily, where he was finally defeated by Marcus Agrippa and executed in Asia in 35 BC by Mark Antony, ten years after Munda.

Eitan Hirsch, a ballistics expert with the Israeli Defense Forces calculated that an expert slinger could hit a target from 35 meters away. According to his calculations a projectile could be hurled at a velocity of 34 meters per second. Equivalent to a modern day handgun.
4 commentsJay GT4
harthacnut.jpg
Harthacnut49 viewsPenny of Harthacnut, king of Denmark 1035-1042 and England 1040-1042
Moneyer: Toci
Mint: Lund
S. 1170, Hbg 28 (var.)
Hauberg 28
O: NARÐECII
R: TOOCI ON LVNDI

Danish coin of Harthacnut, imitating the long cross type of Aethelred II. Harthacnut faces left with a nice head of bushy hair, looking somewhat more like a rooster's comb. In front of him is an extended hand, which seems to be clothed in a gauntlet. The lanky fingers look almost skeletal. The significance of this hand may be related to similar imagery of the 'benediction hand' on other coins of Aethelred II. While a religious symbol, the Vikings of this era were probably Christian only in name, and it is doubtful they understood the meaning. This image only appears on coins of Toci. Toci also struck coins for Cnut the Great, Magnus the Good, and Cnut IV.

Ex- Hafnia coins, Künker Auction 194 (lot 2132)
Nap
HUN_Geza_I_Huszar_18.JPG
Huszár 18; Tóth-Kiss 8.1 sigla b5.5/7; Unger 12; Réthy I 23; Frynas H.7.1; Adamovszky A28v3; Kovács pp.124-12660 viewsHungary. Duke Géza (Duke, 1064-1074; King, 1074-1077).

AR denomination unknown (per Huszár and Adamovszky) or denar (per Tóth-Kiss, Unger, Frynas, Kovács and Gyöngyössy) (average .70 g, 17-19 mm.); .76 g., 18.72 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + DVX MVONVS or MAGNVS, Cross.

Rev: + PANONAI (decaying legend, with the P shaped as a D), Cross with wedges

The obverse legend is deciphered either as + DVX MVONAS (per Huszár, Frynas, Kovács and Gyöngyössy) or + DVX MAGNVS (per Réthy). The former interpretation deciphers all A/V letters consistently as inscribed (so that the fifth letter is a V and the eighth is an A) and assumes that the sixth letter is an O. The latter interpretation inverts the second and third A/V letters (so that the fifth letter is an A and the eighth is a V), and assumes that the sixth letter is a G. Tóth-Kiss and Kovács explain that Magnus was the Christian given name of Géza. According to Adamovszky, the standard legend reads MVONAS but there is a variety in which it reads MAGNVS.

Struck in Esztergom, 1064-1074 (per Gyöngyössy, whose dating has not been accepted by later catalogers and appears to be speculative).

From 1048-1074 a third of the kingdom was ruled by the duke, who issued autonomous coinage on a heavier weight standard than the royal coinage. Upon becoming king, the weight of his coinage was reduced to the royal standard.

Huszár rarity 6, Toth-Kiss rarity 120, Unger rarity 30, Frynas rarity N.
Stkp
Ludus-Magnus-Gladiatoris-b.jpg
Italy, Rome, Ludus Magnus Gladiatorum468 viewsPosted by Strength And Honour.
Photo taken by my friend Hebe.
Strength And Honour
1000-18-090.jpg
M. Aemilius Scaurus & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus26 viewsIn 67 BCE, Hyrcanus II ascended to the throne of Judea. Scarcely three months later, his younger brother Aristobulus II incited a rebellion, successfully leading the uprising to overthrow Hyrcanus and take the offices of both King and High Priest. Hyrcanus was confined to Jerusalem, where he would continue to receive revenues of the latter office. However, fearing for his life, he fled to Petra and allied himself with Aretas, who agreed to support Hyrcanus after receiving the promise of having the Arabian towns taken by the Hasmoneans returned to Nabataea by Hyrcanus' chief advisor, Antipater the Idumaean.

Aretas advanced towards Jerusalem at the head of 50,000 men, besieging the city for several months. Eventually, Aristobulus bribed Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, deputy of the Roman general Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus. Scaurus ordered Aretas to withdraw his army, which then suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of Aristobulus on the journey back to Nabatea.

Despite the compliance of Aretas, in 62 BCE Scaurus marched on Petra. However, a combination of the rough terrain and low supplies, obliged Scaurus to seek the aid of Hyrcanus, now High Priest (not king) of Judea, who sent Antipater to barter for peace with Aretas. The siege was lifted in exchange for several hundred talents of silver (to Scaurus himself) and recognition of Roman supremacy over Nabatea. Aretas would retain all Nabataean territory and possessions, becoming a vassal of the Roman Empire.

M. Aemilius Scaurus & Pub. Plautius Hypsaeus. 58 B.C. AR denarius (18.8 mm, 3.75 g, 3 h). Rome mint. M SCAVRV above, AED CVR in exergue, EX - SC on either side, REX ARETAS in exergue, King Aretas kneeling beside camel right, offering olive branch / P HVPSAEVS/AED CVR above, C·HVPSAE COS/PREIVER in exergue, CAPTV on right, Jupiter driving quadriga left. Crawford 422/1b; Sydenham 913; RSC Aemilia 8. Fine.
ecoli
magnus_reparatio_reipub_arles_ric_26b.jpg
Magnentius AE2, Gloria Romanorum (RIC Aquileia 162)9 viewsObverse: D N MAGNENTIVS P F AVG Bare head, looking right. Letter A behing bust.
Reverse: GLORIA ROMANORVM Emperor on horseback, striking down enemy.

Aquileia mint, 2nd officina, 350-351.

22 mm, 2.86 g, 180º.

Reference: RIC VIII Aquileia 162.
Manuel
magnus_ladulas_ll_xviii_c_4d.jpg
Magnus Birgersson (Ladulas) (1275-1290)19 viewsAR Penning. Bracteat. Skanninge mint? 0,15 g. LL XVIII:C:4d.goranix
magnus_eriksson_ll_xxvii_2.jpg
Magnus Eriksson (1319-1363)25 viewsAR Penning. Unknown mint. 0,36 g. LL XXVII:2.goranix
magnusmaximus.jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS28 viewsAR siliqua. Treveri 383-388 AD. 2,09 grs. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from front. DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG / Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe and spear. VIRTVS ROMANORVM . In exergue TRPS.
RIC IX 84b.1. RSC 20†a
benito
mag.jpg
Magnus Maximus25 viewsMagnus Maximus. AD 383-388. AR Siliqua (18mm, 2.52 g, 7h). Treveri (Trier) mint, 2nd officina. Diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe and scepter; TRPS. RIC IX 84b; RSC 20†a. 2 commentsTLP
00505-MagnusMaximus.JPG
Magnus Maximus32 viewsMagnus Maximus Siliqua
16 mm 1.9 gm
O: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Pearl Diademed Draped + Cuirassed Right.
R: VIRTVS ROMANORVM
Roma seated holding globe and sceptre.
1 commentsJohn Campbell
magnus-maximus.jpg
Magnus Maximus14 viewsMagnus Maximus
D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right /
REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing left, raising kneeling female;
xokleng
Magnus_Maximus_1.jpg
Magnus Maximus15 viewsMagnus Maximus
Æ, Aquileia mint
Obv.: D N MAG MA[XIMVS P F AVG], Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: [SPES] RO-MA-NOR[VM] / SMAQP, Campgate with two turrets; star above
Æ, 12mm, 0.9g
Ref.: RIC IX 55a
Ex Lanz Numismatik
shanxi
magnusmaximus~0.jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS29 viewsAR siliqua. Treveri 383-388 AD. 2,09 grs. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right seen from front. DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG / Roma seated facing, head left, holding globe and spear. VIRTVS ROMANORVM . In exergue TRPS.
RIC IX 84b.1. RSC 20†a
benito
magnus.jpg
Magnus Maximus (383 - 388 A.D.)37 viewsÆ13
O: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: SPES ROMANORVM; Camp-gate with star between its two turrets // RT
Rome Mint 387-388 A.D.
13mm
1.1g
RIC IX 59.3, p. 131, rare.

From the Doug Smith Collection #1507
3 commentsMat
MAGMAX-RIC84b.jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS (383-388) - TREVES - RIC 84b(1)11 viewsSilique, 383-388, S
A/D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Magnus maximus Pius Felix Augustus, Notre seigneur le grand Maxime pieux heureux auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VIRTVS RO-MANORVM//TRPS
Virtus Romanorum, La vertu des romains
Rome casquée assise de face sur un trône, la tête à gauche, tenant un globe nicéphore de la main droite et une lance renversée de la main gauche.
Argent - 2.2 gr - 18.3 mm - 12h
RIC IX 84b(1), RSC 20a
Siliquae
00453.jpg
Magnus Maximus (RIC 33, Coin #453)15 viewsRIC 33, AE2, Lugdunum, 383 - 388 AD.
Obv: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIA AVGG emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe and standard.
Size: 25.0mm 4.42gm
MaynardGee
759_Magnus_Maximus_PCON.jpg
Magnus Maximus - AE 24 viewsArelatum
25.8.383 - 28.7.388 AD
pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
D N MAG MAXI_MVS P F AVG
emperor standing facing, head left, in left Victory on a globe crowns him, with right raising turreted woman
REPARATIO_REIPVB
PCON
RIC IX Arles 26a
ex Lucernae
Johny SYSEL
Magnus_Maximus_opt.jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS AE2 RIC 26a, REPARATIO-REIPVB11 viewsOBV: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: REPARATIO REIPVB, emperor standing left, raising kneeling female; SCON in ex.
4.6g, 22mm

Minted at Arelate, 383-88 AD
Legatus
magnus-maximus-reshoot.jpg
Magnus Maximus AE2, 383-387 AD, Arles17 viewsRoman Imperial, Magnus Maximus AE2, 383-387 AD, Arles, 5.1g, 24mm

Obverse: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB, Emperor standing left, raising kneeling female. mintmarks PCON, SCON and TCON known. "Restoration of the Republic"

Reference: RIC Arles 26a, Sear 4203
Gil-galad
Magnus_Maximus_AE2,_383_-_388_AD,_Arles.JPG
Magnus Maximus AE2, 383-388 AD, Arles28 viewsMagnus Maximus
AE2
Arles, 383-388 AD
DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG
pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust r.
REPARATIO REIPVB
emperor raising woman
TCON in ex
RIC IX Arles 26a
Ardatirion
Magnus_Maximus_2_opt.jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS AE2, RIC 32, REPARATIO-REIPVB16 viewsOBV: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV: REPARATIO-REIPVB, Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe in left hand and raising kneeling woman, turreted headdress. P or D in right field. LVGP in ex.
4.6g, 23mm

Minted at Lugdunum, 383-88 AD
Legatus
101B.jpg
Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua44 viewsRIC IX 84b1 Trier, RSC 20a
2.07 g, 17 mm
D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe & spear
TRPS in ex.
EX: Roma Numis.
2 commentsMark Z
Magnus_Maximus_Reparatio_Reipub~0.JPG
Magnus Maximus Reparatio Reipub19 viewsMagnus Maximus, AE3, Lyons, RIC IX Lyons 32, 23.12mm max., 5.7g
OBV: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
REV: REPARATIO-REIPVB, Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe in left hand and raising kneeling woman, turreted headdress. LVG below

SCARCE
Romanorvm
MMCGd[1].jpg
MAGNUS MAXIMUS RIC IX 29a29 viewsObv: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: SPES ROMANORVM,
Camp gate with two
turrets and star abovel
Arles mint
12mm 1.1gm
OWL365
magnus.JPG
Magnus Maximus RIC IX Arles 26a41 viewsAE 20-24 mm 2.8 grams 383-388 AD
OBV :: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG. Pearled diadem, draped and cuirassed, bust right
REV :: REPARATIO REIPVB. Emperor standing left , helping turreted woman to rise. holding victory on globe in left hand
EX :: ( T, S or P ) CON
RIC IX Arles 26a
Purchased 12/2008
Johnny
Magnus_Maximus,_campgate,_Rome.JPG
Magnus Maximus, RIC IX Rome 5913 viewsMagnus Maximus, 383 - 388 AD, 13mm, 1.3g. Obverse: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG; pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse: SPES ROMANORVM, campgate with star between two turrets. Attribution: RIC IX Rome 59, r, ex areich, photo credit areich

1 commentsPodiceps
3357_3358_(1).jpg
Magnus Maximus, AE2, REPARATIO REIPVB4 viewsAE2
Magnus Maximus
Augustus: 383 - 388AD
Issued: 383 - 388AD
21mm 4.30gr
O: DN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: REPARATIO REIPVB; Magnus Maximus standing left, holding hand of kneeling Republica and Victory on globe.
Exergue: TCON
Arelate Mint
Aorta: 28: B1, O1, R2, T9, M2.
RIC IX Arles, 269, T; Sear 20650
numismaticaprados 201670622380
11/16/16 1/20/17
Nicholas Z
Magnus_Maximus_RIC_29a.JPG
Magnus Maximus, RIC 29a9 viewsDN MAG MAXIMVS PF AVG
SPES ROMANORVM
AE4, 14mm, 1.41g
Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Campgate with four rows, two turrets, no doors, star above, top
SCON in ex.
Arles mint
novacystis
mmRICIXLyons32OR.jpg
Magnus Maximus, RIC IX Lyons 3221 viewsLyons mint, Magnus Maximus, 383-388 A.D. AE, 23mm 5.28g, RIC IX Lyons 32
O: DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG pearl diadem, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: REPARATIO-REIPVB Emperor standing facing, head left, holding Victory on globe in left hand and raising kneeling woman, wearing crown with right hand
Ex: LVGP
casata137ec
magnus_max_trier_84(b).jpg
Magnus Maximus, RIC IX, Trier 84(b)23 viewsMagnus Maximus, AD 383-388
AR - Siliqua, 1.49g, 17.34mm, 315°
Trier, 2nd officina
obv. DN MAG MAX - IMVS PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
rev. VIRTVS Ro - MANORVM
Roma, helmeted, enthroned facing, head l., l. knee exposed, holding in l. hand inverted spear and in
extended r. hand globe
in ex. TRPS
ref. RIC IX, Trier 84(b), pl. II, 16; C. 30
VF, toned
Pedigree:
ex KPM auction 46, 6/1994, lot 295
ex coll. Rudolf Hynek, Reutlingen
ex Klassische Münzen, Dr.Brandt, Tübingen
Jochen
Copy_(1)_of_mm26a.jpg
Magnus Maximus, RIC VIII 26a Arles, 383-388 CE.11 viewsMagnus Maximus AE2
Obverse: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPB, Emperor standing left, raising kneeling woman.
PCOM in ex. Arles mint, 24.1 mm, 4.4 g.
NORMAN K
0752-210np_noir.jpg
Magnus Maximus, Siliqua90 viewsSiliqua struck in Treveri, 2nd officina
D N MAG MAX IMVS P F AVG, draped, cuirassed and diademed bust right
VIRTVS RO MASORVM (sic !!) Roma seated facing, holding globe and spear.
TRPS at exergue
1.91 gr
Ref : Cohen # 20 var, Roman coins # 4201
Potator II
MAGMAX-1-ROMAN.jpg
Magnus Maximus, Treveri RIC IX-84b26 viewsAR Siliqua
Treveri mint, 383-388 A.D.
16mm, 1.63g
RIC IX-84b

Obverse:
D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
VIRTVS ROMANORVM
TRPS
Roma seated facing, head left, on throne, holding globe and reversed spear.
2 commentsrubadub
Magnus_Maximus.JPG
Magnus Maximus, Usurper and Emperor of Britain, Spain, Gaul & Africa, 383-388 AD.12 viewsMagnus Maximus, AE2, Trier. 387-388 AD. DN MAG MAX-IMVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right / REPARATIO-REIPVB, emperor standing left, raising kneeling woman. Mintmark SMTRP. RIC IX Trier 85. Antonivs Protti
mag_maximus.jpg
Magnus_Maximus_Maiorina_REPARATIO_REIPVB6 viewsNumis-Student
Magnus_Maximus_RIC_IX_26.jpg
Magnvs Maximvs RIC IX 26(?)21 viewsMagnus Maximus RIC IX 26

Obv: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev: REPARATIO-REIPVB, emperor standing left, holding Victory on globe and raising kneeling, turreted woman. (?)CON in ex.
Mint: Arles, 383-388AD
Size: 23mm, 5.12g
Id:. RIC IX Arles 26(?) Sear 20650
1 commentsickster
maximinusI den-salus-.jpg
MAXIMINUS I denarius AD235263 viewsobv:IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
rev:SALVS AVGVSTI (Salus seated left, feeding from patera a serpent arising from altar)
ref:RIC14, C.85
2.80gms
The reverse of SALVS AVGVSTI means the Health of the Emperor – should commemorate the Emperor’s survival through two conspiracies against his life. (from RIC IV i)
The ex-consul Magnus had entered into a conspiracy with a number of soldiers and centurions to stab Maximinus, wishing thereby to get the imperial power for himself. Maximinus wished to make a bridge (through the Rhine at Mogantiacum) and cross over against the Germans, and it was resolved that the conspirators should cross over with him and then, breaking the bridge behind them, surround Maximinus on the barbarians' side and kill him, while Magnus seized the throne. (from Historia Augusta)
There was an another uprising by disgruntled soldiers who accompanied Severus Alexander from the East and who championed the recently dismissed provincial governor Quartinus as a rival emperor.
berserker
MilitaryDiploma.jpg
Military Diploma fragment issued by Severus Alexander149 viewsDated by line 3 to 229-230, 233-235: COS III, preceded by II, the last two digits of the TRIB POT number. He became COS III in 229, and remained this until his death in 235, so the possible years are 229 (TRIB POT VIII), 230 (VIIII), 233 (XII), 234 (XIII) and 235 (XIIII). (78x54 mm)

... M]AGNI II FIL
“Son of Magnus Pius”
... ALEXAN]DER PIVS FELIX AVG
“Alexander Pius Felix Augustus”
... TRIB POT?]II COS III P P
“In the ? year of Tribunician and Conul power, Pater Patriae”
... MI]LITAVERVNT IN
“Who served in”
... SE]VERIANIS DECEM
“Ten Severan”
... ] PIIS VINDICIBVS
“Loyal and Avenging”
... MILI]TIA FVNCTI SVNT
“Performed their military function”
... ] CVM SINGV
“With one”
?LIS ... ETIA]M SI PEREGRI
“Even if foreign”
NI IVRIS ... ] ...

"The underlined portions being the words that are visible on the fragment:

'The Emperor Caesar, son of the deified Antoninus Pius the Great [i.e. 'Caracalla'], grandson of Severus Pius [i.e. Septimius Severus], Marcus Aurellius [thus usually written] Severus Alexander Pius Felix ['happy'] Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, in the [...]IIth year of his Tribunician Power, Consul three times [i.e. 229 or later: see above], Father of his Country. The names of the soldiers who have served in the ten Severan Praetorian Cohorts (numbered) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, Pius Vindex ['dutiful, avenging'], who have dutifully and bravely completed their service, (to them) I have granted the right of Roman marriage, provided it is with one woman only and she their first wife, so that even if they marry women of non-Roman status ...'" - Great thanks to the Classics Faculty in Oxford.

After serving twenty-five years in the Roman auxiliary units, a soldier was granted Roman citizenship as well as the legalization of his existing or future marriage. This was of relevance for his children who thus became Roman citizens and his full legal heirs under Roman law. His wife was not granted Roman citizenship. A diploma, copied from an original posted in Rome , served as evidence of these civic rights and no doubt was preserved as an important legal document by its recipient and his descendants.

Why have so few diplomas survived to the present? Is it possible that veterans received copies in wood, papyrus or bronze depending on what the could afford? Or perhaps only a select few received the small bronze copies of the public imperial constitutions? Whichever the case, far more questions surround these pieces than answers!

The old Praetorian Guard was disbanded by Septimius Severus after he seized Rome in 193 A.D., and was replaced by a new Guard of ten cohorts, each 1000-men strong, drawn from the Danubian legions which had supported his usurpation. It continued to be largely recruited from this source, with many Guardsmen being of Thracian origin, until it was finally disbanded by Constantine in 312 A.D.
4 commentsNemonater
033.JPG
Pompeius Magnus Janus AE as. 45 BC. Spain. CN.MAG 23 viewsScarce Pompeius Magnus Janus AE as minted in the war against Julius Caesar in Southern Spain in 45 B.C. Janus head in obverse, I above. Prow of galley in reverse to right, I before, CN.MAG. above and IMP below. Nice green patina. 31,88 gm. 31 mm. FAB nº R.26.
Antonivs Protti
Pompey_Magnus.jpg
Pompey Magnus79 viewsBust of Pompey Magnus (the Great), on show at the "Moi, Auguste" exhibition in the Grand Palais, Paris in 2014. Photo by me, taken in May 2014Masis
pompey.jpg
Pompey the Great51 viewsCn. Pompeius Magnus, Bronze AE 19, Soli-Pompeiopolis mint.
Obverse- Head of Pompey right.
Reverse- POMPHIOPOLEITWN, Nike advancing right, wreath in right, palm over shoulder in left, WP (monogram) / POV/DH in right field.
SNG Levante 880 ff. var (reverse field letters); BMC 54 var (same); RPC -.
7.488g, 21.8mm, 0o.
1 commentsb70
magnusmax.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - MAGNUS MAXIMUS21 viewsMAGNUS MAXIMUS (383-388) AE2. D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right. Reverse - REPARATIO REIPVB, Magnus standing left, raising kneeling captive, LVG below. RIC 32. 22mm, 3.9g. Lugdunum mint.dpaul7
magmaxweb.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Magnus Maximus - VICTORIA39 viewsAttribution:RIC 33:Cohen 10:Sear 4204
Mint:Lugdunum(Lyon)
Obv.DN MAG MAXI-MVS PF AVG Diademed,draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.VICTOR_IA AVGG Emperor standing,head left,holding victory and standard
Ex.LVGP
AE2 23mm
Comments:Rarer reverse type
black-prophet
101C.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Magnus Maximus AR Siliqua87 viewsRIC IX 84b1 Trier, RSC 20a
2.07 g, 17 mm
D N MAG MAX-IMVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS ROMANORVM, Roma enthroned facing, head left, holding globe & spear
TRPS in exergue
1 commentsMark Z
bpLRE1G1MagMax.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Magnus Maximus, Ae2, Arelate, RIC IX 26(a), LRBC 554, 383-87 AD33 viewsObv: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: REPARATIO REIPVB
The emperor standing left, holding Victory and raising kneeling woman.
4.75 gm, 22.1 mm, Exergue: PCON
Massanutten
bpLRE1G1aMagMax.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Magnus Maximus, Ae2, Arelate, RIC IX 26(a), LRBC 554, 383-87 AD29 viewsObv: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: REPARATIO REIPVB
The emperor standing left, holding Victory and raising kneeling woman.
4.8 gm, 22.7 mm, Exergue: PCON
Massanutten
bpLRE1G3MagMax.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Magnus Maximus, Ae4, Arelate, RIC 29(a) (C), LRBC 560, 387-88 AD39 viewsObv: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: SPES ROMANORVM
Four tiered campgate with two beacons and star above.
1.2 gm 13.5 mm Exergue: PCON
Massanutten
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ROMAN IMPERATORS, Pompey Magnus, AR Denarius, 49 BC.23 viewsCnaeus Pompeius Magnus AR Denarius. Military mint moving with Pompey, 49 BC.
Obv: VARRO PRO Q. Diademed terminal bust of Jupiter r.
Rev: Scepter between dolphin and eagle; in exergue, MAGN PRO COS.
3.92gm; 18mm; 1h.
Sydenham 1033 | Crawford 447/1a | Sear 8
Strato
002.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORS, Pompey the Great, 49 to 48 BC.48 viewsGnaeus Pompeius Magnus, 49–48 BC.
AR Denarius, uncertain Sicilian mint, 42-40 BC.
Obv.MAG PIVS IMP ITER, bare head of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus right; capis (jug) to left, lituus to right.
Rev. PRÆF, Neptune standing left, holding aplustre and resting foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, who carry their parents on their shoulders, in ex. CLAS ET ORÆ / MARIT EX SC.
RSC 17 (I, 105); Crawford 511/3a; Sydenham 1344.
3,83g.
Provenance: Classical Numismatic Group, Auction 79, lot 1037.
apyatygin
Q__Nasidius.jpg
ROMAN IMPERATORS, Sextus Pompeius/Q. Nasidius409 viewsDenarius (grs 3,92 and 19 mm) from one of the admirals of Sextus Pompeius. Main hypot. for issuance : 44-43 BC in Massalia (other : mint moving with Sextus in Sicily around 40 BC).
Obverse: Head looking right of Cn. Pompeius Magnus ; bef. trident ; below, dolphin ; behind, NEPTUNI.
Reverse : galley sailing right ; above, star ; below, Q. NASIDIUS.
Crawford 483/2. Sydenham 1350. Sear (Imp.) 235. Babelon Pompeia 28 (p. 354, vol. 2).
Again (see the didrachm from Akragas) the clear advantage of concavity for the reverse (with no neg. impacts on the observe).
12 commentslabienus
magnus.jpg
Roman Magnus Maximus AE47 viewsMagnus Maximus, AE4, 11-12 mm. Aquileia. 387-388 AD.

Obv: DN MAG MA(-XIMVS PF AVG), diademed, draped and
cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SPES ROMANORVM , Campgate, 6 rows, two turrets with beacons, star above.
Mintmark SMAQS,

RIC IX Aquileia 55a; Sear 20657.

Scarce.
Tanit
49BC_SiciniusCoponius.jpg
ROMAN REPUBLIC, Q. Sicinius and C. Coponius. AR denarius, 49 BC.39 viewsObv. Diademed head of Apollo right, star below. Q SICINIVS before, III VIR behind.
Rev. Club or Hercules surmounted by facing lions scalp, arrow left, bow right. C COPONIVS PR SC.
Ref. Albert 1377; Crawford 444/1; Sear 413.
Coin: The praetor C. Coponius was the naval commander of Pompeius Magnus fleet operating in the East. This issue might have been to pay the soldiers. The star on the obverse could signify the comet seen in that year. Q. Sicinius was one of the 3 monetary quaestors ( III VIR ) for the year 49 BC. He decided to join Pompeys army to the east. The place of mint is unknown but possible places considering the design on the reverse suggests Ephesus, Pergamum, Sardis, Tralles and Apamea. Ephesus, as the residence of the proconsul, perhaps has the strongest claim.
***Special thanks to Steve Minnnoch for his comments on place of mint***
16mm.
Bohemond
harthacnut~0.jpg
S.1170 Harthacnut42 viewsPenny of Harthacnut, king of England 1040-1042 and Denmark 1035-1042
Moneyer: Tooci
Mint: Lund
S. 1170
Hauberg 28 (var.)
O: NARÐECII
R: TOOCI ON LVNDI

Danish coin of Harthacnut, imitating the long cross type of Aethelred II. Harthacnut faces left with a nice head of bushy hair, looking somewhat more like a rooster's comb. In front of him is an extended hand, which seems to be clothed in a gauntlet. The lanky fingers look almost skeletal. The significance of this hand may be related to similar imagery of the 'benediction hand' on other coins of Aethelred II. While a religious symbol, the Vikings of this era were probably Christian only in name, and it is doubtful they understood the meaning. This image only appears on coins of Toci. Toci also struck coins for Cnut the Great, Magnus the Good, and Cnut IV.

Ex- Hafnia coins, Künker Auction 194 (lot 2132)
Nap
Pompeius_Magnus_Janus_AE_as__45_BC__Spain.JPG
Scarce Pompeius Magnus Janus AE as. 45 BC. Spain. CN.MAG13 viewsScarce Pompeius Magnus Janus AE as minted in the war against Julius Caesar in Southern Spain in 45 B.C. Janus head in obverse, I above. Prow of galley in reverse to right, I before, CN.MAG. above and IMP below. Nice green patina. 31,88 gm. 31 mm. FAB nº R.26.
Antonivs Protti
Pompeius_Magnus_Janus_AE_as__45_BC__Spain_.JPG
Scarce Pompeius Magnus Janus AE as. 45 BC. Spain. CN.MAG19 viewsScarce Pompeius Magnus Janus AE as minted in the war against Julius Caesar in Southern Spain in 45 B.C. Janus head in obverse, I above. Prow of galley in reverse to right, I before, CN.MAG. above and IMP below. Nice green patina. 31,88 gm. 31 mm. FAB nº R.26.
Antonivs Protti
Sextus.jpg
Sextus Pompey75 viewsMAG PIVS IMP ITER
Bare head of Pompey Magnus right; capis behind, lituus before

Neptune standing left, holding aplustre in right hand, resting right foot on prow, between the Catanaean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, carrying their parents on their shoulders, PRAEF above, CLAS ET ORAE MARIT EX S C in two lines in exergue.

Uncertain mint in Sicily, (Catania?)

37-36 BC

3.25g

Rare

Crawford 511/3a; Sydenham 1344; Sear 334; RRC 511/3a; BMCRR Sicily 7; Pompeia 27; Catalli 2001, 824

Ex-Londinium

Numiswiki:
Struck by Sextus Pompey after his victory over Salvidienus and relates to his acclamation as the Son of Neptune. Although Sextus Pompey was the supreme naval commander, Octavian had the Senate declare him a public enemy. He turned to piracy and came close to defeating Octavian. He was, however, defeated by Marcus Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus (3 September 36 B.C.). He was executed by order of Mark Antony in 35 B.C
1 commentsJay GT4
00457.jpg
Sextus Pompey (RSC 17, Coin #457)26 viewsRSC 17, AR Denarius, Sicily, 42 - 40 BC.
Obv: MAG PIVS IMP ITER Bare head of Sextus' father, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, right between lituus and capis.
Rev: PRAEF CLAS ET ORAE MARIT S C Neptune standing left with foot on prow, between the Kataean brothers, Anapias and Amphinomus, with their parents on their shoulders.
Size: 19.1mm 3.30gm
1 commentsMaynardGee
rr_1073_revised_Large.jpg
Sextus Pompey -- Neptune and Naval Trophy92 viewsSextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet
[Youngest Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)]
Obv: [MAG or MA (ligatured) G]⦁PIVS⦁IMP⦁ITER; Portrait of Neptune facing r., diademed and bearded, trident over l. shoulder. Border of dots.
Rev: [PRAE (AE ligatured) F⦁CLAS⦁ET⦁ORAE (AE ligatured)]⦁MAR (ligatured) IT⦁EX⦁S⦁C⦁; Naval trophy with trident on top and anchor on bottom, prow stem on l. and aplustre on r., at base two representations of Charybdis and two dog heads of Scylla. Border of dots.
Denomination: silver denarius; Mint: Sicily, uncertain location1; Date: summer 42 - summer 39 BC2; Weight: 3.89g; Diameter: 17mm; Die axis: 30º; References, for example: Sear CRI 333; BMCRR v. II Sicily 15, 16, and 17 variant3; Sydenham 1347 variant3; Crawford RRC 511/2a or 2b4.

Notes:

Obverse legend: MAG[NUS]⦁PIVS⦁IMP[ERATOR]⦁ITER[UM]
Reverse legend: PRAEF[ECTUS]⦁CLAS[SIS]⦁ET⦁ORAE⦁MARIT[IMAE]⦁EX⦁S[ENATUS]⦁C[ONSULTO]

1Sear CRI, Crawford RRC, Sydenham, and DeRose Evans (1987) all place the minting of this coin type in Sicily, but they do not reference a possible location. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily suggests Messana.
2This is the date range argued for in Estiot 2006 (p. 145). Estiot recommends returning to Crawford’s proposal of 42 - 40 BC. Crawford RRC, p. 521 suggests the period in 42 BC after Sextus Pompey defeated Q. Salvidienus Rufus. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.562 proposes 38 - 36 BC and Sydenham, p. 210 adopts the same datation. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 129 offers a time between late summer 36 and September 36 BC.
3Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily 15, 16, and 17 and Sydenham 1347 only list a reverse legend containing MAR (ligatured) I but the coin here is MAR (ligatured) IT.
4It is impossible to see the full obverse legend, so it cannot be determined if MA is ligatured or not. The reverse legend is clearly the first variety of 2a or 2b, a variety not found on 2c.

Provenance: from the collection of W. F. Stoecklin, Amriswil, Switzerland; acquired from Hess AG in Luzern, from the Ernst Haeberlin collection, Cahn & Hess, Frankfurt, July 17, 1933, lot 2889.

Photo credits: Shanna Schmidt Numismatics

Sources

Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage v. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001 reprint with the 1982 corrections.
DeRose Evans, Jane. "The Sicilian Coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511)" in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 32 (1987): 97 - 157.
Estiot, Sylviane. “Sex. Pompée, La Sicile et La Monnaie: Problèmes de Datation.” In Aere Perennivs, en hommage á Hubert Zehnacker édité par Jacqueline Champeaux et Martine Chassignet. Paris: L’Université Paris - Sorbonne, 2006.
Grueber, H. A. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum v. II. London: 1910.
Sear, David R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. London: Spink, 1998.
Sydenham, Edward A. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. New York: Arno Press, 1975, rev. ed.
7 commentsTracy Aiello
Sextus_Pompey_Scylla.jpg
Sextus Pompey -- Pharos and Scylla69 viewsSextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet
[Youngest Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)]
Obv: MAG⦁PIVS⦁IMP⦁ITER; Pharos of Messana, Neptune on top standing r. with r. hand on a trident and l. hand on a rudder, resting l. foot on prow. Galley sailing l., aquila atop a tripod placed in prow and a scepter tied with a fillet in stern. Border of dots.
Rev: PRAEF⦁ORAE⦁MARIT⦁ET⦁CLAS⦁S⦁C [AEs and MAR ligatured]; Scylla attacking l. wielding a rudder in both hands, the torso of a nude woman with two fishtails and the foreparts of three dogs as the lower body. Border of dots.
Denomination: silver denarius; Mint: Sicily, uncertain location1; Date: summer 42 - summer 39 BC2; Weight: 3.566g; Diameter: 19.8mm; Die axis: 225º; References, for example: BMCRR v. II Sicily 20 variant3, Sydenham 1349 variant3; Crawford RRC 511/4d; Sear CRI 335b.

Notes:

Obverse legend: MAG[NUS]⦁PIVS⦁IMP[ERATOR]⦁ITER[UM]
Reverse legend: PRAEF[ECTUS]⦁ORAE⦁MARIT[IMAE]⦁ET⦁CLAS[SIS]⦁S[ENATUS]⦁C[ONSULTO]

1Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.557 and Sear CRI, p. 203 suggest Messana as a possible mint location. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 124 hesitatingly suggests Mitylene (on the island of Lesbos).

2This is the date range suggested by Estiot 2006, p. 145, as she recommends going back to Crawford’s proposal of 42 - 40 BC. Crawford RRC, p. 521 suggests the period in 42 BC after Sextus Pompey defeated Q. Salvidienus Rufus. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.556 proposes 38 - 36 BC. Sydenham, p.211 follows Grueber. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 129 submits 35 BC.

3Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily 20 and Sydenham 1349 list MAR (ligatured) I but the coin here is clearly MAR (ligatured) IT. Neither Grueber nor Sydenham record MAR (ligatured) IT as part of this reverse legend for this coin type. Crawford and Sear do.

Photo credits: Forum Ancient Coins

Sources

Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage v. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001 reprint with the 1982 corrections.
DeRose Evans, Jane. "The Sicilian Coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511)" in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 32 (1987): 97 - 157.
Estiot, Sylviane. “Sex. Pompée, La Sicile et La Monnaie: Problèmes de Datation.” In Aere Perennivs, en hommage á Hubert Zehnacker, édité par Jacqueline Champeaux et Martine Chassignet. Paris: L’Université Paris - Sorbonne, 2006.
Grueber, H. A. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum v. II. London: 1910.
Sear, David R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. London: Spink, 1998.
Sydenham, Edward A. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. New York: Arno Press, 1975, rev. ed.
7 commentsTracy Aiello
rr_1074_revised_Large.jpg
Sextus Pompey -- Pompey the Great and Neptune with Catanaean Brothers39 viewsSextus Pompey, Imperator and Prefect of the Fleet
[Youngest Son of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (Pompey the Great)]

Obv: [MAG⦁PIVS⦁IMP⦁ITER]; portrait of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus r.; behind jug; before lituus. Border of dots.
Rev: above, [PRAE (AE ligatured) F]; in exergue, CLAS⦁ET⦁[ORAE (AE ligatured)⦁MAR (ligatured) IT⦁EX⦁S⦁C]; Neptune standing l., wearing diadem, aplustre in r. hand, cloak over l. arm, r. foot on prow,; on either side a Catanaean brother bearing one of his parents on his shoulders1. Border of dots.
Denomination: silver denarius; Mint: Sicily, uncertain location2; Date: summer 42 - summer 39 BC3; Weight: 3.68g; Diameter: 17mm; Die axis: 30º; References, for example: Sear CRI 334; BMCRR v. II Sicily 7, 8, 9, and 10; Sydenham 1344; Crawford RRC 511/3a.

Notes:

Obverse legend: MAG[NUS]⦁PIVS⦁IMP[ERATOR]⦁ITER[UM]
Reverse legend: PRAEF[ECTUS]⦁CLAS[SIS]⦁ET⦁ORAE⦁MARIT[IMAE]⦁EX⦁S[ENATUS]⦁C[ONSULTO]

1Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily appears a bit hesitant in his pronouncement that the representation of the Catanaean brothers in fact refers to Sextus’ title Pius (p. 561), but Sear CRI appears to have no such hesitation when he states “...the type illustrates the theme of ‘Pietas’ in connection with the assumption of the name Pius.” (p.203). DeRose Evans (1987) goes further (pp. 115 - 116), arguing that Sextus chose the Catanaean brothers (“...he consciously identifies himself with the south Italian heroes”) as a way to deliberately contrast his Pietas with that of Octavian’s.
2Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily tentatively suggests Catana as a possible location and Sear CRI follows suit.
3This is the date range argued for in Estiot 2006 (p. 145). Estiot recommends returning to Crawford’s proposal of 42 - 40 BC. Crawford RRC, p. 521 suggests the period in 42 BC after Sextus Pompey defeated Q. Salvidienus Rufus. Grueber BMCRR v. II Sicily, p.560 proposes 42 - 38 BC and Sydenham, p. 210 follows suit. DeRose Evans (1987), p. 129 offers a time between late summer 36 and September 36 BC.

Provenance: From the collection of W. F. Stoecklin, Amriswil, Switzerland, acquired from Hess AG in Luzern prior to 1975. Ex Dr. Jacob Hirsch 33, 17 November 1913, lot 1058

Photo credits: Shanna Schmidt Numismatics

Sources

BMCRR: Grueber, H. A. Coins of the Roman Republic in the British Museum v. II. London: 1910.
Crawford, Michael H. Roman Republican Coinage v. I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019 reprint with the 1982 corrections.
DeRose Evans, Jane. "The Sicilian Coinage of Sextus Pompeius (Crawford 511)" in Museum Notes (American Numismatic Society), vol. 32 (1987): 97 - 157.
Estiot, Sylviane. “Sex. Pompée, La Sicile et La Monnaie: Problèmes de Datation.” In Aere Perennivs, en hommage á Hubert Zehnacker, édité par Jacqueline Champeaux et Martine Chassignet. Paris: L’Université Paris - Sorbonne, 2006.
Sear, David R. The History and Coinage of the Roman Imperators 49 - 27 BC. London: Spink, 1998.
Sydenham, Edward A. The Coinage of the Roman Republic. New York: Arno Press, 1975, rev. ed.
2 commentsTracy Aiello
GRATIAN_AE2_BSISC.JPG
Struck A.D.378 - 383. GRATIAN. AE2 of Siscia4 viewsObverse: D N GRATIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Gratian facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Gratian standing facing, holding Victory on globe in his left hand and raising kneeling turreted female figure with his right; in exergue, BSISC.
RIC IX : 26a | LRBC : 1512-18

The son of Valentinian I and Severa, Flavius Gratianus was born around A.D.360. He was murdered at Lugdunum by supporters of Magnus Maximus on 25th August, A.D.383.
*Alex
Magnus_Maximus_AE2.JPG
Struck A.D.383 - 388. MAGNUS MAXIMUS. AE2 of Lugdunum (Lyons)4 viewsObverse: D N MAG MAXIMVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Magnus Maximus facing right.
Reverse: REPARATIO REIPVB. Magnus Maximus standing facing left, holding Victory on globe in his left hand and reaching out with his right hand to raise kneeling turreted female figure facing right. In right field, P; in exergue, LVGP.
RIC IX : 32 5.0gms
SCARCE
*Alex
Kalmar_1.jpg
Sweden - Magnus Eriksson (1319-1363), penning - LL XXVIIIA:1a67 viewsE within radiate ring. Struck on one side only (brakteat).
Minted in Kalmar 1354-1363
0,30g, 15 mm in diam.

Ex. Bonde 1 nr 41.
1 commentspierre_p77
w0614.jpg
Unidentified159 viewsMacedonia, Kings. Alexander III. Magnus, 336-323 B.C. AE-20 mm, 5.54 grs. AV: Head of Herakles with lions skin to right, within dotted border. RV: ALEXANDROY, above bow in quiver, below club and torch. Round CM; not identified. Collection: Mueller.Automan
w0841.jpg
Unidentified124 viewsMacedonia, Kings. Alexander III. Magnus, 336-323 B.C. AE-20 mm, 5.38 grs. AV: Head of Herakles with lions skin to right, within dotted border. RV: ALEXANDROY, above bow in quiver, below club and torch. Round CM; not identified. Collection: Mueller.Automan
w0474.jpg
Unidentified157 viewsMacedonia, Kings. Alexander III. Magnus, 336-323 B.C. AE-18 mm, 5.53 grs. AV: Head of Herakles with lions skin to right, within dotted border. RV: ALEXANDROY, above bow in quiver, below club and torch. Round CM; not identified. Collection: Mueller.Automan
Nero-Dup-MACAVG-RIC402.jpg
V-NERO-a- 002 Dupondius RIC I/40228 viewsAv) NERO CLAVD CAESAR AVG GER PM TRP IMP PP
Laureate head left with globe at point of bust

Rv) MAC AVG SC
Frontal view of the Macellum Magnus, its domed central section in two stories and approached by steps, flanked by two storied wings of unequal height, with porticoes. In the middle stands a male statue holging long sceptre

Weight: 13,0g; Ø: 30mm; Referenz: RIC I/402; Mint: LUGDUNUM; struck ca. 62A.D.-68A.D.

1 commentssulcipius
ArcadiusManusDei.jpg
[1601b] Arcadius, 19 January 383 - 1 May 408 A.D.63 viewsARCADIUS AE2. Struck at Constantinople, 378-383 AD. Obverse: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, holding spear and shield, Hand of God above holding wreath; Reverse - GLORIA ROMANORVM, emperor standing facing, head left, holding standard & resting shield at side, bound captive seated on ground to left, head right, CONG in exergue. RIC 53b. Scarce. Extremely Fine, some roughness and corrosion.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families


Arcadius (395-408 A.D.)

Geoffrey S. Nathan
University of California at Los Angeles

Introduction and Early Life
The ineffectual life and reign of Flavius Arcadius are of considerably less importance than the quite significant developments that occurred during his reign. Born either in 377 or 378 to then general Theodosius and Aelia Flavia Flacilla, he and his younger brother, Honorius, ruled the eastern and western halves of the Roman Empire respectively from 395.

Shortly after his birth, his father was raised to the imperial purple in 379. Events in Illyricum with the massive influx of Ostrogothic and Visigothic peoples had resulted in the defeat of the Roman army and the death of the emperor, Valens. Theodosius' first task was to confront the Visigoths who had been ravaging the Balkans. Perhaps in the wake of this difficult and almost insurmountable task, the emperor wanted to insure that his infant son would bear some legitimacy should he die on campaign. Whatever the reason, Arcadius was proclaimed Augustus in January of 383 at the age of five or six. In the following year, his younger brother was born and it seems as if Theodosius initially had been interested in preserving the theoretical position of his elder son. While Arcadius enjoyed the status of Augustus, Honorius only achieved the office of consul posterior in 386. Perhaps the eastern emperor had wanted to avoid the possible conflicts that arose earlier in the century with the family of Constantine. Recent events in the west with the assassination of Gratian by Magnus Maximus may have also played a part: Theodosius initially had to leave the murder of his imperial colleague unavenged and leave the boy- emperor, Valentinian II, largely undefended. The profusion of emperors may well have been seen by Theodosius as kindling for civil war. His own autocratic tendencies may have also meant that he saw only one possible successor for himself.

Nevertheless, Theodosius gave Arcadius very little independence in early life. When he went to campaign against Magnus in the late 380's, he placed his son under the Praetorian Prefect of the East, Tatian, who was the de facto emperor in Theodosius' absence. This began a long series of regencies for Arcadius. The strength of Tatian's position with the eastern governing class made the office of Praetorian Prefect all the more powerful in Constantinople, which in turn made it easier to dominate future emperors. When Theodosius replaced Tatian with the more malleable and more ambitious Rufinus in 392, he had appointed a minister who would centralize even greater authority under the prefecture.

By 393, the emperor's situation had changed radically. When events in the west demanded his attention again, Theodosius was in a much stronger position. The ascendancy of the general, Arbogast, and his own puppet emperor, Eugenius, in the west provided Theodosius an opportunity and, indeed, the obligation to take full control of the Empire. The chance for having his own two sons ruling both halves of Rome not only seemed practical and feasible, but such an arrangement would establish himself as the head of a new dynasty. With thoughts in that direction, Honorius was made Augustus in 393 and accompanied his father west in the summer of 394. Arcadius, although near his majority, was nevertheless placed again under the guardianship (epitropos) of the Prefect of the East. In January of 395, Theodosius the Great died and his two sons took theoretical control of the two halves of the Roman Empire.

Early Reign and the Dominance of Rufinus and Eutropius (395-399)
Arcadius was eighteen when he assumed the throne in the east. We do not know whether or not he was ready for the responsibilities. During the mid-380's, the young emperor had been educated in part by Themistius, a famous pagan statesman, philosopher, and speaker. In what way he affected Arcadius is impossible to say, but surely his teachings must have included statecraft. Perhaps because of this influence, the new emperor's attempt to establish himself as an independent force can be seen in a series of laws passed at his accession. In contrast to trying to create a military image for himself, which would not be allowed either by Rufinus or by the eastern court, he attempted to portray himself as a pious Christian emperor. He enacted several comprehensive laws against heresy and paganism.

This was not necessarily an ineffectual strategy. By celebrating his religious piety, he expressed his power in the only way available to an emperor largely controlled by his ministers. He also perhaps sought to gain support and power from the local governing and religious hierarchies in Constantinople. Arcadius also perhaps thought that he was carrying on in the tradition of his father and so, by extension, might share in some of his glory. Rufinus in contrast wanted to tie himself to the emperor through a marriage connection to his daughter. But in April of 395, Arcadius had taken advantage of the Prefect's temporary absence to marry Aelia Eudoxia, whose guardian, the general, Promotus, had been a bitter enemy of Rufinus. Arcadius had been aided in this move by his own grand chamberlain (praepositus sacri cubiculi), Eutropius, and it perhaps indicated the degree to which he wanted to be free of any regent.

But in reality, Arcadius gained little if any power. Rufinus assumed full control of the east, and the Vandal Stilicho, Theodosius' closest advisor and general, took control of Honorius in the west. The tension between east and west quickly grew when Stilicho, in command of all the eastern and western armies, tried to press his guardianship over Arcadius as well. Moreover, there was considerable resentment against Rufinus in the east for using his office to greatly enrich himself and perhaps, too, because he was a westerner. Rufinus, understanding the perils around him, acted quickly. He had Arcadius demand the return of the eastern armies at once. Stilicho acquiesced, perhaps because the general was basing his claim of guardianship on his own legitimacy: to have taken control of the east and Arcadius by force would have undermined his position there and perhaps in the west. The soldiers returned under the command of the Gothic general, Gainas. With the control of the field army, it seemed as if Rufinus was going to be more thoroughly in control of the east and over Arcadius.

He did not long enjoy his victory. When Arcadius and Rufinus came to greet the armies at Hebdoman near Constantinople in November of 395, the soldiers turned on the Praetorian Prefect and cut him down in front of the emperor. Whether Stilicho instigated the assassination is a matter of some debate, but if he did, he received no benefit from it. The armies remained and Arcadius soon fell under the sway of other ministers. Nevertheless, despite the shock and fear Arcadius may have felt at witnessing such a brutal murder, he probably missed Rufinus' presence not at all and even thought it might provide an opportunity to assert his own authority. For the bureaucracy, the death meant that maintaining civilian control over the army was paramount to their own survival.

Soon thereafter, Eutropius assumed Rufinus' place in dominating Arcadius. Since the grand chamberlain could control access to the emperor and commanded the powerful palace bureaucracy, he was well-placed to dictate what and whom the emperor saw and heard. Military officers--frequently Germanic--who dominated the western government, were held suspect by fearful and jealous civil administrators in Constantinople. Eutropius used that fear to his advantage and froze out any access they may have had to the circles of power. His decision to effectively eliminate the military's input in decision-making would eventually lead to his demise.

It is difficult to determine how popular Eutropius was either with Arcadius or with the wider population. As a eunuch and a former slave, the sources generally portray him very negatively. He nevertheless seems to have enjoyed some support from the emperor, likely aided by Eudoxia with whom the grand chamberlain had close ties. The emperor happily took annual vacations in Galatia, apparently upon the Eutropius' suggestion. Moreover, the chamberlain showed great personal courage and talent in leading a campaign against invading Huns in 397/8, for which he won the consulship and the rank of patrician in the following year of 399. He also seems to have gained considerable support from the local clergy by procuring the patriarchate of Constantinople in 398 for John Chrysostom.

Despite Eutropius' rise to power, however, eastern policy changed little. The religious policies of Theodosius and Arcadius continued, including the forced closure of pagan temples in Gaza. More significantly, tension between the two halves of the empire persisted as Stilicho continued to press for his position as guardian. Although Stilicho led periodic raids into Greece and Thrace to attack the new Visigothic king, Alaric, his victories were incomplete and were more likely meant to keep the Germanic people out of western territory. This meant, among other things, that the Visigoths were an enduring problem for the east. Eutropius in turn supported the revolt of the Count Gildo in Africa, which was under western control, in an attempt to destabilize Stilicho's control and further eastern domains.

The failure of the revolt in 398 was the first step in Eutropius' downfall. The decision to exclude the military men of the period, particularly among the growing importance of Germanic officers, created a dangerous situation. By 399, the dissatisfaction with east-west affairs and the Gildo fiasco resulted in a revolt by the Gothic count, Tribigild. He was apparently in collusion with Gainas, who had taken advantage of the crisis to be named chief general in the east (magister utriusque militiae). Gainas quickly reached an agreement with the rebel and part of the settlement was the dismissal of Eutropius, to which Arcadius--at Eudoxia's urging--agreed. The chamberlain took refuge in the Hagia Sophia, and was exiled to Cyprus. But shortly thereafter, in the autumn of 399, Eutropius was recalled, tried and executed in Chalcedon.

The Age of Eudoxia (400-404)
The death of Eutropius precipitated a serious crisis. Gainas, who had wanted high office for years, now tried to force the hand of Arcadius. Having come to a quick resolution with Tribigild, he moved from Thrace towards Constantinople in 400. With the Germanic troops supporting him, Gainas tried for six months to initiate his own primacy-- including seizing the imperial palace--but which failed. He was forced to withdraw personally from the city to regroup and planned to use his troops remaining there to seize the entire city. But they were slaughtered by the inhabitiants and he fled first to Thrace and then to Asia. Eventually Gainas was killed by the Huns later in that year. His attempted coup ensured that Germanic officers would never again be trusted by the eastern government and would forever be kept out of any important decision-making roles.

The likely successor to Eutropius had been the anti-Germanic leader, Aurelianus, who had succeeded to the Prefecture of the East in 399. But Gainas had exiled him, having forced Arcadius to hand him over, and although Aurelianus returned triumphantly after Gainas' departure, he appears to have lost his hold over the emperor. In the meantime, Aelia Eudoxia had done much to forward her own place in the government. In January of 400, she had been named Augusta, a singular distinction offered to only three other women in the previous century. Her position thus gained a semi-official legitimacy afforded to very few Roman empresses. It has been assumed that because of her beauty, her intelligence, and her fecundity (she bore Arcadius five children), she was able to assert her influence to a point where she was the new power behind the throne.

That assessment, while held by many scholars, is not entirely accurate. While there were several events in which she played a crucial part, they were not terribly important moments during Arcadius' reign. But because Eudoxia was enormously wealthy, because she delivered a male heir in 401, and because she was involved in a highly publicized and drawn out political fight with John Chrysostom, this belief that there was an assumption of power is based more on the notoriety of her acts than on actual control. The fact that there was no one clearly dominating the government nor the emperor during this time implies perhaps that Arcadius had more power during these five years of his reign than at any other time.

There are several indications that he did try to improve and assert his own position. The emperor and his court immediately came to some understanding with the west. The east at the very least gave Honorius and Stilicho moral support in their increasing problems with Alaric. In 402, the feeling of goodwill was sealed by a joint consulship between Arcadius and his brother. The emperor also sought to establish his own military prowess and Christian piety with the erection of a column set up in the Hippodrome of Constantinople in 402/3. The column depicted his military victory over Gainas, crowned with a capital emblazoned with the Greek letters chi-rho, symbolizing his devotion to Christ. Arcadius' son, Theodosius II, was born in 401, and was quickly made Augustus at the age of eight months. The eastern ruler was thus interested in assuring his own dynasty.

In all these things, the emperor was largely successful, but they were largely overshadowed by the feud between his empress and the bishop of Constantinople. Eudoxia had already shown herself able in pushing her interests during the baptism of her son. The Bishop of Constantinople, however, was a much tougher opponent than her husband. John Chrysostom, a strong believer in social justice, had boorishly attacked Eudoxia and many of her friends for the conspicuous luxury in which they lived and displayed themselves. At the height of these attacks, John compared the empress to Jezebel. Eudoxia in turn used her considerable influence to inflame hostility among the clergy against the bishop. Working through Bishop Theophilus of Alexandria, in 403 Chrysostom was deposed and forced into exile at a Church council convened by the emperor (the Synod of the Oak at Chalcedon). However, there was soon such turmoil and uproar in the imperial city that the bishop was recalled a few days later. But the public feuding between Eudoxia and Chrysostom continued until at last she had him banished again in 404, this time permanently. Among other things, it caused a breach between Arcadius and his brother, who had, with Pope Innocent I, tried to support Chrysostom.

Eudoxia's victory was short-lived, however. In October of 404, the Augusta died of a miscarriage. Her death was seen by some as retribution for dismissing John. Whatever the reason, her end also signaled a complete retreat into the background by the emperor and no further initiatives seem to have been pushed by the 27-year-old Augustus.

The Final Years: Anthemius and Death (404-408)
The last years of Arcadius' reign were completely dominated by his Praetorian Prefect of the East, Anthemius. It was perhaps fitting that when the emperor seems to have been most retiring, the most able and energetic of his high ministers came to power. Anthemius worked hard to solve a series of governmental abuses, continue to push for Christianization, and secure the east from attack.

Anthemius first seems to have tried to reconcile with the west, so much so that there was a joint consulship between Anthemius and Stilicho in 405. This might have also been meant to symbolize the Prefect's new dominance, however. Additionally, a number of new laws were passed, curtailing paganism, Judaism and heresy. He tried to make use of the continuing problem of incoming Germanic peoples to combat the Isaurian tribes which had been plaguing Asia Minor since 403. While it failed to halt either group's incursions, it was nevertheless a practical and intelligent strategy. As a means of protecting the imperial capital, Anthemius also strengthened the walls around Constantinople. Our records for the last years of Arcadius' rule are quite spotty, but the emperor himself seems to have completely vanished, even symbolically, from the political scene.

In May of 408, Flavius Arcadius died at the age of 31 of unknown causes. Our only physical description of Arcadius is heavily influenced by the generally low regard in which he was held. The emperor was supposedly short, thin and dark-complected. A more kindly correspondent described him as good-natured and temperate. His son succeeded him without any controversy and the government remained unchanged. Arcadius thus left the world much as he entered it: without much significance and overshadowed by more powerful forces.

Assessment
Despite the ineffectual nature of Arcadius and his rule, a number of significant changes occurred during his stewardship of the eastern empire. His inability to forcefully or at least effectively govern meant that there were few consistent or long-range goals of his administration. With the exception of trying to emphasize the emperor's piety, an important development in the history of the Byzantine monarchy, Arcadius and his ministers were for the most part simply reacting to events.

The emperor became an even more remote figure to the general public. Even in the capital city itself, he was rarely seen: we read in one account that people came running to see the emperor for the first time when he happened to be praying in a local church. A series of "orientalizing" court practices no doubt continued in order to emphasize the symbolic separation of the emperor from the rest of society. The hieratic, almost semi- divine nature of the imperial person, also became a feature of the eastern ruler.

Perhaps of greatest importance was the political and cultural split between east and west. With the death of Theodosius, the two halves of the Roman Empire increasingly went their separate ways. For the most part, the west was thrown back upon its own resources, unable to deal with the problems of the fifth century. The east proved more compact and more resilient: it largely weathered the political storms from without and within.

Moreover, Constantinople fully became the imperial capital of the east, a Roma nova. The emperor rarely left the city and the palace officials became more influential than many of the more theoretically important ministers outside the city. Constantinople was also made an archepiscopate and Chrysostom and others started to push strongly for its primacy in the east. Both public and private building projects beautified and enlarged the city. Under Arcadius' reign, it truly became the second city of the Roman Empire.
Finally, the hard stance against Germanic officers in Roman government became a central feature in the east. While the reasons for this development were inspired largely out of fear and perhaps racism, the eastern Roman Empire did manage to avoid the largely detrimental succession of Germanic generalissimos who controlled the west in the fifth century. It also encouraged the eastern rulers in the following century to take hard lines against other peoples, including the Isaurians, the Huns and the Persians. Taken in all, the era of Arcadius was far more important than Arcadius himself. He perhaps had his father's pretensions, but none of the skills or powers necessary to leave his mark on the Empire.

By Geoffrey S. Nathan, University of California at Los Angeles
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
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