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Search results - "Licinius"
Licinius_I,_AE18,_campgate,_Lamdba_right,_Heraclea,_318-320_AD~0.JPG
10 viewsAntonivs Protti
licinius9a.jpg
Licinius I, AE follis. RIC 9a Cyzicus. 32 viewsSilvered Follis
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS AVG, laureate, draped, wearing royal mantle, bust left, holding globe, sceptre and map.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre.
Wreath in left field, A in right field.
Mintmark dot SMK., 18.3 mm., 2.7 g.

RIC VII Cyzicus 9a
NORMAN K
licnl1s.jpg
Licinius I, RIC VII 008,a Siscia, 313-315 CE33 viewsLicinius AE Follis
Obverse: IMP LIC LICINVS AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: IOVI CON_SERVATORI, Jupiter standing left with Victory & scepter, eagle at foot with wreath in its beak, A to right.
Sis in ex. Siscia mint. 20.7 mm, 3.1 g.
NORMAN K
Licinius_JQ_Adams_RIC_VI_Thessalonica_59.jpg
8 Licinius45 viewsAE Follis, Thessalonica Mint, 312-313 AD

RIC VI Thessalonica 59


Ex John Quincy Adams Collection, 6th President of the United States, and His Descendants, ex Massachusetts Historical Society Collection, ex Stack’s Sale, 5-6 March 1971, Lot # 944
Bought by Christian Blom, then sold to Smithsonian Institution underwater archaeologist Mendel Peterson, then to D.C. coin dealer Gene Brandenburg, then to me.
1 commentsSosius
Licinius_RIC_151.jpg
8 Licinius15 viewsLicinius I
AE3, Rome, 318-319 AD

IMP LIC-INIVS AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust right / ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated right, shield on lap inscribed X/V. P-R across fields. Mintmark: RQ.

RIC VII Rome 151, aVF
Sosius
Licinius_RIC_Heraclea_73.jpg
8 Licinius24 viewsLICINIUS
AE Follis. Jan-Feb 313 A.D.

IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right / IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing, holding Victory on globe & sceptre; eagle with wreath at feet. Gamma r. SMHT in ex.

RIC VI Heraclea 73
Sosius
Licinius_RIC_Heraclea_52.jpg
8 Licinius30 viewsLICINIUS I
AE Follis, Heraclea Mint, 321-324

IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust r. / IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing l., holding Victory on globe and eagle-tipped scepter, eagle with wreath left, captive right, X over II Mu in r. field, SMHB in ex.

RIC VII Heraclea 52, R1, VF, encrustations (cleanable)
Sosius
Licinius_RIC_Heraclea_13_-r5.jpg
8 Licinius29 viewsLICINIUS I
AE Follis, Heraclea Mint, 315-316

IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, Laureate bust r. / IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVG, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath left, HTB in ex.

RIC VII Heraclea 13, aVF, patina stripped. R5.
Sosius
Licinius_Sear_3800.jpg
8 Licinius25 viewsLICINIUS I
Ć Follis, Rome, 308-324 AD

IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate cuirassed bust r. / SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Legionary eagle between two standards; in exergue, RP.

Sear 3800, Fine.
Sosius
Licinius_Unid_2.jpg
8 Licinius48 viewsLICINIUS I
AE Follis, Nicomedia, 313-317 AD

IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, Laureate bust r. / IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath to left, A in r. field, SMN in ex.

RIC VII Nicomedia 13, VF/EF, silvered. R1.
Sosius
Licinius_RIC_Siscia_232a.jpg
8 Licinius25 viewsLICINIUS I
AE Follis, Siscia, 313 A.D.

IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, Laureate bust r. / IOVI CON-SERVA-TORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing facing with head leftholding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath l., gamma in left field, SIS below.

RIC VI Siscia 232a
Sosius
Licinius_RIC_Siscia_232a_no_2.jpg
8 Licinius39 viewsLICINIUS I
AE Follis, Siscia, 313 AD

IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, Laureate bust r. / IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter facing with head left holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath left, epsilon in r. filed, SIS in ex.

RIC VI Siscia 232a. aVF/F
Sosius
Licinius_Unid_3.jpg
8 Licinius35 viewsLICINIUS I
Silvered Follis, Antioch, 312 AD

IMP C LIC LICINNIVS PF AVG, Laureate bust r. / GENIO-AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, naked, modius on head, chlamys over left shoulder, holding head of Sol and cornucopia, star in l. field, H in r. field, ANT in ex.

RIC VI Antioch 164a. EF about 60% silvered.
1 commentsSosius
Licinius_Unid_1.jpg
8 Licinius19 viewsLICINIUS I
Silvered Follis, Cyzicus, 317-320

IMP LICI-NIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust l., sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand / IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter stading left, holding Victory on globe and scepter, wreath in l. field, gamma in r. field, SMK in ex.

RIC VII Cyzicus 9, VF, silvering, scarce.
Sosius
Licinius_RIC_Thess_33.jpg
8 Licinius32 viewsLICINIUS I
Silvered Follis, Thessalonica mint, 318-319 AD

O: LICI-NIVS AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust r.
R: VOT XX / MVLT / dot XXX dot / TS dot A dot in four lines within wreath.

RIC VII Thessalonica 33, VF, silvered, scarce.
Sosius
Licinius_II_RIC_Cyzicus_.jpg
8.5 Licinius II32 viewsLICINIUS II
AE Follis, Cyzicus Mint, 317-320 AD

DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped bust l., holding sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand / IOVI CONSER-VATORI CAESS, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, wreath in l. field, B in r. field, SMK in ex.

RIC VII Cyzicus 11, VF. R3.
1 commentsSosius
crcg.jpg
Crispus RIC VII 69 Thessalonica, 319 CE32 viewsObverse: IVL CRIS-PVS NOB C, laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: VIRT EXERC, Sol raising right hand and holding globe in left, standing in center of plan of roman camp.
TS dot E dot in ex. Thessalonica mint
19.53mm., 2.2g. rare
The true meaning of this reverse type has never been fully deciphered. The latest theory being the X shaped pattern represents Constantine's vision before the battle of Milvainbridge. This does not seem likely since the type is known on coins of Licinius a pagan and Constantine's enemy
sold 4-2018

NORMAN K
1__licinius_I_.jpg
Licinius I 308-324 AD50 viewsAE Follis
Mint: Alexandria, Date- 321-324 AD
Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left,chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on a globe in right hand & leaning on scepter with eagle, at left on ground an eagle with wreath in beak, to rightcaptive.
In right field: XII gamma = 12 1/2 denarii communes
Exergue: SMALA
Size: 3.5 gms;19 mm.
Ref:RIC VII, 28
3 commentsbrian l
lic171.jpg
Licinius I AE Follis, RIC 13 Nicomedia, 313-317 CE20 views
Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and eagle-tipped sceptre; eagle with wreath at foot left.
Officina letter B in right field.
Mintmark SMNT. Nicomedia 23.2 mm., 2.8 g.
NORMAN K
lic30b.jpg
LICINIUS I AE follis, Thessalonica, 308-324 CE.24 viewsObverse: VAL dot LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Reverse: GENIO A-VGVSTI, Genius standing leftholding cornucopia and pouring from a patera, Star left, B right.
mintmark dot SM dot TS dot. Thessalonica. 25.7 mm, 5.4 g. RIC VI 30b,B Type 2
NORMAN K
licinius_ii_vot_v_siscia_desert_patina_pro.jpg
Licinius II VOT V Siscia33 views Licinius II VOT V Siscia
Licinius II LICINIVS-IVN NOB C L
CAESARVM NOSTRORVM VOT V
dot in badge at top of wreath delta SIS star
Siscia RIC VII Siscia 162 s
usually 18-19 mm 320-321 AD
James b4
Licinius I AE3, Siscia, 319-320 AD.jpg
146 viewsROME. Licinius I. AD 308-324.
Ć Follis (20mm, 3.1 g)
Siscia mint, 1st officina. Struck AD 319-320.
IMP LICINIVS AVG, laureate bust right, slight drapery on far shoulder
VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR in two lines over altar; I on altar; ASIS*
RIC VII 96 var. (bust type)
Ardatirion
licinius_sol_res.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS28 views308 - 324 AD
Struck 315 - 316 AD
AE Follis 19.5 mm, 3.16 g
O: IMP LICINIVS PF AVG - Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
R: SOLI INVICTO COMITI - Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, with raised right hand and holding globe in left; R in left field, F in right field
Rome mint
laney
licinius_tan.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS35 views308 - 324 AD
Ć follis 18 X 20 mm, 2.61 g
O: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG; radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
R: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG; Jupiter standing left, with chlamys, holding eagle-tipped sceptre and Victory on globe; at his feet to left, eagle with wreath in beak left; to right, captive seated right, head reverted; X/IIG in right field; SMALB in exergue.
Alexandria mint RIC VII 28

laney
licin_iovi_w.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS26 views308 - 324 AD
Struck 317 - 320 AD
AE 17.5 mm, 3.38 g
O: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG, Laureate bust left in imperial mantle, mappa in right hand, globe and scepter in left
R: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing facing, head left, naked but for chlamys across left shoulder, Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left, bound captive before, S in right field; SMANT in exergue
Antioch mint RIC VII, 27 (R1)
laney
licin_iovi_res.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS21 views308 - 324 AD
AE Follis 20 mm; 3.39 g
O: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
R: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, D in right field; SMK in exe
Cyzicus mint
laney
LICINIUS_I_IOVI_L_GAMMA.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I31 views308 - 324 AD
Silvered AE 19 mm 3.25 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG, laur bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter and globe in left hand, mappa in right
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe, wreath to left, Gamma to right
SMK in exe
Cyzicus
laney
LICINIUS_IOVI_SINGLE_CAPT_L.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I21 views308 - 324 AD
AE 17.5 mm 2.91 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG, laur head left holding mappa and scepter on globe
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, S in right field, Jupiter standing left holding scepter and Victory on globe, captive to left
Antioch
laney
licinius_iovi_06_30_10.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I45 views308 - 324 AD
AE 21.5 mm 3.48 g
O: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and Victory on globe, eagle with wreath in beak and bound captive at his feet, X/ IIGamma in right field
SMANTB in exe
Antioch, RIC 35 Rare.

laney
licinius_iovi_0702.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I50 views308 - 324 AD
AE 19 mm 2.94 g
O: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and Victory on globe, eagle with wreath in beak and bound captive at his feet, X/ IIGamma in right field
struck 321 - 324 AD
SMALA in exe
Alexandria
1 commentslaney
LICINIUS_I_IOVI.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I26 views308 - 324 AD
(struck ca. 313 AD)
AE 22 mm 2.85 g
O: IIMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG
LAUR HEAD R
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, DELTA IN R FIELD
JUPITER STANDING L HOLDING SCEPTER & VICTORY ON GLOBE, EAGLE HOLDING WREATH AT FEET
SMHT IN EXE
HERACLEA
(4TH OFFICINA)
RIC VII (R3)
laney
LICINIUS_I_IOVI_CAP_EAG_VIC_.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I31 views308 - 324 AD
AE 20.5 mm 2.85 g
O: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, rad dr cuir bust right
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe, seated captive at feet on right, eagle with wreath at left, X/IIGdamma in right field,
SMNA in exe
Nicomedia
RIC VII 44
laney
LICINIUS_I_CAMPGATE.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I20 views308 - 324 AD
Silvered AE 18.5 mm 2.56 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG. laur dr cuir bust left with globe and mappa
R: PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, city gate, 3 turrets, HTD in exe
Heraclea
RIC 15
laney
LICINIUS_2_VICT.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I18 views308 - 324 AD
AE 18 mm 2.29 g
O: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, Laur dr cuir bust right
R: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, 2 Victories facing each other, holding shield reading VPT/PR over altar
Delta SIS Dot in exe.
Siscia
RIC VII 62 (R3) Rare
laney
licinius_vot.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I14 views308 - 324 AD
AE 19 mm 2.33 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG, laur bust right
R: DN LICINI AVGVSTI surrounding wreath with VOT Dot XX in 2 lines within
laney
LICINIUS_IOVI_WREATH_B.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I28 views308 - 324 AD
AE 24 mm 3.5 g
O: IMP C VAL LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, laur head right
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI, B in right field, Jupiter standing left holding globe and scepter, wreath at feet
SM Dot TS Dot in exe
Thessalonica
laney
licin_banner_captives_a.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I39 views308 - 324 AD
struck 317 - 324 AD
AE 20 mm 2.98 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG, helmeted cuir bust right
R: VIRTVS EXERCIT/S-HL monogram
2 seated captives on either side of standard inscribed VOT/XX
Gamma SIS Star in exe
Siscia
laney
licinius_flying_eagle.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I18 views308 - 324 AD
AE 17.5 mm 3.2 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG, laur bust left
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG, Jupiter atop eagle with spread wings, standing right
laney
LICINIUS_I_SOLI.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I26 views308 - 324 AD
AE 18.5 mm 3.39 g
O: IMP LICINIVS PF AVG, laur cuir bust right
R: SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing head left, resting left arm on column., holding globe, right hand up, R/X - F on either side

1 commentslaney
LICINIUS_EAGLE_CAPTIVE_2.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I22 views308 - 324 AD
AE 19.5 mm 3.43 g
O: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, rad dr cuir bust right
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe, seated captive on right, eagle with wreath on left, X/IIGamma in right field
SMHK in exe
Heraclea RIC VII 52
laney
licinius_iovi_cap.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I23 views308 - 324 AD
AE 18.5 mm 3.00 g Struck 317-320, Officina 8
O: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG Laureate bust left in imperial mantle, mappa in right hand, globe and scepter in left
R: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI AVGG Jupiter standing facing, head left, naked but for chlamys across left shoulder, Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left, bound captive before, H in right field SMANT in exergue,
Antioch RIC VII, 27
laney
licin_iovi_10_03_10.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I22 views308 - 324 AD
AE 17.5 mm 2.91 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG, laur dr bust left, globe and scepter in left hand and mapp in right hand
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe; wreath in left field, "E" to right
SMK IN EXE CYZICUS
RIC VII 9e Rare (R3)
laney
licinius_iovi.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I22 views308 - 324 AD
Struck ca. 312 AD
AE Follis, 24 mm, 4.61 g
O: IMP C VAL LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, laureate head right
R: IOVI CONSE-RVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding globe and sceptre. Left field: wreath. Right field: Officina letter D. SMTS in exe.,
Thessalonica, RIC VI 49
laney
licinius_genio.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I22 views308 - 324 AD
AE FOLLIS 23.5 mm 5.56 g
O: VAL LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
R: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding cornucopiae and patera, star in left field and B in right, .SM.TS. in exergue.
THESSALONICA RIC VII 30b
laney
LICINIUS_IOVI_RES.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I19 views308 - 324 AD
Struck 313 - 315
AE 22.5 mm 3.09 g
O: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, laureate head right
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left with victory & scepter, eagle at foot with wreath in its beak, A to right, SIS in exergue
SISCIA MINT RIC VII Siscia 8

laney
licinius_i_iovi_res.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I26 views308-324 AD
Ć reduced follis 20 mm 2.87 g
O: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Radiate bust right, draped and cuirassed
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI - Jupiter standing left, holding scepter and Victory on globe;eagle to left and captive to right. / X / IIG in right field, SMHB in exe.
Heraclea RIC VII 52


laney
licinius_iovi_captive.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I14 views308 - 324 AD
AE 18.5 mm; 2.84 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG Laureate, draped bust left, globe, scepter in left hand, mappa in right.
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and scepter, captive with hands tied at feet, E in r. field.
Antioch mint
laney
LICINIUS_II_JUPITER.jpg
(0317) LICINIUS II46 views317 - 320 AD
AE 18 mm 2.60 g
O: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe & scepter, branch left, dot over B right
SMN in ex.
Nicomedia RIC 34 (R2)
1 commentslaney
licinius_ii_iovi_res.jpg
(0317) LICINIUS II32 views317-320 AD
AE 20.5 mm 3.25 g
O: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C around laureate, draped bust of Licinius II l., holding mappa, globe &sceptre;
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS around; Jupiter standing l. holding Victory in right hand and sceptre in left; wreath to l., A to right, SMK in exe.
Cyzicus RIC VII 11

laney
licinius_ii_iovi_con_res.jpg
(0317) LICINIUS II31 views317 - 324 AD (Caesar)
AE 19 mm 3.11 g
O: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C cuirassed helmeted bust left, with shield, spear over shoulder
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter with eagle at top; eagle to left, captive to right. X/IIG in right field; SMHG in exe
Heraclea mint
laney
licin_ii_prov_res.jpg
(0317) LICINIUS II38 views317 - 324 AD (Caesar)
AE 19.1 mm 2.78 g
O D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Jupiter standing left, scepter in left, Victory on globe presenting wreath in right, palm frond left, pellet over Δ right, SMN in ex;
Nicomedia mint; RIC VII 34; scarce
(ex-Forum)
laney
licinius_ii_iovi.jpg
(0317) LICINIUS II as Caesar10 views317 - 324 AD
AE 18 mm, 2.31 g
O: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, diademed bust left with mappa & scepter
R: IOVI CONS ERVATORI CAESS Jupiter standing, head left, holdimg Victory on globe, captive at feet, D to right, SMANT in ex.
Antioch mint
laney
P.Licinius Nerva voting.jpg
(500a113) Roman Republic, P. Licinius Nerva, 113-112 B.C.86 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC: P. Licinius Nerva. AR denarius (3.93 gm). Rome, ca. 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left, holding spear over right shoulder and shield on left arm, crescent above, * before, ROMA behind / P. NERVA, voting scene showing two citizens casting their ballots in the Comitium, one receiving a ballot from an attendant, the other dropping his ballot into a vessel at right. Crawford 292/1. RSC Licinia 7. RCTV 169. Nearly very fine. Ex Freeman and Sear.

Here is a denarius whose reverse device is one that celebrates the privilege and responsibility that is the foundation of a democratic society; it is a forerunner to the L. Cassius Longinus denarius of 63 B.C. Granted, humanity had a long road ahead toward egalitarianism when this coin was struck, but isn't it an interesting testimony to civil liberty's heritage? "The voter on the left (reverse) receives his voting tablet from an election officer. Horizontal lines in the background indicate the barrier separating every voting division from the others. Both voters go across narrow raised walks (pontes); this is intended to ensure that the voter is seen to cast his vote without influence" (Meier, Christian. Caesar: A Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 12). This significant coin precedes the Longinus denarius by 50 years.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
Denarius91BC.jpg
(501i) Roman Republic, D. Junius L.f. Silanus, 91 B.C.58 viewsSilver denarius, Syd 646a, RSC Junia 16, S 225 var, Cr 337/3 var, VF, 3.718g, 18.6mm, 0o, Rome mint, 91 B.C.; obverse head of Roma right in winged helmet, X (control letter) behind; reverse Victory in a biga right holding reins in both hands, V (control numeral) above, D•SILANVS / ROMA in ex; mint luster in recesses. Ex FORVM.

Although the coin itself does not commemorate the event, the date this coin was struck is historically significant.

MARCUS Livius DRUSUS (his father was the colleague of Gaius Gracchus in the tribuneship, 122 B.C.), became tribune of the people in 91 B.C. He was a thoroughgoing conservative, wealthy and generous, and a man of high integrity. With some of the more intelligent members of his party (such as Marcus Scaurus and L. Licinius Crassus the orator) he recognized the need of reform. At that time an agitation was going on for the transfer of the judicial functions from the equites to the senate; Drusus proposed as a compromise a measure which restored to the senate the office of judices, while its numbers were doubled by the admission of 300 equites. Further, a special commission was to be appointed to try and sentence all judices guilty of taking bribes.

The senate was hesitant; and the equites, whose occupation was threatened, offered the most violent opposition. In order, therefore, to catch the popular votes, Drusus proposed the establishment of colonies in Italy and Sicily, and an increased distribution of corn at a reduced rate. By help of these riders the bill was carried.

Drusus now sought a closer alliance with the Italians, promising them the long coveted boon of the Roman franchise. The senate broke out into open opposition. His laws were abrogated as informal, and each party armed its adherents for the civil struggle which was now inevitable. Drusus was stabbed one evening as he was returning home. His assassin was never discovered (http://62.1911encyclopedia.org/D/DR/DRUSUS_MARCUS_LIVIUS.htm).

The ensuing "Social War" (91-88 B.C.) would set the stage for the "Civil Wars" (88-87 & 82-81 B.C.) featuring, notably, Marius & Sulla; two men who would make significant impressions on the mind of a young Julius Caesar. Caesar would cross the Rubicon not thirty years later.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
rjb_lon2_05_06.jpg
(VI)209c15 viewsLicinius I
IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POP ROM
Genius standing left
-/star//PLN
RIC (VI) 209c
mauseus
rjb_lon3_05_06.jpg
(VII) 39 viewsLicinius I
IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POP ROM
Genius standing left
S/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 3
mauseus
rjb_lon1_07_09.jpg
(VII) 239 viewsLicinius I
IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
GENIO POP ROM
Genius standing left
S/F//MLL
RIC (VII) 23; Toone 30
mauseus
rjb_08_09_d.jpg
(VII) 6010 viewsLicinius I
IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
S/P//MLN
RIC (VII) 60
mauseus
rjb_2010_01_02~0.jpg
(VII) 9710 viewsLicinius I
IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
SOLI INVICTO COMITI
Sol standing left
T/F//PLN
RIC (VII) 97
mauseus
Licinius_II.jpg
*SOLD*43 viewsLicinius II AE

Attribution: RIC VII 30, Alexandria
Date: AD 321-324
Obverse: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, helmeted and cuirassed bust r., holding shield,
spear over shoulder
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter stg. l.; chlamys over l. shoulder, Victory in r. hand, staff in l., eagle w/ wreath in beak at feet, bound captive behind, X w/ 12 ˝ denarii communes mark below, SMALA in exergue
Size: 18 mm
1 commentsNoah
Licinius.jpg
*SOLD*18 viewsLicinius I Bronze follis

Attribution: RIC VI 60, Thessalonica
Date: AD 312-313
Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing half l., nude, Victory on globe in r., long scepter vertical in l., eagle with wreath in beak l., •TS•• in exergue
Size: 24.3 mm
Weight: 4.42 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
Licinfol.jpg
001 - Licinius I (308-324 AD), Follis - RIC 6078 viewsObv: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left, chlamys over shoulder, leaning on sceptre and holding Victory on globe. Eagle with wreath in beak below left.
Minted in Thessalonica (.TS.A. in exe), officina 1, 312-313 AD.
3 commentspierre_p77
liciniusII1.jpg
001 - Licinius II (Caesar 317-324 AD), AE 3 - RIC 162 var. unlisted81 viewsObv: LICINIVS IVN NOB C, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SAECVLI FELICITAS, wreath inscribed AVG on cippus decorated with garland, P - R in field.
Minted in Rome (RQ in exe), Officina 5, 318-319 AD.

RIC 162 var. with wreath instead of shield on rev is unlisted, but not previously unknown.
3 commentspierre_p77
0046.jpg
0046 - Denarius Licinia 47 BC37 viewsObv/Laureate head of Fides r., behind NERVA, before FIDES.
Rev/Horseman galloping r., dragging captive by the hair, A LICINI below, III VIR in field.

Ag, 18.5mm, 3.93g
Moneyer: A. Licinius Nerva.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 454/1 [dies o/r: 66/73] - Syd. 954 - RCV 430 - Calicó 891 - RSC Licinia 24.
ex-Inclinatio Roma (vcoins)
dafnis
0199.jpg
0199 - Denarius Licinia 55 BC50 viewsObv/ Laureate bust of Venus r., togate and with stephane; behind, SC.
Rev/ Female figure standing front, leading horse and holding spear; at feet, cuirass and shield; around, P CRASSVS M F.

Ag, 4.09 g
Moneyer: P. Licinius Crassus M.f.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 430/1 - BMCRR Rome 3901 - Syd. 929 - RSC Licinia 18
ex-Bremens-Belleville, november 2014, lot 363 (ex-St.Florian monastery, Dorotheum, june 1956, lot 2764 / ex. Apostolo Zeno colln., 18th c.)
1 commentsdafnis
augustus_RIC82a.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 19-18 BC54 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS (bare head left, banker's mark on face)
rev: SIGNIS RECEPTIS (Mars standing left, head right, with aquila and standard)
ref: RIC I 82a, RSC 259 (4frcs), BMC 414.
mint: Colonia Patricia
3.41gms, 19mm
Rare

History: The Parthians had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus (53 BC, at the Battle of Carrhae), Decidius Saxa (40 BC), and Marc Antony (36 BC). It was considered a grave moral defeat and evil omen for the Romans. It required a generation of diplomacy before the Parthians returned them. Their return was considered a great triumph by Augustus, and celebrated like a military victory. He took an ovation entering Rome on horseback and being honoured with a triumphal arch in the year 20 BC. This coin struck in Colonia Patricia (today Cordoba, Spain).
1 commentsberserker
augustus RIC344-RRR.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck by P. Licinius Stolo, moneyer (17 BC)83 viewsobv: AVGVSTVS TR POT (Augustus, laureate, wearing cloak and short tunic, on horseback riding right, holding patera in right hand - banker's mark)
rev: P STOLO III VIR (Salii or priest of Mars's cap (same than apex flaminis) between two studded oval shields (ancilia)).
ref: RIC I 344 (R3); BMCRE 76; RSC 439 (80frcs)
mint: Rome
3.53gms,18-19mm
Extremely rare

History: The Ludi Saeculares were spread over a period of three days (from May 31 to June 3), and Augustus celebrated them to inaugurate the beginning of a new age. On the reverse of this coin the ancilias (sacred shields) symbolised the music at festivals. The "jumping priests" or Salii marched to the Regia, where was the shrine of Mars, in which the ancilia (the sacred shield, and its 11 copies) of Mars were stored. The Salii wearing apex, taking the bronze Ancilia, and danced through the streets carrying poles with the shields mounted on them in their left hands. With their other hand, they banged the shields with a drumstick.
3 commentsberserker
063.jpg
060 LICINIUS I6 viewsEMPEROR: Licinius I
DENOMINATION: AE follis
OBVERSE: AD 317-320. IMP LICI-NIVS AVG, laureate bust left in consular robe, holding globe, sceptre and mappa
REVERSE: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and eagle-tipped sceptre. Palm branch angled, Z in right field
EXERGUE: SMN
DATE: 317-320 AD
MINT: Nicomedia
WEIGHT: 3.17 g
RIC: RIC VII Nicomedia 24
Barnaba6
064.jpg
060a LICINIUS I10 viewsEMPEROR: Licinius I
DENOMINATION: AE3 Radiate
OBVERSE: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing half left, holding Victory on globe and eagle tipped staff, eagle at foot left with a wreath in its beak, captive seated to right with head left, X over III in field.
EXERGUE: SMHГ
DATE: 321-324 AD
MINT: Heraclea
WEIGHT: 2.42 g
RIC: VII Heraclea 52
Barnaba6
084_B_C_,_C_Licinius_L_f_Macer,_AR-den,_C_LICINIVS_L_F_MACER,_Cr354-1,_Syd_732,_Babelon_Licinia_16,_Q-001,_9h,_18,5-20,5mm,_g-s.jpg
084 B.C., C.Licinius.L.f Macer, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 354/1, Rome, C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER in two line, Minerva in quadriga right, #1153 views084 B.C., C.Licinius.L.f Macer, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 354/1, Rome, C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER in two line, Minerva in quadriga right, #1
avers: Diademed bust of Vejovis left, seen from behind, hurling the thunderbolt.
reverse: C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER in two line, Minerva in quadriga right with javelin and shield.
exergue: -/-//C•LNIVS•L•F/MACER, diameter: 18,5-20,5mm, weight: 3,91g, axis: 9h,
mint: Rome, date: 84 B.C., ref: Crawford 354/1, Sydenham 732, Licinia 16,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
Personajes_Imperiales_10.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire45 viewsSeverus II, Maxentius, Romulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Alexander, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Valerius Valens, Licinius II, Crispus and Martinianusmdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_10~0.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire43 viewsRomulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Licinius II, Crispus, Constantine II, Delmatius, Hanibalianus, Constans and Constantius II.

mdelvalle
A-08_Rep_AR-Den_L_Pomponius-Cn_f__L_POMPONI_CNF_-Helm-head-Roma-r__L_LIC_CN_DOM_-biga-r__Crawford-282-4_Syd-522_Rome_118-BC_Q-001_1h_19,5mm_3,74g-s.jpg
112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #1209 views112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #1
avers:- L•POMPONI•CNF (NF ligate), Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind.
revers: - Gallic warrior (Bituitus?) driving galloping biga right, hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx, in ex. L•LIC•CN•DOM•,
exerg: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, diameter: 19,5mm, weight: 3,74g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/4, Sydneham-522a, Pomponia 7a,
Q-001
quadrans
112-109_B_C_,_L_Pomponius_Cn_f_,_L_Licinius_Crassus,_Cn_Domitius_Ahenobarbus,_AR-Den,_L_POMPONI_CNF,_X,_L_LIC_CN_DOM_ROMA_Crwf-282-4,_Syd-522,_Rome_Q-001_2h_19-19,5mm_3,73g-s.jpg
112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #2110 views112-109 B.C., L. Pomponius Cn. f., L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, Republic AR-Denarius Serratus, Crawford 282/4, Rome, Gallic warrior in biga right, -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, #2
avers:- L•POMPONI•CNF (NF ligate), Helmeted head of Roma right, X behind.
revers: - Gallic warrior (Bituitus?) driving galloping biga right, hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx, in ex. L•LIC•CN•DOM•,
exerg: -/-//L•LIC•CN•DOM•, diameter: 19,0-19,5mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 2h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/4, Sydneham-522a, Pomponia 7a,
Q-002
quadrans
0010-060np_noir.jpg
1163 - D. Junius L.F. Silanus, As114 viewsAs minted in Rome, 91 BC
No legend, Head of Janus
D SILANVS L F, Prow of galley right
12.08 gr
Ref : RCV # 738

The following comment from : http://www.forumancientcoins.com/historia/historia.htm

"Decimus Junius Silanus was the son of M. Junius Silanus, who commanded the army that was defeated by the Germanic Cimbri in Transalpine Gaul.

Decimus was the stepfather of Marcus Brutus, the murderer of Caesar, having married his mother Servilia. He was elected consul in 63 for the following year ; and in consequence of his being consul designatus, he was first asked for his opinion by Cicero in the debate in the senate on the punishment of the Catilinarian conspirators. He was consul 62, with L. Licinius Morena, along with whom he proposed the Lex Licinia Julia".
Potator II
A-02_Rep_AR-Den-Ser_C_Publicius-Malleolus-C_f__C-MALLE-C-F-X-behind_L-LIC-CN-DOM_ROMA_Crawford-282-3_Syd-524_Rome_118-BC_R1_Q-001_11h_19-20mm_3,79g-s.jpg
118 B.C., C. Poblicius Malleolus, L. Licinius and Cn. Domitius, Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L·LIC·CN·DOM., #2154 views118 B.C., C. Poblicius Malleolus, L. Licinius and Cn. Domitius, Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L·LIC·CN·DOM., #2
(L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo118)
avers:- C·MA –L – LE – C ·F Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, X.
revers: - Bearded warrior (Bituitus?) fast biga right, holding shield, carnyx and reins and hurling spear; in exergue, L·LIC·CN·DOM.
exerg: -/-//L·LIC·CN·DOM., diameter: 19,0-20,0mm, weight: 3,79g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/3, Sydneham-524, Aurelia
Q-002
2 commentsquadrans
A-02_Rep_AR-Den-Ser_C_Publicius-Malleolus-C_f__C-MALLE-C-F-X-behind_L-LIC-CN-DOM_ROMA_Crawford-282-3_Syd-524_Rome_118-BC_R1_Q-001_1h_18-19mm_3,35g-s.jpg
118 B.C., C. Poblicius Malleolus, L. Licinius and Cn. Domitius, Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L·LIC·CN·DOM., (L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo118)194 views118 B.C., C. Poblicius Malleolus, L. Licinius and Cn. Domitius, Republic AR-Denarius Seratus, Crawford 282/3, Rome, Bearded warrior in biga right, L·LIC·CN·DOM.,
(L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus and associates, Narbo118)
avers:- C·MA –L – LE – C ·F Helmeted head of Roma right; behind, X.
revers: - Bearded warrior (Bituitus?) fast biga right, holding shield, carnyx and reins and hurling spear; in exergue, L·LIC·CN·DOM.
exerg: -/-//L·LIC·CN·DOM., diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 118 B.C., ref: Crawford 282/3, Sydneham-524,
Q-001
quadrans
119a.jpg
119a licinius. AE follis 3.1gm26 viewsobv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG rad. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI Jupiter std. l. ening on scepter with eagle, victor on globe in r. hand. eagle at feet. captive on ground
ex: -x/-IIr//SMNB
hill132
119b.jpg
119b Licinius I. AE follis 5.6gm26 viewsobv: VAL(DOT)LICINIVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENOI A_VGVSTI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: *-A//.SM.TS.
2 commentshill132
119d.jpg
119d Licinius I. AE follis 3.9gm20 viewsobv: IMP LICINIVS PF AVG laur. cuir. bust r.
rev: GENIO POP ROM Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: T-F//ATR
hill132
119e.jpg
119e Licinius I. AE follis 3.6gm16 viewsobv: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: IOVI CON_SERVATORI Jupiter std. l. leaning n scepter, victory on globe in r. hand, eagle at feet
ex: -r//SIS
hill132
119f.jpg
119f Licinius I. AE follis 3.8gm22 viewsobv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: IOVI CONSER_VATORI AVGG Jupiter std. l. holding victory on globe, eagle at feet
ex: -r//SMHT
hill132
119g.jpg
119g Licinius I. AE follis 3.5gm20 viewsobv: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: IOVI CON_SERVATORI Jupiter std. l. holding victory on globe, at feet eagle
ex: -B//SIS
hill132
119i.jpg
119i Licinius I. AE follis 19 viewsobv: IMP C LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG rad. cuir. bust r.
rev: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI Jupiter std. l. holding victory on globe, eagle at feet
ex: -+/III//SMHA
hill132
119j.jpg
119j LiciniusI. AE follis 19 viewsobv: VAL LICINIANVS LICINIVS PF AVG laur. head r.
rev: GENIO A_VGVSTI Genius std. l. holding patera and cornucopiae
ex: A-*//MKV
hill132
119k_new.jpg
119k Licinius I. AE follis21 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. bust L. wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter, mappa and globe
erv: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI AVGG Jupiter std. l. holding victory on globe and scepter
ex: (wreath)-Z//SMK.
hill132
heraclea1.jpg
126 Licinius I17 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. cuir. bust r. holding mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHB
hill132
heraclea2.jpg
127 Licinius I13 viewsobv: IMP LICIN_IVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding mappa and globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHT(delta)
hill132
heraclea3.jpg
128 Licinius I12 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding mappa and globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: HT(epsilon)
hill132
heraclea4.jpg
129 Licinius I12 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding mappa an scepter with globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMHA
hill132
13-Licinius-I-Lon-RIC-209c.jpg
13. Licinius I.16 viewsFollis, 310-312, London mint.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Licinius I.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae. Star in right field.
Mint mark: PLN
4.41 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #209c; PBCC #41; Sear #15182.
Callimachus
heraclea5.jpg
130 Licinius I13 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r. holding mappa and scepter with globe
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)// SMHA
hill132
GaleriusAugCyz.jpg
1303a, Galerius, 1 March 305 - 5 May 311 A.D.35 viewsGalerius, RIC VI 59, Cyzicus S, VF, Cyzicus S, 6.4 g, 25.86 mm; 309-310 AD; Obverse: GAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, laureate bust right; Reverse: GENIO A-VGVS[TI], Genius stg. left, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae. A nice example with sharp detail and nice brown hoard patina. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Galerius (305-311 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University


Caius Galerius Valerius Maximianus, more commonly known as Galerius, was from Illyricum; his father, whose name is unknown, was of peasant stock, while his mother, Romula, was from beyond the Danube. Galerius was born in Dacia Ripensis near Sardica. Although the date of his birth is unknown, he was probably born ca. 250 since he served under Aurelian. As a youth Galerius was a shepherd and acquired the nickname Armentarius. Although he seems to have started his military career under Aurelian and Probus, nothing is known about it before his accession as Caesar on 1 March 293. He served as Diocletian's Caesar in the East. Abandoning his first wife, he married Diocletian's daugher, Valeria.

As Caesar he campaigned in Egypt in 294; he seems to have taken to the field against Narses of Persia, and was defeated near Ctesiphon in 295. In 298, after he made inroads into Armenia, he obtained a treaty from the Persians favorable to the Romans. Between 299-305 he overcame the Sarmatians and the Carpi along the Danube. The Great Persecution of the Orthodox Church, which was started in 303 by the Emperor Diocletian, was probably instigated by Galerius. Because of the almost fatal illness that he contracted toward the end of 304, Diocletian, at Nicomedeia, and Maximianus Herculius, at Mediolanum, divested themselves of the purple on 1 May 305. Constantius and Galerius were appointed as Augusti, with Maximinus Daia and Severus as the new Caesars. Constantius and Severus reigned in the West, whereas Galerius' and Daia's realm was the East. Although Constantius was nominally senior Augustus, the real power was in the hands of Galerius because both Caesars were his creatures.

The balance of power shifted at the end of July 306 when Constantius, with his son Constantine at his side, passed away at York in Britain where he was preparing to face incursions by the Picts; his army proclaimed Constantine his successor immediately. As soon as he received the news of the death of Constantius I and the acclamation of Constantine to the purple, Galerius raised Severus to the rank of Augustus to replace his dead colleague in August 306. Making the best of a bad situation, Galerius accepted Constantine as the new Caesar in the West. The situation became more complicated when Maxentius, with his father Maximianus Herculius acquiesing, declared himself princes on 28 October 306. When Galerius learned about the acclamation of the usurper, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to put down the rebellion. Severus took a large field army which had formerly been that of Maximianus and proceeded toward Rome and began to besiege the city, Maxentius, however, and Maximianus, by means of a ruse, convinced Severus to surrender. Later, in 307, Severus was put to death under clouded circumstances. While Severus was fighting in the west, Galerius, during late 306 or early 307, was campaigning against the Sarmatians.

In the early summer of 307 Galerius invaded Italy to avenge Severus's death; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was too small to encompass the city's fortifications. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, his army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. When Maximianus Herculius' attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310 by pushing his son off his throne or by winning over Constantine to his cause failed, he tried to win Diocletian and Galerius over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308; the outcome of the Conference at Carnuntum was that Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place, that Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum, and that Herculius was completely cut out of the picture. Later, in 310, Herculius died, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. After the Conference at Carnuntum, Galerius returned to Sardica where he died in the opening days of May 311.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University; Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Galerius was Caesar and tetrarch under Maximianus. Although a talented general and administrator, Galerius is better known for his key role in the "Great Persecution" of Christians. He stopped the persecution under condition the Christians pray for his return to health from a serious illness. Galerius died horribly shortly after. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Lcnius1.jpg
1308b, Licinius I, 308 - 324 A.D. (Siscia)59 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 4, F, Siscia, 3.257g, 21.6mm, 0o, 313 - 315 A.D. Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.



De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Licin1AEFolJupiAlex.jpg
1308c, Licinius I, 308-324 A.D. (Alexandria)66 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 A.D. AE Follis, 3.60g, VF, 315 A.D., Alexandria. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG - Laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG - Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter; exergue: ALE / (wreath) over "B" over "N." Ref: RIC VII, 10 (B = r2) Rare, page 705 - Hunterian Museum, Glasgow, Scotland.


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Licinius (308-324 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Licinius' Heritage

Valerius Licinianus Licinius, more commonly known as Licinius, may have been born ca. 265. Of peasant origin, his family was from Dacia. A close friend and comrade of arms of the Emperor Galerius, he accompanied him on his Persian expedition in 297. When campaigns by Severus and Galerius in late 306 or early 307 and in the summer of 307, respectively, failed to dislodge Maxentius who, with the luke warm support of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps on 28 October 306, he was sent by the eastern emperor to Maxentius as an ambassador; the diplomatic mission, however, failed because the usurper refused to submit to the authority of his father-in-law Galerius. At the Conference of Carnuntum which was held in October or November of 308, Licinius was made an Augustus on 11 November 308; his realm included Thrace, Illyricum, and Pannonia.

Licinius' Early Reign

Although Licinius was initially appointed by Galerius to replace Severus to end the revolt of Maxentius , Licinius (perhaps wisely) made no effort to move against the usurper. In fact, his first attested victory was against the Sarmatians probably in the late spring, but no later than the end of June in 310. When the Emperor Galerius died in 311, Licinius met Maximinus Daia at the Bosporus during the early summer of that year; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. It was little more than a year later that the Emperor Constantine defeated Maxentius at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge on 28 October 312. After the defeat of the usurper, Constantine and Licinius met at Mediolanum (Milan) where Licinius married the former's sister Constantia; one child was born of this union: Valerius Licinianus Licinius. Licinius had another son, born of a slave woman, whose name is unknown. It appears that both emperors promulgated the so-called Edict of Milan, in which Constantine and Licinius granted Christians the freedom to practice their faith without any interference from the state.

As soon as he seems to have learned about the marital alliance between Licinius and Constantine and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia traversed Asia Minor and, in April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, which he took from Licinius after an eleven day siege. On 30 April 313 the armies of both emperors clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. A last ditch stand by Daia at the Cilician Gates failed; the eastern emperor subsequently died in the area of Tarsus probably in July or August 313. As soon as he arrived in Nicomedeia, Licinius promulgated the Edict of Milan. As soon as he had matters in Nicomedeia straightened out, Licinius campaigned against the Persians in the remaining part of 313 and the opening months of 314.

The First Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine

Once Licinius had defeated Maximinus Daia, the sole rulers of the Roman world were he and Constantine. It is obvious that the marriage of Licinius to Constantia was simply a union of convenience. In any case, there is evidence in the sources that both emperors were looking for an excuse to attack the other. The affair involving Bassianus (the husband of Constantius I's daughter Anastasia ), mentioned in the text of Anonymus Valesianus (5.14ff), may have sparked the falling out between the two emperors. In any case, Constantine' s forces joined battle with those of Licinius at Cibalae in Pannonia on 8 October 314. When the battle was over, Constantine prevailed; his victory, however, was Pyrrhic. Both emperors had been involved in exhausting military campaigns in the previous year and the months leading up to Cibalae and each of their realms had expanded so fast that their manpower reserves must have been stretched to the limit. Both men retreated to their own territory to lick their wounds. It may well be that the two emperors made an agreement, which has left no direct trace in the historical record, which would effectively restore the status quo.

Both emperors were variously engaged in different activities between 315 and 316. In addition to campaigning against the Germans while residing in Augusta Treverorum (Trier) in 315, Constantine dealt with aspects of the Donatist controversy; he also traveled to Rome where he celebrated his Decennalia. Licinius, possibly residing at Sirmium, was probably waging war against the Goths. Although not much else is known about Licinius' activities during this period, it is probable that he spent much of his time preparing for his impending war against Constantine; the latter,who spent the spring and summer of 316 in Augusta Treverorum, was probably doing much the same thing. In any case, by December 316, the western emperor was in Sardica with his army. Sometime between 1 December and 28 February 317, both emperors' armies joined battle on the Campus Ardiensis; as was the case in the previous engagement, Constantine' s forces were victorious. On 1 March 317, both sides agreed to a cessation of hostilities; possibly because of the intervention of his wife Constantia, Licinius was able to keep his throne, although he had to agree to the execution of his colleague Valens, who the eastern emperor had appointed as his colleague before the battle, as well as to cede some of his territory to his brother-in-law.

Licinius and the Christians

Although the historical record is not completely clear, Licinius seems to have campaigned against the Sarmatians in 318. He also appears to have been in Byzantium in the summer of 318 and later in June 323. Beyond these few facts, not much else is known about his residences until mid summer of 324. Although he and Constantine had issued the Edict of Milan in early 313, Licinius turned on the Christians in his realm seemingly in 320. The first law that Licinius issued prevented bishops from communicating with each other and from holding synods to discuss matters of interest to them. The second law prohibited men and women from attending services together and young girls from receiving instruction from their bishop or schools. When this law was issued, he also gave orders that Christians could hold services only outside of city walls. Additionally, he deprived officers in the army of their commissions if they did not sacrifice to the gods. Licinius may have been trying to incite Constantine to attack him. In any case, the growing tension between the two rulers is reflected in the consular Fasti of the period.

The Second Civil War Between Licinius and Constantine and Licinius' Death

War actually broke out in 321 when Constantine pursued some Sarmatians, who had been ravaging some territory in his realm, across the Danube. When he checked a similar invasion of the Goths, who were devastating Thrace, Licinius complained that Constantine had broken the treaty between them. Having assembled a fleet and army at Thessalonica, Constantine advanced toward Adrianople. Licinius engaged the forces of his brother-in-law near the banks of the Hebrus River on 3 July 324 where he was routed; with as many men as he could gather, he headed for his fleet which was in the Hellespont. Those of his soldiers who were not killed or put to flight, surrendered to the enemy. Licinius fled to Byzantium, where he was besieged by Constantine. Licinius' fleet, under the command of the admiral Abantus, was overcome by bad weather and by Constantine' s fleet which was under the command of his son Crispus. Hard pressed in Byzantium, Licinius abandoned the city to his rival and fled to Chalcedon in Bithynia. Leaving Martinianus, his former magister officiorum and now his co-ruler, to impede Constantine' s progress, Licinius regrouped his forces and engaged his enemy at Chrysopolis where he was again routed on 18 September 324. He fled to Nicomedeia which Constantine began to besiege. On the next day Licinius abdicated and was sent to Thessalonica, where he was kept under house arrest. Both Licinius and his associate were put to death by Constantine. Martinianus may have been put to death before the end of 324, whereas Licinius was not put to death until the spring of 325. Rumors circulated that Licinius had been put to death because he attempted another rebellion against Constantine.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
heraclea6.jpg
131 Licinius I12 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: .SMHB
hill132
heraclea7~0.jpg
132 Licinius I11 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHA
hill132
Licinius-l_IMP-C-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_IOVI-CONSER-VATORI-AVG-G_K_Wr-A-X_ALE_RIC-VII-14-p-705-(2-B1)_315-16-AD-Alexandria_R2_Q-001_6h_19-21mm_2,91g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Alexandria, RIC VII 014, K/Wreath/A/X//ALE, AE-2 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left, R2!!100 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Alexandria, RIC VII 014, K/Wreath/A/X//ALE, AE-2 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left, R2!!
avers:- IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG (2,B1), Laureate, bust right, .
revers:- IOVI CONSER VATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; eagle with wreath to left, K in the left fied, wreath/A/X in the right field.
exergo: K/Wreath/A/X//ALE, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 2,91g, axis: 6h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 315-316 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-14, p-705, R2 !!,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICIN-IVS-P-F-AVG_IOVI-CONSERVATORI-AVG_TARL__RIC-VII-192-p-_Arles_319-AD_R3_Q-001_0h_18mm_3,99ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Arles, RIC VII 192, -/-//T-ARL, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG, Licinius on eagle, 81 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Arles, RIC VII 192, -/-//T-ARL, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG, Licinius on eagle,
avers:- IMP LICI NIVS AVG, Laureate, and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- IOVI CONSER VATORI AVG, Emperor, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, carried by eagle standing right, its left wing pointing downward.
exergo: -/-//T-ARL, diameter:18 mm, weight: 3,99g, axis: 0h,
mint: Arles, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-192, p-182,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_VAL-LICINNIANVS-LICINNIVS-P-F-AVG-(1a-A)_GENIO-AV-GVSTI_Altar-Delta_SMK_RIC-VI-100-p-593_Cyzicus_312-313-AD_Q-001_7h_20,5-21,5mm_3,46g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VI 100, lighting altar/Δ//SMK, AE-2 Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Jupiter standing left, modius on head,81 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VI 100, lighting altar/Δ//SMK, AE-2 Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Jupiter standing left, modius on head,
avers:- VAL LICINNIANVS LICINNIVS P F AVG, (1a-A), Laureate, bust right.
revers:- GENIO AV GVSTI, Jupiter standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera, and cornucopiae, lighting altar at foot left.
exergo: lighting altar/Δ//SMK, diameter: 20,5-21,5mm, weight: 3,46g, axis: 7h,
mint: Cyzicus, 5th. off., date: 312-313 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-100, p-593,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
132_Licinius_I__RIC_VII_009_AE-3-Follis_IMP_LICI_NIVS_AVG-2-J1_l-_IOVI_CONS_ERVATORI_AVG_G_koszoru-Delta_SMK_p644_Cyzicus_317-20-AD__S_Q-001_6h_18-19mm_3,76g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 009, wreath/Δ//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left, Scarce ! #197 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 009, wreath/Δ//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left, Scarce ! #1
avers:- IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2,J1 l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
revers:- IOVI CONSER VATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; wreath in left and Epsilon in right in field.
exergo: wreath/Δ//SMK, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,76g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, 4th. off., date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 9, p-644, Scarce !,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l-_IOVI-CONS-ERVATORI-AVGG_koszoru-A-_SMK_RIC-VII-9-p644-1st-off_-c2_Cyzicus_317-20-AD__Q-001_axis-5h_18mm_2,85g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 009, wreath/A//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G, 188 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 009, wreath/A//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G,
avers:- IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2,J1 l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
revers:- IOVI CONSER VATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; wreath in left and A in right in field.
exergo: wreath/A//SMK, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,85g, axis: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, 1st. off., date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-9, p644, c2,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l-_IOVI-CONS-ERVATORI-AVGG_koszoru-B_SMK_RIC-VII-9-p644-2nd-off__Cyzicus_317-20-AD_Q-001_11h_18,5mm_3,15g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 009, wreath/B//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left,135 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 009, wreath/B//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left,
avers:- IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2,J1 l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
revers:- IOVI CONSER VATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; wreath in left and B in right in field.
exergo: wreath/B//SMK, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,15g, axis: 11h,
mint: Cyzicus, 2nd. off., date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-9, p-644,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l-_IOVI-CONS-ERVATORI-AVGG_koszoru-Epszilon_SMK_RIC-VII-9-p644-5th-off_-R1_Cyzicus_317-20-AD_Q-001_11h_18,5mm_3,07g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 009, wreath/Epsilon//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G, 84 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 009, wreath/Epsilon//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G,
avers:- IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2,J1 l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
revers:- IOVI CONSER VATORI AVG G, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; wreath in left and Epsilon in right in field.
exergo: wreath/Epsilon//SMK, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,07g, axis: 11h,
mint: Cyzicus, 5th. off., date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-9, p-644, R1!!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_7-lay_HT-E_RIC-VII-15_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R2_Q-001_6h_19mm_3,59g-s~1.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!107 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//HTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,59g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 015, p544, R2!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_MHT-Epsilon_7layer_RIC-VII-17-p545-5th-off_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R4_Q-001_axis-5h_19mm_2,51ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!280 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,51g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius_I__Heraclea,_RIC_VII_17A,_AE-3-Follis,_IMP_LICI_NIVS_AVG_2-J1_l,_PROVIDEN_TIAE_AVG_G,_MHTA,_5_layer,_1st_off,_317_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-19,5mm,_2,52-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1119 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 5 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTA, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,52g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 1st. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545,
Q-001
quadrans
132_Licinius_l_,_Heraclea_RIC_VII_039,_AE-3,_IMP_LICINIVS_AVG,_PROVIDENTIAE_AVG_G,_SMHA,__318-20_AD,R4_Q-001,_0h,_18-19mm,_3,60gx-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #1102 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 039, R4!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-48var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18-19mm_3,10g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #179 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-48var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #277 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #2
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-002
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-Follis_IMP-C-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-P-F-AVG_IOVI-CONS-ERVATORI_X-IIMu__SMNA_RIC-VII-52A_Heraclea_321-24-AD__Q-001_h_21mm_g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 052A, -/X/IIμ//SΜHA, AE-Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, R!!156 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 052A, -/X/IIμ//SΜHA, AE-Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, R!!
avers:- IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, (2,C3), Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- IOVI CONS ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and leaning on sceptre, eagle with wreath left, captive right. In right field: X over IIμ.
exergo: -/X/IIμ//SΜHA, diameter: 21mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, 1st. off., date: 321-324 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-52A, p548, R!!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Licinius-l__IMP-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_GENIO-P-OP-ROM_MOST-Q_RIC-VI-75b-p-408_Ostia_3a-B_312-13-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-1h_21-22mm_3,97g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Ostia, RIC VI 075b, -/-//MOSTQ, AE-2 Follis, GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left,202 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Ostia, RIC VI 075b, -/-//MOSTQ, AE-2 Follis, GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left,
avers:- IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- GENIO P OP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked except for chlamys over left shoulder, holding patera and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//MOSTQ, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,97g, axes: 1h,
mint: Ostia, date: 312-313A.D., ref: RIC-VI-75b, p-408 ,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-l__IMP-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_SPQR-OPTIMO-PRINCIPI_R-Q_RIC-VI-349c-p-390_Rome_3a-B_312-13-AD_Q-001_axis-5h_21-24mm_3,85g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 349c, -/-//R Q, AE-2 Follis, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Standard,198 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Rome, RIC VI 349c, -/-//R Q, AE-2 Follis, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Standard,
avers:- IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, Three standards surmounted by hand, eagle and wreath.
exerg: -/-//R Q, diameter: 21-24mm, weight: 3,85g, axes: 5h,
mint:Rome , date: 312-313A.D., ref: RIC-VI-349c, p-390,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICINIVS-P-F-AVG-(2,B4)_SOLI-INV-I-CTO-COMITI_R-F_R-star-P__RIC-VII-22_p-298_Rome_314-AD_R4_Q-001_1h_21,5-20,5mm_2,86g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Rome, RIC VII 022, R/F//R*P, AE-3 Follis, SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, R4 !!!70 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Rome, RIC VII 022, R/F//R*P, AE-3 Follis, SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, R4 !!!
avers:- IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, (2, B4), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SOLI INV I CTO COMITI, Sol standing left with chlamys across shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left.
exergo: R/F//R*P, diameter: 21,5-20,5 mm, weight: 2,86g, axis: 1h,
mint: Rome, date: 314 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-022, p-298, R4 !!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-2-Follis_IMP-LIC-LICINIVS-P-F-AVG-_IOVI-CONS-ERVATORI_koszoru-B_SIS_RIC-VI-227a-p-484-2nd-off_Siscia_312-AD_Q-001_7h_24-26,5mm_5,37g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 227a, wreath/B//SIS, AE-1 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, Scarce!104 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 227a, wreath/B//SIS, AE-1 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, Scarce!
avers: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, (1a, A), Laureate, head right.
revers: IOVI CONSER VATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter; wreath in left and B in right in field.
exergo: wreath/B//SIS, diameter: 24-26,5mm, weight: 5,37g, axis: 7h,
mint: Siscia, 2nd. off., date: 312 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-227a, p-484, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-l__IMP-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_IOVI-CONSERVATORI-AVG-N-N_B_SIS_RIC-VI-234a-p-485-c2-1a-C_C-_313-AD-Siscia_Q-001_axis-6h_21-24mm_3,69g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 234a, -/B//SIS, Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG N N,94 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VI 234a, -/B//SIS, Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG N N,
avers:- IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, 1a, C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, .
revers:- IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG N N, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; eagle with wreath to left, B in the left fied.
exergo: -/B//SIS, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 313 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-234a, p-485, c2,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-2-Follis_IMP-LIC-LICINIVS-P-F-AVG-2-B1_IOVI-CONS-ERVATORI_A_dot-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-17-p-424-1st-off_Siscia_315-6-AD_R2_Q-001_11h_20-21mm_3,54g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 017, -/A//•SIS•, AE-1 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing facing left, R2 !!85 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 017, -/A//•SIS•, AE-1 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing facing left, R2 !!
avers:- IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, (2, B1), Laureate, bust right.
revers:- IOVI CONS ERVATORI, Jupiter standing facing with head left, chlamys hanging from left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and leaning on sceptre, eagle with wreath to left.
exergo: -/A//•SIS•, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 3,54g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, 1st. off., date: 315-316 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-017, p-424, R2 !!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-l__AE-3-silvered_IMP-LIC-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP__-SIS-dot_RIC-VII-62-p-433-r4-2-B5_319-AD-Siscia_Q-002_axis-1h_19-20mm_3,11g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 062, -/-//Δ SIS •, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R4!!!, #1167 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 062, -/-//Δ SIS •, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R4!!!, #1
avers:- IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, 2, B5, Laureate and cuirassed bust right, .
revers:- VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on altar.
exergo: -/-//Δ SIS •, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 3,11g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-62, p-433, r4, altar typ: ?,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-l__AE-3-silvered_IMP-LIC-LICINIVS-PF-AVG_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP___SIS_RIC-VII-62-p-433-r4-2-B5_C-_-AD-Siscia_Q-001_axis-6h_19-20mm_3,46g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 062, -/-//εSIS•, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R4!!!, #272 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 062, -/-//εSIS•, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA LAETAE PRINC PERP, R4!!!, #2
avers:- IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, 2, B5, Laureate and cuirassed bust right, .
revers:- VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories standing, facing each other, together holding shield reading VOT/PR on altar.
exergo: -/-//εSIS•, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-62, p-433, r4, altar typ: a?,
Q-002
quadrans
Licinius-l__AE-3-silvered_IMP-LI-CINIVS-AVG_VIRTVS-EXERCIT_S-F_VOT-XX__-SIS-star_RIC-VII-110-p-438-r4-2-D2_320-AD-Siscia_Q-001_axis-1h_20mm_3,27g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 110, S/F//εSIS*, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R4!!!, #178 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 110, S/F//εSIS*, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R4!!!, #1
avers:- IMP LI CINIVS AVG, 2, D2, Helmeted and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/XX, captive sit in ground on either side, S and F left and right side in fields.
exergo: S/F//εSIS*, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,27g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-110, p-438, R4!!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-l__AE-3-silvered_IMP-LI-CINIVS-AVG_VIRTVS-EXERCIT_S-F_VOT-XX__-SIS-star_RIC-VII-110-p-438-r4-2-D2_320-AD-Siscia_Q-002_axis-1h_20mm_3,17g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 110, S/F//εSIS*, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R4!!!, #289 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 110, S/F//εSIS*, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R4!!!, #2
avers:- IMP LI CINIVS AVG, 2, D2, Helmeted and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/XX, captive sit in ground on either side, S and F left and right side in fields.
exergo: S/F//εSIS*, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,17g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-110, p-438, R4!!!,
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-l__AE-3-silvered_IMP-LI-CINIVS-AVG_VIRTVS-EXERCIT_S-F-over-HL_VOT-XX_B-SIS-star-on_crescent_RIC-VII-129-p-440-r1-2-D2_320-AD-Siscia_Q-001_axis-1h_19mm_3,26g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 129, S/F/HL//BSIS star on crescent, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R1!81 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 129, S/F/HL//BSIS star on crescent, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, R1!
avers:- IMP LI CINIVS AVG, 2, D2, Helmeted and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/XX, captive sit in ground on either side, S and F over HL left and right side in fields.
exergo: S/F/HL//BSIS star on crescent, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,26g, axis: 1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-129, p-440, R1!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG_LICNI-AVGVSTI,_VOT_I_S_XX__BSIS___RIC-VII-141-p-442_Siscia_320-AD_r3_Q-001_2h_20,5-21,0mm_3,33gx-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 141, •//•BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines, R3 !141 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 141, •//•BSIS•, AE-3 Follis, LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines, R3 !
avers:- IMP LICI NIVS AVG, Laureate head right.
revers:- LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/I•S/XX in three lines.
exergo: •//•BSIS•, diameter:20,5-21mm, weight: 3,33g, axis: 2h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 141, p-442, R3 !
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG_DN-LICNI-AVGVSTI,_VOT_dot_XX_In_wreath_A-SIS-star__RIC-VII-160-p-444_Siscia_320-21-AD_r2_Q-001_0h_18,5-19mm_3,01g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 160, -/-//ASIS*, AE-3 Follis, DN LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/•/XX In wreath, R2 !103 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 160, -/-//ASIS*, AE-3 Follis, DN LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/•/XX In wreath, R2 !
avers:- IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, B1, Laureate head right.
revers:- D N LICNI AVGVSTI, VOT/•/XX In wreath.
exergo: -/-//ASIS*, diameter:18,5-19mm, weight: 3,01g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320-321 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-160, p-444, R2 !
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_VALdotLICINIVS-P-F-AVG_GENIO-A-VGVSTI_star-B_dotSMdotTSdot_RIC-VI-30b_0h_25-27mm_5,63g.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 030b, */B//•SM•TS•, AE-1 Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left,61 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 030b, */B//•SM•TS•, AE-1 Follis, GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left,
avers:- VAL•LICINIVS P F AVG, (2a, A), Laureate, head right.
revers:- GENIO A VGVSTI, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopiae; * in left and B in right in field.
exergo: */B//•SM•TS•, diameter: 25-27mm, weight: 5,63g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, 2nd. off., date: 308-310 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-30b typ 2., p-514,
Q-001
quadrans
132_Licinius_I__Thessalonica,_RIC_VI_37b,__AE-2-Follis,_VAL_LICINIVS_P_F_AVG,_VIRTVTI_E_XERCITVS,_star-B,_SM_TS_,_308-10_AD,_Q-001,_5h,_26-26,5mm,_6,79g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 037b, */B//•SM•TS•, AE-1 Follis, VIRTVTI EXERCITVS, Virtus advancing right, #1117 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 037b, */B//•SM•TS•, AE-1 Follis, VIRTVTI EXERCITVS, Virtus advancing right, #1
avers: VAL•LICINIVS P F AVG, (2a, A), Laureate, head right.
reverse: VIRTVTI E XERCITVS, Virtus advancing right, holding trophy and spear, * in left and B in right in field.
exergue: */B//•SM•TS•, diameter: 26,0-26,5mm, weight: 6,79g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, 2nd. off., date: 308-310 A.D., ref: RIC VI 37b,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-C-VAL-LIC-LICINIVS-P-F-AVG-1a-A_IOVI-CONS-ERVATORI_RIC-VI-49-p-518-4th-off_Thessalonica_311-312-AD_Q-001_6h_24-25mm_5,21ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 049, wreath/Δ//SM•TS•, AE-1 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left,67 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 049, wreath/Δ//SM•TS•, AE-1 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left,
avers:- IMP C VAL LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, (1a, A), Laureate, head right.
revers:- IOVI CONSER VATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding globe and scepter; wreath in left and Δ in right in field.
exergo: wreath/Δ//SM•TS•, diameter: 24-25mm, weight: 5,21g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thessalonica, 4st. off., date: 311-312 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-49, p-518,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-C-VAL-LIC-LICINIVS-P-F-AVG-1a-A_IOVI-CONSE-RVATORI_koszoru-star-E__SM_TS__RIC-VI-49var-p-518-5th-off_Thess_312-AD_Q-001_5h_22-23mm_4,80g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 049var. ???, wreath-*in/E//•SM•TS•, AE-1 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left,102 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 049var. ???, wreath-*in/E//•SM•TS•, AE-1 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left,
avers: IMP C VAL LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, (1a, A), Laureate, head right.
revers: IOVI CONSER VATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding globe and scepter; wreath in left star inside (!), and E in right in field.
exergo: wreath- * in/E//•SM•TS•, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 4,80g, axis: 5h,
mint: Thessalonica, 5th. off., date: 311-312 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-49var. ???, p-518,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-I_RIC-VI-59-_7h_23,5mm_3,19g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 059, -/-//•TS•Γ•, AE-1 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G N N, Jupiter standing facing, Scarce!81 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VI 059, -/-//•TS•Γ•, AE-1 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG G N N, Jupiter standing facing, Scarce!
avers:- IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, (1b, B), Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- IOVI CONS ERVATORI AVG G N N, Jupiter standing facing with head left, chlamys hanging from left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and leaning
on sceptre, eagle with wreath left.
exergo:-/-//•TS•Γ•, diameter: 23,5mm, weight: 3,19g, axis: 7h,
mint: Thessalonica, 3rd. off., date: 312-313 A.D., ref: RIC-VI-59, p-519, Scarce !
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-l__AE-3-silvered_IMP-LICINIVS-AVG_VOT-XX-MVLT-dot-XXX-dot-dot-TS-dot-A-dot_RIC-VII-33-p504-s-2-B5_318-9-AD_Thessalonica_Q-002_6h_17,5mm_3,57g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 033, -/-//•TS•A•, AE-3 Follis, VOT XX /MVLT /•/XXX/•TS•A•, #2, S2!66 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 033, -/-//•TS•A•, AE-3 Follis, VOT XX /MVLT /•/XXX/•TS•A•, #2, S2!
avers:- IMP LICINIVS AVG, 2, B5, Laureate and cuirassed bust right, .
revers:- VOT XX /MVLT /•/XXX/, In wreath.
exergo: -/-//•TS•A•, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 3,57g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 318-199 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-33, p-504, s2,
Q-002
quadrans
Licinius-l__AE-3-silvered_IMP-LICINIVS-AVG_VOT-XX-MVLT-dot-XXX-dot-dot-TS-dot-A-dot_RIC-VII-33-p504-s-2-B5_318-9-AD_Thessalonica_Q-001_axis-6h_17mm_3,52g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 033, -/-//•TS•A•, AE-3 Follis, VOT XX /MVLT /•/XXX/•TS•A•, S2!186 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 033, -/-//•TS•A•, AE-3 Follis, VOT XX /MVLT /•/XXX/•TS•A•, S2!
avers:- IMP LICINIVS AVG, 2, B5, Laureate and cuirassed bust right, .
revers:- VOT XX /MVLT /•/XXX/, In wreath.
exergo: -/-//•TS•A•, diameter: 17mm, weight: 3,52g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 318-199 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-33, p-504, s2,
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132_Licinius_I__Thessalonica,_RIC_VII_61A,__AE-3_Follis,_IMP_LICINIVS_AVG,_VICTORIA_AVG_G_N_N,_TS_A_,_319_AD,_R__Q-001,_0h,_17-18mm,_3,24g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 061A, -/-//TS•A•, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA AVG G N N, Victory standing left, #162 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 061A, -/-//TS•A•, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIA AVG G N N, Victory standing left, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, Laureate bust right, cuirassed.
reverse: VICTORIA AVG G N N, Victory standing left, holding wreath and palm.
exergue: -/-//TS•A•, diameter: 17,0-18,0mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 308-310 A.D., ref: RIC VII 61A,
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Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICINIVS-P-F-AVG_SOLI-INVI-C-TO-COMITI_star_STdot__RIC-VII-17_p-361_Ticinum_314-15-AD_Q-001_axis-1h_18,5mm_2,82g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 017, */-//ST•, AE-3 Follis, SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, R2 !!!84 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 017, */-//ST•, AE-3 Follis, SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, R2 !!!
avers:- IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, 2, B1, Laureate head right.
revers:- SOLI INVI C TO COMITI, Sol standing left with chlamys across shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left, star in left field.
exergo: */-//ST• , diameter:18,5 mm, weight: 2,82g, axis: 1h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 314-415 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-017, p-361, R2 !!!,
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Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG_DN-LICINI-INVCT-AVG,_VOT_XX_In_wreath_P-T__RIC-VII-146_Ticinum_318-19-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_18,5mm_3,04g-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 146, -/-//PT, AE-3 Follis, DN LICINI INVCT AVG, VOT/•/XX In wreath, R3 !!!132 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 146, -/-//PT, AE-3 Follis, DN LICINI INVCT AVG, VOT/•/XX In wreath, R3 !!!
avers:- IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, B5, Laureate head right.
revers:- D N LICINI INVCT AVG, VOT/•/XX In wreath.
exergo: -/-//PT, diameter:18,5 mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 318-199 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-146, p-380, R3 !!!
Q-001
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Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICIN-IVS-P-F-AVG_IOVI-CONSER-VATORI-A-VG_STR__RIC-VII-212-p-182_Treveri_318-19-AD_R3_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5-18,5mm_3,38ga-s.jpg
132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Treveri, RIC VII 212, -/-//STR, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG, Licinius on eagle R3 !!!69 views132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), Treveri, RIC VII 212, -/-//STR, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI AVG, Licinius on eagle R3 !!!
avers:- IMP LICIN IVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, holding mappa in right hand, scepter in left hand across left shoulder
revers:- IOVI CONSER VATORI A VG, Eagle standing, wings spread, carrying emperor, standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre.
exergo: -/-//STR, diameter:17,5-18,5 mm, weight: 3,38g, axis: 6h,
mint: Treveri, date: 318-199 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-212, p-182, R3 !!!,
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heraclea8.jpg
133 Licinius I9 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: SMH(delta)
hill132
Licinius-II__AE-3-Sivered_DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C_6J1l__IOVI-CONSER-VATORI_CAES-S_crescent-B_S-MAL_RIC25p7072nd_off_R2_Alexandria_317-320-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_2,75g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Alexandria, RIC VII 025, crescent/B//SMAL, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES S, R2!!86 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Alexandria, RIC VII 025, crescent/B//SMAL, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES S, R2!!
avers:- D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
revers:- IOVI CONS ERVATORI CAESS, crescent in right field, Jupiter standing left, holding globe and scepter, B in right side.
exergo: crescent/B//SMAL, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,75g, axis: 0h,
mint: Alexandria, date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-25, p-707, 2nd.off., R2!!,
Q-001
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Licinius-II_AE-3-Follis_DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C_IOVI-CONS-ERVATORI-CAESS_-Gamma_SMANT-_RIC-29_C-xx_Antioch_317-320-AD__Q-001_17-19mm_2,55g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Antioch, RIC VII 029, -/Γ//SMANT, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES S, R1!77 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Antioch, RIC VII 029, -/Γ//SMANT, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES S, R1!
avers:- D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
revers:- IOVI CONS ERVATORI CAES S, Γ in right field, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; captive to left.
exergo: -/Γ//SMANT, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,55g, axis: 11h,
mint: Antioch, date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-29, p-680,3rd.off., R1!,
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Licinius-II_AE-3-Follis__DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C-6-J1-l__IOVI-CONSER-VATORI-CAESS_koszoru-A-_SMK_RIC-VII-11-p644-1st-off_-r3_Cyzicus_317-20-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18mm_2,72g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 011, wreath/A//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES S, R3!!!73 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 011, wreath/A//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES S, R3!!!
avers:- D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, 6,J1 l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
revers:- IOVI CONSER VATORI CAES S, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; wreath in left and A in right in field.
exergo: wreath/A//SMK, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,72g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 1st. off., date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 11, p-644, R3 !!!,
Q-001
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Licinius-II_AE-3-Follis_DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C-(6-J1-l_)_IOVI-CONSER-VATORI-CAESS_koszoru-B_SMK_RIC-VII-11-p644-2nd-off_-R3_Cyzicus_317-20-AD__Q-001_0h_18,5mm_2,62ga-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 011, wreath/B//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES S, Jupiter standing left, R3!!!86 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VII 011, wreath/B//SMK, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI CAES S, Jupiter standing left, R3!!!
avers:- D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, (6,J1 l.), Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
revers:- IOVI CONSER VATORI CAESS, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; wreath in left and B in right in field.
exergo: wreath/B//SMK, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 2,62g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 2nd. off., date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 11, p-644, R3 !!!,
Q-001
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Licinius-II_AE-3-Follis_DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C-6b-J1-l__PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS_MHT-_-_RIC-19-p545-4th_-off_-c2_Heracleia_317-AD__Q-001_axis-11h_19mm_2,81g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 019, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, C2! #1178 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 019, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, C2! #1
avers: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, 6b, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with three turrets, 6 layers of stone.
exergue: -/-//MHTΔ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,81g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, 4th. off., date: 317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 019, p545, C2,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Licinius-II_AE-3-Follis_DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C_6-G5-l__IOVI-CONS-ERVATORI_X_IIMu_SMH-Gamma_RIC-VII-54-p-548-3rd_off__Heraclea_321-24-20-AD_Q-001_11h_20-21mm_3,48g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 054, -/X/IIΓ//SMHΓ, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left,83 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VII 054, -/X/IIΓ//SMHΓ, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left,
avers:- D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C (6,G5-l.), Helmeted bust left holding spear and shield.
revers:- IOVI CONS ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe andscepter, eagle with wreath in beak to left and captive to right at foot, X/IIΓ (=12.5 denarii) to right,
exergo: -/X/IIΓ//SMHΓ, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: 3,48g, axis:11h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 321-324 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-54, p-548,
Q-001
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Licinius-II__AE-Follis-Sivered_DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C-(6d,B4)_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS_palm-dot-A_SMN_RIC-VII-34-p-605_Nicomedia_317-320-AD_R2_Q-001_0h_18-19mm_3,03g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VII 034, palm/•/A//SMN, AE-3 Follis, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Jupiter standing left, R2!!87 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VII 034, palm/•/A//SMN, AE-3 Follis, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Jupiter standing left, R2!!
avers:- D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, (6d, B4), Laureate, draped bust right.
revers:- PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; palm in left down and • over A in right in field.
exergo: palm/•/A//SMN, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,03g, axis: 0h,
mint: Nicomedia, 1st. off., date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-34, p-605, R2!!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-II__AE-Follis-Sivered_DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C-6d-B4_PROVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS-palm-dot-B_SMN_RIC-34-p605-R1_Nicomedia_317-320-AD__Q-001_axis-6h_18-20mm_2,56ga-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VII 034, palm/•/B//SMN, AE-3 Follis, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Jupiter standing left, R1!65 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VII 034, palm/•/B//SMN, AE-3 Follis, PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Jupiter standing left, R1!
avers:- D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, 6d, B4, Laureate, draped bust right.
revers:- PROVIDENTIAE CAES S, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and scepter; palm in left down and • over B in right in field.
exergo: palm/•/B//SMN, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: 6h,
mint: Nicomedia, 2nd. off., date: 317-320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-34, p605, R1!,
Q-001
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Licinius-II__AE-3-Sivered_LICINIVS-IVN-NOB-C_ROMAE-AETERNAE_P-R_RT_RIC-VII-154T_R3_Roma_318-319-AD_Q-001_6h_19-21mm_3,02g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Roma, RIC VII 154T, P/R//RT, AE-3 Follis, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated right, R3!!98 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Roma, RIC VII 154T, P/R//RT, AE-3 Follis, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated right, R3!!
avers: LICINIVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers: ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated right holding shield inscribed X/V, RP in ex.
exergo: P/R//RT, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 3,02g, axis: 6h,
mint: Roma, date: 318-319 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-154T, p-, 3rd.off., R3!!,
Q-001
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133_Licinius_II_,_Siscia_RIC_VII_098,_AE-3,_IMP_LICINIVS_IVN_NOB_C,_VICT_LAETAE_PRINC_PERP,_ASIS_star,__317-24_AD,R3_Q-001,_7h,_18,5-19mm,_2,92g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 098, -/-//ASIS*, AE-3 Follis, VICT LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories, VOT/PR, R3!!!105 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 098, -/-//ASIS*, AE-3 Follis, VICT LAETAE PRINC PERP, two Victories, VOT/PR, R3!!!
avers: LICINIVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
reverse: VICT LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT/PR on altar decorated with a letter I.
exergue: -/-//ASIS*, diameter:18,5-19,0mm, weight:2,92g, axis:7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 317-324 A.D., ref: RIC VII 098, R3!!!
Q-001
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Licinius-II__AE-Follis-Sivered_LICINIVS-IVN-NOB-CAES-6-B4-l__VIRTVS-EXERCIT_S-F_VOT-X_Delta-SIS-star_RIC-114-p438-4th_-off_-R3_C-x_Siscia_320-AD__Q-001_19-20mm_2_34g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 114, S/F//ΔSIS*, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, S-F, VOT/X, R3!!!77 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 114, S/F//ΔSIS*, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, S-F, VOT/X, R3!!!
avers:- LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES, 6a, B4, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, .
revers:- VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/X, captive sit in ground on either side, S and F left and right side in fields.
exergo: S/F//ΔSIS*, diameter:19-20mm, weight:2,34g, axis:1h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-114, p-438, R3!!!
Q-001
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Licinius-II_AE-Follis_LICINIVS-IVN-NOB-CAES-6-I1-l__VIRTVS-EXERCIT_S-F-HL_VOT-X_Delta-SIS-star-in-crescent_RIC-VII-132-p440-4th-off-R1_Siscia_320-AD_Q-001_axis-0h_19mm_2,22g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 132, S/F/HL//ΔSIS * in crescent, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, Two captives, Standard, S-F/HL, VOT/X, R1!210 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 132, S/F/HL//ΔSIS * in crescent, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, Two captives, Standard, S-F/HL, VOT/X, R1!
avers:- LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES, 6, I1-l (?), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, Victory on globe in right hand, mappa in left hand.
revers:- VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/X, captive sit in ground on either side, S and F/HL left and right side in fields.
exergo: S/F/HL//ΔSIS * in crescent, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,22g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-132, p-440, R1!,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-II__AE-Follis_LICINIVS-IVN-NOB-C-(6-I1-l_)_VIRTVS-EXERCIT_Iota-Chi_VOT-XX_Delta-SIS-star_RIC-139-p441-4th_-off_-R5_Siscia_320-AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-20mm_2,55gb-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 139, Iota-Chi/-//ΔSIS* in crescent, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, Two captives, Standard, R5!!!90 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 139, Iota-Chi/-//ΔSIS* in crescent, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, Two captives, Standard, R5!!!
avers:- LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES, (6, I1-l), Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, Victory on globe in right hand, mappa in left hand.
revers:- VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/XX, captive sit in ground on left side, "Iota-Chi" in left fields.
exergo: Iota-Chi/-//ΔSIS* in crescent, diameter: 18,5-20mm, weight: 2,55g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 139, p-441, R5!!!,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-II__AE-Follis-Sivered_LICINIVS-IVN-NOB-C-6d-B4_CAESARVM-NOSTRORVM_VOT-dot-V__-SIS-star_RIC-162-p444-4th_-off_-s_Siscia_320-21-AD__Q-001_axis-7h_19mm_3,79g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 162, -/-//ΔSIS*, AE-3 Follis, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/V, Scarce!73 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VII 162, -/-//ΔSIS*, AE-3 Follis, CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/V, Scarce!
avers:- LICINIVS IVN NOB C, 6d, B4, Laureate bust right.
revers:- CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/•/V in wreath.
exergo: -/-//ΔSIS*, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 2,55g, axis: 7h,
mint: Siscia, date: 320-21A.D., ref: RIC-VII-162, p-444, 4th.off.,s,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
133_Licinius_II_,_Thessalonica,_RIC_VII_41,_AE-Follis,_LICINIVS_IVN_NOB_CAES,_VOT_V__MVLT_X____CAESS__TS_A_,_R2,_320-AD__Q-001,_11h,_18mm,_3,12-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 041, AE-3 Follis, VOT•V•/MVLT•X•/•/CAESS/•TS•A• within wreath., R2!,144 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 041, AE-3 Follis, VOT•V•/MVLT•X•/•/CAESS/•TS•A• within wreath., R2!,
avers:- LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left.
revers:- VOT•V•/MVLT•X•/•/CAESS/•TS•A• within wreath.
exergo: -/-//•TS•A•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 41, R2!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-II__AE-3-Sivered_LICINIVS-IVN-NOB-CAES-6-B4-l__VIRTVS-EXERCIT_S-F_VOT-XX_dot-TS-dot-A-dot_RIC-79-p508-1th_-off_-R2_Thessalonica_320-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18mm_3_19g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 079, S/F//•TS•A•, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, S-F, VOT/XX, R2!!,84 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VII 079, S/F//•TS•A•, AE-3 Follis, VIRTVS EXERCIT, S-F, VOT/XX, R2!!,
avers:- LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES, 6a, B4, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left, .
revers:- VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT/XX, captive sit in ground on either side, S and F left and right side in fields.
exergo: S/F//•TS•A•, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 79, p-509, R2!!,
Q-001
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Licinius-II__AE-3_LICINIAN-LICINIVS-IVN_6aB1_IOVI-CONS-E-RVATORI_P_TT_RIC-71_Ticinum_317-18-AD-R3_Q-001_0h_18,6-19,5mm_2,35g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 071, P/-//TT, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, R3!143 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 071, P/-//TT, AE-3 Follis, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, R3!
avers:- LICINIAN LICINIVS IVN, 6a, B1, Laureate, head right.
revers:- IOVI CONS E RVATORI, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, leaning on sceptre, thunderbolt in right hand, P in left in field.
exergo: P/-//TT, diameter:18,6-19,5mm, weight: 2,35g, axis:0h,
mint:Ticinum, 3rd. off., date: 317-318A.D., ref: RIC-VII-71, p-371, R3!,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Licinius-II__AE-Follis-Sivered_LICINIVS-IVN-NOB-C_VICTORIAE-LAETAE-PRINC-PERP_T-T_VOT_PR_C_RIC-VII-94-p-373_Ticinum_319-AD_R4_Q-001_6h_18-18,4mm_2,98g-s.jpg
133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 094, C//TT, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield, VOT/PR, R4!!!103 views133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), Ticinum, RIC VII 094, C//TT, AE-3 Follis, VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield, VOT/PR, R4!!!
avers: LICINIVS IVN NOB C, 6a, B4, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories holding shield inscribed VOT PR over altar with C inscribed, T T in exergue.
exergo: C//TT, diameter:19-20mm, weight:2,34g, axis:1h,
mint: Ticinum, date: 320 A.D., ref: RIC-VII-094, p-373, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
heraclea9~0.jpg
134 Licinius II11 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: MHT(delta)
hill132
heraclea10.jpg
135 Licinius I10 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVGG laur. drp. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMHA
hill132
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
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146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Antioch 112c34 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C M AVR VAL MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO IMP-ERATORIS, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Antioch (_ | Theta / E //ANT Dot). Early to Later A.D. 309
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 112c (R) (Citing Oxford; Apparently a rare issue for Maximianus Herculius and only issued from this officina)
 
6.39 gms. 26.19 mm. 0 degrees. Better than the RIC plate coin (reverse only illustrated).
 
From RIC Notes "A very remarkable innovation, peculiar to this issue, is the reappearance of Herculius (with the long legend Imp C M Aur Val Maximianus P F Aug matching those of Galerius and Licinus, and with cuirassed bust) on rare coins with Genio Imperatoris; this is parallelled at the same time (see RIC VI page 656). Expelled from Italy c. April 308, and rejected at the Carnuntum conference in November 308, Herculius had received ample share in the coinage of Constantine's mints, and it seems that Maximinus (now antagonisitc to both Galerius and Licinius) may have been momentarily willing to demontsrate his hostility by including the name of the man who might still play and anti-Galerian part in the west."
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151 LiciniusI10 viewsobv: IMP LICIN_NIVS AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHA
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155 - Licinius - AE Follis - RIC VII Antioch 35 var23 viewsObv:- IMP C VAL LICAN (sic) LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory and sceptre, eagle at foot left, captive at foot right, X II Mu right
Minted in Antioch (//SMANTZ). A.D. 321-323
Reference:- RIC VII Antioch 35 var (LICAN for LICIN)
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155 - Licinius - RIC VI Thessalonica 06092 viewsObv:– IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, leaning on sceptre, Victory on globe in right hand; eagle with wreath to left
Minted in Thessalonica (.TS.A. in exe)
References:– RIC VI Thessalonica 60 (Common)
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RI 155d img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Alexandria 018184 viewsAE Reduced Follis
Obv:– IMP C VAL LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate head of Valens (?) right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter, standing, head left, with Victory on globe, eagle with wreath at feet
Minted in Alexandria (K in left field | wreath over X over A in right field / ALE in exe.) in A.D. 316/7
References:– RIC VII Alexandria 18 (Scarce)
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RI 155t img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Antioch 00831 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, bust right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle at feet
Minted in Antioch (wreath over ΔΕ over III in right field, ANT in exe.), A.D. 313-314
References:– RIC VII Antioch 8 (R2)
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RI 155l img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Antioch 012 var. (unlisted officina E) 21 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle at feet
Minted in Antioch (E in right field, ANT in exe.), A.D. 313-314
References:– RIC VII Antioch 12 var. (unlisted officina)
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RI 155u img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Antioch 02420 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bus left, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre
Minted in Antioch (* in left field, ΕI in right field, ANT in exe.), A.D. 313-314
References:– RIC VII Antioch 24 (R4)
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RI 155s img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Cyzicus 004 - H21 viewsObv:– IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, bust right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle at feet
Minted in Cyzicus (H in right field, SMK in exe.). A.D. 313-315
References:– RIC VII Cyzicus 4 (R2)

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RI 155f img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Cyzicus 009 - B65 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left,holding Victory on globe and sceptre, wreath before
Minted in Cyzicus (wreath in left field, B in right field, SMK in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Cyzicus 9 (Common)
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RI 155e img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Cyzicus 009 D53 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, wreath before
Minted in Cyzicus (Delta in right field, SMK in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Cyzicus 9 (Scarce)
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RI 155o img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTΓ)21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΓ in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R2)
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RI 155b img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTΔ)71 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΔ in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R2)
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RI 155p img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTE)19 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTE in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R4)
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RI 155n img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 029 (SMHΔ)26 viewsObv:- IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (Pellet in right field, SMHΔ in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 29 (R5)
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RI 155c img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 029 (SMHA)135 viewsObv:- IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (Pellet in right field, SMHA in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 29 (R2)

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RI 155q img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 043 (•SMHB)20 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust left, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (•SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 43 (R4)
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RI 155m img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 048 (SMHB)19 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (Λ in right field, SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 48 (C1)
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RI 155r img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 048 (SMHB)21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door & 6 rows of stone layers
Minted in Heraclea (Λ in right field, SMHB in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 48 (C1)

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RI 155v img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Nicomedia 02415 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bus left, globe and sceptre in left hand, mappa in right hand
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre
Minted in Nicomedia (Palm in left field, E in right field, SMN in exe.) in A.D. 317-320
References:– RIC VII Nicomedia 24 (Scarce)
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RI 155j img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Rome 03019 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO COMITI, Sol standing left, holding globe and raising right hand
Minted in Rome (R over X in left field, F in right field, RP in exe.). A.D. 314-315
References:– RIC VII Rome 30
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RI 155h img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Siscia 00847 viewsObv:– IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, leaning on sceptre, Victory on globe in right hand; eagle with wreath to left.
Minted in Siscia (A in right field, SIS in exe.) in A.D. 313
References:– RIC VII Siscia 8 (Scarce)
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RI_155ai_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VI Alexandria 101b 9 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO IMPE-RATORIS, Genius standing left, holding patera and cornucopia
Minted in Alexandria (K | S/ P // ALE). A.D. 308-310
Reference(s) – RIC VI Alexandria 101b (Rated C for IMP-ER but noted as occurring rarely for IMPE-R)
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155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VI Antioch 162a25 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C LIC LICINNIVS P F AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius, nude but for a chlamys hanging low from his left arm, modius on head, standing facing, head left, holding up a figurine of Victory in his righ hand and a cornucopia in his left arm
Minted in Antioch (* | H // ANT). A.D. 311-312
Reference:– RIC VI Antioch 162a (S)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
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155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII Alexandria 1010 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre; eagle with wreath at foot left
Minted in Alexandria (_ | Wreath over Delta over N / ALE). A.D. 314
Reference(s) – RIC VII Alexandria 10 (R2)
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RI_155al_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII Alexandria 10 29 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre; eagle with wreath at foot left
Minted in Alexandria (_ | Wreath over B over N / ALE). A.D. 314
Reference(s) – RIC VII Alexandria 10 (R2)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
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155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII Alexandria 14 13 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre; eagle with wreath at foot left
Minted in Alexandria (K | Wreath over A over X // ALE). A.D. 315-316
Reference(s) – RIC VII Alexandria 14 (R2)
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RI_155as_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII Cyzicus 01521 viewsFollis
Obv:- IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- IOVI CONSERVATORI , Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, leaning on sceptre, Victory on globe in right hand; eagle with wreath to left.
Minted in Cyzicus (_ | X over II Mu // SMKG).
Reference(s):- RIC VII Cyzicus 15 (R2)

3.42 gms. 20.16 mm. 0 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_155aq_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII London 03120 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in London (S | F / MSL). A.D. 315
Reference(s) – RIC VII London 31 (R1).
maridvnvm
RI_155aj_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII Ticinum 13 12 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI CON-SERVATORI, Mars, helmeted, in military dress, cloak over right shoulder, standing right, holding upright spear, point downwards, resting left hand on shield
Minted in Ticinum (* | _ // ST). A.D. 314-315
Reference(s) – RIC VII Ticinum 13 (Rated R3)
maridvnvm
RI_155ap_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII Ticinum 13 var 29 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right
Rev:– MARTI CON-SERVATORI, Mars, helmeted, in military dress, cloak over right shoulder, standing right, holding upright spear, point downwards, resting left hand on shield
Minted in Ticinum (* | _ // PT). A.D. 314-315
Reference:– RIC VII Ticinum 13 var (Unlisted officina - Example noted on NotInRIC)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_155am_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII Trier 119 12 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference(s) – RIC VII Trier 119 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI_155am_img~0.jpg
155 - Licinius I - Follis - RIC VII Trier 119 13 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference(s) – RIC VII Trier 119 (C1)
maridvnvm
RI_155w_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - RIC VII Lugdunum 4821 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Lugdunum (TF | * / PLG). A.D. 315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 48 (R4). Bastien XI 598 (8 examples cited)
Martin Griffiths
RI_155y_img.jpg
155 - Licinius I - RIC VII Lugdunum 50 corr.25 viewsFollis
Obv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Lugdunum (TF | * / PLG). A.D. 315
Reference:– RIC VII Lugdunum 50 corr (R5). Bastien XI 600 (6 examples cited)
Martin Griffiths
RI_155ac_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VI Trier 845b21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 845b
maridvnvm
RI_155ao_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VI Trier 845b12 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / PTR).
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 845b
maridvnvm
RI_155af_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII London 209c 15 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in London (_ | * / PLN).
Reference:– RIC VII London 209c
maridvnvm
RI_155z_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII Trier 11918 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 119

Weight 4.40g. 21.17mm.
maridvnvm
RI_155ae_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII Trier 11917 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 119
maridvnvm
RI_155aa_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII Trier 12114 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 121
maridvnvm
RI_155ab_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII Trier 12118 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / BTR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 121
maridvnvm
RI_155ad_img.jpg
155 - Licinius- Follis - RIC VII Trier 12119 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, modius on head, naked but for chlamys round waist, left hand holding cornucopiae and right hand holding patera
Minted in Trier (T | F / ATR).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 121
maridvnvm
RI_157h_img.jpg
157 - Licinius II - AE3 - RIC VII Arles 160 10 viewsAE3
Obv:– VAL LICINIVS NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Arles (//T Star in Crescent A.)
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 160 (R3)
maridvnvm
RI_157i_img.jpg
157 - Licinius II - AE3 - RIC VII Arles 16017 viewsAE3
Obv:– VAL LICINIVS NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, chlamys spread across both shoulders
Minted in Arles (//T Star in Crescent A.)
Reference:– RIC VII Arles 160 (R3)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_157g_img.jpg
157 - Licinius II - AE3 - RIC VII Siscia 14311 viewsAE3
Obv:– LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES, Laureate head right
Rev:– CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT / I . S / . V .
Minted in Siscia (//.DSIS.) A.D. 320
Reference:– RIC VII Siscia 143 (R3)
maridvnvm
RI 157e img.jpg
157 - Licinius II - RIC Alexandria 02553 viewsObv:– D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, Laureate bust left, draped, holding orb and scepter and mappa
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS, Jupiter standing left, holding globe and scepter
Minted in Alexandria (Crescent in left field, B in right field, SMAL in exe.) in A.D. 317-320

Not in great condition but a scarce coin.
References:– RIC Alexandria 25 (R2)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 157a img.jpg
157 - Licinius II - RIC Cyzicus 011 B72 viewsObv:– DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, Laureate bust left, draped, holding orb and scepter and mappa
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on a globe and scepter
Minted in Cyzicus (wreath in left field, B in right field, SMK in exe.)
References:– RIC Cyzicus 11 B (R3)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI 157f img.jpg
157 - Licinius II - RIC Nicomedia 03452 viewsObv:– D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– PROVIDEN-TIAE CAESS, Jupiter standing left, holding victory on globe and scepter
Minted in Nicomedia (palm | • / E / SMN). A.D. 317-320
Reference:– RIC VII Nicomedia 34 (R1)
maridvnvm
RI 157c img.jpg
157 - Licinius II - RIC Siscia 16293 viewsObv:– LICINIVS IVN NOB C, Laureate head right
Rev:– CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT/V in two lines inside of wreath
Minted in Siscia (ΔSIS* in exe)
References:– RIC Siscia 162 (Scarce)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
IMG_3702~0.jpg
167. Licinius I (308-324 A.D.)24 viewsAv.: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG
Rv.: IOVI CONSERVATORI
Right: X over II Mu (12 1/2 denarii communes)
Ex.: SMHB

AE Follis Ř19 / 2.6g
RIC VII 52 Heraclea
RIC Rarity rating R1!
Juancho
IMG_3116~0.jpg
167. Licinius II (317-324 A.D.)13 viewsAv.: LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES
Rv.: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM
Centre: VOT – V (into wreath)
Ex.: TS epsilon VI

AE Follis Ř18 / 2.9g (320 A.D.)
RIC VII 107 Thessalonica
RIC Rarity rating R3!
Juancho
heraclea43.jpg
168 Licinius II12 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)//SMHr
hill132
heraclea46.jpg
171 Licinius I8 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust r. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE AVGG campgate wth three turrents no star
ex: -(delta)/SMHB
hill132
heraclea50~0.jpg
175 Licinius II17 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrent no star
ex: .SMHr
hill132
heraclea51.jpg
176 Licinius I8 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_IAE AGG campgate with three turrents no star
ex: -.//SMH(delta)
hill132
heraclea54.jpg
179 Licinius II11 viewsobv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C laur. drp. cuir. bust l. holding scepter and mappa
rev: PROVIDEN_TIAE CAESS campgate with three turrents no star
ex: - dot over dot//SMH(delta)
hill132
PCrassusDenAmazon.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus172 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. The reverse figure is sometimes described as a warrior or Gaulish horseman, but this example clearly accords with those who identify the figure as a woman! Member of the first triumvirate, 59-53 BC.

Seaby, Licinia 18

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
2 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon~0.jpg
1ab Marcus Licinius Crassus17 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps; a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus34 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)
The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)

Plutarch wrote of Crassus: People were wont to say that the many virtues of Crassus were darkened by the one vice of avarice, and indeed he seemed to have no other but that; for it being the most predominant, obscured others to which he was inclined. The arguments in proof of his avarice were the vastness of his estate, and the manner of raising it; for whereas at first he was not worth above three hundred talents, yet, though in the course of his political life he dedicated the tenth of all he had to Hercules, and feasted the people, and gave to every citizen corn enough to serve him three months, upon casting up his accounts, before he went upon his Parthian expedition, he found his possessions to amount to seven thousand one hundred talents; most of which, if we may scandal him with a truth, he got by fire and rapine, making his advantages of the public calamities. . . . Crassus, however, was very eager to be hospitable to strangers; he kept open house, and to his friends he would lend money without interest, but called it in precisely at the time; so that his kindness was often thought worse than the paying the interest would have been. His entertainments were, for the most part, plain and citizen-like, the company general and popular; good taste and kindness made them pleasanter than sumptuosity would have done. As for learning he chiefly cared for rhetoric, and what would be serviceable with large numbers; he became one of the best speakers at Rome, and by his pains and industry outdid the best natural orators. . . . Besides, the people were pleased with his courteous and unpretending salutations and greetings, for he never met any citizen however humble and low, but he returned him his salute by name. He was looked upon as a man well-read in history, and pretty well versed in Aristotle's philosophy. . . . Crassus was killed by a Parthian, called Pomaxathres; others say by a different man, and that Pomaxathres only cut off his head and right hand after he had fallen. But this is conjecture rather than certain knowledge, for those that were by had not leisure to observe particulars. . . .
1 commentsBlindado
PCrassusDenAmazon2~1.jpg
1ab_2 Marcus Licinius Crassus35 viewsFormed First Triumvirate with Caesar and Pompey in 60 BC, killed at Carrhae in Parthia in 53 BC.

Denarius, minted by son, P Licinius Crassus, ca 54 BC.
Bust of Venus, right, SC behind
Amazon with horse, P CRASSVS MF.

Seaby, Licinia 18

These coins were probably minted to pay Crassus' army for the invasion of Parthia, which led to its destruction. My synthesis of reviewing 90 examples of this issue revealed a female warrior wearing a soft felt Scythian cap with ear flaps (visible in this example); a fabric garment with a decorated skirt to the knees; probably trousers; an ornate war belt; a baldric; a cape, animal skin, or shoulder cord on attached to the left shoulder; and decorated calf-high boots. She matches the historically confirmed garb of the real amazons—Scythian horsewomen—and of course holds her steed. The horse’s tack is consistent with archeological discoveries of tack in use by Scythians and Romans.

Adrienne Mayor writes that amazon imagery on Greek vases suddenly appeared in 575-550 BC, initially depicting them in Greek-style armor. By the end of the century, as the Greeks learned more through direct and indirect contact with Scythians, they began to appear wearing archeologically confirmed Scythian-Sarmatian-Thracian patterned attire. (Adrienne Mayor, The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World, Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014, 199-200). To this, artists added their own creative ideas regarding colors, fabric patterns, and decorations. “They dressed the warrior women in body-hugging ‘unitards’ or tunics, short chitons or belted dresses, sometimes over leggings or trousers. . . . In paintings and sculpture, pointed or soft Scythian caps with earflaps or ties (kidaris) soon replaced the Greek helmets, and the women wear a variety of belts, baldrics (diagonal straps), corselets, shoulder cords or bands, and crisscrossing leather straps attached to belt loops like those worn by the archer huntress Artemis. . . . Amazon footgear included soft leather moccasin-like shoes, calf-high boots (endromides), or taller laced boots (embades) with scallops or flaps and lined with felt or fur.” (Mayor, 202)

The artists apparently had detailed knowledge of gear used by real Scythian horsewomen to equip their imagined Amazons. “Archeological discoveries of well-preserved sets of clothing confirm that real horsewomen of ancient Scythian lands dressed much as did those described in Greek texts and illustrated in Scythian and Greek artwork.” (Mayor, 203)
2 commentsBlindado
MaximinusIIFollisGenio.jpg
1dy Maximinus II22 views309-313

Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXIMINVS NOB C
Genius standing left, naked except for modius on head & chlamys over shoulder, holding patera & cornucopiae, SIS in ex, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI.

RIC 170b

According to Eutropius: Galerius, a man of excellent moral character, and skilful in military affairs, finding that Italy, by Constantius's permission, was put under his government, created two Caesars, MAXIMIN, whom he appointed over the east, and SEVERUS, to whom he committed Italy. He himself resided in Illyricum. . . . LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,4) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy. Not long after, too, Maximin, after commencing hostilities against Licinius in the east, anticipated the destruction that was falling upon him by an accidental death at Tarsus.
Blindado
MaxentiusFollisRoma.jpg
1dz Maxentius22 views306-312

Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Roma in temple, CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE

RIC 194a

Eutropius reports: But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. . . .

At this time LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy.
Blindado
LiciniusFollisIovi.jpg
1ea Licinius16 views308-324

Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG
Jupiter standing left with thunderbolt and sceptre, eagle at foot with wreath in its beak, A over μ (Mu) over dot in right field, dot SIS dot in ex, IOVI CONSERVATORI

RIC 225a var

According to Zonaras: Maximinus took as colleague in his rule Licinius, who derived his lineage from the Dacians and was the brother-in-law of Constantine the Great. After he had made him colleague in his sovereignty and left him in Illyricum to defend the Thracians, who were being plundered by barbarians, he himself proceeded to Rome, to battle against Maxentius. Then, being suspicious of his own soldiers and fearing lest they desert to the enemy, he desisted from battle and departed. He regretted his appointment of Licinius, first plotted secretly against him, and then openly joined battle with him. He attacked him, was repulsed, defeated, and fled, and in his flight did away with himself. . . .

Eutropius adds: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage, for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.
Blindado
LiciniusIIAE3Roma.jpg
1eb Licinius II9 viewsCaesar, 317-324

Follis

Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust, right, LICINIVS IVN NOB C
ROMAE AETERNAE, P-R, Roma seated right holding shield inscribed X/V, RP in ex.

RIC 154
Blindado
ConstantinusFollisSol.jpg
1ec_2 Constantine the Great18 views307-337

Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
Blindado
CrispusAE3Victoria.jpg
1ef Crispus67 viewsCaesar 317-326

AE3, Thessalonica

Laureate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES
Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, VICTORIA CAESS NN. Mintmark dot TS dot epsilon dot.

Zosimus recorded Crispus' elevation to Caesar: "Constantine, having taken Cibalis, and Sirmium, and all the towns that Licinius had abandoned, sent five thousand men in pursuit of him. But as these were ignorant of the course he had taken, they could not overtake him. Constantine however, having rebuilt the bridge over the Saus, which Licinius had broken down, was with his army almost at his heels. Having entered Thrace, he arrived at the plain where Licinius lay encamped. On the night of his arrival there he marshalled his army, and gave orders for his soldiers to be ready for battle by day-break. As soon as it was light, Licinius, perceiving Constantine with his army, drew up his forces also, having been joined by Valens, whom he styled Caesar, after the battle of Cibalis. When the armies engaged, they first fought with bows at a distance ; but when their arrows were spent, they began to use their javelins, and poignards. Thus the battle continued very obstinately for a considerable time, until those whom Constantine had sent in pursuit of Licinius descended from an eminence upon the armies while they were engaged. These wheeled round the hill |46 before they arrived at them, deeming it best to join their own party from the higher ground, and to encompass the enemy. The troops of Licinius, being aware of them, courageously withstood against them all, so that many thousands were slain on both sides, and the advantage was equal, till the signal was given for both to retire. Next day they agreed on a truce, and entered into an alliance with each other, on condition that Constantine should possess Illyricum and all the nations westward, and that Licinius should have Thrace and the east; but that Valens, whom Licinius had made Caesar, should be put to death, because be was said to be the author of all the mischief which had happened. Having done this, and sworn on both sides to observe the conditions, Constantine conferred the rank and title of Caesar on Crispus, his son by a concubine called Minervina, who was as yet but a youth, and on Constantine, who was born but a few days before at Arelatum. At the same time Licinianus, the son of Licinius, who was twenty months of age, was declared Caesar, Thus ended the second war."

According to Zonaras, "By a concubine he also had another son, called Crispus, older than his other sons, who distinguished himself often in the war against Licinius. His stepmother Fausta, being erotically obsessed with him, since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse."

Constantine had his son strangled to death in Pula.

RIC 62
Blindado
BOTLAUREL_2011.JPG
201163 viewsTHIS YEAR'S WINNERS
CLICK ON A COIN FOR ITS DETAILS

*Alex
206-Licinius II- Siscia RIC70.JPG
206-Licinius II- Siscia RIC7031 viewsAE3 , 319 AD, Siscia mint
Obv: LICINIVS IVN NOB CAES, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, Two Victories facing placing shield inscribed VOT / PR on alter.
ESIS(dot) in exergue, Siscia mint, RIC 70
20mm, 2.5 gm.
Jerome Holderman
20o-Crispus-Her-058.jpg
20o. Crispus: Heraclea.15 viewsAE3, 324, Heraclea mint.
Obverse: CRISPVS NOB CAES / Laureate bust of Crispus.
Reverse: DOMINOR . NOSTROR . CAESS / Laurel wreath enclosing VOT X.
Mint mark: SMHB
2.85 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #58; PBCC & LRBC unlisted; Sear #16788.

This coin is from the first coinage minted at Heraclea after the defeat of Licinius in July 324. The unusual reverse legend was previously used at Ticinum, so this coinage from Heraclea must have somehow been influenced by that of the Italian mint.
Callimachus
22003.jpg
22003 Licinius II/IOVI CONS-ERVATORI19 viewsLicinius II/IOVI CONS-ERVATORI
Obv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C
helmeted, cuirassed bust
left, holding spear and shield.
Rev: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI
Jupiter standing left, holding Victory
on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath in beak at foot
left, captive at foot right,
X over II MU in right field
SMHA in Exergue
Mint: Heraclea 19.5mm 3.4g
RIC VII Heraclea 54; Sear 15407
1 commentsBlayne W
22016.jpg
22016 Licinius I/Jupiter11 viewsLicinius I/Jupitor
Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG,
radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI
Jupiter standing left, naked but for chlamys across left sh., holding Victory on globe & sceptre. Eagle with wreath in beak at foot left, bound
captive on ground to right.
X over II Mu in right field
SMANTB in Exergue
Mint:Antioch 17.5mm 3.7g
RIC VII Antioch 35; Sear 15225.
Blayne W
22017.jpg
22017 Licinius/IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG11 viewsLicinius/Iovi
Obv:IMP LICINIVS AVG,
laureate, draped bust left, holding globe, sceptre and mappa.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG,
Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre.
Wreath in left field, A, H or Delta in right field.
Exergue Dot ?MK
Mint: Cyzicus 18.9mm 3.1g
RIC VII Cyzicus 9 var (dot in mintmark).
Blayne W
22019.jpg
22019 Licinius I/Jupiter11 viewsLicinius I/Jupiter
Obv:IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG,
radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:IOVI CONS-ERVATORI,
Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and leaning on sceptre, eagle with wreath left, captive right.
X over II Mu in Right field
SMHB In Exergue
Mint: Heraclea 18.8mm 2.4g
RIC VII Heraclea 52.
Blayne W
22023.jpg
22023 Licinius/Jupiter GammaI12 viewsLicinius/Jupiter
Obv: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG,
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN,
Jupiter standing left, chlamys across
left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with
wreath at foot left.
GammaI in right field.
ANT in Exergue
Mint:Antioch 22.9mm 2.9g
RIC VII Antioch 17; Sear 15253.
Rated R5

Blayne W
22025a.jpg
22025 Licinius II/Jupiter7 viewsLicinius II/Jupiter
Obv:VAL LICINIVS NOB CAES,
laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:IOVI CO-NSERVATORI,
Jupiter running right, chlamys flying out behind, throwing thunderbolt.
R-S across fields.
TARL in Exergue
Mint:Arles 18.7mm 2.8g
RIC VII Arles 128
Blayne W
22034.jpg
22034 Licinius Sol 20 viewsLicinius I/Sol
Obv: IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
Rev: SOLI IN-VI-CTO COMITI
T left field F right Field
Mint: Arles Arelate 20.1mm 3g
?A?R in Exergue
RIC VII Arles 74 R5

Blayne W
22036.jpg
22036 Licinius II IOVI23 viewsLicinius II / IOVI CONS-ERVATORI
Obv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C
helmeted, cuirassed, spear across right shoulder, shield on left arm facing left
REV: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI
Jupiter standing left, Chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe in right eagle-tipped scepter in left, eagle with wreath left, captive right
Right field: X over II Mu
SMH gamma in Exergue
Mint Heraclea 19.2 mm 3.3 g
RIC VII Heraclea 54; Sear 15407

Blayne W
22037.jpg
22037 Licinius I/ IOVI CONS-ERVATORI16 viewsLicinius I/ IOVI CONS-ERVATORI
Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG
Licinius bust laureate head only
Rev: IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG
Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding victory on Globe in right and scepter in left
Right field: wreath over Z over III
ANT in Exergue
Mint:Antioch 18.9mm 3.6 g
RIC VII Antioch 8; Sear 15244
Rated R4
Blayne W
22038.jpg
22038 Licinius I/SOLI IN-VI-CTO COMITI11 viewsLicinius I/SOLI IN-VI-CTO COMITI
OBV: IMP LICINIVS PF AVG
Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
(I don’t believe it is draped)
REV: SOLI IN-VI-CTO COMITI
Sol standing left, raising hand and holding globe.
Left R over XRight F
RP in Exergue
Mint: Rome 21.6mm 3.5g
RIC VII Rome 30
Blayne W
22042.jpg
22042 Licinius 1/Campgate15 viewsLicinius 1/Campgate
Obv: IMP LICI-NIVS AVG
Laureate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, globe and scepter in
left hand, mappa in right
Rev: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG
3 Turrets above, no stars, no door
?T Gamma in Exergue
Mint:Heraclea 19.8mm 3.1g
RIC VII Heraclea 15; Sear 15264 Rated R2
Blayne W
22048.jpg
22048 Licinius I/Jupiter19 viewsLicinius I/Jupiter
Obv: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG,
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN,
Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath at foot left.
I in right field.
ANT in Exergue
Mint: Antioch 19.0mm 4.0 g
RIC VII Antioch 17; Sear 15253. R3
2 commentsBlayne W
22075.jpg
22075 Licinius/Jupiter15 viewsLicinius I/Jupiter
Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG
Bust of Licinius, radiate, draped, cuirassed, right
Rev: IOVI CON-SERVATORI:
Jupiter, nude, chlamys draped across left shoulder, standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand and leaning on sceptre with eagle with left hand; to left, eagle with wreath; to right, captive
X over IIMU in Right Field.
Mint:Alexandria 19.1mm 3.5g
RIC VII Alexandria 28
Blayne W
SalV28.jpg
256/8-260 AD - Saloninus - RIC V 28 - PRINC or PRINCIPI IVVENT44 viewsProbable Caesar: Saloninus (Caes: late 250s AD)
Date: 257-258 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: LIC COR SAL VALERIANVS N CAES
Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus Noble Caesar
Bust right; radiate and draped

Reverse: PRINC or PRINCIPI IVVENT
First among the Young Men.
Prince standing left, holding ensign and spear or sceptre, captive at foot.
"P" in right field

Rome mint
RIC V Saloninus 28; VM 9
1.86g; 20.8mm; 345°
Pep
coin244.JPG
307. Aemilian31 viewsMarcus Aemilius Aemilianus was born about AD 207 either on the island of Jerba in Africa, or somewhere in Mauretania.
His career saw him becoming senator and reaching the office of consul. In AD 252 he then became governor of Lower Moesia.

In the spring of AD 253 the Goths broke the treaty made with the emperor Trebonianus Gallus. Aemilian quickly drove them out of Moesia and then, crossed the Danube crushing the Gothic forces.

In a time when Rome suffered continuous setbacks his unexpected triumph made him an outstanding leader in the eyes of his men. So, in July or August AD 253 Aemilian was proclaimed emperor by his troops. The new emperor didn't waste time. Immediately he marched his troops into Italy, rapidly moving on Rome. Only fifty miles north of the capital, at Interamna, they were were approached by the much inferior army of unprepared emperor Gallus and with his son and co-emperor Volusianus. Their troops however, realizing themselves dead if they were sent to fight Aemilian's much larger and more experienced Danubian forces, turned on them and killed them, leaving Aemilian sole emperor.

The senate, having only recently declared Aemilian a public enemy under Gallus, immediately confirmed him as emperor and Aemilian's wife Gaia Cornelia Supera was made Augusta.

All the empire now lay at Aemilian's feet, but for one big problem. Publius Licinius Valerianus, called to aid by the late Trebonianus Gallus, was marching toward Rome. His emperor might have been dead, but his usurper was still alive, giving Valerian all the reasons needed to carry on towards the capital. In fact the soldiers of his Rhine armies now declared him emperor in place of Aemilian.

As Aemilian now moved north to face his challenger history repeated itself. His own soldiers not wanting to fight a army they thought superior to their own, turned on him near Spoletium and stabbed him to death (October AD 253). The bridge where he died was afterwards known as the pons sanguinarius, the 'bridge of blood'.

Aemilian had ruled for only 88 days.

Aemilian AR Antonininus. 253 AD. IMP AEMILIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate draped bust right / VIRTVS AVG, Virtus standing left, foot on helmet, holding branch & spear. RSC 60. RIC 12. Ex-WCNC
ecoli
rjb_licin_06_06.jpg
30813 viewsLicinius I 308-24 AD
AR Follis
Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG
Laureate bust right
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG
Jupiter standing left, holding victoriola, eagle at feet
-/Γ//SMHT
Heracea Mint
RIC (VII) Heraclea 73
mauseus
rjb_lic_09_07.jpg
30820 viewsLicinius I 308-324 AD
AE Reduced Follis
IMP LICINIVS AVG
Helmeted cuirassed bust right
VIRTVS EXERCIT, VOT XX
Two captives seated below banner
S/F over HL//BSIS * over crescent
RIC (VII) Siscia 129
mauseus
LicVM25.jpg
308-324 AD - Licinius I - RIC VI Heraclea 73 - IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG30 viewsEmperor: Licinius I (r. 308-324 AD)
Date: early 313 AD
Condition: Fair/Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG
Imperator Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Head right; laureate

Reverse: IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG
To Jupiter, Protector of the Emperors.
Jupiter standing facing, head left, chlamys hanging from left shoulder, right holding Victory on globe, left leaning on sceptre; eagle with wreath in beak at feet to left.
"Δ" in right field (fourth officina)
Exergue: SMHT (Heraclea mint)

RIC VI Heraclea 73; VM 25
2.14g; 20.4mm; 345°
Pep
LicVIIHera6.jpg
308-324 AD - Licinius I - RIC VII Heraclea 006 - IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG35 viewsEmperor: Licinius I (r. 308-324 AD)
Date: 313-314 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG
Imperator Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Head right; laureate

Reverse: IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG
To Jupiter, Protector of the Emperors.
Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, leaning on sceptre, holding Victory on globe in right hand, eagle to left on ground holding wreath. "A" in right field.
Exergue: SMHT (Heraclea mint, first officina)

RIC VII Heraclea 6
3.59g; 22.4mm; 0°
Pep
LicVIIHera6_2.jpg
308-324 AD - Licinius I - RIC VII Heraclea 006 - IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG - 2nd Example27 viewsEmperor: Licinius I (r. 308-324 AD)
Date: 313-314 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG
Imperator Caesar Valerius Licinianus Licinius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Head right; laureate

Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG
To Jupiter, Protector of the Emperors.
Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, leaning on sceptre, holding Victory on globe in right hand, eagle to left on ground holding wreath.
"Δ" in right field
Exergue: SMHT (Heraclea mint, fourth officina)

RIC VII Heraclea 6; VM 25
2.22g; 20.7mm; 165°
Pep
LicVM15.jpg
308-324 AD - Licinius I - Van Meter 15 - IOVI CONSERVATORI26 viewsEmperor: Licinius I (r. 308-324 AD)
Date: 308-324 AD
Condition: Fine/Mediocre
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG
Imperator Licinianus Licinius Dutiful and Wise Emperor
Head right; laureate

Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI
To Jupiter, the Protector.
Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe in right hand, eagle to left on ground holding wreath.
Exergue: TSΓ (possible dots between letters?) (Thessalonica mint, third officina)

VM 15
2.29g; 22.9mm; 0°
Pep
coin245.JPG
308. Valerian I23 viewsRIC 209 Valerian I 253-260 AD AR Antoninianus of Moesia. Radiate draped bust/Aequitas standing holding balance and cornucopia.

Publius Licinius Valerianus (ca. 200-260), known in English as Valerian, was Roman emperor from 253 to 260. His full Latin title was IMPERATOR · CAESAR · PVBLIVS · LICINIVS · VALERIANVS · PIVS FELIX · INVICTVS · AVGVSTVS — in English, "Emperor Caesar Publius Licinus Valerianus Pious Lucky Undefeated Augustus."

Unlike the majority of the usurpers of the crisis of the third century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional Senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana who gave him two sons: Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor is known.

In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as Emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the Emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and retained the confidence of his successor, Trebonianus Gallus, who asked him for reinforcements to quell the rebellion of Aemilianus in 253. Valerian headed south, but was too late: Gallus' own troops killed him and joined Aemilianus before his arrival. The Raetian soldiers then proclaimed Valerian emperor and continued their march towards Rome. At the time of his arrival in September, Aemilianus' legions defected, killing him and proclaiming Valerian emperor. In Rome, the Senate quickly acknowledged him, not only for fear of reprisals, but also because he was one of their own.

Valerian's first act as emperor was to make his son Gallienus colleague. In the beginning of his reign the affairs in Europe went from bad to worse and the whole West fell into disorder. In the East, Antioch had fallen into the hands of a Persian vassal, Armenia was occupied by Shapur I (Sapor). Valerian and Gallienus split the problems of the Empire between the two, with the son taking the West and the father heading East to face the Persian threat.

By 257, Valerian had already recovered Antioch and returned the Syrian province to Roman control but in the following year, the Goths ravaged Asia Minor. Later in 259, he moved to Edessa, but an outbreak of plague killed a critical number of legionaries, weakening the Roman position. Valerian was then forced to seek terms with Shapur I. Sometime towards the end of 259, or at the beginning of 260, Valerian was defeated and made prisoner by the Persians (making him the only Roman Emperor taken captive). It is said that he was subjected to the greatest insults by his captors, such as being used as a human stepladder by Shapur when mounting his horse. After his death in captivity, his skin was stuffed with straw and preserved as a trophy in the chief Persian temple. Only after Persian defeat in last Persia-Roman war three and a half centuries later was his skin destroyed.
ecoli
Z2157LG.jpg
308b. Saloninus (AD 258-260)149 viewsSon of Gallienus

Publius Licinius Cornelius Saloninus (242 - 260) was Roman Emperor in 260. His full title was IMP CAESAR CORNELIUS LICINIUS SALONINUS VALERIANUS PF INVICTUS AUG.

Saloninus was born around the year 242. His father was the later emperor Gallienus. In 258 Saloninus was appointed Caesar by his father (just like his older brother Valerian II, who had then just died, two years earlier was) and sent to Gaul, to make sure his father's authority was respected there. Saloninus lived in Cologne during that time of his life.

In 260 (probably in july) Saloninus and his protector, the praetorian prefect Silvanus, had an argument with the usurper Postumus about the distribution of some booty. Both fled to Cologne with some loyal troops and were besieged by Postumus. The troops elevated Saloninus to the rank of Augustus but the city was soon captured by Postumus, and both Saloninus and Silvanus were murdered. Gallienus, being on the other side of the empire could do nothing to stop him. Saloninus was probably emperor for about one month only.

AE Antoninianus (as Caesar)
OB: Radiate, draped bust, right
SALON. VALERIANVS NOB. CAES.
REV: Spes presenting flower to Saloninus
SPES PVBLICA
RIC, Vol. V, Part 1, #36
Antioch mint
1 commentsecoli73
Z2173LG.jpg
309b. Valerian II (AD 256-258)104 viewsCornelius Licinius Valerianus, also known as Valerian II, was the eldest son of the Roman emperor, Gallienus.

Valerian was raised to the title of Caesar shortly after his father was raised to co-emperor with his father, Valerian. He was killed somewhere around the year 257, possibly by Ingenuus who had been charged with his education.

Valerian II (AD 256-258)
AE Antoninianus (AD 255)
OB: Radiate, draped bust, right
VALERIANVS NOBIL CAES.
REV: Prince standing left, holding shield and spear, and crowning trophy
PRINC. IVVENTVTIS
RIC, Vol. V, Part 1, #49
Antioch mint
ecoli73
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313 - 2013 Edictum Mediolanense - Edict of Milan 28 viewsIn February 313, Emperor Constantine I, who controlled the western part of the Roman Empire, and Licinius, who controlled the Balkans, met in Milan and, among other things, agreed to treat the Christians benevolently.

When I, Constantine Augustus, as well as I, Licinius Augustus, fortunately met near Mediolanurn (Milan), and were considering everything that pertained to the public welfare and security, we thought, among other things which we saw would be for the good of many, those regulations pertaining to the reverence of the Divinity ought certainly to be made first, so that we might grant to the Christians and others full authority to observe that religion which each preferred; whence any Divinity whatsoever in the seat of the heavens may be propitious and kindly disposed to us and all who are placed under our rule. And thus by this wholesome counsel and most upright provision we thought to arrange that no one whatsoever should be denied the opportunity to give his heart to the observance of the Christian religion, of that religion which he should think best for himself, so that the Supreme Deity, to whose worship we freely yield our hearts) may show in all things His usual favor and benevolence. Therefore, your Worship should know that it has pleased us to remove all conditions whatsoever, which were in the rescripts formerly given to you officially, concerning the Christians and now any one of these who wishes to observe Christian religion may do so freely and openly, without molestation. We thought it fit to commend these things most fully to your care that you may know that we have given to those Christians free and unrestricted opportunity of religious worship. When you see that this has been granted to them by us, your Worship will know that we have also conceded to other religions the right of open and free observance of their worship for the sake of the peace of our times, that each one may have the free opportunity to worship as he pleases; this regulation is made we that we may not seem to detract from any dignity or any religion. Moreover, in the case of the Christians especially we esteemed it best to order that if it happens anyone heretofore has bought from our treasury from anyone whatsoever, those places where they were previously accustomed to assemble, concerning which a certain decree had been made and a letter sent to you officially, the same shall be restored to the Christians without payment or any claim of recompense and without any kind of fraud or deception, Those, moreover, who have obtained the same by gift, are likewise to return them at once to the Christians. Besides, both those who have purchased and those who have secured them by gift, are to appeal to the vicar if they seek any recompense from our bounty, that they may be cared for through our clemency. All this property ought to be delivered at once to the community of the Christians through your intercession, and without delay. And since these Christians are known to have possessed not only those places in which they were accustomed to assemble, but also other property, namely the churches, belonging to them as a corporation and not as individuals, all these things which we have included under the above law, you will order to be restored, without any hesitation or controversy at all, to these Christians, that is to say to the corporations and their conventicles: providing, of course, that the above arrangements be followed so that those who return the same without payment, as we have said, may hope for an indemnity from our bounty. In all these circumstances you ought to tender your most efficacious intervention to the community of the Christians, that our command may be carried into effect as quickly as possible, whereby, moreover, through our clemency, public order may be secured. Let this be done so that, as we have said above, Divine favor towards us, which, under the most important circumstances we have already experienced, may, for all time, preserve and prosper our successes together with the good of the state. Moreover, in order that the statement of this decree of our good will may come to the notice of all, this rescript, published by your decree, shall be announced everywhere and brought to the knowledge of all, so that the decree of this, our benevolence, cannot be concealed.
From Lactantius, De Mort. Pers., ch. 48. opera, ed. 0. F. Fritzsche, II, p 288 sq. (Bibl Patr. Ecc. Lat. XI).
Bohemian
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313 - 315 AD - Licinius I69 viewsIMP LICINIVS PF AVG - Laureate Head Right
IOVI CON-SERVATORI - Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, leaning on sceptre. Victory on globe in righthand, eagle with wreath to left at feet. SIS in exe, B in right field

RIC VII, Siscia Mint, # 11, Officina B = R4
jimwho523
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31733 viewsLicinius, Caesar 317-324 AD
Plated AR Reduced Follis
Obv: LICINIVS IVN NOB C
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VIRTVS EXERCIT VOT XX
Two captives seated below inscribed banner
Star/-//PTR
Trier Mint
RIC (VII) Trier 256
1 commentsmauseus
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35416 viewsC Licinius L F Macer; c.84 BC
AR denarius
Obv Bust of Apollo left, seen from rear, hurling thunderbolt
Rev "C LICINIVS L F MACER"
Minerva in quadriga right
Rome mint
Crawford 354
1 commentsmauseus
394-1b_-_Postumia.jpg
394/1b. Postumia - denarius (74 BC)21 viewsAR Denarius (Rome, 74 BC)
O/ Bust of Diana right, draped, with bow and quiver over shoulder.
R/ Hound running right; spear below; C POSTVMI in exergue.
3.96g; 17mm
Crawford 394/1b (192 obverse dies/213 reverse dies, both varieties)
- ex Lockdales 145, lot 1414.

* Gaius Postumius At. or Ta. (Albinus Atilianus?):

This variant without the monogram in exergue is very rare; only three reverse dies seem to exist.

The moneyer belonged to the great patrician gens Postumia, but his family is much more difficult to ascertain. The patrician Postumii had few different branches and only one had survived by the 1st century: the Albini. There were also plebeian Postumii.

His obverse with Diana reproduces those of Aulus Postumius S.f. S.n. Albinus (RRC 335/9), and his probable son Postumius A.f. S.n. Albinus (RRC 372/1), thus implying that he was a member of the patrician family. However, the Albini never used the praenomen Gaius. It is nonetheless possible that our moneyer was adopted into the gens, as it occurred with Decimus Junius Brutus (RRC 450), adopted by an Aulus Albinus. The Postumii seem to have had difficulties producing male heirs; they indeed had 9 consulships between 186 and 99 BC, but very few magistrates bore that name in the 1st century. The disaster of the campaign against Jugurtha by the brothers Spurius and Aulus Postumius Albinus might have hit the gens hard; Aulus was also murdered during the Social War (Livy, Periochae, 75).

The monogram in exergue could therefore be deciphered as AT for the plebeian gens Atilia -- the possible family of Gaius Albinus before his adoption. Another moneyer, Lucius Atilius Nomentanus, likewise ligatured the first two letters of his name on his denarii in 141 (RRC 225/1). This theory would explain both the unusual praenomen for the gens and the monogram. His adoptive father could also be one of the two moneyer mentioned above.

Crawford links the moneyer with a Gnaeus Postumius who accused Lucius Licinius Murena, the consul elect for 62, of bribery in the famous Pro Murena by Cicero (56-58), who also says that Postumius was a (unsuccessful) candidate to the praetorship that year. The case was won by Cicero and no doubt that accusing a Consul of bribery did not help his career and the fate of the Albini, as they disappeared from history after this.
1 commentsJoss
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406. Galerius40 viewsChristians had lived in peace during most of the rule of Diocletian. The persecutions that began with an edict of February 24, 303, were credited by Christians to the influence of Galerius. Christian houses of assembly were destroyed, for fear of sedition in secret gatherings.

Detail of the Arch of Galerius in Thessaloniki.In 305, on the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, he at once assumed the title of Augustus, with Constantius his former colleague, and having procured the promotion to the rank of Caesar of Flavius Valerius Severus, a faithful servant, and (Maximinus II Daia), his nephew, he hoped on the death of Constantius to become sole master of the Roman world. Having Constantius' son Constantine as guest at Galerius' court in the east helped to secure his position.

His schemes, however, were defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) upon the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and his son Maxentius, who were declared co-Augusti in Italy.

After an unsuccessful invasion of Italy in 307, he elevated his friend Licinius to the rank of Augustus, and moderating his ambition, he retired to the city Felix Romuliana (near present day Gamzigrada,Serbia/Montenegro)built by him to honor his mother Romula, and devoted the few remaining years of his life "to the enjoyment of pleasure and to the execution of some works of public utility."

It was at the instance of Galerius that the last edicts of persecution against the Christians were published, beginning on February 24, 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration, issued from Nicomedia in April 311, apparently during his last bout of illness, in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine. Lactantius gives the text of the edict in his moralized chronicle of the bad ends to which all the persecutors came, De Mortibus Persecutorum ("On the Deaths of the Persecutors", chapters 34, 35). This marked the end of official persecution of Christians.

Galerius as Caesar, 305-311AD. GENIO POPVLI ROMANI reverse type with Genius standing left holding scales and cornucopia
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406a. Galeria Valeria24 viewsGaleria Valeria was Diocletian's daughter and, to cement the alliance between Diocletian and Galerius, Valeria was married to Galerius. It appears that this was not a very happy marriage. Galeria Valeria was sympathetic towards Christians during this time of severe persecution and it is possible that she was actually a Christian herself. The imperial couple were not blessed with any children during their eighteen year marriage. After Galerius died in A. D. 311, Galeria Valeria and her mother went to live at the court of Maximinus Daia, the caesar who became emperor of the East upon the death of Galerius.

Maximinus proposed marriage to Valeria soon afterward. He was probably more interested in her wealth and the prestige he would gain by marrying the widow of one emperor and the daughter of another than he was in Valeria as a person. She refused his hand, and immediately Maximinus reacted with hatred and fury. Diocletian, by now an old man living in a seaside villa on the Dalmatian coast, begged Maximinus to allow the two women to come home to him. Maximinus refused and had Valeria and her mother banished to live in a village in Syria.

During the civil war that erupted between Maximinus and Licinius, Valeria and Prisca disguised themselves and escaped, trying to reach the safety of Diocletian's villa. In the meantime, Diocletian had died, leaving the women without a haven of safety to which to run. For fifteen months the two royal fugitives traveled from one city to another, always living in fear of being discovered and in search of a little peace.

Finally, they were recognized by someone in the Greek city of Salonika. They were hastily taken to a square in the city and beheaded before a crowd of citizens who had once revered them as empresses. The bodies of Valeria and her mother were afterwards thrown into the sea.

Galeria Valeria Follis. AD 308-311. GAL VAL-ERIA AVG, Diademed & draped bust right / VENERI V-ICTRICI, Venus standing left, holding apple & scepter, * to left, G to right, (dot)SM(dot)TS(dot) in ex.
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409. Maximinus II Daza37 viewsCaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus, more commonly known as Maximinus Daia or Daza, was from Illyricum and was of peasant origin. He was born 20 November perhaps in the year 270. Daia was the son of Galerius' sister and had served in the army as a scutarius, Protector, and tribunus. He had been adopted by Galerius ; his name had been Daia even before that time. He had a wife and daughter, whose names are unknown, while his son's name was Maximus. When Diocletian and Maximianus Herculius resigned their posts of emperor on 1 May 305, they were succeeded by Constantius I Chlorus and Galerius as Augusti; their new Caesars were Severus and Maximinus Daia respectively. Constantius and Severus ruled in the West, whereas Galerius and Daia served in the East. Specifically, Daia's realm included the Middle East and the southern part of Asia Minor.[[1]]

Immediately after his appointment to the rank of Caesar, he went east and spent his first several years at Caesarea in Palestine. Events of the last quarter of 306 had a profound effect on the Emperor Galerius and his Caesar Daia. When Constantius I Chlorus died in July 306, the eastern emperor was forced by the course of events to accept Constantius' son Constantine as Caesar in the West; on 28 October of the same year, Maxentius , with the apparent backing of his father Maximianus Herculius, was acclaimed princeps. Both the attempt to dislodge Maxentius by Severus, who had been appointed Augustus of the West by Galerius after the death of Constantius in late 306 or early 307, and the subsequent campaign of Galerius himself in the summer of 307 failed. Because of the escalating nature of this chain of events, a Conference was called at Carnuntum in October and November 308; Licinius was appointed Augustus in Severus's place and Daia and Constantine were denoted filii Augustorum. Daia, however, unsatisfied with this sop tossed to him by Galerius, started calling himself Augustus in the spring of 310 when he seems to have campaigned against the Persians.[[2]] Although, as Caesar, he proved to be a trusted servant of Galerius until the latter died in 311, he subsequently seized the late emperor's domains. During the early summer of that year, he met with Licinius at the Bosporus; they concluded a treaty and divided Galerius' realm between them. Several yea rs later, after the death of Daia, Licinius obtained control of his domain. Like his mentor the late emperor, Daia had engaged in persecution of the Christians in his realm.[[3]]

In the autumn of 312, while Constantine was engaged against Maxentius, Daia appears to have been campaigning against the Armenians. In any case, he was back in Syria by February 313 when he seems to have learned about the marital alliance which had been forged by Constantine and Licinius. Disturbed by this course of events and the death of Maxentius, who had been his ally, Daia left Syria and reached Bythinia, although the harsh weather had seriously weakened his army. In April 313, he crossed the Bosporus and went to Byzantium, garrisoned by Licinius' troops; when the city refused to surrender, he took it after an eleven day siege. He moved to Heraclea, which he captured after a short siege; he then moved his forces to the first posting station. With only a small contingent of men, Licinius arrived at Adrianople while Daia was besieging Heraclea. On 30 April 313 the two armies clashed on the Campus Ergenus; in the ensuing battle Daia's forces were routed. Divesting himself of the purple and dressing like a slave, Daia fled to Nicomdeia. Subsequently, Daia attempted to stop the advance of Licinius at the Cilician Gates by establishing fortifications there; Licinius' army succeeded in breaking through, and Daia fled to Tarsus where he was hard pressed on land and sea. Daia died, probably in July or August 313, and was buried near Tarsus. Subsequently, the victorious emperor put Daia's wife and children to death.

Maximinus II Daza. 309-313 AD. ? Follis. Laureate head right / Genius standing left holding cornucopiae.
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410. Licinius I43 viewsFlavius Galerius Valerius Licinianus Licinius (c. 250 - 325) was Roman emperor from 308 to 324.

Of Dacian peasant origin, born in Moesia Superior, Licinius accompanied his close friend the Emperor Galerius on the Persian expedition in 297. After the death of Flavius Valerius Severus, Galerius elevated Licinius to the rank of Augustus in the West on November 11, 308. He received as his immediate command the provinces of Illyricum, Thrace and Pannonia.

On the death of Galerius, in May 311, Licinius shared the entire empire with Maximinus Daia, the Hellespont and the Bosporus being the dividing line.

In March 313 he married Flavia Julia Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (now Milan), the occasion for the jointly-issued "Edict of Milan" that restored confiscated properties to Christian congregations though it did not "Christianize" the Empire as is often assumed, although it did give Christians a better name in Rome. In the following month (April 30), Licinius inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Battle of Tzirallum, after Maximinus had tried attacking him. He then established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.

In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise in favor of Bassianus against Constantine. When his actions became known, a civil war ensued, in which he was first defeated at the battle of Cibalae in Pannonia (October 8, 314), and next some 2 years later (after naming Valerius Valens co-emperor) in the plain of Mardia (also known as Campus Ardiensis) in Thrace. The outward reconciliation left Licinius in possession of Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria and Egypt, but he later added numerous provinces to Constantine's control.

In 324 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at the battle of Adrianople (July 3, 324), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium. The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine’s eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (September 18), resulted in his final submission. He was interned at Thessalonica under a kind of house arrest, but when he attempted to raise troops among the barbarians Constantine had him and his former co-emperor Martinianus assassinated.

O: IMP LICINIVS AVG; Emperor, facing left, wearing imperial mantle, holding mappa and globe.
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG; Jupiter standing left holding Victory; palm to left, epsilon in right field, SMN in exergue. Sear 3804, RIC Nicomedia 24 (Scarce), Failmezger #278. Remarkable detail on this nicely silvered Late Roman bronze, ex Crisp Collection.

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410a. Licinius II25 viewsLicinius II as Caesar, ?3. D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, diademed bust left with mappa & scepter / IOVI CONS ERVATORI CAESS Jupiter standing, head left, with Victory, captive at feet, D to right, SMANT in ex.1 commentsecoli
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501. Constantine I 104 viewsIn the year 320, Licinius, emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire, reneged on the religious freedom promised by the Edict of Milan in 313 and began another persecution of the Christians. This was a puzzling inconsistency since Constantia, half-sister of Constantine and wife of Licinius, was an influential Christian. It became a challenge to Constantine in the west, climaxing in the great civil war of 324. The armies were so large another like these would not be seen again until at least the 14th century. Licinius, aided by Goth mercenaries, represented the past and the ancient faith of Paganism. Constantine and his Franks marched under the Christian standard of the labarum, and both sides saw the battle in religious terms. Supposedly outnumbered, but fired by their zeal, Constantine's army emerged victorious. With the defeat and death of Licinius (Constantine was known for being ruthless with his political enemies: Constantine had publicly promised to spare his life, but a year later he accused him of plotting against him and had him executed by strangulation), Constantine then became the sole emperor of the entire Roman Empire.[

RIC VII Siscia 235 c3

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501. Constantine I Lyons SARMATIA DEVICTA13 viewsConstantine I The Great Ć Follis struck 323/4 AD.
Laureate head right / SARMATIA DEVICTA,
Victory advancing right;
C/•PLCU.
Lyons RIC VII 222

In 322 AD, Constantine crushed a Sarmatian invasion of the
Balkans, an event marked by this coin type. During the action,
his army entered the Eastern territories of his co-Emperor
Licinius, which triggered a Civil War between East and West.
Constantine, as usual, was victorious and emerged as sole ruler
of the Roman Empire.

Ex-Varangian
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57 Licinius RIC 77b16 viewsLicinius I. 308-324 AD. Ae Follis. Ostia 312 - 313 AD (4th officina)(23 mm. 4,33 g) Obv: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: GENO P-OP ROM, Genius standing left, patera with flowing water in right hand, cornucopiae in left hand, chlamys over shoulder.

RIC VI, Ostia 77b
Paddy
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710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.135 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espčrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
75- Licinius-2.JPG
75- Licinius-235 viewsPost reform Radiate, 308-324 AD, Heraclea mint.
Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, Radiate cuirasse bust right.
Rev:IOVI CONSERVATORI , Jupiter standing left holding Victory, Phoenix on shoulder, Captive and Eagle at feet, XII(gamma) in right field.
SMHB in exergue.
20mm
jdholds
76- Licinius-3.JPG
76- Licinius-333 viewsPost reform Radiate, 308-324 AD, Heraclea mint.
Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, Radiate cuirasse bust right.
Rev:IOVI CONSERVATORI , Jupiter standing left holding Victory, Phoenix on shoulder, Captive and Eagle at feet, XII(gamma) in right field.
SMHB in exergue.
20mm
jdholds
77- Licinius-4.JPG
77- Licinius-4-S32 viewsAE Follis, 311 AD, Antioch mint.
Obv: IMP C LIC LICINNIVS PF AVG, Laureate head right.
Rev: GENIO AVGVSTI, Genius standing left holding Victory and cornucopia, Star left , I Right.
ANT in exergue
21mm
RIC 162b
jdholds
79- Licinius-6.JPG
79- Licinius-627 viewsPost reform Radiate, 308-324 AD, Nicomedia mint.
Obv: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, Radiate cuirasse bust right.
Rev:IOVI CONSERVATORI , Jupiter standing left holding Victory, Phoenix on shoulder, Captive and Eagle at feet, XII(gamma) in right field.
SMNA in exergue.
20mm
jdholds
80- Licinius-7.JPG
80- Licinius-738 viewsSilvered AE3, 308-324 AD, Nicomedia mint.
Obv: IMP LICINVS AVG, Bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding globe and mappa.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing holding Victory on globe and scepter, palm at feet, (gamma) in field.
SMN in exergue.
20mm
jdholds
81- Licinius II.JPG
81- Licinius II36 viewsAE3 , 308-324 AD, Heraclea mint.
Obv: DN VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, Helmeted cuirassed bust left holding shield and spear..
Rev:IOVI CONSERVATORI , Jupiter standing left holding Victory, Phoenix on shoulder, Captive and Eagle at feet, XII(gamma) in right field.
SMH(gamma) in exergue.
19mm, 2.7 gm
1 commentsjdholds
44-Licinius-I-Lon-209c.jpg
91 Licinius I: London follis.13 viewsFollis, 310-312, London mint.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Licinius I.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM / Genius standing, holding patera and cornucopiae. Star in right field.
Mint mark: PLN
4.41 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #209c; PBCC #41; Sear #15182.
Callimachus
45-Licinius-I-The-59.jpg
92 Licinius I: Thessalonica follis.16 viewsFollis, 312 - 313 AD, Thessalonica mint.
Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG / Laureate bust of Licinius.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN / Jupiter standing, chlamys over left shoulder, holding Victory on globe, leaning on sceptre. Eagle with wreath in its beak at feet.
Mint mark: . TS . Γ .
3.19 gm., 24 mm.
RIC #59; PBCC #873; Sear #15251.
Callimachus
49-Licinius-II-Sis-162.jpg
95 Licinius II: Siscia AE3.11 viewsAE3, 320-21, Siscia mint.
Obverse: LICINIVS IVN NOBC / Laureate bust of Licinius II.
Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM / Laurel wreath enclosing VOT V.
Mint mark: ΔSIS *
3.55 gm., 19 mm.
RIC #162; PBCC #832; Sear #15441.

Most of the mints under Constantine's control produced a small number of coins in the names of the Licinii to give the appearance of a united Empire. However, quite suddenly in early 321 the Licinii were excluded from coins produced at Constantine's mints. This was a visible sign of the deteriorating relations between Constantine and Licinius which eventually broke out into a civil war in 324. This coin is from the last group of coins from the mint of Siscia to show the portrait of Licinius Jr.
Callimachus
A__Licinius_Nerva.JPG
A. Licinius Nerva – Licinia-24a106 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC A Licinius Nerva AR Denarius. 47 BC. Rome. NERVA behind, FIDES before, laureate head of Fides right / A. LICINIVS below, III VIR across field, one-armed horseman galloping right, dragging captive, holding shield and sword, by the hair. Cr454/1; Sydenham 955; SRVC 430; Licinia 24a2 commentsBud Stewart
Follis Licinio I RIC Heraclea 73D.jpg
A119-05 - LICINIO I (308 - 324 D.C.)44 viewsAE Follis 22 x 20 mm 2.9 gr.

Anv: "IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto (Chlamys) colgando de su hombro izquierdo, portando Victoriola en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y un largo cetro vertical en mano izquierda. Aguila con una corona en el pico parada a sus piés, a izquierdo con la cabeza vuelta hacia Júpiter. "SMHT" en exergo, "Δ" en campo derecho.

Acuńada 313 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.4ta.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Heraclea) #73 Pag.541 - Cohen Vol.VII #108 Pag.200 - DVM #15 var Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8009.c.2. Pag.138
mdelvalle
Follis Licinio I RIC Nicomedia 15Z.jpg
A119-10 - LICINIO I (308 - 324 D.C.)38 viewsAE Follis 26 x 22 mm 3.9 gr.
Moneda doblemente golpeada, se visualiza en la leyenda del anverso entre las 10 y 12 hs. y en el reverso en el exergo

Anv: "IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "IOVI CONSERVATORI" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto (Chlamys) colgando de su hombro izquierdo, portando Victoriola en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y un largo cetro vertical en mano izquierda. Aguila con una corona en el pico parada a sus piés, a izquierdo con la cabeza vuelta hacia Júpiter. "SMN" en exergo, "N/Z" en campo derecho.

Acuńada 313 - 317 D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.7ma.)
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Nicomedia) #15 Pag.601 - Cohen Vol.VII #70 Pag.196 - DVM #15 var Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8009.d. Pag.138
mdelvalle
Follis Licinio I RIC Siscia 11A.jpg
A119-15 - LICINIO I (308 - 324 D.C.)37 viewsAE Follis 21 x 20 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP LICINIVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "IOVI CONSERVATORI" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto (Chlamys) colgando de su hombro izquierdo, portando Victoriola en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y un largo cetro vertical en mano izquierda. Aguila con una corona en el pico parada a sus piés, a izquierdo con la cabeza vuelta hacia Júpiter. "SIS" en exergo, "A" en campo derecho.

Acuńada 313 - 315 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: R3

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Siscia) #11 Pag.423 - Cohen Vol.VII #73 Pag.196 - DVM #15 var Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8010.a. Pag.139
mdelvalle
Follis Licinio I RIC Siscia 17D.jpg
A119-17 - LICINIO I (308 - 324 D.C.)41 viewsAE Follis 20 x 21 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "IOVI CONSERVATORI" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto (Chlamys) colgando de su hombro izquierdo, portando Victoriola en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y un largo cetro vertical en mano izquierda. Aguila con una corona en el pico parada a sus piés, a izquierdo con la cabeza vuelta hacia Júpiter. "·SIS·" en exergo, "Δ" en campo derecho.

Acuńada 315 - 316 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.4ta.)
Rareza: R1

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Siscia) #17 Pag.424 - Cohen Vol.VII #66 Pag.195 - DVM #15 Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8010.a. Pag.139
mdelvalle
Follis Licinio I RIC Siscia 17E.jpg
A119-19 - LICINIO I (308 - 324 D.C.)26 viewsAE Follis 20 x 22 mm 3.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "IOVI CONSERVATORI" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto (Chlamys) colgando de su hombro izquierdo, portando Victoriola en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y un largo cetro vertical en mano izquierda. Aguila con una corona en el pico parada a sus piés, a izquierdo con la cabeza vuelta hacia Júpiter. "·SIS·" en exergo, "Ε" en campo derecho.

Acuńada 315 - 316 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.5ta.)
Rareza: R1

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Siscia) #17 Pag.424 (Partición leyenda del reverso S-E Ver pié de página) - Cohen Vol.VII #66 Pag.195 - DVM #15 Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8010.a. Pag.139
mdelvalle
Follis Licinio I RIC Thessalonica 60A.jpg
A119-25 - LICINIO I (308 - 324 D.C.)30 viewsAE Follis 23 mm 3.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG" - Busto laureado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto (Chlamys) colgando de su hombro izquierdo, portando Victoriola en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y un largo cetro vertical en mano izquierda. Aguila con una corona en el pico parada a sus piés, a izquierdo con la cabeza vuelta hacia Júpiter. "·TS·A·" en exergo.

Acuńada 312 - 313 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Tessalonica) #60 Pag.519 - Cohen Vol.VII #124 Pag.201 - DVM #16 Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8010.b. Pag.139
mdelvalle
Follis Licinio I RIC Thessalonica 60D.jpg
A119-27 - LICINIO I (308 - 324 D.C.)29 viewsAE Follis 22 x 21 mm 3.1 gr.

Anv: "IMP LIC LICINIVS P F AVG" - Cabeza laureada, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto (Chlamys) colgando de su hombro izquierdo, portando Victoriola en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y un largo cetro vertical en mano izquierda. Aguila con una corona en el pico parada a sus piés, a izquierdo con la cabeza vuelta hacia Júpiter. "·TS·Δ·" en exergo.

Acuńada 312 - 313 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.4ta.)
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.VI (Tessalonica) #60 (No listada esta Officina) Pag.519 - Cohen Vol.VII #126 Pag.201 - DVM #16 Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8010.b. Pag.139
mdelvalle
Follis Licinio II RIC Arles 203.jpg
A120-05 - LICINIO II Como Cesar de Licinio I (317 - 324 D.C.)50 viewsAE Centenional 19 x 18 mm 2.2 gr.

Anv: "[LICI]NIV-S IV[N N C]" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "VIRTVS EXERCITI" - Un estandarte militar Con su tela marcada VOT/XX , dos prisioneros sentados en el suelo a ambos lados. "PARL" en exergo.

Acuńada 320 D.C.
Ceca: Arles (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: R3

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Arles) #206 Pag.257 - Cohen Vol.VII #72 Pag.222 - DVM #11 Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8064 Pag.144
mdelvalle
Follis Licinio II RIC Heraclea 54G.jpg
A120-10 - LICINIO II Como Cesar de Licinio I (317 - 324 D.C.)38 viewsAE Follis reducido 19 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C" - Busto con yelmo y coraza, portando lanza sobre hombro derecho y escudo a izquierda, viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "IOVI CONSERVATORI" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto (Chlamys) colgando de su hombro izquierdo, portando Victoriola en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y un largo cetro vertical terminado superiormente con un águila en mano izquierda. Aguila con una corona en el pico parada a sus piés, a izquierdo con la cabeza vuelta hacia Júpiter y cautivo sentado a derecha. "SMKΓ" en exergo y "X/IIΜ" en campo derecho.

Acuńada 321 - 324D.C.
Ceca: Cyzico (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: R1

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Cyzicus) #18 Pag.646 - Cohen Vol.VII #21 Pag.216 - DVM #5 Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8054.b. Pag.142
mdelvalle
Follis Licinio II RIC Nicomedia 34A.jpg
A120-15 - LICINIO II Como Cesar de Licinio I (317 - 324 D.C.)34 viewsAE Follis reducido 18 x 17 mm 2.4 gr.

Anv: "D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C" - Busto laureado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "PROVIDENTIAE CAESS" - Júpiter desnudo de pié a izquierda, su manto (Chlamys) colgando de su hombro izquierdo, portando Victoriola en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y un largo cetro vertical en mano izquierda. "SMN" en exergo, "·/A" en campo derecho y "Palma" en campo izquierdo.

Acuńada 317 - 320D.C.
Ceca: Nicomedia (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VII (Nicomedia) #34 Pag.605 - Cohen Vol.VII #39 Pag.219 - DVM #7 Pag.286 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8052.a. Pag.143
mdelvalle
RPC_Alexander_Troas_Gallienus.jpg
Alexandria Troas (modern Eski Stambul). Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsBellinger A459; SNG Copenhagen 200-201; SNG München 138; SNG von Aulock 7576;
BMC Troas p. 132, 184.

AE unit, 5.29 g., 19.70 mm. max., 180°

Obv: IMP LICI GALLIENVS, laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.

Rev: COL AVG / TROA (in exergue), she-wolf standing right, suckling Romulus and Remus.

Colonia Augusta Troas = The August Colony of Troas
2 commentsStkp
Gallienus,_Alexandria_Troas,_grazing_horse,_AE19.JPG
Alexandria Troas, grazing horse, AE19 "LICINI"18 viewsGallienus, Alexandria Troas, grazing horse, AE19. Bronze AE 26, SNG Cop 202 ff. var (obverse legend), VF, Alexandria Troas mint, 3.389g, 19.3mm, 0°, obverse IMP LICINI GALLIENVS, laureate, draped bust right, from behind; reverse COL AVG O TROA, horse feeding right; nice style, cleaning scratches 'In all references consulted, the longest form of Licinius on Gallienus' Alexandrian coins is LICIN, however our coin appears to read LICINI.' ex FORVM & areich, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
coin98.jpg
Antioch RIC VII 35 Licinius I, AE Follis of 12.5-10 viewsAntioch RIC VII 35 Licinius I, AE Follis of 12.5-
denarii. 321-3 AD. IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS
P F AVG, radiate draped & cuirassed bust right
/ IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left
holding Nike & scepter, eagle at foot left, captive
at foot right, X IIG right, SMANTZ in ex.Coin #98
cars100
Augustus_RIC345.jpg
Augustus - Sestertius - RIC 345 (moneyer L. Licinius Stolo)16 viewsObv: OB CIVIS (in oak-wreath flanked by two laurel-branches) SERVATOS
Rev: P LICINIVS STOLO IIIVIR AAAFF round S C
Size: 34 mm
Weight: 20,5 g
Mint: Rome
Date: 17 BC
Ref: RIC I 345, CBN 302
Rarity: S
vs1969
avgustAs.jpg
Augustus As12 viewsAugustus AE As. (Aulus Licinius Nerva Silianus, moneyer 6 BC, consul 7 AD).

Obv: CAESAR AVGVST PONT MAX TRIBVNIC POT, bare head right
Rev: A LICIN NERVA SILIAN IIIVIR AAAFF around large SC.

RIC 437.
Tanit
Augudu07-2.jpg
Augustus, RIC 347, Dupondius of 19-4 BC (oak wreath) 8 viewsĆ Dupondius (10.7g, Ř 25mm, 2h) Lugdunum mint. Struck 19-4 BC.
Coinage of P. Licinius Stolo.
Obv.: AVGVSTVS / TRIBVNIC / POTEST, with tall T in AVGVSTVS, in three lines in oak wreath
Rev.: P STOLO III VIR A A A F F round large S C
RIC 347 (R2)
ex Medierranean Coins (2001)
Charles S
Constantine_I_37.jpg
B142 viewsConstantine I “The Great” AE3

Attribution: RIC VII 117, Thessalonica
Date: AD 320-321
Obverse: CONSTANTINVS AVG, laureate head r.
Reverse: DN CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT dot XX in wreath with star at top,
TSEVI in exergue
Size: 18.5 mm
Weight: 3.0 grams

"When men commend my services, which owe their origin to the inspiration of Heaven, do they not clearly establish the truth that God is the cause of the exploits I have performed? Assuredly they do, for it belongs to God to do whatever is best, and to man, to perform the commands of God." - Constantine To the Assembly of the Saints 26

Constantine fought his battles under the banner of the cross and with Christian standards. This is quite a shift from the mentality of his predecessors who were overtly pagan. After his defeat of Licinius I in AD 324, Constantine established himself as the master of the entire Roman Empire, and suddenly changed his entire demeanor as sole ruler. He seemed to have acquired a self-righteousness about him. He moved the capital of the empire to a new city in Byzantium named, aptly, Constantinople. This further diminished the importance of Rome and Italy in the entire scope of things. In fact, he even disbanded the praetorian guard which had played an undeniably central role in the appointment of numerous previous emperors. In AD 326, he had his son Crispus executed for commiting adultery. His wife, Fausta, also died when the temperature of her bath was turned up and she subsequently suffocated on the steam. Despite these instances of questionable judgement, Constantine's reputation remained unscathed. Constantine proved to be an able administrator, but was often criticized by critics and supporters alike for his heavy taxation. When it came to the military, he excelled. His restructuring of the military was also criticized at first, but Constantine proved these doubts wrong with his military successes. Although Constantine waged several victorious campaigns against the Alemanni, Goths, and Sarmatians, much of the land he won was soon lost after his death. One of his most ambitious military endeavors occurred in the latter years of his reign. Constantine planned to Christianize Persia and even went to the lengths of appointing his nephew Hannibalianus as "King of Armenia" intending to give him rule over Persia. He never saw these plans come to fruition, however, because he became terminally ill. Before his death at Ankyrona on May 22, AD 337, Constantine had himself baptized by the bishop of Nicomedia. He was buried in Constantinople in a customized mausoleum called the Church of the Holy Apostles. His sons divided the empire amongst themselves as follows: Constantine II took the west, Constantius II the east, and Constans Italy and the Upper Danube. A fourth heir, Constantine's nephew Flavius Dalmatius II was given control of Greece and the Lower Danube. So ended the legacy of one of the most influential emperors Rome had ever produced: Constantine the Great.
9 commentsNoah
licinius_soli_in.jpg
BCC Lr1818 viewsLate Roman Imperial
Licinius I 308-324CE
Obv:IMP LICINIVS P F AVG
Laureate and cuirassed bust right.
Rev:SOLI INVIC[TI COMITI]
Sol standing to left, in field to left: R over X
in field to right F. In exergue: mint mark RT
AE3 18x20mm 2.93gm. Axis:120
Rome RIC VII 30
v-drome
Licinius_iovi_BCC_Lr53.jpg
BCC Lr5319 viewsLate Roman
Licinius I 308-324 CE
Obv:IMP LICINIVS P F AVG
Laureate, draped? and cuir. bust rt.
Rev:IOVI CONSERVATORI
Jupiter standing left holding
thunderbolt and scepter.
In exergue: AQS
AE20mm. 3.26gm. Axis:330
RIC VII 6 or 7 Aquileia Mint, 317CE
v-drome
Licinius_BCC_LR57.jpg
BCC LR5710 viewsLate Roman
Licinius I 308-324CE
Obv:IMP LICINIVS AVG
Laureate bust left in imperial mantle,
holding mappa, globe, and scepter.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG
Jupiter standig, head left, Victory
on globe in right hand, scepter in left,
captive at feet. Officina I? in right field.
In ex: SMANT (Antioch)
20 mm. 3.32 gm. Axis:330
Possible reference: RIC VII 27
v-drome
Licinius_I_Gen.jpg
BCC Lr735 viewsLate Roman AE Follis BCC Lr7
Licinius I 308-324CE
Alexandria mint
Obv:IMP C LIC LICINNIVS P F AVG
Laureate head right.
Rev:GENIO AVGVSTI
Genius standing left, nude except
for pallium hanging from shoulder,
wearing modius, holding bust of Serapis
and cornucopia. Palm branch in front.
In field, N - A, in exergue. ALE (dot),
above, star. Black patina, as found.
20mm 4.98gm. Axis:180
Possible ref: RIC 157 a. Rarity: R1
v-drome
Licinia16.JPG
C Licinius Lf Macer Denarius, 84 BC50 viewsDiademed bust of Apollo (Vejovis) left, seen from behind, hurling thunderbolt.
Minerva in quadriga right with javelin & shield.
ex. C LICINIVS L F /MACER
whitetd49
Licinius_Macer.jpg
C. Licinius L.f. Macer - AR denarius22 viewsRome
ą˛84 BC
diademed bust of Vejovis left, from behind, hurling thunderbolt
Minerva in quadriga right holding javelin and reins, shield
C·LICINIUS·L·F / MACER
ąCrawford 354/1, SRCV I 274, RSC I Licinia 16, Sydenham 732
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,66g

Moneyer was an official and annalist of ancient Rome. He became tribune in 73 BC and praetor in 68, but in 66 Cicero succeeded in convicting him of bribery and extortion, upon which Macer committed suicide.
He wrote a history of Rome, in 16 books which is now lost. Livy casts doubt on Macer's reliability, suggesting that he misrepresented events in order to glorify the Licinii, but notes that he quotes original sources, such as the Linen Rolls. (wikipedia)
Johny SYSEL
660-3.png
C. Licinius L.F. Macer, AR Denarius9 views84 BC
3.75 - grams
Obv.: Diad. Bust of Apollo l., viewed from behind, brandishing thunderbolt.
Rev.: Minerva in quadriga r., holding spear and shield, C LICIINIVS L F / MECER IN EX.
Sear #274: RRC 354/1, CRR 732
Purchased from a Heritage Auction
NGC Ch AU Strike: 5/5: Surface 5/5
Richard M10
C__Licinius_Lf_Macer.jpg
C. Licinius Lf Macer Republican Denarius38 viewsC. Licinius Lf Macer, Silver denarius, Rome, 84 BC, 3.891g, 20.8mm, die axis 180o, SRCV I 274, RSC I Licinia 16, Crawford 354/1, Sydenham 732
OBV: diademed and cloaked bust of Apollo (or Vejovis) left, from behind, brandishing thunderbolt in right
REV: Minerva in quadriga right, spear in right, shield and reigns in left, C•LICINIVS•L•F / MACER in ex

EX: Forum Ancient coins

This moneyer wrote a history of Rome in sixteen volumes, of which only fragments exist today.
He served as praetor in 68 B.C. but committed suicide several years later after he was accused of extortion.
Romanorvm
Licinius_Macer_Apollo-Athena.jpg
C. Licinius Macer, Apollo-Vejovis * Minerva, Roman Republic, moneyer, AR Denarius Serratus85 views"Rome is a state on the move, and growing stronger every day."

Obv: Diademed bust of Apollo-Vejovis, left; viewed from behind, brandishing thunderbolt, cloak over left shoulder.
No Legend.
Rev: Minerva driving a quadriga right, holding spear and shield. No Legend.

Exergue: C LICINIVS L[F] MACER

Mint: Rome
Struck: 84 BC.

Size: 21.4 mm.
Weight: 3.89 grams
Die axis: 180 degs.

Condition: Lovely, bright luster; minimal tarnish.

Refs:*
M. Crawford Vol. I, p. 370, 354/1, Vol. II, Pl. XLVI, 17
D. Sear I, p. 123, 274
Licinia 16
Sydenham, 732
RSC 16

Tiathena
malleolus_Poblicia01.jpg
C. Poblicius Malleolus, Crawford 282/349 viewsC. Poblicius Malleolus, gens Poblicia
AR - denarius serratus, 19.5mm, 3.8g
Narbo 118 BC (Crawford)
obv. C.MA - L - L - E.C.F
Head of Roma, with decorated and winged helmet, r.
X behind
rev. Nude Gallic warrior (Bituitus?), driving biga r., hurling spear and holding shield and carnyx.
below L.LIC.CN.DOM.
Crawford 282/3; Sydenham 524; RCV 158; Poblicia 1
about VF

Lucius Licinius Crassus, & Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus
The reverse commemorates the victory of L. Licinius Crassus and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus over the Allobroges and their ally Bituitus, king of the Averni. It is one of the very few issues of the Roman Republic struck outside of Rome, this issue was struck in the newly founded city of Narbo in Gaul. These coins, minted by a number of moneyers at this time (and bearing their names) were important in establishing the republican chronology.
Jochen
Caesar_Lf.jpg
Caesar: Grandfather of Mark Antony 132 viewsCAESAR
Head of young Mars left wearing a crested helmet

Rev.
L IVLI L F
Venus Genetrix in Biga left drawn by two cupids, before them a lyre

Rome 103 BC

Sear 198

ex-Harlan J. Berk

Lucius Julius Caesar was Mark Antony's grandfather and Gaius Julius Caesar's cousin. He was moneyer in 103 BC and tried in vain to obtain the quaestorship. However he was praetor in 94 and then became the proconsul of Macedonia. Finally he gained the Consulship in 90 BC the same year his younger brother Gaius was aedile.

In 90 BC Lucius Julius Caesar as consul defeated the Samnites and proposed the Lex Julia which offered citizenship to all communities in Italy that were not in revolt. In the following year 89, the Lex Plautia Papiria extended citizenship to those who gave up the fight by a certain date. Lucius Julius Caesar was now made censor along with Publius Licinius Crassus (father of the triumvir). But it was a time of unrest.

In 87 Marius returned to Rome with Cinna and captured the city. Lucius and Gaius were killed during the fighting and according to Livy their heads were exposed on the speakers platform.
1 commentsTitus Pullo
Licinia_16.JPG
Caius Licinius Macer48 viewsObv: Diademed bust of Apollo facing left, viewed from behind, brandishing a thunderbolt, a cloak is draped over his left shoulder.

Rev: Minerva in quadriga galloping right, brandishing a spear and holding the reins and a shield; C LICINIVS L. F. / MACER, in exergue.

Notice the double (triple?) strike on the reverse design.

Silver Denarius, Rome mint, 84 BC

4.2 grams, 19 mm, 0°

RSC Licinia 16, S274
2 commentsSPQR Coins
Campgates_opt.jpg
Campgate Collection42 viewsConstantine I, RIC VII 90,B ; Constantine I, RIC VII 153; Constantine I, RIC VII 24,D; Constantine I, RIC VII 291; Constantine I, RIC VII 504; Licinius II, RIC VII 36; Constantine II, RIC VII 65; Constantine II, RIC VII 52; Constantius II, RIC VII 38,B.Legatus
licinusI_RICvii29r5_smhd.jpg
CAMPGATE, Licinius I315 viewsLicinius I, 318-320 AD; RIC vii 29 R5; pellet RF/SMHdelta inexergue;
IMP LICINIVS AVG
PROVIDENTIAE AVGG
AES Follis, 20 mm, 2,8 gms
bruce61813
licinius_campgate_mini.jpg
CAMPGATE, Licinius I, AE3 318-320 AD118 viewsLicinius I AE3.
obv. IMP LICI-NIVS AVG,
laureate, draped bust left holding eagle-tipped sceptre & mappa
rev. PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG,
campgate, 3 turrets, 6 layers, no star above, no doors; Right field: dot
Mintmark: SMHA
Ref.: RIC VII Heraclea 29
Rarity: R2
Janus
Licinio_il_giovane.jpg
Campgate: Licinio II, AE3, zecca di Heraclea, IV officina18 viewsValerius Licinianus Licinius, Caesar (317 - 324 d.C.), AE 3, , F, Heraclea mint, IV officina
AE, 3.149 gr, 18.0mm, 180°, F
D/ D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, small laureate, draped, bust left, globe and scepter in left hand, mappa in right
R/ PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, campgate with three turrets, MHTD (delta) in ex
RIC VII 19, Heraclea, quarta officina
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (17 dicembre 2012, numero catalogo 169), ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2012)
paolo
1Licinio_II_Roma_R5.JPG
Campgate: Licinio II, zecca di Roma III officina12 viewsValerius Licinianus Licinius, Caesar (317 - 324 d.C.), AE 3, Rome mint, III officina
AE, 18,10 mm 3,26 gr, qBB, R5
D/ LICINIVS IVN NOB C, busto laureato, drappeggiato e corazzato a dx
R/ VIRTVS AVGG, P/R, RT in ex, campgate con tre torrette
Ric 172
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dal 20 maggio 2015, numero catalogo 241), ex Antonio Hinojosa Pareja collection (Alcalá la Real, Andalucía Ceuta y Melilla Espańa, fino al 2015)
paolo
1rubata_Licinio_I.jpg
Campgate: Licinius I, AE3, reduced follis, Haeraclea mint13 viewsLicinius I, AE3, 317 AD, reduced follis, Haeraclea mint
AE, 20mm, 2.91gr
D/ IMP LICI-NIVS AVG, Laureate draped bust left with globe, sceptre & mappa
R/ PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, three-turreted camp gate, 7 layers, no doors; MHTA in ex
RIC VII 17 Haeraclea
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia ( acquistata il 28 marzo 2013, DISPERSA NEL TRASPORTO POSTALE); ex De La Fč collection (Imperial, New York Usa, fino al 2013)
paolo
coins340.JPG
Carinus17 viewsFelicitas was the goddess or personification of good luck and success. She played an important role in Rome's state religion during the empire, and was frequently portrayed on coins. She was very closely associated with the imperial family.

Felicitas was unknown before the mid-2nd century BC, when a temple was dedicated to her in the Velabrum in the Campus Martius by Lucius Licinius Lucullus, using booty from his 151–150 BC campaign in Spain. The temple was destroyed by a fire during the reign of Claudius and was never rebuilt.

Another temple in Rome was planned by Julius Caesar and was erected after his death by Marcus Aemilius Lepidus on the site of the Curia Hostilia, which had been restored by Lucius Cornelius Sulla but demolished by Caesar in 44 BC. This temple no longer existed by the time of Hadrian, and its site probably lies under the church of Saints Luca and Martina.

The word felicitas, "luck", is also the source of the word and name felicity.

Carinus Billon Antoninianus. IMP CARINVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / FELICIT PVBLICA, Felicitas standing left with cauduceus, leaning on column, TXXI in ex. RIC 295, Cohen 24.
1 commentsecoli
ConstanCommRIC63_ConstantinopleMint.jpg
City of Constantinople Commemorative, 330 - 333 A.D.82 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 63, VF, Constantinople, 2.524g, 18.5mm, 0o, 330 - 333 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINOPOLI, Constantinopolis' helmeted bust left in imperial cloak and holding scepter across left shoulder; Reverse: Victory standing left, right foot on prow, scepter in right, resting left on grounded shield, CONSZ in exergue; nice style. Ex FORVM.

Constantinople Commemoratives minted by the actual city of Constantinople mint are much scarcer than those minted by other Eastern mints.

The village that was to become the site of Byzantium/Constantinople/Istambul was founded c. 658 B. C. by a Greek colony from Megara; the site was then occupied by the Thracian village of Lygos. The chief of the Megarian expedition was Byzas, after whom the city was naturally called Byzantion (Lat. Byzantium). Despite its perfect situation, the colony did not prosper at first; it suffered much during the Medic wars, chiefly from the satraps of Darius and Xerxes. Later on, its control was disputed by Lacedćmonians and Athenians; for two years (341-339 B. C.) it held out against Philip of Macedon. It succeeded in maintaining its independence even against victorious Rome, was granted the title and rights of an allied city, and its ambassadors were accorded at Rome the same honours as those given to allied kings; it enjoyed, moreover, all transit duties on the Bosporus. Cicero defended it in the Roman Senate, and put an end to the exactions of Piso.

The city continued prosperous to the reign of Septimius Severus, when it sided with his rival, Pescennius Niger. After a siege of three years (193-196) Severus razed to the ground its walls and public monuments, and made it subject to Perinthus or Heraclea in Thrace. But he soon forgave this resistance, restored its former privileges, built there the baths of Zeuxippus, and began the hippodrome. It was devastated again by the soldiers of Gallienus in 262, but was rebuilt almost at once. In the long war between Constantine and Licinius (314-323) it embraced the fortunes of the latter, but, after his defeat at Chrysopolis (Scutari), submitted to the victor.

Constantine had chosen this city as the new capital of the Roman Empire, but owing to his wars and the needs of the State, he rarely resided there.

(The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV; Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company;Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
14106p00.jpg
City of Constantinopolis Commemorative, 330-346 A.D. (Cyzikus)50 viewsConstantinopolis City Commemorative, issued by CONSTANTINE THE GREAT AND HIS SONS, of the period AD 330-346, commemorating the transfer of the Seat of the Empire from Rome to Constantinople, AE3/4, aVF, Cyzikus. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINOPOLI, Constantinopolis wearing imperial mantle, holding inverted spear, laureate helmet, bust L.; Reverse: No legend; Victory stg. L., right foot on prow, holding scepter and leaning on shield; star?pellet?SMK pellet? in exergue.

The village that was to become the site of Byzantium/Constantinople/Istambul was founded c. 658 B. C. by a Greek colony from Megara; the site was then occupied by the Thracian village of Lygos. The chief of the Megarian expedition was Byzas, after whom the city was naturally called Byzantion (Lat. Byzantium). Despite its perfect situation, the colony did not prosper at first; it suffered much during the Medic wars, chiefly from the satraps of Darius and Xerxes. Later on, its control was disputed by Lacedćmonians and Athenians; for two years (341-339 B. C.) it held out against Philip of Macedon. It succeeded in maintaining its independence even against victorious Rome, was granted the title and rights of an allied city, and its ambassadors were accorded at Rome the same honours as those given to allied kings; it enjoyed, moreover, all transit duties on the Bosporus. Cicero defended it in the Roman Senate, and put an end to the exactions of Piso.

The city continued prosperous to the reign of Septimius Severus, when it sided with his rival, Pescennius Niger. After a siege of three years (193-196) Severus razed to the ground its walls and public monuments, and made it subject to Perinthus or Heraclea in Thrace. But he soon forgave this resistance, restored its former privileges, built there the baths of Zeuxippus, and began the hippodrome. It was devastated again by the soldiers of Gallienus in 262, but was rebuilt almost at once. In the long war between Constantine and Licinius (314-323) it embraced the fortunes of the latter, but, after his defeat at Chrysopolis (Scutari), submitted to the victor.

Constantine had chosen this city as the new capital of the Roman Empire, but owing to his wars and the needs of the State, he rarely resided there.

(The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV; Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company;Online Edition Copyright © 2003 by K. Knight).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
fdsfsdfsdfsdf.jpg
CONSTANTIN Ier LE GRAND50 viewsTitulature avers : DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG .
Description avers : Buste voilé et drapé de Constantin Ier ŕ droite, vu de trois quarts en avant (K°3) .
Traduction avers : “Divus Constantinus Pater Augustorum”, (Divin Constantin pčre des augustes) .
Titulature revers : Anépigraphe// CONS .
Description revers : Constantin dans un QUADRIGE au galop ŕ droite, tendant la main droite ŕ une autre main qui descend du ciel pour le recevoir .
CONSTANTIN Ier LE GRAND
(+337) Divus Flavius Valerius Constantinus
Restitution par Constantin II, Constans et Constance II
Constantin était devenu progressivement favorable aux Chrétiens au cours de son rčgne. Il proclama d'abord la liberté religieuse avec Licinius par le rescrit de Milan en 313. Lactance, chargé de l'éducation de Crispus, fit du songe de Constantin, la veille de la bataille du Pont Milvius, une prophétie chrétienne. Néanmoins, Constantin ne se fit baptiser que sur son lit de mort ŕ Nicomédie le 22 mai 337. Il fut le dernier empereur divinisé aprčs sa mort.
C.760 - RIC.37 - LRBC.1041 - RC.3889
R1
icos
constantine_sotf.png
Constantine 6.03.00130 viewsConstantine
Obv CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
(R.laur.cuir)
Rev COMITI AAVVGG
(Sol holding whip in right hand, globe in left)
* | *
T | F
PLN in ex
London
RIC VI 128 CT 6.03.001 (RR)
4.1g
(Chitry Hoard 112)
ex CGB
All issues with the T*/F* bronze mark are very rare.
(The 2017 Revue Numismatique (pages 249 - 261) contains an article about these T*/F* or SOTF (Stars over TF) coins. It lists 29 known examples and 6 have a COMITI AAVVGG reverse. 5 are of Constantine, and one example is of Licinius. The other reverses represented by this bronze mark are GENIO POP ROM (16 known examples), MARTI CONSERVATORI (3 known examples) and SOLI INVICTO COMITI (3 known examples).)
Noviomagus
constantine_msn.png
Constantine 8.07.010 (2)22 viewsConstantine
Obv IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG
(R.laur.cuir)
Rev SOLI INVICTO COMITI
(Sol raising right hand, holding up globe with left)
S |P
MSN in ex
London
Not in RIC LMCC 8.07.010 (2) (RR)
3.0g
(We will never know if MSN was a deliberate mint mark for the London mint, or whether it was an engraver's error. Only 7 coins are known with this mint mark, which would suggest an error. However, there are examples with both a Constantine and Licinius obverse, which might suggest that the use of the MSN mint mark was deliberate. In all, 4 obverse dies are known for this issue and 2 reverse dies. See "A New London Mint mark for Constantine the Great" : Numismatic Circular, July 2009, pp.106 (Lee Toone). CT has a further comment on this mint mark on page 64.

This coin has the same reverse die as the Licinius example in my collection. This gives a glimpse into the working practices of the mint. It suggests that reverse dies were mixed and matched and weren't exclusively used for the coins of only one emperor.)
Noviomagus
constantine_sarmatia_1.png
Constantine a10.01.0028 viewsConstantine
Obv CONSTANTINVS AVG
(R head laur)
Rev SAMARTIA DEVICTA
(Victory holding trophy in right hand, branch in left hand, trampling captives)
PLONU in ex
London
RIC VII 289 CT 10.01.002 (C)
2.9g
This coin was issued in about 323 AD after Constantine defeated a Sarmatian army who attacked a garrison, which was possibly based at Campona (Campona was south of Aquincum, which is now Budapest). Sarmatia was situated on the other side of the Danube. At the time, Constantine was based in Salonica and was preparing for war with Licinius, who was emperor in the East. Sarmatia Devicta means "Sarmatia has been conquered."
Noviomagus
constantine_sarmatia_2.png
Constantine a10.01.00313 viewsConstantine
Obv CONSTANTINVS AG
(R head laur)
Rev SAMARTIA DEVICTA
(Victory holding trophy in right hand, branch in left hand, trampling captives)
PLONU in ex
London
RIC VII 290 CT 10.01.003 (C)
2.7g
This coin was issued in about 323 AD after Constantine defeated a Sarmatian army who attacked a garrison, which was possibly based at Campona (Campona was south of Aquincum, which is now Budapest). Sarmatia was situated on the other side of the Danube. At the time, Constantine was based in Salonica and was preparing for war with Licinius, who was emperor in the East. Sarmatia Devicta means "Sarmatia has been conquered."
Noviomagus
constantinI_35.jpg
Constantine I RIC VII, Constantinopolis 3586 viewsConstantine I the Great 307 - 337
AE - AE 3, 3.28g, 11.5mm
Constantinopolis 2. officina, AD 328
obv. CONSTANTI - NVS MAX AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, head rosette-diademed r.
rev. CONSTANTINI - ANA DAFNE
Victory sitting l. on cippus, holding laurel-branch in r. hand and palm-branch imn l. hand.;
trophy in front, captive sitting to feet, Victory with head r., spurning him
field: B and dot
exergue: CONS
RIC VII, Constantinopolis 35; C.91; LRBC 990
Rare; good VF
Note: RIC misdescribes the branchs both as palm-branchs

The most possible of various interpretations:
Greek DAPHNE = laurel, so 'The Constantinian laurel' as a symbol of victory. The victory in question is most likely to be that of Chrysopolis, where Constantine had defeated Licinius in AD 324.
Jochen
Constantine_I_Sarmatia_Devicta~0.jpg
Constantine I Sarmatia Devicta27 viewsConstantine I (The Great), Lyons, 323/324 AD, 2.66g, 18.21mm, RIC 222,
OBV: CONSTAN-TINUS AUG, Laureate head right
REV: SARMATIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy and palm
bound captive seated right before; C in left field; dot PLGU in exergue

RARE

In 322 AD, Constantine crushed a Sarmatian invasion of the Balkans, an event marked by this coin type.
During this action his army entered the Eastern territories of his co-Emperor Licinius, which triggered
a civil war between east and west. Constantine, as usual, was victorious and emerged as sole ruler of the Roman Empire.
Romanorvm
Costantine2.jpg
Constantine II 337-340 A.D.34 views
Metal: Bronze
Diam: 16 mm.
Weight: 1.6 gr.

OBV: Constantine II, Elder son of Constantine The Great :Diademed and cuirassed bust facing Right
OBV-LEGEND: CONSTANTINVSIVNNOBC
Marks-OBV: None

REV: Two helmeted soldiers standing with spears & shields, facing one standard between them.
REV-LEGEND : GLOR IAEXER ITUS
Marks-REV: In Exergue: SMNA also Alignment shifted 180 (Obv and Rev. are upside down one to aother)

Source : N/A
Age: 337-340 A.D.
Mint: Nicomedia *
*Nicomedia Nicomedia (Greek: Νικομήδεια, modern İzmit in Turkey) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus which opens to the Propontis. The city was founded in 712 BC and, in early Antiquity, was called Astacus or Olbia. After being destroyed, it was rebuilt by Nicomedes I in 264 BC under the name of Nicomedia, and has ever since been one of the most important cities in northwestern Asia Minor. Hannibal came to Nicomedia in his final years and committed suicide in nearby Libyssa (Diliskelesi, Gebze). The historian Arrian was born there. Nicomedia was the metropolis of Bithynia under the Roman Empire, and Diocletian made it the eastern capital city of the Roman Empire in 286 when he introduced the Tetrarchy system. Nicomedia remained as the eastern (and most senior) capital of the Roman Empire until co-emperor Licinius was defeated by Constantine the Great at the Battle of Chrysopolis (Üsküdar) in 324. Constantine mainly resided in Nicomedia as his interim capital city for the next six years, until in 330 he declared the nearby Byzantium as Nova Roma, which eventually became known as Constantinople (present-day Istanbul). Constantine died in a royal villa at the vicinity of Nicomedia in 337. Owing to its position at the convergence of the Asiatic roads leading to the new capital, Nicomedia retained its importance even after the foundation of Constantinople.[1]

However, a major earthquake on 24 August 358 caused extensive devastation to Nicomedia and was followed by a fire which completed the catastrophe. Nicomedia was rebuilt, but on a smaller scale.[2] In the sixth century under Emperor Justinian the city was extended with new public buildings. Situated on the roads leading to the capital, the city remained a major military center, playing an important role in the Byzantine campaigns against the Caliphate.[3]

From the 840s on, Nicomedia was the capital of the thema of the Optimatoi. By that time, most of the old, seawards city had been abandoned and is described by the Arab geographer Ibn Khurdadhbeh as lying in ruins. The settlement had obviously been restricted to the hilltop citadel.[3] In the 1080s, the city served as the main military base for Alexios I Komnenos in his campaigns against the Seljuk Turks, and the First and Second Crusades both encamped there. The city was held by the Latin Empire between 1204 and ca. 1240, when it was recovered by John III Vatatzes. It remained in Byzantine control for a further century, but following the Byzantine defeat at the Battle of Bapheus in 1302, it was threatened by the rising Ottoman beylik. The city was twice blockaded by the Ottomans (in 1304 and 1330) before finally succumbing in 1337.[3]



Ref : Ric VII 189
Michel C2
Constantine II- BEATA TRANQVILLITAS new.jpg
Constantine II- Beata Tranqvillitas70 viewsConstantine II, 22 May 337 - March or April 340 A.D

Obverse:
Laureate and cuirassed bust right

CONSTANTINVS IVN NC

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine

IVN: Junior

N C: Noble Ceasar

Reverse:
BEATA TRANQVILLITAS

BEATA: Divine

TRANQVILLITAS: Peace

Showing: BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, altar inscribe VO/TIS / XX surmounted by globe, three stars above, C left, R right

Domination: Bronze, AE 3, size 20 mm
Mint: PLC, Lugdunum .Oficina ???

The uneasy peace that followed was celebrated on coins with the legend BEATA TRANQVILLITAS ("The blessed tranquillity"), subsequently abbreviated to BEAT TRANQLITAS, showing an altar inscribed VOTIS XX. Above the altar is a globe, signifying that the whole world was at peace, but not for long. An invading force of Sarmatians under their king Rausimondus were defeated in the province of Pannonia and celebrated on coins of Constantine with SARMATIA DEVICTA ("Sarmatia conquered"). At the same time the two Caesars, Crispus and Constantine Junior celebrated their Quinquennalia on coins with a laurel wreath enclosing the words VOT X and legend CAESARVM NOSATRORVM ("our Caesars"). The vows were suscepta, five years completed and looking forward to the tenth anniversary. A second war against the Visigoths occupied most of AD 323, before Constantine embarked on his final showdown with Licinius, ending with the defeat of Licinius at Chrysopolis in AD 323. Licinius survived until AD 325, when he was executed by Constantine.
1 commentsJohn Schou
con_max_lic_spqr_.jpg
Constantine Maximianus Licinius S P Q R OPTIMO PRINCIPI - rome24 viewsSPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI, three standards surmounted by hand, eagle and wreath.

James b4
CTGSolInvAE3London.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.57 viewsAE 3: RIC VI 282, 312-313 AD, 3.3 g, 22 mm; London, EF; Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right; Reverse: SOLI INV-IC-TO COMITI, Sol standing facing, right hand raised, globe in left hand, PLN in ex., star in left field; an attractive bronze with great detail. Ex Ancient Imports.

As I have noted elsewhere, I have chosen the date 395 AD, with the emperor Arcadius, to mark the beginning of the Byzantine Empire in my collection.

That said, it seems appropriate to display a couple of coins struck for the man whose decision made Byzantium possible. As historian John Julius Norwich has writen, “The Byzantine Empire, from its foundation by Constantine the Great on Monday, 11 May 330 to its conquest by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II on Tuesday, 29 May 1453, lasted for a total of 1,123 years and 18 days – a period of time comfortably longer than that which separates us from the Norman conquest of England in 1066. For everyone except astronomers and geologists, such a period must be considered a long time . . ." (Norwich, John Julius. A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books, 1999. xxxvii).


Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, is as controversial as he is "great."


From John Julius Norwich:
"The first thing to be said is that no ruler in all history--not Alexander nor Alfred, not Charles nor Catherine, not Fredrick nor even Gregory--has ever more fully merited his title of "the Great . . . [he has] a serious claim to be considered--excepting only Jesus Christ, the Prophet Mohammed and the Buddha--the most influential man who ever lived" (Norwich, John Julius. The Middle Sea: A History of the Mediterranean. New York: Doubleday, 2006. 50-1).

From Michael Grant:
". . . But he was also murderous, and the many whom he murdered, or executed, included not only his rival Licinius (to whom he had promised survival) but also his own eldest son and his own second wife Fausta. There is no excusing those deaths, at any time or in any society . . . There are, and remain, certain absolute standards, and by his death-dealing Constantine offended signally against them. . . It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . . (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGeyes2GodRIC7.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.46 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC VII 92, EF, 3.456g, 18.1mm, 0o, Heraclea mint, 327 - 329 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, diademed head right, eyes to God; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, •SMHB in exergue.

As leading numismatist Joseph Sermarini notes, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great
(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement; so, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.

Which brings us to Crispus.
Whenever I am engaged in any discussion concerning Constantine I, Crispus is never far from my mind. As historian Hans Pohlsander from SUNY notes, "Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship." And Pohlsander continues with, "There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children)(Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm).

But there is something terribly illogigical about Constantinian apologetics. In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father, Seleucus I; Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. If this is the way a "Pagan" father is able to express love for his son, then would not a saintly Christian love his son in at least similar measure? This particular Christian father, about whom St. Nectarios writes, "Hellenism spread by Alexander, paved the way for Christianity by the Emperor Constantine the Great," is unique. It is important to our discussion to take note of the fact that in the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Now would be an appropriate time to recall what Joseph Sermarini noted above, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

Isn’t it all too possible--even probable--that Constantine had been growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? It is completely out of character for Constantine to merely acquiesce to being Philip to Crispus' Alexander. Remember the Constantine who has proven time and again (recall Constantine's disingenuous promise of clemency to Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, and Constantine decides to murder again. Why "must we, "as Pohlsander adamantly suggests, "resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins? A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

Keep in mind that the obverse device of this coin shows Constantine I "gazing toward God" and was struck within a year or possibly two of Constantine I murdering his first-born son and condemning him to damnatio memoriae.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
0640-325np_noir.jpg
Constantine the Great, Follis - *206 viewsNicomedia mint, 2nd officina, c. AD 311
IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG; Laureate head right
VIRTVTIE-XERCITVS Mars/Virtus advancing right in military dress, holding transverse spear and shield ; trophy over shoulder. B in right field. SMN in exergue.
4.88 gr, 22 mm
RIC-, C-, Roman coins -
RIC lists this type only for Licinius and Maximinus . "Iovi Conservatori and Virtuti Exercitus both appear for Licinius and Maximinus, emissions for the former being the more scarce: coinage for Constantine is extremely rare. Date, c. 311". Coin should be listed after NICOMEDIA 70c.
Please see Victor Clarks website for further information at :http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/unlisted/
3 commentsPotator II
Constantine The Great- Beata Tranqvillitas.jpg
Constantine The Great- Beata Tranqvillitas62 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.

Obverse:
Laurete and cuirassed bust right

CONSTANTINVS AVG

CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
AVG: Augustus

Reverse:

BEATA TRANQVILLITAS

BEATA: Divine

TRANQVILLITAS: Peace

Showing: BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, altar inscribe VO/TIS / XX surmounted by globe, three stars above, C left, R right

Domination: Copper, AE 3, size 18-19 mm

Mint: PLC, Lugdunum. RIC VII 131, R4, minted 321.Oficina ???

The uneasy peace that followed was celebrated on coins with the legend BEATA TRANQVILLITAS ("The blessed tranquillity"), subsequently abbreviated to BEAT TRANQLITAS, showing an altar inscribed VOTIS XX. Above the altar is a globe, signifying that the whole world was at peace, but not for long. An invading force of Sarmatians under their king Rausimondus were defeated in the province of Pannonia and celebrated on coins of Constantine with SARMATIA DEVICTA ("Sarmatia conquered"). At the same time the two Caesars, Crispus and Constantine Junior celebrated their Quinquennalia on coins with a laurel wreath enclosing the words VOT X and legend CAESARVM NOSATRORVM ("our Caesars"). The vows were suscepta, five years completed and looking forward to the tenth anniversary. A second war against the Visigoths occupied most of AD 323, before Constantine embarked on his final showdown with Licinius, ending with the defeat of Licinius at Chrysopolis in AD 323.
John Schou
Constantin_I_IOVI_CONSERVATORI.jpg
Constantine The Great- IOVI CONSERVATORI57 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.
Obverse:
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust

IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG

IMP : Imperator,
C: Caesar
CONSTANTINVS: Constantine
P F: Pius Felix ,
AVG: Augustus,


Reverse:
IOVI CONSERVATORI

IOVI: Jupiter
CONSERVATORI: Preserver

Showing: Jupiter standing left with chlamys,naked, holding Victory on a globe & scepter, eagle left with wreath in it's beak & bound captive right at foot

Domination: Bronze folli, size 20 mm

Mint: . TS . Β . , Thessalonica Β (Beta is 2nd officina), RIC VII 19 Thessalonica,
317-318 AD

This type is interesting because although it features Jupiter (who you'd associate with the eastern emperors), it was actually issued by Constantine - Thessalonica being the only mint where Jupiter displaced Sol on his coins. This appears to be a case of "border politics" since Constantine had just aquired the territory including Thessalonica in his civil war with Licinius, and now wanted to make nice (as also witnessed by their joint elevation and recognition of the caesars).
One Could also lookout for this same type but with the title of "INV AVG" (INVictus = Invincible) for Constantine which appears to have been issued during wartime.

John S
Constantine I a.jpg
Constantine- Mint of Rome style!1127 viewsVery stern face, and distinctive nose are a dead give-away for Rome issues of Constantine and Licinius. The impressive cuirass is also quite common, while the drapery from Rome has a distinctive "flourish" to it. Very large bust...

From the Collection of Evan Rankin (Wolfgang336)
2 commentswolfgang336
coin_5_quart.jpg
CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG (the 1st) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE3/4 follis (306-337 A.D.)19 viewsCONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, (laurel and?) rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers standing inward facing each other, holding spears, shields and two standards between them, "dot" (clearly filled) on banners. Mintmark: SMNE (?) in exergue.

AE3/4, 16.5-17mm, 2.46g, die axis 12 (medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

MAX AVG = Maximus Augustus, the Great Emperor, Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army", SMNE = Sacra Moneta Nicomedia, "officina epsilon", i. e. workshop#5.

Limiting information to only what is known for sure: the legends with the particular breaks, two standards and four-letter mintmark starting with SM, we conclude that this is definitely Constantine I, and only 3 mints are possible: SMN... Nicomedia (RIC VII Nicomedia 188), SMH... Heraclea (RIC VII Nicomedia 111) and SMK... Cyzicus (RIC VII Cyzicus 76-79). All are minted in 330-335 A.D. If the mintmark is indeed SMN..., two variations are listed: rosette-diademed and laurel- and rosette-diademed (laurels typically designated by longish shapes and rosettes as squares with dots). Since the obverse is worn, it is difficult to judge which one is the case here. One can definitely see the rosettes, but as for laurels... probably, not. Officina may be E or S, but I think E fits better.

Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus, aka Constantine the Great, aka Saint Constantine, born 27 Feb c. 272 to Flavius Valerius Constantius (aka Constantius I), a Roman Army officer of Illyrian origins, and a Greek woman of low birth Helena (aka Saint Helena). His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian and Galerius. In 305, Constantius raised himself to the rank of Augustus, senior western emperor, and Constantine was recalled west to campaign under his father in Britannia (Britain). Constantine was acclaimed as emperor by the army at Eboracum (modern-day York) after his father's death in 306 AD, and he emerged victorious in a series of civil wars against Emperors Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324 AD. He did so many a great deed that there is no point to list them here. Best known for (having some sort of Christ-related mystical experience in 312, just before the decisive Battle of the Milvian Bridge with Maxentius) being the first Roman Emperor to convert to Christianity and for being a champion of this faith, in particular, he played an influential role in the proclamation of the Edict of Milan in 313, which declared religious tolerance for Christianity in the Roman empire, and called the First Council of Nicaea in 325 that produced the statement of Christian belief known as the Nicene Creed. Died 22 May 337, famously being baptized on his deathbed. Succeeded by his 3 sons: Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans.
Yurii P
armorica_quart.jpg
Coriosolite Bi "boar" stater, region: Armorica (Brittany and Channel Islands), c. 56 BC24 viewsSlightly oval shape, obverse convex, reverse a bit concave. 19-20+mm, 2+mm thick, 5.05g, die axis 6h (coin alignment), material: billon of unknown silver and other metal content.

Obverse: stylized head of a god right (Celtic "Apollo", most probably a Sun or sky god) with three plaits of curly hair forming the triskelion-like spiral pattern, reverse: stylized charioteer driving a chariot right with a boar right under the horse and a curl and leaf device in front of it.

The design is loosely based on golden staters of Philip II of Macedon with laureate head of Apollo right on obverse and a charioteer driving a biga (Mediterranean two-horse chariot) right on reverse.

ID: since the obverse is worn off, it is impossible to determine exactly the variety of this coin. but the reverse features such as no reins, chariot driver's head has no long "nose" and even the weak obverse and strong clear reverse all point to series Y. The pellet eye of the pony, no ears, characteristic shape of the pony's head, "weird" driver and the leaf and curl rather than the quadrilateral banner all point to class I (roman numeral), most probably its middle group I (letter), but earlier group H or later transitional groups J or even K of class III are also possible (only the shape of the eye and nose on the obverse would have allowed to tell definitely). This is a well-developed middle chronological type, minted somewhere west of the river Rance.

Mythological and symbolic connotations of this design are very complex. The spirals (here present in the god's hair and as the device before the horse) were one of the most important Celtic symbols, with its main meaning related to the Sun and life (e. g. the Sun's "growing" from winter to summer solstice and then dwindling back, growing from child to adult, leaves and vines unfolding etc.) The double spiral meant life and death or death and rebirth, the cycle of seasons, that sort of thing. The triple spiral or triskelion was probably of the biggest mystical significance, connected to the godhead, with meaning like past+present+future = eternity or morning + day + evening = time. It definitely had to do with the change of seasons, flow of time, power over life and death. Thus the god's hear all made out of spirals with three main spiral branches. The charioteer also probably represents a deity, probably the same deity representing light and life, hunting the boar representing darkness and death. The boar symbol (if one looks closely, there is a rising or setting sun symbol -- a pellet within a circle over a line -- between the boar's legs) is connected to the darkness because boars are dark and their tusks look like crescent moons. They are also parts of many myths, e. g. Greek darkish stories of the Calydonian Boar hunted by Meleager and his many hero comrades or the Erymanthian boar killed by Heracles as his fourth (by some counts) labor: Celts shared the Greek mythological tradition, but probably imbued it with many of their own mythological connotations. God hunting the boar probably symbolizes the same as the spirals in the obverse: changing of seasons, passing of time, life and rebirth etc.

Coriosolites were a Gallic tribe. In the 1st century BC they were living in the so called "Armorica" (ar mor = by the sea) -- a region of modern Brittany around the river Rance roughly to the south of Jersey. They probably migrated there from Rhineland, running away from the Germanic expansion, since they share some cultural features with the Celtic tribes of the Rhine. This tribe on its own was hardly of much significance compared to the other neighboring Gallic tribes (Unelli, Osismii, Veneti, Redones, Abrincatui etc.), but their coin making is among the best studied of all the Celts because several huge hoards of their coins were discovered in Brittany and Jersey, and studied in detail. When Romans led by Julius Caesar came to conquer Gaul, Coriosolites were actively resisting, first on their own, then as a part of the local tribal union and, finally, contributed to Vercingetorix's war effort. The minting of these coins and hoarding them was probably related to these war activities and subsequent defeat, so since series Y is in the middle of the chronology, it can probably be dated around the middle of the Gallic wars (58 - 50 BC), but since the main event in Armorica, the stand off with Viridovix, happened in 57-56 BC, that's probably the best guess.

In addition to Caesar himself, two other Roman generals who fought Coriosolites should be mentioned: Publius Licinius Crassus (86|82? - 53 BC), a son of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Caesar's co-triumvir, who led the initial assault on Armorica, and Quintus Titurius Sabinus, who defeated the union of three Gallic tribes (Unelli, Curiosolitae, and Lexovii) under the chieftain Viridovix in 56 BC. Ironically to our discussion, when Crassus went back to Rome, his first office there was a monetalis, i. e. a Republican official with authority to issue coins.

A lot more about this type of coins can be learned here:
http://www.writer2001.com/exp0002.htm
Yurii P
508CNG324.jpg
Cr 354/1 AR Denarius C. Licinius L.f. Macer 27 views84 BC. (20mm, 3.60 g, 6h). Rome mint.
Diademed bust of Vejovis left, drapery on left shoulder, hurling thunderbolt
Minerva, holding spear, shield, and reins, driving galloping quadriga right, [C] LICINIVS [L F] MACER in ex

Crawford 354/1; Sydenham 732; Licinia 16; RBW 1355
1 commentsPMah
Crispus_Virtus_Exercit_RIC_Unlisted.JPG
Crispus Virtus Exercit RIC Unlisted26 viewsCrispus, Ticinum, 317 - 326 AD (320 AD), 19.07mm, 2.8g,
OBV: C-RISPVS NOB CAES, Laureate cuirassed bust left, with spear pointing forward, shield on left arm
REV: VISTVS EXERCIT, VOT/XX in banner, captive either side, S T in exergue, crescent moon in R field

Not in RIC, Unlisted for ruler. RIC lists this issue only for Constantine I and Licinius I (p. 378). Coin should be listed after TICINUM 128.

Romanorvm
0156.jpg
Denarius, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, L. Licinius Crassus, L. Porcius Licinius2 viewsDenarius, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, L. Licinius Crassus, L. Porcius Licinius

RRC: 282/5
118 bc
3,93 gr

AV: Head of Roma right, helmeted "L·PORCI LICI X"
RV: Gaulish warrior in biga right; holding shield, carnyx and reins; hurling spear "L·LIC·CN·DOM"

ex Artemide Aste, eLive auction 5b, Lot 210, 11.11.2018

Norbert
0155.jpg
Denarius, M. Aurelius Scaurus, L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus2 viewsDenarius, M. Aurelius Scaurus, L. Licinius Crassus, Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus

RRC: 282/1
118 bc
3,89 gr

AV: Head of Roma right, helmeted. "ROMA" "M.AURELI"
RV: Gaulish warrior in biga rightHead of Roma right, helmeted "SCAUR","L LIC CN DOM"

ex Artemide Aste, eLive auction 5b, Lot 208, 11.11.2018
1 commentsNorbert
Divo_Galerius.jpg
Divus Galerius7 viewsDivus Galerius

A.D. 311, 23x25mm 4.5gm
DIVO MAXIMIANO; veiled head right.
MEM DIVI M-AXIMIANI; Eagle surmounting domed shrine with closed doors. B in right field.
In ex. •SM•TS•
RIC VI Thessalonica 48
Posthumous issue struck under Licinius
Ancient Aussie
EB0342_scaled.JPG
EB0342 Vejovis / Minerva in quadriga11 viewsC Licinius Lf Macer Denarius. 84 BC.
Obv: Diademed bust of Vejovis left, seen from behind, hurling thunderbolt.
Rev: Minerva, holding spear and shield, driving quadriga right; C LICINIVS L F MACER in two lines in ex.
References: Cr354/1; Syd 732.
Diameter: 22mm, Weight: 3.733 grams.
EB
EB0761_scaled.JPG
EB0761 Licinius I / Jupiter10 viewsLicinius I 308-324, AE follis, Siscia, 314-315.
Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath at foot left. Δ in right field. Mintmark SIS.
References: Cf. RIC VI 230,231a.
Diameter: 21mm, Weight: 4.105g.
EB
EB0762_scaled.JPG
EB0762 Licinius I / Jupiter11 viewsLicinius I 308-324, AE Follis,
Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, laureate head right.
Reverse: IOVI CON-SERVATORI, Jupiter standing half left, chlamys hanging from left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath at foot left. B in right field. Mintmark SIS.
References: Cf. RIC VI 230,231a.
Diameter: 21.5mm, Weight: 3.467g.
EB
EB0763_scaled.JPG
EB0763 Licinius I / Sol11 viewsLicinius I 308-324, Rome, AE follis. 313 AD.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SOLI INV-I-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding globe, raising right hand. R/X-F (A/X-F?) across the fields. Mintmark: RS?.
References: Cf. RIC VI Rome 4,23.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 2.955g.
EB
EB0764_scaled.JPG
EB0764 Licinius I / Genius10 viewsLicinius I 308-324, Trier, AE Follis, 316.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left holding patera and cornucopiae, T-F across fields. Mintmark BTR.
References: Cf. RIC VII 119 (bust seen from the back).
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 3.219g.
EB
EB0765_scaled.JPG
EB0765 Licinius I / Sol8 viewsLicinius I 308-324, Rome?, AE follis. 313 AD.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SOLI IN-VI-CTO COMITI, Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding globe, raising right hand. A/X-F (R/X-F?) across the fields. Uncertain mintmark.
References: Cf. RIC VI Rome 4,23,29.
Diameter: 20mm, Weight: 2.999g.
EB
EB0766_scaled.JPG
EB0766 Licinius I / Genius9 viewsLicinius I 308-324, London, AE follis, 313-314 AD.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: GENIO POP ROM S-F, Genius standing left, modius on head, loins draped, holding patera and cornucopiae. Mintmark PLN.
References: RIC VII 3.
Diameter: 21mm, Weight: 2.82g.
EB
EB0767b_scaled.JPG
EB0767 Licinius I / Jupiter9 viewsLicinius I, Antioch, AE Follis, 315-316 AD.
Obverse: IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, eagle with wreath at foot left. B in right field. Mintmark ANT.
References: RIC VII Antioch 17; Sear 15253.
Diameter: 23.5mm, Weight: 3.303g.
EB
EB0768_scaled.JPG
EB0768 Licinius I / Sol8 viewsLicinius I 308-324, Rome, AE follis.
Obverse: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SOLI IN-V-ICTO COMITI Sol standing left, holding globe and raising right hand, R-F. Mintmark R star T.
References: RIC VII 23.
Diameter: 21.5mm, Weight: 3.161g.
EB
EB0769_scaled.JPG
EB0769 Licinius II / Jupiter8 viewsLicinius II Ceasar, AE Follis, 318 AD.
Obverse: VAL LICINIVS NOB CAES, laureate. draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and sceptre, chlamys spread behind him over both arms. Mintmark T-star-in-crescent-A.
References: RIC VII 160.
Diameter: 19.5mm, Weight: 3.24g.
EB
EB0887_scaled.JPG
EB0887 Licinius I / Jupiter4 viewsLicinius I 308-324, AE 3, Antioch 317-320.
Obverse: IMP LICI-NIVS AVG, laureate, cuirassed bust left, mappa in left hand.
Reverse: IOVI CONS-[ERVATORI AVGG], Jupiter standing left chlamys across left shoulder, holding Victory on globe, leaning on sceptre, star left, B right. Mintmark ANT. Double-struck.
References: Cf. RIC VII 24v, also similar to RIC VII Cyzicus 9,B.
Diameter: 22mm, Weight: 2.157g.

EB
Father_and_Son_.jpg
Extremely Rare AE 3, Licinus II, true R434 viewsVF, 3.50gm, 23.7mm, 330*, Antioch mint
Struck 317 or 318 A.D..

Obv/ DD NN IOVII LICINII INVICT AVG ET CAES (Domini Nostri Iovii Licinii invicti Augustus et Caesar). Confronted busts of Licinius I and II, holding trophy of arms between them.
Rev/ I O M ET VIRTVTI DD NN AVG ET CAES (Iovi Optimo Maximo Virtuti Domini Nostri Augustus et Caesar), Jupiter standing left, naked except for cloak, head left, scepter in left hand, trophy of arms with two bound captives left.
Con/ VF
Ref/ Bastien NC 1973, pp. 87-97; RIC VII 50 var. (attributed to Heraclea, 320-321 A.D., only officinal A, R4)

This is one of the real gems in my Licinius Jr. collection
Mayadigger
100_7409.jpg
Follis Licinius I31 viewsLicinius I
IMP LIC LICINIVS PF AVG, LDC buste of Licinius
IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, dot TS dot A dot
Thessalonika, RIC VI Thessalonica 60, 312-313AD
2 commentsSebastiaan v
galeria_valeria_thessalonica_36.jpg
Galeria Valeria RIC VI, Thessalonica 3634 viewsGaleria Valeria, daughter of Diocletian, 2nd wife of Galerius. killed AD 315 by Licinius I
AE - AE 3, 6.39g
Thessalonica 2nd officina, AD 308-310
obv. GAL VALE - RIA AVG
bust, draped and diademed, r.
rev. VENERI V - ICTRICI
Venus Victrix, draped, stg. l., holding up apple with r. hand, and raising hem of
her skirt over l. shoulder
star in l. field, B in r. field
in ex.: dot SM dot TS dot
RIC VI, Thessalonica 36
VF

I think this is one of the last depictions of Venus on Roman coins!
1 commentsJochen
galeria_valeria_alex_81.jpg
Galeria Valeria, RIC VI, Alexandria 8112 viewsGaleria Valeria, AD 315 murdered by Licinius II
AE - Follis (AE 3), 5.98g, 22mm, 0°
Alexandria, 5th officina, late 308
obv. GAL VAL - ERIA AVG
Bust, draped, diademed, r.
rev. VENERI - V - ICTRICI
Venus Victric, inlonggarment and mantle, stg. frontal, head l., holding in raise l. hand garment over
shoulder and in r. hand apple
in l. and r. field E / X - K
in ex. ALE
ref. RIC VI, Alexandria 81; C. 2
F-about VF
Pedigree:
ex coll. Drexler, Würzburg, Christmas 1958
Jochen
Galerius_(293-305_as_caesar)_radiatus_(AE).png
Galerius (293-305 as caesar) radiatus (AE)11 viewsObv.: GAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES (Emperor with radiate crown) Rev.: CONCORDIA MILITVM (Galerius receiving Victoria on globe from Jupiter) Field: KA Diameter: 21 mm weight: 2,33 g RIC VI 18b, A

Lactantius' De Mortibus Persecutorum provides a gruesome account of Galerius' death, who apparently had some sort of gangrenous affliction. On his deathbed, though having been a ruthless persecutor, he asked the Christians to pray for his health and even issued an edict that provided freedom of religion (before the Edict of Milan by Licinius and Constantine in 313). The condition of this coin reflects Galerius' general physical state at time of his death.
Nick.vdw
Coin1001_quad_sm.jpg
Galerius Concordia Militum Ӕ post-reform radiate fraction (295 - 299), Cyzicus mint6 viewsGAL VAL MAXIMIANVS NOB CAES, radiate, draped (?) and cuirassed bust right / CONCORDIA MI-LITVM + KB in lower centre, Prince (the left figure) standing right in military dress, holding parazonium or baton of imperium, receiving small Victory with a wreath and palm branch on globe from naked Jupiter (the right figure) standing left holding tall scepter.

Ӕ, 20mm, 2.36g, die axis 6h, base metal seems red, high copper content.

Galerius ruled as Caesar from 293 to 305, but most sources give minting years for this type of coin as 295-299.

RIC VI Cyzicus 19b (18b?), Sear 3713. 19b has cuirassed and draped bust, 18b -- only cuirassed. I think the edge of the military cape on the shoulder means it is draped in this case, but distinction seems very vague to me. Looking at coins identified as 18b and 19b I cannot see any clear pattern, it seems that many are confused in this respect just like myself.

GALerius VALerius MAXIMIANUS NOBilitas CAESar (in this era the title of "junior" emperor while Augustus was a "senior" one), CONCORDIA MILITVM = [Dedicated to] harmony with the soldiers, K = Kysikos (Cyzicus) mint, B = officina Beta (workshop #2). The figure to the right is naked except for a cape, so it is a god, the sceptre points to him being Jupiter, the ruler of gods. Jupiter is also typically associated with Victory, he was often depicted with Victory in the right hand and sceptre in the left. The line across his head probably designates a wreath, also a common feature of Jupiter. Victory holds her common attributes, the triumphal wreath and a palm branch, the orb she stands on represents the world (thus meaning dominion over it). Round Earth was a firmly established concept in Roman times. The left figure, the prince (Galerius in this case) is identified by his full battle dress and the hand-held short elongated shape, which is either the ivory baton of imperium (the high command) or, more likely, a parazonium, a long triangular dagger, typically cradled in the bearer's left arm. A Roman parazonium blade tended to be leaf shape and approximately 15"-19" long. It was a ceremonial weapon, a mark of high rank, used to rally the troops.

GALERIUS, * c. 250, near Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) or in a Dacian place later called Felix Romuliana (Gamzigrad, Serbia) † late Apr or early May 311 (aged ~60), Serdica, Dacia Ripensis (Sofia, Bulgaria) ‡ 1 Mar or 21 May 293 – 1 May 305 (as Eastern Caesar, under Diocletian), 1 May 305 – late Apr or early May 311 (as Eastern Augustus with many co-emperors).

Galerius was born of humble parentage and had a distinguished military career. On March 1, 293, he was nominated as Caesar by Diocletian, the supreme ruler of the empire, to help him govern the East. Galerius divorced his wife and married Diocletian’s daughter, Valeria. After ruling from Egypt from 293 to 295, Galerius assumed command of defensive operations against the Sasanians in 297. After being defeated, he then won a decisive victory that increased his influence with Diocletian. Galerius next proceeded to the Balkans and won numerous victories in the region. A staunch pagan, he persuaded the emperor to initiate the persecution of the Christians at Nicomedia in 303.

When Diocletian abdicated on May 1, 305, Galerius became Augustus of the East, ruling the Balkans and Anatolia. Since Galerius had arranged the appointment of two of his favourites, Maximinus (his nephew) and Flavius Valerius Severus, to be Caesars in both East and West, he was in effect the supreme ruler. When Constantius Chlorus died in 306, Galerius insisted that Severus govern the West as Augustus, but he grudgingly conceded the subordinate title of caesar to Chlorus’s son, Constantine, who was correctly suspected of Christian sympathies. Galerius’s supremacy was, however, short-lived. Severus was soon overthrown (306) and killed by Maxentius (son of the former emperor Maximian). Galerius invaded Italy but was forced to retreat. In 308 he induced Diocletian and Maximian to meet him at Carnuntum on the Danube and to declare Maxentius a usurper. On November 11, Galerius proclaimed as Augustus of the West his friend Licinius, who had effective control only in the region of the Danube.

A ruthless ruler, Galerius imposed the poll tax on the urban population and maintained the persecution of the Christians. In the winter of 310–311, however, he became incapacitated with a horrible disease. Fearing, perhaps, that his illness was the vengeance of the Christian God, he issued on April 30, 311, an edict grudgingly granting toleration. Shortly afterward he died. He was succeeded by his nephew Maximinus Daia.

Diocletian's money reform of 293.

Trying to fight the runaway inflation that he did not understand and to return people's faith in Roman coins, Diocletian did a complete overhaul of the Roman monetary system. He introduced a new theoretical base monetary unit called the denarius communis or d.c. (only rarely represented by actual coins, one example being old pre-Aurelian antoniniani still in circulation, valued now at 1 d. c., another – minted only on a small scale 1.5g coin with the reverse legend VTILITAS PVBLICA, "for public use"). Then he started minting new types of coins including a gold aureus of new purity and weight standard (1/60 pound of pure gold), a quality silver coin, argenteus, roughly similar to the early imperial denarius in size and weight, a new billon coin, of a copper alloy but with a small fraction of silver mostly in the form of coating, roughly similar to the old antoninianus when it was just introduced, however bearing now a laureate rather than a radiate bust. This type of coin is now commonly referred to as a follis or a nummus. Finally, a new radiate bronze coin, now referred to as a "radiate fraction" or a radiatus was introduced, similar to the early imperial aes in value, but much smaller in weight and size. There were also rare issues of ˝ and Ľ nummus coins, mostly in connection to some celebration. Interestingly, the obverses of these new coins were chosen to represent some identical "generic" image of a "good emperor" independent of the actual likeness of the August or Caesar in whose name they were issued, thus affirming the unity of all the tetrarchy rulers. Very roughly one may think of a new radiatus as a price of one loaf of bread, a new argenteus as a very good daily wage, and a new aureus as a price of a good horse. An approximate relationship between these units was as follows: 1 aureus ≈ 20 argentei ≈ 1000 d.c. (some scholars prefer 25 argentei and 1250 d.c.); 1 argenteus ≈ 5 nummi ≈ 50 d.c.; 1 nummus ≈ 5 radiati ≈ 10 d.c.; 1 radiatus ≈ 2 d.c. Of course we know that this reform was ineffective and inflation continued, so all these values were constantly shifting due to changing markets. Diocletian himself stopped minting argenteus in c. 305, and Constantine in his monetary reforms only re-established a new and highly successful gold standard, solidus (1/72 pound of pure gold, surprisingly actually first introduced also by Diocletian in 301, but only as a pilot version). As for billon and bronze coins, "folles" or "nummi", they were minted in all shapes and sizes all over the 4th century, often horribly debased by inflation, and their values at each point can only be guessed. It seems that in later times up to 1000 small bronze coins were sealed in a leather pouch to produce a reasonable unit of payment, thus giving rise to the name follis (lit. "bag" in Latin), which is now anachronistically applied to many billon and bronze coins of the late 3d and 4th century.
Yurii P
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_Rome_179.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)42 viewsSRCV 10201, RIC V S-179, Göbl.744b, Cohen 160, Van Meter 49/3

AE Antoninianus, 22 mm., 180°

Rome mint (per Göbl), 10th officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate bust right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, Stag walking left, X in exergue.

Issued to commemorate Gallienus’s vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_442.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)17 viewscf SRCV 10250-10251, RIC V J-442, Göbl 1600b, Cohen 441, Van Meter --

AR Antoninianus, 21 mm., 180°

Antioch mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.), in 256-257 A.D.

Obv: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: LAETITIA AVGG, Laetitia standing left holding wreath and anchor.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter --
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_J-445.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)11 viewsSRCV 10298 [?], RIC V J-445 var. (no wreath), Göbl 1698b(1), Cohen 705, Van Meter 186

Antoninianus, 22 mm., 3.7 grams, 0°

Samosata mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.) in 260 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: ORIENS AVG, Oriens standing right presenting wreath to Gallienus, standing left, resting on spear held in left hand, wreath in upper field.

Oriens is the name for Sol when associated with the rising sun. It implies the rising fortune of the emperor, and thus of the Empire.

RIC rarity S, Van Meter VB2
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_216_iovo_stator.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)9 viewsSRCV 10248, RIC V-S 216, Göbl 611w, Van Meter 114-115 var. (reverse legend).

BI Antoninianus, 4.21 g., 20.47 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264-266 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: IOVIS STAT[OR], Jupiter standing facing, head right, thunderbolt in left hand, vertical scepter in right.

Dedicated to Jupiter who upholds (preserves).

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_Sear_10204_var_Felicitas.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)14 viewsSRCV 10204 var. (officina marks in field), RIC V-S 188-189 var. (officina mark in field), Göbl __, Van Meter 57/2

BI Antoninianus, 2.44 g., 20.25 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 261-262 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: FELICIT AVG, standing facing, head right, holding scepter and globe.

Felicit is the personification of happiness and success.
RIC rarity _, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_18.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)14 viewsSRCV 10224, RIC V J-18, Göbl 872d, Cohen 308, Van Meter 316

AR Antoninianus, 19-21 mm., 180°

Cologne mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.) in 259 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: GERMANICVS MAX V, Trophy between two German captives.

Commemorates Gallienus’s victory over the Alemanni at the Battle of Mediolanum (Milan) in 259 A.D. (per Van Meter), which is inconsistent with the slightly earlier dating per RIC (258-259 A.D.) and Göbl (apparently 257-258 A.D.).

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB2
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_447A.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10312, RIC V J-447, Göbl 1684m, Cohen 792, Van Meter 211

Billon Antoninianus, 20.5 mm., 0°

Samosata mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.) in 256-257 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: PIETAS AVGG, Gallienus and Valerian standing facing one another and sacrificing over altar.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_159.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10338, RIC V J-159, Göbl 101q, Cohen 388, Van Meter 240

AR Antoninianus, 20 mm., 0°

Rome mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.) in 255-256 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS PF AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: PROVIDENTIA AVGG, Providentia standing facing left, holding baton and cornucopia, at foot globe.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_662.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10384 var. (obverse legend), RIC V S-662, Göbl 1615e, Sear (4th ed.) --, Cohen 1098, Van Meter --

Antoninianus, 21 mm., 180°

Antioch mint (per Göbl), struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.).

Obv: GALLIENVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: VICTORIA AVG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm, star in left field.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter --
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_143.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)11 viewsSRCV 10237, RIC V J-143, Göbl 25v, Cohen 351, Van Meter 101

Antoninianus, 20.5 mm., 0°

Rome mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.) in 254-255 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: IOVI CONSERVA, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S-512a.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)13 viewsSRCV 10348, RIC V S-512a, Göbl 1354h, Cohen 932, Van Meter --

Antoninianus, 18.5-22 mm., 180°

Mediolanum mint (per Göbl), struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.).

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right, both ribbons behind.

Rev: SALVS AVG, Salus standing right, holding snake in right arm, feeding it from patera in left hand, MS in exergue.

Salus is the goddess of health and safety. Based on an old Italic custom of propitiating the gods by having a virgin offer a sacrifice to sacred snakes, Salus is often depicted cradling a snake in her arms and feeding it from a patera. As a coin type, Salus frequently appears after the suppression of a coup against the emperor or when the emperor recovered from an illness.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter --
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S-256.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)37 viewsSRCV 10300-10301 var. (officina mark), RIC V S-256, Göbl 367x, Cohen 727, Van Meter 193

Antoninianus, 19-21 mm., 180°

Rome mint (per Göbl), struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.).

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch in right hand and scepter in left. V in right field.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S-157.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)38 viewsSRCV 10164, RIC V S-157, Göbl 574a, Cohen 5, Van Meter 5

Antoninianus, 19.5 mm., 0°

Rome mint (per Göbl), struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 265-267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.

Rev: ABVNDANTIA AVG, Abundantia standing right, emptying cornucopia, B in left field.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S-192a.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)42 viewscf SRCV 10210-10215, RIC V S-192a, Göbl 600a, Sear (4th ed.) --, Van Meter --

Antoninianus, 22 mm., 0°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.).

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate cuirassed head right.

Rev: FIDES MILITVM, Fides standing left, holding standard and scepter, N in right field.

Fides is the personification of faithful protection. The reverse devise depicts Fides holding symbols of military authority, and the reverse type refers to the faithfulness of the army.

RIC rarity C
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_495_oriens_cons.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)19 viewsSRCV 10296, RIC V-S 495, Göbl 1396, Van Meter 182.

BI Antoninianus, 3.22 g., 19.56 mm. max., 180°

Mediolanum (Milan, Italy) mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), 264-265 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: ORIENS AVG, Radiate Sol standing slightly left, nude but for chlamys over shoulders, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, holding globe in left.

Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 Aurelian made it an official cult. The god appeared on coins until Constantine, with the last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dating to 387. There were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S-641.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)14 viewsSRCV 10240, RIC V S-641, Göbl 1668i, Cohen 361, Van Meter 105

AR Antoninianus, 20-22 mm., 0°

Antioch mint (per Göbl), struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped cuirassed bust right.

Rev: IOVI CONSERVAT, Jupiter standing left, holding globe in right hand and long scepter with left. PXV in exergue.

The exergue marking indicates the tribunician year 267 A.D.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S-606.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)18 viewsSRCV 10170 var. (scepter), RIC V S-606, Göbl 1662i, Cohen 44, Van Meter 13/2

AR Antoninianus, 20 mm., 0°

Antioch mint (per Göbl), struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped cuirassed bust right.

Rev: AETERNITAS AVG, Saturn standing right, holding scepter, PXV in exergue.

The exergue marking indicates the tribunician year 267 A.D.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_Sear_10201_stag_l.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)15 viewsSRCV 10201, RIC V-S 179, Göbl 744b, Van Meter 49/3

BI Antoninianus, 2.60 g., 20.29 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, tenth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, stag standing left, X in exergue.

Issued to commemorate Gallienus’s vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S_656.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsSRCV 10345, RIC V S-656 var. (reverse legend and bust type), Göbl 1626c, Alföldi, Weltkrise p. 159, Van Meter 251.

AR Antoninianus, 21 mm., 180°

Antioch mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264 or 265 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust facing right.

Rev: SAECVLARHS AVG (Greek H [eta] instead of Latin E), stag standing right, palm branch in exergue.

The reverse legend means means “the Secular (Games) of the Emperor.” The Secular Games (Latin Ludi Saeculares) was a pagan celebration, involving sacrifices and theatrical performances, held for three days and nights to mark the end of a saeculum (supposedly the longest possible length of human life, considered to be either 100 or 110 years in length) and the beginning of the next. The only clearly attested celebrations under the Roman Republic took place in 249 B.C. and in the 140s B.C. The Games were revived in 17 B.C. by Augustus, who observed the traditional 110-year cycle. Claudius, however, introduced an alternative cycle for the games in 47 A.D. on the 800th anniversary of Rome's foundation, based on a century instead of a 110-year cycle, and from that point onward there were essentially two sets of games. Domitian followed Augustus in 88 A.D. using the traditional 110-year cycle, albeit with his games being six years ahead of schedule. Antoninus Pius followed the Claudian “century cycle” in 147/8 A.D. (though without his using the term saecular). Septimius Severus restored the 110-year cycle of Augustus in 204 A.D. Philip the Arab, whose Games of 247/8 marked the millennium of Rome, followed the Claudian cycle.

Alföldi, followed by Göbl, thinks this type proves that Gallienus intended to perform Saecular Games in 264 A.D. The repetition of Saecular games only sixteen years after Philip's games fits with the strong desire at the time to depict every emperor as the restorer of good times and the founder of a new Golden Age.

The stag refers to Diana as patroness of the Saecular Games and divine protectress of Gallienus. The palm branch symbol used with the type is also appropriate for anniversary celebrations.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V-1_(S)_572_fortuna_redux.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)11 viewsSRCV 10219 var. (S in exergue), RIC V S-572 (Siscia), Göbl 586b, Van Meter 82 [?].

BI Antoninianus, 2.41 g., 20.99 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, sixth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 262-263 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: FORT[VNA R]EDVX, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand and cornucopia in left. Stigma in right field.

Fortuna Redux, one of the many aspects of Fortuna, was in charge of bringing people home safely, primarily from wars (redux means "coming back" or "returning").

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_507_pietas.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)9 viewsSRCV 10310, RIC V-S 507, Göbl 1262f, Van Meter 207.

BI Antoninianus, 3.61 g., 22.55 mm. max., 0°

Milan mint, first officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264-266 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing left, drapery flowing from left elbow, right hand raised over fire altar to left, P in right field.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
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RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-1_(S),_Rome_181_var.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)26 viewsSRCV 10200, RIC V S-181 var (officina letter), Göbl 716b, Van Meter 49/7

AE Antoninianus, 20 mm., 0°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate [head] right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, antelope walking left, Γ in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aurreolus.
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RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-1_(J)_Rome_181.JPG
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)22 viewsSRCV 10411, RIC V J-181, Göbl 88v, Van Meter -

Billon Antoninianus, 20 mm., 0°

Rome mint, struck during joint reign (253-260 A.D.), in 254 A.D.

Obv: IMP CP LIC GALLIENVS AVGG
, radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVGG, Virtus/Mars standing left, leaning on shield in right hand and holding spear in left hand.

RIC rarity C.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10343_romae_aeternae.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)7 viewsSRCV 10343 var. (exergue), RIC V S-655, Göbl 1613g, Van Meter 180°.

BI Antoninianus, 3.88 g., 20.60 mm. max., 180°.

Antioch mint, 9th emission, struck during sole reign (260-268 A.D.), ca. 262-264 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped cuirassed bust right.

Rev: ROMAE AETERNAE (= to the eternal Rome), Roma seated left on shield, holding spear right and Victory left. Star in left field.

RIC rarity C.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_Rome_283.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)27 viewsSRCV 10362, RIC V S-283, Göbl 712b, CT 1337, Van Meter 270

BI Antoninianus, 3.20 g., 21.58 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, first officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: SOLI CONS AVG, winged horse springing right., A in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Sol invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. A team of four winged horses drew Sol's golden chariot across the sky each day.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_Rome_230_tiger.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)15 viewsSRCV 10281, RIC V S-230, Göbl 713b, CT 1341, Van Meter 153

BI Antoninianus, 3.01 g., 20.14 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, second officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: LIBERO • P [•] CONS AVG, tigress walking left. B in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The tiger was sacred to Liber Pater (or the Greek Dionysus or Bacchus).

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
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RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V-1_(S)_Rome_207.png
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)16 viewsSRCV 10236, RIC V S-207, Göbl 731b, Van Meter 100

BI Antoninianus, 3.53 g., 21.87 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, sixth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: IOVI CONS AVG, goat standing right. ς (stigma) in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Jupiter invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
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RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(J)_Antioch_450.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)30 viewsSRCV 10386, RIC V J-405, Göbl 1702b, Van Meter 298

BI Antoninianus, 3.50 g., 22.58 mm. max., 180°

Antioch mint, struck during joint reign (253-260 A.D.), in 255-256 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: VICTORIA AVG, Emperor, standing left, holding spear and receiving wreath from Victory, standing right and holding palm, wreath above .

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
2 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V-1_(S)_Rome_177_doe.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)21 viewsSRCV 10199, RIC V S-177, Göbl 728b, CT 1361, Van Meter 49/1

BI Antoninianus, 2.51 g., 20.75 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, fifth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, doe walking right, looking left. E in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus. As goddess of the hunt, Diana is often portrayed as a huntress accompanied by a deer.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-1_(S)_Rome_164.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)20 viewsSRCV 10178, RIC V S-164, Göbl 738b, CT 1386, Van Meter 19/2

BI Antoninianus, 3.30 g., 21.39 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, eighth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking left cradling a trophy/rudder in his left arm and holding a globe in his outstretched right hand. H in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The connection between Apollo and the centaur is obscure.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_236.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10288, RIC-V (S) 236, Göbl 569a, Van Meter 168

AE Antoninianus, 4.16 g., 22.49 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264-266 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: MART-I PACIFERO (=To Mars, the peacemaker/pacifier), Mars standing left, raising olive branch in right hand, resting left hand on shield and spear.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
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RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_245_hippocamp.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)18 viewsSRCV 10292, RIC V S-245, Göbl 743b, CT 1392, Van Meter 178/1

BI Antoninianus, 2.95 g., 18.25 mm. max. (undersize flan), 180°

Rome mint, ninth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: [GA]LLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: NEPT[VNO CONS AVG], hippocamp swimming right. N in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Neptune invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The hippocamp is a mythical beast consisting of the foreparts of a horse and the sea-serpent tail. They were the chariot-beasts of Neptune.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_194A.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)10 viewscf SRCV 10217-10219, RIC-V (S) 194A (Rome) and 484 (Milan), Göbl 546g, CT 1121, Sear --, Van Meter --

AE Antoninianus, 3.75 g., 24.15 mm. max., 0°

Rome and Milan mint, second officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.).

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna seated left, wheel beneath throne, holding rudder in right hand and cornucopia in left. S in exergue.

Fortuna Redux was in charge of bringing people home safely, primarily from wars.

RIC rarity C.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_165_griffin.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)18 viewsSRCV 10180 var. (obv. legend), RIC V S-165, Göbl 718z, Van Meter 19/5 var. (obv. legend)

BI Antoninianus, 3.09 g., 20.35 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, fourth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, griffon standing left. Δ in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The griffon is a mythical beast consisting of the ith the body of a lion and the head and wings of an eagle. The griffon pulled the chariot of Apollo.

RIC rarity C.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V-1_(S)_181_Rome_antelope.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)14 viewsSRCV 10200, RIC V S-181, Göbl 750b, Van Meter 49/7.

BI Antoninianus, 2.42 g., 20.50 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, twelfth officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, antelope/gazelle standing left. XII in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(J)_456_virtvs_avgg.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)10 viewsSRCV 10414 var., RIC V J-456 (Antioch), Göbl 1687_, Van Meter 345.

BI Antoninianus, 3.29 g., 21.43 mm. max., 0°

Samosata mint, struck during joint reign (253-260 A.D.), in 255-256 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate draped bust right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVGG, Valerian standing right, holding globe and spear, facing Gallienus standing left, holding Victory and transverse scepter.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_580_provi_avg.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10330 var., RIC V S-580 (Siscia), Göbl 1476b, Van Meter 230.

BI Antoninianus, 1.78 g., 17.15 mm. max., 180°

Siscia mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.).

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: PROVI A[V]G, Providentia standing left, holding baton and cornucopia, globe at foot, II in right field.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S)_221_iovi_vltori.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10247, RIC V S-221 (Rome), Göbl 348a, Van Meter 117.

BI Antoninianus, 2.34 g., 19.12 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 260-261 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right, one ribbon behind, one forward across shoulder.

Rev: IOVI [VLT]ORI, Jupiter naked standing right looking back, holding lightning bolt aloft in right hand, cloak flying right. S in left field.

The reverse dedicates this coin to Jupiter the Avenger. In 260-261 A.D., Balista, prefect of the pretorianus under Valerian, along with Odenathus, King of Palmyra, drove the Sassanian Shapur I from Syria into Persia, and re-established Roman power in the East.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S_508a_PROVID_AVG.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)20 viewsSRCV 10331, RIC V S-508a (Milan), Göbl 1328d, Van Meter 231.

BI Antoninianus, 2.95 g., 19.56 mm. max., 0°

Milan mint, 1st officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 265-266 A.D.

Obv: G[ALLIEN]VS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: PROVID AVG, Providentia standing left, holding globe and transverse scepter, MP in exergue.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V_S_207_goat_right.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)9 viewsSRCV 10236, RIC V S-207, Göbl 731b, Van Meter 100

BI Antoninianus, 3.22 g., 19.26 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, sixth officina, tenth emision, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: IOVI CONS AVG, goat standing right, ς (stigma) in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_287_var_vberitas_E.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)9 viewsSRCV 10368, RIC V-S 585 var. (grape-bunch and without E) or 287 var. (different obverse legend, same reverse), Göbl 583a, Van Meter 278.

BI Antoninianus, 2.77 g., 18.62 mm. max., 270°

Siscia mint (per RIC), Rome mint (per Göbl and Sear), fifth officina, ninth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 265-267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: VBERITAS [AVG], Uberitas standing facing, head left, holding purse in right hand and cornucopia in left, E to right.

Uberitas was the personification of fruitfulness, primarily agricultural fertility.

Although this obverse legend is not listed in RIC for the type, there were over 400 examples in the Cunetio hoard.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S__585_var_vberitas.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10368, RIC V-S 585 var. (grape-bunch and without E), Göbl 582a, Van Meter 278.

BI Antoninianus, 4.15 g., 22.64 mm. max., 0°

Siscia mint (per RIC), Rome mint (per Göbl and Sear), struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 265-267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: VBERITAS AVG, Uberitas standing facing, head left, holding purse in right hand and cornucopia in left.

Uberitas was the personification of fruitfulness, primarily agricultural fertility.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_192_felicit_pvbl.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10207, RIC V-S 192, Göbl 547g, Sear 10207, Van Meter --

BI Antoninianus, 2.66 g., 19.50 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, third officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), 263-264 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: FELICIT PVBL, Felicitas seated left holding caduceus in right hand and cornucopia in left, T in exergue.

Felicit is the personification of happiness and success.

RIC rarity C.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_207_goat_l.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)21 viewsSRCV 10235, RIC V-S 207, Göbl 730l, Van Meter 99.

BI Antoninianus, 2.74 g., 21.29 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, sixth officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: IOVI CONS AVG, goat standing left, ς (stigma) in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Jupiter the Protector, invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. Emperors frequently made vows to Jupiter for protection, believing that, as the king of the gods, Jupiter favored those in positions of authority similar to his own. The infant Jupiter was suckled by the goat Amaltheia on Mount Ida.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC_V-S_297_victoria_aet.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10380 var. (field marks), RIC V-S 297, Göbl 588a, Cunetio 1238, Van Meter 290.

BI Antoninianus, 3.00 g., 22.91 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, seventh officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), 265-267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: VICTORIA AET, Victory standing left, holding wreath in right hand and palm in left, Z in left field.

The reverse legend abbreviates VICTORIA AETERNA = Victory forever.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_S_luc.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)10 viewsSRCV 10284, RIC V-S 609, Göbl 1665i, Van Meter 158.

BI Antoninianus, 3.12 g., 19.73 mm. max., 180°

Antioch mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), 267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: LVNA LVC[IF], Diana walking right, crescent on head, carrying transverse torch. P XV in exergue.

The reverse legend abbreviates LVNA LVCIFERA = Luna the light-giver. The exergual legend is an abbreviation for TR P = Tribunicia Potestas = Tribunician Powers.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_RIC-V_(S)_249_oriens.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10297, RIC V-S 249, Göbl 614a, Van Meter 183.

BI Antoninianus, 2.57 g., 20.69 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), 264-266 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: ORIENS AVG, Radiate Sol advancing left, raising right hand commanding the sun to rise, holding whip in left, cloak flowing behind.

Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 Aurelian made it an official cult. The god appeared on coins until Constantine, with the last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dating to 387. There were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10401_virtus.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)6 viewsSRCV 10401, RIC V-S 317, Göbl 344x, Van Meter 333.

BI Antoninianus, 2.67 g., 20.05 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, first officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), 261-262 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVG, Virtus/ Mars standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left. P in left field.

RIC rarity C.

[coin is bronze in color]
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10351_salus.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)5 viewsSRCV 10351, RIC V-J 399, Göbl 825q, Van Meter 256.

BI Antoninianus, 2.81 g., 21.31 mm. max., 180°

Mediolanum/Milan mint (per RIC & SRCV), Viminacium mint (per Göbl), struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.), 259-260 A.D.

Obv: [IMP G]ALLIENVS P AVG, radiate cuirassed bust (of Valerian) right.

Rev: S[ALV]S AVGG, Salus standing facing, head right, feeding serpent in arms from patera.

Salus is the goddess of health and safety. Based on an old Italic custom of propitiating the gods by having a virgin offer a sacrifice to sacred snakes, Salus is often depicted cradling a snake in her arms and feeding it from a patera. As a coin type, Salus frequently appears after the suppression of a coup against the emperor or when the emperor recovered from an illness.

RIC rarity C.

[coin is silver in color]
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10172_aeternitati.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)11 viewsSRCV 10172, RIC V-S 630, Göbl 1611i, Van Meter 14.

BI Antoninianus, 3.59 g., 22.23 mm. max., 0°

Antioch mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), 264 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped bust right.

Rev: AETERNITATI AVG (= Aeternitati Augustorum = [dedicated to] the immortal emperor), Sol standing left, holding globe, right hand raised, star in exergue.

Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers. In 274 Aurelian made it an official cult. The god appeared on coins until Constantine, with the last inscription referring to Sol Invictus dating to 387. There were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.

RIC rarity C.

[coin is bronze in color]
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10300_var_pax_avg_V_left.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)6 viewsSRCV 10300 var. (field mark), RIC V S-256F var. (field mark), Göbl 366x, Van Meter 193

BI Antoninianus, 3.27 g., 20.50 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.).

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive branch in right hand and transverse scepter in left. V in left field.

RIC rarity S, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10288_marti_pacifero_A_left.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)7 viewsSRCV 10288, RIC-V (S) 236, Göbl 570a, Van Meter 168

AE Antoninianus, 2.28 g., 18.08 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, first officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264-266 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: MARTI PACIFERO (=To Mars, the peacemaker/pacifier), Mars standing left, raising olive branch in right hand, resting left hand on shield and spear, A in left field.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10200_dianae_cons_antelope_right.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)41 viewsSRCV 10200, RIC V S-181, Göbl 747b, Van Meter 49/6.

BI Antoninianus, 3.25 g., 21.41 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, eleventh officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: DIANAE CONS AVG, antelope/gazelle walking right. XI in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Diana invoking her protection against the revolt of Aureolus.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
3 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10291_Fortuna_redux_rudder_s.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)10 viewsSRCV 10219 var. (S in exergue), RIC V S-572 (Siscia), Göbl 586a, Van Meter 82 [?].

BI Antoninianus, 3.73 g., 21.18 mm. max., 180°

Rome mint, second officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 262-263 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: FORTVNA REDVX, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand and cornucopia in left. S in right field.

Fortuna Redux, one of the many aspects of Fortuna, was in charge of bringing people home safely, primarily from wars (redux means "coming back" or "returning").

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10346_salus-tripod.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10346, RIC V S-610, Göbl 1670k, Van Meter 254/1.

BI Antoninianus, 3.13 g., 22.57 mm. max., 180

Antioch mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: SALVS AVG, Apollo standing left, holding branch left, leaning on tripod right. PXV (+TR P XV) in exergue.

Salus/Hygieia was the goddess of health, and daughter of Aesculapius, god of medicine and healing, and Epione, goddess of soothing of pain.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10408_virtus.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)9 viewsSRCV 10408, RIC V J-457, Göbl 1704b, Van Meter 338/7.

BI Antoninianus, 3.79 g., 22.79 mm. max., 0°

Samosata mint, struck during joint reign with Valerian (253-260 A.D.), in 259 A.D.

Obv: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS P F AVG, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVG, Gallienus left, holding spear, receiving wreath from Roma right, holding spear and shield. Wreath above.

RIC rarity S, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10404_hecules-apple.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)10 viewsSRCV 10404, RIC V S-623, Göbl 1647b, Van Meter 337/3.

BI Antoninianus, 3.09 g., 22.70 mm. max., 0°

Antioch mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 266 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped bust right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVG, Hercules standing left, holding club on ground with right hand, holding apples of the Hesperides in left hand, lion-skin draped left over arm. VII C [=COS VII] in exergue.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10415_hercules-lion.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)10 viewsSRCV 10415, RIC V S-673, Göbl 1616g, Van Meter 346

BI Antoninianus, 3.41 g., 20.87 mm. max., 180°

Antioch mint, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 264 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped cuirassed bust right.

Rev: VIRTVS AVGVSTI, Hercules standing right, leaning on club set on a rock on right, holding lion-skin right. Star in right field.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10286_mars_victor.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10286 , RIC V (S) 649, Göbl 1632c, Van Meter 161.

BI Antoninianus, 4.00 g., 22.17 mm. max., 180°.

Antioch mint, 11th emission, struck during sole reign (260-268 A.D.), ca. 264-265 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped cuirassed bust right.

Rev: MARS VICTOR, Mars walking right, holding spear in right hand and shield in left. Palm branch in exergue.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10837_victoria_iii.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)11 viewsSRCV 10387, RIC V S-305, Göbl 358f, Van Meter 300

BI Antoninianus, 2.60 gr., 20.77 mm. max, 180°

Rome mint, third officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 261 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right, slight drapery on both shoulders.

Rev: VICTORIA AVG III, Victory advancing left, raising wreath in right hand, holding palm in left. T in left field.

Refers to the defeat of Regilianus in 260 A.D. (under the revised numbering system for victories).

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10250_laetitia.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)11 viewsSRCV 10250, RIC V S-226 (Rome) or 489 (Milan), Göbl 1095k, Van Meter 123

BI Antoninianus, 2.99 gr., 22.08 mm. max., 180°

Milan or Rome mint, first officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 262-263 A.D. (if Rome).

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right, slight drapery on shoulder.

Rev: LAETI-TIA AVG, Laetitia standing left, holding wreath in right hand, resting left hand on anchor at feet. P (=1) in exergue.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10291_minerva.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10291, RIC V S-617, Göbl 1643a, Van Meter 176

BI Antoninianus, 3.67 gr., 21.07 mm. max., 180°

Antioch mint, first officina, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 266-267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate draped cuirassed bust right.

Rev: MINERVA AVG, Minerva standing left, holding spear right and shield left. VII [C •] [=COS VII] in exergue.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10359_secvrit_perpet.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)7 viewsSRCV 10359, RIC V S-280, Göbl 595a, Van Meter 266

BI Antoninianus, 3.01 gr., 20.61 mm. max, 180°

Rome mint, eighth officina, ninth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.) in 265-267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate head right.

Rev: SECVRIT PERPET, Securitas standing left, leaning on column, legs crossed. H in right field.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10177_centaur_bow.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10177, RIC V S-163, Göbl 735b, Van Meter 19/1

BI Antoninianus, 3.25 g., 22.40 mm. max., 0°

Rome mint, seventh officina, tenth emission, struck during solo reign (260-268 A.D.), in 267-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: APOLLINI CONS AVG, centaur walking right drawing bow. Z in exergue.

Issued in 267-268 A.D. to commemorate vows to Apollo invoking his protection against the revolt of Aureolus. The connection between Apollo and the centaur is obscure.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10240_var_iovi_conservatori.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)6 viewsSRCV 10240 var. (exergue), RIC V (S) 641 var. (bust type), Göbl 6150g, Van Meter 105 var. (rev. legend).

BI Antoninianus, 3.07 g., 20.87 mm. max., 180°.

Antioch mint, struck during sole reign (260-268 A.D.), struck ca. 266-267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left, holding globe in right hand and long scepter in left.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10277_liberalitas.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)17 viewsSRCV 10277 var. (0bverse legend) , RIC V J-444, Göbl 1601b, Van Meter 148

BI Antoninianus, 3.50 g., 20.82 mm. max., 180°

Antioch mint, 5th emission, struck during joint reign (253-260 A.D.), in 256-257 A.D.

Obv: IMP GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: LIBERALITAS AVGG, Liberalitas standing left, holding cornucopia right and counting-board/tessera left.

Liberalitas is the personification of generosity, and frequently alludes to a specific imperial donative to the urban population of Rome. On this emission, it refers to the donative of 255 A.D. to mark the joint consulate of Gallienus and Valerian.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10185_bon_even.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10185 , RIC V S-470 var., Göbl 1391a, Van Meter 27 var.

BI Antoninianus, 1.71 g., 17.67 mm. max., 0°

Mediolanum mint, 3rd officina, struck during joint reign (253-260 A.D.), in 264-265 A.D.

Obv: [GALLIENV]S AVG, radiate head right.

Rev: BON [EVEN AVG], Bonus Eventus, nude, standing facing, head left, sacrificing from patera in right hand over lit altar, corn ears in left. MT in exergue.

Bonus Eventus, the god of good outcomes, was originally worshiped by the Romans as a deity especially presiding over agriculture and successful harvests. During the Imperial era, he was associated with other types of success. RIC describes the figure as Genius.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10403_virtus_PXV.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)5 viewsSRCV 10403, RIC V S-612, Göbl 1066k, Van Meter 336 (standing left).

BI Antoninianus, 3.85 g., 23.68 mm. max., 180°

Antioch mint, struck during sole reign (260-268 A.D.), in 266-267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: VIRT-VS AVG, Soldier standing right holding spear right and leaning on shield with left hand, PXV (= TR P XV) in exurgue.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10193__aesculapious.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)6 viewsSRCV 10193, RIC V S-632, Göbl 1649g, Van Meter 43 var.
BI Antoninianus, 3.84 g., 21.42 mm. max., 0°
Antioch mint, struck during sole reign (260-268 A.D.), 256-266 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed bust right.

Rev: CONSERVATOR AVG, Aesculapius standing left holding a rod around which a serpent is entwined.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10365_soli_invicto_pxv.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)8 viewsSRCV 10365, RIC V S-611, Göbl 1663i, Van Meter 274.
BI Antoninianus, 3.57 g., 20.12 mm. max., 180°
Antioch mint, struck during sole reign (260-268 A.D.) in 267 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped cuirassed bust right.

Rev: SOLI INVICTO, Radiate draped Sol standing left, holding globe right and raising hand left. PXV (= Tribunician year 267 A.D.) in exergue.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter rarity VB1; much silvering remains.
Stkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10171_var__wolf-twins_palm.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)34 viewsSRCV 10171 var, RIC V S-628, Göbl 1628c, Van Meter 13/3.

BI Antoninianus (fully silvered), 3.80 g., 22.20 mm. max., 180°

Antioch mint, struck during sole reign (260-268 A.D.), in 268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate cuirassed draped bust right.

Rev: AETERNITAS AVG, She-wolf standing right, suckling the twins (Romulus and Remus), palm branch in exurgue.

RIC rarity C, Van Meter VB1.
1 commentsStkp
RIC_Gallienus_SRCV_10250_var_laetitia_VIIC.jpg
Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus) (253-268 A.D.)12 viewsSRCV 10250 var. (mintmark), RIC V S-616 var. (dot in mintmark), Göbl 1642a, Van Meter 123.

BI Antoninianus, 3.14 g., 21.43 mm. max. 0°

Antioch mint, struck during sole reign (260-268 A.D.), 266-268 A.D.

Obv: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate draped cuirassed bust right.

Rev: LAETITIA AVG, Laetitia standing left holding a wreath and rudder/anchor, VIIC• in exergue.

RIC rarity R, Van Meter VB1.
Stkp
Gallienvs FELICITAS SAECVLI.jpg
Gallienus FELICITAS SAECVLI37 viewsGallienus, 253 - 24 March 268 A.D.

Radiate draped bust right

Obverse: IMP C P LIC GALLIENVS AVG: Imperator Ceasar Publius Licinius Gallienvs Augustus

Imp: Imperator, Supreme army commander
C: Ceasar
P: Publius
LIC: Licinivs
Gallienus: Gallienus
AVG: Augustus, emperor

Reverse:
Felicitas Saecvli: The happiness of the 100th year

Felicitas: The happiness
Saecvli: 100th year

Diana advancing right holding long torch in both hands.

Domination: Billon Antoninianus, size 20 mm

Mint: Antiochia, 2nd emission, 1st officina ; 255 CE. RIC 212 ; C 51
John S
coin_1_quart.jpg
GALLIENVS AVG / FIDES MILIT AE/Bi. antoninianus (260-268 A.D.)23 viewsGALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right, one ribbon behind, one forward across shoulder/ FIDES MILIT, Fides Militum standing left, holding vexillum and long scepter, MP or MD in exergue.

AE3, 17mm, 1.27g, die axis 6 (coin alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

AVG = Augustus. Fides was the Roman goddess of trustworthiness and good faith. Fides Militum = "Military confidence" or "Army's loyalty". Sceptres, often two to three foot ivory rods topped with a globe or an eagle, were introduced by Augustus as a symbol of Rome's power. They would be carried by emperors while riding in chariots to celebrate military victories and thus a scepter is a symbol of emperor's leadership and victory. Vexillum -- ensign of a section of legion. MD may mean Mediolanum mint, MP may mean Mediolanum pecunia (coin) or Mediolanum mint, prima officina (workshop #1). Either way, it was probably minted at Mediolanum.

Very similar to a coin (with MP mintmark), listed at WildWinds with references to RIC V-1, Milan 481K; Goebl 1370a; Sear 10214. http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/gallienus/RIC_0481.jpg

Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus. The son of emperor Valerian and his wife Mariniana. Born c. 218. Co-emperor with his father since Oct 253. His sons Valerian II and Saloninus were named his co-emperors and heirs, but both died early (Valerian II in 258 and Saloninus in 260). His father was infamously captured after the Battle of Edessa by Sassanian Persian king Shapur I, also in 260, leaving Gallienus a sole ruler. His whole career was spent dealing with innumerable invasions and revolts, which speaks to his credit, because despite this he managed to stay in power for so long. Famous for his military reforms and the first decree of tolerance of Christianity. Despite this some martyrologies mention his as a persecutor, probably mistaking him for his father's actions during their joint reign. Infamous for losing Gaul and Palmyra. Died in Sept 268 in Mediolanum as a result of yet another military coup, Fides Militum finally failed him. Succeeded by one of his generals Claudius Gothicus, later known as Claudius II. There were some rumors that Claudius was the one who murdered Gallienus, but this was never proved.
Yurii P
37940_Licinius_I_RIC_VI_30b,_aEF,_Thessalonica.jpg
GENIO A-VGVSTI, RIC VI 30b Thessalonica13 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC VI 30b, aEF, Thessalonica mint, 6.965g, 25.2mm, 180o, 308 - 310 A.D.; obverse VAL•LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO A-VGVSTI, Genius standing left holding patera in right, cornucopia in left, star left, “Γ” right, ·SM·TS· in ex. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
38020_Licinius_I_follis,_RIC_VI_59b,_aVF,_Heraclea.jpg
GENIO IMP-E-RATORIS, RIC VI 59b Heraclea5 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC VI 59b, aVF, Heraclea mint, 6.377g, 23.8mm, 0o, 311 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL LIC LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse GENIO IMP-E-RATORIS, Genius standing left with modius on head holding cornucopia and pouring liquor from patera, star left, crescent right, HTE in ex; scarce. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
VII-3.jpg
GENIO POP ROM - Licinius27 viewsAE Follis, London, 313 - 314
3.55gm, 20mm
Ox: IMP LICINIVS P F AVG
O: Laureate, cuirassed bust right.
Rx: GENIO POP ROM, PLN in ex., S in left field, F in right field
R: Genius standing left, modius on head, loins draped with himation, holding patera in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

RIC VII.3 (C3), ex. Marc Breitsprecher, ex. Willoughby Gardner Collection
Paul DiMarzio
Clipboard~66.jpg
Genius standing left,17 viewsThe reverse appears quite unusual on this coin. It appears it was made like that (almost barbarous), but with my experience in these thing I could be wrong
Licinius I, Trier, AE Follis. 316 AD.

IMP LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust
right
GENIO POP ROM, Genius standing left, turret on head,
loins draped with himation, holding patera & cornucopiae

T- F across fields.
Mintmark ATR.

Ref: RIC VII Trier 120
lorry66
GordII.jpg
Gordian II Africanus / Victory62 viewsGordian II Africanus. Silver Denarius, AD 238. Rome.
O: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gordian II right.
R: VICTO-RIA AVGG, Victory advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
- RIC 2; BMC 28; RSC 12.

Gordian II (Marcus Antonius Gordianus Sempronianus Romanus Africanus Augustus), was Roman Emperor for one month with his father Gordian I in 238, the Year of the Six Emperors. The double "GG" in "AVGG" (Augustus) on the reverse was to show that power was shared between the two men although Gordian II did not receive the additional title of high priest or Pontifex Maximus. He died in battle outside of Carthage.

Confronted by a local elite that had just killed Maximinus's procurator, Gordian's father (Gordian I) was forced to participate in a full-scale revolt against Maximinus in 238 and became Augustus on March 22.

Due to his advanced age, Gordian I insisted that his son, Marcus Antonius Gordianus (Gordian II), be associated with him. A few days later, Gordian entered the city of Carthage with the overwhelming support of the population and local political leaders. Meanwhile in Rome, Maximinus' praetorian prefect was assassinated and the rebellion seemed to be successful. Gordian in the meantime had sent an embassy to Rome, under the leadership of Publius Licinius Valerianus, to obtain the Senate’s support for his rebellion. The senate confirmed the new emperor on 2 April and many of the provinces gladly sided with Gordian.

Opposition would come from the neighboring province of Numidia. Capelianus, governor of Numidia, loyal supporter of Maximinus Thrax, and who held a grudge against Gordian, renewed his alliance to the former emperor and invaded Africa province with the only legion stationed in the region, III Augusta, and other veteran units. Gordian II, at the head of a militia army of untrained soldiers, lost the Battle of Carthage and was killed, and Gordian I took his own life by hanging himself with his belt. The Gordians had reigned only twenty-two days.
3 commentsNemonater
coin97.jpg
Heraclea RIC VII 15 Licinius I AE3. 9 viewsHeraclea RIC VII 15 Licinius I AE3.
IMP LICINIVS AVG, laureate
draped bust left / PROVIDENTIAE AVGG,
campgate with three turrets & no door,
HTA in ex. Coin #97
cars100
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_7-lay_HT-E_RIC-VII-15_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R2_Q-001_6h_19mm_3,59g-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!66 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 015, AE-3 Follis, -/-//HTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R2!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//HTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,59g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 015, p544, R2!!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG_MHT-Epsilon_7layer_RIC-VII-17-p545-5th-off_Heraclea_316-17-AD_R4_Q-001_5h_19mm_2,51ga-s.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!66 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTЄ, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4!!!
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 7 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTЄ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,51g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, 5th. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545, R4!!!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius_I__Heraclea,_RIC_VII_17A,_AE-3-Follis,_IMP_LICI_NIVS_AVG_2-J1_l,_PROVIDEN_TIAE_AVG_G,_MHTA,_5_layer,_1st_off,_317_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5-19,5mm,_2,52-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1109 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 017, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 5 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//MHTA, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,52g, axis: 6h,
mint: Heraclea, 1st. off., date: 316-317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 017, p545,
Q-001
quadrans
132_Licinius_l_,_Heraclea_RIC_VII_039,_AE-3,_IMP_LICINIVS_AVG,_PROVIDENTIAE_AVG_G,_SMHA,__317-8_AD,R4_Q-001,_0h,_18-19mm,_3,60gx-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #193 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 039, AE-3 Follis, -/-//SMHA, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate with tree turrets, R4! #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and scepter on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones.
exergue: -/-//SMHA, diameter: 18,0-19,0mm, weight: 3,60g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 039, R4!
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2-J1_l-_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-49var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_axis-0h_18-19mm_3,10ga-s.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #166 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #1
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-001
quadrans
Licinius-I_AE-3-Follis_IMP-LICI-NIVS-AVG-2--_PROVIDEN-TIAE-AVGG-_-_SMH-B_RIC-VII-48var-pxx-2nd-off__Heraclea_318-20-AD__Q-001_h_mm_ga-s~0.jpg
Heraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #267 viewsHeraclea, 132 Licinius l. (308-324 A.D.), RIC VII 048var., AE-3 Follis, -/Λ//SMHB, PROVIDENTIAE AVG G, Campgate, #2
avers: IMP LICI NIVS AVG, 2, J1r., Laureate, draped bust right(left are RIC error), holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE AVG G, Campgate with three turrets, no dors, 6 layers of stones and Λ in right in the field.
exergue: -/Λ//SMHB, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Heraclea, 2nd. off., date: 318-320 A.D., ref: RIC VII 048var., (RIC err. not left, right), p547, c1,
Q-002
quadrans
Licinius-II_AE-3-Follis_DN-VAL-LICIN-LICINIVS-NOB-C-6b-J1-l__PRVIDEN-TIAE-CAESS_MHT-_-_RIC-19-p545-4th_-off_-c2_Heracleia_317-AD__Q-001_11h_19mm_2,81ga-s.jpg
Heraclea, 133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), RIC VII 019, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, C2! #171 viewsHeraclea, 133 Licinius II. (317-324 A.D.), RIC VII 019, AE-3 Follis, -/-//MHTΔ, PROVIDENTIAE CAESS, Campgate with three turrets, C2! #1
avers: D N VAL LICIN LICINIVS NOB C, 6b, J1l., Laureate, draped bust left, holding mappa and sceptre on globe.
reverse: PROVIDEN TIAE CAES S, Campgate with three turrets, 6 layers of stone.
exergue: -/-//MHTΔ, diameter: 19mm, weight: 2,81g, axis: 11h,
mint: Heraclea, 4th. off., date: 317 A.D., ref: RIC VII 019, p545, C2,
Q-001
quadrans
Maximinus_II_Daia_39.jpg
I134 viewsMaximinus II AE Follis

Attribution: RIC 66c Nicomedia
Date: AD 309-313
Obverse: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS P F AVG, laureate head r.
Reverse: GENIO AV-GVSTI CH, nude Genius standing l. pouring out patera w/ r. hand and holding cornucopia w/ l., SMNA in exergue
Size: 22 mm
Weight: 5.7 grams

“But Daia, who had only recently been picked up from looking after cattle in the forests, had at once become a guardsman, then an officer of the guard, soon afterwards a tribune, and then the next day a Caesar, and he now received the east to crush and trample underfoot… He would squander money too on anything, without discrimination or limit… He would also take away people’s goods while they were still alive and give them to any of his own followers who sought other people’s property. But his capital vice, in which he surpassed all who have ever lived, was his appetite for seduction… By the end, he had introduced the practice of allowing no one to marry a wife without his permission, so that he himself could sample every marriage in advance…” – Lactantius On the Deaths of the Persecutors 19, 37-38

After the suicide of Maximian and, later, the death of Galerius, Maximinus Daia made a bid for emperor. He and his primary rival, Licinius I came to terms and decided to divide the provinces. Licinius was to control the Balkans, while Maximinus was given Asian Minor and the eastern provinces. Maximinus then resumed the persecution of Christians which had ceased under Galerius’ orders only six months before. In AD 313, however, Maximinus found himself in a final confrontation with his rival Licinius. They met on the plain of the River Ergenus, near Hadrianopolis in Thrace. Constantine (the Great) joined forces with Licinius for the battle. Although Maximinus’ forces numbered over twice as many as his opponents’ (70,000 men), he was not the superior tactician. Maximinus fled the battle dressed as a peasant and headed to Tarsus. This was to no avail, for a few months later, he was under siege by land and sea. Poison proved to be Maximinus Daia’s choice to avoid capture. He drank a poison which was slow acting and took four days of pain and suffering to kill him.
5 commentsNoah
25822_Licinius_I_RIC_VII_9,_EF,_Cyzicus.jpg
IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG, RIC VII 9 Cyzicus6 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Silvered AE 3, RIC VII 9, EF, Cyzicus mint, 3.176g, 19.0mm, 180o, 317 - 320 A.D.; obverse IMP LICI-NVS P F AVG, consular bust left; reverse IOVI CONS-ERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding scepter in left and crowned by Victory on globe in right, chlamys over left shoulder, wreath left, B right, SMK in ex. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
83359q00_Licinius_I_RIC_VII_28,_VF,_Alexandria.jpg
IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, RIC VII 28 Alexandria10 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC VII 28 Alexandria mint, 3.058g, 19.0mm, 0o, 321 - 324 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding scepter and globe with Victory presenting wreath, at feet captive right and eagle with wreath in beak left, X / II“G” right, SMA[L..] in ex; scarce. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
licinius_I_heraclea73.jpg
IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, SMHT in ex. RIC VI 73 Heraclea7 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Silvered follis, RIC VI 73, gVF, Heraclea mint, 3.289g, 22.7mm, 180o, early 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, “G” right, SMHT in ex. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Licinius_I,_IOVI_CONSERVATORI,_Antioch.JPG
IOVI CONSERVATORI, Antioch, RIC 3514 viewsLicinius I, 308-324 AD, IOVI CONSERVATORI, Antioch, 20mm, 3.5g. Obverse: IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS PF AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI; Jupiter standing left, leaning on eagle-tipped sceptre, holding Victory on globe, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X over II Mu in right field, SMANTS in exe. RIC VII Antioch 35, r2. ex areich, photo credit areichPodiceps
licinius_I_Heraclea_52.jpg
IOVI CONSERVATORI, RIC 52 Heraclea11 viewsLicinius I, 11 November 308 - 18 September 324 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC VII 52, VF, Heraclea mint, 2.997g, 21.6mm, 0o, 321 - 324 A.D.; obverse IMP C VAL LICIN LICINIVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding scepter and globe with Victory presenting wreath, at feet captive right and eagle with wreath in beak left, X / II“G” right, SMH“G” in ex. Ex FORVMPodiceps
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great.jpg
Italy- Rome- The Arch of Constantine The Great71 viewsArch of Constantine
The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected to commemorate Constantine's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312 AD. Dedicated in 315 AD, it is the latest of the extant triumphal arches in Rome, from which it differs by the extensive re-use of parts of earlier buildings.

General Description
The arch is 21 m high, 25.7 m wide and 7.4 m deep. It has three archways, the central one being 11.5 m high and 6.5 m wide, the lateral archways 7.4 m by 3.4 m each. The lower part of the monument is built of marble blocks, the top (called attic) is brickwork revetted with marble. A staircase formed in the thickness of the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, in the end towards the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum. It has been suggested that the lower part of the arch is re-used from an older monument, probably from the times of the emperor Hadrian (Conforto et al., 2001; for a defence of the view that the whole arch was constructed in the 4th century, see Pensabene & Panella). The arch spans the Via Triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph. This route started at the Campus Martius, led through the Circus Maximus and around the Palatine Hill; immediately after the Arch of Constantine, the procession would turn left and march along the Via Sacra to the Forum Romanum and on to the Capitoline Hill, passing both the Arches of Titus and Septimius Severus. During the Middle Ages, the Arch of Constantine was incorporated into one of the family strongholds of ancient Rome. Works of restoration were first carried out in the 18th century; the last excavations have taken place in the late 1990s, just before the Great Jubilee of 2000.

Decoration
The decoration of the arch heavily uses parts of older monuments, which are given a new meaning in the context of the Constantinian building. As it celebrates the victory of Constantine, the new "historic" friezes illustrating his campaign in Italy convey the central meaning: the praise of the emperor, both in battle and in his civilian duties. The other imagery supports this purpose: decoration taken from the "golden times" of the Empire under Trajan, Hadrian and Marcus Aurelius places Constantine next to these "good emperors", and the content of the pieces evokes images of the victorious and pious ruler. Another explanation given for the re-use is the short time between the start of construction (late 312 at the earliest) and the dedication (summer 315), so the architects used existing artwork to make up for the lack of time to create new one. As yet another possible reason, it has often been suggested that the Romans of the 4th century lacked the artistic skill to produce acceptable artwork and therefore plundered the ancient buildings to adorn their contemporary monuments. This interpretation has become less prominent in more recent times, as the art of Late Antiquity has been appreciated in its own right. It is, of course, possible that a combination of two or all three of those explanations are correct, as they are not mutually exclusive.

Attic
Above the middle archway, the main inscription (see below) takes the most prominent place of the attic. It is identical on both sides of the arch. Flanking the inscription on both sides, there are pairs of relief panels above the minor archways, 8 in total. They were taken from an unknown monument erected in honour of Marcus Aurelius, and show (north side, left to right) the emperor's return to Rome after the campaign (adventus), the emperor leaving the city and saluted by a personification of the Via Flaminia, the emperor distributing money among the people (largitio), the emperor interrogating a German prisoner, (south side, left to right) a captured enemy chieftain led before the emperor, a similar scene with other prisoners, the emperor speaking to the troops (adlocutio), and the emperor sacrificing pig, sheep and bull. Together with three panels now in the Capitoline Museum, the reliefs were probably taken from a triumphal monument commemorating Marcus Aurelius' war against the Sarmatians from 169 - 175, which ended with his triumphant return in 176. On the largitio panel, the figure of Marcus Aurelius' son Commodus has been eradicated after the latter's damnatio memoriae. On top of each of the columns stand marble statues of Dacian prisoners from the times of Trajan, probably taken from the Forum of Trajan. From the same time date the two large (3 m high) panels decorating the attic on the small sides of the arch, showing scenes from the emperor's Dacian Wars. Together with the two reliefs on the inside of the central archway, they came from a large frieze celebrating the Dacian victory. The original place of this frieze was either the Forum of Trajan, as well, or the barracks of the emperor's horse guard on the Caelius.

Main Section
The general layout of the main facade is identical on both sides of