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Search results - "LIB"
monogram_1[1].jpg
82 viewsOne nummus
Recimer - Libius Severus
RIC X, Rome 2715.
2 commentsRugser
SeptSev1.jpg
31 viewsfr: SEVERUS PIUS AUG
re: LIBERALTAS AUG VI
pax
NERO-6.jpg
41 viewsNERO - Billon Tetradrachm of Alexandria - Year 12=65/66 AD.
Obv.:NERΩ KΛAΥ KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER, radiate bust right, wearing aegis
Rev.: AΥTOKPA, draped bust of Alexandria right in elephant skin headdress, LIB to right.
Gs. 12,65 mm. 26,9
Milne 238, Emmett 109

Maxentius
CARACAL-1.jpg
16 viewsCARACALLA - Denarius - 206/210 AD.
Obv.:ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right
Rev.: LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas standing left holding pileus & scepter.
Gs. 4, mm. 20,5
Cohen 143, RIC 161
Maxentius
DenMPorcioLaeca.jpg
31 viewsDenarius - 125 BC. - Rome (or in Italy) mint
M. PORCIVS LAECA - Gens Porcia
Obv.: Helmeted head of Roma right, LAECA behind
Rev.: Libertas in quadriga right with pileus, crowned by Victory, M PORC below, ROMA in ex.
Gs. 3,9 mm. 17,79x17,35
Crawf. 270/1, Sear RCV 146

Maxentius
DenQTitioLiber.jpg
22 viewsDenarius - 90 BC. - Rome mint
Q. TITIVS - Gens Titia
Obv.:Head of Liber right with ivy-wreath
Rev.: Pegasus springing right from a tablet on which is inscribed Q TITI.
Gs. 3,9 mm. 16,6
Crawf. 341/2, Sear RCV 239, Grueber 2225.
Maxentius
DenScribonioLibo.jpg
14 viewsDenarius. - 62 BC. - Rome mint
L. SCRIBONIVS LIBO - Gens Scribonia
Ob.: Head of Bonus Eventus right, with broad diadem. LIBO behind, BON EVENT before
Rev.:Puteal Scribonianum ornamented with two lyres, hammer and festoons. PVTEAL above, SCRIBON below.
Gs. 3,7 mm. 19,55
Craw. 416/1a, Sear RCV 367, Grueber 3377

Maxentius
DenGiunioBruto.jpg
56 viewsDenarius - 54 BC. - Mint of Rome
MARCVS IUNIVS BRVTVS - Gens Iunia
Obv.: Head of Libertas right. LIBERTAS behind
Rev.: Consul L. Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceeded by accensus, all walking left, BRVTVS in ex.
Gs. 3,5 mm. 20,73x18,56
Crawf. 433/1, Sear RCV 397, Grueber 3861.

1 commentsMaxentius
AesGraveLibralefuso.jpg
83 viewsCast Aes Grave As (reduced libral series) - 225/217 BC. - Rome mint
Anonymous
Obv.: Laureate head of Janus
Rev.: Prow right, I above
Gr. 250 mm. 60,33
Crawford 35/1, Sear RCV 570

Maxentius
Philip_I_Liberalitas.jpg
75 viewsPhilip I. A.D. 244-249. AR double denarius (22 mm, 3.47 g, 6 h). Rome, A.D. 245. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Philip I right / Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 38b; RSC 871 commentspaul1888
Calibria_Tarentum_Scallop_Dolphin_AR10_0_56g.jpg
50 viewsareich
Severus_Alexander_Liberalitas.jpg
93 viewsSeverus Alexander, AR Denarius
Obverse: Laureate bust right, draped left shoulder.
Reverse: Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
Ex: CNG 39, lot 1576
4 commentspaul1888
Libyen_Idris_I_10_Milliemes_AD_1965_AH_1385_Wappen_Kranz_Kupfer_Nickel.jpg
9 views
Libyen

Idris I. 1951-1969

10 Milliemes

AD 1965 / AH 1385

Vs.: Arabische Schrift über Wappen, unten Jahreszahlen

Rs.: Nominal im Kranz, darunter Nominal auf Englisch im Bogen

Rand: Geriffelt

Erhaltung: Stempelglanz

Metall: Kupfer-Nickel

20 mm, 3,22 g _598
Antonivs Protti
Libyen_Idris_I_5_Milliemes_AD_1965_AH_1385_Wappen_Kranz_Nickel_Messing.jpg
9 views
Libyen

Idris I. 1951-1969

5 Milliemes

AD 1965 / AH 1385

Vs.: Arabische Schrift über Wappen, unten Jahreszahlen

Rs.: Nominal im Kranz, darunter Nominal auf Englisch im Bogen

Erhaltung: Etwas fleckig, ansonsten Stempelglanz

Metall: Nickel-Messing

19-20 mm, 2,52 g _898
Antonivs Protti
Libyen_Idris_I_2_Milliemes_1952_Krone_Kranz_Bronze.jpg
11 views

Libyen

Idris I. 1951-1969

2 Milliemes

AD 1952

Vs.: König Idris I. n. r.

Rs.: Nominal über Jahr, das Ganze im Kranz, oben Krone

Rand: Glatt

Erhaltung: Sehr schön

Metall: Bronze

24 mm, 6,08 g _396
Antonivs Protti
Libyen_Idris_I_1_Millieme_AD_1965_AH_1385_Wappen_Kranz_Nickel_Messing.jpg
12 views
Libyen

Idris I. 1951-1969

1 Millieme

AD 1965 / AH 1385

Vs.: Arabische Schrift über Wappen, unten Jahreszahlen

Rs.: Nominal im Kranz, darunter Nominal auf Englisch im Bogen

Rand: Glatt

Erhaltung: Etwas fleckig, ansonsten fast Stempelglanz / Stempelglanz

Metall: Nickel-Messing

16 mm, 1,77 g _593
Antonivs Protti
Libyen_Idris_I_50_Milliemes_AD_1965_AH_1385_Wappen_Kranz_Kupfer_Nickel.jpg
10 views
Ägypten

20 Piaster

AD 1980 / AH 1400

Vs.: Oben arabische Schrift im Bogen, im Feld Nominal, unten Verzierung, links und rechts Jahreszahlen

Rs.: Falke

Literatur: KM# 507

Erhaltung: Vorzüglich

Metall: Kupfer-Nickel

30 mm, 9,98 g _1198
Antonivs Protti
Spanien_Spain_2_Centimos_1870_Barcelona_Liberty_Löwe_Wappen_Kupfer.jpg
17 viewsSpanien

2 Centimos

1870 OM

Münzstätte: Barcelona

Vs.: Löwe mit Wappen

Rs.: Sitzende Liberty

Erhaltung: Sehr schön

Metall: Kupfer

20 mm, 1,87 g _499
Antonivs Protti
antoninus_pius_ric_II_776.jpg
9 viewsANTONINUS PIUS
Sestertius 145-161 A.D.
30.5 mm, 22.2 grams

OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP COS IIII, laureate head right.
REV: LIBERALITAS AVG V, Liberalitas standing left,holding account-board and cornucopiae.
S-C in field
RIC- III -776
ziggy9
antoninus_pius_ric_II_916a.jpg
35 viewsANTONINUS PIUS
Sestertius. 153-154 AD
33.2mm, 22 grams

OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PI VS P P TR P XVII, laureate head right.
REV: LIBERTAS COS III, Libertas standing right, holding pileus and extending right hand.
S-C across field.
RI- III-916a
ziggy9
GordianIII_zpsd2e16069.jpg
19 viewsGordian III Sestertius AE
238-244 AD.
IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, laureate head right/ LIBERTAS AVG S C, Libertas standing left with pileus and scepter
RIC 318a
DarkRain
stuff-01.jpg
13 viewsMassachusetts Treasury Loan Certificate £15 June 1, 1780 MA-8
This certificate is listed as MA-8 in Anderson's The Price of Liberty. It bears the Sword in Hand vignette encircled by a rattlesnake. Anderson rates this piece as a low R7, indicating only 7 to 12 examples are known.
1 commentsSpongeBob
Trajan.jpg
62 viewsTrajan AR Denarius. Rome, AD 113-114. IMP TRAIANO OPTIMO AVG GER DAC P M TR P, laureate and draped bust right / COS VI P P SPQR, Trajan's column surmounted by statue of the emperor; at base, two eagles. RIC 307; BMCRE 522; RSC 115. 3.53g, 20mm, 6h.
Of all of the truly monumental buildings and commemorative structures which the emperor Trajan built, only one, the Columna Traiani, has survived in a reasonable state of completeness. Indeed, it appears almost identical in person as it does on coins, except that the statue of Trajan that originally surmounted it was replaced in 1588 with a statue of St. Paul. When completed, the column occupied a prominent place between two libraries, the Basilica Ulpia and the Temple of Trajan and Plotina. The column was massive: it was over 12 feet in diameter at its base, and rose to a height of nearly 130 feet. Its core was comprised of 34 blocks of Carrara white marble that were made hollow so as to accommodate a circular staircase of 185 steps. The most remarkable feature of the column, however, was its ornamentation, for the friezes on its exterior are some of the most inspiring works of art ever produced. Monumental in scope and execution, they record Trajan’s two Dacian campaigns, from 101-3 and 104-6. All told, there are more than 2,500 individually sculpted figures distributed among more than 150 scenes. The emperor himself is represented no less than fifty times – not a surprise considering his penchant for commemorative architecture and his pride in having added Dacia to the provinces of the empire. “ Source: NAC”

Ex Michael Kelly Collection of Roman Silver Coins
4 commentspaul1888
Tiberius_Prov_Bilibis_2.jpg
3 Tiberius 32 viewsTiberius
AE As, Turiaso, Spain

TI CAESAR AVG F AVGVSTVS IMP / II VIR in oak wreath, MVN TVRIASO MN SVLP LVCAN M SEMP FRONT

RPC.413, H.22
RI0052
Sosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_10_53_46_AM.png
4 Caligula16 viewsGaius Caligula. A.D. 37-41. AE quadrans. Rome mint, struck A.D. 41. Rare. Unlisted in RIC 2nd Edition. From the RJM Collection.
Gaius Caligula. A.D. 37-41. AE quadrans (17.79 mm, 3.20 g, 7 h). Rome mint, struck A.D. 41. C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG , legend around large S - C; Pileus or "Liberty Cap" between / PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT, legend around large RCC. RIC I unlisted; RIC I (1st edition) 41; BMCRE 79-80; BN 126-7. VF, rough, brown surfaces. Rare. Unlisted in RIC 2nd Edition.

From the RJM Collection.

Rare last year of issue, when Gaius was consol for the fourth time

Ex Agora Auctions, 5/9/2017
Sosius
Claudius_As_RIC_113.jpg
5 Claudius48 viewsClaudius. A.D. 41-54.
Æ as (29 mm, 12.16 g, 6 h). Rome, ca. A.D. 50(?)-54.

TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head of Claudius left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, S C across field, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and extending left hand.
RIC 113; BMCRE 204; Cohen -.
Unusual red, green and red-brown patina. Light porosity and chipping on obverse edge. Very fine.
Ex-Triskeles Auction, June 2013
RI0024
3 commentsSosius
image~0.jpg
7 Galba35 viewsGalba. A.D.
68-69 AD
Æ as (27 mm, 10.29 g, 6 h). Rome.

O: IMP SER SVLP GALBA CAES AVG TR P, laureate head of Galba right

R: LIBERTAS PVBLICA, S C across fields, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter.

RIC 328 var. (bare head); BMC 144; BN 160 (same dies). Dark brown and green patina, light roughness.

Good fine.

Ex Triskeles Auctions
RI0040
Sosius
nev.jpg
Nerva, AE dupondius, 97 CE Rome. 20 viewsObverse: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P II COS III P P, radiate head right.
Reverse: LIBERTAS PVBLICA, S-C, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre.
RIC 101; Cohen 120, 27.4 mm., 12.5 g.
NORMAN K
Gordian_III_7.jpg
1 Gordian III23 viewsGordian III
AR Ant 4.4g

O: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate and draped bust right.

R: LIBERALITAS AVG III, Liberalitas standing front, head left, holding abacus & cornucopiae.

RIC IV-3 67; Cohen 142; Sear (5) 8621
Sosius
Vespasian_RPC_832.jpg
10 Vespasian AR Ephesus27 viewsVespasian
AR Denarius.
Ephesus Mint,
71 AD.

O: IMP CAESAR VESPAS AVG COS III TR P P P, laureate head right

R: LIBERI IMP AVG VESPAS, Titus & Domitian standing, heads left, each holding a patera, EPHE monogram in ex.

RIC 1430c, RSC 250, RPC 832, sear5 #2401
RI0064
1 commentsSosius
Nerva_Dupond_RIC_101.jpg
13 Nerva Dupondius40 viewsNERVA
AE dupondius, 97 AD.
Rome mint.
IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P II COS III P P, radiate head right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, S-C, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre.
RIC 101; Cohen 120.
RI0109
Sosius
Marcus_Aurelius_Sest_RIC_1205.jpg
18 Marcus Aurelius Sestertius25 viewsMARCUS AURELIUS
AE Sestertius
Struck 177 AD.
M ANTONINVS AVG GERM SARM TR P XXXI, laureate head r. / LIBERALITAS AVG VII IMP VIII COS III PP SC, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae.
Cohen 422, RIC 1205
RI0105
Sosius
Philip_I_RIC_38b.jpg
2 Philip I15 viewsPHILIP I
AR Antoninianus, 244-9 AD, 4.9g

O: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG Radiate and draped bust right.

R: LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas standing left with abacus

RIC 38(b), Sear 2561; aEF
Sosius
Geta_RIC_44.jpg
26 Geta57 viewsGETA
AR Denarius, 209-211 AD

P SEPTIMIVS GETA CAES, bare-headed, draped bust right / LIBERALITAS AVG VI, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus & cornucopia.

RSC 69, RIC 44 EF
Ex Frasciatus
Sosius
2473d03d8982aed66455e7935ac366a0.jpeg
34 Balbinus83 viewsÆ Sestertius, 30mm, 22.61 g, 12h, Rome mint. 238 AD

O: Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust right

R: Liberalitas standing facing, head left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
RIC IV 15.

Good Fine, black patina with some earthen highlights

Ex CNG
2 commentsSosius
Treb_Gall_RIC_39~0.jpg
4 Trebonianus Gallus14 viewsTREBONIANUS GALLUS
AR Antoninianus, 3.6g
251-253 AD

IMP CAE C VIB TREB GALLUS AVG, radiate & draped bust right / LIBERTAS AVGG, Liberty standing left with pilius & leaning on column.

Sear ’88: 2786, RIC 39, RSC 67.
Sosius
rjb_gal15_09_06.jpg
47022 viewsAntoninianus
Rome
Issue 7
LIBERAL AVG
G 470
mauseus
Galba_RIC_366.jpg
6 Galba AE As19 viewsGALBA
AE As

O: IMP SER GALBA CAES AVG P M TR P, laureate head right

R: LIBERTAS PVBLICA S C, Libertas, draped, standing left with pileus and vertical rod.

RIC 366 F/VG, holed
RI0036
Sosius
Gallienus_RIC_230_Panther.jpg
7 Gallienus38 viewsGALLIENUS
BI Antoninianus.
Sole reign, 253-268 AD

O: GALLIENVS AVG, radiate bust right

R: LIBERO P CONS AVG, panther walking left.

RIC 230, RSC 586; Sear 10281. aVF
Sosius
rjb_gal31_09_06.jpg
71330 viewsAntoninianus
Rome
Issue 10
LIBERO P CONS AVG
G 713
mauseus
IMG_0362.JPG
C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus8 viewsMoneyer issues of Imperatorial Rome. C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus. 48 BC. AR Denarius (18mm, 3.73 g, 6h). Rome mint. Head of young Bacchus (or Liber) right, wearing ivy wreath / Ceres advancing right, holding a torch with each hand; plow to right. Crawford 449/2; CRI 21; Sydenham 946; Vibia 16. VF, toned, edge chip.

From the Archer M. Huntington Collection, ANS 1001.2.9.
ecoli
Gordian-III-RIC-177-87.jpg
Gordian III / RIC 177 over 187, 1'st series.31 viewsAntoninianus, 238-239 AD, Antioch mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: AEQVIT LIBER / Body and feet of Aequitas holding scales; Body and feet of Libertas holding pileus (Liberty cap) .
5.00 gm, 22 mm.
RIC #177 over #187.

This coin has two different reverses: the Aequitas type (RIC #177) is overstruck at 180 degree rotation on top of the Libertas type (RIC #187). Or, perhaps it is the other way around: The Libertas type (RIC #187) is overstruck on top of the Aequitas type (RIC #177).

The T of AEQVITAS AVG is almost flattened out and is just barely visible. At Antioch, Libertas with the pileus always has the legend LIBERALITAS AVG rather than LIBERTAS AVG.

There is a footnote to RIC #231 (vol. IV, part III, p. 39) which is quite intriguing:

"231. A strange Antoninianus (G. B. Pears Coll.) shows rev. type of AEQVIT[AS] apparently overstruck with type of LIBER[TAS] -- obv. of Gordian III, rev. of Philip overstruck with rev. of Trebonianus Gallus (?)."

I posted this coin on Forvmancientcoins.com and got this reply from Curtis Clay:

"A neat example of this error, and one I hadn't been aware of before, despite its mention in the RIC footnote!
As you expected, you now own the coin formerly in the Pears collection: we know because there is a plaster cast of it so labeled in the BM, which is illustrated in Roger Bland's dissertation, pl. 10, 18/21 !
One of the reverse types is Libertas with cap, but its legend must have been LIBERALITAS not LIBERTAS AVG: the Eastern mint always mislabeled its Libertas type as Liberalitas. RIC made the same mistake regarding the reverse legend; corrected by Bland, who lists the coin under the type LIBERALITAS AVG.
I had never heard of G. B. Pears or his collection before, so can supply no information in that regard."
Callimachus
Philip I Sestertius RIC 180a~0.JPG
Philip I Sestertius RIC 180a101 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, Rome mint, , 0o, 244 - 249 A.D.
Obverse: IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Reverse: LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right and cornucopia in left, S C at sides
RIC 180a, scarce
19.46g, 31.3mm
1 commentsJerome Holderman
gallienus_tiger~0.jpg
Tigress - Gallienus RIC VI 230190 viewsGallienus, Striped Tigress, AE Antoninianus. Rome mint, sole reign.
Obverse - GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right.
Reverse - LIBERO P CONS AVG, striped tigress walking left.
Mintmark R, Rome. 19.4 mm diam. 3.1 g
NORMAN K
00001x00~4.jpg
59 viewsUNITED STATES, Hard Times. Political issues.
CU Token (28.5mm, 10.36 g, 6 h). Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1837.
Laureate head of Liberty right; above, E. PLURIBUS UNUM on ribbon; thirteen stars around; 1837
MILLIONS FOR DEFENCE. Within wreath: NOT/ ONE/ CENT/ -/ FOR TRIBUTE
Rulau HT 48; Low 28
Ardatirion
00093x00.jpg
85 viewsUNITED STATES, Hard Times. Political issues.
CU Token (29mm, 8.98 g, 11h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1838
Head of Liberty (or native American?) left, wearing ribbon inscribed LOCO FOCO; thirteen stars around; 1838
* BENTON */ EXPER IMENT. MINT/ DROP/ – within wreath
Rulau HT 63; Low 55
Ardatirion
kyHWAyT.jpg
18 viewsUNITED STATES, Hard Times. Political issues.
CU Token (28.5mm, 8.53 g, 12h). Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1838.
AM I NOT A WOMAN & A SISTER, hained female slave kneeling right, raising arms in supplication; * 1838 * below UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, LIBERTY/ 1838 within wreath
Rulau HT 81; Low 54

Ex Album 33 (17 January 2019), lot 2542

June 1900 saw a brief flurry of journalistic interest in the "Am I Not A Woman & A Sister" tokens. A specimen had been found in a garden in Indiana, apparently in one of the many towns that claim a connection to the Underground Railroad, and received a glowing and fanciful write up in the local newspaper. The paper claimed that it was a "Talisman of Slavery," and used as a token to ensure safe passage along the escaped slave's route, and that it was a very rare piece. The following week a newspaper in Maine recorded that a local collector had another example, again drawing a purported connection to the Underground Railroad. Astutely, the July 1900 edition of the American Journal of Numismatics pointed out that, while an isolated use like this was possible, it was not what the tokens were originally intended for.
Ardatirion
00001x00~3.jpg
92 viewsUNITED STATES TOKENS, Hard Times. Belleville, New Jersey. “T. Duseaman, butcher”
CU Token (28mm, 10.84 g, 1h)
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Struck 1837
AGRICULTURE & COMMERCE/ * BAS CANADA *
Bouquet
T. DUSEAMAN BUTCHER/ * BELLEVILLE *
Eagle standing left, with wings spread and head left, holding shield emblazoned with anchor; thirteens stars around
Rulau HT 204; Low 148; Corteau 71; Charlton LC-45; Breton 670

T. Duseaman never existed. This type was struck from a rejected die for the token of one Tobias Seaman, a butcher in Belleville. Mint workers added a U to the name and combined it with a damaged die from the Lower Canada series to produce this currency issue. Breton notes that the type is most often found in Canada, suggesting that it was deliberately produced at minimal cost for sale to Canadian brokers.
Ardatirion
00006x00~1.jpg
77 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. New York, New York. John H. Dayton, Union Steam Washing.
CU Token (28.5mm, 9.85 g, 12 h) Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by John Gibbs. Dated 1837
Laureate head of Liberty right; above, E. PLURIBUS UNUM on ribbon; thirteen stars around; 1837; c/m: small D above, '61' in white ink to left
* JAY. H. DAYTONS. UNION STEAM WASHING EST./ * 17th St. NEAR 5th AVENUE * NY/, WASHING/ DONE FOR/ SHIPS. ST BOATS/ HOTELS &/ PRIVATE FAMILIES
Rulau HT 249, Low 114

Ex Don Miller Collection; William Dunham Collection (B. Max Mehl, 3 August 1941), lot 2680
Ardatirion
quadrans.jpg
107 viewsROME. temp. Hadrian-Antoninus Pius. Circa AD 120-161
Æ Quadrans (16mm, 2.94 g, 7h)
Rome mint
Petasus
Winged caduceus; S C flanking
Weigel 18; RIC II 32; Cohen 36

Weigel reconsiders the anonymous quadrantes as a cohesive group. The seriesportrays a pantheon of eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules. Types are primarily a portrait of the god, with an attribute on the reverse and are usually influenced by (but not directly copied from) earlier designs, primarily from the Republic. He updates the series to the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus.
5 commentsArdatirion
00022x00.jpg
55 viewsROME. temp. Domitian-Antoninus Pius. Circa AD 81-160
Æ Quadrans (16mm, 3.99 g, 12 h)
Rome mint
Griffin seated left, paw on wheel
Tripod; S C flanking
Weigel 15; RIC II 28; Cohen 38

Weigel reconsiders the anonymous quadrantes as a cohesive group. The seriesportrays a pantheon of eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules. Types are primarily a portrait of the god, with an attribute on the reverse and are usually influenced by (but not directly copied from) earlier designs, primarily from the Republic. He updates the series to the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus.
Ardatirion
grQJzsE.jpg
24 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA, nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 1/A; Colver & Harley 1; KM Tn 2

The first regular strike in the sequence.
Ardatirion
00001x00~13.jpg
9 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA, nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 1/D; Colver & Harley –; KM Tn2

Ex Katz E-Auction 24 (14 August 2019), lot 900

The obverse of this token is from the first regular circulation issue, here heavily repolished and paired with a die from one of the final strikes, linking the two otherwise distinct sets of obverse dies. Only seven examples of this pairing are known. Snyder notes that die pairing 3/C, presently unlinked to others, could place between the first (obv 5 & 1) and second group (obv 2 &4). As obverses 3 and 4 both occur with significant breaks, this 1/D pairing may have been struck to replace either 3 or 4, with the later being more likely considering the sequence, and the 3/C pair the final set of dies used.
Ardatirion
00002x00~10.jpg
42 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA, nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 1/E; Colver & Harley 5; KM Tn 2
1 commentsArdatirion
00002x00~2.jpg
78 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent (28.5mm, 10.38 g, 1h). Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dies by Gibbs. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA. Nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 2/B; Colver & Harley 2; KM Tn 1
Ardatirion
00001x00~12.jpg
32 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA. Nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 2/B; Colver & Harley 2; KM Tn 1

Ex Westfälische Auktionsgesellschaft Online Auction 91 (4 November 2018), lot 259
Ardatirion
00003x02.jpg
5 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847.
CU Cent. Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833.
LIBERIA, nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 2/D; Colver & Harley 6; KM Tn 1
Ardatirion
00007x00~5.jpg
31 viewsLIBERIA, American Colonization Society. 1820-1847
CU Cent
Belleville (New Jersey) mint. Dated 1833
LIBERIA, Nude man standing before shore, cutting at tree to left; brush to right; in distance, ship under sail right; 1833 in exergue
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY/ ONE CENT. FOUNDED/ A.D./ 1816
Snyder dies 4/D; Colver & Harley 4; KM Tn1

The final regular strike in the sequence.
Ardatirion
00035x00.jpg
69 viewsUNITED STATES TOKENS. Civil War. Wooster, Ohio. J.R. Bowman.
CU Token (19mm, 3.57 g, 2 h)
Dated 1863
Head of Liberty left, wearing feathered headdress inscribed LIBERTY, within circle of thirteen stars, 1863 below
J. R. BOWMAN/ DEALER/ IN/ WATCHES/ CLOCKS/ &/ JEWELRY/ WEST LIBERTY ST./ WOOSTER, O., clock hands in background
Rulau CWT 975B-3a
1 commentsArdatirion
00087x00.jpg
20 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966
AL Twenty-five Cent Token (24mm, 1.48 g, 11h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 25¢/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00086x00.jpg
21 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Ten Cent Token (22.5mm, 1.28 g, 2h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 10¢/ IN TRADE
Lipscomb WO 8051; TC 226639

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
00085x00.jpg
16 viewsUNITED STATES, Trade Tokens. Wooster, Ohio. Archer House. Circa 1878-1966.
AL Five Cent Token (21.5mm, 1.16 g, 8h)
ARCHER HOUSE -:- around central hole
GOOD FOR/ 5¢/ IN TRADE

Archer House hotel was constructed in 1878 on the corner of Buckeye and Liberty Streets, on the site of the earlier wood frame Washington House tavern. The founders, tailor E.B. Connelly and his sister-in-law Melinda, named the establishment after Melinda's deceased son, Archer. Melinda Connelly later remarried to A.M. Parrish, with whom she would operate the hotel until her death. The property passed to heir great-grandson, on who's behalf it was sold to Dr. Alonzo Smith in 1923. Archer House was finally purchased by Robert Freeman in 1964, and was razed in 1966. Today, a two story professional building stands on the spot.
Ardatirion
nerva_libertas.jpg
(0096) NERVA11 views96-98 AD
Struck 96 AD
AE 26.5 mm max; 9.26 g
O: IMP. NERVA CAES. AVG. P. M TR. P. COS. II P. P; Laureate bust right.
R: LIBERTAS PVBLICA S. C; Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre.
Rome; RIC 227, 64; BMC 108.
laney
limes_den2_res.jpg
(0198) CARACALLA31 views198 - 217 AD
AE Limes Denarius 18.5 mm 2.51 g
O: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT. Laureate head right.
R: P M TR P XVI COS IIII P P. Libertas standing with pileus and scepter.
Rome; cf. RIC 209.
laney
sev_alex_caesarea_ad_libanum.jpg
(0222) SEVERUS ALEXANDER26 viewsIssued 221-222 AD (as Caesar, struck under Elagabalus)
AE 23 mm; 9.93 g
O: Radiate head right
R: Tetrastyle tripartite temple of Astarte; Astarte stands in middle section, facing, holding standard in right hand with left foot set on prow; Nike stands on cippus to Astarte's right, crowning her; river god beneath, swimming right; outside staircases lead to the side-wings; in the left wing goddess with kalathos stands facing between two animals; in the right wing female figure stands facing.
BMC 110, 9; Lindgren II, 1321, 2288 (Rare)
Phoenicia, Caesarea ad Libanum
laney
GORD_LIBERTAS.jpg
(0238) GORDIAN III --LIBERTAS28 views238 - 244 AD
AE SESTERTIUS 29X31mm 17.16 g
O: GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG
LAUR DR CUIR BUST R
R: LIBERTAS AVG S-C
LIBERTAS STANDING R HOLDING PILEUS & SCEPTER
RIC 318a
(SCARCE, PER RIC)
laney
gallien_liberal_res.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS16 views253-268 AD
AE 18.5 mm, 2.53 g
O: GALLIENVS AVG radiate head right
R: Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae


laney
CLAUD_03_08_RES.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS41 views41 - 54 AD
AE As 28.5 mm 10.31g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: [LIBERTAS] AVGVS[TA], Libertas standing facing r., holding pileus, l hand extended S-C
laney
CLAUDIUS_RES.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS46 views CLAUDIUS
AE As
41-54 A.D.
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP Bare head left.
R: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus, left hand extended
Rome
laney
claudius_libert_xres.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)21 views41 - 54 AD
27.5 mm, 10.64 g
O: Bare head left
R: S C, Libertas standing right holding pileus
laney
claudius_libertas10res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)24 views41 - 54 AD
AE As 29 mm, 7.39 g
Obv: Claudius head, bare, left
Rev: S - C to l. and r. of Libertas, draped, standing facing, head r., holding pileus.
laney
claudius_lib_xy.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)39 views41-54 AD
29 mm, 12.81 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left
R: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and extending left arm
Rome RIC I 97
laney
claudius_liber_3_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)25 views41 - 54 AD
AE 27 mm 8.88 g
O: Bare head left
R: S C, Libertas standing right holding pileus
laney
CLAUDIUS_LIBERTAS1_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)22 views41 - 54 AD
AE As 27 mm, 9.73 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left
R: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing right holding pileus
laney
claudius_libertas_2_res.jpg
(05) CLAUDIUS (LIBERTAS)21 views41 - 54 AD
AE As 26.5 mm, 10.10 g
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left
R: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing right holding pileus
laney
galba~0.jpg
(07) GALBA40 viewsÆ As 27.5 mm 9.43 g
ca. October 68 AD
O: SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P Laureate head right.
R: LIBERTAS PVBLICA Libertas standing, head left, holding cap, S-C
RIC 445v
ROME
laney
GALBA_RED.jpg
(07) GALBA35 viewsGALBA
69 AD
AE Dupondius
29.5 mm 11.73 g
O: IMP SER GALBA AVG TR P, laureate head right
R: LIBERTAS PVBLICA S C, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter
laney
galba_libertas.jpg
(07) GALBA23 viewsGALBA
69 AD
AE Dupondius
29.5 mm 11.73 g
O: IMP SER GALBA AVG TR P, laureate head right
R: LIBERTAS PVBLICA S C, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter
laney
VITELLIUS_RED.jpg
(09) VITELLIUS31 views VITELLIUS
69 AD
AE As
O: A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate bust left
R: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, S-C across field, Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, holding pileus in right hand and scepter in left.
Spanish, Tarraco?
laney
vitellius_libertas_denarius.jpg
(09) VITELLIUS10 views69 AD
AR Denarius 17 mm, 3.00 g
O: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right
R: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus and long staff.
Rome; RIC 105; RSC 47
ex. Roma Numismatics auction
laney
P.Licinius Nerva voting.jpg
(500a113) Roman Republic, P. Licinius Nerva, 113-112 B.C.86 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC: P. Licinius Nerva. AR denarius (3.93 gm). Rome, ca. 113-112 BC. Helmeted bust of Roma left, holding spear over right shoulder and shield on left arm, crescent above, * before, ROMA behind / P. NERVA, voting scene showing two citizens casting their ballots in the Comitium, one receiving a ballot from an attendant, the other dropping his ballot into a vessel at right. Crawford 292/1. RSC Licinia 7. RCTV 169. Nearly very fine. Ex Freeman and Sear.

Here is a denarius whose reverse device is one that celebrates the privilege and responsibility that is the foundation of a democratic society; it is a forerunner to the L. Cassius Longinus denarius of 63 B.C. Granted, humanity had a long road ahead toward egalitarianism when this coin was struck, but isn't it an interesting testimony to civil liberty's heritage? "The voter on the left (reverse) receives his voting tablet from an election officer. Horizontal lines in the background indicate the barrier separating every voting division from the others. Both voters go across narrow raised walks (pontes); this is intended to ensure that the voter is seen to cast his vote without influence" (Meier, Christian. Caesar: A Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 12). This significant coin precedes the Longinus denarius by 50 years.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
2 commentsCleisthenes
LonginusDenarius.jpg
(504c) Roman Republic, L. Cassius Longinus, 63 B.C.68 viewsSilver denarius, Crawford 413/1, RSC I Cassia 10, SRCV I 364, aVF, struck with worn dies, Rome mint, weight 3.867g, maximum diameter 20.3mm, die axis 0o, c. 63 B.C. Obverse: veiled bust of Vesta left, kylix behind, L before; Reverse: LONGIN III V, voter standing left, dropping tablet inscribed V into a cista.

The reverse of this Longinus denarius captures a fascinating moment when a Roman citizen casts his ballot. "The abbreviation III V [ir] indentifies Longinus as one of the three annually appointed mintmasters (officially called tres viri aere argento auro flando feriundo). A citizen is seen casting his vote into the urn. On the ballot is the letter 'U', short for uti rogas, a conventional formula indicating assent to a motion. The picture alludes to the law, requested by an ancestor of the mintmaster, which introduced the secret ballot in most proceedings of the popular court" (Meier, Christian. Caesar, a Biography. Berlin: Severin and Siedler, 1982. Plate 6).

The date that this denarius was struck possesses unique significance for another reason. Marcus Tullius Cicero (politician, philosopher, orator, humanist) was elected consul for the year 63 BC -- the first man elected consul who had no consular ancestors in more than 30 years. A "new man," Cicero was not the descendant of a "patrician" family, nor was his family wealthy (although Cicero married "well"). Cicero literally made himself the man he was by the power of the words he spoke and the way in which he spoke them. A witness to and major player during the decline of the Roman Republic, Cicero was murdered in 43 BC by thugs working for Marc Antony. But Cicero proved impossible to efface.

Cicero's words became part of the bed rock of later Roman education. As Peter Heather notes, every educated young man in the late Roman Empire studied "a small number of literary texts under the guidance of an expert in language and literary interpretation, the grammarian. This occupied the individual for seven or more years from about the age of eight, and concentrated on just four authors: Vergil, Cicero, Sallust and Terence" (Heather, Peter. The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. 17).


Plutarch: Cicero's Death

But in the meantime the assassins were come with a band of soldiers, Herennius, a centurion, and Popillius, a tribune, whom Cicero had formerly defended when prosecuted for the murder of his father. Finding the doors shut, they broke them open, and Cicero not appearing, and those within saying they knew not where he was, it is stated that a youth, who had been educated by Cicero in the liberal arts and sciences, an emancipated slave of his brother Quintus, Philologus by name, informed the tribune that the litter was on its way to the sea through the close and shady walks. The tribune, taking a few with him, ran to the place where he was to come out. And Cicero, perceiving Herennius running in the walks, commanded his servants to set down the litter; and stroking his chin, as he used to do, with his left hand, he looked steadfastly upon his murderers, his person covered with dust, his beard and hair untrimmed, and his face worn with his troubles. So that the greatest part of those that stood by covered their faces whilst Herennius slew him. And thus was he murdered, stretching forth his neck out of the litter, being now in his sixty-fourth year. Herennius cut off his head, and, by Antony's command, his hands also, by which his Philippics were written; for so Cicero styled those orations he wrote against Antony, and so they are called to this day.

When these members of Cicero were brought to Rome, Antony was holding an assembly for the choice of public officers; and when he heard it, and saw them, he cried out, "Now let there be an end of our proscriptions." He commanded his head and hands to be fastened up over the rostra, where the orators spoke; a sight which the Roman people shuddered to behold, and they believed they saw there, not the face of Cicero, but the image of Antony's own soul. And yet amidst these actions he did justice in one thing, by delivering up Philologus to Pomponia, the wife of Quintus; who, having got his body into her power, besides other grievous punishments, made him cut off his own flesh by pieces, and roast and eat it; for so some writers have related. But Tiro, Cicero's emancipated slave, has not so much as mentioned the treachery of Philologus.

Translation by John Dryden: http://intranet.grundel.nl/thinkquest/moord_cicero_plu.html

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
commodus333.jpg
*SOLD*12 viewsCommodus AE Sestertius

Attribution: RIC 619
Date: AD 192
Obverse: L AEL AVREL COMM AVG P FEL, laureate head r.
Reverse: LIB AVG P M TR P XVII COS VII P P SC, Liberitas stg. l.
holding pileus & scepter, * in field
Noah
Claudius_II_Gothicus1.jpg
*SOLD*15 viewsClaudius II Billon Antoninianus

Attribution: RIC 62 variant (scepter instead of cornucopia)
Date: AD 269-270
Obverse: IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG, radiate, cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: LIBERT AVG, Libertas stg. facing, head l., holding pileum in her right hand and a tall scepter in her l., X in r. field. (Reverse of Gallienus - cf Sear5 11349)
Size: 18.9 mm
Noah
Claudius_RIC_I_97.jpg
*SOLD*10 viewsClaudius Copper AS

Attribution: RIC I 97, BMCRE 145
Date: AD 41-50
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head l.
Reverse: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas stg facing, head r., pileus in r., extending l. arm, S-C in fields.
Size: 28.7 mm
Weight: 10.62 grams
ex-Forvm
Noah
2160368.jpg
001a. Cleopatra VII and Mark Antony50 viewsSYRIA, Coele-Syria. Chalcis ad Libanum. Mark Antony, with Cleopatra VII. 36-31 BC. Æ 19mm (5.45 g, 12h). Dated RY 21 (Egyptian) and 6 (Phoenician) of Cleopatra (32/1 BC). Draped bust of Cleopatra right, wearing stephane / Bare head of Mark Antony right; dates in legend. RPC I 4771; Rouvier 440 (Berytus); SNG München 1006; SNG Copenhagen 383 (Phoenicia). Near Fine, green patina.

Chalcis was given by Antony to Cleopatra in 36 BC. At the culmination of his spectacular triumph at Alexandria two years later, further eastern territories - some belonging to Rome - were bestowed on the children of the newly hailed “Queen of Kings” (referred to as the “Donations of Alexandria”). Shortly after, Antony formally divorced Octavia, the sister of Octavian. These actions fueled Octavian’s propagandistic efforts to win the support of Rome’s political elite and ultimately led to the Senate’s declaration of war on Cleopatra in 32 BC.

Ex-CNG
ecoli
3_zmniejszone.jpg
004b CLAUDIUS33 viewsEMPEROR: Claudius
DENOMINATION: As
OBVERSE: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, bare head left
REVERSE: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing with pileus, extending left hand
DATE: Ad 42-54
MINT: Roma
WEIGHT: 11.61 g
RIC: 113
1 commentsBarnaba6
marsbilder_(40).jpg
005 - Septimius Severus (193-211 AD), denarius - RIC 27882 viewsObv: SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laurate bust right.
Rev: LIBERALITAS AVG VI, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
Minted in Rome 208 AD
1 commentspierre_p77
coin321.JPG
005. Claudius23 viewsLibertas

In Roman mythology, Libertas (which in Latin means freedom) was the goddess of freedom.

Æ As (9.50 gm). Bare head left / Libertas standing right, holding pileus. RIC I 113; BMCRE 202; Cohen 47. Fine, red-gray patina

Check
ecoli
coin188.JPG
005. CLAUDIUS 41 AD - 54 AD53 viewsCLAUDIUS. 41-54 AD.

I, Claudius was a very sympathetic treatment of Claudius; nevertheless, along with Claudius the God, those books hold a special place in my library. Without those books, I would not have taken an interest in the classics in high school, and subsequently, ancient coins. Certainly Claudius was not a saint; nor good as we define a person now; but given the circumstances and the unlimited power he weld, few of us could have done it better.

Æ As (9.50 gm). Bare head left / Libertas standing right, holding pileus. RIC I 113; BMCRE 202; Cohen 47. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli
0051.jpg
0051 - Denarius Scribonia 62 BC46 viewsObv/Diademed head of Bonus Eventus r., behind LIBO, before BON EVENT.
Rev/Well-head ornamented with garland and two lyres, tong at base, PVTEAL above, SCRIBON below.

Ag, 19.5mm, 3.42g
Moneyer: L Scribonius Libo.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 416/1b [dies o/r: 206/229] - Syd. 928 - Calicó 1247 - BMCRR Rome 3382 - RSC Scribonia 8-8b - RCV 367.
ex-Valencia Coin Fair, 29 feb 2008
dafnis
0064.jpg
0064 - Denarius Septimius Severus 193 AC66 viewsObv/IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS I, laureate headof Septimius r.
Rev/LIBERAL AVG, Liberalitas standing front draped, head to r., holding abacus and cornucopiae.

Ag, 19.6mm, 2.82g
Mint: Emesa (?)
RIC -- - BMCRE -- (p.89)
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils, auction 95, lot 161
1 commentsdafnis
0077.jpg
0077 - Denarius Vibia 48 BC40 viewsObv/Head of Liber r., wearing ivy wreath; behind, PANSA.
Rev/Ceres walking r., carrying torches, plow before.

Ag, 19.0mm, 3.66g
Moneyer: C.Vibius Pansa Caetronianius.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 449/2 [dies o/r: 54/60]
ex-Artemide Aste, auction 5E, lot 1151
2 commentsdafnis
0010-019.jpg
0110 - Republic, Quartuncia66 viewsRome mint, circa 217-215 BC
Head of Roma right, wearing a crested helmet
Prow of galey right, ROMA above
3,41 gr - 15 mm
Ref :RCV # 624
According to RCV, "the quartuncia is the smallest denomination of the Roman bronze coinage, and has been briefly produced during the semilibral weight standard. With the further decline in the weight of the bronze coinage after 215 BC, issue of the experimental quartuncia ceased."
4 commentsPotator II
Claudius_AE-AS_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP_LIBERTAS-AVGVSTA_S-C_RIC-I-097_C-47_BMC-145-Rome-41-50-AD_Q-001_7h_28,5-29,5mm_11,05ga-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 097, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, S/C//--, #1136 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 097, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, S/C//--, #1
avers:- TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Bare head of Claudius left .
revers:- LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus in right hand, S—C across in lower fields.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 28,5-29,5mm, weight: 11,05g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 41-50 A.D., ref: RIC I 097, C 47, BMC 145, Sear 1859,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Claudius_AE-AS_TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P_LIBERTAS-AVGVSTA_S-C_RIC-I-113_C-47_Rome-50-54-_Q-001_27-28mm_10,94g-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 113, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, #1392 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 113, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, #1
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, Bare head left.
revers:- LIBERTAS-AVGVSTA - Libertas standing, facing, holding pileus and raising hand; S C across fields.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: 10,94g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 41-50 A.D., ref: RIC-I-113, C-47,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
Claudius--Q-001pa-s.jpg
012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 113, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, #293 views012 Claudius-I (41-54 A.D.), RIC I 113, Rome, AE-As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas, #2
avers:- TI-CLAVDIVS-CAESAR-AVG-P-M-TR-P-IMP-P-P, Bare head left.
revers:- LIBERTAS-AVGVSTA - Libertas standing, facing, holding pileus and raising hand; S C across fields.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis:- h,
mint: Rome, date: 41-50 A.D., ref: RIC-I-113, C-47,
Q-002
quadrans
RI 015b img.jpg
015 - Claudius AS - RIC 09790 viewsObv:– TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, Claudius facing left
Rev:– LIBERTAS AVGVSTA / S C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand
Reference RIC 97
(SOLD)
maridvnvm
0160.jpg
0160 - Denarius Septimius Severus 201-10 AC52 viewsObv/ SEVERVS PIVS AVG, laureate head of S.S. r.
Rev/ LIBERALITAS AVG VI, Liberalitas draped, standing l., holding abacus and cornucopia.

Ag, 19.5 mm, 3.59 g
Mint: Roma.
BMCRE V/349 – RIC IV.1/278a [C]
ex-Jean Elsen et Fils, list 259, lot 212
dafnis
017,_Galba,_AE-As,_SER_GALBA__IMP_AVG,_LIBERTAS_PVBLICA,_RIC-372,_Rome,_68-69AD,_Rare,_Q-001,_6h,_25-27,5mm,_9,72g-s.jpg
017 Galba (68-69 A.D.), RIC I 0372, Rome, AE-As, S/C//--, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing facing, head left,66 views017 Galba (68-69 A.D.), RIC I 0372, Rome, AE-As, S/C//--, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing facing, head left,
avers: SER•GALBA IMP•AVG, Laureate head right, with a globe at point of bust.
reverse: LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing facing, head left, holding pileus in extended right hand, cradling vindicta in the left arm. S C across the field.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 25,0-27,5mm, weight: 9,72g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 68-69 A.D., ref: RIC-372, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
0172.jpg
0172 - Denarius Cassia 55 BC34 viewsObv/Head of Liberty r., LIBERT behind, Q CASSIVS before.
Rev/Curule chair within temple of Vesta; to l., urn; to r., voting tablet inscribed AC.

Ag, 18.1mm, 4.02g
Moneyer: Q. Cassius Longinus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 428/2 [dies o/r: 60/67] - Syd. 918 - RSC Cassia 8
ex-Valencia Coin Market, Dec 2012
1 commentsdafnis
Caligula-RIC-40.jpg
023. Caligula.14 viewsQuadrans, 40 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG / Liberty cap between SC
Reverse: COS TERT PON M TR P IIII P P / R C C
2.68 gm., 17 mm.
RIC #40; Sear #1804.

The letters R C C signify "remissa ducentesima," referring to the abolition of a tax by Caligula in 39 AD. It was a tax of one percent levied on all commodities sold by auction, the vectigal rerum venalium.
Callimachus
Nerva_AR_Den-IMP-NERVA-CAES-AVG-P-M-TR-P-COS-III-PP_LIBERTAS-PVBLICA_RIC-19_-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_17,5-18,5mm_3,28g-s.jpg
026 Nerva (96-98 A.D.), RIC II 019, Rome, AR-Denarius, -/-//--, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, #183 views026 Nerva (96-98 A.D.), RIC II 019, Rome, AR-Denarius, -/-//--, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, #1
avers: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, holding cap and staff.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-18,5mm, weight:3,28g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC II 19, p-, C-,
Q-001
quadrans
Nerva_AR_Den-IMP-NERVA-CAES-AVG-PM-TRP-COS-III-PP_LIBERTAS-PVBLICA_RIC-19_-AD_Q-002_axis-6h_17-18mm_3,36g-s.jpg
026 Nerva (96-98 A.D.), RIC II 019, Rome, AR-Denarius, -/-//--, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, #2105 views026 Nerva (96-98 A.D.), RIC II 019, Rome, AR-Denarius, -/-//--, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, #2
avers: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, holding cap and staff.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17-18mm, weight:3,36g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC II 19, p-, C-,
Q-002
3 commentsquadrans
Nerva_AE_As_IMP-NERVA-CAES-AVG-PM-TRP-COS-III-PP_LIBERTAS-PVBLICA_S-C_RIC-86-C-115_97-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_29,5-30mm_12,35ga-s.jpg
026 Nerva (96-98 A.D.), RIC II 086, Rome, AE-As, S/C//--, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left,92 views026 Nerva (96-98 A.D.), RIC II 086, Rome, AE-As, S/C//--, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left,
avers: IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P, Laureate head right.
reverse: LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre, S-C to sides.
exergue: S/C//--, diameter: 29,5-30mm, weight:12,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 97 A.D., ref: RIC II 86, p-, C-115,
Q-001
quadrans
LitraRoma.jpg
026/3 Litra or 1/8 ounce40 viewsAnonymous. Æ Litra or 1/8 ounce. Rome. 234-231 BC. ( 3.43g, 15mm, 5h) Obv: Laureate head of Apollo right Rev: Horse rearing left, wearing bridle, bit, and reins; ROMA below.

Crawford 26/3; Sydenham 29 (Half-litra); Kestner 56-65; BMCRR Romano-Campanian 70-74 (Half-litra)

This coin is attributed as a Litra by Crawford, others define it as half-litra. However, it could be argued that "1/8 ounce piece" is the better description.

First of all, on litra and half-litra:

"According to Crawford, the weight standard of the series 26 litra and half litra are based on a litra of 3.375 grams . The half litra in Crawford is described as having a dog on the reverse rather than a horse, and the average weight of the half litra of several specimens is described as 1.65 grams. BMCRR does refer to these as half litrae; but keep in mind that Grueber was writing circa 1900 and based on older scholarship. Sydenham was writing in the 1950s. Of the three major works cited, Crawford is the most current and likely based on a greater number of more recent finds."

Andrew Mccabe:

"It's very doubtful to me that the word "litra" is correct. Much more likely, these small bronze coins were simply fractions of the Aes Grave cast coinage system, as they come in weights of 1/4, 1/8 and 1/16 ounce, and the Aes Grave coinage generally had denominations from As down to Semuncia (1/2 ounce). So this coin would be 1/8 ounce coin. That's my view, which differs from their long term designation as "Litra", which presume them to be overvalued token bronze coinage on the Sicilian model, whereby bronze coins had value names that indicate a relationship to the silver coinage.

Litra, the word, is from the same stem as Libra, i.e. pound, would suggest a denomination of a (light) Sicilian pound of bronze, which sometimes equates in value to a small silver coin in Sicily weighing about 1/12 didrachm (about 0.6 grams) so by this definition, a Litra = an Obol. But it hardly stands up to scrutiny that such a tiny bronze coin, weighing 3.375 grams, could have been equivalent to a 0.6 gram silver obol. It would imply a massive overvaluation of bronze that just does not seem credible.

So. throw out the Litras, and call these coins 1/8 ounce pieces, and I think we have a sensible answer."

Paddy
027_Traianus_(98-117_A_D_)_Billon-Tetradr,_D-703_Alexandria,_AYT-TPAIAN-CEB-_EPM-_AKIK_LIB_Snake-l__Q-001_axis-1h_25mm_12,69g-s~0.jpg
027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-, D-703, Egypt, Alexandria, Agathodaemon serpent coiled with head left,85 views027p Traianus (98-117 A.D.), AR-Tetradrachm, G-, D-703, Egypt, Alexandria, Agathodaemon serpent coiled with head left,
avers:- AYT-TPAIAN-CEB-ΓEPM-ΔAKIK, Laureate head right.
revers:- No legend, Agathodaemon serpent coiled with head left, holding caduceus and grain ear within coils.
exe: -/-//L-I-B, diameter: 25mm, weight: 12,69g, axis: 1h,
mint: Egypt, Alexandria, date: Dated year (LΙΒ) 12 = 1018-109 A.D., ref: Dattari-703, Kapmann-Ganschow-27.146-p-90,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI 030e img.jpg
030 - Vespasian Denarius - RIC ???54 viewsObv:– IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG TR P, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERTAS [PVBLICA], Libertas standing left, holding pileus and staff
Minted in Uncertain mint in Spain. A.D. 70-71
References:– Cohen -. RIC II ???

SOLD
maridvnvm
032_Hadrianus_(117-138_A_D_),_RIC_II_0175,_HADRIANVS_AVGVSTVS,_COS_III,_125-128_AD_Q-001_h,_19,5mm,_g-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0175, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS III, Libertas standing left, 101 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0175, Rome, AR-Denarius, COS III, Libertas standing left,
avers: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, Laureate head right, slight drapery on far shoulder.
revers: COS III, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 3,08g, axes: 6h,
mint: Rome, date: 125-128 A.D., ref: RIC II 0175, RSC-374a,
Q-001
quadrans
Hadrian_Limes-Den_HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS_COS-III_RIC-II-_RSC-_AD_Q-001_5h_19-20mm_2,60ga-s.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0175, Rome, Limes-Denarius, COS III, Libertas standing left, 100 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 0175, Rome, Limes-Denarius, COS III, Libertas standing left,
avers: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, Laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers: COS III, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 2,60g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome (Limes), date: 125-128 A.D., ref: RIC II 0175, RSC-374a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Hadrian_Limes-Den_HADRIANVS-AVGVSTVS_COS-III_RIC-II-_RSC-_AD_Q-001_5h_19-20mm_2,60ga-s~0.jpg
032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 175, Rome, Limes-Denarius, COS III, Libertas standing left, 98 views032 Hadrianus (117-138 A.D.), RIC II 175, Rome, Limes-Denarius, COS III, Libertas standing left,
avers: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, Laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder.
revers: COS III, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 19-20mm, weight: 2,60g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome (Limes), date: ? A.D., ref: RIC II 175, RSC-274a,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
IMG_6730.JPG
034. Galba (68-69 A.D.)22 viewsAv.: SER GALBA IMP CAESAR AVG P M TR P P P
Rv.: LIBERTAS PVBLICA

AE As Ø27 / 12.2g
RIC 73 Spain Tarraco
Juancho
Ant_Pius-AE-Sest_ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-XVII_LIBERALITAS-VII_COS-IIII_S-C_RIC-III-905-p-139_C-525_Rome_152-3-AD_R_Q-001_0h_32-33mm_29,37g-s.jpg
035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0915, Rome, AE-Sestertius, LIBERALITAS VII, Antoninus seated left on platform, S-C, R!221 views035 Antoninus Pius (138-161 A.D.), RIC III 0905, Rome, AE-Sestertius, LIBERALITAS VII, Antoninus seated left on platform, S-C, R!
avers:- ANTONINVS-AVG-PIVS-P-P-TR-P-XVII, Laureate head right.
revers: LIBERALITAS-VII, Antoninus seated left on platform on right: in front of him, Liberalitas satnding left, holding account-board and cornucopiae: below citizen standing right holding out fold of toga, S-C across the field, COS IIII in exergo.
exe:S/C//COS IIII, diameter: 32-33mm, weight: 29,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 152-153 A.D., ref: RIC-III-915-p-140, C-525-526, Rare !
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
037b_Marc-Aurelius_AR-Den_M-ANTONINVS-AVG-TR-P-XXIIII_LIBERAL-AVGdotVdotCOS-III_RIC-221-p-230_C-413_Rome-169-170-AD_Q-001_0h_17,5-19mm_3,61ga-s.jpg
037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0221, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG •V• COS III, Liberalitas standing left, Scarce!66 views037b Marcus Aurelius (139-161 A.D. as Caesar, 161-180 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0221, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG •V• COS III, Liberalitas standing left, Scarce!
avers: M-ANTONINVS-AVG-TR-P-XXIIII, Laurate head right.
revers: LIBERAL-AVG•V•COS-III, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5-19mm, weight: 3,61g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date:169-170 A.D., ref: RIC-III-221, p-230, RSC-, Sear-, Scarce!
Q-001
quadrans
022~0.JPG
040 Claudius365 viewsClaudius Æ As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. RIC 113, Cohen 47, BMC 202 10.9 g
Click and enlarge for better photo
18 commentsRandygeki(h2)
c3947.JPG
040 Claudius39 viewsClaudius Æ As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. Cohen 47.




"Claudius was born at Lugdunum, in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on August 1st, 10 B.C., the very day when the first altar was dedicated there to Augustus the God; and he was given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. Subsequently he assumed the surname Germanicus after his brother had been admitted into the Julian House as Tiberius's adopted son."
Randygeki(h2)
ClaudI97or113.jpg
041-054 AD - Claudius - RIC I 097 or 113 - Libertas Reverse46 viewsEmperor: Claudius (r. 41-54 AD)
Date: 41-54 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: As

Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP (P P?)
Tiberius Claudius Caesar Emperor Pontifex Maximus Tribunicia Potestas Imperator (Pater Patriae?)
Bare head left

Reverse: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA
S - C to left and right
The Emperor restores liberty.
Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, right holding pileus, left extended.

Rome mint
RIC I Claudius 97 or 113; VM 16
6.38g; 29.3mm; 210°
1 commentsPep
041a_Commodus,_RIC_III_1592,_Marc_Aur,_AE-Dupondius,_L_AVREL_COMMOD_VS_AVG_TR_P_III,__LIBERTAS_IMP_II_COS_P_P,_S-C,_p-,_Rome_179-AD,_Q-001_11h_23-24mm_12,26g-s.jpg
041a Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1592 (M.Aurel.), Rome, AE-Dup, LIBERTAS AVG IMP II COS P P, Libertas standing left,101 views041a Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 1592 (M.Aurel.), Rome, AE-Dup, LIBERTAS AVG IMP II COS P P, Libertas standing left,
avers:- L•AVREL COMMODVS AVG TR P III, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- LIBERTAS AVG IMP II COS P P, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre, S-C, across the field.
exe: S/C//--, diameter: 23,0-24,0 mm, weight: 12,26 g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 179 A.D., ref: RIC III 1592, p-, (Marc. Aurelius),
Q-001
quadrans
Commodus_AR-Den_L-AEL_AVREL-COMM-AVG-P-FEL_LIB-AVG-VIII-P-M-TR-P-XVII-COS-VII-PP_RIC-III-239-p-393_C-325_Rome_192-AD_Q-001_axis-h_xxmm_x,xxg-s.jpg
041b Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0239, Rome, AR-denarius, LIB AVG VIII P M TR P XVII COS VII P P, Liberalitas,110 views041b Commodus (166-180 A.D. as Caesar, 180-192 A.D. as Augustus), RIC III 0239, Rome, AR-denarius, LIB AVG VIII P M TR P XVII COS VII P P, Liberalitas,
avers:- L-AEL_AVREL-COMM-AVG-P-FEL, Laureate head right.
revers:- LIB-AVG-VIII-P-M-TR-P-XVII-COS-VII-PP, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae.
exerg: -/-//--, diameter: 17mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 192 A.D., ref: RIC-III-239, p-393, C-325,
Q-001
quadrans
Nerva-RIC-31.jpg
043. Nerva.8 viewsDenarius, Oct. 97 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP NERVA CAES AVG PM TR P II COS III P P / Laureate bust of Nerva.
Reverse: LIBERTAS PVBLICA / Libertas standing, holding pileus and sceptre.
2.80 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #31.
Callimachus
RI_044h_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Denarius - RIC 017540 viewsObv:- HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, Laureate head right, drapery on far shoulder
Rev:- COS III, Libertas standing left holding pileus and scepter
Minted in Rome.
Reference:– BMCRE 402. RIC 175. RSC 374a
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_044p_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Denarius - RIC 017521 viewsObv:- HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS, Laureate head right, draped far shoulder
Rev:- COS III, Libertas standing left, holding pileus & scepter
Minted in Rome. A.D. 125 - 128
Reference:– BMCRE 401. RIC 175. RSC 374a.
maridvnvm
LIBERAL~0.jpg
0470q1 (51)22 viewsAtelier : ROME
Droit : GALLIENUS AVG
Revers : LIBERAL AVG
2,72g ; 19mm ;12h
Ségusiaves
RI_048n_img.jpg
048 - Antoninus Pius, Denarius - RIC 15118 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, Lauereate head left
Rev: TR POT COS IIII / LIB IIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding vexillum & cornucopia
Minted in Rome. A.D. 145
Reference:– RIC 151. RSC 490.
maridvnvm
claudiuscombhoriz.jpg
05. CLAUDIUS38 viewsAE As
41-54 A.D.
O: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP Bare head left.
R: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S C, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus, left hand extended
Rome
1 commentslaney
051_Caracalla_RIC_IV-I_135_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG_LIBE-RA-LITAS-AVGG-IIII__RIC-IV-I-135_p-_RSC-122_Rome_201-6-AD_Q-001_0h_18,5-19mm_3,37g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 135, Rome, AR-Denarius, IIII•LIBERALITAS AVG G, Liberalitas standing left,128 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 135, Rome, AR-Denarius, IIII•LIBERALITAS AVG G, Liberalitas standing left,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG, Youthful bust of Caracalla laurreated and draped bust to right.
revers:- IIII•LIBE-RA-LITAS-AVG-G, Liberalitas standing left holding abacus and cornucopiae.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 18,5-19,0mm, weight: 3,37g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 201-206 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-135, RSC-122,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_Ar-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM_LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII_RIC-302_C-139_Rome-213-17_AD_Q-001_axis-h_19mm_3,06g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, 123 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left,
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-GERM, Laureate head right.
revers:- LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,06g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-302, p-258, C-139,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-BRIT_LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII_RIC-IV-I-302rev-p-258_Rome-213-17-AD_Limes_Q-001_0h_17,5mm_2,40g-s.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),132 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-BRIT (!!!), Laureate head right. (This legend Not in RIC!!)
revers:- LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 2,40g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-302, p-258, (but base metal, "limes" ?), C-139,
Q-001
quadrans
Caracalla_AR-Den_ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-BRIT_LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII_RIC-IV-I-302rev-p-258_Rome-213-17-AD_Limes_Q-001_0h_17,5mm_2,40g-s~0.jpg
051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),120 views051 Caracalla (196-198 A.D. Caesar, 198-217 A.D. Augustus ), RIC IV-I 302, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, (but base metal, "limes" ?),
avers:- ANTONINVS-PIVS-AVG-BRIT (!!!), Laureate head right. (This legend Not in RIC!!)
revers:- LIBERAL-AVG-VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia.
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 2,40g, axis: 0 h,
mint: Rome, date: 213-217 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-I-302, p-258, (but base metal, "limes" ?), C-139,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_055h_img.jpg
055 - Commodus denarius - RIC II -. 25 viewsObv:– M COMM ANTO - N AVG PIVS BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:- LIR AVG R M TR P - XVII COS VII P P, Libertas standing left folding pileus and sceptre
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 192
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

3.44g. 17.52 mm. 0 degrees.
maridvnvm
RI_055i_img.jpg
055 - Commodus denarius - RIC II -.15 viewsObv:– M COMM ANTO - N AVG PIVS BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:- LIR AVG R M TR P - XVII COS VII P P, Libertas standing left folding pileus and sceptre
Minted in Alexandria. A.D. 192
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC -. RSC -.

2.60g. 17.69 mm. 0 degrees.
maridvnvm
RI_064mg_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus Ae As - RIC 764A43 viewsObv:- SEVERVS PIVS AVG P M TR P XII, Laureate draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- To left, Bacchus standing right, holding cup and thyrsos, a panther at his feet; to right, Hercules standing left, holding club and lion's skin; on cippus between them, COS / III / LVD / SAEC / FEC , in exergue, S C.
Minted in Rome in A.D. 204 to celebrate the Seacular games with Septimus' hometown gods Liber and Hercules as patrons of his games.
Reference:- RIC IV, Part 1, No. 764A (Rated R2)

A rough example but a rare type.

Curtis Clay's die catalogue includes ten specimens of this coin, all from the same obverse die, nine of them from the same reverse die of this coin, one from a second reverse die.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064kh_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O8 - RIC -38 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SEP S-EV PER AVG COS - II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBE-R AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC-
maridvnvm
RI_064ls_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - O9 - RIC -85 viewsObv:– IMP CA L SE SEV PER AG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE -. RIC - RSC -.

Another reverse type for this unusual obverse die bringing my total to three different reverses.
maridvnvm
RI_064oh_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -71 viewsObv:- L - SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:- LIERTA (sic.) AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 195 - 196
Reference:– BMC -. RIC -. RSC -.

This error not noted in the major references.
maridvnvm
RI_064ob_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -72 viewsObv:- L SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP - II, laureate head right
Rev:- LIB-ER AVG, Liberalitas seated left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:- BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -.

Liberalitas seated not listed for this issue in any of the major references.
maridvnvm
RI_064qj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -16 viewsObv:- L SEPT SEV PE-RT AVG IMP - II, laureate head right
Rev:- LIB-ER AVG, Liberalitas seated left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194
Reference:- BMCRE -. RIC IV -. RSC -.

Liberalitas seated not listed for this issue in any of the major references.
maridvnvm
RI_064mz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC -11 viewsObv:–L SEPT SEVER P-ERT AVG IMP VIII, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIB-ER AVG, Liberalitas seated left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 195 - 196
Reference(s) – BMC -. RIC -, RSC -
maridvnvm
RI 064cd img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 01879 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERAL AVG COS, Liberalitas, standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia
Minted in Rome between A.D. 193 - 194
References:– VM 65, RIC 18 (Common), RSC 281
maridvnvm
RI_064la_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 01881 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERAL AVG COS, Liberalitas, standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia
Minted in Rome. A.D. 193 - 194
Reference:– BMCRE W2-3. RIC 18. RSC 281.
maridvnvm
RI 064br img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 03242 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP III, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERO PATRI, Bacchus (Liber) standing half-left, holding oenochoe and thyrsos; on left, panther standing left, head turned back to catch drips from jug
Minted in Rome. A.D. 194
Reference:– BMCRE 64. RIC 32 (Scarce). RSC 301
maridvnvm
RI 064aw img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 278a40 viewsObv:– SEVERVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERALITAS AVG VI, Liberalitas standing left with counter and cornucopia
Minted in Rome, A.D. 209
References:– VM 71, RIC 278a, RCV02 6306, RSC 298
maridvnvm
RI_064jj_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 39824 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:- BMCRE W373-374. RIC 398. RSC 279a
maridvnvm
RI_064lo_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 39816 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 - 195
Reference:– BMCRE 373/374. RIC 398 (S) citing Lawrence. RSC 279a.
maridvnvm
RI_064ax_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 39918 viewsObv– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBE-RA AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE 375, RIC 399, RCV02 6305, RSC 283

3.06g, 17.68mm, 0o
maridvnvm
RI 064dz img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40020 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERAL AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE 373 note. RIC IV RIC 400, RSC 283a
maridvnvm
RI_064kk_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40017 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERAL AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left.
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE 373 note. RIC IV RIC 400, RSC 283a
maridvnvm
RI 064fd img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40118 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas, seated left, holding account-board and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 401 (Scarce), RSC 287
maridvnvm
RI 064bf img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 40325 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERA-L AVG, Liberalitas, seated left, holding account-board and cornucopiae
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194 - 195
References:– RIC 403 (Scarce), RSC 287a
maridvnvm
RI_064nq_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 455b65 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP - II, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBE-R AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE p. 108 432 note (432 is PERTE, citing Lawrence). RIC 455b (S citing L. A. Lawrence coll.).
maridvnvm
RI_064po_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 455b17 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP II, laureate head right
Rev:– LIB-E-R AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE p. 108 432 note (432 is PERTE, citing Lawrence). RIC 455b (S citing L. A. Lawrence coll.).
maridvnvm
RI_064qc_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 455b26 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP - II, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBE-R AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE p. 108 432 note (432 in PERTE, citing Lawrence). RIC 455b (S citing L. A. Lawrence coll.).
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064nb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 455b8 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV P-ERET AVG IMP - II, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBE-R AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE p. 108 432 note (432 is PERTE, citing Lawrence). RIC 455b (S citing L. A. Lawrence coll.).
maridvnvm
RI_064kt_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 48122 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Reference:– BMCRE 445 (Same dies?). RIC 481. RSC 288.

Weight 2.71g. 18.69mm.
maridvnvm
RI_064qz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 48115 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Reference:– BMCRE 445. RIC 481. RSC 288
maridvnvm
RI_064kt_img~0.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 4819 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII, laureate head right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 196-197
Reference:– BMCRE 445 (Same dies?). RIC 481. RSC 288.

Weight 2.71g. 18.69mm
maridvnvm
RI 064df img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 50713 viewsObv:– L SEPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERTAS AVGG, Libertas standing left holding pileus and rod
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare, A.D. 198 – 202
References:– RIC 507, RSC 306
maridvnvm
RI_064rb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 51932 viewsObv:– L S-EPT SEV AVG IMP XI PART MAX, Laureate head right
Rev:– VOTIS DECENNALIBVS, Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left sacrificing over tripod
Minted in Laodicea-ad-Mare. A.D. 202
Reference:– RIC IV 519; BMCRE 680; RSC 796. 2 exampled in RD so relatively scarce.

D of DECENNALIBVS corrected from E
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_064eb_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC Page 139 (-)21 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SE - V PERT AVG COS I, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERT AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 193
References:– RIC Page 139 (-) (this reverse type not listed for COS I)

2.83g, 19.51mm, 0o

Whilst the legend reads COS I the bust style is not that commonly seen with the COS I types. This is possibly a later COS II where the second I was missed.
maridvnvm
RI_065w_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna barbarous denarius - RIC -29 viewsObv:– IVLIA DO-MNA AVG, Draped bust right, hair tied in bun behind
Rev:– LIBE-RI AVG, Liberalitas seated left, holding accounting board and cornucopiae
Barbarous mint
Reference(s) – None. Appears to be Barbarous imitation of IV 627a.
Martin Griffiths
RI_065y_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 62773 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– LIBERAL . AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE pg. 102, RIC 627, RSC 103
1 commentsMartin Griffiths
RI_065ca_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC 62713 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– LIBERAL AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa, A.D. 194-195
References:– BMCRE pg. 102, RIC 627, RSC 103
maridvnvm
RI_065av_img.jpg
065 - Julia Domna denarius - RIC unlisted18 viewsObv:– IVLIA DOMNA AVG, Draped bust right
Rev:– LIBER AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopiae in left
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194 195
Reference:– RIC IV -.
maridvnvm
Maximinus-I_IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG_LIBERALITAS-AVG_RIC_10,_RSC_19,_BMC_45_Q-001_5h_18,5-19,5mm_2,09g-s.jpg
065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 010, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERALITAS-AVG, Liberalitas standing left, #168 views065 Maximinus-I. Thrax, (235-238 A.D.), RIC IV-II 010, Rome, AR-Denarius, LIBERALITAS-AVG, Liberalitas standing left, #1
avers:- IMP-MAXIMINVS-PIVS-AVG, Laureate, draped bust right, seen from behind.
revers:- LIBERALITAS-AVG, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopiae..
exerg: , diameter: 18,5-19,5mm, weight: 2,09g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date: 235 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-II-10, p-, RSC-19, BMC-45,
Q-001
quadrans
RI 066t img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 136b40 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERALITAS AVG V, Liberalitas standing left, holding an abacus and a cornucopiae
References:– RIC 136b (Common), RSC 124

SOLD
maridvnvm
RI 066r img.jpg
066 - Caracalla denarius - RIC 30218 viewsObv:– ANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
Minted in Rome. A.D. 214.
Reference:– RIC 302. RCV02 6814. RSC 139.
maridvnvm
RI_068r_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius (as Augustus) - RIC 08827 viewsObv:– P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERALITAS AVG V, Liberalitas, draped, standing front, head left, holding abacus up in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Rome. A.D. 210 - 212
Reference:– BMC 65-66a (different reverse legend break). RIC 88. RSC 68.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_068ac_img.jpg
068 - Geta denarius - RIC 08814 viewsObv:– P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right
Rev:– LIBERALITAS AVG V, Liberalitas, draped, standing front, head left, holding abacus up in right hand, cornucopia in left
Minted in Rome. A.D. 210 - 212
Reference:– BMC 65-66a. RD 31 ex. RIC 88. RSC 68
maridvnvm
galbacomb.jpg
07. GALBA25 views69 AD
AE Dupondius
29.5 mm 11.73 g
O: IMP SER GALBA AVG TR P, laureate head right
R: LIBERTAS PVBLICA S C, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter
laney
RI 071o img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus denarius - RIC 092a44 viewsObv:– IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas standing left, holding pileus & scepter ; star in right field
References:– RIC 92a, RSC 107
maridvnvm
RI 071b img.jpg
071 - Elagabalus denarius - RIC 10257 viewsObv:– IMP ANTONINVS AVG, Laureate, draped bust facing right
Rev:– LIBERALITAS AVG II, Liberalitas standing left holding abacus & cornucopia on a base at her side
Minted in the Rome branch mint, A.D. 219
References:– VM 39, RIC 102 (Common), RCV02 7521, RSC 79
maridvnvm
Crispina-RIC-281.jpg
071. Crispina.12 viewsDenarius, 180 -182 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: CRISPINA AVGVSTA / Bust of Crispina.
Reverse: DIS GENITALIBVS / Lighted altar.
3.49 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #281; Sear #5999.

This coin of Crispina has an unusual reverse type: an altar dedicated to the gods of childbirth. We know of no children born to Crispina and Commodus. Stevenson says of this reverse (p. 332): "It would seem that the empress had dedicated an altar to the dii genitales, either for having had children, or that she might obtain fertility from them, or that she might commend the child with which she was pregnant to their care and protection.
Callimachus
Gordianus-III__AE-Sest_IMP-CAES-MANT-GORDIANVS-AVG_LIBERALITAS-AVG-II_S-C_Roma-240-RIC-269a_Q-001_17_91ga-s.jpg
072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 269a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, LIBERALITAS AVG II, 201 views072 Gordianus-III. (238-244 A.D.), RIC IV-III 269a, AE-Sestertius, Rome, LIBERALITAS AVG II,
avers:- IMP-CAES-MANT-GORDIANVS-AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- LIBERALITAS-AVG-II, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and two cornucopiae; S-C across fields.
exe:-/-//--, diameter: 28,0-30,0mm, weight: 17,91g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 240 A.D., ref: RIC-269a, C-136,
Q-001
quadrans
Mensor_Q-001_axis-5h_17-19mm_3,76g-s.jpg
076-075 B.C., L. Farsuleius Mensor, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 392/1b, Rome, Warrior in quadriga,234 views076-075 B.C., L. Farsuleius Mensor, Republic AR-Denarius, Crawford 392/1b, Rome, Warrior in quadriga,
avers: MENSOR S•C Bust of Libertas right.
reverse: Warrior in quadriga assisting togate male into biga right, control number XXCVT under horses.
exergue: -/-//L•FARSVLEI, diameter: 17-19mm, weight: 3,76g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, date:, ref: Crawford-392-1b, Sydenham 789a, Farsuleia 2,
Q-001
quadrans
076a_Philippus_II__RIC_230,_AR-Ant,_IMP_PHILIPPVS_AVG,_LIBERALITAS_AVG_G_III,_Rome,_247_AD,_Q-001,_0h,_21,0-22,5mm,_4,40g-s.jpg
076b Philippus II. (244-7 A.D., Caes, 247-9 A.D. Aug.), RIC IV-III 230, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, LIBERALITAS AVG G III, Philip I, and Philip II seated left on curule chairs.179 views076b Philippus II. (244-7 A.D., Caes, 247-9 A.D. Aug.), RIC IV-III 230, Rome, AR-Antoninianus, LIBERALITAS AVG G III, Philip I, and Philip II seated left on curule chairs.
avers:- IMP PHILIPPVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- LIBERALITAS AVG G III, Philip I, holding a short scepter, and Philip II seated left on curule chairs.
exergo: -/-//--, diameter: 21-22,5 mm, weight: 4,40 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 247 A.D., ref: RIC-IV-III-230, RSC 17, Sear - 2664, VM - 4,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
RI_077ay_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander Denarius - RIC -28 viewsObv:- IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:- LIBERTAS AVG, Aequitas, standing front, head left, holding scales in right hand and cornucopiae in left;
Minted in Antioch. A.D. 223.
Reference:– BMC -. RIC -. RSC -.

An oddity mixing the legend and deity.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 077j img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 09553 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG Laureate head right
Rev:– P M TR P VIII COS II P P, Libertas standing left holding pileus and vindicta
References:– VM 44/5, RIC 95, RSC 731
maridvnvm
RI 077af img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 28654 viewsObv:– IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas, standing half-left, holding pileus and long sceptre, * in left field
Minted in Antioch
References:– VM 24, RIC 286, RSC 147
maridvnvm
RI 077z img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander denarius - RIC 28839 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, Laureate, draped bust right
Rev:– LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas standing left with pileus & conrucopia.
Minted in Antioch
References:– RIC 288, RSC 152a
maridvnvm
Antíoco IV, Epiphanes.jpg
08-02 - Anti­oco IV, Epiphanes (175 - 164 A.C.)68 viewsAntíoco IV Epífanes (Αντίοχος Επιφανής en griego, 215 adC-163 adC) fue rey de Siria de la dinastía Seléucida desde c. 175 adC-164 adC.
Era hijo de Antíoco III Megas y hermano de Seleuco IV Filopator. Originalmente fue llamado Mitríades, pero adoptó el nombre de Antíoco tras su ascensión al trono (o quizás tras la muerte de su hermano mayor, también Antíoco).
Subió al trono tras la muerte de su hermano Seleuco IV Filopátor que gobernó durante poco tiempo antes que él, hasta que Heliodoro, tesorero suyo, lo mató por ambición. Había vivido en Roma según los términos de la paz de Apamea (188 adC), pero acababa de ser intercambiado por el hijo y legítimo heredero de Seleuco IV, el futuro (Demetrio I Sóter). Antíoco se aprovechó de la situación, y junto con su otro hermano Antíoco, se proclamó rey con el apoyo de Eumenes II de Pérgamo y el hermano de éste, Atalo I. Su hermano Antíoco sería asesinado pocos años después.
Por su enfrentamiento con Ptolomeo VI, que reclamaba Coele-Syria, atacó e invadió Egipto, conquistando casi todo el país, con la salvedad de la capital, Alejandría. Llegó a capturar al rey, pero para no alarmar a Roma, decicidió reponerlo en el trono, aunque como su marioneta. Sin embargo, los alejandrinos habían elegido al hermano de éste, Ptolomeo VII Euergetes como rey, y tras su marcha decidieron reinar conjuntamente. Esto le obligó a reinvadir el país, y así el 168 adC, repitiendo la invasión, con su flota conquistaba Chipre. Cerca de Alejandría se encontró con el cónsul romano Cayo Popilio Laenas, instó a abandonar Egipto y Chipre. Cuando Antíoco replicó que debía consultarlo con su consejo, Popilio trazó un círculo en la arena rodeándole y le dijo: "píensalo aquí". Viendo que abandonar el círculo sin haber ordenado la retirada era un desafío a Roma decidió ceder con el fin de evitar una guerra.
A su regreso, organizó una expedición contra Jerusalén, qué saqueo cruelmente. Según él Libro de los Macabeos, promulgó varias ordenanzas de tipo religioso: trató de suprimir el culto a Yahveh, prohibió el judaísmo suspendiendo toda clase de manifestación religiosa y trató de establecer el culto a los dioses griegos. Pero el sacerdote judío Matatías y sus dos hijos llamados Macabeos consiguieron levantar a la población en su contra y lo expulsaron. La fiesta judía de Jánuca conmemora este hecho.
Antíoco, en campaña contra el Imperio Parto, envió varios ejércitos sin éxito. Mientras organizaba una expedición punitiva para retomar Israel personalmente le sobrevino la muerte. Le sucedió su hijo Antíoco V Eupátor.
Su reinado fue la última época de fuerza y esplendor para el Imperio Seleúcida, que tras su muerte se vio envuelto en devastadoras guerras dinásticas. (Wikipedia)

AE (Canto aserrado) 15 mm 3.5 gr.

Anv: Busto velado de Laodicea IV (Esposa de Seleuco IV y Hermana de Antíoco IV) viendo a der. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ANTIOXOY" - Cabeza de elefante a izquierda, proa de galera a izquierda (El elefante simboliza las aspiraciones orientales de los reyes de Seleucia además de ser una de las grandes armas de su arsenal y la proa su importancia como ciudad puerto).

Ceca: Seleucia de Pieria (Costa N. de Siria - Puerto de Antioquía) o Akke Ptolomais

Referencias : B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #3 Pag.43 - SC#1477.2 - Houghton #113 - HGS #684-6 Pag.9 - SNG Spaer #1017-40 - SNG Cop #184 - Hoover #685
1 commentsmdelvalle
IMG_2805.JPG
080 Vitellius 64 viewsVitellius Denarius.
Weight: 3.30 g
Diameter: 18.50 mm
A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head right / LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas, draped, standing facing holding pileus and long rod. RIC I 81, RSC 48
5 commentsRandygeki(h2)
1257Hadrian_RIC817.jpg
0817 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Liberalitas standing7 viewsReference.
RIC 817f; C. 937; Strack 674

Obv. HADRIANVS - AVG COS III P P
Laureate and draped bust r.

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG VI in field S - C
Libertas standing l., holding abacus and cornucopiae

10.24 gr
25 mm
6h
okidoki
186Hadrian__RIC818.jpg
0818 Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Libertas standing37 viewsReference.
RIC 818

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right.

Rev. LIBERTAS PVBLICA / S - C in field.
Libertas, draped, standing left, holding pileus in right hand and sceptre in left (full-length sceptre (sic))

9.62 gr
25 mm
6h

Extra.
The pileus was especially associated with the manumission of slaves. who wore it upon their liberation. It became emblematic of liberty and freedom from bondage
Source.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pileus_(hat)
okidoki
611Hadrian_RIC818var_.JPG
0818 var. Hadrian AS Roma 134-38 AD Libertas standing22 viewsReference.
BMC 1605 ( plate 90 nr 13); Strack 676; RIC 818var. ;C. 947var

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right.

Rev. LIBERTAS PVBLICA / S - C in field.
Libertas, draped, standing left, holding pileus and vindicta (rod)

10.56 gr
25 mm
6h
okidoki
82d.jpg
082d Gallienus. AE antoninianus16 viewsobv: GALLIENVS AVG rad. bust r.
rev: LEBRO P CONS AVG panther walking l., invokes the protection
of liber against the revot of Aureolus
ex: B
hill132
Republic_Ar-quinar_M-CAO_M-Porcius-Cato_RRC_343-2d__Rome_89-BC_Q-001_axis-3h_16mm_1,68ga-s.jpg
089 B.C., M.Porcius Cato, Republic AR-Quinar, Crawford 343/2d, Rome, VICTRIX, Victory seated right, #169 views089 B.C., M.Porcius Cato, Republic AR-Quinar, Crawford 343/2d, Rome, VICTRIX, Victory seated right, #1
avers: Head of Liber right. wearing ivy wreath; behind, M.CATO downwards, border of dots.
reverse: Victory seated right, holding patera and palm branch, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//VICTRIX, diameter: 16mm, weight: 1,68g, axis: 3h,
mint: Rome, date: 89 B.C., ref: Crawford 343/2d, Sydenham 597c,
Q-001
quadrans
089_B_C_,_M_Porcius_Cato,_Repulic_AR-Quinar,_M_CATO,_VICTRIX,_Crawford_343-2d,_Q-001,_0h,_13mm,_1,80g-s.jpg
089 B.C., M.Porcius Cato, Republic AR-Quinar, Crawford 343/2d, Rome, VICTRIX, Victory seated right, #2173 views089 B.C., M.Porcius Cato, Republic AR-Quinar, Crawford 343/2d, Rome, VICTRIX, Victory seated right, #2
avers: Head of Liber right. wearing ivy wreath; behind, M.CATO downwards, border of dots.
reverse: Victory seated right, holding patera and palm branch, border of dots.
exergue: -/-//VICTRIX, diameter: 13mm, weight: 1,80g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 89 B.C., ref: Crawford 343/2d, Sydenham 597c,
Q-002
quadrans
Vitellius_RIC_I_81.jpg
09 01 Vitellius RIC I 8167 viewsVitellius 69 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. Late April-Dec 20, 69 A.D. (2.91g, 18.8mm, 5h). Obv: A VITELLIVS GERMAN IMP TR P, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, r. holding pileus, l. scepter. RIC I 81, RSC 48. Ex CNG 258, Lot 367.

In the year of 4 emperors, Vitellius assumed the throne after his German legions proclaimed him emperor, marched on Rome, and murdered Otho. Vitellius only ruled for mere months before Vespasian’s eastern legions arrived and murdered him in turn. He was known for his gluttony. I have a Vitellius denarius, but couldn't help picking up this nice example from a reputable dealer for a reasonable price.
2 commentsLucas H
Vitellius_RIC_I_105.jpg
09 Vitellius RIC I 10581 viewsVitellius. Jan. 2-Dec. 20 69 AD. AR Denarius (2.71 g, 17.6m, 5h). Rome mint. Struck circa April-December AD 69. Obv: A VITELLIVS GERM IMP AVG TR P, laureate head right. Rev: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, Libertas, draped, standing facing holding pileus & long rod. RIC I 105; RSC 47.

With the same devices as RIC I 81, the difference on this coin is the abbreviated title GERM. Vitellius was commander of the legions in Germania Inferior when the Rhine legions declared him emperor in 69 A.D. He would have resigned as emperor, but was not allowed to do so when Vespasian’s eastern legions marched on Rome, and was ultimately killed and Vespasian was installed as emperor ending the Year of Four Emperors.
Lucas H
vitelliuscombined.jpg
09. VITELLIUS18 views69 AD
AE As
O: A VITELLIVS IMP GERMAN, laureate bust left
R: LIBERTAS RESTITVTA, S-C across field, Libertas, draped, standing facing, head right, holding pileus in right hand and scepter in left.
Spanish, Tarraco?
RIC I 43-
laney
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_LIBERO-P-CONS-AVG-Panther_B_RIC-230_C-_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-001_19-20mm_2,84g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO P CONS AVG, Panther left, #179 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO P CONS AVG, Panther left, #1
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, radiate head right.
revers:- LIBERO-P-CONS-AVG, panther walking left, right legs forwards.
exergo: -/-//B, diameter: 18-19mm, weight: 2,84g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-230, p-151,
Q-001
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_LIBERO-P-CONS-AVG-Panther_B_RIC-230_C-_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-003_0h_18,4-19_7mm_2,39g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO P CONS AVG, Panther left, #3133 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO P CONS AVG, Panther left, #3
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, radiate head right.
revers:- LIBERO-P-CONS-AVG, panther walking left, right legs forwards.
exergo: -/-//B, diameter: 18,4-19,7mm, weight: 2,39g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-230, p-151,
Q-003
quadrans
Gallienus_AE-Ant_GALLIENVS-AVG_LIBEROdotPdotCONS-AVG-Panther_B_RIC-230_Göbl_713b_Rome_253-268-AD_Q-002_11h_19-21mm_3,82g-s.jpg
090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO•P•CONS AVG, Panther left, #2,66 views090b Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Sole Reign, RIC V-I 230, Rome, AE-Antoninianus, -/-//B, LIBERO•P•CONS AVG, Panther left, #2,
avers:- GALLIENVS-AVG, radiate head right.
revers:- LIBERO•P•CONS-AVG, panther walking left, right legs forwards.
exergo: -/-//B, diameter: 19-21mm, weight: 3,82g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, date: 267-268 A.D., ref: RIC-V-I-230, p-151, Göbl_713b,
Q-002
quadrans
LFarsuleiusDen.jpg
0b Italy Gets Roman Citizenship13 viewsL Farsuleius Mensor, moneyer
76-71 BC

Denarius

Diademed and draped head of Liberty, right, SC below, MENSOR before, cap of Liberty and number behind
Roma in biga helping togate figure mount, L FARSVLEI in ex.

Appears to allude to the Lex Julia of 90 BC, by which all of Italy gained Roman citizenship

Seaby, Farsuleia 1
Blindado
c6_1_b.jpg
1.21 L. Scribonius Libo48 viewsAR Republican Denarius
Rome, 62 BC

obv. LIB - BON-EVENT
Bonus Eventus (diademed), deity of good fortune and events
Zam
37_1_b.jpg
1.22 L. Scribonius Libo46 viewsAR Denarius
Rome, 62 BC

rev. PVTEAL SCRIBON
Puteal Scribonum - a sacred spot in the Forvm struck by lightning. A monument was built on the spot, and that is where the moneyers congregated
Zam
Dupondio CLAUDIO RIC 97.jpg
10-06 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)181 viewsAE AS 31 x 28 mm 11.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "LIBERTAS AVGVSTA - S C " - Libertas (Libertad) de pié de frente viendo a derecha, portando Pileus en mano derecha y extendiendo la izquierda.

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #113 Pag.130 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1860 Pag.368 - BMCRE #202/4 - Cohen Vol.1 #47 Pag.254 - DVM #16 Pag.82 - CBN #230 - Von Kaenel #722
4 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_113_AS_Claudio_I.jpg
10-14 - CLAUDIO (41 - 54 D.C.)14 viewsAE AS 31 x 28 mm 11.7 gr.

Anv: "TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP PP" - Busto a cabeza desnuda viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "LIBERTAS AVGVSTA - S C " - Libertas (Libertad) de pié de frente viendo a derecha, portando Pileus en mano derecha y extendiendo la izquierda.

Acuñada 42 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.1 #113 Pag.130 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1860 Pag.368 - BMCRE #202/4 - Cohen Vol.1 #47 Pag.254 - DVM #16 Pag.82 - CBN #230 - Von Kaenel #722
mdelvalle
RI 107c img.jpg
107 - Gallienus Antoninianus - RIC 22337 viewsObv:– GALLIENVS AVG, Radiate bust right
Rev:– LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas standing left, holding cap in right hand left hand hanging
Minted in Rome, XI in right field.
Reference:– RIC 223, RSC 585. Gobl 644a
maridvnvm
IMG_3323~0.jpg
110. Trebonianus Gallus (251-253 A.D.)12 viewsAv.: IMP CAE C VIB TREB GALLVS AVG
Rv.: LIBERTAS AVGG
Right: star

AR Antoninian Ø20 / 3g
RIC IV 38 Rome , RSC 63a
(Cohen: unregistered version of his No.63)
Juancho
Hadrse25-2.jpg
118 AD: Donative of Hadrian upon his first arrival as emperor in Rome to celebrate his accession.236 viewsOrichalcum sestertius (24.3g, 34mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 118.
IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG laureate bust of Hadrian facing right
PONT MAX TR POT COS II around edge LIBERALITAS AVG / S C [in two line in ex.] donation scene with Hadrian seated left on a platform on the right and extending his right hand. In front of him, an attendant seated right giving something to a citizen, who is mounting the steps to the platform. In the background, Liberalitas standing left, holding a tessera
RIC 552 [R]; Cohen 914; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 112:15
3 commentsCharles S
Demetrio II, Nicator.jpg
12-02 - Demetrio II, Nicator (1er.Reino 145 - 139 A.C.)56 viewsDemetrio II Nicátor de la dinastía Seléucida, fue rey de Siria en dos períodos: 146 - 139 A.C. y 129 - 126 A.C. Huyó a Creta tras la derrota y muerte de su padre, Demetrio I Sóter, pero regresó después, proclamándose rey. Fue puesto en fuga casi inmediatamente por el general Diodoto, que primero proclamó rey a un hijo de Alejandro Balas, Antíoco VI Dioniso, y luego a sí mismo con el nombre de Trifón. Demetrio marchó en guerra contra el rey de Partia, Mitrídates I, siendo derrotado y capturado en 139 A.C.
En 129 fue puesto en libertad, con la esperanza de provocar una guerra entre él y su hermano Antíoco VII Evergetes. Sin embargo, Antíoco murió antes de que estallara el conflicto, con lo que Demetrio II se proclamó rey de nuevo. Poco después fue derrotado y muerto por el rey de Egipto Ptolomeo VIII, que sostenía al usupador Alejandro Zabinas. Le sucedió su hijo Seleuco V Filométor, bajo la regencia de su viuda Cleopatra Tea. (Wikipedia)

AE 18 x 19 mm 4.9 gr.

Anv: Busto con diadema de Demetrio II viendo a derecha. Grafila de puntos.
Rev: "BAΣIΛEΩΣ ΔHMHTPIOY – TYPIΩN (por Tiro)" - Popa de Galera (Simboliza el poderío naval de Tiro Fenicia bajo los Seléucidas).

Acuñación: 145/4 A.C.
Ceca: Seleucia en Tiro - Fenicia

Referencias: Houghton #753 – SNG Spaer #1722 - B.M.C. Vol.4 (Seleucid Kings of Syria) #20-22 Pag.60 - Sear GCTV Vol.2 #7070 Pag.661 - SNG Israel #1708.
mdelvalle
45Hadrian_RIC127.jpg
127 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-22 AD Libertas22 viewsReverence.
Strack 74; C. 903; RIC 127 var;

Obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG.
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: P M TR P COS III / LIB PVB.
Libertas seated left, holding branch and sceptre.

3.3 gr
18 mm
h
1 commentsokidoki
213Hadrian__RIC128.jpg
128 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-22 AD Libertas standing32 viewsReference.
Strack 75; RIC 128; BMC 290; C. 907.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN-HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, (and across back of neck)

Rev. P M TR P COS-III LIB | PVB across fields
Libertas standing facing, head left, pileus in right hand, scepter in left.

3.30 gr
1 commentsokidoki
142Hadrian__RIC129.jpg
129 Hadrian Denarius Roma 119-22 AD Hadrian seated left on platform37 viewsReference.
Strack 70; RIC II 129, RSC II 908, BMCRE III 291

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG.
Laureate head right.

Rev. P M TR P COS III / LIBERAL AVG
Hadrian seated left on platform, making distribution to citizen standing right.

3.56 gr
18 mm
h
okidoki
Quinarius P.CATO.jpg
13-03 - M. PORCIUS CATO (89 A.C.)46 viewsAR Quinarius 14 mm 1.8 gr
Anv: Cabeza de joven Baco o Liber (Dios del Vino) de pelo largo, vistiendo corona de hojas de hiedra viendo a derecha - "M·CATO" (AT en ligadura) detrás de la cabeza. No se aprecia pero usualmente Marca de Control debajo.
Rev: Victoria alada sentada a derecha, portando palma en mano derecha y pátera en izquierda. "VICTRIX" (TR en ligadura) en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #248 Pag.119 - Craw RRC #343/2a-b - Syd CRR #597/597c -BMCRR #662/693 - RSC Vol.1 Porcia 7-7c Pag.80/81 - Kestner 2999 var.
mdelvalle
211Hadrian__RIC131.jpg
131 Hadrian Denarius 119-22 AD Hadrian with officier and Libertas45 viewsReference.
Scarce
Strack 71; RIC 131b; C 911

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG.
Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder, and over back of neck (rarely seen)

Rev. P M TR P COS III / LIBERAL AVG (III In Ex.)
Emperor seated left on sella curulis on platform; behind, officer; before, Liberalitas with coin counter; in front on steps, citizen.

2.75 gr
18 mm

extra.
A tessera (plural: tesserae, diminutive tessella) is an individual tile, usually formed in the shape of a cube
A rare reverse variant showing four rather than just two participants in the distribution: only one specimen in Reka Devnia hoard.
1 commentsokidoki
0010-070np_noir.jpg
1333 - L. Scribonius Libo, Denarius65 viewsRome mint, 62 BC
BON EVENT LIBO, head of Bonus Eventus right
PVTEAL SCRIBON, the puteal scribonianum, ornamented with garland between two lyres and hammer
3.95 gr
Ref : RCV # 367, RSC, Scribonia # 8a
Potator II
0010-071.jpg
1334 - L. Aemilius Lepidus Paullus and L. Scribonius Libo, Denarius54 viewsRome mint, 62 BC
PAVLLUS LEPIDVS CONCORD, diademed and draped bust of concordia right
PVTEAL SCRIBON above and LIBO below the puteal scribonianum, ornamented with garland between two lyres and hammer
3,11 gr - 19/20 mm
Ref : RCV #368, RSC, Aemilia #11
From the E.E. Clain-Stefanelli collection
2 commentsPotator II
Constantinus-I__AE-Follis_CONSTANTI-NVS-MAX-AVG-1_LIBERT-A-S-PVBLICA-B1_CONS_RIC-18-2nd_-off_-R1_C-x_Constantinipolis_327-AD__Q-001_19mm_3,28g-s~0.jpg
136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VII 018, AE-3 Follis, -/-//CONS, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Victory standing left on galley, R1!149 views136 Constantinus I. (306-309 A.D. Caesar, 309-910 A.D. Filius Augustorum, 307-337 A.D. Augustus), Constantinopolis, RIC VII 018, AE-3 Follis, -/-//CONS, LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Victory standing left on galley, R1!
avers:- CONSTANTI NVS MAX AVG, 1, B1, Laurate head right.
revers:- LIBERT A S PVBLICA, Victory standing left on galley, holding wreath in each hand. B in the left field.
exerg: -/-//CONS, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 11 h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 327-A.D., ref: RIC VII 18, p-572, 2nd. off. R1!
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
antpius sest-liberalitas.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AE sestertius - struck 147-148 AD99 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP (laureate head right)
rev: COS IIII around, S-C on platform, [LIBERALITAS / AVG IIII] in exergue (Emperor seated on platform with outstretched hand, officer behind him, Liberalitas holding account board (abacus) and cornucopiae before him, citizen at left below, receiving generosity, holding out fold of toga)
ref: RIC III 774, Cohen 498 (30frcs)
27.11gms, 30mm, brass
Rare

A rare historical issue with a remarkable reverse "propaganda" type. In this case, it celebrates the emperor's largesse during one of his famous nine donatives, known as "congiaria", to the citizens of Rome. Although originally these donatives were in liquid (oil and wine), by Pius' time they commonly took the form of cash. Aiding the emperor here by communicating the gifts to the citizens is the personification of generosity, Liberalitas.
berserker
Craw_343_2a-b_Quinario_M_Porcius_Cato.jpg
14-03 - M. PORCIUS CATO (89 A.C.)10 viewsAR Quinarius 14 mm 1.8 gr

Anv: Cabeza de joven Baco o Liber (Dios del Vino) de pelo largo, vistiendo corona de hojas de hiedra viendo a derecha - "M·CATO" (AT en ligadura) detrás de la cabeza. No se aprecia pero usualmente Marca de Control debajo.
Rev: Victoria alada sentada a derecha, portando palma en mano derecha y pátera en izquierda. "VICTRIX" (TR en ligadura) en Exergo.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #248 Pag.119 - Craw RRC #343/2a-b - Syd CRR #597/597c -BMCRR #662/693 - RSC Vol.1 Porcia 7-7c Pag.80/81 - Kestner 2999 var.
mdelvalle
Denario_Neron_Salus_RIC_67_Fourree.jpg
14-15 - NERON (54 - 68 D.C.)41 viewsFALSIFICACIÓN ANCIANA
Denario Forrado 17 mm 1.9 gr.

Anv: " NERO CAESAR - AVGVSTVS" - Cabeza laureada viendo a derecha.
Rev: Salus (La Salud) sentada en un trono a izquierda, portando patera en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido. "SALVS" en el exergo.

Este tipo se refiere a la supresión de la conspiración del Pisonian. El supuesto asesino Fl. Scaevinus, tomó una daga sagrada del templo de Salus en Ferentum para matar a Nerón, pero uno de los libertos de Scaevinus lo traicionó llevando esa misma daga a Nerón como evidencia. Neron dedicó la daga en el templo de Salus en Roma, escribiendo "a Júpiter el Protector". Por este motivo se promovieron con mucha fuerza a Salus y Júpiter Custos en toda la acuñación de Nerón como guardianes del reino..

Acuñada Con posterioridad al 66-67 D.C.
Ceca: No oficial

Referencias: RIC Vol.I #60 Pag.153 - Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1945 var. (Leyenda del anverso) Pag.384 - BMCRE Vol.I #90 - Cohen Vol.1 #314 Pag.300 - DVM #15 Pag.85 - CBN #237 - RSC Vol. II #314 Pag.15
mdelvalle
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
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147 - Constantius I Chlorus - RIC VI Alexandria 33a11 viewsObv:- FL VAL CONSTANTIVS NOB CAES; Laureate head right
Rev:- GENIO POPV-L-I ROMANI; Genius of the Roman People standing facing, head left, holding cornucopia and pouring libation from patera
Minted in Alexandria (XX | E/I //ALE). A.D. 301
Ref:- RIC VI Alexandria 33a

10.35g, 27.21mm, 180o

Slight double strike on reverse
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Magnentius_AE-2-24-Cent-_IMP-CAE-MAGNEN-TIVS-AVG_VICTORIA-AVG-LIB-ROMANOR_R-P_RIC-177_C-57_Rome-_Q-001_h_24mm_5,13gx-s.jpg
148 Magnentius (350-353 A.D.), Rome, RIC VIII 177P, -/-//RP, AE-2, Centenionalis, VICTORIA AVG LIB ROMANOR, Emperor,113 views148 Magnentius (350-353 A.D.), Rome, RIC VIII 177P, -/-//RP, AE-2, Centenionalis, VICTORIA AVG LIB ROMANOR, Emperor,
avers:- IMP CAE MAGNEN TIVS AVG, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIA AVG LIB ROMANOR, Emperor, bare-headed and in military dress, standing right holding olive branch and standard decorated with an eagle, foot on the shoulder of a bare-headed captive seated right.
exerg: -/-//RP, diameter: 24mm, weight: 5,13g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 350-353 AD., ref: RIC VIII 177, C-57, Sear 18811,
Q-001
quadrans
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148 Magnentius (350-353 A.D.), Rome, RIC VIII 179S, A/-//R•F•S, AE-2, Centenionalis, VICTORIA AVG LIB ROMANOR, Emperor,106 views148 Magnentius (350-353 A.D.), Rome, RIC VIII 179S, A/-//R•F•S, AE-2, Centenionalis, VICTORIA AVG LIB ROMANOR, Emperor,
avers:- IMP CAE MAGNEN TIVS AVG, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers:- VICTORIA AVG LIB ROMANOR, Emperor, bare-headed and in military dress, standing right holding olive branch and standard decorated with an eagle, foot on the shoulder of a bare-headed captive seated right. A in left field.
exerg: A/-//R•F•S, diameter: 22-27mm, weight: 4,69g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, date: 350-353 AD., ref: RIC VIII 179S, Sear 18812,
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15-02 - Follis Anónimo Clase A2 (976 - 1025 D.C.)28 viewsAtribuida al reinado conjunto de Basilio II y Constantino VIII.
AE Follis 30 x 27 mm 9.6 gr.

Anv: "EMMA - NOVHΛ", "IX - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Busto de Cristo de frente nimbado (Forma rectangular en la cruz del limbo), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios (5 puntos en el libro).
Rev: " IhSUS / XRISTUS / bASILEU / bASILE " (Jesús Cristo Rey de Reyes), leyenda en 4 líneas, debajo y arriba ornamentos tipo 47 (Forma rectangular).

Acuñada 976 - 1025 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1813 Pag. 376 - Bellinger D.O. pp.651 - B.M.C. (Basil II and Constantine VII) #21-40 - Ratto M.B.(Basil II and Constantine VII) #1951-65 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. pp.596/8 #1-66
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15-04 - Follis Anónimo Clase D (1042 - 1055 D.C.) 25 viewsAtribuida al reinado de Constantino IX.
AE Follis 28 x 26 mm 10.9 gr.

Anv: "IX - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con ambas manos.
Rev: " IhSUS / bASILEU / bASILE " (Jesús Rey de Reyes), leyenda en 3 líneas, ornamentado debajo con "- u -" y arriba con "- + -".

Acuñada 1042 - 1055 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1836 Pag. 378 - Bellinger D.O. pp.685/7 - B.M.C. (Constantine X) #10-17 - Ratto M.B.(Constantine X) #2015/7 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. pp.601 #107/19
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1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)98 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)54 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
1637_-_1638_Charles_I_Twenty_pence.JPG
1625 - 1649, CHARLES I, AR Twenty Pence, Struck 1637 - 1638 at Edinburgh, Scotland22 viewsObverse: CAR•D:G•SCOT•ANG•FR•ET•HIB•R•. Crowned bust of Charles I, which goes to the edge of the coin, facing left, XX with a small lozenge above and below behind bust; small B (for Briot) below.
Reverse: IVSTITIA•THRONVM•FIRMAT• small B (off flan, for Briot) at end of legend. Thistle with Scottish crown above. The reverse legend translates as 'Justice strengthens the Throne'.
This coin was produced using Briot's new coining press during the third coinage period which ran from 1637 to 1642.
Diameter: 17mm | Weight: 0,8gms | Die Axis: 6
SPINK: 5581

Nicholas Briot, a Frenchman previously employed by the French and English mints, was appointed Master of the Scottish mint in August 1634. He was later joined by his son-in-law John Falconer, who succeeded him in 1646.
Briot's work was of the highest calibre, and his introduction of the mill and screw press gave the Scottish series of coins a technical excellence previously unknown.
After Briot's departure from Scotland in 1638 there was a rapid falling off from his high standard of workmanship. Although considerable use was made of Briot's punches for Falconer's third coinage issues, many of the dies were badly executed, and there was even more of a deterioration during the fourth coinage period which resulted in poorly produced coins of no artistic merit.

After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings and thought he could govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, and perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch. His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and the Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics and his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, and helped precipitate his own downfall.
From 1642, Charles fought the Parliamentary army in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that eventually handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, and after temporarily escaping captivity in November 1647, he was re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight. Although Charles had managed to forge an alliance with Scotland, by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England and Charles was tried, convicted, and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared. The Parliament of Scotland however, proclaimed Charles I's son as King Charles II on the 5th of February 1649.
The political crisis in England that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy whereby Charles II was invited to return and, on the 29th of May 1660, he was received in London to public acclaim. After 1660 all Charles II's legal documents in Britain were dated from 1649, the year when he had succeeded his father as king in Scotland.
2 comments*Alex
1671_-_Nantes_-_2.JPG
1671 - mairie de Nantes15 viewscuivre
6,99g
26mm
mairie de Gratien Libault
GRATIEN . LIBAVLT. ESCVIER. SEIGr . DE. LA. TEMPLERIE.
Quintefeuille au début de la légende.Ecu des armes du Maire ( D'argent à 6 fleurs de lis de gueules, 3. 2. 1, au chef de gueules chargé de trois fers de lance d'argent), timbré d'un casque taré de face, orné de ses lambrequins, et portant pour cimier une tête de dauphin. Support deux sirènes tenant chacune un miroir et qui, comme l'écusson, sont placées sur une mer ondée
CAPne EN CHEF DE LA FOSSE ET MAIRE DE NANTES
1671
Le vaisseau Nantais voguant à droite. Au chef chargé de cinq hermines
PYL
Denarius MENSOR.jpg
17-01 - LUCIUS FARSULEIUS MENSOR (75 A.C.)52 viewsAR Denarius 18 mm 2.6 gr ?
Anv: Busto con vestido, diadema, aro y collar de Libertas (Libertad) viendo a derecha - "S C" sobre "Pileus" (Gorro usado por los esclavos) detrás del busto.
Rev: Roma en biga avanzando a derecha, ayudando a un ciudadano con toga a subir al carruaje. Marca de control bajo los caballos. "L•FARSVLEI" en Exergo.
Esta moneda presumiblemente alude a la Lex Julia (90 A.C), que confería derechos de ciudadano a todos los italianos.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #329 Pag.134 - Craw RRC #392/1b - Syd CRR #789 -BMCRR #3293-3305 - RSC Vol.1 Farsuleia 2 Pag.47
mdelvalle
Craw_392_1b_Denario_Lucius_Farsuleius_Mensor.jpg
17-01 - LUCIUS FARSULEIUS MENSOR (75 A.C.)16 viewsAR Denarius 18 mm 2.6 gr ?

Anv: Busto con vestido, diadema, aro y collar de Libertas (Libertad) viendo a derecha - "S C" sobre "Pileus" (Gorro usado por los esclavos) detrás del busto.
Rev: Roma en biga avanzando a derecha, ayudando a un ciudadano con toga a subir al carruaje. Marca de control bajo los caballos. "L•FARSVLEI" en Exergo.
Esta moneda presumiblemente alude a la Lex Julia (90 A.C), que confería derechos de ciudadano a todos los italianos.

Ceca: Roma
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #329 Pag.134 - Craw RRC #392/1b - Syd CRR #789 -BMCRR #3293-3305 - RSC Vol.1 Farsuleia 2 Pag.47
mdelvalle
578Hadrian_StrackRome142.jpg
175 cf Hadrian Denarius Roma 125-128 AD Libertas standing32 viewsReference. Rare
Strack 142; cf RIC 175 (HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS)

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVST
laureate head right with drapery on left shoulder.

Rev. COS III
Libertas standing left holding pileus and long vindicta/rod

3.34 gr
18 mm
7h
okidoki
59Hadrian__RIC175.jpg
175 Hadrian Denarius Roma 125-128 AD Libertas standing28 viewsReference.
RIC 175d

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
laureate head right with drapery on left shoulder

Rev. COS III
Libertas standing left holding pileus and vindicta/rod

2.83 gr
20 mm
okidoki
1757_-_Rennes.JPG
1757 - mairie de Rennes12 viewsargent
7,69g
28mm
mairie de Jean Baillon et de l'intendant Cardin-François-Xavier Lebret
TALIBUS AUSPICIIS FLOREBIT AEDIL. RHED
"L'Edile de Rennes fleurira sous de tels auspices"
1757
Les armes de Monsieur Lebret, Intendant de Bretagne (Ses armes portent d’or, au sautoir de gueules cantonné de quatre merlettes de sable, à l'écusson en coeur d'argent, chargé d'un lion de sable, armé et lampassé de gueules) soutenu par deux licornes
DE LA MAIRIE DE M. BAILLON
Armes couronnées de Rennes (Palé d’argent et de sable de six pièces, au chef d’argent chargé de treize mouchetures d’hermine de sable) et soutenues par deux lévriers
PYL
commodus dup2.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AE dupondius - struck 178 AD29 viewsobv: L AVREL COMMODVS AVG TRP III (radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: LIBERTAS AVG IMP II COS PP / S.C. (Libertas standing left holding pileus & scepter)
ref: RIC III 1591 (M.Aurelius), C.332
9.77gms, 24mm
berserker
commodus sest-~0.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AE sestertius - struck 178 AD32 viewsobv: L AVREL COMMODVS AVG TRP III (laureate head right)
rev: LIBERTAS AVG IMPII COS PP / S.C. (Libertas standing left, holding pileus and rod)
ref: RIC III 1588 (M.Aurelius), C.331
18.04gms, 30mm
berserker
bitk.jpg
1776-1976 United States Liberty Bell bicentennial Token19 viewsNORMAN K
rjb_crispina_02_06.jpg
177a32 viewsCrispina
AR denarius
Obv "CRISPINA AVGVSTA"
Draped bust right
Rev "DIS GENITALIBVS"
Altar
Rome mint
RIC 281
mauseus
MOD_up_to_1899-USA-Vermont-3.jpg
1786 Vermont Copper61 viewsVariety RR7 (Rarity 3)

NGC VF-30 with CAC

Census (The last time I checked) - 63 NGC graded coins - 26 VF's (VF-30 = ?) - 22 graded higher
(From Heritage Auction Records Two VF20; eight VF25; three VF30; three VF35; ten = VF ?)

On June 15, 1785 the Vermont legislature granted Reuben Harmon, Jr. an exclusive franchise to make copper coins. They were to weigh 160 grs. which exceeded even the Tower Mint standards for halfpence. This weight was reduced to 111grs. in October of that year.

Vermont coinage initially had two basic designs with several varieties of each and one oddball issue

First design

Obv. – Shows the sun rising over the Green Mountains and a plough in the foreground with the date below. The obverse legend read VERMONT(I)S RESPUBLICA (the Republic of Vermont”). Later VERMONTIS became VERMONTENSIUM (better Latin).

Rev – Shows the All-Seeing Eye in the Blazing Sun within a constellation of 13 stars for the original 13 colonies. The reverse legend read STELLA QUARTA DECIMA or the 14th star referring to local pressure to join the union.

Second design

The mint operator petitioned the legislature to permit a change in design to approximate that similar to most other coppers then current (British halfpence and their local imitations including Connecticut). The Vermont legislature amended the act to specify the following:

Obv. – A head with the motto AUCTORITATE VERMONTENIUS, abridged

Rev. – A women with the letters, INDE: ET LIB: - for Independence and Liberty.

Third Design the “Immune Columbia” issue

Although the third design bears the date 1785, it was probably struck later. The obverse matches the requirements for the second design but the reverse shows a seated figure of Columbia (a poetical name for America) and the legend IMMUNE COLUMBIA, this reverse was not authorized by the Vermont Legislature.

Vermont coppers were produced from 1785 to 1788

I once had a very large collection of U.S. coins and this is the only coin I have that was part of my original collection.

My cost was $2,200, however, I actually did not have to pay a single cent out of pocket or provide any item in trade. But that is a long story.
Richard M10
LouisXVIAbolitionOfPrivilege1789.JPG
1789. Louis XVI Medal. French Revolution, Abolition of Privilege.148 viewsObv. Draped bust right LOUIS XVI RESTAURATEUR DE LA LIBERTE FRANCAIS
Rev. National Assembly scene amidst Neoclassical surrounds ABANDON DE TOUS LES PRIVILEGES A LA PATRIE on central ballot box ASSEMBLEE NATIONALE IV AOUT MDCLXXXIX

This medal commemorates the abolition of aristocratic privilege by the National Assembly of France.
LordBest
LouisXVIMayorOfParis1789.JPG
1789. Louis XVI Medal. French Revolution, The First Mayor of Paris.115 viewsObv. Draped bust right LOUIS XVI ROI DES FRANCAIS
Rev. Personification of Paris facing holding rudder and sceptre surmounted by liberty cap, leaning on colum decorated with fasces, ships prow to left, various emblems of trade and wealth on right ESTABLISSEMENT DE LA MAIRIE DE PARIS J SILVAIN BAILLY PREMIER MAIRE ELU L 15 JULLIET 1789

Commemorates the cration of Jean Silvain Bailly as the first mayor of Paris. Bailly was later guillotined during The Terror.
LordBest
1794_COVENTRY_CROSS_HALFPENNY.JPG
1794 AE Halfpenny Token. Coventry, Warwickshire.27 viewsObverse: PRO BONO PUBLICO. Lady Godiva riding side-saddle on horse to left; in exergue, 1794.
Reverse: COVENTRY HALFPENNY. Representation of Coventry's old town cross with COV CROSS in small letters at base.
Edge: PAYABLE AT THE WAREHOUSE OF ROBERT REYNOLDS & CO.
Diameter 29.5mm | Axis 12
Dalton & Hamer: 249
RARE

This token was manufactured by William Lutwyche and the dies were engraved by William Mainwaring.
It was issued by Robert Reynolds & Co., who were ribbon weavers with a business in Coventry.

The original Coventry Cross stood at the place where Broadgate met Cross Cheaping, near Spicer Stoke, a very short row which led through from Broadgate to Butcher Row and Trinity church. Though it is likely that a cross had been standing in this place since the 13th century, the first actual record for the building of a cross was on 1st July 1423 when the Mayor, Henry Peyto, officially sanctioned that a new cross should be built. Although it was quite a substantial structure, within a century it was rather the worse for wear, and by 1506 discussions had begun about replacing it.
In 1541, the former mayor of London, Sir William Hollis, left £200 in his will toward the building of a new cross, and by 1544 the 57 foot high cross was completed. As well as being brightly painted, the cross was also covered with much gold and it was renowned for its fame and beauty. It was built in four sections, with statues in the top three storeys: the lower of these holding statues of Henry VI, King John, Edward I, Henry II, Richard I and Henry. Above these were Edward III, Henry II, Richard III, St Michael and St George. The top storey held statues of St Peter, St James, St Christopher and two monks, with representations of Liberty and Justice at the highest point. In 1608 repairs were carried out to the cross during which the figure of Christ was replaced with one of Lady Godiva. Possibly the obverse of this token is based on this statue since there is no record of there being any other Lady Godiva memorial statues before 1949.
After standing gloriously for two centuries, decay once more set into the cross and, in 1753 and 1755, the top two stages were removed to avoid the danger of collapse. By 1771 the cross was declared to be in too ruinous a state to retain, and it's demolition was authorised. The remains stood for a short while longer though, at least until after 1778 when a visitor to Coventry wrote that the decayed cross "...has no longer anything to please".
This token is dated 1794, but must depict the cross as it was in it's heyday before it was totally demolished and it's parts reused. Two of the statues from the cross now reside at St. Mary's Guildhall.
A modern replica of the cross was unveiled in 1976, it is situated about 100 metres away from the site of the original one.
*Alex
1798Cent_copy.jpg
1798 Large Cent, United States of America30 views1798 Cent, United States of America, Obv: Liberty right, LIBERTY above, 1798 below; Rev: ONE CENT with wreath over 1/100, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA in field around border, Fine.Molinari
Coin_cabinet_medal.JPG
1843 "BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE" AE Halfpenny Token. London, Middlesex17 viewsObverse: VILIUS EST ARGENTUM AURO, VIRTUTIBUS AURUM. Female, leaning on books behind her, holding a cornucopia from which coins are spilling, seated facing right in front of an open coin cabinet; in exergue, tudor rose on shield between two branches.
Reverse: BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE LONDON * PRIVATE TOKEN * 1843 surrounding “BN” monogram in script.
Edge: Plain.
Diameter: 30mm | Weight: 14.2gms | Die Axis: 12
Bell (Middlesex) A3
VERY RARE (Only 72 of these bronzed copper halfpenny tokens were struck)

Privately issued in London by Benjamin Nightingale, the die sinker for this token was William Joseph Taylor (whose initials WJT can be seen to the left below the books on the obverse), following a similar design for halfpennies that he had produced for Matthew Young, a British merchant. Taylor was born in Birmingham in 1802 and was apprenticed to Thomas Halliday in 1818 as the first die-sinker to be trained by him. He set up his own business as a die-sinker, medallist and engraver at 5 Porter Street, Soho, London in 1829, later moving to 3 Lichfield Street, Birmingham. In 1843 the business moved to 33 Little Queen Street and finally, in 1869, to 70 Red Lion Street where, in 1885, Taylor died.
The Soho Mint at Birmingham (founded by Matthew Boulton) closed in 1848, and it's plant and equipment was sold via auction in April 1850. Taylor purchased many of the Soho Mint's hubs and dies from this auction and used them to restrike many of the coins & patterns that the Soho Mint had struck between the 1790's and the 1840's, though he nearly always re-polished or re-engraved elements of the original dies before re-using them.

Benjamin Nightingale was a wine and spirit merchant who lived at 17 Upper Stamford Street, Blackfriars Road in London. He was born in 1806 and died on March 9th, 1862. He was a well known Antiquarian and was a member of the Numismatic Society of London.
In 1863, after his death, Benjamin Nightingale's collection, consisting of 359 lots, was sold over a two day period by Sotheby's. This is from the February 13, 1863 edition of the London Daily News (page 8, column 6).

THE VALUABLE CABINET of COINS and MEDALS of the late BENJAMIN NIGHTINGALE, Esq.
MESSRS S. LEIGH SOTHEBY and WILKINSON, auctioneers of literary property and works illustrative of the fine arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their house, No. 13 (late 3), Wellington-street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, Feb. 25, and following day, at 1 precisely, the valuable CABINET OF COINS and MEDALS of the late Benjamin Nightingale, Esq.; comprising a few Roman coins in gold, silver, and copper, in the highest state of preservation; a most valuable collection of English medals in all metals; rare and curious jetons, including a very perfect set of those struck to illustrate the history of the low countries; a few remarkable foreign medals, a choice library of numismatic books, several well-made cabinets, & c. – May be viewed two days previous, and catalogues had on receipt of two stamps.

According to Manville and Robertson, prior to his death, Benjamin Nightingale had sold off part of his collection at an auction by Sotheby's on 29th Nov. 1855.
"Benjamin NIGHTINGALE" in ANS copy; Greek, Roman, Tavern Tokens, Town Pieces, 17-18c Tokens, English and Foreign Medals, Books; 165 lots. -Curtis Clay.

The inspiration for these tokens might have been Pye's 1797 halfpenny (Warwickshire 223) which is of a similar design.
*Alex
1837Cent_copy.jpg
1847 Large Cent, United States of America34 views1847 Large Cent, United States of America, Obv: Liberty right, LIBERTY on crown, 1847 below, 13 Stars surrounding; Rev: ONE CENT within wreath, UNITED STATES OF AMERICA in field around border, Very Fine.Molinari
Clipboard3~0.jpg
1858 Liberty seated Half-Dollar27 views1 commentsancientone
liberty-nickel_1883_no-cents_obv_03.JPG
1883 Liberty Nickel - Obverse28 viewsUnited States of America 1883 (no cents reverse) Nickel.

'Liberty Head Nickel'

Grade: about Extra Fine.
rexesq
liberty-nickel_1883_no-cents_rev_01.JPG
1883 Liberty Nickel - Reverse.9 viewsUnited States of America 1883 (no cents on reverse) Nickel.

'Liberty Head Nickel'

Grade: about Extra Fine.
rexesq
dime_1917_obv_03_rev_01_001.JPG
1917 Dime11 views-
--
USA - 1917 'Winged Liberty Head Dime' also known as a 'Mercury Dime'.
--
-
rexesq
dime_1917_obv_02_rev_01_001.JPG
1917 Dime7 views-
--
USA - 1917 'Winged Liberty Head Dime' also known as a 'Mercury Dime'.
--
-
rexesq
1938.jpg
1938 JOHN II HYPERPYRON NOMISMA IV DOC 1 Constantinople First Coinage SBCV-193823 viewsOBV Christ Bearded and Nimbate , wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon a throne without back: r. hand raised in benediction , holds gospels in l.

REV Half length figure of emperor on l. and of Virgin , holding between them Partriarcghal cross on long shaft. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and paneled loros of simplified type; holds anexikakia in r. hand. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion. Manus Dei in upeer left field.

Size 30mm

Weight 4.0gm
.
DOC lists 17 examples with weights from 4.04gm to 4.40gm and sizes ranging from 30mm to 36mm

Not a perfect example but had a wonderful Provenance, has original ticket from J Schulman coin dealers in Amsterdam before WWII, (From the start Jacques Schulman kept meticulous records of every coin and medal in his inventory, sales, and auctions. These were index cards that formed a database in the exact same way libraries kept their catalogue card index for books, and other printed materials.
Simon
rjb_2010_10_07a.jpg
193b9 viewsSeptimius Severus 193-211 AD
AR denarius
Obv "IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II"
Laureate bust right
Rev "LIRER AVG" (sic)
Liberalitas seated left
Emesa mint
RIC cf401
mauseus
septsev_RIC32.jpg
194 AD - SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS AR denarius39 viewsobv: L SEPT SEV PERT - AVG IMP III (laureate head right)
rev: LIBERO PATRI (Bacchus [Liber] standing left, holding oenochoe [wine-cup] over panther on left and thyrsus in other hand)
ref: RIC IVi, 32 (S), RSC 301 (5frcs)
mint: Rome
2.89 gms, 17 mm
Rare

In Roman mythology, Liber was originally associated with husbandry and crops, but then was assimilated with Dionysos. He is the consort of Ceres and the father of the goddess Libera. His festival, the Liberalia, was on 17 March when young men celebrated the arrival of manhood.
1 commentsberserker
dime_1942-S_obv_02_obv_06_rev_01_rev_05.JPG
1942-S - Dime 'Mercury Dime'24 viewsUSA 'Mercury' or 'Winged Liberty' Dime - 1942 San Francisco Mint.
~~~~~
*Nice bands on the fasces on the reverse.*
~~~
~
rexesq
Republican_Centennial_Medal_1954.JPG
1954 Official Republican Centennial Medal27 viewsObv: REPUBLICAN CENTENNIAL 1854 - 1954, Conjoined busts of Abraham Lincoln and Dwight Eisenhower facing right.

Rev: Two lighted torches, quotes between: "WITH MALICE TOWARD NONE, WITH CHARITY FOR ALL, WITH FIRMNESS IN THE RIGHT, AS GOD GIVES US TO SEE THE RIGHT, LET US STRIVE ON TO FINISH THE WORK WE ARE IN" -Abraham Lincoln. "IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH PEOPLE, BE LIBERAL, BE HUMAN. IN ALL THOSE THINGS WHICH DEAL WITH THE PEOPLE'S MONEY OR THEIR ECONOMY, OR THEIR FORM OF GOVERNMENT, BE CONSERVATIVE." Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Engraver: Gilroy Roberts

Mint: Medallic Art Company, Date: 1954, Bronze, Diameter: 63.6 mm

Note: Gilroy Roberts was already the chief engraver of the United States Mint when he designed this medal. He would go on to design the portrait on the John F. Kennedy half dollar.
Matt Inglima
BrutusDenLictors.jpg
1ag Marcus Junius Brutus64 viewsTook his own life in 42 BC after being defeated at Philippi by Antony and Octavian

Denarius, issued as moneyer, 54 BC
Head of Liberty, right, LIBERTAS
Consul L. Junius Brutus between lictors, preceded by accensus, BRVTVS

Seaby, Junia 31

Plutarch wrote: Marcus Brutus was descended from that Junius Brutus to whom the ancient Romans erected a statue of brass in the capitol among the images of their kings with a drawn sword in his hand, in remembrance of his courage and resolution in expelling the Tarquins and destroying the monarchy. . . . But this Brutus, whose life we now write, having to the goodness of his disposition added the improvements of learning and the study of philosophy, and having stirred up his natural parts, of themselves grave and gentle, by applying himself to business and public affairs, seems to have been of a temper exactly framed for virtue; insomuch that they who were most his enemies upon account of his conspiracy against Caesar, if in that whole affair there was any honourable or generous part, referred it wholly to Brutus, and laid whatever was barbarous and cruel to the charge of Cassius, Brutus's connection and familiar friend, but not his equal in honesty and pureness of purpose. . . . In Latin, he had by exercise attained a sufficient skill to be able to make public addresses and to plead a cause; but in Greek, he must be noted for affecting the sententious and short Laconic way of speaking in sundry passages of his epistles. . . . And in all other things Brutus was partaker of Caesar's power as much as he desired: for he might, if he had pleased, have been the chief of all his friends, and had authority and command beyond them all, but Cassius and the company he met with him drew him off from Caesar. . . . Caesar snatching hold of the handle of the dagger, and crying out aloud in Latin, "Villain Casca, what do you?" he, calling in Greek to his brother, bade him come and help. And by this time, finding himself struck by a great many hands, and looking around about him to see if he could force his way out, when he saw Brutus with his dagger drawn against him, he let go Casca's hand, that he had hold of and covering his head with his robe, gave up his body to their blows.
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TiberiusAsSC.jpg
1al Tiberius26 views14-37

As
Laureate head, left, TI CAESAR AVGVST F IMPERAT V
PONTIF MAXIM TRIBVN POTEST XXIII SC

This is one of a series of 12 Caesars pieces that were local finds in Serbia. There are better coins out there, but I'll hang onto these because they really got me into the hobby.

RIC 469

Per Suetonius: Within three years, however, both Lucius Caesar and Gaius Caesar were dead [in AD2 and 4 respectively], and Augustus now adopted both their brother Agrippa Postumus, and Tiberius, who was first required to adopt his nephew Germanicus [in 4 AD]. . . .

From that moment onwards, Augustus did all he could to enhance Tiberius’ prestige, especially after the disowning and banishment of Postumus [ca 6 AD] made it obvious that Tiberius was the sole heir to the succession. . . .

Tiberius acted like a traditional citizen, more modestly almost than the average individual. He accepted only a few of the least distinguished honours offered him; it was only with great reluctance that he consented to his birthday being recognised, falling as it did on the day of the Plebeian Games in the Circus, by the addition of a two-horse chariot to the proceedings; and he refused to have temples, and priests dedicated to him, or even the erection of statues and busts, without his permission; which he only gave if they were part of the temple adornments and not among the divine images. . . .

Moreover, in the face of abuse, libels or slanders against himself and his family, he remained unperturbed and tolerant, often maintaining that a free country required free thought and speech. . . . He even introduced a species of liberty, by maintaining the traditional dignities and powers of the Senate and magistrates. He laid all public and private matters, small or great, before the Senate consulting them over State revenues, monopolies, and the construction and maintenance of public buildings, over the levying and disbanding of troops, the assignment of legions and auxiliaries, the scope of military appointments, and the allocation of campaigns, and even the form and content of his replies to letters from foreign powers. . . .

Returning to Capreae, he abandoned all affairs of state, neither filling vacancies in the Equestrian Order’s jury lists, nor appointing military tribunes, prefects, or even provincial governors. Spain and Syria lacked governors of Consular rank for several years, while he allowed the Parthians to overrun Armenia, Moesia to be ravaged by the Dacians and Sarmatians, and Gaul by the Germans, threatening the Empire’s honour no less than its security. Furthermore, with the freedom afforded by privacy, hidden as it were from public view, he gave free rein to the vices he had concealed for so long. . . .
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ClaudiusAsLibertas.jpg
1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
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DomitianAsMoneta.jpg
1az Domitian20 views81-96

As

Laureate head right, IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XV CENS PER P P
Moneta std, MONETA AVGVSTI S C

RIC 708

Suetonius wrote: Domitian was born on the 24th of October AD51, a month before his father Vespasian took up office as consul. . . . When Vespasian died, Domitian considered granting his soldiers twice the bounty offered by his brother Titus, and had no qualms in claiming that his father’s will had been tampered with, since he had been due a half-share of the Empire. From then on, he plotted continually against his brother, openly and in secret. When Titus was gripped by his fatal illness, Domitian ordered him to be left for dead, before he had actually breathed his last. . . .

He governed inconsistently, displaying a mixture of virtue and vice, but after some time his virtues too gave way to vice, since he seems to have been made avaricious through lack of funds, and cruel through fear, contrary to his natural disposition. . . . Domitian was diligent and conscientiousness in his administration of justice, often holding special sittings on the tribunal in the Forum. . . . [I]n his private life, and even for some time after becoming Emperor, he was considered free of greed and avarice; and indeed often showed proof not only of moderation, but of real generosity. . . . His moderation and clemency however were not destined to last, his predilection to cruelty appearing somewhat sooner than his avarice. . . . In this way he became an object of terror to all, and so hated that he was finally brought down by a conspiracy of his companions and favourite freedmen, which also involved his wife, Domitia Longina.

Domitian was tall, and of a ruddy complexion, with large rather weak eyes, and a modest expression. He was handsome and attractive when young, his whole body well-made except for his feet with their short toes. Later, he lost his hair, and developed a protruding belly, while his legs became thin and spindly after a long illness. . . . He found exercise intolerable, seldom walked when in Rome and while travelling and on campaign rarely rode but used a litter. Weaponry in general held no interest for him, though he was exceptionally keen on archery. There are plenty of witnesses to his killing a hundred wild creatures or more at a time on his Alban estate, bringing them down with successive arrows planted so deftly as to give the effect of horns. . . .

At the beginning of his reign, he had the libraries, which had been damaged by fire, restored at great expense, instituting a search for copies of lost works, and sending scribes to Alexandria to transcribe and edit them. Yet he himself neglected liberal studies, and never bothered to interest himself in history or poetry, or even to acquire a decent writing style.
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NervaAsLibertas.jpg
1bb Nerva27 views96-98

As
Laureate head, right, IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II
Liberty stg, LIBERTAS PVBLICA SC

The perfect propaganda reverse for the successor to a tyrant. I guess he had a nose for these things.

RIC 86

Eutropius recorded: IN the eight hundred and fiftieth year from the foundation of the city, in the consulship of Vetus and Valens, the empire was restored to a most prosperous condition, being committed, with great good fortune, to the rule of meritorious princes. To Domitian, a most murderous tyrant, succeeded NERVA, a man of moderation and activity in private life, and of noble descent, though not of the very highest rank. He was made emperor at an advanced age, Petronius Secundus, the praefect of the praetorian guards, and Parthenius, one of the assassins of Domitian, giving him their support, and conducted himself with great justice and public spirit.1 He provided for the good of the state by a divine foresight, in his adoption of Trajan. He died at Rome, after a reign of one year, four months, and eight days, in the seventy-second year of his age, and was enrolled among the gods.
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TrajanSestCeres~0.jpg
1bc Trajan48 views98-117

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, IMP CAES NERVAE TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS V PP
Roma and kneeling Dacian, SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI SC

RIC 485

Eutropius enthused: To [Nerva] succeeded ULPIUS CRINITUS TRAJANUS, born at Italica in Spain, of a family rather ancient than eminent for his father was the first consul in it. He was chosen emperor at Agrippina, a city of Gaul. He exercised the government in such a manner, that he is deservedly preferred to all the other emperors. He was a man of extraordinary skill in managing affairs of state, and of remarkable courage. The limits of the Roman empire, which, since the reign of Augustus, had been rather defended than honourably enlarged, he extended far and wide. He rebuilt some cities in Germany; he subdued Dacia by the overthrow of Decebalus, and formed a province beyond the Danube, in that territory which the Thaiphali, Victoali, and Theruingi now occupy. This province was a thousand miles in circumference.

He recovered Armenia, which the Parthians had seized, putting to death Parthamasires who held the government of it. He gave a king to the Albani. He received into alliance the king of the Iberians, Sarmatians, Bosporani, Arabians, Osdroeni, and Colchians. He obtained the mastery over the Cordueni and Marcomedi, as well as over Anthemusia, an extensive region of Persia. He conquered and kept possession of Seleucia, Ctesiphon, Babylon, and the country of the Messenii. He advanced as far as the boundaries of India, and the Red Sea, where he formed three provinces, Armenia, Assyria, and Mesopotamia, including the tribes which border on Madena. He afterwards, too, reduced Arabia into the form of a province. He also fitted out a fleet for the Red Sea, that he might use it to lay waste the coasts of India.

Yet he went beyond his glory in war, in ability and judgment as a ruler, conducting himself as an equal towards all, going often to his friends as a visitor, either when they were ill, or when they were celebrating feast days, and entertaining them in his turn at banquets where there was no distinction of rank, and sitting frequently with them in their chariots; doing nothing unjust towards any of the senators, nor being guilty of any dishonesty to fill his treasury; exercising liberality to all, enriching with offices of trust, publicly and privately, every body whom he had known even with the least familiarity; building towns throughout the world, granting many immunities to states, and doing every thing with gentleness and kindness; so that during his whole reign, there was but one senator condemned, and he was sentenced by the senate without Trajan's knowledge. Hence, being regarded throughout the world as next to a god, he deservedly obtained the highest veneration both living and dead. . . .

After having gained the greatest glory both in the field and at home, he was cut off, as he was returning from Persia, by a diarrhoea, at Seleucia in Isauria. He died in the sixty-third year, ninth month, and fourth day of his age, and in the nineteenth year, sixth month, and fifteenth day of his reign. He was enrolled among the gods, and was the only one of all the emperors that was buried within the city. His bones, contained in a golden urn, lie in the forum which he himself built, under a pillar whose height is a hundred and forty-four feet. So much respect has been paid to his memory, that, even to our own times, they shout in acclamations to the emperors, "More fortunate than Augustus, better than Trajan!"
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1cf Orbiana23 viewsDenarius

Draped bust, right, SALL BARBIA ORBIANA AVG
Concord std, CONCORDIA AVGG

RIC 319

Orbiana married Severus Alexander about 235, but her mother-in-law convinced him to banish her to Africa. Herodian recorded: Mamaea secured for Alexander a wife from the aristocracy. Although he loved the girl and lived with her, she was afterward banished from the palace by his mother, who, in her egotistic desire to be sole empress, envied the girl her title. So excessively arrogant did Mamaea become that the girl's father, though Alexander esteemed him highly, could no longer endure the woman's insolence toward him and his daughter; consequently, he took refuge in the praetorian camp, fully aware of the debt of gratitude he owed Alexander for the honors he had received from him, but complaining bitterly about Mamaea's insults. Enraged, Mamaea ordered him to be killed and at the same time drove the girl from the palace to exile in Libya. She did this against Alexander's wishes and in spite of his displeasure, but the emperor was dominated by his mother and obeyed her every command.
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PhilippusAntLiberalitas.jpg
1cn Philippus29 views244-249

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopiae, LIBERALITAS AVGG II

RIC 38b

The Historia Augusta records: Philippus Arabs was made prefect of the guard [in 243]. This Philip was low-born but arrogant, and now could not contain himself in his sudden rise to office and immoderate good fortune, but immediately, through the soldiers, began to plot against Gordian, who had begun to treat him as a father. . . . Timesitheus [Gordian's father-in-law] had stored up such a quantity of supplies everywhere, that the Roman administration could not break down. But now Philip intrigued first to have the grain-ships turned away, and then to have the troops moved to stations where they could not get provisions. In this way he speedily got them exasperated against Gordian, for they did not know that the youth had been betrayed through Philip's intriguing. In addition to this, Philip spread talk among the soldiers to the effect that Gordian was young and could not manage the Empire, and that it were better for someone to rule who could command the army and understood public affairs. Besides this, he won over the leaders, and finally brought it about that they openly called him to the throne. Gordian's friends at first opposed him vigorously, but when the soldiers were at last overcome with hunger Philip was entrusted with the sovereignty, and the soldiers commanded that he and Gordian should rule together with equal rank while Philip acted as a sort of guardian.

Now that he had gained the imperial power Philip began to bear himself very arrogantly towards Gordian ; and he, knowing himself to be an emperor, an emperor's son, and a scion of a most noble family, could not endure this low-born fellow's insolence. And so, mounting the platform, with his kinsman Maecius Gordianus standing by him as his prefect, he complained bitterly to the officers and soldiers in the hope that Philip's office could be taken from him. But by this complaint in which he accused Philip of being unmindful of past favours and too little grateful he accomplished nothing. Next he asked the soldiers to make their choice, after openly canvassing the officers, but as a result of Philip's intriguing he came off second in the general vote. And finally, when he saw that everyone considered him worsted, he asked that their power might at least be equal, but he did not secure this either. After this he asked to be given the position of Caesar, but he did not gain this. He asked also to be Philip's prefect, and this, too, was denied him. His last prayer was that Philip should make him a general and let him live. And to this Philip almost consented not speaking himself, but acting through his friends, as he had done throughout, with nods and advice. But when he reflected that through the love that the Roman people and senate, the whole of Africa and Syria, and indeed the whole Roman world, felt for Gordian, because he was nobly born and the son and grandson of emperors and had delivered the whole state from grievous wars, it was possible, if the soldiers ever changed their minds, that the throne might be given back to Gordian if he asked for it again, and when he reflected also that the violence of the soldiers' anger against Gordian was due to hunger, he had him carried, shouting protests, out of their sight and then despoiled and slain.

Eutropius wrote, "When Gordian was killed, the two PHILIPS, father and son, seized on the government, and, having brought off the army safe, set out from Syria for Italy. In their reign the thousandth year of the city of Rome was celebrated with games and spectacles of vast magnificence. Soon after, both of them were put to death by the soldiery; the elder Philip at Verona, the younger at Rome. They reigned but five years. They were however ranked among the gods."
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ClaudiusIIAntLiberalit.jpg
1di Claudius Gothicus25 views268-270

AE antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust right, IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG
Liberlitas stg, LIBERALITAS AVG

RIC 57

Zosimus recorded: When the troops were calmed by their commanders, Claudius was chosen emperor, having previously been designed for that dignity by general consent. Aureolus, who had for a long time kept himself out of the hands of Gallienus, presently sent agents to Claudius, to effect a peace. Surrendering himself, he was killed by the guards of the emperor, who still remembered the hatred they bore against him for his treachery.

The Scythians were by this time so elated by their former success, that they appointed a place of meeting with the Heruli, Peucae, and Gothi, near the river Tyra, which empties itself into the Pontus; where having built six thousand vessels, and put on board them three hundred and twenty thousand men, they sailed across the Pontus, and made an attempt on Tomes, a fortified town, but were repulsed from it. From thence they proceed to Marcianopolis, a city of Mysia, but failing there likewise in their attack on it, they took the opportunity of a favourable wind and sailed forward. . . . they passed through the Hellespont, and arrived at Mount Athos. Having there refitted and careened their vessels, they laid siege to Cassandria and Thessalonica, which they were near taking by means of machines which they raised against the walls. But hearing that the emperor was advancing with an army, they went into the interior, plundering all the neighbourhood of Doberus and Pelagonia. There they sustained a loss of three thousand men, who were met with by the Dalmatian cavalry, and with the rest of their force engaged the army of the emperor. Great numbers were slain in this battle on both sides, but the Romans, by a pretended flight, drew the Barbarians into an ambuscade and killed more than fifty thousand of them.

Egypt being thus reduecd by the Palmyrenians, the Barbarians, who survived the battle of Naissus between Claudius and the Scythians, defending themselves with their carriages which went before them, marched towards Macedon, but were so distressed by the want of necessaries, that many of them and of their beasts perished with hunger. They were met likewise by the Roman cavalry, who having killed many of them, drove the rest towards Mount Haemus; where being surrounded by the Roman army, they lost a vast number of men. But a quarrel ensuing between the Roman horse and foot soldiers, the emperor wishing the foot to engage the Barbarians, the Romans, after a smart engagement, were defeated with considerable loss, but the cavalry, coming up immediately, redeemed in some degree the miscarriage of the infantry. After this battle, the Barbarians proceeded on their march, and were pursued by the Romans. The pirates who cruized about Crete and Rhodes retired without doing any thing worthy of mention; and being attacked by the plague on their way home, some of them died in Thrace and some in Macedon. All that survived were either admitted into the Roman legions, or had lands assigned for them to cultivate and so become husbandmen. Nor was the plague confined to the Barbarians alone, but began to infest the Romans, many of whom died, and amongst the rest Claudius, a person adorned with every virtue. His death was a severe loss to his subjeets, and was consequently much regretted by them.
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DiocletianAntConcordMil.jpg
1ds Diocletian13 views284-305

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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ConstantinusFollisSol.jpg
1ec_2 Constantine the Great18 views307-337

Follis

Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right, IMP CONSTANTINVS PF AVG
Sol standing left, chlamys across left shoulder, raising right hand and holding globe in left hand, captive to left. Mintmark RQ.

RIC VII 52

According to Zonaras: Constans, in the eleventh year of his reign since he had been proclaimed Caesar, having ruled gently and mildly, came to the end of his life while residing in Britain, having, because of his goodness, bequeathed grief for himself among those he ruled, first having appointed successor the elder of his own sons, namely Constantine the Great, whom he begat by his first wife. He also had by his second wife, Herculius’ daughter Theodora, other sons, Constantinus, Hannibalianus, and Constantius. Constantine the Great was preferred over them, since they were judged by their father to be unsuited for sovereignty. . . . Constantine, when he was still a lad, was actually given by his father as a hostage to Gallerius, in order that, serving as a hostage, at the same time he be trained in the exercise of the soldierly art.

Eutropius summarizes: CONSTANTINE, being a man of great energy, bent upon effecting whatever he had settled in his mind, and aspiring to the sovereignty of the whole world, proceeded to make war on Licinius, although he had formed a connexion with him by marriage,5 for his sister Constantia was married to Licinius. And first of all be overthrew him, by a sudden attack, at Cibalae in Pannonia, where he was making vast preparations for war; and after becoming master of Dardania, Maesia, and Macedonia, took possession also of several other provinces.

There were then various contests between them, and peace made and broken. At last Licinius, defeated in a battle at Nicomedia by sea and land, surrendered himself, and, in violation of an oath taken by Constantine, was put to death, after being divested of the purple, at Thessalonica.

At this time the Roman empire fell under the sway of one emperor and three Caesars, a state of things which had never existed before; the sons of Constantine ruling over Gaul, the east, and Italy. But the pride of prosperity caused Constantine greatly to depart from his former agreeable mildness of temper. Falling first upon his own relatives, he put to death his son, an excellent man; his sister's son, a youth of amiable disposition; soon afterwards his wife, and subsequently many of his friends.

He was a man, who, in the beginning of his reign, might have been compared to the best princes; in the latter part of it, only to those of a middling character. Innumerable good qualities of mind and body were apparent in him; he was exceedingly ambitious of military glory, and had great success in his wars; a success, however, not more than proportioned to his exertions. After he had terminated the Civil war, he also overthrew the Goths on various occasions, granting them at last peace, and leaving on the minds of the barbarians a strong remembrance of his kindness. He was attached to the arts of peace and to liberal studies, and was ambitious of honourable popularity, which he, indeed, sought by every kind of liberality and obligingness. Though he was slow, from suspicion, to serve some of his friends,6 yet he was exceedingly generous towards others, neglecting no opportunity to add to their riches and honours.

He enacted many laws, some good and equitable, but most of them superfluous, and some severe. He was the first that endeavoured to raise the city named after him to such a height as to make it a rival to Rome. As he was preparing for war against the Parthians, who were then disturbing Mesopotamia, he died in the Villa Publica, at Nicomedia, in the thirty-first year of his reign, and the sixty-sixth of his age.

Zosimus described Constantine's conversion to Christianity: For he put to death his son Crispus, stiled (as I mentioned) Caesar, on suspicion of debauching his mother-in-law Fausta, without any regard to the ties of nature. And when his own mother Helena expressed much sorrow for this atrocity, lamenting the young man's death with great bitterness, Constantine under pretence of comforting her, applied a remedy worse than the disease. For causing a bath to be heated to an extraordinary degree, he shut up Fausta in it, and a short time after took her out dead. Of which his conscience accusing him, as also of violating his oath, he went to the priests to be purified from his crimes. But they told him, that there was no kind of lustration that was sufficient to clear him of such enormities. A Spaniard, named Aegyptius, very familiar with the court-ladies, being at Rome, happened to fall into converse with Constantine, and assured him, that the Christian doctrine would teach him how to cleanse himself from all his offences, and that they who received it were immediately absolved from all their sins. Constantine had no sooner heard this than he easily believed what was told him, and forsaking the rites of his country, received those which Aegyptius offered him ; and for the first instance of his impiety, suspected the truth of divination.
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ConstansAE3GlorEx.jpg
1ei Constans21 views337-350

AE3

RIC 93

Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANS P F AVG
Two soldiers standing to either side of one standard with chi-rho on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS, [A]SIS-crescent in ex.

Constans received Italy, Africa, and the Balkans when the empire was divided. He took charge of the remainder of the West after Constantine II imprudently attacked him in 340. Zosimus recorded, "Constans, having thus removed his brother, exercised every species of cruelty toward his subjects, exceeding the most intolerable tyranny. He purchased some well favoured Barbarians, and had others with him as hostages, to whom he gave liberty to harrass his subjects as they pleased, in order to gratify his vicious disposition. In this manner he reduced all the nations that were subject to him to extreme misery. This gave uneasiness to the court guards, who perceiving that he was much addicted to hunting placed themselves under the conduct of Marcellinus prefect of the treasury, and Magnentius who commanded the Joviani and Herculiani (two legions so termed), and formed a plot against him in the following manner. Marcellinus reported that he meant to keep the birth-day of his sons, and invited many of the superior officers to a feast. Amongst the rest Magnentius rose from table and left the room; he presently returned, and as it were in a drama stood before them clothed in an imperial robe. Upon this all the guests saluted him with the title of king, and the inhabitants of Augustodunum, where it was done, concurred in the same sentiment. This transaction being rumoured abroad, the country people flocked into the city; while at the same time a party of Illyrian cavalry who came to supply the Celtic legions, joined themselves with those that were concerned in the enterprize. When the officers of the army were met together, and heard the leaders of the conspiracy proclaim their new emperor, they scarcely knew the meaning of it; they all, however, joined in the acclamation, and saluted Magnentius with the appellation of Augustus. When this became known to Constans, he endeavoured to escape to a small town called Helena, which lies near the Pyrenean mountains. He was taken by Gaison, who was sent with some other select persons for that purpose, and being destitute of all aid, was killed. "
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ProcopiusAEChiRo.jpg
1er Procopius18 views365-366

AE3

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his design on the following incident.

A eunuch, named Eugenius, had not long before been discharged from the court, who entertained but little friendship for the emperors. Procopius therefore won this man to his interest. . . . Their first attempt was to bribe the court guards, which consisted of two legions. Then arming the slaves, and collecting with ease a considerable multitude, chiefly volunteers, they sent them in the night into the city, and occasioned a general commotion; the people issuing from their houses, and gazing on Procopiusas on a king made in a theatre. But the city being in general confusion, and no person being sufficiently collected in mind by reason of the surprise to know how to act, Procopius imagined his design to be still undiscovered, and that he might secure the empire if the enterprise were no further revealed. Having then seized on Cesarius, whom the emperors had made prefect of the city, and on Nebridius, who was appointed to succeed Sallustius in tbe prefecture of the court, he compelled them to write to the subjects of the empire whatever he wished. He also kept them separate, that they might not consult with each other. Having formed these projects, he proceeded in a splendid manner towards the palace. Ascending a tribunal before the gate, he gave the people great hopes and promises. He then entered the palace to provide for the remainder of his affairs.

The new emperors having divided the army between them, Procopius determined to send persons to the soldiers, who were as yet in confusion, and went by the command of the emperors from place to place without any order. He thus hoped to seduce some of them to his party. Nor did he fail of accomplishing his purpose with ease by distributing money amongst the soldiers and their officers; by which means he collected a considerable force, and prepared to make an open attack on the enemy. Procopius then sent Marcellus into Bithynia with an army against Serenianus and the imperial cavalry that was under his command, in hope of cutting them to pieces. This force having fled to Cyzicus, Marcellus, whose army was superior to theirs both by sea and land, took possession of that town; and having taken Serenianus, who fled into Lydia, put him to death. Procopius was so elevated by this fortunate commencement, that his forces considerably augmented, many being of opinion that he was able to contend with the emperors. Both the Roman legions and the Barbarian troops now flocked to his standard. Besides the reputation of being related to Julian, and of having accompanied him in all the wars he had ever been engaged in, attracted many partizans. He likewise sent ambassadors to the chief of Scythia beyond the Ister, who sent to his assistance ten thousand men. The other Barbarian nations likewise sent auxiliaries to share in the expedition. Procopius however considered that it would be imprudent in him to engage with both emperors together, and therefore thought it best to advance against him who was nearest, and afterwards deliberate on what course to pursue.

Thus was Procopius employed; while the emperor Valens, who heard of this insurrection at Galatia in Phrygia, was filled with consternation at the news. Arbitrio having encouraged him not to despair, he prepared the troops that were with him for war, and sent to his brother to inform him of the designs of Procopius. Valentinian however was little disposed for sending auxiliaries to one who was incapable of defending the empire committed to his charge. Valens was therefore under the necessity of. preparing for war, and appointed Arbitrio to the command of his army. When the armies were ready to engage, Arbitrio circumvented Procopius by a stratagem, and thereby seduced from him a great number of his men, from whom he received previous information of the designs of Procopius. On the advance of the emperor and Procopius towards each other, the two armies met near Thyatira. Procopius at first appeared to have the advantage, by which he would have gained the supreme authority, Hormisdas in the engagement having overpowered the enemy. But Gomarius, another of the commanders of Procopius, imparting his intention to all the soldiers of Procopius who were attached to the emperor, in the midst of the battle cried out Augustus, and gave a signal for them to imitate his example. Thus the most of the troops of Procopius went over to Valens.

After having obtained this victory, Valens marched to Sardes, and from thence into Phrygia, where he found Procopius in a town called Nacolia. Affairs having been ordered for the advantage of the emperor by Naplo, an officer of Procopius, Valens again prevailed, and took him prisoner, and soon afterwards Marcellus, both of whom he put to death.
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TheodosAE4VotMult~0.jpg
1eu Theodosius24 views379-395

AE4

Pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right, D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X within wreath, ASISC in ex

RIC 29d

Zosimus recorded: [Valentinian] commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa [to crush a rebellion]. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi. . . , availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . The barbarians therefore revenged themselves by plundering all the country along the Ister, carrying off all that they found in the towns. The Pannonians were by these means exposed to the cruelty of the barbarians, while the soldiers were extremely negligent in the defence of their towns, and committed as much mischief as the Barbarians themselves in all places on this side of the river. But Moesia was free from harm, because Theodosius, who commanded the forces there, courageously resisted the Barbarians, and routed them when they attacked him. By that victory he not only acquired great renown, but subsequently attained the imperial dignity. . . .

When the affairs of the empire were reduced to this low condition, Victor, who commanded the Roman cavalry, escaping the danger with some of his troops, entered Macedon and Thessaly. From thence he proceeded into Moesia and Pannonia, and informed Gratian, who was then in that quarter, of what had occurred, and of the loss of the emperor [Valens] and his army. Gratian received the intelligence without uneasiness, and was little grieved at the death of his uncle, a disagreement having existed between them. Finding himself unable to manage affairs, Thrace being ravaged by the Barbarians, as were likewise Pannonia and Moesia, and the towns upon the Rhine being infested by the neighbouring Barbarians without controul, he chose for his associate in the empire, Theodosius, who was a native of a town called Cauca, in the part of Spain called Hispania Callaecia, and who possessed great knowledge and experience of military affairs. Having given him the government of Thrace and the eastern provinces, Gratian himself proceeded to the west of Gaul, in order, if possible, to compose affairs in that quarter. . . .

During the stay of the new emperor, Theodosius, at Thesslonica, a great concourse arrived there from all parts of persons soliciting him on business, both public and private; who having obtained of him whatever he could conveniently grant, returned, to their homes. As a great multitude of the Scythians beyond the Ister, the Gotthi, and the Taiphali, and other tribes that formerly dwelt among them, had crossed the river, and were driven to infest the Roman dominions, because the Huns, had expelled them from their own country, the emperor Theodosius prepared for war with all his forces. . . . The army having made this good use of the occasion afforded by fortune, the affairs of Thrace, which had been on the brink of ruin, were now, the Barbarians being crushed beyond all hope, re-established in peace. . . .

Meanwhile, the emperor Theodosius, residing in Thessalonica, was easy of access to all who wished to see him. Having commenced his reign in luxury and indolence, he threw the magistracy into disorder, and increased the number of his military officers. . . . As he squandered the public money without consideration, bestowing it on unworthy persons, he consequently impoverished himself. He therefore sold the government of provinces to any who would purchase them, without regard to the reputation or ablity of the persons, esteeming him the best qualified who brought him the most gold or silver. . . .

Maximus, who deemed his appointments inferior to his merits, being only governor of the countries formerly under Gratian, projected how to depose the young Valentinian from the empire. . . . This so much surprised Valentinian, and rendered his situation so desperate, that his courtiers were alarmed lest he should be taken by Maximus and put to death. He, therefore, immediately embarked,and sailed to Thessalonica with his mother Justina. . . . [A]rriving at Thessalonica, they sent messengers to the emperor Theodosius, intreating him now at least to revenge the injuries committed against the family of Valentinian. . . . The emperor, being delivered from this alarm, marched with great resolution with his whole army against Maximus. . . . Theodosius, having passed through Pannonia and the defiles of the Appennines, attacked unawares the forces of Maximus before they were prepared for him. A part of his army, having pursued them with the utmost speed, forced their way through the gates of Aquileia, the guards being too few to resist them. Maximus was torn from his imperial throne while in the act of distributing money to his soldiers, and being stripped of his imperial robes, was brought to Theodosius, who, having in reproach enumerated some of his crimes against the commonwealth, delivered him to the common executioner to receive due punishment. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople.
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HonoriusAE3Emperors.jpg
1fa Honorius19 views393-423

AE3

RIC 403

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right, DN HONORIVS PF AVG
Two emperors standing facing, heads turned to one another, each holding spear and resting hand on shield, GLORIA ROMANORVM. Mintmark SMKA.

Zosimus wrote: [Theodosius] proceeded with his army to the war [against Eugenius], leaving behind him his son Arcadius, who had some time previously been made emperor. . . . Having done this, he took with him his younger son Honorius, quickly passed through the intermediate countries, and having exceded his expectations in crossing the Alps, arrived where the enemy was stationed. . . . The emperor Theodosius after these successes proceeded to Rome, where he declared his son Honorius emperor, and appointing Stilico to the command of his forces there, left him as guardian to his son. . . . The emperor Theodosius, having consigned Italy, Spain, Celtica, and Libya to his son Honorius, died of a disease on his journey towards Constantinople. . . .

THE whole empire being vested in Arcadius and Honorius, they indeed appeared by their title to possess the sovereign authority, although the universal administration of affairs was under Rufinus in the east, and under Stilico in the west. By these all causes were determined, at their own pleasure; for whoever bribed plentifully, or by any other means of friendship or consanguinity could make the judge his advocate, was sure to succeed in the process. From hence it happened that most of those great estates, which cause the possessors to be generally esteemed fortunate, devolved to these two; since some endeavoured by gifts to avoid false accusations, and others relinquished all their possessions to obtain an office, or in any other manner to purchase the ruin of particular cities. While iniquity of every kind presided, therefore, in the respective cities, the money from all quarters flowed into the coffers of Rufinus and Stilico ; while on the reverse, poverty preyed on the habitations of those who had formerly been rich. Nor were the emperors acquainted with anything that was done, but thought all that Rufinus and Stilico commanded was done by virtue of some unwritten law. . . .

After the autumn was terminated, and winter had commenced, Bassus and Philippus being chosen consuls, the emperor Honorius, who had long before lost his wife Maria, desired to marry her sister Thermantia. But Stilico appeared not to approve of the match, although it was promoted by Serena, who wished it to take place from these motives. When Maria was about to be married to Honorius, her mother, deeming her too young for the marriage-state and being unwilling to defer the marriage, although she thought that to submit so young and tender a person to the embraces of a man was offering violence to nature, she had recourse to a woman who knew how to manage such affairs, and by her means contrived that Maria should live with the emperor and share his bed, but that he should not have the power to deprive her of virginity. In the meantime Maria died a virgin, and Serena, who, as may readily be supposed, was desirous to become the grandmother of a young emperor or empress, through fear of her influence being diminished, used all her endeavours to marry her other daughter to Honorius. This being accomplished, the young lady shortly afterwards died in the same manner as the former. . . . .

For Stilico was desirous of proceeding to the east to undertake the management of the affairs of Theodosius, the son of Arcadius, who was very young, and in want of a guardian. Honorius himself was also inclined to undertake the same journey, with a design to secure the dominions of that emperor. But Stilico, being displeased at that, and laying before the emperor a calculation of the immense sum of money it would require to defray the expence of such an expedition, deterred him from the enterprise. . . .

In the mean time, the emperor Honorius commanded his wife Thermantia to be taken from the imperial throne, and to be restored to her mother, who notwithstanding was without suspicion. . . . Alaric began his expedition against Rome, and ridiculed the preparations made by Honorius. . . . The emperor Honorius was now entering on the consulship, having enjoyed that honour eight times, and the emperor Theodosius in the east three times. At this juncture the rebel Constantine sent some eunches to Honorius, to intreat pardon from him for having accepted of the empire. When the emperor heard this petition, perceiving that it was not easy for him, since Alaric and his barbarians were so near, to prepare for other wars ; and consulting the safety of his relations who were in the hands of the rebel, whose names were Verenianus and Didymius; he not only granted his request, but likewise sent him an imperial robe. . . .

Note: No ancient source reports the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410, they having besieged the city three times, all while Honorius huddled in a besieged Ravenna. Honorius retained his nominal capacity until he died in 423.
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coin231.JPG
204b. Julia Maesa29 viewsJulia Maesa (about 170- about 226) was daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of the sun god Heliogabalus, the patron god of Emesa in the Roman province of Syria, and grandmother of the Roman emperor Elagabalus. Like her younger sister Julia Domna, she was among the most important women ever to exercise power behind the throne in the Roman empire.

Julia Maesa was married to Julius Avitus and had two daughters, Julia Mamaea and Julia Soaemias, each one mother of an emperor. Following the accession to the throne of her brother in law Septimius Severus, Julia Maesa moved to Rome to live with her sister. After the murder of her nephew Caracalla, and the suicide of Julia Domna, she was compelled to return to Syria. But the new emperor Macrinus did not proscribe her and allowed her to keep her money. In Syria, Maesa engaged in a plot to overthrow Macrinus and place one of her grandsons, Elagabalus son of Julia Soaemias, in his place. In order to legitimise this pretension, mother and daughter rumoured that the 14-year-old boy was Caracalla's illegitimate son. The Julias were successful, mainly due to the fact that Macrinus was of an obscure origin without the proper political connections, and Elagabalus became emperor.

For her loyalty and support, Elagabalus honored Julia Maesa with the title Augusta avia Augusti (Augusta, grandmother of Augustus). When the teenager proved to be a disaster as emperor (even taking the liberty of marrying a Vestal virgin), Julia Maesa decided to promote Alexander Severus, another of her grandsons. Elagabalus was forced to adopt Alexander as son and was murdered shortly afterwards.

Julia Maesa died in an uncertain date around 226 AD and, like her sister Domna before her, was deified.

Julia Maesa Denarius. PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre.

Julia Maesa Denarius. IVLIA MAESA AVG, draped bust right / PVDICITIA, Pudicitia seated left, raising veil and holding sceptre. RIC 268, RSC 36. s2183. No.1502. nVF.
RSC 444, RIC 88
ecoli
caracalla dup-.jpg
210-213 AD - CARACALLA dupondius 25 viewsobv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG [BRIT]
rev: [PM.TRP.XVII.IMP.III] COS.IIII.PP / S.C. (Libertas)
ref: RIC503, C.227
Scarce
berserker
690Hadrian_RIC216.jpg
216 Hadrian Denarius Roma 132-34 AD Liberalitas standing25 viewsReference.
RIC 216c; Strack 345; C. 919

Obv: HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
Bareheaded bust right, with slight drapery.

Rev: LIBERALITAS AVG COS III P P.
Liberalitas standing right, emptying cornucopia.

2.92 gr
19 mm
7h
1 commentsokidoki
382Hadrian_RIC216.JPG
217 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Liberalitas standing.37 viewsReference.
RIC 217; BMC 926

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Bare head, bust right, drapery on left shoulder, and around neck

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG P P in ex COS III
Liberalitas, draped, standing right, holding cornucopiae in both hands as if about to empty it.

3.64 gr
2 commentsokidoki
Denarius P.CATO.jpg
22-01 - M. PORCIUS CATO (47/46 A.C.)60 views Mejor conocido como M. CATO UTECENSIS Propraetor y fiel adherente del partido de POMPEYO "El Grande" .

AR Denarius 18 mm 3.0 gr
Anv: Busto vestido de mujer (Roma o Libertas) viendo a derecha - "ROMA" (MA en ligadura) detrás y "M·CATO PRO·PR" delante del busto.
Rev: Victoria sentada a derecha portando Palma sobre hombro derecho y corona de laureles en mano izquierda. "VICTRIX" en Exergo.

Ceca: Utica - Tunez
Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1381 Pag.263 - Craw RRC #462/1b - Syd CRR #1053a - BMCRR (Africa)#18 - RSC Vol.1 Porcia 10a Pag.81
mdelvalle
Craw_462_1b_Denario_M__Porcius_Cato.jpg
22-01 - M. PORCIUS CATO (47/46 A.C.)22 views Mejor conocido como M. CATO UTECENSIS Propraetor y fiel adherente del partido de POMPEYO "El Grande" .
AR Denarius 18 mm 3.0 gr

Anv: Busto vestido de mujer (Roma o Libertas) viendo a derecha - "ROMA" (MA en ligadura) detrás y "M·CATO PRO·PR" delante del busto.
Rev: Victoria sentada a derecha portando Palma sobre hombro derecho y corona de laureles en mano izquierda. "VICTRIX" en Exergo.

Ceca: Utica - Tunez

Referencias: Sear RCTV Vol.1 #1381 Pag.263 - Craw RRC #462/1b - Syd CRR #1053a - BMCRR (Africa)#18 - RSC Vol.1 Porcia 10a Pag.81
mdelvalle
elagabalus sest.jpg
220-221 AD - ELAGABALUS sestertius 39 viewsobv: IMP.CAES.M.AVR.ANTONINVS.PIVS.AVG (laureate draped bust right)
rev: LIBERTAS.AVG / S.C. (Libertas standing left holding pileus & cornucopiae, star in left field)
ref: RIC IVii 357A (S), C.-
18.81gms, 29mm
Rare
1 commentsberserker
AquiliaSevera_RIC225.jpg
220-222 AD - AQUILIA SEVERA AR denarius28 viewsobv: IVLIA AQVILIA SEVERA AVG (draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA (Concord standing half-left sacrificing over lighted altar, and holding double cornucopia, star in left field)
ref: RIC IVii 225 (Elagabalus) (S), RSC 2 (20fr.)
mint: Rome
2.71gms, 18mm
Very rare

Iulia Aquilia Severa was the second and fourth wife of Emperor Elagabalus. She was a Vestal Virgin and her marriage to Elagabalus in 220 was the cause of enormous controversy - traditionally, the punishment for breaking the thirty-year vow of celibacy was death. Elagabalus is believed to have had religious reasons for marrying Severa - he himself was a follower of the eastern sun god El-Gabal, and when marrying himself to Severa, he also conducted a symbolic marriage of his god to Vesta.
berserker
orbiana denar-.jpg
225 AD - ORBIANA denarius28 viewsobv: SALL.BARBIA.ORBIANA (diademed & draped bust right)
rev: CONCORDIA.AVGG (Concordia seated left on throne, holding patera & double cornucopiae)
ref: RIC319(SevAlex)(S), C.1(20fr.)
2.37gms, rare
Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta was the wife of Severus Alexander who was banished on the whims of Julia Mamaea, who's control of her son she felt was threatened. In 227 on the charge of attempted murder of the emperor, Orbiana was sent in exile to Libya.
berserker
20150407_183828-horz.jpg
23 GETA RIC 8836 viewsGeta 209-211 AD. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 211 AD. (2.86g; 20.23mm) Obv: P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, Laureate head right. Rev: LIBERALITAS AVG V, Liberalitas standing, head left, with counting board & cornucopiae.
RIC 88; RSC 68

Ex: Holding History, Vcoins

The reverse ends legend with "AUG V". The 'V' stands for the number of times donatives had been given at the time of the minting. "Liberalitas" signifies generosity.
2 commentsPaddy
RIC_19_Denario_Nerva.jpg
23-02 - NERVA (96 - 98 D.C.)21 viewsAR Denario 17 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERTAS PVBLICA" - Libertas (La Libertad) de pié a izquierda, portando largo cetro apoyado en brazo izquierdo y Pileus (Gorro de los esclavos) en mano derecha.
Nerva mantuvo siempre que él había "Liberado" a Roma de la tiranía de Domitiano, y restaurado el régimen constitucional.


Acuñada 2da. Emisión 97 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - 5ta. Off.

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #19D Pag.224 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #3034 var Pag.86 - BMCRE #46 pl.2/4 - Cohen Vol.II #113 Pag.10 - DVM #14 Pag.118 - RSC Vol. II #113 Pag.80
mdelvalle
Denario NERVA RIC 19D.jpg
23-03 - NERVA (96 - 98 D.C.)69 viewsAR Denario 17 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS III P P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERTAS PVBLICA" - Libertas (La Libertad) de pié a izquierda, portando largo cetro apoyado en brazo izquierdo y Pileus (Gorro de los esclavos) en mano derecha.
Nerva mantuvo siempre que él había "Liberado" a Roma de la tiranía de Domitiano, y restaurado el régimen constitucional.


Acuñada 2da. Emisión 97 D.C.
Ceca: Roma - 5ta. Off.

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #19D Pag.224 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #3034 var Pag.86 - BMCRE #46 pl.2/4 - Cohen Vol.II #113 Pag.10 - DVM #14 Pag.118 - RSC Vol. II #113 Pag.80
mdelvalle
AS NERVA RIC 86_1.jpg
23-10 - NERVA (96 - 98 D.C.)62 viewsAE AS 27 mm 11.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II P P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERTAS PVBLICA - S C" - Libertas (La Libertad) de pié a izquierda, portando largo cetro apoyado en brazo izquierdo y Pileus (Gorro de los esclavos) en mano derecha.
Nerva mantuvo siempre que él había "Liberado" a Roma de la tiranía de Domitiano, y restaurado el régimen constitucional.

Acuñada Sep./Dic. 96 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #64 Pag.227 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #3064 Pag.91 - BMCRE p.17,* - Cohen Vol.II #108 Pag.10 - DVM #33 Pag.118 - CBN #85
mdelvalle
RIC_64_AS_Nerva.jpg
23-10 - NERVA (96 - 98 D.C.)16 viewsAE AS 27 mm 11.2 gr.

Anv: "IMP NERVA CAES AVG P M TR P COS II P P" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERTAS PVBLICA - S C" - Libertas (La Libertad) de pié a izquierda, portando largo cetro apoyado en brazo izquierdo y Pileus (Gorro de los esclavos) en mano derecha.
Nerva mantuvo siempre que él había "Liberado" a Roma de la tiranía de Domitiano, y restaurado el régimen constitucional.

Acuñada Sep./Dic. 96 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #64 Pag.227 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #3064 Pag.91 - BMCRE p.17,* - Cohen Vol.II #108 Pag.10 - DVM #33 Pag.118 - CBN #85
mdelvalle
rjb_phil_sest_01_07.jpg
24421 viewsPhilip I 244-9 AD
AE sestertius
Obv "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LIBERALITAS AVGG II SC"
Liberalitas standing left
Rome mint
RIC 180
mauseus
rjb_2012_03_34.jpg
24725 viewsPhilip II 247-9 AD
AE as
Obv "IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG"
Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "VOTIS DECENNALIBVS SC"
Wreath
Rome mint
RIC 269
mauseus
rjb_phil_01_09.jpg
24714 viewsPhilip II 247-9 AD
AR antoninianus
Obv "IMP PHILIPPVS AVG"
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev "LIBERALITAS AVGG III"
Philip I and II seated left on curule chairs
Rome mint
RIC 230
mauseus
Geta.jpg
25 Geta26 viewsDenarius. 210-212 AD. P SEPT GETA PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right / LIBERALITAS AVG V, Liberalitas standing, head left, with counting board & cornucopiae. RIC 88, RSC 68, BMC 65. Weight 3.10 gm. Die axis 12 hr. Max dia 18 mm.

mix_val
993458_590830347620547_603021064_n.jpg
250 Gallienus53 viewsGallienus Billon Antoninianus. Siscia mint. GALLIENVS AVG, radiate head right / LIBERO P CONS AVG, Panther walking left, B in ex. Cohen 586. RIC 574 4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
194Hadrian_RIC253d.jpg
253 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Liberalitas standing26 viewsReference.
RIC 253; C.935; BMCRE 665 note; Strack

Obv. HADRIANVS AVG COS III P P
Laureate head right

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG VI
Liberalitas standing left with ABACUS and cornucopiae.

3.03 gr
18.5 mm
okidoki
GalVsr227.jpg
253-268 AD - Gallienus - RIC V (sole reign) 227 - LIBERAL AVG35 viewsEmperor: Gallienus (r. 253-268 AD)
Date: 262 AD
Condition: VF/Fair
Denomination: Antoninianus

Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG
Emperor Gallienus
Bust right; radiate

Reverse: LIBERAL AVG
The Emperor provides liberty.
Liberalitas standing left, holding tessera and cornucopiae.
"Q" in left field

Rome mint
RIC V Gallienus (sole reign) 227; VM 145
1.77g; 19.7mm; 150°
Pep
RepCoin1Black.jpg
266/1 C. Cassius22 viewsC. Cassius. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. c 126 BC. Obv: Helmeted head of Roma right; XVI monogram and urn behind Obv: Libertas driving quadriga right, holding rod and pileus, C CASI below, ROMA in exergue.
Syd. 502; B. Cassia 1; Crawford 266/1
1 commentsPaddy
claudius2 ant.jpg
268-270 AD - CLAUDIUS II (GOTHICUS) - AR antoninianus55 viewsobv: IMP.C.CLAVDIVS.AVG (radiate head right)
rev: LIBERALITAS AVG (Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia)
ref: RIC57, C.144
mint: Rome, 3.08gms, struck 268-270 AD
This coin is AR!! Rare
berserker
rjb_2012_02_13.jpg
27014 viewsQuintillus 270 AD
AE antoninianus
Siscia Mint
IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
LIBERTAS AVG
Libertas standing left holding purse and cornucopia
RIC 67
mauseus
rjb_2012_02_12.jpg
27018 viewsQuintillus 270 AD
AE antoninianus
Siscia Mint
IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
VBERITAS AVG
Libertas standing left holding purse and cornucopia
-/Q//-
RIC 78
mauseus
1168Hadrian_RIC28.jpg
28 Anonymous issues. Time of Hadrian to Antoninus Pius. Rome Quadrans 117-161 AD12 viewsReference.
RIC 28; C. 38

Obv.
Griffin seated left

Rev. S-C
Tripod.

2.43 gr
15 mm
6h

Note.
The series of Imperial-era anonymous quadrantes portrays eleven deities: Jupiter, Minerva, Roma, Neptune, Tiber, Mars, Venus, Apollo, Mercury, Bacchus/Liber, and Hercules, as well as the Four Seasons. They invariably depict either a portrait on the obverse and an attribute of the deity on the reverse, or otherwise an attribute on either side. These designs appear to be influenced, but not directly copied from, earlier designs of the Republican period.
okidoki
Denario_Adriano_LIBERAL_III.jpg
28-02 - HADRIANO (117 - 138 D.C.)80 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.97 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Visto de frente.
Rev: "PM TR P COS III" - Emperador sentado en una silla Curul, sobre una Tarima (suggestum), detrás de Él un Prefecto Pretoriano y delante en un segundo plano Liberalitas Portando un ábaco (Tessera). En la escalera un Ciudadano estante a der., vistiendo toga y recibiendo la ayuda/Congiarium (Munus). LIBERAL AVG III en exergo.

Acuñada 119 - 122 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #131 var Pag.355 - Cohen Vol.II #911 Pag.181 - DVM #47/12 Pag.127 - RSC Vpl.II #911a Pag.141 - St. Vol. II #71 - BMCRE III 299 Note
2 commentsmdelvalle
RIC_131v_Denario_Adriano.jpg
28-08 - ADRIANO (117 - 138 D.C.)22 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.97 gr.

Anv: "IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Visto de frente.
Rev: "PM TR P COS III" - Emperador sentado en una silla Curul, sobre una Tarima (suggestum), detrás de Él un Prefecto Pretoriano y delante en un segundo plano Liberalitas Portando un ábaco (Tessera). En la escalera un Ciudadano estante a der., vistiendo toga y recibiendo la ayuda/Congiarium (Munus). LIBERAL AVG III en exergo.

Acuñada 119 - 122 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias: RIC Vol.II #131 var Pag.355 - Cohen Vol.II #911 Pag.181 - DVM #47/12 Pag.127 - RSC Vpl.II #911a Pag.141 - St. Vol. II #71 - BMCRE III 299 Note
mdelvalle
Brutus_Denarius_RSC_5.jpg
3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus14 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus
AR denarius, 42 BC
Military mint traveling with Brutus in Lycia.

LEIBERTAS, bare head of Libertas right, Deep banker's mark / CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO COS, Lyre between a quiver and a laurel branch.

Junia 34, Cr501/1, Syd 1287, RSC 5
RM0018
Sosius
Screen_Shot_2017-05-11_at_12_41_44_PM.png
3) The Tyrannicides: Brutus26 viewsBrutus 42 BC, Fourree Denarius
Roman Imperatorial, Brutus 42 BC, Fourree Denarius, 2.47g: Obv: Veiled and draped bust of Libertas right. "L.SESTI PRO Q" Rev: Tripod flanked by an axe and simpulum. "Q CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO CO". RSC 11. L Sestius Pro-Quaestor
Ex Aegean Numismatics Auction, 5/11/17
1 commentsSosius
Anto3Rhea_Mars.jpg
3. Mars descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia48 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. As. Rome mint. Struck 140-144 AD. Obv.: [ANTO]NINVS - AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right. Rev.: TR POT COS [III around] S C [in field], Mars holding spear and shield descends on sleeping Rhea Silvia.

This coin was struck just prior to 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in 147 AD. According to Titus Livius (59BC to AD17) account of the legend, Rhea Silva was the daughter of Numitor, king of Alba Longa and descendant of Aeneas. Numitor's younger brother Amulius seized the throne and killed Numitor's son. Amulius forced Rhea Silvia to become a Vestal Virgin, a priestess to the goddess Vesta, so that the line of Numitor would have no heirs; Vestal Virgins were sworn to celibacy for a period of thirty years. Rhea Silvia claimed that the god Mars, however, came upon her and seduced her in the forest, thereby conceiving the twins Romulus and Remus. When Amulius learned of this, he imprisoned Rhea Silvia. (In another version of the story, he ordered her to be thrown into the Tiber, where she fell into the arms of the river god who married her.) Legend continued on "Wolf suckling twins"...
Charles S
coin263.JPG
317. Tacitus 90 viewsMarcus Claudius Tacitus, (c.200 - 276) Roman Emperor from September 25, 275, to April 276, was a native of Interamna (Terni) in Umbria.

In the course of his long life he discharged the duties of various civil offices, including that of consul in 273, with universal respect.

Six months after the assassination of Aurelian, he was chosen by the senate to succeed him, and the choice was cordially ratified by the army. During his brief reign he set on foot some domestic reforms, and sought to revive the authority of the senate, but, after a victory over the Alans near the Palus Maeotis, he was assassinated at Tyana in Cappadocia.

Tacitus, besides being a man of immense wealth (which he bequeathed to the state) had considerable literary culture, and was proud to claim descent from the historian Gaius Cornelius Tacitus, whose works he caused to be transcribed at the public expense and placed in the public libraries.

However, modern research has cast considerable suspicion on this traditional image of Tacitus as a venerable old senator. Quite the contrary, evidence (from coins, for example) indicates that Tacitus was just another military emperor, whose only distiction from other short-lived emperors of the time was his attempt to cultivate the image of a learned man.

Tactitus Silvered AE Antoninianus. Gaul mint. IMP C M CL TACITVS P F AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right / FELICITAS SAECILI (sic), Felicity standing left, sacrificing over altar, holding a long cauduceus Ric 21

Check
ecoli
Gordian.jpg
32 Gordian III RIC 6772 viewsGordian III 238-244 AD. Ar Antoninianus. Rome Mint. 240 AD. (3,9 gr 21 mm) Obv: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG, radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right. Rev: LIBERALITAS AVG III, Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopia.
RIC 67;RSC 142; Sears 8621

Ex: Private collection
2 commentsPaddy
Denario_MARCO_AURELIO_RIC_206.jpg
33 - 02 - MARCO AURELIO (161 - 180 D.C.)56 viewsAR Denario 18/19 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIII" - Cabeza laureada a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERAL AVG V COS III" - Liberalitas estante a izq., portando Ábaco en mano der. Y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada: 169 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.III #206 Pag.229 – SRCV Vol.II #4914 Pag.306 - BMCRE Vol. #492 - Cohen Vol.III #412 Pag.42/43 - RSC Vol. II #412 Pag.208 - DVM #25 Pag.144
mdelvalle
RIC_221_Denario_Marco_Aurelio.jpg
33 - 02 - MARCO AURELIO (161 - 180 D.C.)11 viewsAR Denario 18-19 mm 3.3 gr.

Anv: "M ANTONINVS AVG TR P XXIIII" - Cabeza laureada a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERAL AVG V COS III" - Liberalitas estante a izq., portando Ábaco en mano der. Y cornucopia en izq.

Acuñada: 169 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.III #221 Pag.230 – SRCV Vol.II #4914var. Pag.306 - BMCRE IV #524 Pag.459 (Plate 63 #9) - Cohen Vol.III #413 Pag.43 - RSC Vol. II #413 Pag.208 - DVM #25 Pag.144
mdelvalle
SevAlex-RIC-095.jpg
35. Severus Alexander year VIII.12 viewsDenarius, 229 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP SEV ALEXAND AVG / Laureate bust of Severus Alexander.
Reverse: P M TR P VIII COS III P P / Libertas standing, holding pileus and sceptre.
3.58 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #95; Sear #7909.
Callimachus
rjb_2013_03_08.jpg
35028 viewsMagnentius, 350-53 AD
AE Maiorina
IMP CAE MAGNENTIVS AVG
Draped & cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVG LIB ROMANOR
Emperor standing right, foot on captive, holding abarum and branch
Rome mint
RIC VIII Rome 177
mauseus
798Hadrian_RIC363.jpg
363 Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Liberalitas standing28 viewsReference.
RIC II 363; C. 917; Strack

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head right

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG / COS III
Liberalitas, in long dress, standing r., emptying cornucopiae which she holds with both her hands.

3.27 gr
18 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
329_Hadrian_RIC364.JPG
364 Hadrian Denarius Roma 134-38 AD Liberalitas standing.45 viewsReference.
RIC 364

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Head of Hadrian, laureate, right

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG in ex COS III
Liberalitas, draped, standing left, holding cornucopiae in both hands as if about to empty it

3.16 gr
18 mm
6h

Note from Curtis Clay.
This denarius is rare with Liberalitas standing left rather than right as usual.

Cohen 916 cites this variant from a private collection, Elberling, that was published in 1864. That identical Elberling coin, as one can tell from the accurate line drawing, then came to the BM, BMC 524, pl. 57.8, as part of the Blacas collection in 1867. Your specimen is from the same pair of dies as this BM specimen ex Blacas and Elberling. Strack 201 knew only two specimens of this coin, the BM one and another in Vienna. This variant was missing from the Reka Devnia hoard, compared to seven specimens with Liberalitas standing right. I have a specimen with Liberalitas left myself, from different dies than yours and the BM's.

The old RIC of 1926, pp. 316-7, champions a quite impossible date for Hadrian's HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P issue: Mattingly didn't think it fit in 128-9 AD, so proposed that it was a posthumous issue of 138-9, struck by Antoninus Pius as propaganda while he was quarreling with the Senate over Hadrian's deification! Strack objected strongly and correctly in his Hadrian monograph of 1933, and in BMC III of 1936 Mattingly had no choice but to relent and abandon his "posthumous" attribution. This issue is beyond question simply Hadrian's earliest issue with the title Pater Patriae, struck between Hadrian's acceptance of that title in 128 and c. 129 AD.
okidoki
caligula quadrans.jpg
37-41 AD - CALIGULA (GAIUS) AE quadrans - struck 39 AD36 viewsobv: C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG / RCC
rev: PONT M TR P III PP COS DES III / S.C.
ref: RIC I 39, C.27, BMC57
mint: Rome
3.06gms, 16-18mm
Scarce

RCC = remissa ducentesima. Commemorative of a tax having been abolished by Caligula. The pileus or cap of liberty between S and C, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.
berserker
0200-1Fr_Ceres_1888.jpg
3° republique - 1 franc 1888 A115 viewsAtelier de Paris (A)
. REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE ., tête de Cérès a gauche
LIBERTE . EGALITE . FRATERNITE, couronne de lauriers et d'olivier avec au centre 1 FRANC 1888 en trois lignes, a l'exergue A
Tranche cannelée
5.00 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 216/10
86-015
Potator II
0210-1Fr_Semeuse_1901.jpg
3° republique - 1 franc 190160 viewsREPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, semeuse allant a gauche
LIBERTE . EGALITE . FRATERNITE, 1 FRANC en deux lignes, en dessous une branche d'olivier, a l'exergue 1901
Tranche cannelée
5.00 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 217/6
84-001
1 commentsPotator II
0190-10c_Ceres_1872.jpg
3° republique - 10 centimes 1872 A43 viewsAtelier de Paris (A)
* REPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE * 1872, tête de Cérès a gauche
* LIBERTE * EGALITE * FRATERNITE, couronne de lauriers et d'olivier avec au centre 10 CENTIMES en deux lignes, A dessous
Tranche lisse
9.90 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 135/8
Potator II
0250-2Fr_Semeuse_1910.jpg
3° republique - 2 francs 191029 viewsREPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, semeuse allant a gauche
LIBERTE . EGALITE . FRATERNITE, 2 FRANCS en deux lignes, en dessous une branche d'olivier, a l'exergue 1910
Tranche cannelée
10.00 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 266/10
Ex Victor Gadoury collection
97-045
Potator II
0320-2F_2gol.jpg
3° republique - 2 francs 193957 viewsREPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE, buste de la république a gauche, surfrappé en travers "DE GAULE" (sic !)
LIBERTE . EGALITE . FRATERNITE, entre deux cornes d'abondance 2 FRANCS en deux lignes 1939 en dessous
Tranche lisse
8.08 gr
Ref : Le Franc VIII # 268/12
This is a funny one. It's the common type of 2 francs coin used during WW II, but someone who probably didn't agree with what the french official political direction in those times was, thought they should let their opinions known by others. A nice "everydays life" item I think
75-001
1 commentsPotator II
pergamum_RPC_2374.jpg
41-60 AD - Semi-Autonomous AE15 of Pergamum - struck under the time of the Claudians75 viewsobv: PEON CYNKLHTON (youthful draped bust of the Roman Senate right)
rev: PEAN PWMHN (turreted and draped bust of Roma right)
ref: RPC 2374, SNG BN Paris 1964
mint: Pergamum, Mysia (40-60 AD)
4.03gms, 15mm
Rare

Pergamum was not conquered by the Romans. In 133 B.C. Attalus III, its last king, bequeathed Pergamum to the Romans and this granted to the city and its inhabitants the continued benevolence of the new rulers (with the only exception being Marcus Antonius who deprived the Library of Pergamum of many of its volumes to replenish that of Alexandria, which had been damaged by Julius Caesar).
berserker
20140618_143203-horz.jpg
416/1a L. Scribonius Libo49 viewsL. Scribonius Libo. AR Denarius. 62 BC. (3.87g, 19.30mm) Obv: Diademed head of Bonus Eventus right, LIBO behind, BON EVENT downward before. Rev: Garlanded well-head decorated with two lyres and hammer, PVTEAL above, SCRIBON below. .
Syd 928; Scribonia 8a. Crawford 416/1a

Ex: Frank Robinson Auction

Rarely will I purchase an EF coin, but I surely do not regret adding this fine specimen.
1 commentsPaddy
Marcus_Junius_Brutus_Craw__433_1.jpg
433/1 Marcus Junius Brutus 31 viewsMarcus Junius Brutus. AR Denarius. Rome Mint, 54 B.C. (4.01g, 19.1m, 4h). Obv: LIBERTAS, head of Libertas r., hair in bun. Rev: BRVTVS in ex., consul Lucius Junius Brutus walking l., between two lictors, preceded by an accensus. Craw. 433/1, RCV 397.

Brutus, perhaps Caesar’s most famous assassin, shows his political leanings on this coin 10 years before the assassination. Lucius Junius Brutus, the first consul and founder of the Republic reportedly expelled the last Tarquin king from Rome in 509 B.C. This is referred to as “The coin that should have warned Caesar.”
1 commentsLucas H
RIC_99_Denario_Septimio_Severo.jpg
46-03 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)16 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "L SEPT SEV PERT [AVG] IMP VIIII" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERO PATRI" - Liber/Baco desnudo de pié de frente coronándose a si mismo con la mano derecha y portando thyrsus en izquierda. A sus piés una pantera.

Acuñada 4ta. Emisión 197 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.2da)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #99 Pag.103 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6307 var Pag.461 - BMCRE V #222-3 Pag.56 (Plate 10 #17) - Cohen Vol.IV #304 Pag.35 - RSC Vol. III #304 Pag.31 - DVM #73 Pag.184 - Hill CSS#280 - Salgado II/1 #4121.b Pag.83
mdelvalle
Denario Septimio Severo RIC 99.jpg
46-05 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)31 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "L SEPT SEV PERT [AVG] IMP VIIII" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERO PATRI" - Liber/Baco desnudo de pié de frente coronándose a si mismo con la mano derecha y portando thyrsus en izquierda. A sus piés una pantera.

Acuñada 15ava. Emisión 197 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.2da)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #99 Pag.103 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6307 var Pag.461 - BMCRE #W222/3 - Cohen Vol.IV #304 Pag.35 - RSC Vol. III #304 Pag.31 - DVM #73 Pag.184 - Hill CSS#280
mdelvalle
Denario Septimio Severo RIC 278a.jpg
46-13 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)31 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 1.4 gr.

Anv: "SEVERVS PIVS AVG" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERALITAS AVG VI" - Liberalitas de pié de frente mirando a izquierda, portando un abaco (contador) en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda. Esta acuñación refiere al sexto donativo marcando la aclamación de Geta como Co-Augusto.

Acuñada 29ava. Emisión 209 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #278a Pag.126 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6306 Pag.461 - BMCRE #349 Pag.220 - Cohen Vol.IV #298 Pag.34 - RSC Vol. III #298 Pag.31 - DVM #71 Pag.184 - Hill CSS#1024 - Foss #84
mdelvalle
RIC_278a_Denario_Septimio_Severo.jpg
46-13 - SEPTIMIO SEVERO (193 - 211 D.C.)12 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 1.4 gr.

Anv: "SEVERVS PIVS AVG" - Busto laureado viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERALITAS AVG VI" - Liberalitas de pié de frente mirando a izquierda, portando un abaco (contador) en mano derecha y cornucopia en izquierda. Esta acuñación refiere al sexto donativo concedido al Pueblo por Severo en ocasión de la elevación de Geta como Co-Augusto, en el otoño del 209 D.C.

Acuñada Emisión Especial 6ta. Liberalidad (209 D.C.)
Ceca: Roma (Off.1ra)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte I #278a Pag.126 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #6306 Pag.461 - BMCRE #349 Pag.220 - Cohen Vol.IV #298 Pag.34 - RSC Vol. III #298 Pag.31 - DVM #71 Pag.184 - Hill CSS#1024 - Foss #84 - Salgado II/1 #4133.j Pag.88
mdelvalle
rjb_repub3_10_08.jpg
46221 viewsCato Uticensis d.46 BC
AR quinarius
Obv "M CATO PRO PR"
Head of Liber right
Rev "VICTRIX"
Seated Victory right
Rome mint
Crawford 462
mauseus
Diocletian_Black.jpg
49 Diocletian RIC 2928 viewsDIOCLETIAN 284-305 AD. AE large silvered follis. Nicomedia mint, 303-304 AD. (28mm, 8.6g) Obv: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Laureate head right. Rev: GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, Genius standing left, pouring a libation from patera & holding cornucopiae, SMN in exergue.
RIC 29

Ex: Incitatus Coins
Paddy
coin599.JPG
501. Constantine I Alexandria Posthumous23 viewsAlexandria

The city passed formally under Roman jurisdiction in 80 BC, according to the will of Ptolemy Alexander but after it had been previously under Roman influence for more than a hundred years. Julius Caesar dallied with Cleopatra in Alexandria in 47 BC, saw Alexander's body (quipping 'I came to see a king, not a collection of corpses' when he was offered a view of the other royal burials) and was mobbed by the rabble. His example was followed by Marc Antony, for whose favor the city paid dearly to Octavian, who placed over it a prefect from the imperial household.

From the time of annexation onwards, Alexandria seems to have regained its old prosperity, commanding, as it did, an important granary of Rome. This fact, doubtless, was one of the chief reasons which induced Augustus to place it directly under imperial power. In AD 215 the emperor Caracalla visited the city and for some insulting satires that the inhabitants had directed at him, abruptly commanded his troops to put to death all youths capable of bearing arms. This brutal order seems to have been carried out even beyond the letter, for a general massacre ensued.

Even as its main historical importance had formerly sprung from pagan learning, now Alexandria acquired fresh importance as a centre of Christian theology and church government. There Arianism was formulated and where also Athanasius, the great opponent of both Arianism and pagan reaction, triumphed over both, establishing the Patriarch of Alexandria as a major influence in Christianity for the next two centuries.

As native influences began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt and losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century AD, followed by a fast decline in population and splendour.

In the late 4th century, persecution of pagans by Christians had reached new levels of intensity. Temples and statues were destroyed throughout the Roman empire: pagan rituals became forbidden under punishment of death, and libraries were closed. In 391, Emperor Theodosius I ordered the destruction of all pagan temples, and the Patriarch Theophilus, complied with his request. It is possible that the great Library of Alexandria and the Serapeum was destroyed about this time. The pagan mathematician and philosopher Hypathia was a prominent victim of the persecutions.

The Brucheum and Jewish quarters were desolate in the 5th century, and the central monuments, the Soma and Museum, fell into ruin. On the mainland, life seemed to have centred in the vicinity of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both which became Christian churches. The Pharos and Heptastadium quarters, however, remained populous and left intact.

veiled head only
DV CONSTANTI-NVS PT AVGG
RIC VIII Alexandria 32 C3

From uncleaned lot; one of the nicer finds.
ecoli
coin561.JPG
501. Constantine I Constantinople LIBERTAS PVBLICA20 viewsConstantine the Great AE3. 327 AD. CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, laureate head right / LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Victory standing left on galley, wreath in both hands, B left, CONS in ex. Constantinople RIC VII 18
ecoli
coin555.JPG
501. CONSTANTINE I Siscia SOLI INVICTO COMIT14 viewsSol Invictus ("the undefeated Sun") or, more fully, Deus Sol Invictus ("the undefeated sun god") was a religious title applied to three distinct divinities during the later Roman Empire, El Gabal, Mithras, and Sol.

Unlike the earlier, agrarian cult of Sol Indiges ("the native sun" or "the invoked sun" - the etymology and meaning of the word "indiges" is disputed), the title Deus Sol Invictus was formed by analogy with the imperial titulature pius felix invictus ("dutiful, fortunate, unconquered").

A festival of the birth of the Unconquered Sun (or Dies Natalis Solis Invicti) was celebrated when the duration of daylight first begins to increase after the winter solstice,—the "rebirth" of the sun.

Christianity adopted some of the attributes of the Sol Invictus religion, as apparent in the first examples of Christian iconography, depicting Christ with solar attributes such as the radiated crown or, in a few instances, a solar chariot.

Sol Invictus had been adopted by the Church of Rome as evidenced by Christ as Apollo-Helios in a mausoleum discovered under St. Peter's Basilica and dated to 250[1], and, from the beginning of the third century, "Sun of Justice" was used as a title of Christ[2].

The date for Christmas may also bear a relation to the sun worship. According to the Syriac bishop Jacob Bar-Salibi, writing in the twelth century:

"It was a custom of the Pagans to celebrate on the same 25 December the birthday of the Sun, at which they kindled lights in token of festivity. In these solemnities and revelries the Christians also took part. Accordingly when the doctors of the Church perceived that the Christians had a leaning to this festival, they took counsel and resolved that the true Nativity should be solemnised on that day." (cited in "Christianity and Paganism in the Fourth to Eighth Centuries", Ramsay MacMullen. Yale:1997, p155])
Christianity designated Sunday as the "Lord's Day" and the day of rest, rather than Saturday, the Jewish Sabbath.


CONSTANTINE I

RIC VII Siscia 32 R3

ecoli
1053_P_Hadrian_RPC5050.jpg
5050 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Tetradrachm 117-18 AD Dikaiosyne standing17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 5050 (this coin). Dattari-Savio Pl. 65, 1347 (this coin).Emmett 833.2

Issue L B = year 2

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙС ΤΡΑΝΟС (sic) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС СƐΒ
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., drapery on l. shoulder

Rev. L Β
Dikaiosyne standing facing, head l., holding scales and cornucopia

12.52 gr
25 mm
12h

Note.
From the Dattari collection.

In ancient Greek culture, Dikē (/ˈdiːkeɪ/ or /ˈdɪkiː/; Greek: Δίκη, English translation: "justice") was the goddess of justice and the spirit of moral order and fair judgement based on immemorial custom, in the sense of socially enforced norms and conventional rules. According to Hesiod (Theogony, l. 901), she was fathered by Zeus upon his second consort, Themis. She and her mother were both personifications of justice. She is depicted as a young, slender woman carrying a physical balance scale and wearing a laurel wreath while her Roman counterpart (Justitia) appears in a similar fashion but blind-folded. She is represented in the constellation Libra which is named for the Latin name of her symbol (Scales). She is often associated with Astraea, the goddess of innocence and purity. Astraea is also one of her epithets referring to her appearance in the nearby constellation Virgo which is said to represent Astraea. This reflects her symbolic association with Astraea, who too has a similar iconography.

The sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia have as their unifying iconographical conception the dikē of Zeus, and in poetry she is often the attendant (paredros) of Zeus.
In the philosophical climate of late 5th century Athens, dikē could be anthropomorphised as a goddess of moral justice.
She was one of the three second-generation Horae, along with Eunomia ("order") and Eirene ("peace")
okidoki
Follis Constantino X SB01853.jpg
52-02 - Constantino X (25/12/1059 - 21/05/1067 D.C.)24 viewsAE Follis 26 x 30 mm 4.3 gr.

Anv: "EMMA - NOVHΛ", "IC - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Cristo de pié de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con ambas manos.
Rev: " ΕVΔO AVΓ - +RΘKWN TΔK " Emperador barbado a derecha y Emperatriz Eudocia a izquierda, de pié de frente vistiendo corona, Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y Pendilia (Tiras de perlas que colgaban a ambos lados de la corona). Entre ellos Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial, con Crismón (Simbolo Chi-Ro) en su bandera), Cruz en el mastil y apoyado sobre una tarima con tres escalones.

Acuñada 1059 - 1067 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1853 Pag. 363 - Bellinger D.O. Vol. III #8 - B.M.C.#18-31 - Ratto M.B.#2021/3 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-29
mdelvalle
Gordian-III-RIC-036.jpg
53. Gordian III / RIC 36.23 viewsAntoninianus, Jan. - Mar. 240, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP CAES M ANT GORDIANVS AVG / Radiate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: LIBERALITAS AVG II / Liberalitas standing, holding abacus and double cornucopiae.
5.20 gm., 23 mm.
RIC #36; Sear #8619.
Callimachus
BRVTVS.jpg
54 BC M. Junius Brutus AR Denarius.319 viewsLIBERTAS
bust of Libertas right

BRVTVS in ex
Consul L Junius Brutus, between two lictors, preceeded by accensus, all walking left, .

Rome, 54 BC.

3.61g

Syd 906, Cr433/1, Junia 31.

Ex-Incitatus
14 commentsJay GT4
1183Hadrian_RIC552.jpg
552 Hadrian Orichalcum Sestertius, Roma 118 AD Hadrian and Liberalitas 55 viewsReference.
RIC 552; Strack 516; Hunter II 324, BMCRE III 1137, Cohen II 914, SRCV II 3606 var. (band over shoulder, S - C at sides); Banti 488

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG
Laureate bust right, drapery on left shoulder, seen from front

Rev. PONT MAX TR POT COS II / S C LIBERALITAS AVG
Hadrian seated left on raised platform, before him sits an attendant distributing coins to a togate citizen climbing steps of platform, Liberalitas standing left on far side of attendant, holding coin counter, LIBERALITAS AVG / S C (senatus consulto) in exergue

25.81 gr
35 mm
6h

Note.
The generosity and munificent largesses of Hadrian, after having been recorded many times on various coins and in diverse ways, are on the reverse of a first brass medal of great rarity, glorified altogether by the above splendid title, "The Benefactor of the World," a superlative the more remarkable, inasmuch as, neither before nor afterward, is it found conferred on any other emperor. -- Dictionary| of Roman| Coins|
FORVM coin
5 commentsokidoki
Aspron Trachy Vellón Manuel I SB01966.jpg
58-12 - Manuel I (08/04/1143 - 24/09/1180 D.C.)73 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 30 mm 5.4 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "IC - XC" (Jesús Cristo) en campos izquierdo y derecho - Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con mano izquierda." * " en campo izquierdo.
Rev: " MANγHΛ - ΔεCΠOT " Emperador de pié de frente a izquierda vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz en izquierda. A su derecha La Virgen de pié de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), con su mano derecha corona al Emperador.

Acuñada 1143 - 1180 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1966 Pag. 396 - Hendy CMBE pl.16.1-15, pl.17.1-4 - B.M.C.#40-51 - Ratto M.B.#2127/34 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #17-42
mdelvalle
426Hadrian_RIC582.jpg
582 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 119-20 AD Hadrian seated59 viewsReference.
RIC 582c; C 930 rare.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III:
Laureate, draped bust right, seen from front.

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG III in Ex. S C
Hadrian, togate, seated left on platform, on right, extending right hand; behind, an officer standing left; in front, on his right, an attendant holding up coin counter; at foot of platform, citizen standing right, holding out fold of toga in both hands.

24.93 gr.
33 mm.
Note.
Comment on Tablet by Curtis Clay.
The object in question was a tablet with a set number of shallow coin-size depressions drilled into it, say 50 depressions. It was dipped into the chest of coins like a scoop, and shaken until one coin had settled into each depression. Any excess coins were then swept back into the chest with the official's other hand, and the full board containing exactly fifty coins was then emptied into the outstretched toga of the recipient. So the object in question was a coin scoop/coin counter, meant to rapidly and accurately distribute the required number of coins to each recipient.
2 commentsokidoki
279_Hadrian_RIC583a.jpg
583a Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 119-21 AD Libertas44 viewsReferentc.
RIC 583a; C 948. BMC 1190A.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III
Laureate head right

Rev. LIBERTAS PVBLICA
Libertas, draped, seated left on throne, holding branch in right hand, which rests on lap, and vertical sceptre in left
in exergue, S C.

26.50 gr
2 commentsokidoki
1230Hadrian_RIC583.JPG
583b Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 119-21 AD Libertas14 viewsReference
RIC 583b; C 948. BMC 1190A.

Obv. IMP CAESAR TRAIANVS HADRIANVS AVG P M TR P COS III
Laureate head right

Rev. LIBERTAS PVBLICA
Libertas, draped, seated left on throne, holding branch in right hand, which rests on lap, and vertical sceptre in left
in exergue, S C.

24.24 gr
34 mm
6h

Note.
ex Münzzentrum Köln, Auktion 45, 1981, Los 554
3 commentsokidoki
Denario_Severo_Alejandro_RIC_286.jpg
59-03 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)40 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Viéndolo de atrás.
Rev: "LIBERTAS AVG" - Libertas de pié a izquierda, portando Pileus (Bonete utilizado por los esclavos) en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierdo. " * " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 222 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquia Siria
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #286c Pag.92 – Sear (1988) #2214 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7880 var. (Leyenda anverso) Pag.645 – BMCRE Vol.6 #1036 - Cohen Vol.IV #147 Pag.417 - RSC Vol. III #147 Pag.135 - DVM #24 Pag.212
mdelvalle
RIC_286c_Denario_Severo_Alejandro.jpg
59-03 - SEVERO ALEJANDRO (222 - 235 D.C.)11 viewsAR Denario 18 mm 3.0 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG" - Busto laureado y vestido viendo a derecha. Viéndolo de atrás.
Rev: "LIBERTAS AVG" - Libertas de pié a izquierda, portando Pileus (Bonete utilizado por los esclavos) en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierdo. " * " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 222 D.C.
Ceca: Antioquia Siria
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte II #286c Pag.92 – Sear (1988) #2214 - Sear RCTV Vol.II #7880 var. (Leyenda anverso) Pag.645 – BMCRE Vol.6 #1036 - Cohen Vol.IV #147 Pag.417 - RSC Vol. III #147 Pag.135 - DVM #24 Pag.212
mdelvalle
Gordian-III-RIC-067.jpg
59. Gordian III / RIC 67.14 viewsAntoninianus, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Radiate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: LIBERALITAS AVG III / Liberalitas standing, holding abacus and cornucopiae.
4.58 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #67; Sear #8621.
Callimachus
JuliusCaesarARdenarius.jpg
601, Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, assassinated 15 March 44 B.C.55 viewsJulius Caesar AR Denarius 40 B.C. 20 mm, 3.6 gm; aVF; Moving mint. 49-48 BC. Obverse: Pontifical emblems culullus, aspergillum, axe, and apex. Reverse: elephant right trampling dragon; CAESAR in exergue. Ex Windsor Antiquities.


It is not possible to adequately discuss Gaius Julius Caesar within the constraints of this gallery. He was born on either the 12th or the 13th of July in 100 B.C. [most scholars agree upon this date, but it is debated], and he was assassinated on 15 March 44 B.C.

Caesar is arguably the most important figure in Roman history; only Augustus and, perhaps, Constantine the Great made contributions of equivalent magnitude. Caesar was a truly gifted writer, orator, politician and soldier .

Library and book store shelves are crowded with a variety of biographies on the great man. Christian Meier, professor of Ancient History at the University of Munich, has written a scholarly as well as intriguing biography of Caesar. It is simply titled Caesar. It was first published in Germany in 1982, and a recently published paper back translation by David McLintock is now available from Fontana Press (a subsidiary of HarperCollins Publishers).

Caesar is fascinating.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
168Hadrian__RIC637.jpg
637 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 125-28 AD Aequitas standing40 viewsReference.
RIC 637

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.
Laureate bust right with drapery on left shoulder

Rev. COS III S C.
Aequitas standing left, holding scales and rod.

25.66 gr
31 mm

Note.
Aequitas is the Latin concept of justice, equality, conformity, symmetry, or fairness.
It is the origin of the English word "equity". In ancient Rome, it could refer to either the legal concept of equity, or fairness between individuals.

During the Roman Empire, Aequitas as a divine personification was part of the religious propaganda of the emperor, under the name Aequitas Augusti, which also appeared on coins.
She is depicted on coins holding a cornucopiae and a balance scale (libra), which was more often a symbol of "honest measure" to the Romans than of justice.
(Wiki)

Ex American Numismatic Society #1001.1.22972.
okidoki
Philip-II-RIC-230.jpg
64. Philip II as Augustus.14 viewsAntoninianus, ca 248 - 249 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP PHILIPPVS AVG / Radiate bust of Philip II.
Reverse: LIBERALITAS AVG III / Philip II and his father seated on curule chairs.
4.03 gm., 22.5 mm.
RIC #230; Sear #9265,
Callimachus
Aspron Trachy Vellón Gobernantes Latinos SB02027.jpg
65-05 - Gobernantes latinos de Constantinopla (1204 - 1261 D.C.)80 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 26 x 21 mm 1.6 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con mano izquierda.
Rev: Emperador de pié de frente a izquierda vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseña militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz en izquierda. A su derecha La Virgen de pié de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), con su mano derecha corona al Emperador.

Acuñada 1204 - 1261 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2016 Pag. 412 - Bellinger D.O. Vol.IV pl.XLIX, 6 - Hendy CMBE pl.26, 2(F)
mdelvalle
RIC_67_Antoniniano_Gordiano_III.jpg
69-09 - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)14 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERALITAS AVG III" - Liberalitas de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un ábaco en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en izquierda.Acuñadas para donativo (regalo monetario a la gente) en el año 240 D.C. para marcar la supresión de la rebelión en Cartago de Sabinianus. Dado en los acontecimientos y circos.

Acuñada 5ta. y 6ta. Emisiones fin 239 a principio 240 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IVc #67 Pag.23, Sear RCTV Vol.III #8621 Pag.119, Cohen Vol.V #142 var Pag.35, RSC Vol. IV #142 Pag.4, DVM #25 var Pag.224, Cayón #47, Hunter #56
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Gordiano III RIC 67.jpg
69-11 - GORDIANO III (238 - 244 D.C.)45 viewsAR Antoniniano 21 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG" - Busto radiado, vestido y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERALITAS AVG III" - Liberalitas de pié de frente viendo a izquierda, portando un ábaco en mano de brazo derecho extendido y cornucopia en izquierda.Acuñadas para donativo (regalo monetario a la gente) en el año 240 D.C. para marcar la supresión de la rebelión en Cartago de Sabinianus. Dado en los acontecimientos y circos.

Acuñada 5ta. y 6ta. Emisiones fin 239 a principio 240 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off.4ta.)

Referencias: RIC Vol.IV Parte III #67 Pag.23 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #8621 - Cohen Vol.V #142 var Pag.35 - RSC Vol. IV #142 Pag.4 - DVM #25 var Pag.224 - Cayón #47
mdelvalle
JuliusCaesar.jpg
701a, Julius Caesar, Imperator and Dictator, assassinated 15 March 44 B.C.190 viewsJulius Caesar

Of the great man, Joseph Sermarini states,"Gaius Julius Caesar is one of the most famous men in history. At the end of his brilliant military and political career he had gained control of the Roman state. His puppet senate heaped more and more honors upon him. In February 44 B.C. the senate named him dictator for life. Many senators, however, feared that he wished to become king, ending the Republic. On the 15th of March 44 B.C., 63 senators attacked him with knives they had hidden in the folds of their togas. This most famous of assassinations plunged the Roman Republic into 17 years of civil war, after which it would re-emerge as the Roman Empire."

It is not possible to adequately discuss Gaius Julius Caesar within the constraints of this gallery. He was born on either the 12th or the 13th of July in 100 B.C. [most scholars agree upon this date, but it is debated], and he was assassinated on 15 March 44 B.C.

Caesar is arguably the most important figure in Roman history; only Augustus and, perhaps, Constantine the Great made contributions of equivalent magnitude. Caesar was a truly gifted writer, orator, politician and soldier .

Library and book store shelves are crowded with a variety of biographies on this historical giant. Christian Meier, professor of Ancient History at the University of Munich, has written a scholarly as well as intriguing biography of Caesar. It is simply titled Caesar. It was first published in Germany in 1982, and a recently published paper back translation by David McLintock is now available from Fontana Press (a subsidiary of HarperCollins Publishers).

Caesar is fascinating.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Nero AE Sestertius.jpg
706a, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D.73 views6, Nero, 13 October 54 - 9 June 68 A.D. AE setertius, Date: 66 AD; RIC I 516, 36.71 mm; 25.5 grams; aVF. Obverse: IMP NERO CAESAR AVG PONT MAX TR POT PP, Laureate bust right; Reverse: S C, ROMA, Roma seated left, exceptional portrait and full obverse legends. Ex Ancient Imports.

NERO (54-68 A.D.)

It is difficult for the modern student of history to realize just how popular Nero actually was, at least at the beginning of his reign. Rome looked upon her new Emperor with hope. He was the student of Seneca, and he had a sensitive nature. He loved art, music, literature, and theatre. He was also devoted to horses and horse racing—a devotion shared by many of his subjects. The plebs loved their new Emperor. As Professor of Classics Judith P. Hallett (University of Maryland, College Park) says, “It is not clear to me that Nero ever changed or that Nero ever grew-up, and that was both his strength and his weakness. Nero was an extraordinarily popular Emperor: he was like Elvis” (The Roman Empire in the First Century, III. Dir. Margaret Koval and Lyn Goldfarb. 2001. DVD. PBS/Warner Bros. 2003).

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
The five Julio-Claudian emperors are very different one from the other. Augustus dominates in prestige and achievement from the enormous impact he had upon the Roman state and his long service to Rome, during which he attained unrivaled auctoritas. Tiberius was clearly the only possible successor when Augustus died in AD 14, but, upon his death twenty-three years later, the next three were a peculiar mix of viciousness, arrogance, and inexperience. Gaius, better known as Caligula, is generally styled a monster, whose brief tenure did Rome no service. His successor Claudius, his uncle, was a capable man who served Rome well, but was condemned for being subject to his wives and freedmen. The last of the dynasty, Nero, reigned more than three times as long as Gaius, and the damage for which he was responsible to the state was correspondingly greater. An emperor who is well described by statements such as these, "But above all he was carried away by a craze for popularity and he was jealous of all who in any way stirred the feeling of the mob." and "What an artist the world is losing!" and who is above all remembered for crimes against his mother and the Christians was indeed a sad falling-off from the levels of Augustus and Tiberius. Few will argue that Nero does not rank as one of the worst emperors of all.

The prime sources for Nero's life and reign are Tacitus' Annales 12-16, Suetonius' Life of Nero, and Dio Cassius' Roman History 61-63, written in the early third century. Additional valuable material comes from inscriptions, coinage, papyri, and archaeology.


Early Life
He was born on December 15, 37, at Antium, the son of Cnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbusand Agrippina. Domitius was a member of an ancient noble family, consul in 32; Agrippina was the daughter of the popular Germanicus, who had died in 19, and Agrippina, daughter of Agrippa, Augustus' closest associate, and Julia, the emperor's daughter, and thus in direct descent from the first princeps. When the child was born, his uncle Gaius had only recently become emperor. The relationship between mother and uncle was difficult, and Agrippina suffered occasional humiliation. But the family survived the short reign of the "crazy" emperor, and when he was assassinated, it chanced that Agrippina's uncle, Claudius, was the chosen of the praetorian guard, although there may have been a conspiracy to accomplish this.

Ahenobarbus had died in 40, so the son was now the responsibility of Agrippina alone. She lived as a private citizen for much of the decade, until the death of Messalina, the emperor's wife, in 48 made competition among several likely candidates to become the new empress inevitable. Although Roman law forbade marriage between uncle and niece, an eloquent speech in the senate by Lucius Vitellius, Claudius' closest advisor in the senatorial order, persuaded his audience that the public good required their union. The marriage took place in 49, and soon thereafter the philosopher Seneca [[PIR2 A617]] was recalled from exile to become the young Domitius' tutor, a relationship which endured for some dozen years.

His advance was thereafter rapid. He was adopted by Claudius the following year and took the name Tiberius Claudius Nero Caesar or Nero Claudius Caesar Drusus Germanicus, was preferred to Claudius' natural son, Britannicus, who was about three years younger, was betrothed to the emperor's daughter Octavia, and was, in the eyes of the people, the clear successor to the emperor. In 54, Claudius died, having eaten some poisoned mushrooms, responsibility for which was believed to be Agrippina's, and the young Nero, not yet seventeen years old, was hailed on October 13 as emperor by the praetorian guard.


The First Years of Rule
The first five years of Nero's rule are customarily called the quinquennium, a period of good government under the influence, not always coinciding, of three people, his mother, Seneca, and Sextus Afranius Burrus, the praetorian prefect. The latter two were allies in their "education" of the emperor. Seneca continued his philosophical and rhetorical training, Burrus was more involved in advising on the actualities of government. They often combined their influence against Agrippina, who, having made her son emperor, never let him forget the debt he owed his mother, until finally, and fatally, he moved against her.

Nero's betrothal to Octavia was a significant step in his ultimate accession to the throne, as it were, but she was too quiet, too shy, too modest for his taste. He was early attracted to Poppaea Sabina, the wife of Otho, and she continually goaded him to break from Octavia and to show himself an adult by opposing his mother. In his private life, Nero honed the musical and artistic tastes which were his chief interest, but, at this stage, they were kept private, at the instigation of Seneca and Burrus.

As the year 59 began, Nero had just celebrated his twenty-first birthday and now felt the need to employ the powers which he possessed as emperor as he wished, without the limits imposed by others. Poppaea's urgings had their effect, first of all, at the very onset of the year, with Nero's murder of his mother in the Bay of Naples.

Agrippina had tried desperately to retain her influence with her son, going so far as to have intercourse with him. But the break between them proved irrevocable, and Nero undertook various devices to eliminate his mother without the appearance of guilt on his part. The choice was a splendid vessel which would collapse while she was on board. As this happened, she swam ashore and, when her attendant, having cried out that she was Agrippina, was clubbed to death, Agrippina knew what was going on. She sent Nero a message that she was well; his response was to send a detachment of sailors to finish the job. When she was struck across the head, she bared her womb and said, "Strike here, Anicetus, strike here, for this bore Nero," and she was brutally murdered.

Nero was petrified with fear when he learned that the deed had been done, yet his popularity with the plebs of Rome was not impaired. This matricide, however, proved a turning point in his life and principate. It appeared that all shackles were now removed. The influence of Seneca and Burrus began to wane, and when Burrus died in 62, Seneca realized that his powers of persuasion were at an end and soon went into retirement. Britannicus had died as early as 55; now Octavia was to follow, and Nero became free to marry Poppaea. It may be that it had been Burrus rather than Agrippina who had continually urged that Nero's position depended in large part upon his marriage to Octavia. Burrus' successor as commander of the praetorian guard, although now with a colleague, was Ofonius Tigellinus, quite the opposite of Burrus in character and outlook. Tigellinus became Nero's "evil twin," urging and assisting in the performance of crimes and the satisfaction of lusts.


Administrative and Foreign Policy
With Seneca and Burrus in charge of administration at home, the first half-dozen years of Nero's principate ran smoothly. He himself devoted his attention to his artistic, literary, and physical bents, with music, poetry, and chariot racing to the fore. But his advisors were able to keep these performances and displays private, with small, select audiences on hand. Yet there was a gradual trend toward public performance, with the establishment of games. Further, he spent many nights roaming the city in disguise, with numerous companions, who terrorized the streets and attacked individuals. Those who dared to defend themselves often faced death afterward, because they had shown disrespect for the emperor. The die was being cast for the last phases of Nero's reign.


The Great Fire at Rome and The Punishment
of the Christians
The year 64 was the most significant of Nero's principate up to this point. His mother and wife were dead, as was Burrus, and Seneca, unable to maintain his influence over Nero without his colleague's support, had withdrawn into private life. The abysmal Tigellinus was now the foremost advisor of the still young emperor, a man whose origin was from the lowest levels of society and who can accurately be described as criminal in outlook and action. Yet Nero must have considered that he was happier than he had ever been in his life. Those who had constrained his enjoyment of his (seemingly) limitless power were gone, he was married to Poppaea, a woman with all advantages save for a bad character the empire was essentially at peace, and the people of Rome enjoyed a full measure of panem et circenses. But then occurred one of the greatest disasters that the city of Rome, in its long history, had ever endured.

The fire began in the southeastern angle of the Circus Maximus, spreading through the shops which clustered there, and raged for the better part of a week. There was brief success in controlling the blaze, but then it burst forth once more, so that many people claimed that the fires were deliberately set. After about a fortnight, the fire burned itself out, having consumed ten of the fourteen Augustan regions into which the city had been divided.

Nero was in Antium through much of the disaster, but his efforts at relief were substantial. Yet many believed that he had been responsible, so that he could perform his own work comparing the current fate of Rome to the downfall of Troy. All his efforts to assist the stricken city could not remove the suspicion that "the emperor had fiddled while Rome burned." He lost favor even among the plebs who had been enthusiastic supporters, particularly when his plans for the rebuilding of the city revealed that a very large part of the center was to become his new home.

As his popularity waned, Nero and Tigellinus realized that individuals were needed who could be charged with the disaster. It so happened that there was such a group ready at hand, Christians, who had made themselves unpopular because of their refusal to worship the emperor, their way of life, and their secret meetings. Further, at this time two of their most significant "teachers" were in Rome, Peter and Paul. They were ideal scapegoats, individuals whom most Romans loathed, and who had continually sung of the forthcoming end of the world.

Their destruction was planned with the utmost precision and cruelty, for the entertainment of the populace. The venue was Nero's circus near the Mons Vaticanus. Christians were exposed to wild animals and were set ablaze, smeared with pitch, to illuminate the night. The executions were so grisly that even the populace displayed sympathy for the victims. Separately, Peter was crucified upside down on the Vatican hill and Paul was beheaded along the Via Ostiensis. But Nero's attempt, and hope, to shift all suspicion of arson to others failed. His popularity even among the lower classes was irrevocably impaired.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of Nero’s reign please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/nero.htm]

The End - Nero's Death and its Aftermath
Nero's and Tigellinus' response to the conspiracy was immediate and long-lasting. The senatorial order was decimated, as one leading member after another was put to death or compelled to commit suicide. The year 66 saw the suicides of perhaps the most distinguished victims of the "reign of terror," Caius Petronius and Thrasea Paetus. Petronius, long a favorite of Nero because of his aesthetic taste, had been an able public servant before he turned to a life of ease and indolence. He was recognized as the arbiter elegantiae of Nero's circle, and may be the author of the Satyricon. At his death, he left for Nero a document which itemized many of the latter's crimes. Thrasea, a staunch Stoic who had been for some years an outspoken opponent of Nero's policies, committed suicide in the Socratic manner. This scene is the last episode in the surviving books of Tacitus' Annals.

In the year 68, revolt began in the provinces. . . the end of Nero's reign became inevitable. Galba claimed the throne and began his march from Spain. Nero panicked and was rapidly abandoned by his supporters. He finally committed suicide with assistance, on June 9, 68, and his body was tended and buried by three women who had been close to him in his younger days, chief of whom was Acte. His death scene is marked above all by the statement, "Qualis artifex pereo," (What an artist dies in me.) Even at the end he was more concerned with his private life than with the affairs of state.

The aftermath of Nero's death was cataclysmic. Galba was the first of four emperors who revealed the new secret of empire, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than in Rome. Civil war ensued, which was only ended by the victory of the fourth claimant, Vespasian, who established the brief dynasty of the Flavians. The dynasty of the Julio-Claudians was at an end.

Nero's popularity among the lower classes remained even after his death.

. . . .

It is not excessive to say that he was one of the worst of Rome's emperors in the first two centuries and more of the empire. Whatever talents he had, whatever good he may have done, all is overwhelmed by three events, the murder of his mother, the fire at Rome, and his savage treatment of the Christians.

Precisely these qualities are the reasons that he has remained so well known and has been the subject of many writers and opera composers in modern times. These works of fiction particularly merit mention: Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis, one of the finest works of the 1907 Nobel Laureate in Literature, and John Hersey's The Conspiracy. Nero unquestionably will always be with us.

Copyright (C) 2006, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
GalbaAEAs.jpg
707a, Galba, 3 April 68 - 15 January 69 A.D.66 viewsGalba AE As, 68-69 AD; cf. SRC 727, 729ff; 27.85mm, 12g; Rome: Obverse: GALBA IMP CAESAR…, Laureate head right; Reverse: S P Q R OB CIV SER in oak wreath; gF+/F Ex. Ancient Imports.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Galba (68-69 A.D.)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary


Introduction
The evidence for the principate of Galba is unsatisfactory. The sources either concentrate on the personality of the man, thereby failing to offer a balanced account of his policies and a firm chronological base for his actions; or, they focus on the final two weeks of his life at the expense of the earlier part of his reign. As a result, a detailed account of his principate is difficult to write. Even so, Galba is noteworthy because he was neither related to nor adopted by his predecessor Nero. Thus, his accession marked the end of the nearly century-long control of the Principate by the Julio-Claudians. Additionally, Galba's declaration as emperor by his troops abroad set a precedent for the further political upheavals of 68-69. Although these events worked to Galba's favor initially, they soon came back to haunt him, ending his tumultuous rule after only seven months.

Early Life and Rise to Power
Born 24 December 3 BC in Tarracina, a town on the Appian Way, 65 miles south of Rome, Servius Galba was the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. Galba's connection with the noble house of the Servii gave him great prestige and assured his acceptance among the highest levels of Julio-Claudian society. Adopted in his youth by Livia, the mother of the emperor Tiberius, he is said to have owed much of his early advancement to her. Upon her death, Livia made Galba her chief legatee, bequeathing him some 50 million sesterces. Tiberius, Livia's heir, reduced the amount, however, and then never paid it. Galba's marriage proved to be a further source of disappointment, as he outlived both his wife Lepida and their two sons. Nothing else is known of Galba's immediate family, other than that he remained a widower for the rest of his life.

Although the details of Galba's early political career are incomplete, the surviving record is one of an ambitious Roman making his way in the Emperor's service. Suetonius records that as praetor Galba put on a new kind of exhibition for the people - elephants walking on a rope. Later, he served as governor of the province of Aquitania, followed by a six-month term as consul at the beginning of 33. Ironically, as consul he was succeeded by Salvius Otho, whose own son would succeed Galba as emperor. Over the years three more governorships followed - Upper Germany (date unknown), North Africa (45) and Hispania Tarraconensis, the largest of Spain's three provinces (61). He was selected as a proconsul of Africa by the emperor Claudius himself instead of by the usual method of drawing lots. During his two-year tenure in the province he successfully restored internal order and quelled a revolt by the barbarians. As an imperial legate he was a governor in Spain for eight years under Nero, even though he was already in his early sixties when he assumed his duties. The appointment showed that Galba was still considered efficient and loyal. In all of these posts Galba generally displayed an enthusiasm for old-fashioned disciplina, a trait consistent with the traditional characterization of the man as a hard-bitten aristocrat of the old Republican type. Such service did not go unnoticed, as he was honored with triumphal insignia and three priesthoods during his career.

On the basis of his ancestry, family tradition and service to the state Galba was the most distinguished Roman alive (with the exception of the houses of the Julii and Claudii) at the time of Nero's demise in 68. The complex chain of events that would lead him to the Principate later that year began in March with the rebellion of Gaius Iulius Vindex, the governor of Gallia Lugdunensis. Vindex had begun to sound out provincial governors about support for a rebellion perhaps in late 67 or early 68. Galba did not respond but, because of his displeasure with Neronian misgovernment, neither did he inform the emperor of these treasonous solicitations. This, of course, left him dangerously exposed; moreover, he was already aware that Nero, anxious to remove anyone of distinguished birth and noble achievements, had ordered his death. Given these circumstances, Galba likely felt that he had no choice but to rebel.

In April, 68, while still in Spain, Galba "went public," positioning himself as a vir militaris, a military representative of the senate and people of Rome. For the moment, he refused the title of Emperor, but it is clear that the Principate was his goal. To this end, he organized a concilium of advisors in order to make it known that any decisions were not made by him alone but only after consultation with a group. The arrangement was meant to recall the Augustan Age relationship between the emperor and senate in Rome. Even more revealing of his imperial ambitions were legends like LIBERTAS RESTITUTA (Liberty Restored), ROM RENASC (Rome Reborn) and SALUS GENERIS HUMANI (Salvation of Mankind), preserved on his coinage from the period. Such evidence has brought into question the traditional assessment of Galba as nothing more than an ineffectual representative of a bygone antiquus rigor in favor of a more balanced portrait of a traditional constitutionalist eager to publicize the virtues of an Augustan-style Principate.
Events now began to move quickly. In May, 68 Lucius Clodius Macer, legate of the III legio Augusta in Africa, revolted from Nero and cut off the grain supply to Rome. Choosing not to recognize Galba, he called himself propraetor, issued his own coinage, and raised a new legion, the I Macriana liberatrix. Galba later had him executed. At the same time, 68, Lucius Verginius Rufus, legionary commander in Upper Germany, led a combined force of soldiers from Upper and Lower Germany in defeating Vindex at Vesontio in Gallia Lugdunensis. Verginius refused to accept a call to the emperorship by his own troops and by those from the Danube, however, thereby creating at Rome an opportunity for Galba's agents to win over Gaius Nymphidius Sabinus, the corrupt praetorian prefect since 65. Sabinus was able to turn the imperial guard against Nero on the promise that they would be rewarded financially by Galba upon his arrival. That was the end for Nero. Deposed by the senate and abandoned by his supporters, he committed suicide in June. At this point, encouraged to march on Rome by the praetorians and especially by Sabinus, who had his own designs on the throne, Galba hurriedly established broad-based political and financial support and assembled his own legion (subsequently known as the legio VII Gemina). As he departed from Spain, he abandoned the title of governor in favor of "Caesar," apparently in an attempt to lay claim to the entire inheritance of the Julio-Claudian house. Even so, he continued to proceed cautiously, and did not actually adopt the name of Caesar (and with it the emperorship) until sometime after he had left Spain.

The Principate of Galba
Meanwhile, Rome was anything but serene. An unusual force of soldiers, many of whom had been mustered by Nero to crush the attempt of Vindex, remained idle and restless. In addition, there was the matter concerning Nymphidius Sabinus. Intent on being the power behind the throne, Nymphidius had orchestrated a demand from the praetorians that Galba appoint him sole praetorian prefect for life. The senate capitulated to his pretensions and he began to have designs on the throne himself. In an attempt to rattle Galba, Nymphidius then sent messages of alarm to the emperor telling of unrest in both the city and abroad. When Galba ignored these reports, Nymphidius decided to launch a coup by presenting himself to the praetorians. The plan misfired, and the praetorians killed him when he appeared at their camp. Upon learning of the incident, Galba ordered the executions of Nymphidius' followers. To make matters worse, Galba's arrival was preceded by a confrontation with a boisterous band of soldiers who had been formed into a legion by Nero and were now demanding legionary standards and regular quarters. When they persisted, Galba's forces attacked, with the result that many of them were killed.
Thus it was amid carnage and fear that Galba arrived at the capital in October, 68, accompanied by Otho, the governor of Lusitania, who had joined the cause. Once Galba was within Rome, miscalculations and missteps seemed to multiply. First, he relied upon the advice of a corrupt circle of advisors, most notably: Titus Vinius, a general from Spain; Cornelius Laco, praetorian prefect; and his own freedman, Icelus. Second, he zealously attempted to recover some of Nero's more excessive expenditures by seizing the property of many citizens, a measure that seems to have gone too far and to have caused real hardship and resentment. Third, he created further ill-will by disbanding the imperial corps of German bodyguards, effectively abolishing a tradition that originated with Marius and had been endorsed by Augustus. Finally, he seriously alienated the military by refusing cash rewards for both the praetorians and for the soldiers in Upper Germany who had fought against Vindex.

This last act proved to be the beginning of the end for Galba. On 1 January 69 ("The Year of the Four Emperors"), the troops in Upper Germany refused to declare allegiance to him and instead followed the men stationed in Lower Germany in proclaiming their commander, Aulus Vitellius, as the new ruler. In response, Galba adopted Lucius Calpurnius Piso Frugi Licinianus to show that he was still in charge and that his successor would not be chosen for him. Piso, although an aristocrat, was a man completely without administrative or military experience. The choice meant little to the remote armies, the praetorians or the senate, and it especially angered Otho, who had hoped to succeed Galba. Otho quickly organized a conspiracy among the praetorians with the now-familiar promise of a material reward, and on 15 January 69 they declared him emperor and publicly killed Galba; Piso, dragged from hiding in the temple of Vesta, was also butchered.

Assessment
In sum, Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." Modern historians of the Roman world have been no less critical. To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards. He was also guilty of relying on poor advisors, who shielded him from reality and ultimately allowed Otho's conspiracy to succeed. Additionally, the excessive power of his henchmen brought the regime into disfavor and made Galba himself the principal target of the hatred that his aides had incited. Finally, the appointment of Piso, a young man in no way equal to the challenges placed before him, further underscored the emperor's isolation and lack of judgment. In the end, the instability of the post-Julio-Claudian political landscape offered challenges more formidable than a tired, septuagenarian aristocrat could hope to overcome. Ironically, his regime proved no more successful than the Neronian government he was so eager to replace. Another year of bloodshed would be necessary before the Principate could once again stand firm.

Copyright (C) 1999, John Donahue.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
918Hadrian_RIC712.jpg
712 Hadrian Sestertius Roma 132-34 AD Liberalitas standing27 viewsReference.
RIC 712; Cohen 922; Strack 819; Banti 491

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS
Laureate and draped bust right

Rev. LIBERALITAS AVG COS III P P S C
Liberalitas, standing right, emptying contents of cornucopiae

22.75 gr
33 mm
12h
okidoki
Antoniniano_Galieno_RIC_230.jpg
82-07 - GALIENO (253 - 268 D.C.)47 viewsBillon Antoniniano 23 x 19 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "GALLIENVS AVG" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERO P CONS AVG" – Pantera/Tigre caminando hacia la izquierda. "B" en exergo.
Este tipo fué acuñado en 267/268 D.C. para conmemorar votos a Liber invocando su protección contra la revuelta de Aureolo.

Acuñada 267 - 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias:
RIC Vol.V Parte I #230 Pag.151 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10281 - Sear RCTV (1988) #2978 - Cohen Vol.V #586 Pag.396 - DVM #153 Pag.247 - RSC Vol.IV #586 Pag.82 - Cunieto #1341 (198 ex) - Göbl 713b (123 ex) - Cayón #161
mdelvalle
Göbl_713b_Antoniniano_Galieno.jpg
82-11 - GALIENO (253 - 268 D.C.)18 viewsAE Antoniniano 23 x 19 mm 2.8 gr.

Anv: "GALLIENVS AVG" - Cabeza radiada viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERO P CONS AVG" – Pantera/Tigre caminando hacia la izquierda. "B" en exergo.
Este tipo fué acuñado en 267/268 D.C. para conmemorar votos a Liber invocando su protección contra la revuelta de Aureolo.

Acuñada 267 - 268 D.C.
Ceca: 2do.taller de Roma
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #230 Pag.151 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #10281 Pag.295 - Sear RCTV (1988) #2978 - Cohen Vol.V #586 Pag.396 - DVM #153 Pag.247 - RSC Vol.IV #586 Pag.82 - Cunieto #1341 (198 ex) - Göbl 713b (123 ex) - Cayón #161 - Hunter #112
mdelvalle
Antoniniano Claudio Gótico RIC 62.jpg
94-02 - CLAUDIO GÓTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)103 viewsAE Antoniniano 12.5 x 19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERT AVG" - Libertas (La Libertad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda portando Pileus en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierda.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Inicios 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 10 ma.)
Rareza: C

Referencias: RIC Vol.V Parte I #62 Pag.216 - Cohen Vol.VI #152 Pag.145 - DVM #21 Pag.255 - Nor.#684
mdelvalle
RIC_62_Antoniniano_Claudio_II.jpg
94-02 - CLAUDIO GOTICO (268 - 270 D.C.)16 viewsAE Antoniniano 12.5 x 19 mm 2.7 gr.

Anv: "IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG" - Busto radiado y acorazado, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "LIBERT AVG" - Libertas (La Libertad) de pié de frente viendo a izquierda portando Pileus en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en izquierda.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión Set. 268 - Inicios 269 D.C.
Ceca: Roma (Off. 10 ma.)

Referencias: RIC Va #62 (C) P.216, Cohen VI #152 P.145, DVM #21 P.255, Nor.#684, Sear RCTV III #11349 P.402
mdelvalle
1270Hadrian_RIC968.jpg
968 Hadrian Sestertius, Roma 134-38 AD Hadrian with Roma and Senate33 viewsReference.
RIC 968; Banti 193; BMC 1364; C. 352; Hill 388; Strack 632

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P P
Laureate head of Hadrian to right.

Rev. COS III / S C
Genius of the Senate, togate on the left, and Hadrian, togate on the right, holding a volumen, standing facing each other, clasping their right hands; behind them, Roma standing right, holding spear in her left hand and resting her right on the others' clasped hands.

25.00 gr
33 mm
6h

Note.
The Romans often staged events in which the emperor was accompanied by actors dressed to personify symbolic personalities such as Annona, Liberalitas, Roma, et al. Here we see the emperor clasping the hand of the Senate in the presence of Roma, who stands behind them confirming their cooperative spirit by resting her hand on theirs.

This reverse type, representing "Concordia Senatus," likely commemorates the conferring of the title pater patriae upon Hadrian by the Senate in 128 AD.
1 commentsokidoki
Gallienus_32.jpg
A33 viewsGallienus Antoninianus

Attribution: RIC 207k
Date: AD 267-268
Obverse: GALLIENVS AVG; radiate bust r.
Reverse: IOVICONS AVG; goat stg. l.; stigma in exergue
Size: 17 mm
Weight: 2.5 grams

Gallienus’ coinage is perhaps best know by the issuance of his Zoo series. Each coin type depicts a mythical or real animal on the reverse as a dedication to a specific Roman deity: Diana (doe, stag, antelope/gazelle), Apollo (centaur, gryphon), Sol (Pegasus/winged horse, bull), Jupiter (goat), Liber Pater (panther/tigress), Neptune (capricorn, hippocamp), Juno (doe/elk/capreolus), Mercury (hippocamp/criocamp), Hercules (lion, boar).

“The vast majority of Zoo coins were produced at the mint of Rome, with a few rare examples coming from Siscia. Each officina produced a different coin within the series, with some producing a second, less common type also. Occasionally you'll find an animal with the "wrong" officina mark. These are fascinating, and the rarity leads us to believe that they represented mistakes, perhaps when a die engraver was transferred from one workshop to another. He gets the right animal, but the wrong officina. Or maybe one workshop was falling behind, so another was temporarily enlisted to help catch up on the quota?” – from Jim’s page on Coins of Gallienus' Zoo at http://www.ruark.org/coins/Zoo/#ZooLinks
Noah
liberalitas.jpg
A. Valerianus sesterce50 views2 commentsicos
Antoniniano_Probo_RIC_Tripolis_928.jpg
A101-22 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)40 viewsAE Antoniniano 23 x 22 mm 3.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha. Visto desde detrás.
Rev: "CLEMENTIA T-EMP" - Emperador de pié a la izquierda, viendo a derecha, vestido militarmente y portando un cetro con águila/rama de olivo en el extremo superior, recibiendo globo de Júpiter de pié a la derecha portando en la mano de su brazo izquierdo un largo cetro vertical. "Media luna" en campo centro y "KA" en exergo.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión 276 D.C.
Ceca: Tripolis (Off.2da.) - Libano
Rareza: C

Referencias: Vol.V Parte II #928 Pag.121 Plate.V, 16 - Hunter 349-350 - Cohen Vol.VI #87 Pag.264 - DVM # Pag.
mdelvalle
RIC_928C_Antoniniano_Probo.jpg
A101-25 - PROBO (276 - 282 D.C.)7 viewsAE Antoniniano 23 x 22 mm 3.8 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG" - Busto radiado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha. Visto desde detrás.
Rev: "CLEMENTIA T-EMP" - Emperador de pié a la izquierda, viendo a derecha, vestido militarmente y portando un cetro con águila/rama de olivo en el extremo superior, recibiendo globo de Júpiter de pié a la derecha portando en la mano de su brazo izquierdo un largo cetro vertical. "Media luna" en campo centro y "KA" en exergo.

Acuñada 1ra. Emisión 276 D.C.
Ceca: Tripolis (Off.2da.) - Libano

Referencias: RIC Vb #928C (C) P.121 Plate.V #16, Hunter 349-350, Cohen Vol.VI #87 Pag.264, DVM #10 P.261
mdelvalle
Nastich-Fig45-2.jpg
Abbasid Governors, Transoxiana: Hamza (ca. 770s-790) Cast AE Fals, Kharashket (Nastich p. 48, fig. 45)27 viewsOne of 12 known specimens from a find reportedly centered on Kanka / Kharashket near Tashkent in modern Uzbekistan. All of them are were crudely cast and hence attribution is based on known information. The only publication that mentions these coins is Nastich.

Obv: In margin, لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول; within center circle, الله (There is no God but Allah. Muhammad is the apostle of Allah)
Rev: In margin, بسم الله كما أمر به معبد الا أمير; within central circle, حمزة (In the name of Allah from that ordered by the amir Hamza); outer circle.

The full name of Hamza is not known with certainty but Nastich believes the most likely candidate is Hamza b. 'Amr who is cited on a fals of Samarqand dated AH 153. A less likely possibility is Hamza b. Malik (fl. c. AH 176-177).

Reference

Nastich, Vladimir N., A Survey of the Abbasid Copper Coinage of Transoxiana, Nastich, 2012
Nastich, Vladimir N., Early Islamic Copper Coinage of Transoxiana - A Generic Survey Focused on Newly Discovered Coin Types, 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium on Islamic Coins, 2012
SpongeBob
Nastich-Fig45.jpg
Abbasid Governors, Transoxiana: Hamza (ca. 770s-790) Cast AE Fals, Kharashket (Nastich p. 48, fig. 45)19 viewsOne of 12 known specimens from a find reportedly centered on Kanka / Kharashket near Tashkent in modern Uzbekistan. All of them are were crudely cast and hence attribution is based on known information. The only publication that mentions these coins is Nastich.

Obv: In margin, لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول; within center circle, الله (There is no God but Allah. Muhammad is the apostle of Allah)
Rev: In margin, بسم الله كما أمر به معبد الا أمير; within central circle, حمزة (In the name of Allah from that ordered by the amir Hamza); outer circle.

The full name of Hamza is not known with certainty but Nastich believes the most likely candidate is Hamza b. 'Amr who is cited on a fals of Samarqand dated AH 153. A less likely possibility is Hamza b. Malik (fl. c. AH 176-177).

Reference

Nastich, Vladimir N., A Survey of the Abbasid Copper Coinage of Transoxiana, Nastich, 2012
Nastich, Vladimir N., Early Islamic Copper Coinage of Transoxiana - A Generic Survey Focused on Newly Discovered Coin Types, 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium on Islamic Coins, 2012
SpongeBob
Sword_1.jpg
AE Sword #134 viewsNorthwestern Iran, Talish area
1200-800 BC
45.5cm (18”)

Cf. Muscarella (Bronze and Iron, Ancient Near Eastern Artifacts in the Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fig. 165 (page 99)
Cf. Watson (Luristan Bronzes in Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery), Fig. 16, #54 (page 24)

From an old Cambridge collection

Description:
Tapering ribbed blade, round shoulders, rat-tail tang, tip missing and end bent (possibly a deliberate act in antiquity)
Robert L3
myrina~0.jpg
Aeolis, Myrina. Pseudo-autonomous AE17. AD 253-268. Amazon Myrina47 viewsObv: MVPE-INA, draped, turreted bust of Amazon Myrina left.
Rev: ΜVΡEΙΝΑΩΝ, Tyche in long chiton with cornucopia in l. and rudder in r., standing left.

Myrina, mythological queen of the Amazons. According to Diodorus Siculus she led a military expedition in Libya and won a victory over the people known as the Atlantians, destroying their city Cerne; but was less successful fighting the Gorgons (who are described by Diodorus as a warlike nation residing in close proximity to the Atlantians), failing to burn down their forests. During a later campaign, she struck a treaty of peace with Horus, ruler of Egypt, conquered several peoples, including the Syrians, the Arabians, and the Cilicians (but granted freedom to those of the latter who gave in to her of their own will). She also took possession of Greater Phrygia, from the Taurus Mountains to the Caicus River, and several Aegean islands, including Lesbos; she was also said to be the first to land on the previously uninhabited island which she named Samothrace, building the temple there. The cities of Myrina (in Lemnos), possibly another Myrina in Mysia, Mytilene, Cyme, Pitane, and Priene were believed to have been founded by her, and named after herself, her sister Mytilene, and the commanders in her army, Cyme, Pitane and Priene, respectively. Myrina's army was eventually defeated by Mopsus the Thracian and Sipylus the Scythian; she, as well as many of her fellow Amazons, fell in the final battle. -Wikipedia
1 commentsancientone
005BAlexanderSeverus.jpg
Alexander Severus13 viewsBrass Sestertius
Roman Imperial - The Principate

Alexander Severus

Rome mint, 226 A.D.
Obverse aVF, reverse aF. Encrustations and deposits.
31.0 mm / 12.96 g / 0°

Obverse: "IMP CAES M AVR SEV ALEXANDER AVG", laureate, draped bust right.
Reverse: "LIBERALITAS AVGVSTI III", Liberalitas standing left with coin counter and cornucopiae. "S - C"

RIC 573. Sear 7974. Cohen 129. BMCRE 312.

Ex C4S - DS (2015)

MyID: 005B
TenthGen
Alexander_148.jpg
Alexander Severus - AR denarius22 viewsRome
c. 223 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia
LIBERALITAS AVG
RIC IV 148, RSC III 108
2,22 g 20,5-17,5 mm
Johny SYSEL
Alexandria.jpg
Alexandria11 viewsAlexandria was one of the most famous cities in the world. It was founded around a small pharaonic town c. 331 BC by Alexander the Great. It remained Egypt's capital for nearly a thousand years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (Fustat was later absorbed into Cairo). Alexandria was known because of its Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its library (the largest library in the ancient world); and the Catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages. Ongoing maritime archaeology in the harbor of Alexandria, which began in 1994, is revealing details of Alexandria both before the arrival of Alexander, when a city named Rhacotis existed there, and during the Ptolemaic dynasty.ancientone
Alexandria_BI_tetradrachm_of_Nero,_65-66_AD.jpg
Alexandria BI tetradrachm of Nero, 65-66 AD26 viewsNero
Egypt, Alexandria
BI tetradrachm – 24mm
65-66 AD
radiate bust r.
NEPΩ KΛAV KAIΣ ΣEB ΓER
Alexandria bust r., LIB
Emmett 110(12)
Ardatirion
RRC.jpg
Anonymous Aes Grave As192 viewsAnonymous. Circa 225-217 BC. Æ Aes Grave As (63mm, 266.40 g, 12h). Libral standard. Rome mint. Head of bearded Janus; – (mark of value) below; all on a raised disk / Prow of galley right; | (mark of value) above; all on a raised disk. Crawford 35/1; Thurlow & Vecchi 51; Haeberlin pl. 10, 1-16, 4; HN Italy 337; Sydenham 71; Kestner 111-5; BMCRR Rome (Aes Grave) 1-16.

Ex. CNG eAuction 163, lot 211 (2007)
Ex. Triton XVI, lot 753 (2013)
Ex. CNG Coin Shop (2013)
8 commentsMolinari
rep13.jpg
Anonymous Æ 17mm Quartuncia of Semilibral Standard; Head of helmeted Roma/ prow8 viewsAnonymous Æ 17mm Quartuncia of Semilibral Standard. ca 234-215 BC. Head of Roma or Bellona right in crested attic helmet / ROMA above prow of galley right. Crawford 38/8, Sydenham 88.Podiceps
rep_1.jpg
Anonymous Æ Sextans; Mercury/ Prow10 viewsAnonymous Æ Sextans of Semi-libral standard. ca 217-215 BC. Head of Mercury right wearing winged petasos; •• above / Prow of galley right; ROMA above, •• below. Cr 38/5; Syd 85; BMCRR 59.Podiceps
coin.jpg
Anonymous Semuncia 30 viewsRoman Republic, anonymous, semilibral standard, 217-215 BC.,
Æ Semuncia ( ca. 20 mm / ca. 5-6 g),
Obv.: Head of Mercury r., wearing winged petasus.
Rev.: ROMA , above prora r.
Crawford 38/7 ; Sydenham 87 ; BMC 129 .




Tanit
IMG_9234.JPG
Anonymous, Aes Grave Triens6 viewsAnonymous. Circa 225-217 BC. Æ Aes Grave Triens (44mm, 87.30 g, 12h). Libral standard. Rome mint. Helmeted head of Minerva or Mars left; •••• (mark of value) below; all on a raised disk / Prow of galley right; •••• (mark of value) below; all on a raised disk. Crawford 35/3a; ICC 78; HN Italy 339. Near VF, green patina, some roughness.ecoli
316_Greek.jpg
Anonymous. Circa 215-212 BC. Æ Uncia11 viewsAnonymous (post-semilibral), Uncia,Roma, 215-212 BC, AE,

Reference.
Crawford 41/10; Sydenham 108.

Post Semi-Libral standard. Rome mint.

Obv. no legend

Helmeted head of Roma right ; behind, • (mark of value)

Rev. ROMA
Prow of galley right; • (mark of value) below.

5.71 gr
20 mm

Note. Andrew McCabe
They are always overstruck on captured Sicilian or Carthaginian coin, which explains the mashed up areas eg behind the head.
okidoki
RSC 0586vRome.jpg
Antoninianus. RSC 0586v. Rome.22 viewsObv. Radiate head right GALLIENVS AVG
Rev. Panther walking right, B in exe. LIBERO P CONS AVG. B in ex.
RSC 586variant. Rome mint.
LordBest
philipI.jpg
Antoninianus; LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas l. holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 38b55 viewsPhilip I. A.D. 244-249 AR Antoninianus. 4.9g 24mm. Rev. LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas standing left holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 38b, RSC 87, Sear RCV III 8937. Podiceps
41806_Philip_I_ant_SRCV_III_8937,_RIC_IV_38b.jpg
Antoninianus; LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas l. holding abacus and cornucopiae. RIC 38b52 viewsPhilip I, the Arab, First Half of 244 - End of September 249 A.D. Silver antoninianus, SRCV III 8937, RIC IV 38b, RSC IV 87, aVF, Rome mint, 3.790g, 23.6mm, 0o, 245 A.D.; obverse IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, from behind; reverse LIBERALITAS AVGG II, Liberalitas standing left, counting board in right, cornucopia in left. Ex FORVM, photo credit FORVMPodiceps
Antoninus Pius sestertius.JPG
Antoninius Pius sestertius, 153-154 AD, Rome33 viewsAntoninius Pius,
AE sestertius – 30mm
Rome, 153-154 AD
laureate head r.
ANTONINVS AVG PI VS P P TR P XVII
Libertas standing, head right, holding cap.
LIBERTAS COS III S-C
RIC 916a
Ardatirion
agr1.jpg
ANTONINUS PIUS46 viewsAR denarius. 139 AD. Laureate head right. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP. / Libertas standing front,head left,holding pileus and sceptre (or rod). TR POT COS II.
RIC 50. RSC 861.
benito
00apioI~0.jpg
ANTONINUS PIUS61 viewsAR denarius. 139 AD. Laureate head right. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP. / Libertas standing front,head left,holding pileus and sceptre (or rod). TR POT COS II.
RIC 50. RSC 861.
benito
apio88.jpg
ANTONINUS PIUS23 viewsAR denarius. 145 AD. Laureate head right. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P / Liberalitas standing facing, head left, holding coin dispenser and cornucopiae. TR POT COS IIII.
In exergue LIB IIII.
RIC 156. Cohen 490.
benito
apio88~0.jpg
ANTONINUS PIUS32 viewsAR denarius. 145 AD. Laureate head right. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P / Liberalitas standing facing, head left, holding coin dispenser and cornucopiae. TR POT COS IIII. In exergue LIB IIII.
RIC 156. Cohen 490.
benito
00346.jpg
Antoninus Pius (RIC 920, Coin #346)21 viewsRIC 920 (C), AE Dupondius, Rome, 153-154 AD.
Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII Radiate head right.
Rev: LIBERTAS COS IIII S C Libertas standing right holding pileus (cap worn by freed slaves).
Size: 26.0mm 11.49gm
MaynardGee
Antoninus_Pius_RIC920.jpg
Antoninus Pius - Dupondius - RIC 92011 viewsObv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, radiate head right
Rev: LIBERTAS COS IIII S-C, Libertas standing facing, head right, holding pileus
Size: 25 mm
Weight: 11,2 g
Date: 153-154 AD
Ref: RIC III 920, Cohen 539, BMC 1948
vs1969
apius_2.jpg
Antoninus Pius AR denarius, struck AD 145-161. Rome mint.15 viewsANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP, laureate head right / TR POT COS IIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae, LIB IIII in exergue. RIC 155 type 2, RSC 490a, BMC 567; Sear 4089.1 commentsBritanikus
Antoninus Pius  138-161 A.D. RSC491 RIC55 minted 139-161~0.JPG
Antoninus Pius Denarius25 viewsOBV; ANTONINIVS AVG.PIVS P.P
REV; TR.POT.COS.IIII. across field, LIB.IIII
Liberalitas standing left holding vexillum and cornucopiae.

nigel nicholson
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Antoninus Pius Denarius83 viewsAntoninus Pius Denarius, Rome 145AD

ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, Laureate head right

TR POT COS IIII, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopia, LIB IIII in exe.

RIC155, Sear 4089

ex-Mike Vosper
3 commentsWill Hooton
Antoninus -15.jpg
Antoninus Pius Dupondius36 viewsAE Dupondius
RIC III, 933; common; struck AD 154-155.
obv. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TRP XVIII, head, radiate, r.
rev. LIBERTAS COS IIII SC, Libertas stg. l., holding pileus and sceptre.
Tanit
Antininus_Pius_Liberalitas~0.JPG
Antoninus Pius Liberalitas54 viewsRIC 818 corr.
Antoninus Pius. AE As. 28mm. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / LIBERALITAS IIII, Liberalitas standing left holding counting board and cornucopiae. RIC 818 var. (Unlisted obverse and reverse legend combination.)
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right
REV: LIBERALITAS IIII, Liberalitas standing left holding counting board and cornucopiae. RIC 818 corr. (Unlisted obverse and reverse legend combination.)
Per Curtis Clay:
RIC 818, by mistake, omits COS IIII from the obverse legend, though citing Cohen 499, who correctly gives the COS IIII that is found on all specimens of the coin!
Actually Cohen 499 makes this mistake too, so it's one that RIC took over from Cohen, not bothering to check Cohen's description against actual specimens of the coin in the BM and other collections and catalogues.

RARE
Romanorvm
Antoninus_Pius_Liberalitas_RIC_776~0.JPG
Antoninus Pius Liberalitas RIC 77654 viewsAntoninus Pius, sestertius, Rome, 45 - 147 AD, BMC 1695, Cohen 508, RIC 776
OBV: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS IIII, Laureate head right Head
REV: LIBERALITAS AVG V S C, Liberalitas standing left holding account board and cornucopia
Romanorvm
ANTOBREV.jpg
Antoninus Pius RIC#155 type122 viewsAntoninus Pius (AD 138-161) AR denarius, struck AD 145-161. Rome mint.

ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP,(Antoninus Augustus Pius Father of the people) laureate head right

TR POT COS IIII,(Tribune of the people 4 times Consul) Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopiae, LIB IIII across the fields.

RIC 155 type 1
Paul R3
Antoninus-.jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius24 viewsAE Sestertius
Obv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XVII ; laur. hd. r.
Rev: LIBERTAS COS IIII S C ; Libertas stg. r.

C.535
Tanit
Antpius2.jpg
Antoninus Pius Sestertius34 viewsOrichalcum sestertius, RIC III 929, SRCV II 4192, Cohen 543, Fine, Rome mint, 154 - 155 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate head right; reverse LIBERTAS COS IIII S C, Libertas standing half left, pileus in right, scepter in left;Philoromaos
antoninus-pius-sestertius-merged.jpg
Antoninus Pius Æ Orichalcum Sestertius45 viewsRoman Imperial, Antoninus Pius Æ Orichalcum Sestertius, 24.2g, 34mm

Overse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, Laureate head right.

Reverse: LIBERTAS COS IIII S C, Libertas standing left holding purse and extending hand.

Reference: Cohen 543. RIC III 929

Ex: Newgate Numismatics
1 commentsGil-galad
Antoninus_Pius.png
Antoninus Pius – RIC 15643 viewsDenarius. 145AD. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP, laureate head right / TR POT COS IIII, Liberalitas standing left with coin dispenser & cornucopia. LIB IIII in ex. RIC 156, RSC 490, RCV 4089, BMCRE 574Bud Stewart
Antoninus_Pius_RIC_III_933.jpg
Antoninus Pius, AE Dupondius, Libertas, RIC III 9335 viewsAntoninus Pius
Augustus, 138 – 161 A.D.

Coin: AE Dupondius

Obverse: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P VXIII, radiate bust facing right.
Reverse: LIBERTAS COS IIII, Libertas, standing, facing left, holding a Pileus with her right hand and a Sceptre with her left. S-C across the fields.

Weight: 6.55 g, Diameter: 23 x 22 x 3 mm, Die axis: 35°, Mint: Rome, struck between 154-155 AD. Reference: RIC III 933, Note: A metal detecting find from the County of Essex
Masis
ANTOSEf6-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 540, Sestertius of AD 139 (Liberalitas)43 viewsÆ Sestertius (26,3g, Ø 33mm, 12h). Rome, AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right, drapery on left shoulder.
Rev.:[TR POT] COS II around, LIBERALITAS / [AVG] in two lines in ex., S C across field, (far left and right, near the edge), Antoninus, togate, seated right on curule chair on platform on left; beside him Liberalitas, draped, standing right, emptying coins from cornucopiae held in both hands into toga of citizen standing below, right of the platform.
RIC 540 (R2); BMCRE 1142; Cohen 480 (50 fr.) (rev. legend differs); Strack 816a (note p.344 №50a); Banti 203 var.; Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 124:4b
Ex Comptoire des Monnaies Anciennes, Lille (May 2015).

First largesse of Antoninus Pius on the occasion of his accession.

Extremely rare type, only three other specimens known: B.M. (ex Lawrence coll., 1937), Vienna, and Int. Titano Auction 6, 1980.
1 commentsCharles S
ANTOSEi7-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 542, Sestertius of AD 139 (Liberalitas)86 viewsÆ Sestertius (25,57g, Ø 33mm, 11h). Rome, AD 139.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: TR POT COS II around, LIBERALITAS / [AVG] in ex., S | C, Antoninus seated left on platform on the right; before him man seated left, distributing to citizen right, mounting steps of platform; beside him, official standing, holding counting board.
RIC 542 (R2) (but hd. laureate, not bare); BMC 1143 variant of rev. (note); Cohen 482 (50 fr.) (var.: head laureate, not bare; Cohen reading PM in error in obv. legend); Strack 816; Banti 204 (1 spec.); Foss (Roman Historical Coins) 124:4b
Ex Boule (Paris), Mail Bid Auction 107, Oct. 2015

Issued on the occasion of the first largesse of Antoninus Pius at his accession.
5 commentsCharles S
ANTOAS02-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 728, As of AD 143-144 (Libertas)18 viewsÆ As (11.1g, Ø 27mm, 12h). Rome, AD 143-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev.: IMPERATOR II S C, Libertas standing left, holding pileus and sceptre.
RIC 728 (S); Cohen 446;
Ex D.Ruskin, Oxford (1994, found in Norfolk).
Charles S
antoas15.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 738, As of AD 143 (Libertas)32 viewsÆ As (10.1g, Ø29mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 143.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: IMPERA TOR II (around), LIBERT (in ex.) S C Libertas standing holding pileus and rod ("vindicta" according to RIC) or sceptre (according to Cohen and Strack).
RIC 738, BMC 1633; Cohen 533; Strack 931
ex G. Henzen (Netherlands, 1998)
Charles S
AntoSe71.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 774, Sestertius of AD 145-147 (fourth donative)62 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.3g, Ø 31mm, 12h), Rome mint, Struck AD 144, Rome
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PI-VS P P TR P, laurate head of Antoninus Pius facing right
Rev.: AVG IIII COS IIII (around), LIBERALITAS (in ex.), S C (in field), Antoninus Pius seated on platform, officer behind, Liberalitas in front, citizen standing below, before platform.
RIC 774 (R); Cohen 498; Strack 984; Banti 211 (14 spec.); RHC 127:47
ex MPO (2002)

Issued to celebrate a fourth donative given on the occasion of the marriage of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina
1 commentsCharles S
AntoSe30-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 775, Sestertius of AD 147 (Fifth Donative)31 viewsÆ Sestertius (22.9g, Ø33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 147.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS IIII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: LIBERALITAS (around) S C (in ex.), Antoninus Pius seated left, on platform; in front Liberalitas standing, holding account board and cornucopiae; below citizen standing right, holding out fold of toga.
RIC 775(R); Cohen 511 (20Fr.); BMC 1693; Strack 995; Banti 214 (6 spec.); RHC 128:54a.
Charles S
AntoSed5.JPG
Antoninus Pius, RIC 776, Sestertius of AD 148-161 (Liberalitas)86 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.57g, Ø31mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 148-161.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS IIII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: LIBERALITAS·AVG·V (around) S C (in field), Liberalitas, draped, standing left, holding an abacus and cornucopiae.
RIC 776; BMC 1695; Cohen 508; Strack 994; Banti 213 (11 spec.).
ex Cayón auction May 2013
Charles S
antoas11.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 819, As of AD 145-147 (fourth donative)67 viewsÆ As (12.2g, Ø28mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 145-147.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS IIII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: LI BERA LIT AS IIII (around), S C (in ex.) Emperor seated in a chair on platform; before is standing Libertas holding an abacus ("counting board") and cornucopiae; below in front of the platform is standing a citizen holding is toga.
RIC 819(*); Cohen 500(*); BMC 1750; Strack 991
* both Cohen as well as RIC ommit COS IIII from the obverse legend for this type. BMC and Strack have the complete obverse legend.
ex D. Ruskin (Oxford, 1996)

Issued on the occasion of the marriage of Marcus Aurelius with Faustina Jr. celebrated with a fourth donative
Charles S
ANTOAS14.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 820, As of AD 145-147 (fourth donative)63 viewsÆ As (11.0g, Ø26mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 145-147.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS IIII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius facing right.
Rev.: LIBER ALI TAS IIII (around), S C (in ex.) Emperor seated in a curul chair on platform; before is standing Libertas holding an abacus "counting board") and cornucopiae; behind is standing an officer; below in front of the platform is standing a citizen holding is toga.
RIC 820(*); Cohen 501(*); BMC 1751; Strack 992
* both Cohen as well as RIC ommit COS IIII from the obverse legend for this type. BMC and Strack have the complete legend.
ex G. Henzen (Netherlands, 1998)

Issued on the occasion of the marriage of Marcus Aurelius with Faustina Jr. celebrated with a fourth donative
Charles S
Antose82-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 916a, Sestertius of AD 153-154 (Libertas)47 viewsÆ Sestertius (27.39g, Ø34mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 153-154.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev.: LIBERTAS COS IIII (around) S C (in field), Libertas, draped, standing front, head turned right, holding a pileus and extending left hand.
RIC 916a; BMC 1944; Cohen 535
ex Roma Numismatics; ex Künker.
Charles S
ANTOSEc4.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 928, Sestertius of AD 154-155 (Libertas)66 viewsÆ Sestertius (26.0g, Ø33mm, 7h). Rome mint. Struck AD 154-155.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev.: LIBERTAS COS IIII (around) S C (in field), Libertas, draped, standing front, head turned right, holding pileus and extending left hand.
RIC 928; Cohen 540; BMCRE IV 1962; Strack 1105 (4 collections); Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 226 (4 specimens)
ex Aurea Numismatica s.r.o. auct. 19
Charles S
ANTOSEe5.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 929, Sestertius of AD 154-155 (Libertas)20 viewsÆ Sestertius (24,68g, Ø 34,68mm, 11h). Rome mint. Struck AD 154-155.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XVIII, laureate head right.
Rev.: LIBERTAS COS IIII around, S C in field, Libertas, draped, standing left, holding pileus and long sceptre.
RIC 929; BMCRE IV 1963; Cohen 543; Strack 1106; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali II-3) 227 (11 spec.)
Ex Marc Breitspecher (Vcoins sale 310, 2014).
Charles S
Antodu12-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 991 var., Dupondius of AD 158 (Liberalitas)13 viewsÆ Dupondius (12.7g; 25mm; 4h). Rome, AD 158.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP IMP II, radiate head right.
Rev.: TR POT XXI COS IIII around, LIB | VIII / S | C across fields, Liberalitas standing left, holding account board and cornucopiae..
RIC 991 (var.) (S); Cohen 529; Strack 1151
Ex coll. F.Diederik, July, 2015.
Charles S
S_4091.jpg
Antoninus Pius: LIBERALITAS6 viewsAntoninus Pius, 138-161. Denarius. Obverse - ANTONINVS AVG PIVS PP TR P XVII Antoninus, his laureate head right. Reverse - LIBERALITAS VII COS IIII Liberalitas standing left, pouring coins from a cornucopiae.
Refers to the 7th donative ca. 153 A.D., to mark the 15th anniversary of the reign. Minted in Rome 154 A.D. (TRP XVII). Sear RCV II: 4091, RIC 234, RSC 519.

Podiceps
bm_apollo.jpg
Apollo546 viewsFrom the Temple of Apollo at Cyrene in modern LibyaBacchus
ARCADIUS-RIC87d.jpg
ARCADIUS (395-408) - CONSTANTINOPLE - RIC 87b6 viewsSilique, 392-395, R
A/D N ARCADI-VS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Arcadius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Arcadius Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/X/MVLT/XX//CONS
Votis decennalibus/Multis vicennalibus, Vœux pour le dixième anniversaire de règne et pour le vingtième à venir
Légende en 4 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 2.08 gr - 19 mm - 12h
RIC IX 87b, RSC 28Ac
Siliquae
ARCADIUS-RIC27a.jpg
ARCADIUS (395-408) - MILAN - RIC 27a7 viewsSilique, 388-393, S
A/D N ARCADI-VS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Arcadius Pius Felix Augustus, Notre Maître Arcadius Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/VOT/X/MVLT/XV//MDPS
Votis decennalibus/Multis Quindecennalia, Vœux pour le dixième anniversaire de règne et pour le quinzième à venir
Légende en 4 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée.
Argent - 1.83 gr - 17.5 mm - 12h
RIC IX 27a, RSC 27C
Siliquae
ARCADIUS-RIC13.jpg
ARCADIUS - MILAN - RIC 138 viewsSilique, 383-387, S
A/ D N ARCADI-VS P F AVG
Dominus Noster Arcadius Pius Felix Augustus
Notre Maître Arcadius Pieux et Heureux Auguste
Buste à droite, diadémé (Perles), drapé et cuirassé.
R/ VOT/V/MVLT/X//MDPS
Votis quinquennalibus/Multis decennalibus
Vœux pour le cinquième anniversaire de règne et plus pour les dix ans à venir
Légende en 4 lignes dans une couronne de lauriers fermée
Argent, Poids : 1.31 gr, Diamètre : 16.6 mm, axe des coins : 0h
RIC IX 13, RSC 27B
Siliqua S
Fuld_12-297a.JPG
Army & Navy13 viewsObv: Capped bust of Liberty facing left, within a circle of 13 stars, 1863 below.

Rev: ARMY & NAVY within a wreath, crossed sabers below.

Fuld 12/297a
Matt Inglima
Arthropoda,_Trilobita,_Phacopida,__Cambrian_period,_c_400_Mya,_Q-001,_45x28mm-s.jpg
Arthropoda, Trilobita, Phacopida,177 viewsArthropoda, Trilobita, Phacopida,
date: Cambrian period, c. 400-450 million years ago, (Mya),
size: 45x28mm,
Q-001
"Phacopida ("lens-face") is an order of trilobite that lived from the Late Cambrian to the Late Devonian. It is made up of a morphologically diverse group of related suborders.
The origin of the Phacopida order is uncertain. It comprises three suborders (Phacopina, Calymenina, and Cheirurina) which share a distinctive protaspis (developmental stage lacking segments) type. The Cheirurina and Calymenina retain a rostral plate (an apomorphy) but in virtually all Phacopina the free cheeks are yoked as a single piece. This sort of similarity in development suggests phylogenetic unity. The suborder Calymenina is the most primitive of the Phacopida order and shares some characteristics with the order Ptychopariida, though it is not included in the subclass Libristoma." from Wikipedia.
quadrans
As_Med_Lib_III_dark_red.jpg
As Medallion Liberalitas III92 viewsObverse: IMP CAES M AVR SEV_ALEXANDER AVG
Bust laureate right, draped and cuirassed
Reverse: PONTIF MAX TR P V COS II P P, LIB AVG III in exergue
Severus Alexander seated left on curule chair on a platform; behind him an officer and a soldier holding a spear; in front, Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter and cornucopiae; at left, a citizen mounting steps to platform.
BMC 312 (plate 11, same reverse and maybe obverse die), RIC 572*
Weight, 10.428g; die axis, 12h.

mix_val
claudius-libertas~0.jpg
As, Libertas18 viewsClaudius I AE As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP P P, Bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA, Libertas standing right. S-C. RIC 113Holding_History
Claudius.jpg
As, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA12 viewsClaudius, AE As Rome Mint. 41-54 AD
Obverse: TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P, Head of Claudius left Reverse: LIBERTAS AVGVSTA -SC, Libertas standing with Pileus.
Podiceps
nerva.jpg
As, LIBERTAS PVBLICA S C; RIC 868 viewsNerva Æ As. 9.3g, 27mm. Rev. LIBERTAS PVBLICA S C, Libertas standing left holding pileus and sceptre. RIC 86, Sear RCV 3064 var. Podiceps
lucius_verus_as.jpg
As; Liberalitas, RIC 141713 viewsLucius Verus, AE As. 11,2g, 25mm. L VERVS AVG ARMENIACVS, laureate head right / LIBERAL AVG TR P V IMP II COS II S-C, Liberalitas standing left holding coin counter & cornucopiae. RIC 1417, Cohen 120, BMC 1269. Podiceps
Augustus_06.jpg
Asia Minor, Ionia, Ephesus, Octavian, Pax28 viewsOctavian
Ionia, Ephesus
Cistophorus (ca. 28 BC).
Obv.: IMP CAESAR DIVI F COS VI LIBERTATIS P R VINDEX, Laureate head right.
Rev.: PAX, Pax standing left, holding caduceus; to right, serpent rising left from altar; all within wreath.
Ag, 11.51g, 26mm
Ref.: RIC² 476, RPC I 2203, CRI 433.
Ex Numismatik Naumann, auction 53, lot 447
2 commentsshanxi
AthenTetVF.jpg
Athens, Greece, Old Style Tetradrachm, 449 - 413 B.C.122 viewsSilver tetradrachm, SNG Cop 31 ff., SGCV I 2526, VF, near full crest, Athens mint, 16.410g, 25.1mm, 90o. Obverse: head of Athena right, almond shaped eye, crested helmet with olive leaves and floral scroll, wire necklace, round earring, hair in parallel curves; Reverse: AQE right, owl standing right, head facing, erect in posture, olive sprig and crescent left, all within incuse square.

This coin is one of the most familiar of all the coins struck throughout the ancient Mediterranean. The images of Athena and her Owl, while not static, changed undramatically, in an unhurried and deliberate way. Although its production rests firmly during the time that numismatists call the Classical era (479 BC --336 BC), this coin's "style" better reflects the earlier Archaic period.

The Athenian "Owl" (until its debasement as a result of the Peloponnesian War) was the standard of its day. Between the late 5th century BC and the late 3rd century BC, these coins were the currency against which all other coins were measured. This high esteem was due to the Athenian tetradrachms' consistent weight and quality of silver.

"The little elf-like owl dear to ancient Athens had greenish-blue-gray eyes that could see clearly where humans could not. Glaukopis -- the "shining eyed one" was often shortened to glaux, a nickname for the tetradrachm that bore the owl's likeness" (http://notes.utk.edu/bio/unistudy.nsf/0/da0222e2e80272fd85256785001683e4?OpenDocument).

It is only with the emergence of the Imperial coinage of Alexander the Great (beginning quickly after his ascension to the throne in 336 BC) that the ancient world had another coin as widely accepted. As Martin J. Price notes, "“The impressive list of twenty-three mints on Asian soil and one in Egypt, all used to strike Alexander’s imperial coinage during his lifetime, shows that there was a conscious policy of providing this form of money on an empire-wide basis" (Price, Martin J. The Coinage in the Name of Alexander the Great and Philip Arrhidaeus. Zurich: The Swiss Numismatic Society in Association with British Museum Press, 1991. 72).

More than two millennia after the Athenian Tetracrachm was first struck, the 26th President of The United States, Theodore Roosevelt (b. 1858; d. 1919), is said to have carried an Athenian "Owl" in his pocket--to remind him just how beautiful a coin could be.

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Augustcist2.jpg
Augustus - Cist Tetradrachm43 viewsAugustus Cistophoric Tetradrachm
28-20 BC
Ephesus Mint

OBV: IMP CEASAR DIVI F COS VI LIBERTATIS P R VINDEX
REV: PAX
Pax standing left holding caduceus, serpent arising from cista mystica to right, all within laurel wreath

RIC 476, RPC 2203, RSC 218


PROVINZ ASIA. Augustus, 27 v.Chr. - 14 n.Chr. Cistophor (11,44g). ca. 28 v. Chr. Mzst. Ephesos. Vs.: IMP CAESAR DIVI F COS VI LIBERTATIS P R VINDEX, Kopf des Augustus mit Lorbeerkranz r. Rs.: PAX, auf einem Parazonium stehende Pax mit Kerykeion, r. cista mystica mit Schlange. RIC 476. RPC 2203. Sutherland Group I Taf.1f. ss

Ex Gorny & Mosch
marcvs_traianvs
Augustus_249_barbaric_imitation.jpg
Augustus, RIC 249, barbaric imitation57 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - AD 14
AE - quadrans(?), 2.47g, 17mm
struck in the name of Germanus Indutilli L
Eastern Gaul, 'barbaric mint', c. AD 10
obv. Head of Germanus, diademed, r.
rev. GERMANVS / INDVTILLI L
Bull, butting l.
cf. RIC I, 249; AMC 459ff.; RPC 506 (for official issue!)
F+, interesting barbaric style

Germanus Indutilli Libertus seems to be a Trever, who was allowed to issue coins in Northern Gaul. Lit.: H.W.Doppler, Über die Germanus Indutilli L.-Prägung, in 'GNS 17, 1967, pp.90-94'.
Addition April 2014 (Francis Jarman): According to J.M.Doyen in "Archeologie urbaine a Reims 7 (2008)" attributes this coin to the Remi, minted in Durocortorum Remorum (Reims.
Jochen
Aurelian_RIC_V,_I_138.jpg
Aurelian, AE Antoninianus, RIC V, I 138 6 viewsAurelian
Augustus, 270 – 275 A.D.

Coin: AE Antoninianus

Obverse: IMP AVRELIANVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust facing right. Aegis on left shoulder.
Reverse: PIETAS AVG, Aurelian, at left, Pietas, at right, each holding a Sceptre, facing and offering Libations over an altar between them. S in exergue.

Weight: 2.08 g, Diameter: 19.5 x 21 x 0.7 mm, Die axis: 140°, Mint: Milan, Reference: RIC V, I 138, Rated Scarce
Masis
SeptSevDenBacchus.jpg
Bacchus18 viewsSeptimius Severus
Denarius

Laureate, right, L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP VIII
Liber standing left, crowning himself, panther at his feet, LIBERO PATRI

RIC 99
Blindado
BalbSe01.jpg
Balbinus, RIC 15, Sestertius of AD 23817 viewsÆ Sestertius (24.11g, Ø 31mm, 12h), Rome mint, Struck AD 238
Obv.: CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG, laurate, draped bust of Balbinus facing right.
Rev.: LIBERALITAS AVGVSTORVM (around), S C (in ex.), Liberalitas standing left, holding a coin counter and a cornucopiae.
RIC 15
ex CNG eAuction 87; ex Garth R Drewry Collection; ex Gibbs Collection; ex H. Schulman (6 April 1971, lot 959)
Charles S
591Hadrian_Fourre.JPG
Barbarous Hadrian Denarius 134-38 AD Liberalitas standing right15 viewsReference.
RIC 363 var.

Obv. HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS P (P missing)
Head of Hadrian, laureate, right

Rev. LIBREALI_TAS AVG in ex. COS III ( error LIBERALI_TAS)
Liberalitas, draped, standing right, holding cornucopiae in both hands as if about to empty it.

3.38 gr
19 mm
6h
okidoki
H3-Barber Dime.jpg
Barber Dime49 viewsBarber or Liberty Head Dime, 1913.

Minted 1892-1916, 2.5 gr., 17.9mm, reeded edge, .900 silver, .100 copper, Designer: Charles E. Barber.

1913 dime, good, 19,760,622 minted.

Reference: KM 113
Daniel Friedman
Pilate_BCC_j16.jpg
BCC j1629 viewsJudaea AE Prutah
Pontius Pilate - Tiberiius
26-36 C.E.
Obv:IOYΛIA KAICAPOC
Three bound heads of barley
Rev:TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC
Date LIS (year 16) around
simpulum (libation ladle)
15mm. 1.89gm. Axis:330
Hendin 648
v-drome
litra_Italica_hemi.jpg
BCC LW137 viewsLead Weight with Greek Inscription in Six Lines
87x43mm. 153.5gm.
1st to 3rd century CE.
ΙΤΑ/ΛΙΚ/ΗΗ/ΜΙΛ/ΙΤΡ/Α, (ιταλικη ημι λιτρα, half an Italian litra).

An identical specimen, from the same mold, was found near Caesarea Maritima in 1949, and is listed in the Corpus Inscriptionum Iudaeae/Palaestinae, Vol. II, Ameling, Cotton, Eck, et.al. on page 621. According to the authors, the term “litra”, derived from the Roman word “Libra”, came to indicate local weight standards between the 1st and 2nd centuries CE. Therefore when the Roman standard was intended the word ιταλικη was added to distinguish them. The weight of 153.5, when multiplied by 2, is about 19 grams short of the Roman libra, however the object may have had a handle at the top and the original weight must have been fairly close to the standard. Around the end of the 3rd century CE the local standards were replaced by the Roman system and the descriptive word ιταλικη was no longer required.
v-drome
bcc_lw13_v.jpg
BCC LW1318 viewsLead Weight - Uncertain
weight standard, 3 oungia? (1/4 Libra)
Late Roman-Early Byzantine?
or Graeco-Roman Eastern.
Raised edge on the obverse.
Slightly beveled edges may be
the result of a hollow mould with
a flat top.
Obv: Four leaf clover? quartrefoil? design
with central raised pellet, within circle.
Rev: Quartrefoil design with four petals
interspersed with bifurcated leaves within circle.
Weight: 90.75 grams
55 x 47 x 6mm.
v-drome
Bramsen 0067.JPG
Bramsen 0067. Column du Department du Rhone, 1800.117 viewsBramsen 0067. Column du Department du Rhone, 1800. – 6 views
Obv. From the trumpet of the winged victory hangs a banner AUX BRAVES DU DEP U RHONE
Rev. Text IN EACH DEPATMENT THERE WILL BE ERECTED A COLUMN TO THE MEMORY OF THE BRAVE MEN OF THE DEPARTMENT WHO DIED IN DEFENSE OF THE FATHERLAND AND OF LIBERTY -- DECREE OF 29 VENTOSE YEAR 8 OF THE REPUBLIC; CONSULS BONAPARTE, CAMBACERES, LEBRUN; MINISTER OF THE INTERIOR LU. BONAPARTE. In French.
33mm

Struck in 1800, rare.
LordBest
1bruto.jpg
Bruto, denario (54 a.C.)13 viewsRoma, M. Iunius Brutus, denario (54 a.C.)
Ag, 3.70 gr, 18 mm, qBB
D/ LIBERTAS; testa della Libertas.
R/ BRVTVS; il console L. Iunius Brutus tra due littori con fascio; davanti a loro l'accensus.
Crawford 433/1; Varesi 702.
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo (Roma, Italia, dal 7 aprile 2018, numero catalogo 390); ex asta "Cesare" di Varesi-Tinia del 7 aprile 2018, lotto 472.
paolo
HN_Italy_2497.jpg
Bruttium, Rhegion, 415-387 B.C., Drachm 25 views14mm, 3.89 grams
Reference: Sear 502; B.M.C.1.38
Lion's scalp facing.
PHΓINON, Laureate head of Apollo right, olive-sprig behind.

"Dionysios I, after concluding a peace with the Carthaginians, went about securing his power in the island of Sicily. His troops, however, rebelled against him and sought help from, among others, the city of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 14.8.2). In the ensuing campaigns, Dionyios I proceeded to enslave the citizens of Naxos and Katane, with whom the Rhegians shared a common history and identity (Diod. Sic. 14.40.1). This association was a source of anger and fear for the inhabitants of Rhegion. The Syracusan exiles living there also encouraged the Rhegians to go to war with Syracuse (Diod. Sic. 14.40.3). The overarching strategy of Dionysios I included extending his power into Italy by using Rhegion as a stepping stone to the rest of the peninsula. In 387 BC, after a siege that lasted eleven months, the Rhegians, on the brink of starvation, surrendered to Dionysus. Indeed, we are told that by the end of the siege, a medimnos of wheat cost about five minai (Diod. Sic. 14.111.2). Strabo remarks that, following Dionysios' capture of the city, the Syracusan “destroyed the illustrious city” (Strabo 6.1.6).

The next decade or so of the history of Rhegion is unclear, but sometime during his reign, Dionysios II, who succeeded his father in 367 BC, rebuilt the city, giving it the new name of Phoibia (Strabo 6.1.6). Herzfelder argues that this issue was struck by Dionysios II of Syracuse after he rebuilt the city, and dates it to the period that Dionysios II is thought to have lived in the city. Due to civil strife at Syracuse, Dionysios II was forced to garrison Region, but was ejected from the city by two of his rivals circa 351 BC (Diod. Sic. 16.45.9).

The coin types of Rhegion, founded as a colony of Chalcis, are related to its founding mythology. Some of the earliest tetradrachms of the city, from the mid-5th century BC, depict a lion’s head on the obverse, and a seated figure on the reverse. J.P. Six (in NC 1898, pp. 281-5) identified the figure as Iokastos, the oikistes (founder) of Rhegion (Diod. Sic. 5.8.1; Callimachus fr. 202). Head (in HN), suggested Aristaios, son of Apollo. Iokastos was one of six sons of Aiolos, ruler of the Aeolian Islands. All of the sons of Aiolos secured their own realms in Italy and Sicily, with Iokastos taking the region around Rhegion. Aristaios, born in Libya, discovered the silphium plant, and was the patron of beekeepers (mentioned by Virgil), shepherds, vintners, and olive growers. He also protected Dionysos as a child, and was the lover of Eurydike. The replacement of the seated figure type with the head of Apollo circa 420 BC also suggests the figure could be Aristaios. An anecdote from the first-century BC geographer Strabo (6.1.6 and 6.1.9), which connects Rhegion’s founding to the orders of the Delphic Oracle and Apollo, as the reason for the advent of the new type could be simply serendipitous.

Different theories exist for the lion’s head on the coins of Rhegion. The lion’s head (or mask as it is sometimes described) first appeared on the coinage of Rhegion at the start of the reign of Anaxilas, in about 494 BC. E.S.G. Robinson, in his article “Rhegion, Zankle-Messana and the Samians” (JHS vol. 66, 1946) argues that the lion was a symbol of Apollo. He makes a comparison to the coinage of the nearby city of Kaulonia, “At Kaulonia Apollo’s animal was the deer; if at Rhegion it was the lion, the early appearance and persistence of that type is explained. The lion is a certain, though infrequent, associate of Apollo at all periods.” The link, he suggests, is that the lion was associated with the sun, as was Apollo himself.

The lion’s head could also relate to the exploits of Herakles, who had some significance for the city. The extant sources tell us that Herakles stopped at southern Italy near Rhegion on his return with the cattle of Geryon (Diod. Sic. 4.22.5). It was here that supposedly a bull broke away from the rest of the herd and swam to Sicily (Apollod. 2.5.10). Though but a passing reference in Apollodorus, it is very possible that the Rhegians venerated Herakles. Indeed, Herakles was a very important figure throughout the entire area. Dionysios of Halicarnassus says that “in many other places also in Italy [besides Rome] precincts are dedicated to this god [Herakles] and altars erected to him, both in cities and along highways; and one could scarcely find any place in Italy in which the god is not honoured” (I.40.6). As the skin of the Nemean Lion was one of the main attributes of Herakles, the lion’s head may refer to him through metonymic association."
1 commentsLeo
brut1.jpg
BRUTUS26 viewsAR denarius. 42 BC,military mint. 3.69 gm. Veiled and draped bust of Libertas right. L. SESTI PRO Q. / Tripod between axe to left and simpulum to right. Q. CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO COS. Crawford 502/2. RSC 11. Smyth XIV/39.
CNG 194892.
benito
411.jpg
BRUTUS 110 viewsAR denarius. 42 BC,military mint. 3.69 gm. Veiled and draped bust of Libertas right. L. SESTI PRO Q. / Tripod between axe to left and simpulum to right. Q. CAEPIO BRVTVS PRO COS. Crawford 502/2. RSC 11. Smyth XIV/39.
CNG 194892.
benito
Buckingham_7.jpg
Buckinghamshire, Aylesbury 723 viewsObv: TO THE FRIENDS FOR THE ABOLITION OF SLAVERY, laureate bust of William III facing right within a circle.

Rev: AYLESBURY TOKEN 1796, radiated cap of Liberty on a pole, four banners crossed.

Edge: Milled

Note The significantly weak obverse and reverse strike is typical for this issue

Half Penny Conder Token

Dalton & Hamer: Buckinghamshire 7
SPQR Coins
Byzantine_Cross.jpg
Byzantine Bronze Cross33 viewsDate: circa 7th-10th centuries AD
Size: 29.4 mm x 29.7 mm

Such Christian icons were damaged or destroyed deliberately in later Islamic periods. This cross had the top portion broken off centuries ago. The bilobate terminations are a scarcer style.
Noah
c_cassius.jpg
C. Cassius72 viewsSilver denarius, 126 BC Roma
Helmeted head of Roma right, behind
mark of value and voting-urn.
Libertas in quadriga right, holding reins and rod in l. hand
and pileus in right hand, below, C·CASSI.; Roma in Ex.
Crawford 266/1. Sydenham 502. B.
2 commentsSergius Silus
1335_266_C__Cassius.jpg
C. Cassius - AR denarius4 viewsRome
²130 BC
¹126 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet, urn behind
(XVI)
Libertas in quadriga right, holding pileus and scepter
C·CASSI
ROMA
¹Crawford 266/1, Sydenham 502, BMCRR Rome 1032, RSC I Cassia 1, SRCV I 142
²Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Künker

Depiction of Libertas, as well as voting urn, refer to the lex Cassia tabellaria from 137 BC. This law legalized secret ballot for court decisionmaking. Vindicta and pileus held by Libertas are symbols of liberty.
Johny SYSEL
Cassia-1.png
C. Cassius – Cassia-111 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C Cassius Denarius. 126 BC. Helmeted head of Roma right; urn and X behind / Liberty in quadriga right; C. CASSI below, ROMA in exergue. Cr266/1; Syd 502; RCV 142Bud Stewart
coeliuscaldus.jpg
C. COELIUS CALDUS142 viewsAR denarius. 51 BC. 3.91 gm, 8h . Bare head of the Consul C. Coelius Caldus right; C. COEL. CALDVS before, COS below, tablet inscribed L D behind / Radiate head of Sol right; S above oval shield ornamented with thunderbolt behind ; round shield below chin. CALDVS III VIR before . Crawford 437/1b; Sydenham 892; RSC Coelia 5.

The ancestor of the monneyer ,also named Gaius Coelius Caldus was a prominent political figure in the late 2nd century BC.Governor of Hispania as proconsul,Consul in 94 BC.He also won significant victories over the Gallic Salluvii in 90 BC,as alluded to by the shields.
As TR P ( Tribunus plebis) he passed the 'Lex Coelia Tabellaria' . The new law allowed jurors serving on cases of treason to decide by secret ballot, rather than 'viva voce' ,(word of mouth.). A tablet would be inscribed with either 'L' (Libero, I absolve) or a" D" (Damno - I condemn).
Himself a monneyer,see RSC Coelia 2 and 3.
benito
Egnatia_RRC_391-3~1.jpg
C. Egnatius Cn. f. Cn. n. Maxumus33 viewsC. Egnatius Cn. f. Cn. n. Maxumus. Denarius 75 BC. 4 grs.
Obs. : MAXSMVS Laureate and diademed bust of Libertas r.; behind, pileus .
Rev. : G – CNN Roma and Venus standing facing and both holding staff, the former with her l. foot on wolf’s head and the latter has Cupid alighting on her shoulder; on either side, rudders on prow. In exergue, C·EGNATIVS· CN· F.
Babelon Egnatia 3. Sydenham 787. Crawford 391/3
2 commentslabienus
C__Vibius_C_f__C_n__Pansa_Caetronianus.png
C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus – Vibia-1666 viewsROMAN REPUBLIC C. Vibius C.f. C.n. Pansa Caetronianus. 48 B.C. AR denarius (19 mm, 3.99 g, 6 h). Rome. Head of youthful Bacchus (or Liber) right, wreathed with ivy / C • VIBIVS • C • F • C • N, Ceres advancing right, holding torch in each hand; in right field, plow. Crawford 449/2; HCRI 21; Sydenham 946; Vibia 16; SRVC 421Bud Stewart
Rep_Den.jpg
C. Vibius Pansa Caetronianus17 viewsAR Denarius
C. Vibius Pansa Caetronianus, AR Denarius, 48 BC.
Laur. hd. of Libertas r., LIBERTATIS behind
Rev. C PANSA C F C N , Roma seated r. on pile of arms, resting on sceptre, crowned by Victory flying l.
RRC 449/4, CRR 949. RSC Vibia 20.
Tanit
vibius_varus.jpg
C.VIBIUS VARUS.36 viewsAR denarius. 42 BC. 3,78 grs. Head of Liber right,wearing ivy wreath / Panther left springing up towards garlanded altar on which rests mask and against which rests thyrsus. VARVS to right. In exergue C.VIBIVS.
Crawford 494/36. RSC Vibia 24.
1 commentsbenito
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-3qs59GR6xcPDlCaligula_2.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Brass Dupondius 13 viewsNERO ET DRVSVS CAESARES - Nero and Drusus on horseback riding right
C. CAESAR. DIVI. AVG. PRON. AVG. P. M. TR. P. III. P. P. around large S. C. - Legend surrounding large S C
Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 13.04g / 32mm / 6h
Rarity: R3
References:
RIC I 42 (Gaius)
BMCRE p. 156, n. ‡
Provenances:
Artemide Aste
Acquisition/Sale: Artemide Aste Internet 46e #266 $0.00 02/19

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The TR P III (39-40 AD) date of Caligula's base coinage is the scarcest of all his dates. The TR P (37-38 AD) is the most common followed by his TR P IIII (40-41 AD). Caligula did not issue base coinage from Rome with the TR P II (38-39 AD) date.

From: Incitatus Coins
Nero and Drusus were the elder brothers of Caligula, and the sons of Germanicus. Both were heirs of Tiberius and both were killed by the machinations of Sejanus. Caligula survived Sejanus, and the subsequent years, to become emperor. He immediately proclaimed his informed uncle Claudius as his co-consul, an appointment made so that Caligula could, in essence, rule as sole consul. Claudius was given the modest
task of preparing a celebration of Caligula's brothers, including statues in their honor. According to 'I Claudius', Claudius encountered difficulty in completing these statues on time. The completed statues appear on this coinage.

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA


From Joe Geranio:
The dupondii issues of the brothers of Caligula , Nero and Drusus Caesar was no doubt to remind the Roman populace about the Dioscuri the saviors of the Roman state. The Dioscuri won a miraculous battle in 496 B.C. and then on the same day appear in the Roman Forum to tell the populace about the victory, no doubt Caligula wanted to associate himself with the Dioscuri with this issue of the gods represented as Nero and Drusus Caesars galloping on their horses with ease as though the wind is blowing in their hair. This familial propaganda would cement that the sons of Germanicus and Agrippina would reign and were in control.

This type was issued by Caligula for his two deceased brothers, Nero Julius Caesar and Drusus Julius Caesar Germanicus. Nero Caesar was Tiberius' oldest adoptive grandson and was the emperor's most obvious successor until 29 A.D. when he was accused of treason along with his mother, Agrippina the Elder. He was exiled to the island of Ponza where he was either induced to commit suicide or starved to death before October 31. In 30, his brother Drusus Caesar was also accused of treason and exiled and imprisoned. He starved to death in prison in 33, reduced to chewing the stuffing of his bed.

From Suetonius:
But he (Claudius) was exposed also to actual dangers. First in his very consulship, when he was all but deposed, because he had been somewhat slow in contracting for and setting up the statues of Nero and Drusus, the emperor's brothers.


From COINWEEK:
THE ANNALS OF THE ROMAN HISTORIAN TACITUS (56 – 117 CE) survived in one damaged medieval manuscript at the Monte Cassino monastery. The section covering the reign of Emperor Caligula is missing, and we rely largely on fragmentary chapters of Cassius Dio’s Roman History (155-235 CE) and the Twelve Caesars of Suetonius (c.69 – 140 CE), a gossip writer who was the Perez Hilton of Imperial Rome. There are few contemporary eyewitness sources – some passages in the writings of Seneca (4 BCE – 65 CE) and Philo of Alexandria (c. 25 BCE – 50 CE ).

The story is not a happy one.

The future emperor was born on August 31 in the year 12, probably at Antium (Anzio) south of Rome. His father Germanicus, nephew of Emperor Tiberius, was a successful and popular general. His mother, Agrippina “the Elder”, was the daughter of Marcus Agrippa, the brilliant organizer who was largely responsible for Octavian’s victory in the Roman civil war (32-30 BCE).

“Caligula” is a nickname. It means “little boot” in Latin, because as a child he wore a miniature military uniform including tiny hobnailed boots, much to the delight of his father’s veteran legionaries. He grew up to dislike it. His given name, which appears on his coins, variously abbreviated, was Gaius (or Caius) Julius Caesar Germanicus. “Caesar” here is not a title, but a personal name, inherited through Germanicus Julius Caesar, grandson of Emperor Augustus, the adopted son of the famous Julius Caesar (100 – 44 BCE).

A New Hope
“TO MAKE AN INEXPERIENCED AND ALMOST UNKNOWN YOUNG MAN, BROUGHT UP UNDER A SERIES OF AGED AND REPRESSIVE GUARDIANS, MASTER OF THE WORLD, ALMOST LITERALLY OVERNIGHT, ON THE SOLE RECOMMENDATION THAT HIS FATHER HAD BEEN A THOROUGHLY DECENT FELLOW WAS TO COURT DISASTER IN A QUITE IRRESPONSIBLE FASHION.”
–BARRETT, CALIGULA: THE CORRUPTION OF POWER (1990)

When the reclusive, miserly and increasingly paranoid Emperor Tiberius died on March 16, 37 CE at the age of 78, most Romans greeted Caligula’s accession joyfully. Caligula’s early coinage celebrates his descent from his great-grandfather, the deified Augustus.

Caligula’s laurel-crowned portrait appears on the obverse of his gold aurei and silver denarii surrounded by his titles. On one reverse, which bears no inscription, the head of Augustus, wearing the sun god’s spiky radiate crown, appears between two stars. Another type omits the stars and adds the inscription, “Divine Augustus, Father of the Nation”. On some examples, the portrait seems to have the features of the unpopular Tiberius, who was never deified by the Senate. Perhaps the mint engravers, who had copied and recopied the portrait of Tiberius for 22 years, automatically reproduced a familiar face.

On his birthday in the year 37, Caligula dedicated the Temple of Augustus, which had been under construction for over two decades in the Roman forum. The event is commemorated on a magnificent brass sestertius. On the obverse a veiled seated figure is labeled PIETAS (“piety”) – an untranslatable Latin term for the Roman virtue that combined profound respect for ancestral traditions and meticulous observance of ritual obligations. The reverse shows Caligula in his role as Pontifex Maximus, high priest of the state religion, sacrificing an ox before a richly decorated temple. The finest known example of this coin sold for over $269,000 USD in a November 2013 Swiss auction.

Addressing the Guards
The orderly succession and survival of any Roman emperor depended on the Praetorian Guard, an elite force of bodyguards stationed in the capital. It was organized into nine battalions, or “cohorts”, each of 500 to 1,000 men.

On his accession, one of Caligula’s first official acts was to present each guardsman with a thousand sestertii bequeathed by Tiberius in his will, adding another thousand of his own. The reverse of a rare bronze sestertius, which may have been specially struck for this payment, shows Caligula standing on a platform with his arm raised in a formal gesture of greeting to a rank of guards. The abbreviated inscription ADLOCUT COH means “Address to the Cohorts”. Remarkably, this coin lacks the inscription SC (“by decree of the Senate”), which normally appeared on all Roman bronze coinage. An outstanding example of this type (“undoubtedly the finest specimen known”) brought over $634,000 in a 2014 European auction.

Family Ties
Caligula issued numerous types honoring the memory of his parents. Some of these continued under the reign of his uncle and successor, Claudius.

A handsome brass dupondius (worth half a sestertius or two asses) shows Germanicus riding in a chariot, celebrating his triumph (May 26, 17 CE) over German tribes. On the reverse, Germanicus stands in armor, holding an eagle-tipped scepter as a symbol of command. The inscription reads, “Standards Regained From the Defeated Germans”. This commemorates the return of sacred eagle standards captured when Roman legions of P. Quinctilius Varus were ambushed and annihilated eight years previously (September, 9 CE) in the Teutoburg Forest of north-central Germany. Examples of this type have sold for $500 to $3,000 in recent auctions.

Agrippina the Elder, mother of Caligula, was honored on a bronze sestertius. The obverse inscription surrounding her strong, dignified portrait translates: “Agrippina, daughter of Marcus, mother of emperor Gaius Caesar”. On the reverse, the legend “To the Memory of Agrippina” appears beside a carpentum, a ceremonial cart drawn by two mules that paraded an image of Agrippina on special occasions.

A superb, pedigreed example of this coin (“Very rare and among the finest specimens known. A delicate portrait of sublime style, Tiber tone”) sold for over $98,000 in a November 2013 Swiss auction. More typical examples sell for $1,000 to $3,000.

Perhaps the best-known coin of Caligula is a rare sestertius that depicts his three sisters, Agrippina the Younger, Drusilla and Julia Livilla as the personifications of Securitas, Concordia and Fortuna respectively. Caligula was close to his sisters, and lavished public honors on them in a way that shocked traditional Roman values. This inevitably led later writers to charge the emperor with incestuous relations, a rumor that is almost certainly false.

In recent auctions, exceptional examples of this type have sold for prices ranging from $15,000 to 21,000. Worn or corroded examples that have been “tooled” to improve the detail can sometimes be found for under $2,000. Cast forgeries are common, mostly modern, some dating back to the Renaissance that are collectable in their own right.

Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

The Making of a Monster
SO MUCH FOR CALIGULA THE EMPEROR; THE REST OF THIS HISTORY MUST NEEDS DEAL WITH CALIGULA THE MONSTER.
— SUETONIUS, THE TWELVE CAESARS, 22.1

Caligula fell seriously ill in October, 37 CE. After he recovered, his personality (always rather dark) took a decided turn for the worse. He became increasingly paranoid, ordering the execution or forcing the suicide of many who were previously close to him. He reportedly took special delight in having people tortured to death in his presence. As his increasingly bizarre expenditures emptied the treasury, he had wealthy Romans executed in order to seize their assets. Nevertheless, Suetonius reports that Caligula was devoted and faithful to his fourth and last wife, Milonia Caesonia, “who was neither beautiful nor young”.



The Death of Caligula

On January 24, 41 CE, conspirators including Cassius Chaerea, an officer of the Praetorian Guard, stabbed Caligula to death as he left a theatrical performance. Caesonia and her young daughter were also murdered. The only certainly identifiable contemporary portrait of Caesonia appears on a rare provincial bronze issued by Caligula’s childhood friend, Herod Agrippa I (11 BCE – 44 CE), the Roman client-king of Judaea.

Collecting the Monster
Gold and silver issues of Caligula are scarce, and in high demand from collectors, especially those determined to complete a set of the “Twelve Caesars” – all the Roman rulers from Julius Caesar to Domitian. Some of the bronzes are quite common, particularly the bronze as with Vesta reverse – decent examples can be found at auction for well under $200. For bronzes in the highest grades, with pristine surfaces and untouched patinas, the sky’s the limit.

For an emperor who was supposedly feared and hated by the Romans by the end of his short reign – only three years and 10 months – Caligula’s coins seem to have a good survival rate, and few that reach the numismatic market are mutilated. Some have the first ‘C’ of the emperor’s personal name filed off or scratched out, but it is rare to find deliberate ancient gouges or cuts across the portrait.

Any collector approaching the coinage of Caligula seeking evidence of madness, decadence and depravity will be disappointed. Coinage is conservative, and these coins present an idealized portrait of a rather dorky young man, along with a series of stock images reflecting the conventions of classical art that the Romans adopted from the Greeks
Gary W2
39-40_AD_Gaius_(Caligula,_37-.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans 5 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG, Pileus between S C - Pileus between S C
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT, around R C C - Inscription around R C C
Exergue:



Mint: Rome (39-40 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.65g / 17mm / 180
Rarity: Scarce
References:
RIC I 45
BMCRE 63
Cohen 6
Provenances:
Bertolami Fine Arts
Acquisition/Sale: Bertolami Fine Arts Internet E-Live Auction 50 #32

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD-This Coin
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVART-January 1-24, 41AD

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2
Caligula_37-41_Quadrans_78_06.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans6 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field Exergue:
Mint: Rome (41 AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 2.43g / 18mm / 6h
Rarity: Rare
References:
RIC I (first ed.) 41
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
BMCRE I, no. 79
Cohen 8
Acquisition/Sale: hmm shop eBay

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

he last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.
Gary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-B1lgFjNUL7hU2d-Caligula.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans39 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.19g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
Cohen 8
BMCRE I, no. 79
RIC I (first ed.) 41

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

The last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

4 commentsGary W2
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-B1lgFjNUL7hU2d-Caligula~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans11 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.19g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
Cohen 8
BMCRE I, no. 79
RIC I (first ed.) 41

The last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

RIC failed to place this issue in the most recent edition. The fact that this issue was only from January 1 to January 24, 41 AD makes this issue rare.
Gary W2
Caligula_37-41_Quadrans_78_06~0.jpg
Caligula (Augustus) Coin: Bronze Quadrans11 viewsC CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG SC - Pileus flanked by S C
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT - Legend surrounding RCC large in center of field
Exergue:


Mint: Rome (41AD)
Wt./Size/Axis: 3.19g / 18mm / 180
Rarity: Rare
References:
BMC 78,80
Paris 126-7
Cohen 8
BMCRE I, no. 79
RIC I (first ed.) 41

The last quadrans minted by Caligula with the mint date January 1-January 24, 41AD.

There were four different issues of quadrans from Caligula:
PON M TR P III P P COS DES III- 39AD
PON M TR P III P P COS TERT-39-40AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS TERT-40-41AD
PON M TR P IIII P P COS QVAT-January 1-24, 41AD-This Coin

The Gary R. Wilson Collection

ODERINT, DUM METUANT (LET THEM HATE, SO LONG AS THEY FEAR). — CALIGULA

The purpose of the pileus and the (related or not) meaning of the RCC inscription remain in dispute and have led to differing hypotheses since the late 18th century, with most modern observers echoing the original hypotheses of Eckel from 1796, who thought that the RCC inscription referred to Caligula's remission of the 0.5% sales tax (hence remissa ducentesima), with the pileus a reference to restored liberty deriving from return of elections to the popular comitia from the Senate. Eckel thus thought the obverse and reverse commemorated separate distinct acts of the emperor.

David Woods' interpretation of the Caligula quadrans is that the liberty it celebrates is the liberty of all free Roman citizens, with the pileus as a their symbol. He reasons that it was Caligula's crackdown on those illegally claiming citizenship that is the focus of the coin's commemoration. This proper enforcement of the rules of citizenship would theoretically play well among the greater masses of the population who normally encounter the quadrans in everyday exchange.

As for the meaning of the RCC reverse inscription, Woods posits that it could be Res Civium Conservatae (The interests of the citizens has been preserved), or something closely related to this.

From The Dictionary of Roman Coins:
R CC Remissa Ducentesima. - Initial letters inscribed on the reverse of a third brass coin of Caligula, commemorative of a tax having been abolished by that Emperor. - The treasury of the state having been exhausted by the civil wars, Augustus, to assist in replenishing the public revenues, had established an impost of the hundredth denarius on all sales. But this burden in the year AD 17, Tiberius, yielding to the petitions of the people, had reduced on-half, that is to say to one denarius for 200. At length, in the year A.D. 39, the whole tax was taken off by Caligula as the inscription, on this small brass coin, of Remissa CC. plainly tells; and Suetonius confirms the fact in saying ducentesimun auctionum Italia remisit, although he does not specify the time.

And that this act of liberality was permanent is proved by medals struck in subsequent years of Caligula's reign, on which the memory of this benefit is gratefully renewed by the Senate. - The obverse is in scribed C CAESAR DIVI AVG PRON AVG S C (Caius Caesar Augustus, great grandson of the Divine Augustus) and the type is the pileus or cap of liberty, an allusion made to the right of suffrage granted to the people in the year AD 38.

Per Curtis Clay:
Simply overlooked by Sutherland in his second edition, it would appear.

This quadrans with COS QVAT is scarce, struck only between 1 Jan. 41 and Caligula's assassination on 24 Jan., but well known and unquestionably authentic: BMC 79-80 has two, similarly Paris 126-7, quoted by Cohen 8 from Paris, the first ed. of RIC quotes it from Cohen as you say.

Sutherland (Preface, p. X) says he couldn't supply a concordance to the first edition because that edition frequently "subsumed two or more varieties under the same entry." I don't see how that fact excludes a concordance; and in any case drawing up a concordance would have helped by alerting Sutherland to varieties he had overlooked, such as this one!

From CNG:
A coin with significant historical connections.
On January 1, 41 AD, Caligula became consul for
the fourth time. On January 24 of that year, a
group of conspirators, led by the Praetorian
Prefect, Cassius Chaerea, assassinated the emperor
in an underground tunnel on the Palatine.
The editors of the revised edition of RIC I
neglected to include this issue in the corpus.

From COINWEEK: Small Change
Perhaps the most enigmatic coin of Caligula’s reign was the smallest regular Roman denomination, the quadrans. It took 64 of these little coppers to equal the value of one silver denarius – a day’s pay for a manual worker. On the obverse, the emperor’s name and titles surround a “liberty cap” – the felt hat worn by freed slaves – bracketed by the letters “SC”. The reverse inscription continues the emperor’s titles, surrounding the large letters “RCC”.

For many years, the consensus of numismatic scholars was that this abbreviation stood for remissa ducentesima, celebrating Caligula’s repeal of an unpopular one-half percent sales tax (“one part in two hundred” – “CC” being the Roman numeral for 200). A brilliant 2010 study by David Woods argues that this interpretation is unlikely, and RCC probably stands for something like res civium conservatae (“the interests of citizens have been preserved”).

The quadrans is probably the most affordable coin of Caligula, with decent examples appearing at auction for under $100.

RIC failed to place this issue in the most recent edition. The fact that this issue was only from January 1 to January 24, 41 AD makes this issue rare.
Gary W2
caracalla-denarius-reshoot.jpg
Caracalla (209 AD) AR Denarius21 viewsRoman Imperial, Caracalla (209 AD) AR Denarius, 1.8g, 19mm

Obverse: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, Laureate head right.

Reverse: LIBERTAS AVG, Libertas standing left holding pileus & sceptre.

Reference: RIC 161, RSC 143, Sear (RCV 2000) 6817

Ex: Octavian Coins
Gil-galad
CARACAL-3.jpg
Caracalla , RIC 21613 viewsObv: ANTONONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT
Laureate head right
Rev: LIBERALITAS AVG VI
Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus in right hand, cornucopia in left.
18mm 2.6 gm
OWL365
Caracalla_158.jpg
Caracalla - AR denarius20 viewsRome
206-210 AD
laureate head right
ANTONINVS__PIVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left holding abacus and cornucopiae
LIBERALI_TAS AVG VI
SRCV II 6815, RIC IV 158, RSC III 128, BMCRE V 257
3,2g 19-18 mm
ex Jiří Militký
Johny SYSEL
Caracalla_135.jpg
Caracalla - AR denarius20 viewsRome
201-206 AD
laureate, draped bust right from behind
ANTONINVS__PIVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia
LIBERALI_TAS AVGG__IIII•
RIC 135, RSC 122
2,93 g 20-18 mm
Johny SYSEL
C12.JPG
Caracalla - Libertas139 viewsDenarius 209
O/ ANTONINUS - PIUS AUG Youth's laureate head right
R/ LIBER-TAS AUG Libertas standing left, holding pileus and rod
C 143 - RIC 161
Mint: Rome (29th emission)
septimus
IVi-209a.jpg
Caracalla - Libertas46 viewsAR Denarius, Rome, 213 (3.36gm)
RIC IVi.209a, RCV.6830 (C)
Ox: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT
O: Laureate head right.
Rx: P M TR P XVI COS IIII P P
R: Libertas standing left, holding pileus and scepter.

ex. Silenos
Paul DiMarzio
caracalla__iiiipp.jpg
Caracalla AR Denarius ‘Libertas’21 viewsBust: Right facing, Laureate.
Obverse Legend; ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT
Reverse Legend; PM TR P XVI COS IIII PP
Type; Libertas standing left holding pileus and scepter
MINT Rome, 213 AD. 2.6 grams

RIC IVi, 209a, page 241 - Cohen 224 (plate xii, 12) - SEAR RCV II (2002), #6830, page 522
Fearsome portrait.
Banjaxed
Caracalla_4bx.jpg
Caracalla denarius51 viewsP M TR P XVI COS IIII P P1 commentsTibsi
caracalla4_.jpg
Caracalla Denarius15 viewsCaracalla Denarius.
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT, laureate head right
Rev: LIBERALITAS AVG VIII, Liberalitas standing left holding tessera and leaning on reversed rudder.

RIC 220, RSC 135b, BMC 80 (plate 55, 7)
Tanit
Caracalla_Denarius_Liberalitas.jpg
Caracalla Denarius17 viewsSilver denarius, RIC IV 158, Cohen 128, VF Rome mint, 206 - 210 A.D.; obverse ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse LIBERALITAS AVG VI, Liberalitas standing left, counting board in right, cornucopia in left;
Philoromaos
90.jpg
Caracalla Denarius - Liberalitas (RIC IV 216)69 viewsAR Denarius
Rome 210 -213 AD
3.66 g

Obv: Laureate bust of Caracalla (R)
ANTONINUS PIUS AUG BRIT

Rev: LIBERALITAS standing (L) holding coin distributor and cornucopia.
LIBERALITAS AUG VI


RIC IV 216 RSC ?
Kained but Able
Carcalla_RIC_302.jpg
Caracalla Denarius A.D. 213-217 RIC 302, RSC 139, BMC 7086 viewsANTONINVS PIVS AVG GERM, laureate head right / LIBERAL AVG VIIII, Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopiae.
Maximum Diameter: 19.5 mm
Weight: 3.39 g
2 commentsTheEmpireNeverEnded
Caracalla_Caesar_Denarius_Liberalitas.jpg
Caracalla Denarius Liberalitas27 viewsObv.
ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Laureate and draped bust right

Rev.
LIBERALITAS AVGG V
Liberalitas standing left, holding coin counter & cornucopia

ancientdave
diad111.jpg
Caracalla Denarius. 196-19841 viewsOb. ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right
Rev. INDVLGENTIA AVGG, IN CARTH below, Dea Caelestis (Cybele) riding lion springing right, holding thunderbolt & scepter

Ref. RIC 130a, RSC 97, BMC 280

Cybele, the mother of the Gods was the favourite deity of the Carthagenians; here the lion, which Virgil tells us (Æneid lib. 3) was tamed by Cybele, may be taken as an emblem of Africa (Septimus Severus, Caracallas father, originated there).

-:Bacchus:-
1 commentsBacchus
ric158.jpg
Caracalla Liberalitas29 viewsCaracalla Denarius.208 AD. ANTONONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate head right / LIBERALITAS AVG VI, Liberalitas standing left holding coin counter & cornucopiae. RSC 128.

owellber
Caracalla_RIC_216.jpg
Caracalla RIC 21665 viewsCaracalla Denarius, 210-213
Obv: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT
Head, laureate, r.
Rev: LIBERALITAS AVG VI
Liberalitas standing l., holding abacus and cornucopiae
3.42g, 19mm
1 commentsklausklage
caracalla-.jpg
Caracalla Sestertius22 viewsAE Sestertius
Obv.: M AVREL ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT,
Rev.: LIBERALITAS AVG VIII S C, Liberalitas holding coin counter and cornucopia,
212-3 AD, RIC 510b.

Quite a scarce type on sestertii.
Tanit
128.jpg
Caracalla, AD 198-21734 viewsAR denarius, 19.53mm (3.47 gm).

ANTONINVS PIVS AVG, laureate and draped bust right / IIII LIBERALITAS AVGG, Liberalitas standing left, holding tessera and cornucopiae. Rome mint, struck AD 201-206.

RIC IV-I, 135; BMCRE V, 284; RSC III, 122a.
1 commentssocalcoins
liberalitas_k.jpg
Caracalla, AD 198-2178 viewsAR denarius, 3.0g, 20mm, 6h; Rome mint, AD 206-210.
Obv.: ANTONINVS PIVS AVG; Laureate bust right.
Rev.: LIBERALITAS AVG VI; Liberalitas standing left, holding abacus and cornucopia.
Reference: RIC 4a Caracalla 158, p. 235.
Notes: eBay, rq
John Anthony
Caracalla_Libertas.jpg
Caracalla, Silver Denarius * "