Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "L-Z,"
rjb_2011_04_11a.jpg
18 viewsPerge, Pamphylia
Mid 3rd to 1st cent. BC
Obv: Cult image of Artemis Pergaia in two-columned aedicula
or shrine, with eagle in pediment, wings spread.
Rev: "APTEMIΔOΣ ΠEPΓAIAΣ"
Quiver of Artemis, bow diagonally
behind.
SNG Cop 308; SNG France 3, 373-378; SNG Pfalz 221-223
mauseus
DOA_Deutsch_Ostafrika_1_Pesa_1892_Berlin_Krone_Adler_Kranz.jpg
18 viewsDeutsch-Ostafrikanische Gesellschaft

1 Pesa

1892

Münzstätte: Berlin

Vs: Im Lorbeerkranz auf arabisch "Gesellschaft Deutschlands" und die islamische Jahreszahl (in arabischen Zahlzeichen) 1309 für 1892

Rs: Reichsadler

Literatur: Jäger 710

Erhaltung: Schön

Metall: Kupfer

25 mm, 6,26 g _694
Antonivs Protti
Salzburg_Max_Gandolph_Küenburg_3_Kreuzer_1681_Heiliger_Rupert_Faß.JPG
18 viewsRömisch Deutsches Reich - Erzbistum Salzburg

Max Gandolph Graf von Küenburg, 1668 - 1687

3 Kreuzer 1681

Erhaltung: Sehr schön.

Vs: Hüftbild des Heiligen Rupert mit Krummstab und Salzfaß.

Rs: Stifts und Familienwappen zwischen Jahreszahl und Wertzahl.

Durchmesser: 21 mm

Gewicht: 1,6 g Silber _2692
Antonivs Protti
coin644.jpg
CILICIA, Mallos. 2nd-1st centuries BC. Æ Coin #64448 viewsCILICIA, Mallos. 2nd-1st centuries BC. Æ (22mm, 10.88 g, 12h).
Head of Apollo right / Athena seated left, holding Nike and spear; monogram to left.
SNG France -; SNG Levante -; SNG Levante Supp. -; SNG Pfalzer -; BMC 29. VF, brown patina. Scarce.
Coin #644
cars100
45448q00.jpg
Gallic 3 Marius, May - August or September 269 A.D.25 viewsBronze antoninianus, Schulzki AGK 8a, Mairat 238, SRCV III 11123, RIC V 17, aEF, rev a bit weak, 2.822g, 19.5mm, 180o, Colonia Agrippinensis (Cologne) mint, 2nd emission; obverse IMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust right; reverse VICT-O-R-IA AVG, Victory standing left, wreath in right, palm frond in left; nice portrait, nice dark sea-green patina, slightly irregular flan; scarce

Purchased from FORVM
1 commentsSosius
00031x00.jpg
25 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 2.84 g)
Amor standing left, holding an ucnertain object
Wreath
Rostovtsev 2006.1, pl. VIII, 24 = Scholz 368 (this coin, illustrated)

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00037x00~1.jpg
37 viewsROME
PB Tessera (20mm, 4.49 g, 12h)
Apollo standing facing, holding lyre
Clasped hands within wreath
Rostovtsev -; Scholz 382 (this coin)

Ex Trau Collection
1 commentsArdatirion
00036x00~1.jpg
20 viewsROME
PB Tessera (20mm, 4.72 g, 12h)
Apollo standing left, holding branch, resting left arm on tripod
TCE
Rostovtsev 2035 = Scholz 1784 (this coin)

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00035x00~0.jpg
22 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.99 g, 12h)
Palm frond and cornucopia
Clasped hands
Rostovtsev -; München 297; Scholz 1126 (this coin)

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00034x00~1.jpg
20 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 1.82 g, 12h)
DHS
PR PR
Rostovtsev 3443 = Scholz 1715 (this coin)

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00028x00~0.jpg
21 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.38 g, 12h)
Dog standing right
Poppy
Rostovtsev -; Scholz 994 (this coin)

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00032x00~0.jpg
21 viewsROME. The Two Lucii
PB Tessera (20mm, 3.12 g, 12 h)
DVO
LL
Rostovtsev 1358 = Scholz 1422 (this coin)

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00053x00.jpg
33 viewsROME. Euhemerus, freedman of Lesbus (?)
PB Tessera (18mm, 2.42 g, 12 h)
EVHE/MERI
LES/B L
Rostovtsev 1444; Rostovtsev & Prou 422m; Turcan 193; Scholz 1436; BM 2228
Ardatirion
00058x00.jpg
18 viewsROME
PB Tessera (22mm, 5.60 g, 12 h)
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Three grain ears; P to left, AB to right
Rostovtsev 402; Rostovtsev & Prou 73; Scholz 241
Ardatirion
00033x00~0.jpg
23 viewsROME
PB Tessera (14mm, 3.58 g, 12h)
Galley
Anchor
Rostovtsev -; Scholz 577 (this coin)

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00029x00~1.jpg
19 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 2.99 g, 12h)
G P R F in circle within wreath
Palm frond
Rostovtsev -; Scholz 1858 (this coin)

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00027x00~0.jpg
26 viewsROME
PB Tessera (18mm, 5.05 g, 12h)
LIC
(MA)(NV)
Rostovtsev -; Scholz 1540 (this coin)

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00030x00~1.jpg
17 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 3.65 g, 12h)
Rudder
TI
Rostovtsev 2444; Scholz 1794 (this coin); München 438

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00038x00~0.jpg
29 viewsROME
PB Tessera (16mm, 2.54 g, 12h)
Head of Sol right
Head of horse right, flail behind
Rostovtsev 757. fig. 64 = Scholz 619, pl. III (this coin, illustrated); München 166; Milan 134; Kircheriano 1017; BM 413-6

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00026x00~2.jpg
23 viewsROME
PB Tessera (17mm, 2.80 g, 12h)
The Charites (the Three Graces) standing, the left and right facing, the middle with back to view
Modius with three grain ears
Rostovtzev 358.72 = Scholz 461 (this coin); Milan 52; München 67-70; BM 1330-3, 1335-8, 1340-1

Ex Trau Collection
Ardatirion
00030x00.jpg
71 viewsSCOTLAND, Communion Tokens. Dalziel. Robert Clason
Minister, circa 1786-1801
PB Token (20mm, 3.15 g)
Dated 1798
Dalzel/ R C/ 1798
Blank
Barzinski 1873; Brook -

Museum number in india ink on reverse: 5971730 (?)

Ex Lockdale's 83 (27 March 2011), lot 1112
2 commentsArdatirion
00029x00.jpg
32 viewsSCOTLAND, Communion Tokens. Dalziel. Robert Clason
Minister, circa 1786-1801
PB Token (20mm, 3.15 g)
Dated 1798
Dalzel/ R C/ 1798
Blank
Barzinski 1873; Brook -
Ardatirion
gallienus_nike_perga.jpg
(0253) GALLIENUS17 views253 - 268 AD
AE (10 assaria) 28 mm; 15.26 g
O: AVT KAI PO LI GALLIHNO CEB, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right. Value mark I to right
R: ΠEΡ Γ AIΩN, Nike advancing left, holding wreath and palm.
Pamphylia, Perga; SNG von Aulock 4720; SNG Cop 356; SNG Pfalz 419
laney
RI_064lz_img.jpg
064 - Septimius Severus denarius - RIC 430 corr.23 viewsObv:– IMP CAE L SEP SEV PERT AVG COS II, Laureate head right
Rev:– VICTORIA, Victory standing left engraving AV/G on shield to left with right hand, which is resting on a column, holding palm in left hand. Centre dot.
Minted in Emesa. A.D. 194-195
Reference:– BMCRE 402, thought to be SE V, CO and AV/VG but from same die pair as this coin. RIC 430 (Rated R citing BM). RSC 703a.

All the coins cite the BM example which is unclear. This example, whilst suffering from the harsh cleaning method (zapped?) is sufficiently clear to make out the correct COS II obverse legend and the AV/G on the shield.

A rare reverse type.
maridvnvm
GI_077g_img.jpg
077 - Severus Alexander, Billon Tetradrachm, Alexandria - Milne 301719 viewsBillon Tetradrachm
Obv:- A KAI MAP AY CEY ALEXANDPOC, Laureate, cuirassed bust right
Rev:- Dikaiosyne seated left on facing throne, holding scales and cornucopia.
Minted in Alexandria. Year 7 (LZ in upper left field). A.D. 227/228.
Reference:- Milne 3017. Emmett 3097 (7) R5 citing Milne. Geissen -. Dattari 4296.

Apparently quite a rare coin.
maridvnvm
Cilicia,_Seleucia_ad_Calycadnum,_090_Gallienus,_SNG_Levante_789,_SNG_Pfalz_1086_,_AE-27,_253-268_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_25,5-28,3,_12,41g-s.jpg
090p Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Cilicia, Seleucia ad Calycadnum, SNG Levante 789, AE-27, Athena and the serpent-legged giant, #165 views090p Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), Cilicia, Seleucia ad Calycadnum, SNG Levante 789, AE-27, Athena and the serpent-legged giant, #1
avers: AY K Π Λ K ΓAΛΛIHN/OC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: CEΛEYKEΩN K A/ΛYK/ΛΔ, Athena standing right, wielding spear at a serpent-legged giant at her feet which is about to throw a stone at her.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5-28,3mm, weight:12,41g, axes: 6h,
mint: Cilicia, Seleucia ad Calycadnum, date: 253-268 A.D., ref: SNG Levante 789, SNG Pfalz 1086,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
IMG_4807.JPG
126. Aureolus (Rebel under Postumus)16 viewsAv.: IMP POSTVMVS AVG
Rv.: FIDES EQUIT
Ex.: P

Billon Antoninian Ø20 / 2,9g
Elmer 612, Schulzki 18c, Cunetio 2479
Juancho
RI_132lz_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 111 - Bust Type G (Lugdunum) (IIII)22 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Soldier standing left, holding Victory and spear, left hand on shield
Minted in Lugdunum (IIII) Emission 5 Officina 4. End A.D. 277 to Early A.D. 278
Reference:– Cohen 822. Bastien 257 (5 examples). RIC 111 Bust Type G (Scarce)

4.25 gms
23.97mm
1 commentsmaridvnvm
salzburg_1685_15-kreuzer_DSC03685.JPG
1685 - Salzburg - Silver 15 Kreuzer149 viewsAustria Salzburg
Silver 15 Kreuzer - Struck in the Year of Our Lord (AD)1685

*photos taken while coin was in 2x2 holder.... some glare on the photos.
3 commentsrexesq
coin161.JPG
205. Severus Alexander; Alexandria, Egypt;14 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Severus Alexander. AD 222-235. BI Tetradrachm. Dated RY 7 (AD 227/8). Laureate and cuirassed bust right / Helmeted head of Athena right; LZ (date) to right. Köln -; Dattari 9873; cf. Milne 3014; Emmett 3093.7.ecoli
993_P_Hadrian_RPC2680.JPG
2680 PAMPHYLIA , Attalea Hadrian Ae 20 Athena bust23 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2680; Baydur 192, Attaleia -; SNG France -; SNG Pfalz - ; SNG Cop 286.

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right

Rev. ΑΤΤΑΛΕΩΝ
Bust of Athena with Corinthian helmet and aegis, right

5.10 gr
20 mm
6h
2 commentsokidoki
212_P_Hadrian__BMC27.jpg
2705 PAMPHYLIA, Perga Hadrian AE 12 Stag left16 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2705; BMC Pamphylia 27 (P. 124); SNG Pfälzer Privatsammlungen 279-281

Obv. AΔPIAN KAIC
Hadrian laureate head right, wearing paludamentum and cuirass.

Rev. Π EP ΓA
Stag standing left above it crescent

1.4 gr
12 mm
okidoki
772_P_Hadrian_RPC2699var_.JPG
2705A PAMPHYLIA, Perga Hadrian AE 14 Artemis standing in temple17 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2705A; SNG Pfälzer IV, 278

Obv. [ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟ]C KAI
Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right

Rev. [ΠƐΡΓ]ΑΙΩΝ
Tetrastyle temple; within which cult statue of Artemis of Perga; eagle in pediment.

2.46 gr
14 mm
6h
okidoki
990_P_Hadrian_RPC2719var_.JPG
2719var. PAMPHYLIA Aspendus Hadrian AE 15 Cult statues13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2719 var.; BMC 79; SNG France 162 var.; SNG Pfalz 62-63 var.; Howgego 518

Obv. ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum

Rev. ΑС(l.)-ΠΕΝ(r.)
Cult statues of the Aphroditai Kastnietides

3.66 gr
18 mm
5h
okidoki
778_P_Hadrian_RPC2735.JPG
2735 PAMPHYLIA, Side Hadrian AE 24 Apollo standing13 viewsReference
RPC III, 2735; BMC 80; A FHW SNG Pfälzer 655

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate head of Hadrian, r., with drapery on l. shoulder, right

Rev. СΙΔΗΤωΝ
Apollo Sidetes standing facing, head l., holding pomegranate in his extended r. hand, l. resting on sceptre.

8.70 gr
24 mm
12h
okidoki
891_P_Hadrian_RPC2736.jpg
2736 PAMPHYLIA, Side Hadrian, Apollo standing9 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2736.2; SNG Pfälzer 654; SNG BN 801 (Var.); SNG Cop. ­; SNG v. Aulock ­; BMC 80

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ ΤΡΑ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate bust of Hadrian, r., with paludamentum, seen from rear

Rev. СΙΔΗΤωΝ
Apollo Sidetes standing facing, head l., holding pomegranate in his extended r. hand, l. resting on sceptre.

9.35 gr
24 mm
12h

Note.
Gorny & Mosch Giessener Münzhandlung
Auction 220 lot 1502
okidoki
566_P_Hadrian_RPC2763.jpg
2763 CILICIA, Syedra. Hadrian Æ 17. Demeter standing13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 2763; Ziegler 109; SNG Pfälzer 1162-4;

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΚΑΙСΑΡ
Laureate and cuirassed bust of Hadrian, right

Rev. СΥΕΔΡΕωΝ
Demeter seated left, holding ears of corn downwards in her right. hand and lighted torch in left

9.18 gr
23 mm
12h
okidoki
1232_P_Hadrian_RPC2767var_.JPG
2767 CILICIA, Syedra. Hadrian, Goddess standing13 viewsReference.
RPC III 2767 var.; SNG Levante Suppl. 73 var.; SNG France 632 var.; SNG Pfalz 1153-1154 var

Obv. AYT AΔPIANOC KAICA
Laureate and cuirassed bust right

Rev. CYE-ΔP/N ω
Goddess wearing long chiton standing facing, head l., holding patera in r. hand, l. resting on sceptre

3.54 gr
20mm
12h

Note.
Obv. legend: AYT, not AYTO; rev. legend: ΕⲰ-Ν is retrograde
ex Slg. Dr. Theodor Grewer
1 commentsokidoki
1105_P_Hadrian_RPC3217.jpg
3217 CILICIA, Coropissus. Hadrian 130-31 AD Tyche standing19 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3217; SNG France 763-764; SNG Levante 584, Suppl. 153 ; SNG Pfalz -;

Issue Regnal year 13

Obv. ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΙΓ
Laureate bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from front, r.

Rev. ΚΟΡΟΠΙССΕωΝ ΚΗΤ ΜΗΤΡΟ
Tyche standing, l., resting with her r. hand on rudder and holding cornucopia in l.

9.61 gr
23 mm
6h
1 commentsokidoki
1065_P_Hadrian_RPC3217.JPG
3217 CILICIA, Coropissus. Hadrian 130-31 AD Tyche standing11 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3217; SNG France 763-764; SNG Levante 584, Suppl. 153 ; SNG Pfalz -;

Issue Regnal year 13

Obv. ΚΑΙСΑΡ ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС ΙΓ
Laureate bust of Hadrian, with paludamentum, seen from front, r.

Rev. ΚΟΡΟΠΙССΕωΝ ΚΗΤ ΜΗΤΡΟ
Tyche standing, l., resting with her r. hand on rudder and holding cornucopia in l.

9.61 gr
24 mm
6h

Note.
ex Münzzentrum, Auktion 56, Los 352
okidoki
707_P_Hadrian_RPC3246.jpg
3246 CILICIA, Pompeiopolis (Soli), Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian 131-32 AD Eight-rayed star11 viewsReference. Very rare.
RPC III, 3246; Levante 886; SNG Pfälzer 1128

Issue Year 197 (ΖЧΡ)

Obv. ΖЧΡ
two bunches of grapes on stalk

Rev.
Eight-rayed star

3.00 gr
15.8 mm
okidoki
1235_P_Hadrian_Pseudo_RPC3300.JPG
3300 CILICIA, Tarsus, Pseudo-autonomous under Hadrian, Tuche and Zeus13 viewsReference.
RPC III, 3300; SNG France 1424-1429; SNG Levante -; SNG Pfalz 133

Obv. ΑΔΡΙΑΝωΝ ΤΑΡϹΕωΝ
Zeus seated, l., holding Victory and resting on sceptre

Rev. ΜΗΤΡΟΠΟΛΕΩϹ
Tyche of the City, turreted and veiled, seated, r., on seat decorated with foreleg and wing of sphinx, holding ears of corn and poppy-head; at her feet, river-god Kydnos,
crowned with sedge, swimming, r.; the whole in wreath

11.99 gr
27 mm
12h

Note.
ex Slg. Dr. Theodor Grewer
1 commentsokidoki
coin275.JPG
510. Valentinian I55 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
ecoli
545_P_Hadrian_Emmett1015_7.jpg
5392 EGYPT, Alexandria. Hadrian Drachm 122-23 AD Nilus reclining on hippopotamus23 viewsReference.
Emmett 1015.7; RPC III, 5392; Milne 1038; Dattari 1802 var (date above); Kampmann-Ganschow 32.228; Geissen -, BMC Alexandria -, SNG Cop -, SNG Hunterian -

Issue L Z = year 7

Obv. ΑΥΤ ΚΑΙ - ΤΡΑΙ ΑΔΡΙΑ СƐΒ
Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.

Rev. LZ
Nilus reclining left, hippopotamus under left arm, long reed in right, cornucopia in left.

22 gr
33.6 mm
12h

ex. FORVM
okidoki
VespasianPax_RICii10.jpg
710a, Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D.134 viewsSilver denarius, RIC II, 10, aVF, 3.5 g, 18mm, Rome mint, 69-71 AD; Obverse: IMP CAESA[R] VESPASIANV[S AV]G - Laureate head right; Reverse: COS ITER [T]R POT - Pax seated left holding branch and caduceus. Ex Imperial Coins.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





Cleisthenes
RIC_17_Antoniniano_Mario.jpg
90 - 01 - MARIO (268 D.C.)10 viewsAE Antoninianus 21 mm 2.82 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vistiendo coraza y paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a der.
Rev: "VICTO[RIA] AVG" - Victoria avanzando a izq., portando una corona de hojas de olivo en mano der. y hoja de palma en izq.

Acuñada 269 D.C.
Ceca: 2da.Emisión Treveri

Referencias: RIC Vol.Vb #17 Pag.378 (S) - Sear RCTV Vol.III #11123 Pag.378 - Cohen Vol.VI #19 Pag.89 - DVM #7 Pag.269 - Cunetio #2511 - Hunter #9 - Schulzki #7b - AGK #8a (R1) - Elmer #639 - Mairat #239 - L.E.G.PPS #183 P.LII
mdelvalle
Mario_VICTORIA_AVG.jpg
90 - 01 - MARIO 268 D.C.64 viewsAE Antoninianus 21 mm 2.82 gr.

Anv: "IMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG" - Busto radiado, vistiendo coraza y paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a der.
Rev: "VICTO[RIA] AVG" - Victoria avanzando a izq., portando una corona de hojas de olivo en mano der. y hoja de palma en izq.

Acuñada 268 D.C.
Ceca: II Indeterminada
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.Vb #17 Pag.378 - Sear RCTV Vol.III #11123 Pag.378 - Cohen Vol.VI #19 Pag.89 - DVM #7 Pag.269 - Cunetio #2508/9 - Hunter #9 - Schulzki #7b - AGK #7a/8a - Elmer #637/8/9 - Mairat #239
1 commentsmdelvalle
Aigeai.jpg
Aigeai, Cilicia c. 164 - 130 B.C.17 viewsAigeai, Cilicia c. 164 - 130 B.C. AE19.6 - 21mm. Weight 5.65g. Aigeai mint. Obv: Turreted head of Tyche right, countermark left. Rev: ΑΙΓΕΑΙΩΝ, bridled horses head left. Monogram lower left. Sear #5513, SNG Levante 1634 var (monogram), SNG Cop 28 var (same), SNG BnF 2281 ff. var (same), SNG Pfälzer 31 ff. var (same), SNGvA 5441 var (same)ddwau
rjb_08_07_09.jpg
Alexandria 464021 viewsTetradrachm
Laureate, cuirassed bust right
LZ
Eagle standing left, head turned back
Alexandria
Milne 4640
mauseus
20191114pBFChWmYH8AgRLZ9_Kxvf9_large.jpeg
Anastasius I. Æ Follis 40 Nummi. 512-517. 4 viewsConstantinople mint,(15,7 g ; 37 mm.) Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r. / Large M; cross above, stars flanking, B/CON. MIBE 27; DOC 23d; Sear 19.Russel K
Salzburg, Leonhard von Keutschach.jpg
Archbishopric Salzburg211 viewsArchbishopric Salzburg, Leonhard von Keutschach 1495 - 1519 Size/Weight: 19mm, 0.4g Denomination: one-sided 'Zweier' (1515), silver. Flat strike areas, very fine mitra, monasterial and family crest.dpaul7
Salzburg Max Gandolph.jpg
Archbishopric Salzburg108 viewsArchbishopric Salzburg -- Max Gandolph, Graf von Küenburg (1668 - 1687) 3 Kreuzer, dated 1681, gVF. 18 mm, 1.3g, silver.dpaul7
SALZBURG UNIFACE.jpg
ARCHBISHOPRIC SALZBURG - MATTAUS LANG v. WELLENBURG 94 viewsARCHBISHOPRIC SALZBURG - MATTAUS LANG v. WELLENBURG -1519-1540 silver Zweiling. Only first 2 digits of date visible (15??). Omniface coin.dpaul7
salzburg 1528 zweier.jpg
ARCHBISHOPRIC SALZBURG - MATTAUS LANG v. WELLENBURG107 viewsSALZBURG - ARCHBISHOP MATTAUS LANG v. WELLENBURG-1519-1540 AR Zweier, 1528. Uniface coin. Arms of Salzburg and Mattaus side-by-side, bishop's hat above, date delow. Ref.: Probst #275.1 commentsdpaul7
STAG_299_16_60_g.jpg
Athens New Style Tetradrachm 79/8 BC31 viewsObs : Athena Parthenos right in tri-form helmet
30 mm 16.60 gm Thompson issue 86 Thompson catalogue: Obs 1217 Rev: New/Not in plztes?
Rev : ΑΘΕ ethnic
Owl standing on overturned panathenaic amphora
on which month mark ? control ? below
2 magistrates : NESTOR MNASEAS
RF symbol : Stag
All surrounded by an olive wreath
1 commentscicerokid
111r.jpg
AURELIANO, 270-275 d.C. (R/ SOLI INVICTO)40 viewsAurelianus 270-275 d.C., antoniniano di bronzo. Zecca di Ticinum
AE, 4.559 gr, 24.5 mm, 180°, VF (BB)
D/ IMP C AVRELIANVS AVG, busto radiato e corazzato a dx
R/ SOLI INVICTO, Sol stante a sx con la mano alzata e reggente un globo, piede sul prigioniero a sx, prigioniero sotto il piede destro, stella a dx, TXXT in ex. Vecchia crepa al margine.
RIC V 154
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (26 luglio 2008, numero catalogo 79); ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2008)
paolo
FERDINAND AUSTRIA.jpg
AUSTRIA - SALZBURG91 viewsAUSTRIA - Salzburg - Kurfürst Erzherzog Ferdinand 1803 - 1806. Kreuzer, 1805, aVF. 22 mm, 4.4 g dpaul7
Friesach-2-s.jpg
Austria, Eberhard II. von Regensberg, (1200-1246 A.D.), Duchy of Steiermark, Friesach under Archbishopric of Salzburg, AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ci 7,85 viewsAustria, Eberhard II. von Regensberg, (1200-1246 A.D.), Duchy of Steiermark, Friesach under Archbishopric of Salzburg, AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ci 7,
avers:- + FRISACH, Cherub facing, large cross above.
revers:- + EBERHARDVS, Bishop standing facing, holding crook and key.
diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 0,71g, axis: 0h,
mint: Friesach, mint mark: ,
date:1200-1246 A.D., ref: CNA Ci 7,
Q-001
quadrans
Friesach-3-s.jpg
Austria, Eberhard II. von Regensberg, (1200-1246 A.D.), Duchy of Steiermark, Friesach under Archbishopric of Salzburg, AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ck 2,81 viewsAustria, Eberhard II. von Regensberg, (1200-1246 A.D.), Duchy of Steiermark, Friesach under Archbishopric of Salzburg, AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ck 2,
avers:- Facing busts of bishop and duke side by side, above a wall. Above: star between small crosses, 3 balls between busts.
revers:- EBERHARDS EPS, Standing archbishop facing.
diameter: 15,5-16,5mm, weight: 0,80g, axis: 7h,
mint :Rann, mint mark: ,
date: A.D., ref: CNA Ck2. Probszt 23. Rare!
Q-001
quadrans
Friesach-1-s.jpg
Austria, Eberhard II. von Regensberg, (1200-1246 A.D.), Friesach under Archbishopric of Salzburg, AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ca 13,78 viewsAustria, Eberhard II. von Regensberg, (1200-1246 A.D.), Friesach under Archbishopric of Salzburg, AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ca 13,
avers: 2 bishops’ heads and 2 large stars arranged in a cross form; in the angles a ring with points.
reverse: Facing bust of the bishop with crozier and gospel.
diameter: 16,5-17mm, weight: 0,97g, axis:7h,
mint: Friesach, mint mark: ,
date: 1200-1246 A.D., ref: CNA I, Ca 13; Luschin-Ebengreuth 13.,
Q-001
quadrans
Austria,_Friesach_under_Salzburg_archbishops_Eberhard_I__1147-1164,_AR-Pfennig,_CNA_Ca5__Q-001,_6h,_17,5-18mm,_0,73g-s.jpg
Austria, Friesach, under Archbishopric of Salzburg, Eberhard I. (1147-1164 A.D.), AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ca5, Sprag cross with balls in each angle, #167 viewsAustria, Friesach, under Archbishopric of Salzburg, Eberhard I. (1147-1164 A.D.), AR-Pfennig, CNA I, Ca5, Sprag cross with balls in each angle, #1
avers: Saint’s bust facing between Crozier and star, cross above.
reverse: Sprag cross with balls in each angle.
diameter: 17,5-18,0 mm, weight: 0,73g, axis: 6/12 h,
mint: Krems - Friesach, mint mark: ,
date:1147-1164 A.D., ref: CNA Ca 5,
Q-001
quadrans
B_060_Alexius-I__Comnenus_(1081-1118_A_D_),_-Tetarteron_AE-20_pos-reform_ALZI-DECP_IC-XC_1081-1118-AD_SB-1929_Grierson-1055_Thessalonica_Q-002_h_17,5-20mm_g-sa.jpg
B 060 Alexius I. Comnenus (1081-1118 A.D.), SB 1929, AE-Tetarteron, IC/XC//--, Thessalonica, #199 viewsB 060 Alexius I. Comnenus (1081-1118 A.D.), SB 1929, AE-Tetarteron, IC/XC//--, Thessalonica, #1
avers: +AΛZI ΔECΠ, crowned bust of Alexius facing, wearing jewelled chlamys, holding cross-tipped sceptre and cross on globe (left picture).
reverse: IC-XC to left and right of nimbate bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels and raising right hand ( right picture).
exergue: IC/XC//--, diameter: 17,5-19,5mm,weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 1092-1118 A.D., postreform, ref: SB-1929, Grierson-1055,
Q-001
quadrans
B_060_Alexius-I__Comnenus_(1081-1118_A_D_),_-Tetarteron_AE-20_pos-reform-ALZI-DECP_1081-1118-AD_SB-1929_Grierson-1055_Thessalonica_Q-001_11h_19,5mm_3,44g-s.jpg
B 060 Alexius I. Comnenus (1081-1118 A.D.), SB 1929, AE-Tetarteron, IC/XC//--, Thessalonica, #2107 viewsB 060 Alexius I. Comnenus (1081-1118 A.D.), SB 1929, AE-Tetarteron, IC/XC//--, Thessalonica, #2
avers: +AΛZI ΔECΠ, crowned bust of Alexius facing, wearing jewelled chlamys, holding cross-tipped sceptre and cross on globe (left picture).
reverse: IC-XC to left and right of nimbate bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels and raising right hand ( right picture).
exergue: IC/XC//--, diameter: 19,5mm,weight: 3,44g, axis: 11h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 1092-1118 A.D., postreform, ref: SB-1929, Grierson-1055,
Q-002
quadrans
Heraclius_2C_M_BCC_B2.jpg
BCC b216 viewsByzantine - Caesarea Maritima
Base coin - Constantinople mint
Heraclius 610-641CE
AE follis 40 nummia
Obv: Traces of image.
REV: Large M, below, gamma. in ex. CON
Countermarks of Heraclian monograms
type 1f (var.) and type 2c, (Schulze et. al.)
23x28mm. 4.65gm.
v-drome
heraclius_type_1c.png
BCC b3x62 viewsByzantine Caesarea
Uncertain mint
Heraclius 610-641CE
AE cut follis with CM
Obv:Traces of facing bust and inscription
Rev:Large M, cross above, to
left A[N...]. Overstruck on
40 nummia (XXXX) of Phocas?.
Finally struck with Heraclian monogram
CM type 1c (Schulze et. al. 2006)
31.5x23mm. 5.18gm.
v-drome
heraclius_K_c_m_comp.jpg
BCC b539 viewsByzantine
Heraclius 610-641CE
AE 1/2 follis 20 nummia
Obv: Traces of image.
Rev: Large K
Countermark of Heraclian
monogram type 2c, (Schulze et al)
c/m 8mm, die worn and cracked at top
18x23mm. 4.85g.
v-drome
crusaderHughesV,denier17mm_69g.jpg
Bil Denier of Hugues 1305-1315AD7 viewsObv: Legend on Annille
Rev: Cross over trefoil sceptre
17mm
.69g
ex Arthur Selzman
ex Tordella Manfra
wileyc
crusaderhughIV_17mm__81g.jpg
Billion Denier of Hugh IV 1218-127214 viewsObv- X and band
Rev- cross
17mm
.81g
ex Alex Selzman
wileyc
crusaderdenierofHughIV_18mm.jpg
Billion denier of Hugh IV; 1218-127218 viewsDuchy of Burgundy
Hugh IV
Obv-X and Band
Rev. Cross
18mm
.70g
ex Alex Selzman
wileyc
Bronze-Knife_Q-001_19x59mm_6,06ga-s.jpg
Bronze-Knife from the "Hallstatt culture" #174 viewsBronze-Knife from the "Hallstatt culture" #1
type: Bronze-Knife. Two holes are for rivets that attached a handle with C-shaped rim.
size: 19x59mm,
weight: 6,06g,
date: Early iron age 8th to 6th centuries B.C.,
ref: ???.
distribution: "By the 6th century BC, it spanned across territories north-south from the Main, Bohemia, the Little Carpathians, the Swiss plateau, the Salzkammergut, down to the border between Lower Styria and Lower Carniola, and from the western zone, that included Champagne-Ardenne, the Upper Rhine, and the upper Danube, to the eastern zone, that included Vienna Basin and the Danubian Lowland, for some 1000 km. " from Wikipedia.
Q-001
"The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture from the 8th to 6th centuries BC (European Early Iron Age), developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC (Late Bronze Age) and followed in much of Central Europe by the La Tène culture. It is commonly associated with Proto-Celtic and Celtic populations in the Western Hallstatt zone and with (pre-)Illyrians in the eastern Hallstatt zone." from Wikipedia.
quadrans
Screenshot_2019-08-15_13_29_23.png
Byzantine Empire, Alexius I, AE Tetarteron - Overstruck on Pre-reform Follis.13 viewsThessalonica 1081-1118 A.D. 2.13g - 21.3mm, Axis 6h.

Obv: IC-XC - Nimbate bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels and raising right hand.

Rev: ALZI DECP - Crowned bust of Alexius facing, wearing jeweled chlamys, holding cross-tipped sceptre and cross on globe.

Sear 1929; BMC 37-40.
Christian Scarlioli
B_060_Alexius-I__Comnenus_(1081-1118_A_D_),_-Tetarteron_AE-20_pos-reform_ALZI-DECP_IC-XC_1081-1118-AD_SB-1929_Grierson-1055_Thessalonica_Q-002_h_17,5-19,5mm_g-s.jpg
Byzantine, Alexius I. Comnenus (1081-1118 A.D.), SB 1929, AE-Tetarteron, IC/XC//--, Thessalonica, #1201 viewsB 060 Alexius I. Comnenus (1081-1118 A.D.), SB 1929, AE-Tetarteron, IC/XC//--, Thessalonica, #1
avers: +AΛZI ΔECΠ, crowned bust of Alexius facing, wearing jewelled chlamys, holding cross-tipped sceptre and cross on globe (left picture).
reverse: IC-XC to left and right of nimbate bust of Christ facing, holding book of gospels and raising right hand ( right picture).
exergue: IC/XC//--, diameter: 17,5-19,5mm,weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 1092-1118 A.D., postreform, ref: SB-1929, Grierson-1055,
Q-001
2 commentsquadrans
ccarsepORweb.jpg
Caracalla, SNG PFALZ 6,586 16 viewsHieropolis-Castabala mint, Caracalla, c. 200 A.D. AE, 31mm 17.87g, SNG PFALZ 6,586
O: AVT KAI M AP AVPH ANTWNEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: IEROPOLITWN KACTABALEWN, Septimius Severus standing to right, clasping hands with Caracalla to left


casata137ec
ccarsep2ORweb.jpg
Caracalla, SNG PFALZ 6,586 11 viewsHieropolis-Castabala mint, Caracalla, c. 200 A.D. AE, 31mm 14.09g, SNG PFALZ 6,586
O: AVT KAI M AP AVPH ANTWNEINOC, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: IEROPOLITWN KACTABALEWN, Septimius Severus standing to right, clasping hands with Caracalla to left
casata137ec
kelenderis2.jpg
Cilicia, Kelenderis, obol69 views9mm, 0.72g
obv: forepart of Pegasos right
rev: goat kneeling right, head reverted
(SNG France 2, -;
SNG Levante I, 27;
SNG Pfälzer Privatsammlung 6, Ziegler, -;
BMC 21.56.30
Sear 5536 var.;)

ex Roland Müller collection, ex Rutten & Wieland
1 commentsareich
Cilicia,_Seleucia_ad_Calycadnum,_090_Gallienus,_SNG_Levante_789,_SNG_Pfalz_1086_,_AE-27,_253-268_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_25,5-28,3,_12,41g-s~0.jpg
Cilicia, Seleucia ad Calycadnum, 090p Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), SNG Levante 789, AE-27, Athena and the serpent-legged giant, #164 viewsCilicia, Seleucia ad Calycadnum, 090p Gallienus (253-268 A.D.), SNG Levante 789, AE-27, Athena and the serpent-legged giant, #1
avers: AY K Π Λ K ΓAΛΛIHN/OC, Laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: CEΛEYKEΩN K A/ΛYK/ΛΔ, Athena standing right, wielding spear at a serpent-legged giant at her feet which is about to throw a stone at her.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5-28,3mm, weight:12,41g, axes: 6h,
mint: Cilicia, Seleucia ad Calycadnum, date: 253-268 A.D., ref: SNG Levante 789, SNG Pfalz 1086,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
syedra_gallienus_SNGLevante438.jpg
Cilicia, Syedra, Gallienus SNG Levante 43836 viewsGallienus AD 253-268
AE 28, 15.67g
obv. AVT KAI PO LIK GALLIHNOC [CEB]
bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
IA before (for 11 Assaria)
rev. CE / MNHC / ENDOXO / TERAC / CYEDR /EWN
in six lines, surrounded by laurel wreath
SNG Levante 438 (same dies); SNG Paris 667; SNG Pfalz 1247/1248; Lindgren I, 1610; BMC 19, 160, 16
very rare, good F, some over all roughness

CEMNHC, to CEBACTOS, = venerable, dignified, nobly
ENDOXOTERAC, to ENDOXOS, famous, = the even more famous
Jochen
imgonline-com-ua-twotoone-mLzsbXYDQtpt6Of.jpg
Cimmerian Bosporos. Pantikapaion. (Circa 310-304/3 BC.)21 viewsAE20 (6.83 g)

Obverse: Bearded head of satyr or Pan right
Reverse: Forepart of griffin left; below, sturgeon left.

Anokhin 1023; MacDonald 69; HGC 7, 113.
1 commentsNathan P
020O.jpg
Commodus AE36 Medallion199 viewsHierocaesarea mint
Magistrate (archon) Artemidoros
BMC Lydia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, Imhoof-Blumer -
24.976 g, maximum diameter 36.4mm, die axis 180o,
Obverse AVT KAI Λ AVPH KOMMO∆O, laureate and cuirassed bust right;
Reverse ΕΠΙ[...]ΟΥ[...] ΑΡΤΕΜΙ∆ΟΡΟΥ ΑΡΧ[...] ΙΕΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ, Artemis standing half-right wearing chiton; Leto standing half-left holding patera; Apollo standing half-left, naked, resting left hand on lyre; nice armored bust.

An interesting reverse depicting a mythological scene: Leto and her children Artemis and Apollo. The two were fathered by Zeus, arousing Hera's jealousy. Leto was banned from giving birth on earth or sea, but found the island of Delos, which supposedly was not connected to either.

(all notes from FORVM website)

Extremely rare with no other specimens found on Wildwinds.com, acsearch.info or coinarchives.com.

No examples in Loebbecke, Scholz or all the Imhoof additions.-Dane Kurth

One same size, same obv. die as {this coin}, same magistrate (archon) Artemidoros, but different rev. type (river god reclining), in RPC temp. (online) 8174 = Peus 365, 2000, Burstein 696, there stated to be unpublished and apparently unique.-Curtis Clay

(Many thanks to Mr. Curtis Clay and Ms. Dane Kurth "Helvetica" for further information)

EX: FORVM Ancient Coins
8 commentsMark Z
4YjDLz6WiNC9Ry7G5qSq4f2Ag3JPZb.jpg
Constantine16 viewsChance Vandal
constantiusII_trier_480.jpg
Constantius II RIC VII, Trier 48065 viewsConstantius II 324-361, son of Constantine I
AE - reduced Follis (AE 3)
Trier 1st officina, AD 326, 3.02g, 18.15mm, 4h
obv. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
bust laureate, draped and cuirassed, l.
rev. PROVIDEN - TIA CAESS
camp-gate, without doors, with two turrets, one star above
exergue: PTR dot above crescent
RIC VII, Trier 480
near mint state, brown patina

The emperor wears at his left shoulder a fur trimming, called in German 'Trierer Pelzchen', i.e. 'small fur from Trier', due to the cold climate in this part of Germany.
From the Killingholme hoard (deposited around 333-334), found 1993
2 commentsJochen
constantiusII_trier_514.jpg
Constantius II RIC VII, Trier 51456 viewsConstantius II 324-361, son of Constantine I
AE - reduced Follis (AE 3)
Trier 1st officina, AD 327-328, 2.93g, 18.27mm, 4h
obv. FL IVL CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
bust laureate, draped and cuirassed, l.
rev. PROVIDEN - TIA CAESS
camp-gate, without doors, with two turrets, one star above
exergue: PTRE
RIC VII, Trier 514
near mint state, brown patina
added to www.wildwinds.com

The emperor wears at his left shoulder a fur trimming, called in German 'Trierer Pelzchen', i.e. 'small fur from Trier', due to the cold climate in this part of Germany.
From the Killingholme hoard (deposited around 333-334), found 1993
2 commentsJochen
Diokletianus_Alexandria_Zeus_LZ.jpg
Diocletian - Alexandria5 viewsBI tetradrachm
29 Aug 290 - 28 Aug 291 AD
laureate head right
ΔIOKΛHTI_ANOC CEB
Zeus standing half left, wearing chalmys, holding patera and scepter; eagle at feet
L_Z
Milne 4946; Curtis 2045; BMC Alexandria p. 321, 2475; Geissen 3250; Kampmann 119.68; Emmett 4087
8,15g
ex Dionysos
Johny SYSEL
GI_141c_img.jpg
Diocletian, Billon tetradrachm, Alexandria, Year 7, Zeus21 viewsObv:– DIOKLHTIANOC CEB, Laureate head right
Rev:– None, Zeus, seated left on throne, holding patera in right hand and resting on sceptre in left, eagle on ground before
Minted in Alexandria (LZ). Year 7. A.D. 290-290
Reference:– Milne 4968. Emmett 4089(7) R1. Curtis 2037. BMC 2477. Dattari 5776
maridvnvm
13313-_Diocletian,_Egypt,_Alexandria,_Potin_Tetradrachm.JPG
Diocletian, Potin Tetradrachm, Egypt Alexandria, 290-291 AD 40 viewsDiocletian, Potin Tetradrachm, Egypt Alexandria, 290-291 AD
Obverse: DIOKLETIANOC CEB, Laureate head right
Reverse: LZ, Zeus standing holding patera and scepter, eagle left
Emmett 4087
18mm, 7.4gm
Antonivs Protti
j64SD7n5iS5QE9pB8ZKckN3P2qLzb6.jpg
Divus Augustus Æ AS / Altar24 viewsObverse: DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, Radiate head left
Reverse: PROVIDENT, S-C, Altar
30.07 mm.; 10.19 grams; Rome, 31-37 AD.
Ref.: RIC I 81
SOLD
Antonivs Protti
EB0603_scaled.JPG
EB0603 Domitian / Apis29 viewsDomitian AE 24 of Alexandria. Year 7 = 87-88 AD.
Obv: AVT KAIΣAP ΔOMITIANOΣ ΣEB ΓEPM, Laureate bust right.
Rev: Apis bull standing right, wearing a Yoke around his neck, LZ above.
References: Dattari 578.
Diameter: 24mm, Weight: 6.426 grams.
1 commentsEB
EB0638b_scaled.JPG
EB0638 Gordian III / Homonoia13 viewsGordian III, 238-244 AD, Billon tetradrachm of Alexandria, Year 7 = 244 AD.
Obverse: A K M ANT ΓOPΔIANOC EV, laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Gordian right.
Reverse: Homonoia standing left, raising right hand and holding double cornucopia; LZ in left field.
References: Dattari 4740, Milne 3473.
Diameter: 22mm Weight: 10.1g
EB
Diocletianus_03.jpg
Egypt, Alexandria, AD 290/291, Diocletianus, Zeus 14 viewsDiocletianus
Alexandria
Billon-Tetradrachm
Obv.: ΔIOKΛHTIANOC CEB, laureate head right.
Rev.: LZ (year 7, 290/291), Zeus enthroned left with patera and sceptre, eagle to left
Billon, 7.24g, 20.2mm
Ref.: Kampmann/Ganschow 119.67, G3252, D5779
Ex Pecunem 10, Group Lot 869
shanxi
anemourion.jpg
Elagabal, Anemourion, Artemis, AE268 viewssize/weight: 26mm, 6.79g

obv: AV KA M AV ANTWNEINON, laureate and draped bust right

rev: ANEMOVPIEWN ET B, Artemis standing facing, head right, holding bow and drawing arrow from quiver, stag at feet left

Attribution: SNG Pfälzer Privatsammlungen 332
areich
FH-G-027_(0s).jpg
FH-G-0276 viewsCilicia, Tarsos; 164-30 BC; bronze AE17

- ΤΑΠΣΕΩΝ
- TARSEWN
- Zeus seated left, holding Nike and sceptre, star in lower left field.

- Μ-Η-ΤΡ-Ο
- M-H-TR-O (TR ligate)- Clockwise from lower left
- Knobby club, with pommel and hilt, bound with filet; all within wreath.

3.63gm / 17.68mm / Axis: 0

References:
SNG France 1370-2 var. (magistrate’s name)
SNG Levante 974
Waddington 4613
SNG Pfalz 1327

Notes: Dec 2, 15 - Although fully and accurately attributed, this coin may show considerable aesthetic improvement with proper cleaning.
- This coin is closely comparable in detail and style to coin listed here: https://www.cngcoins.com/Coin.aspx?CoinID=98417
Jonathan P
FH-G-030_(0s).jpg
FH-G-0306 viewsCilicia, Tarsos; 164-0 BC; AE17

- ΤΑΠΣΕΩΝ
- TARSEWN
- Zeus seated left, holding Nike and sceptre, star in lower left field.

- Μ-Η-ΤΡ-Ο
- M-H-TR-O (TR ligate) - Clockwise from lower left
- Solid, wide club, bound with filet; all within wreath.

4.21gm / 17.97mm / Axis: 0

References:
SNG France 1366
SNG Levante 974
Waddington 4613
SNG Pfalz 1327

Notes: Dec 2, 15 - Although faint, minor details of this coin are visible, including star on obverse and legend on reverse, making this coin nicely attributable.
- The club on the obverse is distinctly wider than others of this type, almost trumpet shape. I have not yet found a comparable example.
- This coin is noticably heavy compared to the other three of the same type in this collection.
Jonathan P
freis.jpg
FRIESACH PFENNIG99 viewsc. 1200 AD - AR Pfennig. Issued by the Bishop of Salzburg - crudely made. dpaul7
1104_Gallienus_Sillyum.jpg
Gallienus and Salonina - Sillyum5 views10 assarion
253-268 AD
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust of Gallienus left , confronting laureate and draped bust of Salonina right
AV K ΠO ΛI ΓAΛΛIHNOC
I
Tyche standing half left, holding rudder and cornucopia
CIΛΛ_V_EΩN
obverse: SNG RIGHETTI 1320; SNG v. Aulock 4890; Lane S. 148, 44
reverse: SNG PFALZ 4 958 SNG France 1013; SNG von Aulock 4892; BMC 18 S169,22
20,5g
Johny SYSEL
Gallienus_Syedra_JudgementOfAres_13_77g_28-29mm_LG.jpg
Gallienus, Syedra, judgement of Ares, AE2949 viewsGallienus, 253-268 AD, Syedra, Cilicia
29mm, 13.77g
Obv: AVT K ΠO ΛIK ΓAΛΛIHNOC CEB / IA; laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind
Rev: CVEΔPEΩN, Ares, cuirassed and helmeted, standing left between Dike, standing to left, head right, and Hermes, standing to right, holding Kerykeion and wearing winged shoes, holding the arms of Ares
SNG PFPS VI 1239 (same dies)

ex Rutten & Wieland (seller's picture)

'CNG notes on a similar coin:

Ares slew Halirrhothios, son of Poseidon, for assaulting Ares' daughter, Alcippe. The site where Ares came before the gods for judgement, escorted by Dike (Justice) and the herald Hermes, became the Areopagus (Hill of Ares) in Athens, the location of the Athenian law courts. Ares was absolved of murder. It is unknown why this event had such import for Syedra, but the scene appears frequently on its 3rd century coinage.

In fact, as Johannes Nollé and Margret Karola pointed out*, it is known why Syedra issued coins with this scene: In late Hellenistic times the inhabitants of Syedra suffered from repeated assaults of pirates. In these dangerous times, the people of Synedra contacted the oracle of Klaros for help and received the advice to erect a statue of Ares bound by Hermes and being judged by Dike in their city. This statue would protect them against the assaults of the pirates. The base of the statue with the inscription of this action was found during the excavation of Syedra.

*Götter, Städte, Münzen: Kleinasiatische Münzen der Römischen Kaiserzeit, Begleitheft zu einer Ausstellung von Münzen der Pfälzer Provatsammlungen, Münzen 1994, o. 23 f.'
areich
IMG_4763.JPG
German Notgeld: Frankenthal, Pfalz15 viewsCity: Frankenthal
State: Pfalz
Denomination: 10 Pfennig
Obverse: Fürs Vaterland, a woman carrying cannon shell inside a munitions plant.
Reverse: Stadt Frankenthal + Kriegsgeld 1918 +
Date: 1918
Grade: VF
Catalog #:
Matt Inglima
IMG_4761.JPG
German Notgeld: Frankenthal, Pfalz15 viewsCity: Frankenthal
State: Pfalz
Denomination: 10 Pfennig
Obverse: No legend, a foundry worker pouring metal into a mold; factories in the background.
Reverse: Stadt Frankenthal + Kriegsgeld 1918 +
Date: 1918
Grade: VF
Catalog #:
Matt Inglima
pfalza.jpg
German States. Anhalt-Zerbst. Friedrich August 1747 - 1793. Copper pfenning 1766.67 viewsGerman States. Anhalt-Zerbst. Friedrich August 1747 - 1793. Copper pfennig 1766. D.G.F.-A.P.A. bust right / F.A.Z.L.M. 1 PFENNING, arms divide date 17-66.

KM 51
oneill6217
Gordian III-Alexandria-1.JPG
Gordian III, Potin Tetradrachm, Alexandria18 viewsPotin Tetradrachm, Alexandria Egypt
Year 7, 244 AD
Obverse: A K M ANT GORD IANOC EV, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right
Reverse: LZ left, Nike advancing left with wreath and palm
22mm, 12.8gm
Curtis 1276 (var. ) (Year 6) ; Emett 3415 ; Dattari 4750
Jerome Holderman
YJs7pD6iEQf53LZxPmP8SR9q2RgWa4.jpg
Hephthalites. Nezak Huns.. AR drachm. "Napki Malka" series. .22 viewsHephthalites. Nezak Huns.. AR drachm. "Napki Malka" series. .
Circa 515.680 A.D.
Obverse..Bust right wearing winged-bull head-dress. Pahlavi legends nycky MLK-A
Reverse:Fire altar with attendants, Solar wheels above.
3.41 grams....24.64 mm.
Vondrovec [Göbl] 198
Paul R3
1813.jpg
hiersnglevante15941 viewsElagabalus
Hierapolis-Castabala, Cilicia

Obv: AVT K M AVP [ANTΩNINOC]. laureate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from behind.
Rev: ΚΑϹΤΑ-ΒΑΛƐⲰΝ. front view of quadriga, horses rearing on hind legs, carrying the black stone of Emesa topped by an eagle.
28 mm, 15.29 gms

SNG Levante 1594, SNG Pfalz 597, RPC VI online 7472
Charles M
HUN_Istvan_V_Huszar_345.JPG
Huszár 345, Unger 258, Réthy I ---26 viewsHungary. Stephen V (István, in Hun.) (1270-1272). AR (fourrée) obulus, .23 gr., 10-11 mm.

Obv: Half-length portrait of king facing, with imperial orb and scepter.

Rev: Three lilies within triangular shield, lilies to the left, right and above shield.

Fourrée mentioned in: Budaj, M.-Richtera, L.-Jankovič, P.-Macko, J.-Mazík, M.: Dve dobové falzá uhorského denára Štefana V. typu Huszár 343. Two period counterfeit Hungarian Stephens V denars, of the Huszar 343 type. Denarius 5, 2015, p. 33-40.

Huszár rarity rating R4 (but a fourrée/subaerat, per Numismatik Lanz).
Stkp
dgfadg.jpg
IN DEO - CONSILIUM62 viewsIN DEO - CONSILIUM D. G. MAX. IOS. . B. & P. - S. D. C. P. R. S. R. I. A. & E. L. L. , Draped bust to right within laurel wreath / IN DEO - CONSILIUM, Crowned oval shield of 4-fold arms of Bavaria and Pfalz, with central shield of imperial orb, in baroque frame, 2 chains of orders around, on pedestal with value '10,' which divides date, laurel and palm branches at left and right.
H#295; JB-2193. Prev. KM#239.
oneill6217
Irenopolis,_Cilicia_AE_assarion_of_Caracalla,_217-218_AD.jpg
Irenopolis, Cilicia AE assarion of Caracalla, 217-218 AD37 viewsCaracalla
Cilicia, Irenopolis
AE assarion – 23mm
Struck 216-217 AD, countermarked under Gordian III
Laureate and draped bust right. C/m: Laureate head right
AYTOKPATΩP ANTΩNINOC
Bust of Dionysus r. with thrysos and bunch of grapes
EIRHNOΠOΛITON ET EΞP
SNG Righetti 1579, SNG Pfalz 6 640, Imhoof KM S442. For c/m: Howgego 105
Ardatirion
JET_Mercury_Tressure_Krauwinckel.JPG
Jeton, brass 22 mm., undated.137 viewsMinted by Hans Krauwinkel II (master 1586-1635) at Nuremberg.

Mitchiner 1593 var., Neumann 32243, Stalzer 464

Obv: Bust of Mercury right, wearing winged helmet, HANNS KRAVWINCKEL IN NVRN.

Rev: Imperial Orb within a double tresure of three arches and three angles, HEVT ROD MORGEN TODTT (Today red, tomorrow dead).

scarce to very scarce

Attribution assistance courtesy of Robert A. Levinson
Stkp
kreuz.jpg
Johann Ernst von Thun (1643 - 1709 A.D.)22 viewsBishopric of Salzburg
AR Kreuzer
O: IO:ERNEST:D:G:ARCHIE, Oval arms with cardinals' hat above.
R: SALI SBVR GENSI S:1698, Round shield within double cross and circle
15mm
.85g
KM# 248
2 commentsMat
Justin_I_tremissis.jpg
Justin I AD518-AD52754 viewsAV tremissis
Die axis 180 degrees
Sear 58 Ex Felz. 127
Constantinople mint
1 commentsPaul D3
Papia_1k_img.jpg
L Papius Denarius Serratus, Papia 1, Sym. var. RRC 05223 viewsObv:– Head of Juno Sospita right, wearing goat skin tied under chin. Behind head, goblet.
Rev:– Gryphon running right; in ex., L. PAPI.; in field, winsekin? shoe?
Minted in Rome from . B.C. 79.
Reference(s) – RSC Papia 1. RRC 384/1. RCTV 311.
Symbol variety – RRC 52. Babelon 96. BMCRR 52. CNR: 1/042.

Symbols listed as goblet/wine-skin by Sydenham. coppa/calzatura (cup/shoe) by CNR
1 commentsmaridvnvm
saitta_sept_severus_SNGaulock3098.jpg
Lydia, Saitta, Septimius Severus, SNG von Aulock 30987 viewsLydia, Saitta, Septimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 25, 8.24g
obv. AV KAI L C -EP CEOVHRO - C PER
laureate head Right
rev. EPI ANDRONEIK - OV ARX A CAITT
in l. and r. field HN - WN
Men with Phrygian bonnet, in chiton and cloak, stg. half left, resting with raised left hand on sceptre and holding in
extended right hand pine cone.
Rare, F, corroded
Ref. BMC 42-43; SNG von Aulock 3098; Mionnet IV, 618; SNG Munich 441; Leypold I, 1162; Waddington 5176; Paris
1065; Welzl 6287; Winsemann 1343

Thanks to Shanxi for the Attribution!
Jochen
Antoninus_Pius_Side.jpg
Marcus Aurelius - Side13 views140-161 AD
bare head right
KAIC__M? AYPHΛIOC
Athena advancing right, holding spear and shield, serpent at foot
CI_ΔH_TωN
SNG Cop. 418 var. SNG Pfalz 661. var (Marcus Aurelius as Caesar)
5,4g 18-17mm
Johny SYSEL
YHWH.jpg
Maria Di Medici Jeton52 viewsMARIA. D. GR. FRANC. AND. NAVA. REG, 16 NB 08 in exergue.
Coat of arms half of France and quartered of Medici, and of Austria, surrounded by a crown half of laurel and half of palm

SERVAT DATAM 1608 in exergue
Two intertwined hands as a sign of trust between a palm and an olive branch. Above, the name JEHOVAH in Hebrew (YHWH) , whose rays penetrate dense clouds.

5.24g, 28mm

"Mary of God's Grace Queen of France and Navarre"

"He protects those who trust him."

Maria was born at the Palazzo Pitti of Florence, Italy, the sixth daughter of Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Archduchess Joanna of Austria. Marie was one of seven children, but only she and her sister Eleonora survived to adulthood.

Maria is not a male-line descendant of Lorenzo the Magnificent but from Lorenzo the Elder, a branch of the Medici family referred to as the 'cadet' branch. She does descend from Lorenzo in the female-line however, through his daughter Lucrezia de' Medici. Nonetheless this 'cadet' branch produced every Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1537 to 1737, and the kings of France from Louis XIII in 1601 to Louis XVI in 1793.

She married Henry IV of France in October 1600 following the annulment of his marriage to Margaret of Valois. The wedding ceremony in Florence, Italy (to which Henry did not turn up, marrying her by proxy) was celebrated with 4,000 guests and lavish entertainments. She brought as part of her dowry 600,000 crowns. Her eldest son, the future King Louis XIII, was born at Fontainebleau the following year.

Maria was crowned Queen of France on 13 May 1610, a day before her husband's death. Hours after Henry's assassination, she was confirmed as regent by the Parliament of Paris. She immediately banished his mistress, Catherine Henriette de Balzac, from the court.

Her daughter, Henrietta Maria was queen consort of England, Scotland, and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I. Henrietta Maria, in turn, was mother of two immediate successors, Charles II and James II.
2 commentsJay GT4
0452-310np_noir.jpg
Marius, Antoninianus - *128 viewsMint #2 : Köln or Mainz
MP C M AVR MARIVS AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
VICT - ORIA AVG, Victory walking left, holding wreath and palm
3,2 gr
Ref : RIC # 17, RCV # 11124, Cohen # 21 (20Fr), Schulzki 7a

Many thanks to Mauseus and Agrippa1 for precisions in IDing this very interesting coin
5 commentsPotator II
marius_17.jpg
Marius, RIC V, 1732 viewsMarius, AD 269, Gallic Empire
AE - Antoninianus, 2.51g, 19mm
Cologne, 2nd emission, middle of 269
obv. IMP CM AVR MARIVS AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. VICTO - RI A AVG
Victory advancing l., holding palmbranch in l. arm and wreath in raised r. hand
RIC V/2, 17; C.21; Zschucke 248 (1st emission, AD 268!); Schulzki 7a (r1); Elmer 637; Cunetio 2508 (8 ex.); Mairat 239-40
Scarce, VF
Pedigree:
ex CNG
Jochen
rjb_mar3_05_07.jpg
Marius: Mint 218 viewsIMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG
Radiate and cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVG
Victory walking right holding wreath and palm branch
Mint 2
RIC 18; Elmer 636; Schulzki 6a
mauseus
rjb_2015_09_03.jpg
Marius: Mint 219 viewsIMP C M AVR MARIVS AVG
Radiate and cuirassed bust right
VICTORIA AVG
Victory walking right holding wreath and palm branch
Mint 2
RIC 18; Elmer 636; Schulzki 6a
mauseus
Maximianus_Alexandria_Nike_LZ.jpg
Maximian - Alexandria5 viewsBI tetradrachm
29 Aug 291 - 28 Aug 292 AD
laureate, draped and cuirased bust right
MAΞIMI_ANOC CEB
Nike with wreath and palm branch advancing right
L_* / Z
Milne 5031, Curtis 2101, Geissen 3319, SNG Cop 1048, BMC 2580
7,09 g
Johny SYSEL
4060_4061.jpg
Maximian, Tetradrachm, Elpis standing left, holding flower and raising skirt.13 viewsPotin Tetradrachm
Roman Provincial: Alexandria, Egypt
Maximian
Augustus: 285 - 305; 306 - 308; 310AD
Regnal Year 7
18.5mm
O: MAΞΙΜΙΑΝΟC CEB; Laureate, draped bust, right.
R: NO LEGEND; Elpis standing left, holding flower in right hand, lifting hem of robe with left.
Exergue: L, left field; (Star) over Z, right field (LZ = Regnal Year 7).
Alexandria Mint
Koln 3316; Emmett 4114; Milne 5829; Curtis 2072 (Curtis has this variety listed with a star above the Z. Curtis also lists this as being noted in BMC as 2557 and Milne as 5029. ACSearch was not helpful in determining the correct Milne number.)
Harlan Berk
Chicago Coin Expo 4/6/17 4/17/17
Nicholas Z
Maximianus Emmett 4147-Year 7.JPG
Maximianus Emmett 4147-Year 717 viewsMaximianus
Potin Tetradrachm, Alexandria, Egypt
Year 7, 290-291 AD
Obverse: MAXIMIANOC CEB, Laureate head right
Reverse: LZ, Nike advancing right with wreath and palm, B below
Emmett 4147
19mm, 7.5gm
Jerome Holderman
s_Bracteate_Eagle_a.jpg
MEDIEVAL, Bracteate, Brandenburg-Salzwedel mint. c. 1350 35 viewsAR, 14 mm, 0,3 g. Obv: eagle with wings spread. Ref: Similar to Jesse 250Bard Gram O
salzburg-1766.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), AUSTRIA, SALZBURG, 1 TALER, 1766420 viewsSilver coin with 27,89 grams
Ruller: Sigismund von Schrattenbach (1753 - 1771)
OBV.: SIGM DG.A & P.S.A.L.N.G.P.R.I.M
REV.: 1766 and coat of arms of Salzburg
Ref.: KM#402, P.2297, Dav.: 1259
lincon r2
nikopolis_caracalla_HrJ8_18_5_4.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 18. Caracalla, HrHJ (2018) 8.18.05.0619 viewsCaracalla as Caesar, AD 196-198
AE 18, 2.84g, 18.11mm, 270°
obv. M AVR KAI - ANTWNINO
Bare head r.
rev. NIKOPOLIT PROC ICTR
Cista mystica, snake emerging l. from half-open lid
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1504 (4 ex., Bukarest, Moskau, Sofia, Cat. Welzl)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 2963 corr. (wrong description)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.18.5.6
rare, about VF
Jochen
nikopolis_diadumenian_AMNG1884.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 25. Diadumenian, HrHJ (2018) 8.25.20.13 #1 (plate coin)49 viewsDiadumenian, AD 217-218
AE 18, 2.68g, 17.18mm, 30°
obv. KM OPPEL - ANTWNINOC
Bare head, r.
rev. NIKOLI - TWN(sic!) PR / [O]C IC
Staff entwined by snake
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 1884 (3 ex., München, Stuttgart, cat. Welzl)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 3607
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.25.20.13 (plate coin)
F+/VF, deep brown black patina

Pick calls it knotted staff or tree stump.
Jochen
nikopolis_gordianIII_AMNG2047.jpg
Moesia inferior, Nikopolis ad Istrum, 36. Gordian III, HrHJ (2018) 8.36.05.0382 viewsGordian III, AD 238-244
AE 29, 12.30g, 28.79mm, 180°
struck under governor Sabinius Modestus
obv. AVT K M ANT G - ORDIANOC AVG
bust, draped and cuirassed, seen from behind, laureate, r.
rev. VP CAB MODECTOV NI - KOP - OLEITWN POC (sic!) ICTR (WN ligate)
Demeter, stg. l., holding 2 corn-ears and a poppy-head in her outstretched r. hand, leaning
with l. hand on lighted torch.
ref. a) AMNG I/1, 2047 (3 ex., Athens, Wien, Welzl)
b) Varbanov (engl.) 4186 corr. (rev. same die, writes in error ICTRON)
c) Hristova/Hoeft/Jekov (2018) No. 8.36.5.3 (same dies)
VF, dark green patina

POC may be a ligate PR?
1 commentsJochen
Rechenpfennig_2_fac.jpg
Nuremberg, 1586-1635, Counter Token, Diana Apollo, Meleagros Atlante11 viewsCounter Token/Jeton
by Hans Krauwinckel, Nuremberg, AD 1586-1635
Obv.: APOLLO DIANA /in ex. H . K . - Apollo with harp to left. Diana with dog, spear, arrow and quiver to right.
Rev.: MELIAGER - Meleagros, left, giving Atlante, to the right, head of a killed boar.
AE, 4.63g, 27mm
Ref.: Stalzer Pl. 35, 307.
shanxi
hans krauwinckel.jpg
NURNBERG - Hanns Krauwinckel336 viewsNURNBERG - Hanns Krauwinckel AE Rechenpfennig (counting jeton). ca. 1586-1636. Obv.: *GOTT.ALLEIN.DIE.EHRE.SEI, Orb in pointed 3-lobed border. Rev.: *HANNS.KRAVWIN CKEL.IN.NVR, 3 crowns alternating with 3 lilies, around a rosette. Reference: Stalzer, Staatliche Münzsammlung München 1,1, Tafel 40, 389. dpaul7
26.jpg
OTACILIA SEVERA, sesterzio (244-249 d.C.)61 viewsOtacilia Severa (Filippo I), sesterzio (244-249 d.C.), zecca di Roma.
AE, 20.168g, 30.2mm, 0°. MB (F)
D/ MARCIA OTACIL SEVERA AVG, diademata, con il busto drappeggiato a dx.
R/ PIETAS AVGVSTAE S C, Pietas che si leva in piedi a sx alzante mano dx e la scatola del profumo.
RIC 208a
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (28 dicembre 2007, numero catalogo 113); ex FAC (Morehead City NC, Usa, fino al 2007)
paolo
side_valerianII_SNGpfps882.jpg
Pamphylia, Side, Valerian II, probably unpublished29 viewsValerian II, Caesar AD 256-258, son of Gallienus
AE 30, 18.04g
obv. POV LIK KOR OVALERIANON KAI CEB
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.; beneath eagle, standing r., with opened wings and head r.
c/m E in circular incus (Howgego 805)
rev. CIDHTWN - NEWKORWN
Athena (Sidetes), helmeted and wearing narrow peplos, stg. facing, head l., holding palmbranch over l. shoulder and dropping voting pebble with r. hand into amphora with two handles l. beside her; r. beside her a branch with a pomegranate.
ref.: cf. SNG Pfälzer Privatsammlungen 882 (Gallienus); probably unpublished
F/about VF, rough obv., rev. with slight strike weakness and distinct circular traces of the ancient smoothing process.
The E of the c/m should probably devaluate the coin from 10 units to 5 units.
Coins from Side often show pomegranates because 'side' in Pamphylian means 'pomegranate'.

For more informations please look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'.
Jochen
side_valerianII_SNGpfps882~0.jpg
Pamphylia, Side, Valerian II, probably unpublished (devaluation)17 viewsValerian II, Caesar AD 256-258, son of Gallienus
AE 30, 18.04g
obv. POV LIK KOR OVALERIANON KAI CEB
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.; beneath eagle, standing r., with opened wings and head r.
c/m E in circular incus (Howgego 805)
rev. CIDHTWN - NEWKORWN
Athena (Sidetes), helmeted and wearing narrow peplos, stg. facing, head l., holding palmbranch over l. shoulder and dropping voting pebble with r. hand into amphora with two handles l. beside her; r. beside her a branch with a pomegranate.
ref.: cf. SNG Pfälzer Privatsammlungen 882 (Gallienus); probably unpublished
F/about VF, rough obv., rev. with slight strike weakness and distinct circular traces of the ancient smoothing process.

The E of the c/m should probably devaluate the coin from 10 units to 5 units.
Jochen
gallienus_perga.jpg
Perga, AE28 10-assaria, money chest5 viewsGallienus AE28 10-assaria of Pamphylia, Perga. 15.4g. AVT KAI PO LI GALLIENOCEB, laureate, draped & cuirassed bust right; I (denomination) to right / PERGAIWN, chest with three purses above. SNGvA 4725, SNGCop 355 var (obv legend), obv same with SNG Pfälzer Privatsammlungen, Pamphylien 421Podiceps
249c.jpg
perge001b6 viewsElagabalus
Perge, Pamphylia

Obv: ΑΥ Κ Μ ΑΥ ΑΝΤΩΝΙΝΟϹ ϹƐΒ, radiate draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from rear. Countermark of eagle, wings spread, head left, in incuse circle.
Rev: ΠƐΡΓ-Α-ΙΩΝ, Tyche standing facing, looking left, wearing kalathos, holding cornucopia and rudder.
24 mm, 9.09 gms

RPC Online 6126; SNG France 467; SNG Pfalz 356-61; Lindgren 1114 and A648a. Countermark: Howgego 334.
Charles M
PFALZ-BIRKENFELD-ZWEIBRUCKEN_2_Kreuzer_1759.jpg
PFALZ-BIRKENFELD-ZWEIBRUCKEN -- Christian IV46 viewsPFALZ-BIRKENFELD-ZWEIBRUCKEN -- Christian IV (1735-1775) Billon 2 Kreuzer, 1759. Obv.: Crowned CP monogram divides P Z Rev.: *II* / EINEN / KREUZER / * 1759 * / * Reference: KM #25. dpaul7
1415_Philadelphia,_Cilicia2.jpg
Philadelphia (Cilicia) - AE4 viewsc. 98-117 AD
bust of Minerva or Athena right wearing crested helmet
ΦΙΛΑΔЄΛ_ΦEωΝ
horizontal branch with two grapes
KIH_TωN
RPC III, 3214; SNG Levante 574; SNG Pfalz 998; Lindgren & Kovacs A1571A

ex Aurea
Johny SYSEL
1396_Philip_I_Diocaesarea.jpg
Philip I - Diokaisareia4 views244-249 AD
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
AYT K M IOVΛIOC ΦIΛIΠΠOC CE / B
City goddess seated left, Tyche standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia; river-god Calycadnus swimming right below
AΔPI ΔIOKAICAPEΩN MHTPO
KEN / NAT/ ΩN
SNG France 2, 881; Staffieri, Diocaesarea, 31, 22 Taf. 3, 25; SNG Levante Suppl. 179 var.; SNG Pfalz 419-422 var.
15,6g
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
LZ_11.jpg
Phoenicia, Arados 217-216 B.C36 viewsAR 28.89mm (Thickness 3.23mm), weight 16.77g, die axis = 12h (0 degrees). 4 drachmae = Tetradrachm.

Obverse: Alexander III The Great; Head of Herakles right, wearing lion skin headdress.

Reverse: AΛEΞANΔΡOΥ, Zeus Aëtophoros seated left, footstool beneath feet, lower limbs wrapped in Himation, Eagle in right hand, sceptre in left hand, palm tree in left field, Aradian monogram AP under throne and era date 43 in exerque.

Posthumous issue.
2 commentsMartin Rowe
sidon_trajan_BMC218.jpg
Phoenicia, Sidon, Trajan, BMC 21829 viewsTrajan, AD 98-117
AE 24, 8.72g
struck year 227 of Sidonian aera = Ad 116/7
obv. [AVTO NER] TRAIA[NW KAI CE]
bust, laureate, r.
rev. [SIDWNOS NAV] - ARXIDOS
Kadmos, naked to hips, stg. l. on prow, head r., pointing with r. hand l.
l. field LZKS (retrograd for 227)
BMC 218; SNG Copenhagen 252; Lindgren-Kovacs 2329
rare, F+, green-red patina

Missed legends completed according to Sear GIC 1087

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
Jochen
septmenpisidia2.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch. AE24 Septimius Severus. Cult Image of Men43 viewsPisidian Antioch. Æ24. Septimius Severus, laureate, head to r. IMP CAES L SEP S EVERVS PER AVG. Rev. PISIDICA ANTIOCH, Cult image of Men, frontal, head to r., holding a Victory on an orb (requiring a support under his elbow, as in statuary image), scepter in his r., at the foot of which is a cock; his left leg is bent to place on a bull's head; otherwise, he is identified by his Phrygian bonnet and the horns of a crescent moon on his shoulders.
SNG Pfälz, Krzyzanovska XVIII/24, SNG von Aulock -, SNG Cop -, BMC 20 var, Mionnet Supp. VII 20ff.
ancientone
SelgeCaracalla.jpg
Pisidia, Selge. Caracalla AE17. 43 viewsObv: Caracalla bust r.
Rev: CЄLG ЄWN. Winged thunderbolt, club of Hercules above, bow below.
SNG Pfalzere Privatsammlungen 451

Selge (Seruk), on the Eurymedon, above Aspendus, claimed a Lacedaemonian origin, and was from early times the most important city in Pisidia.
ancientone
max-ernst.jpg
POST MEDIEVAL, AUSTRIA, SALZBURG, 1 TALER, 1698476 viewsSilver coin with 28,87 grams
Ruler: Johann Ernst (1687 - 1709)
Obv.: S:RVDBERTVS:EPS:SALISBVRG: 1698
Rev.: IO:ERNEST9D:G:ARCHIEP:SAL:S:A:L. (SVB TVVM PRAE SIDIVM CONF VG)
Ref.: Km# 254, Prob.: 1804, Dav.: 3510
lincon r2
parisvonlondron002.jpg
POST MEDIEVAL, AUSTRIA, SALZBURG, 1 TALER, 1621647 viewsSilver coin with 28,78 grams
Ruler: Paris von Londron (1619 - 1653)
OBV.: SANCTVS.RVDBERTVS.SPS SALISBV:1621
REV.: PARIS:D:G:ARCHI ESP.SAL:SEAPLE:
Ref.: KM 61, Dav.: 3497, Probszt: 1189
1 commentslincon r2
salzburg-1648.jpg
POST MEDIEVAL, AUSTRIA, SALZBURG, 1 TALER, 1648510 viewsSilver coin with 28,61 grams
Ruler: Paris von Londron (1619 - 1653)
OBV.: SANCT:RVDBER TVS: EPS.SALISB:1648
REV.: PARIS.D:G:GARCHI EPS:SALI:SE:AP:L
Ref.: Pr.: 1227, BR.: 2542
lincon r2
max-gandolph.jpg
POST MEDIEVAL, AUSTRIA, SALZBURG, 1 TALER, 1670494 viewsSilver coin with 28,84 grams
Ruler: Max Gandolph Graf-Küenburg (1668 - 1687)
Obv.: SANCT.RVDBERT VS.EPS.SALISB:1670
Rev.: MAX:GAND:D:G:AR:EP:SAL:SE:AP:L. (SVB.TVVM.PRAE SIDIVM.CONF VG.)
Ref.: Km#190, BR: 3234, Pr.: 1654
lincon r2
Salzburg_Halbtaler_1695.jpg
POST MEDIEVAL, Austria, Salzburg, Half-Taler, 169514 viewsMounted for use as a pendant.Numis-Student
postumus_373.jpg
Postumus RIC V, 37383 viewsAureolus in the name of Postumus
AE - Antoninian, 3.05g, 19mm
Mediolanum, 2nd officin, Aug./Sept. 268
obv. IMP POSTVMVS AVG
radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev. CONCORD EQVIT
Concordia standing left, foot on prow, holding pater and rudder.
S in ex.
RIC V/2, 373; Schulzki 6b
about VF, super coin for type!
2 commentsJochen
Postumus_Saecvli_Felicitas~0.JPG
Postumus Saecvli Felicitas12 viewsPOSTUMUS. 260-269 AD. Antoninianus, Struck 266 - 267 AD, Trier
OBV: IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: SAECVLI FELICITAS, Postumus standing right, holding spear and globe
RIC 83 and 325, Schulzki 77, RSC 331a
Romanorvm
1braithwell_Postumo_Usa.jpg
Postumus, Treveri mint (268 d.C.), R/ ORIENS AVG, (Braithwell hoard)16 viewsPostumus. Romano-Gallic Emperor, AD 260-269.
Antoniniano argentato, zecca di Treveri (Trier) 6° emissione, 268 d.C.
AR, 20 mm, 2.89 gr, VF
D/ IMP C POSTVMVS P F AVG, busto radiato, drappeggiato e corazzato a dx
R/ ORIENS AVG, P nel campo a sin, Oriens andante a sx, alza la mano dx e tiene una frusta con la sx.
RIC V 316; Mairat 166; AGK 49; RSC 213a; Braithwell 147 (1 esemplare nell'hoard).
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (12 aprile 2011, numero catalogo 137); ex Wayne collection (Minneapolis MN Usa, via ebay, 2010); ex CNG auction 176 (London, lot 800689, 2007); ex Braithwell hoard (Braithwell, South Yorkshire Uk, 2002).
paolo
8062_8063.jpg
Provincial, Alexandria, Egypt, Tetradrachm, Eagle left, head right, LZ2 viewsBI Tetradrachm
Probus
Augustus: 276 - 282AD
Issued: 281 - 282AD
17.0mm 7.92gr 11h
O: AKM AVP ΠΡΟΒΟC CεΒ; Laureate bust, left.
R: NO LEGEND; Eagle standing left, head right, wreath in beak.
Exergue: L, left field; Z, right field.
Alexandria, Egypt Mint
Curtis -; Milne 4640; Dattari 5555; Emmett 3984.
Savoca Auctions 11th Blue Auction, Lot 1396.
10/28/18 3/25/19
VF
Nicholas Z
9836_9837.jpg
Provincial, Parlais, Pisidia, AE21, IVL AVG COL PARLAIS1 viewsAE21
Roman Provincial: Parlais, Pisidia
Julia Domna
Born ca. 170 - Died 217AD
193 - 217AD Augusta
21.0mm 4.19gr 6h
O: IVLIA DOMNA; Draped bust, right; beaded border.
R: IVL AVG CO-L-PARLAIS; Tyche, standing left, holding rudder in right hand, cornucopia on left arm, kalathos on head; beaded border.
Parlais, Pisidia Mint
BMC 4; SNG von Aulock 29; SNG Pfalz 299.
Savoca Auctions Munich/Claudia Savoca 24th Blue Auction, Lot 923.
9/22/19 10/31/19
Nicholas Z
denierfrance19mm1_20g.jpg
Provincial. Valence. Anonymous Bishops.17 views12th century. AR Denier
+S APOLLINARIS, cross with annulet
+VRBS VALENTIAI, angel with spread wings, resembling an eagle
12c
19mm
1.20g
ex arthur Spelzman
cng 3/17
wileyc
R161v_Felzmann.jpg
RIC 161v32 viewsRIC 161, Rome. Denomination: Antoninianus.


OBV.: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG

Radiate, cuirassed bust left, with spear.

REV.: ADVENTVS PROBI AVG

Emperor riding left, right hand raised, left holding sceptre; at foot, captive.

Mintmark: // R

Weight: 4.74 g.
1 commentsvrtsprb
020O~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE PROVINCIAL, Commodus AE36 Medallion107 viewsHierocaesarea mint
Magistrate (archon) Artemidoros
BMC Lydia -, SNG Cop -, SNGvA -, Imhoof-Blumer -
24.976 g, maximum diameter 36.4mm, die axis 180o,
Obverse AVT KAI Λ AVPH KOMMO∆O, laureate and cuirassed bust right;
Reverse ΕΠΙ[...]ΟΥ[...] ΑΡΤΕΜΙ∆ΟΡΟΥ ΑΡΧ[...] ΙΕΡΟΚΑΙCΑΡΕΩΝ, Artemis standing half-right wearing chiton; Leto standing half-left holding patera; Apollo standing half-left, naked, resting left hand on lyre; nice armored bust.

An interesting reverse depicting a mythological scene: Leto and her children Artemis and Apollo. The two were fathered by Zeus, arousing Hera's jealousy. Leto was banned from giving birth on earth or sea, but found the island of Delos, which supposedly was not connected to either.

(all notes from FORVM website)

Extremely rare with no other specimens found on Wildwinds.com, acsearch.info or coinarchives.com, or in Loebbecke, Scholz or all the Imhoof additions.

[One same size, same obv. die as {this coin}, same magistrate (archon) Artemidoros, but different rev. type (river god reclining), in RPC temp. (online) 8174 = Peus 365, 2000, Burstein 696, there stated to be unpublished and apparently unique.

(Many thanks to Mr. Curtis Clay and Ms. Dane Kurth "Helvetica" for further information)
3 commentsMark Z
006.jpg
Roman Empire, Augustus 27 BC to AD 14, Denarius44 viewsAugustus, 27 BC–AD 14.
Denarius, Brundisium or Roma mint, 30–29 BC.
Obv. Bare head right in linear circle.
Rev. IMP CAESAR to left and right of military trophy, its base crossed with rudder and anchor and set on prow right.
RIC 265a (I, 60); RSC 119 (I, 139).
AR 3,90g, 20mm.
Provenance: The Tallent and Belzberg Collections, Stack’s Auction, 24.04.2008, lot 2268.
apyatygin
4YjDLz6WiNC9Ry7G5qSq4f2Ag3JPZb.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, City Commemorative, URBS ROMA, 330-333 AD.51 viewsConstantine I commemorative issue
VRBS ROMA A.D. 330-333
17x18mm 2.1gm
Obv. VRBS-ROMA [City of Rome] Roma, helmeted, wearing imperial cloak.
Rev. She-wolf left with twins (Romulus and Remus); above, two stars.
RIC VII (Siscia) 240
chance v
4254LG.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Postumus / Oriens / Cologne52 viewsAttribution: RIC 316 (RIC V, Part II), Schulzki 49

Mint: Cologne, P

Date: 259-268 AD

Obverse: IMP C POSTVMVS AVG, Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust right

Reverse: ORIENS AVG/ P in left field, Sol advancing left holding whip

Size: 20mm

Weight: 2.26 grams
AnemicOak
20150922BzLZp89qhwlDWpuk_7t2cM_large.jpeg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Trajan (AD 98-117). AR denarius.10 viewsTrajan (AD 98-117). AR denarius (3.49 gm). Rome, 98-99. Laureate head right / Pax standing left with branch and cornucopiae. RIC 17. NGC AU 5/5 - 5/5 Ruslan K
aethelstan-godfred-1b.jpg
S.1089 Æthelstan (Godfred)45 viewsPenny of Æthelstan, king of Wessex, 924-939
Moneyer: Godfred
Mint: Unknown
North East mint
S. 1089
O: +ÆÐELZTAN REX
R: GODF +++ RED Mo

Æthelstan, with the sobriquet "the Glorious" consolidated power in the former heptarchy, and can probably be considered the first king of England.

Ex- Silbury Coins, J.Radford
1 commentsNap
salzburg 2 pfennig.jpg
SALZBURG - Bishop Hieronymous56 viewsSALZBURG - Bishop Hieronymous (1772-1803) Cu 2 Pfennig, 1796. Reference #KM-472.dpaul7
salzburg_1702.jpg
SALZBURG -- Johann Ernst52 viewsSALZBURG -- Johann Ernst, Graf von Thun u. Hohenstein (1687-1709) 1 KREUZER, 1702 - Silver Ruler: Johann Ernst Obv: Oval arms with cardinals' hat above Obv. Legend: IO : ERNEST : D : G : ARCHIEP Rev: Round shield within double cross and circle. Reference: KM #248.
dpaul7
salzburg.jpg
Salzburg AR Uniface Zweier. Mathiaus 1519-4032 views1 commentsancientone
Fuld_630BO-2a.JPG
Schulze's Restaurant13 viewsObv: EDWD. SCHULZE'S RESTAURANT around border, 24 WILLIAM STREET in center.

Rev: 26 & 28 EXCHANGE PLACE N. Y. stag's head facing right, 1863

Fuld 630BO/2a
Matt Inglima
Sear_0810_[4]_countermarked.jpg
Sear 081018 viewsHeraclius (610 – 641 CE). Follis, weight 5.97g, diameter 27mm. Mint of Constantinople, third officina; regnal year numerals uncertain: X | X | I I [?]

Monogram countermark (Grierson’s type E) on the reverse; this countermark is associated with Syria in the years just before the loss of Byzantine control in 636. Type E countermarks are somewhat variable in detail. The most thorough published analysis is in a 2006 paper by Schulze, Schulze and Leimenstoll: this specimen is an example of their sub-variety 1q.
Abu Galyon
Seleucia_Ad_Kalykadnon.jpg
Seleuceia ad Calycadnum 200-0 B.C.18 viewsCilicia, Seleuceia ad Calycadnum 200-0 B.C. Ae 18.2~18.5mm. 5.06g. Obv: CΕΛΕΥ, helmeted head of Athena right. Rev: Magistrate Dioskoyridos, ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡΙΔΟ, owl standing left on branch. SNG France 2 957; Paris 1970.70; cf. SNG Pfalz 1043 (rev. legend).ddwau
Cilicia,_Seleukeia.jpg
Seleukeia; Athena/ Nike9 viewsCilicia, Seleukeia (on the Kalykadno River). 2nd century B.C. AE 6,7g, 21mm. Obv. Head of Athena right, monogram 9 und palm branch right, before the head; Rev. ΣΕΛΕΥΚΕΩΝ ΤΩΝ ΠΡΟΣ ΤΩΙ ΚΑΛΥΚΑΔΝΩΙ, in field LE and monogram 10; Nike to left extending wreath in right. SNG Switzerland I, Levante Cilicia 687; SNG France 2, Cilicie -; SNG Pfälzer Privatsammlungen -. Podiceps
9727.jpg
Selinus in Cilicia, Philippus I., AE 29, Apollo136 viewsSelinus in Cilicia, Philippus I., AE 29, 244-249 AD
Obv.: AY K M IOYΛ [ΦI]ΛΠΠOC CE , Laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right (seen from behind
Rev.: TPAIANO[Π CEΛINO]YCI ΘHC [IEPAC] , Apollo standing front, patera in his right hand, rod/staff in left hand, on right side: bird (raven?) beneath
SNG France 2,686; SNG Levante 467; Lindgren I,1595; SNG Pfalz 6,1105 , (thanks to Markus for ID)

Selinus: City in Cilicia Aspera, among the principal ones on this coast and mentioned by most of the ancient geographers from Pseudo-Skylax on. It was one of the towns taken by Antiochos III in 197 B.C. (Livy 33.20), but is best known as the place where Trajan died in A.D. 117 on his way back from the East. Then it took the name of Trajanopolis (as on this), but the old one prevailed (as on this), shown by coins and other documents.

In mid-summer 117, when Trajan was returning from his Parthian campaigns, he fell ill while at Selinus in Cilicia and died on August 8. The following day his adoption of Hadrian was announced by Plotina and Attianus, the praetorian prefect who had earlier been Hadrian's guardian, with some question whether Trajan had indeed performed the act or whether it was posthumous, thanks to his widow. On August 11, which he considered his dies imperii, the army of Syria hailed its legate, Hadrian, as emperor, which made the senate's formal acceptance an almost meaningless event. This was an example of the historian Tacitus' famous dictum that an emperor could be made elsewhere than at Rome. Hadrian must then have proceeded to Selinus at once from Antioch, to catch up with Attianus, Plotina, and Matidia. He then returned to his province no later than September and stayed there at least into the new year, consolidating his administration.

Basil,of Seleucia (Vita S. Theclae, II, 17) said that the city cof Selinus, which was formerly of much importance, lost it from his time to the fifth century. Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in the tenth century, called it a small town. Today it is the little village of Selinti (near the city Gazipaşa) in the vilayet of Adana; there are ruins of a theatre, aqueduct, market-place, bath, etc. .
The coinage begins under the kingdom of Antiochos IV of Kommagene, and continues later from Trajan to Philip. A bishop of Selinos is recorded, under the metropolitan of Seleukeia. . Le Quien (Oriens christianus, II, 1019) names four bishops: Neon, present at the council of Constantinople, 381; Alypius, at Ephesus, 431; AElianus, at Chalcedon, 451; Gheon, signer of the letter of the bishops of the province to Emperor Leo, 458. The see is in the Greek "Notitiae Episcopatuum" of the Patriarchate of Antioch from the fifth to the tenth century (Vailhé in "Echos d'Orient", X, 95, 145). It was also perhaps an Armenian bishopric until the tenth century. (Alishan, Sissouan, Venice, 1899, p. 60). Eubel (Hierarchia catholica medii aevi, I, 468) names a Latin bishop in 1345.

my ancient coin database
Arminius
1ultimo_completa.jpg
Severus Alexander, sestertius (Boyd collection)29 viewsSevero Alessandro (222-235 d.C.), sesterzio, zecca di Roma (231 d.C.)
AE, 19.26 gr, 30,0 mm, 0°, BB (VF)
D/ IMP ALEXANDER PIVS AVG, busto laureato con modesto drappeggio sulla spalla sinistra
R/ PM TRP X COS III PP, SC nel campo, Sol stante di fronte, la testa radiata, alza la mano destra e tiene una frusta.
RIC IV, parte 2, pag. 111 n. 513. Cohen 415
Provenienza: collezione Berardengo, Roma Italia (13 febbraio 2008, numero catalogo 40), ex Antony Wilson collection (Yorkcoins, London-New York, 2005), ex Baldwin's Auctions 42 (London, 26 settembre 2005, nel lotto 531), ex W.C. Boyd collection (London, 1 gennaio 1895), ex Spink collection (London, fino al 1894).
paolo
tn_owl8.jpg
Soloi -- AE22.277 viewsSoloi -- AE22. After 66BC. Head of Athena R, c/m behind; R: Owl , SOLEUN, monogram. cf Phalz 1122. (featherz)featherz
Titus_3.jpg
Syria, Decapolis, Gadara, Titus22 viewsTitus as Caesar
Syria, Decapolis, Gadara
AD 73-74
Obv.: TITOΣ KAIΣAP, laureate head right
Rev.: ΓAΔAΡEΩN, crossed cornucopia, date LZΛP = year 137 above
Ae, 4.53g, 18.3mm
Ref.: RPC II 2096, Spijkerman 30, SNG ANS 1302
shanxi
unkbarOR.jpg
Tetricus II Antoninianus (“barbarous radiate”)28 viewsUnofficial mint, Tetricus II Antoninianus (“barbarous radiate”), A.D. 272-273, 12mm .78g, (imitating) RIC 423, 248 C. 34, Schulzki 101, 3
O: IMP PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES, Radiate, draped youthful bust r., seen from rear.
R: PAX AVG, Pax, draped, standing l., holding long scepter in her l. hand, olive-branch in her raised r. hand.

casata137ec
rjb_tet2_18_09_07.jpg
Tetricus II: Mint 2, Issue 640 viewsC PIV ESV TETRICVS CAES
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front
PIETAS AVGVSTOR
Sacrificial implements, jug handle on right
Mint 2, Issue 6
Elmer -; Cunetio Hoard -; Normanby Hoard -; Chalfont Hoard 1073; Schulzki -; RIC -
A very odd coin. The draped and cuirassed bust is normally only associated with the last Mint 1 issue, the Pietas series is regarded as coming from the second mint. This is only the second specimen I know of and a fuller strike than the Chalfont hoard specimen.
1 commentsmauseus
Tiberius_Milne_50.jpg
Tiberius, Billon Tetradrachm, Milne 503 viewsTiberius
Augustus, 14 – 37 A.D.

Coin: Billon Tetradrachm

Obverse: TIBEPIOΣ KAIΣAP ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Laureate bust of Tiberius, facing right. LZ in the lower right field.
Reverse: ΘEOΣ ΣEBAΣTOΣ, Radiate bust of Augustus, facing right.

Weight: 8.85 g, Diameter: 24 x 25 x 3.2 mm, Die axis: 0°, Mint: Alexandria, Year 7 (LZ = 20 - 21 A.D.) Reference: Milne 50

Rated Scarce
Masis
YJq8pX2EA7HtaC6LZNo4Db3W9TgAc5.jpg
Trajan17 viewsMatthew H
cit.jpg
Trajan 98-117 CE., Alexandria Egypt12 viewsAE Dichalkon 13 mm., 1.9 g Dated RY 7(103/104 CE)
Obverse: Laureate head right.
Reverse: Elephant walking right: LZ (date) above. Koln 460; LZ (date) above. Koln 460: Dattari (Savio) 1203; K&G
sold 1-2018
NORMAN K
LT21b-1857.JPG
USA, Seated Liberty dime love token, 185715 viewsFloral design in geometric border. Probably once mounted on a hatpin or similar piece of jewelry.
Ex-"yoyolz" (eBay). Total number of 1857 dimes struck at all mints = 7,120,000.
lordmarcovan
IMG_0400.jpg
Victorinus, MINT II Normanby - Schulzki 16b 213 viewsIMP VICTORINVS P F AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust left, shield on left shoulder, spear over right shoulder.
PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing left.
Schulzki 16b.
A rarer issue with a left-facing martial bust. Shares an obverse and reverse die with another specimen in this gallery (MINT II Normanby - Schulzki 16b 1) and a number of other known examples.
Weight
Adrianus
IMG_0402.jpg
Victorinus, MINT II Normanby - Schulzki no. 16b 114 viewsIMP VICTORINVS P F AVG, Radiate cuirassed bust left, shield on left shoulder, spear over right shoulder.
PIETAS AVG, Pietas standing left.
Schulzki 16b.
A rarer issue with a left-facing martial bust. Shares an obverse and reverse die with another specimen in this gallery (MINT II Normanby - Schulzki 16b 2) and a number of other known examples.
Weight
Adrianus
Volusianus_Isinda.jpg
Volusianus - Isinda12 viewsdiassarion
M., archon
251-253 AD
laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right from behind
AV KE Γ OVIΔ OVEΛ OVOΛOVCCANOI
Tyche standing half left, holding rudder and cornucopia
ICINΔ_E_ΩN
AP_X·M
H. v. Aulock, Münzen und Städte Pisidiens I, 98 f., 913-923 Taf. 20 (stgl.); SNG v. Aulock 5047 (= 913); SNG Pfalz -; SNG France 1621 (= 922).
9,7g
ex Savoca
Johny SYSEL
man1pano.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)155 viewsManuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180). AE billon trachy; Sear 1964; 30mm, 3.91g.; Constantinople mint; aF. Obverse: MP-OV-The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Reverse: Maueil standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriachal cross. Ex SPQR.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ManuelStGeorge.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)131 viewsMANUEL I COMNENUS AE tetarteron. 1143-1180 AD. 19mm, 2.8g. Obverse: Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear. Reverse: MANVHL-DECPOT, bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum & globe-cross. Simply wonderful style, very sharp for the issue. A gorgeous late Byzantine coin! Ex Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin754.jpg
[18H759a] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta49 viewsVespasian. 69-71 AD. AR Denarius;17mm, 3.28g; Hendin 759, RIC 15. Obverse: Laureate head right; Reverse: Jewess seated right, on ground, mourning below right of trophy, IVDAEA below. Ex Imperial Coins.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VesJudCapt.jpg
[18H759] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta173 viewsSilver denarius, Hendin 759, RIC 15, BM 35, RSC 226, S 2296, Fair, 2.344g, 17.0mm, 180o, Rome mint, 69-70 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVG, laureate head right; reverse IVDAEA in exergue, Jewess, mourning, seated at right of trophy.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
VespasianJudaeaCaptaHendin779.jpg
[18H779] Vespasian, 1 July 69 - 24 June 79 A.D., Judaea Capta issue132 viewsOrichalcum dupondius, Hendin 779, RIC II 1160, BMCRE 809 (same dies), aVF, Lugdunum mint, 9.969g, 27.7mm, 180o, 71 A.D.; obverse IMP CAESAR VESPASIAN AVG COS III, radiate head right, globe at point of bust; reverse VICTORIA NAVALIS S C, Victory standing right on a prow, wreath in right, palm frond over should in left (Refers to a victory on the Sea of Galilee during the recapture of Judaea); rough; rare (R2). Ex FORVM.




De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79)

John Donahue
College of William and Mary

Introduction

Titus Flavius Vespasianus (b. A.D. 9, d. A.D. 79, emperor A.D. 69-79) restored peace and stability to an empire in disarray following the death of Nero in A.D. 68. In the process he established the Flavian dynasty as the legitimate successor to the Imperial throne. Although we lack many details about the events and chronology of his reign, Vespasian provided practical leadership and a return to stable government - accomplishments which, when combined with his other achievements, make his emperorship particularly notable within the history of the Principate.

Early Life and Career

Vespasian was born at Falacrina near Sabine Reate on 17 November, A.D. 9, the son of T. Flavius Sabinus, a successful tax collector and banker, and Vespasia Polla. Both parents were of equestrian status. Few details of his first fifteen years survive, yet it appears that his father and mother were often away from home on business for long periods. As a result, Vespasian's early education became the responsibility of his paternal grandmother, Tertulla. [[1]] In about A.D. 25 Vespasian assumed the toga virilis and later accepted the wearing of the latus clavus, and with it the senatorial path that his older brother, T. Flavius Sabinus, had already chosen. [[2]] Although many of the particulars are lacking, the posts typically occupied by one intent upon a senatorial career soon followed: a military tribunate in Thrace, perhaps for three or four years; a quaestorship in Crete-Cyrene; and the offices of aedile and praetor, successively, under the emperor Gaius. [[3]]

It was during this period that Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla. Daughter of a treasury clerk and former mistress of an African knight, Flavia lacked the social standing and family connections that the politically ambitious usually sought through marriage. In any case, the couple produced three children, a daughter, also named Flavia Domitilla, and two sons, the future emperors Titus and Domitian . Flavia did not live to witness her husband's emperorship and after her death Vespasian returned to his former mistress Caenis, who had been secretary to Antonia (daughter of Marc Antony and mother of Claudius). Caenis apparently exerted considerable influence over Vespasian, prompting Suetonius to assert that she remained his wife in all but name, even after he became emperor. [[4]]

Following the assassination of Gaius on 24 January, A.D. 41, Vespasian advanced rapidly, thanks in large part to the new princeps Claudius, whose favor the Flavians had wisely secured with that of Antonia, the mother of Germanicus, and of Claudius' freedmen, especially Narcissus. [[5]] The emperor soon dispatched Vespasian to Argentoratum (Strasbourg) as legatus legionis II Augustae, apparently to prepare the legion for the invasion of Britain. Vespasian first appeared at the battle of Medway in A.D. 43, and soon thereafter led his legion across the south of England, where he engaged the enemy thirty times in battle, subdued two tribes, and conquered the Isle of Wight. According to Suetonius, these operations were conducted partly under Claudius and partly under Vespasian's commander, Aulus Plautius. Vespasian's contributions, however, did not go unnoticed; he received the ornamenta triumphalia and two priesthoods from Claudius for his exploits in Britain. [[6]]

By the end of A.D. 51 Vespasian had reached the consulship, the pinnacle of a political career at Rome. For reasons that remain obscure he withdrew from political life at this point, only to return when chosen proconsul of Africa about A.D. 63-64. His subsequent administration of the province was marked by severity and parsimony, earning him a reputation for being scrupulous but unpopular. [[7]] Upon completion of his term, Vespasian returned to Rome where, as a senior senator, he became a man of influence in the emperor Nero's court. [[8]] Important enough to be included on Nero's tour of Greece in A.D. 66-67, Vespasian soon found himself in the vicinity of increasing political turbulence in the East. The situation would prove pivotal in advancing his career.

Judaea and the Accession to Power

In response to rioting in Caesarea and Jerusalem that had led to the slaughter in the latter city of Jewish leaders and Roman soldiers, Nero granted to Vespasian in A.D. 66 a special command in the East with the objective of settling the revolt in Judaea. By spring A.D. 67, with 60,000 legionaries, auxiliaries, and allies under his control, Vespasian set out to subdue Galilee and then to cut off Jerusalem. Success was quick and decisive. By October all of Galilee had been pacified and plans for the strategic encirclement of Jerusalem were soon formed. [[9]] Meanwhile, at the other end of the empire, the revolts of Gaius Iulius Vindex, governor of Gallia Lugdunensis, and Servius Sulpicius Galba , governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, had brought Nero's reign to the brink of collapse. The emperor committed suicide in June, A.D. 68, thereby ensuring chaos for the next eighteen months, as first Galba and then Marcus Salvius Otho and Aulus Vitellius acceded to power. Each lacked broad-based military and senatorial support; each would be violently deposed in turn. [[10]]

Still occupied with plans against Jerusalem, Vespasian swore allegiance to each emperor. Shortly after Vitellius assumed power in spring, A.D. 69, however, Vespasian met on the border of Judaea and Syria with Gaius Licinius Mucianus, governor of Syria, and after a series of private and public consultations, the two decided to revolt. [[11]] On July 1, at the urging of Tiberius Alexander, prefect of Egypt, the legions of Alexandria declared for Vespasian, as did the legions of Judaea two days later. By August all of Syria and the Danube legions had done likewise. Vespasian next dispatched Mucianus to Italy with 20,000 troops, while he set out from Syria to Alexandria in order to control grain shipments for the purpose of starving Italy into submission. [[12]] The siege of Jerusalem he placed in the hands of his son Titus.

Meanwhile, the Danubian legions, unwilling to wait for Mucianus' arrival, began their march against Vitellius ' forces. The latter army, suffering from a lack of discipline and training, and unaccustomed to the heat of Rome, was defeated at Cremona in late October. [[13]] By mid-December the Flavian forces had reached Carsulae, 95 kilometers north of Rome on the Flaminian Road, where the Vitellians, with no further hope of reinforcements, soon surrendered. At Rome, unable to persuade his followers to accept terms for his abdication, Vitellius was in peril. On the morning of December 20 the Flavian army entered Rome. By that afternoon, the emperor was dead. [[14]]

Tacitus records that by December 22, A.D. 69, Vespasian had been given all the honors and privileges usually granted to emperors. Even so, the issue remains unclear, owing largely to a surviving fragment of an enabling law, the lex de imperio Vespasiani, which conferred powers, privileges, and exemptions, most with Julio-Claudian precedents, on the new emperor. Whether the fragment represents a typical granting of imperial powers that has uniquely survived in Vespasian's case, or is an attempt to limit or expand such powers, remains difficult to know. In any case, the lex sanctioned all that Vespasian had done up to its passing and gave him authority to act as he saw fit on behalf of the Roman people. [[15]]

What does seem clear is that Vespasian felt the need to legitimize his new reign with vigor. He zealously publicized the number of divine omens that predicted his accession and at every opportunity he accumulated multiple consulships and imperial salutations. He also actively promoted the principle of dynastic succession, insisting that the emperorship would fall to his son. The initiative was fulfilled when Titus succeeded his father in A.D. 79.[[16]]

Emperorship

Upon his arrival in Rome in late summer, A.D. 70, Vespasian faced the daunting task of restoring a city and a government ravaged by the recent civil wars. Although many particulars are missing, a portrait nevertheles emerges of a ruler conscientiously committed to the methodical renewal of both city and empire. Concerning Rome itself, the emperor encouraged rebuilding on vacated lots, restored the Capitol (burned in A.D. 69), and also began work on several new buildings: a temple to the deified Claudius on the Caelian Hill, a project designed to identify Vespasian as a legitimate heir to the Julio-Claudians, while distancing himself from Nero ; a temple of Peace near the Forum; and the magnificent Colosseum (Flavian Amphitheatre), located on the site of the lake of Nero 's Golden House. [[17]]

Claiming that he needed forty thousand million sesterces for these projects and for others aimed at putting the state on more secure footing, Vespasian is said to have revoked various imperial immunities, manipulated the supply of certain commodities to inflate their price, and increased provincial taxation. [[18]] The measures are consistent with his characterization in the sources as both obdurate and avaricious. There were occasional political problems as well: Helvidius Priscus, an advocate of senatorial independence and a critic of the Flavian regime from the start, was exiled after A.D. 75 and later executed; Marcellus Eprius and A. Alienus Caecina were condemned by Titus for conspiracy, the former committing suicide, the latter executed in A.D. 79.
As Suetonius claims, however, in financial matters Vespasian always put revenues to the best possible advantage, regardless of their source. Tacitus, too, offers a generally favorable assessment, citing Vespasian as the first man to improve after becoming emperor. [[19]] Thus do we find the princeps offering subventions to senators not possessing the property qualifications of their rank, restoring many cities throughout the empire, and granting state salaries for the first time to teachers of Latin and Greek rhetoric. To enhance Roman economic and social life even further, he encouraged theatrical productions by building a new stage for the Theatre of Marcellus, and he also put on lavish state dinners to assist the food trades. [[20]]

In other matters the emperor displayed similar concern. He restored the depleted ranks of the senatorial and equestrian orders with eligible Italian and provincial candidates and reduced the backlog of pending court cases at Rome. Vespasian also re-established discipline in the army, while punishing or dismissing large numbers of Vitellius ' men. [[21]]
Beyond Rome, the emperor increased the number of legions in the East and continued the process of imperial expansion by the annexation of northern England, the pacification of Wales, and by advances into Scotland and southwest Germany between the Rhine and the Danube. Vespasian also conferred rights on communities abroad, especially in Spain, where the granting of Latin rights to all native communities contributed to the rapid Romanization of that province during the Imperial period. [[22]]

Death and Assessment

In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!" [[23]] In fact, public deification did follow his death, as did his internment in the Mausoleum of Augustus alongside the Julio-Claudians.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century.

Bibliography

Since the scholarship on Vespasian is more comprehensive than can be treated here, the works listed below are main accounts or bear directly upon issues discussed in the entry above. A comprehensive modern anglophone study of this emperor is yet to be produced.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Flaviani, 2 vols. Rieti, 1983.

Atti congresso internazionale di studi Vespasianei, 2 vols. Rieti, 1981.

Bosworth, A.B. "Vespasian and the Provinces: Some Problems of the Early 70s A.D." Athenaeum 51 (1973): 49-78.

Brunt, P. A. "Lex de imperio Vespasiani." JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

D'Espèrey, S. Franchet. "Vespasien, Titus et la littérature." ANRW II.32.5: 3048-3086.

Dudley, D. and Webster, G. The Roman Conquest of Britain. London, 1965.

Gonzalez, J. "The Lex Irnitana: A New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

Grant, M. The Roman Emperors: A Biographical Guide to the Rulers of Rome, 31 B.C. - A.D. 476. New York, 1985.

Homo, L. Vespasien, l'Empereur du bons sens (69-79 ap. J.-C.). Paris, 1949.

Levi, M.A. "I Flavi." ANRW II.2: 177-207.

McCrum, M. and Woodhead, A. G. Select Documents of the Principates of the Flavian Emperors Including the Year of the Revolution. Cambridge, 1966.

Nicols, John. Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae. Wiesbaden, 1978.

Scarre, C. Chronicle of the Roman Emperors. The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers of Imperial Rome. London, 1995.

Suddington, D. B. The Development of the Roman Auxiliary Forces from Caesar to Vespasian, 49 B.C. - A.D. 79. Harare: U. of Zimbabwe, 1982.

Syme, R. Tacitus. Oxford, 1958.

Wardel, David. "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol." Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

Wellesley, K. The Long Year: A.D. 69. Bristol, 1989, 2nd ed.


Notes

[[1]] Suet. Vesp. 2.1. Suetonius remains the major source but see also Tac. Hist. 2-5; Cass. Dio 65; Joseph. BJ 3-4.

[[2]] Suetonius (Vesp. 2.1) claims that Vespasian did not accept the latus clavus, the broad striped toga worn by one aspiring to a senatorial career, immediately. The delay, however, was perhaps no more than three years. See J. Nicols, Vespasian and the Partes Flavianae (Wiesbaden, 1978), 2.

[[3]] Military tribunate and quaestorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3; aedileship: ibid., 5.3, in which Gaius, furious that Vespasian had not kept the streets clean, as was his duty, ordered some soldiers to load him with filth;,they complied by stuffing his toga with as much as it could hold. See also Dio 59.12.2-3; praetorship: Suet. Vesp. 2.3, in which Vespasian is depicted as one of Gaius' leading adulators, an account consistent with Tacitus' portrayal (Hist 1.50.4; 2.5.1) of his early career. For a more complete discussion of these posts and attendant problems of dating, see Nicols, Vespasian, 2-7.

[[4]] Marriage and Caenis: Suet. Vesp. 3; Cass. Dio 65.14.

[[5]] Nicols, Vespasian, 12-39.

[[6]] Suet. Vesp. 4.1 For additional details on Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see D. Dudley and G. Webster, The Roman Conquest of Britain (London, 1965), 55 ff., 98.

[[7]] Concerning Vespasian's years between his consulship and proconsulship, see Suet. Vesp. 4.2 and Nicols, Vespasian, 9. On his unpopularity in Africa, see Suet. Vesp. 4.3, an account of a riot at Hadrumentum, where he was once pelted with turnips. In recording that Africa supported Vitellius in A.D. 69, Tacitus too suggests popular dissatisfaction with Vespasian's proconsulship. See Hist. 2.97.2.

[[8]] This despite the fact that the sources record two rebukes of Vespasian, one for extorting money from a young man seeking career advancement (Suet. Vesp. 4.3), the other for either leaving the room or dozing off during one of the emperor's recitals (Suet. Vesp. 4.4 and 14, which places the transgression in Greece; Tac. (Ann. 16.5.3), who makes Rome and the Quinquennial Games of A.D. 65 the setting; A. Braithwaite, C. Suetoni Tranquilli Divus Vespasianus, Oxford, 1927, 30, who argues for both Greece and Rome).

[[9]] Subjugation of Galilee: Joseph. BJ 3.65-4.106; siege of Jerusalem: ibid., 4.366-376, 414.

[[10]] Revolt of Vindex: Suet. Nero 40; Tac. Ann. 14.4; revolt of Galba: Suet. Galba 10; Plut. Galba, 4-5; suicide of Nero: Suet. Nero 49; Cass. Dio 63.29.2. For the most complete account of the period between Nero's death and the accession of Vespasian, see K. Wellesley, The Long Year: A.D. 69, 2nd. ed. (Bristol, 1989).

[[11]] Tac. Hist. 2.76.

[[12]] Troops in support of Vespasian: Suet. Vit. 15; Mucianus and his forces: Tac. Hist. 2.83; Vespasian and grain shipments: Joseph. BJ 4.605 ff.; see also Tac. Hist. 3.48, on Vespasian's possible plan to shut off grain shipments to Italy from Carthage as well.

[[13]] On Vitellius' army and its lack of discipline, see Tac. Hist. 2.93-94; illness of army: ibid., 2.99.1; Cremona: ibid., 3.32-33.

[[14]] On Vitellius' last days, see Tac. Hist. 3.68-81. On the complicated issue of Vitellius' death date, see L. Holzapfel, "Römische Kaiserdaten," Klio 13 (1913): 301.

[[15]] Honors, etc. Tac. Hist. 4.3. For more on the lex de imperio Vespasiani, see P. A. Brunt, "Lex de imperio Vespasiani," JRS (67) 1977: 95-116.

[[16]] Omens: Suet. Vesp. 5; consulships and honors: ibid., 8; succession of sons: ibid., 25.

[[17]] On Vespasian's restoration of Rome, see Suet. Vesp. 9; Cass. Dio 65.10; D. Wardel, "Vespasian, Helvidius Priscus and the Restoration of the Capitol," Historia 45 (1996): 208-222.

[[18]] Suet. Vesp. 16.

[[19]] Ibid.; Tac. Hist. 1.50.

[[20]] Suet. Vesp. 17-19.

[[21]] Ibid., 8-10.

[[22]] On Vespasian's exploits in Britain, see esp. Tac., Agricola, eds. R. M. Ogilvie and I. A. Richmond (1967), and W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North (1987); on the granting of Latin rights in Spain, see, e.g., J. Gonzalez, "The Lex Irnitana: a New Copy of the Flavian Municipal Law." JRS 76 (1986): 147-243.

[[23]] For this witticism and other anecdotes concerning Vespasian's sense of humor, see Suet. Vesp. 23.

Copyright (C) 1998, John Donahue. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, an Online Encyplopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families.
http://www.roman-emperors.org/vespasia.htm
Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Shapur2ARDirhemGobl1a_1.jpg
[1909a] SHAPUR II, AR DIRHEM, 309 - 379 74 viewsSasanian Empire: Shapur II, AR Dirhem, 309 - 379 C.E., Gobl 1a/1, 26mm, 2.73 grams; near EF; Obverse: Crowned bust right; Reverse: Fire altar between two attendants. PRIME example and SHARP. This is the Shevor Malka mentioned in the Talmud in the story of Rabba.


Shapur II, The Great

Shapur II (The Great) was the ninth King of the Sassanid Empire from 309 to 379. During his long reign, the Sassanid Empire saw its first Golden Era since the reign of Shapur I (241–272).

Early childhood
When King Hormizd II (302–309) died, the Persian magnates killed his eldest son, blinded the second, and imprisoned the third (Hormizd, who afterwards escaped to the Roman Empire). The throne was reserved for the unborn child of one of the wives of Hormizd II, who was Jewish. It is said that Shapur II may have been the only king in history to been crowned in utero: the crown was placed upon his mother's belly. This child, named Shapur, was therefore born king; the government was conducted by his mother and the magnates. But when Shapur II came of age, he turned out to be one of the greatest monarchs of the dynasty.

Conquests
During the early years of the reign of Shapur, Arabs crossed the Persian Gulf from Bahrain to "Ardashir-Khora" of Fars and raided the interior. In retaliation, Shapur led an expedition through Bahrain, defeated the combined forces of the Arab tribes of "Taghleb", "Bakr bin Wael", and "Abd Al-Qays" and advanced temporarily into Yamama in central Najd.He resettled these tribes in Kerman and Ahvaz. Arabs named him, as "Shabur Dhul-aktāf" or "Zol 'Aktāf" that means "The owner of the shoulders" after this battle. In 337, just before the death of Constantine I (324–337), Shapur II broke the peace concluded in 297 between Narseh (293–302) and Emperor Diocletian (284–305), which had been observed for forty years. A twenty-six year conflict (337–363) began in two series of wars, the first from 337 to 350. After crushing a rebellion in the south, he headed toward Mesopotamia and recaptured Armenia. From there he started his first campaign against Constantius II, a campaign which was mostly unsuccessful for Shapur II. He was unable to take the fortress of Singara in the Siege of Singara (344). Shapur II also attempted with limited success to conquer the great fortresses of Roman Mesopotamia, Nisibis (which he besieged three times in vain) and Amida.

Although often victorious, Shapur II made scarcely any progress. At the same time he was attacked in the east by nomad tribes, among whom the Xionites are named. After a prolonged struggle (353–358) they were forced to conclude a peace, and their king, Grumbates, accompanied Shapur II in the war against the Romans.

In 358 Shapur II was ready for his second series of wars against Rome, which met with much more success. In 359, Shapur II conquered Amida after a siege of seventy-three days, and he took Singara and some other fortresses in the next year (360). In 363 the Emperor Julian (361–363), at the head of a strong army, advanced to Shapur's capital at Ctesiphon and defeated a superior Sassanid army in the Battle of Ctesiphon, but was killed during his retreat. His successor Jovian (363–364) made an ignominious peace, by which the districts beyond the Tigris which had been acquired in 298 were given to the Persians along with Nisibis and Singara, and the Romans promised to interfere no more in Armenia. The great success is represented in the rock-sculptures near the town Bishapur in Persis (Stolze, Persepolis, p. 141); under the hoofs of the king's horse lies the body of an enemy, probably Julian, and a supplicant Roman, the Emperor Jovian, asks for peace.

Shapur II now invaded Armenia, where he took King Arshak II, the faithful ally of the Romans, prisoner by treachery and forced him to commit suicide. He then attempted to introduce Zoroastrian orthodoxy into Armenia. However, the Armenian nobles resisted him successfully, secretly supported by the Romans, who sent King Pap, the son of Arsaces III, into Armenia. The war with Rome threatened to break out again, but Valens sacrificed Pap, arranging for his assassination in Tarsus, where he had taken refuge (374). Shapur II subdued the Kushans and took control of the entire area now known as Afghanistan. Shapur II had conducted great hosts of captives from the Roman territory into his dominions, most of whom were settled in Susiana. Here he rebuilt Susa, after having killed the city's rebellious inhabitants.

By his death in 379 the Persian Empire was stronger than ever before, considerably larger than when he came to the throne; the eastern enemies were pacified and Persia had gained control over Armenia.

Contributions
Under Shapur II's reign the collection of the Avesta was completed, heresy and apostasy punished. Shapur recovered Armenia, which he placed under military occupation. Armenia had in the meantime accepted Christianity, and Shapur, an orthodox Zoroastrian, at first persecuted the Christians but later recognized their autonomy and respected their religion. He had a large rock sculpture made near Shapur to commemorate his victory over the Romans.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shapur_II

Author not available, SHAPUR II., The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2007. Copyright 2007 Columbia University Press.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.





1 commentsCleisthenes
     
181 files on 1 page(s)