Classical Numismatics Discussion Members' Gallery
  Welcome Guest. Please login or register.

Members' Gallery Home | Member Collections | Last Added | Last Comments | Most Viewed | Top Rated | My Favorities | Search Galleries
Search results - "Julian"
Julian-9.jpg
115 viewsJULIAN II - AR Siliqua - 361-363 AD - Mint of Lugdvnvm
Obv.: FL CL IVLIANVS P P AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: VOTIS V MVLTIS X. In ex. PLVG
Legend in three lines within wreath
g. 1,9 mm. 17
Cohen 163, RIC 227
2 commentsMaxentius
JULIAN-2.JPG
61 viewsJULIAN II - AE1 - 361-363 - Mint of Antioch
Obv.: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev.: SECVRITAS REIPVB
Bull standing right, two stars above; (palm) ANTB (palm).
Maxentius
Julian-8.jpg
34 viewsJVLIAN II - AE3 - 361-363 AD. Constantinople mint
Obv.: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left with sheild and spear
Rev.: VOT X MVLT XX, four lines in laurel wreath, (dot) CONSPB (branch) in ex.
Gs.: 3,3 mm. 20,6
RIC 167
Maxentius
JULIAN-3.JPG
33 viewsJVLIAN II AE3 - 361-363 AD. - Rome mint
Obv.: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left with sheild and spear
Rev.: VOT X MVLT XX, four lines in laurel wreath, VRB ROMP in ex.
Gs. 2,9 mm. 22,5
RIC 329
Maxentius
Julian-7.jpg
49 viewsJVLIAN II - AE3 - 355/360 - Aquileia mint
Obv.: D N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES, draped & cuirassed bust right
Rev.: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman. AQT in ex.
Gs. 2,5 mm. 16,7
RIC 213
Maxentius
j100.jpg
Julian II RIC 100, Heraclea 355-360 CE25 viewsObverse: DN IVLIA-NVS NOB C, bare-headed, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLIC, emperor helmeted in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
SMHD in ex. Heraclea mint. 17.4 mm., 1.8 g.
NORMAN K
ju167.jpg
Julian II, AE3 Constantinople RIC 167, 361-363 CE 16 viewsObverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust right, holding spear forward and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines across field within wreath.
Dot CONSPB (palm) in ex. RIC VIII 167. 18.5 mm, 3.4 g.
NORMAN K
2550311.jpg
22 Didius Julianus72 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Didius Julianus
AD 193
Æ Sestertius (28mm, 19.82 g, 11h). Rome mint.

Laureate head right / Fortuna standing left, holding rudder set on globe and cornucopia.

RIC IV 15. Fine, brown patina, scratches
Ex CNG
RI0128
6 commentsSosius
2550341.jpg
76 Julian II45 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Julian II
AD 360-363. AR Siliqua (18mm, 1.87 g, 12h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck AD 361.

O: Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right R: Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS/ V/ MVLTIS/ X in four lines within wreath; LVG.

RIC VIII 218; RSC 163a. Sear (2014) 19130. VF, toned, flan crack, graffiti on reverse.

Ex CNG
2 commentsSosius
julianii370.jpg
Julian II RIC 370 Siscia, 355-360 CE19 viewsObverse: DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman who is wearing Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards, M to left, DSIS-Zigzag in ex
RIC VIII Siscia 370, 16.9 mm., 2.2 g.
NORMAN K
tgtb.jpg
JULIAN II, RIC VIII 108 Sirmium 22 viewsJulian II, 361-363 CE. Æ 20.5 mm., 3.3 g. Sirmium mint.
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust right, holding spear forward and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines across field within wreath; ASIRM.; LRBC 1619. hard green patina
NORMAN K
julian210.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII 210 Thessalonica25 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.
Bronze AE 2
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath.
SMTS in ex. Thessalonica mint, 20.6 mm, 3.0 g.
NORMAN K
julian315.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII 315 Rome22 viewsJulian II, AE, Rome.
Obverse: DN CL IVL IVLIANVS NC, bare-headed, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left, one kneeraised, spearing a fallen horseman who is looking left,reaching backwards, wearing Phrygian helmet.
Mintmark R dot M dot S. 16mm, 2.4 g.
NORMAN K
julian382b.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII 376 Siscia24 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.
Bronze AE 3, as Caesar 355 - 361 A.D.; Obverse: D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES, cuirassed bust right
Reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M in left field, pellet in right.
ΔSISD in ex.,RIC VIII 376 Siscia mint, 2.2g, 16.9mm, scarce
NORMAN K
JULIAN_AND_OCTAVIAN.jpg
(01) OCTAVIAN AND DIVUS JULIUS CAESAR68 viewsca 28 - 27 BC
AE 20 mm 7.62 g
O: JULIUS CAESAR, BARE HEAD R
R: OCTAVIAN (AUGUSTUS) CAESAR, HEAD R
THESSALONICA
RPC 1554
laney
didius_b_res.jpg
(0193) DIDIUS JULIANUS38 views193 AD
AE Sestertius, 26 mm; 15.36 g
O: Laureate head right
R: Fortuna standing left, holding rudder set on globe
Rome mint; RIC IV 15; Banti 5. Rare
ex CNG
laney
JULIAN.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II35 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
struck 360 - 363 AD as Augustus
AE 20 mm 3.69 g
O: [DN FL CL] IVLIANVS PF AVG
HELMETED DIAD DUIR BUST L HOLDING SHIELD AND SPEAR
R: VOT/X/MVLT/XX WITHIN WREATH
BSIRM IN EXE
SIRMIUM
laney
JULIAN_II_B.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II32 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
struck 360 - 363 AD, as Augustus
AE 15.5 mm max. 1.51 g
Obv: FL CL IVLIAN-VS P F AVG, diademed draped bust right
Rev: SPES REIPVBLICAE, emperor standing left in military dress holding globe & spear
Rare
laney
julian_spes_re.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II20 viewsAE 15.5 mm; 1.72 g
O: D N FL CL IVLIANVS NOB CS, draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear; uncertain mark in left field
Cyzicus mint
laney
julian_asis.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II (as Caesar)32 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 15.5 mm, 1.83 g
O: DN CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES, bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: SPES REI-PVBLICAE, emperor standing left, helmeted, in military dress, globe in right, spear in left; ASIS in exe.
Siscia Mint
laney
julian_fel_temp_3_res.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II (as Caesar)21 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 17 mm 2.21 g
O: D N IVLIANVS NOB C bare-headed bust right
R: FEL TEMPO REPARATIO soldier spearing fallen horseman; ESIS in exe.
Siscia mint
laney
julian_fel_temp_2_res.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II (as Caesar)21 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 17.5 mm 2.37 g
O: D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES; bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO soldier spearing fallen horseman; RBQ iin exe.
Rome mint
laney
julian_fel_temp_1_res.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II (as Caesar)23 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 18 mm
O: IVLIANVS NOB C; bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO emperor spearing fallen horseman; M in center
laney
julian_horseman.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II (as Caesar)6 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 16 mm, 2.12 g
O: IVLIANVS NOB C; bust right
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO emperor spearing fallen horseman;
laney
jul_fel_res.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II (The Apostate)24 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 17 mm max., 2.75 g
O: Bare-headed draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M in left field
laney
julian_fel_11_res.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II The Apostate (as Caesar)26 viewsJulian II as Caesar
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 18 mm; 2.29 g
O: D N IVLIAN-VS NOB C, bare-headed draped and cuirassed bust right;
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M in left field
Siscia mint
laney
julian_fel_temp.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)17 viewsJulian II as Caesar
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 16 mm max; 2.65 g
O: Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust facing right, M behind bust
R: Soldier standing l., spearing fallen horseman
Lugdunum (Lyon) mint
laney
julian_ii_fel_lugdun_mslg.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)27 viewsJulian II as Caesar
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
struck 355 - 360 AD (Officina 2)
AE 17.5 mm; 2.33 g
Obv.: FL CL IVLIANVS NOB C / M , his bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust facing right
Rev.: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO helmeted soldier standing l., spearing fallen horseman; horseman, wearing pointed hat, leaning l. on horse, turned r. and raising hand, shield on ground r.; MSLG in exe.
Lugdunum (Lyon) mint
RIC VIII, 191, 200 (R) ; Bastien 248 (3 ex) ; nummus-bible-database.com: only 1 piece, also from officina 2. Rare
laney
julian_ii_spes_reip.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)22 viewsJulian II as Caesar
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 17 mm; 1.91 g
O: DN IVLIANV-S NOB CAES draped cuirassed bust right
R: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear
laney
julian_fel_temp_cons.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)18 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 16.5 mm; 2.25 g
O: D N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, helmeted soldier left spearing fallen horseman
laney
julian_fel_con.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)13 viewsCaesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
AE 18.5 mm max. 1.92 g
O: DN IVLIAN-VS NOB CAES
R: FEL TEMP R-EPARATIO, emperor spearing fallen horseman, M in center, PCON or TCON in ex.
Arles mint
laney
jul_ii_spes_rei.jpg
(0355) JULIAN II THE APOSTATE (as Caesar)16 viewsJulian II as Caesar
AE 16 mm max; 1.83 g
Caesar: 355 –360
Augustus: 360 -- 361.
Sole Augustus: 361 –363
O: DN IVLIAN-VS NOB C draped and cuirassed bust right.
R: SPES REIPVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear
Siscia mint
laney
Julian_II.jpg
*SOLD*84 viewsJulian II AE 1

Attribution: RIC VIII 164, Constantinople, scarce
Date: AD 361-363
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust r.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB dot, Apis bull stg. r., two stars above,
palm CONSPA palm in exergue (double struck)
Size: 28.9 mm
Weight: 8.7 grams
ex-Forvm
4 commentsNoah
Novbilder_(34).jpg
004 - Julian II "the Apostate" (360-363 AD), AE 3 - RIC 10857 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearldiademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear in right and shield in left hand.
Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / XX within wreath.
Minted in Sirmium (ASIRM in exe), first officina, summer 361 - 26 Jun 363 AD.
3 commentspierre_p77
4140400.jpg
006a. Claudia17 viewsEGYPT, Alexandria. Nero, with Claudia. AD 54-68. BI Tetradrachm (22mm, 10.74 g, 12h). Dated RY 3 (AD 56/57). Laureate head of Nero right / Draped bust of Claudia Octavia right; L Γ (date) below chin. Köln 122-4; Dattari (Savio) 190; K&G 14.7; RPC I 5202; Emmett 127.3. Near VF. Ex - CNG

Furthermore, the carefully contrived marriage between Octavia and Nero was a disaster on a personal level. Nero soon embarked on a serious relationship with a freedman named Acte, and more importantly developed an active dislike for his wife. "Quickly feeling aversion to intimacy with Octavia, he replied to his friends who were finding fault with him that she ought to be satisfied with the outward trappings of a wife." This antipthy was not likely to produce offspring who would unite the Julian and Claudian lines. By 58 Nero was becoming involved with a freeborn mistress, Poppaea, whom he would want to make his empress in exchange for Octavia. But the legitimacy of his principate derived from his relationship with his predecessor, and he was not so secure that he could do without the connection with Claudius provided through his mother and his wife. In 59 he was able to arrange for Agrippina's death, but it was not until 62 that he felt free to divorce Octavia and marry Poppaea. The initial grounds for putting Octavia aside was the charge that she was barren because she had had no children. But a more aggressive attack was needed when opposition arose from those who still challenged Nero's prncipate and remained loyal to Octavia as the last representative of her family. With the connivance of Poppaea, charges of adultery were added, Octavia was banished to Campania and then to the island of Pandataria off the coast, and finally killed. Her severed head was sent to Rome.
2 commentsecoli
DSC07046_obv_03_DSC07051_rev_04.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows49 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
----------
-------
-----
---
-
4 commentsrexesq
DSC07044_obv_01_DSC07048__rev_01JPG.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows36 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
----------
-------
-----
---
-
2 commentsrexesq
Julian-II_AR-Siliqua_vows_1_9gr_03_rev-85%.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows - 00139 views Roman Empire, 4th century AD Silver Siliqua.
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, struck 361 - 363 AD, Constantinople Mint, Prima Officinae.

obverse: " DN JULIANUS P F AUG " - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.

reverse: " VOTIS V MULTIS X " - within wreath, '' P CON '' in exergue (below), for Constantinople mint.

Size: 19 dia.
Weight: 1.9 Grams
----------------------------------------------
5 commentsrexesq
DSC07050_rev_03.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows - Reverse.14 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
----------
-------
-----
---
-
rexesq
DSC07049_rev_02.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows - Reverse.12 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
----------
-------
-----
---
-
rexesq
DSC07063_rev_09.JPG
01 - Julian II - Silver Siliqua - Vows - Reverse. BRIGHT.16 viewsRoman Empire
Emperor Julian II (355 - 363 AD, sole reign from 361 - 363 AD)
Silver Siliqua, Constantinople Mint, struck 361 - 363 AD.

obv: DN JULIANUS P F AUG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from the front.
rev: VOTIS V MULTIS X within wreath, 'P CON' in exergue.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 1.9 Grams
----------
-------
-----
---
-
Slightly off color photo; too much lighting.
-
---
rexesq
IMG_2573~0.JPG
03 Julian II32 viewsJulian II
Ae 15

DN IVLIANV-S NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right
TEMP-REP...
bearded, one braid, clutching
ANЄI ?
Antioch 189

new pic
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
Personajes_Imperiales_4.jpg
04 - Personalities of the Empire57 viewsCommodus, Crispina, Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Manlia Scantilla, Didia Clara, Pescennius Níger, Clodius Albinus, Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, Plautilla, Geta and Macrinusmdelvalle
c3947.JPG
040 Claudius39 viewsClaudius Æ As. TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP, bare head left / LIBERTAS AVGVSTA S-C, Libertas standing facing, with pileus and extending left hand. Cohen 47.




"Claudius was born at Lugdunum, in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on August 1st, 10 B.C., the very day when the first altar was dedicated there to Augustus the God; and he was given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. Subsequently he assumed the surname Germanicus after his brother had been admitted into the Julian House as Tiberius's adopted son."
Randygeki(h2)
43.jpg
043 Didius Julianus. AR Denarius61 viewsobv: IMP CAES M DID_IVLIAN AVG laur. head r.
rev: CONCORD MILIT Concordia std. l. holding legionary eagle and standard
2 commentshill132
070.jpg
069 Julian II7 viewsEMPEROR: Julian II
DENOMINATION: AE3
OBVERSE: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
REVERSE: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within a wreath with a fancy bow
EXERGUE: BSIRM
DATE: 361-363 AD
MINT: Sirmium
WEIGHT:
RIC VIII Sirmium 108
Barnaba6
071.jpg
070 JULIAN II 15 viewsEMPEROR: Julian II
DENOMINATION:Siliqua
OBVERSE: FL CL IVLIA-NVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
REVERSE: / VOTIS V MVLTIS X in four lines within wreath
EXERGUE: LVG
DATE:
MINT: Lugdunum
WEIGHT: 1.78 g
RIC VIII Lyons 218
Barnaba6
0001JUL.jpg
1) Julius Caesar160 viewsDenarius, Rome, Moneyer P. Sepullius Macer, 44 BC, 4.03g. Cr-480/11, Syd-1072; Sear, Imperators-107b. Obv: Wreathed head of Caesar r., CAESAR before, D[IC]T PERPETVO behind. Rx: Venus standing l., looking downwards, holding Victory and scepter resting on star, P SEPVLLIVS behind, MACER downwards before. Same dies as Alfoldi, Caesar in 44 v. Chr., pl. LIII, 6-8. Banker's mark behind Caesar's eye. Good portrait. Some areas of flat striking, otherwise EF

Ex HJB - purchased on the Ides of March, 2011

Gaius Julius Caesar (Classical Latin: [ˈɡaː.i.ʊs ˈjuː.lɪ.ʊs ˈkaj.sar], July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman general, statesman, Consul and notable author of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and Pompey formed a political alliance that was to dominate Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass power through populist tactics were opposed by the conservative elite within the Roman Senate, among them Cato the Younger with the frequent support of Cicero. Caesar's conquest of Gaul, completed by 51 BC, extended Rome's territory to the English Channel and the Rhine. Caesar became the first Roman general to cross both when he built a bridge across the Rhine and conducted the first invasion of Britain.

These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to lay down his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused, and marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with a legion, leaving his province and illegally entering Roman territory under arms. Civil war resulted, from which he emerged as the unrivaled leader of Rome.

After assuming control of government, Caesar began a program of social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian calendar. He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity". But the underlying political conflicts had not been resolved, and on the Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC, Caesar was assassinated by a group of senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. A new series of civil wars broke out, and the constitutional government of the Republic was never restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian, later known as Augustus, rose to sole power, and the era of the Roman Empire began.

Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns, and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and speeches of Cicero and the historical writings of Sallust. The later biographies of Caesar by Suetonius and Plutarch are also major sources. Caesar is deemed to be one of the greatest military commanders of history. Source: wikipedia
RM0001
13 commentsSosius
Julian_II_siliqua.jpg
10 Julian the Apostate24 viewsReduced AR Silqua, heavily clipped.

Bust right // VOTIS / V / MVLTIS / X inside wreath, mintmark clipped off.
Sosius
image~1.jpg
108. Didius Julianus58 views193 A.D. - The Year of Five Emperors. On 1 January, the Senate selected Pertinax, against his will, to succeed the late Commodus as Emperor. The Praetorian Guard assassinated him on 28 March and auctioned the throne to the highest bidder, Didius Julianus, who offered 300 million sesterces. Outraged by the Praetorians, legions in Illyricum select Septimius Severus as emperor; in Britannia the legions select their governor Clodius Albinus, and in Syria the legions select their governor Pescennius Niger. On 1 June Septimius Severus entered the capital, put Julianus put to death and replaced the Praetorian Guard with his own troops. Clodius Albinus allied with Severus and accepted the title of Caesar. Pescennius Niger was defeated, killed and his head displayed in Rome.


SH67895. Orichalcum sestertius, RIC VI 14, BMCRE V 20, Cohen 3, Cayon III 1, SRCV II 6075, aF, weight 19.437 g, maximum diameter 27.6 mm, die axis 180o, Rome mint, obverse IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONCORD MILIT, S - C, Concordia Militum standing half left, flanked by legionary eagle before in right and standard behind in left.

Ex-FORVM


1 commentsecoli
T1356LG.jpg
108a MANLIA SCANTILLA64 viewsAE sestertius. Rome mint.
MANL SCANTILLA AVG. Draped bust right / IVNO REGINA SC. Juno standing left, holding patera and sceptre; peacock at feet. RIC IV 18b (Didius Julianus). VERY RARE

Check
2 commentsecoli
Personajes_Imperiales_11.jpg
11 - Personalities of the Empire51 views
Magnentius, Decentius, Vetranius, Constantius Gallo, Julian II, Jovian, Valentinianus I, Valens, Procopius, Gratianus, Valentinianus II, Theodosius I, Aelia Flacilla and Magnus Maximus
mdelvalle
014~1.JPG
13 Julian II112 viewsJulian II. AE3 355-360 AD. DN IVLIANVS NOB C, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman who is wearing Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards, M in left field. Mintmark Delta SIS Zigzag. Siscia RIC VIII 370 Scarce1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
IMG_2757.JPG
13 Julian II 75 viewsJulian II . D N IVLIA-NVS NOB C, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards, M in left field, mintmark Delta SISL.
Siscia
RIC VIII 382
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
136a.jpg
136a Julian II. AE1 8.9gm25 viewsobv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG pearl dia. drp. cuir. bust r.
rev: SECVRITAS REI PVB bull, head facing, std. r. above two stars
ex: CVZB
hill132
136c.jpg
136c Julian II. AE3 2.4gm18 viewsobv: DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG dia. helm. drp. bust l. holding spear and shield
rev: VOT/X/MVLT/XX in laur. wreath
ex: ASIRM
hill132
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
jovian.jpg
1410a, Jovian, 27 June 363 - 17 February 364 A.D.78 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 179, aVF, Constantinople, 3.126g, 21.6mm, 180o. Obverse: D N IOVIANVS P F AVG, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: VOT V MVLT X within wreath, CONSPG in exergue; scarce.

Flavius Jovianuswas born in 331 at Singidunum, modern Belgrade. His distinguished father, Varronianus, had been a tribune of the legion Ioviani and a comes domesticorum, perhaps under Constantius II, who had retired to private life shortly before Jovian's elevation to the purple. Jovian married a daughter of Lucillianus, perhaps named Charito, and by her produced at least two children.

Jovian himself was a protector domesticus under Constantius II and Julian and, under Julian, primicerius domesticorum. Various Christian sources maintain that Jovian's Christianity led to his deposition by Julian, though most modern scholars dismiss this as ex post facto Christian apologetic. Jovian, recalled to the ranks if he had ever been dismissed, marched with Julian against Sapor in 363, and on 27 June, the day after that emperor's death, was acclaimed Augustus.

Ammianus and Zosimus, among others, detail the difficult straits of the Roman army during its withdrawal from Persian territory, Ammianus from the perspective of a proud soldier confident even in defeat of the superiority of Roman arms, Zosimus, in a much shorter and confused version, concentrating on the predicament of Jovian's troops and on the dire effects to the empire of the peace terms agreed to with Sapor. These terms entailed the cessation to Persia of Roman territory beyond the Tigris -- the cities of Singara and Nisibis, however, to be surrendered on the condition of the safe passage of their inhabitants -- and the guarantee of the neutrality of Rome's ally Arsaces, King of Armenia, in the event of future hostilities between Roman and Persia. Ammianus asserts that in agreeing to these terms Jovian misjudged his tactical strength and wasted an opportunity presented by negotiations with Sapor to move his forces closer to supplies at Corduena, and that Jovian acted on the advise of flatterers to preserve the fighting strength of his forces in the event of an attempt by Julian's relative Procopius to seize the throne. Others present the treaty terms as unavoidable given the Roman predicament.

Jovian appears to have treaded cautiously with regard to religious matters during the early months of his reign. Eunapius says that Jovian continued to honor Maximus and Priscus, the Neoplatonist advisors of Julian, and, upon reaching Tarsus, Jovian performed funeral rites for Julian. Nonetheless, various Christians, most notably Athanasius, took the initiative in an effort to gain Jovian's favor and support. An adherent of the Nicaean creed, Jovian did eventually recall various bishops of homoousian disposition and restore to their followers churches lost under earlier emperors. But in spite of such measures, unity among various Christian sects seems to have been the foremost concern of Jovian, whose ipsissima verba Socrates Scholasticus purports to give: "I abhor contentiousness, but love and honor those hurrying towards unanimity" (Hist. Eccl. 3.25).

Jovian died at the age of thirty-two on 17 February 364 at Dadastana on the boundary of Bithynia and Galatia. The cause of his death was most probably natural and is variously attributed to overeating, the consumption of poisonous mushrooms, or suffocation from fumes of charcoal or of the fresh paint on the room in which he was sleeping. Ammianus' comparison of the circumstances of Jovian's death to those of Scipio Aemilianus suggest the possibility of foul play, as does John of Antioch's reference to a poisoned rather than a poisonous mushroom, while John Chrysostom -- in a highly suspect literary context of consolatio-- asserts outright that the emperor was murdered. Eutropius records that he was enrolled among the gods, inter Divos relatus est. Zonaras says he was buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles and that his wife, Charito, was eventually laid to rest beside him.

Ancient authors agree that Jovian was of modest intellect but imposing physique and disposed to excessive eating and drinking.

By Thomas Banchich, Canisius College
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited By J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_ANTgamma_Antiochia-360-63_RIC-216_Q-002_8_74g.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Antiochia, RIC VIII 216, AE-1, -/-//palmANTΓpalm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, #1142 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Antiochia, RIC VIII 216, AE-1, -/-//palmANTΓpalm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, #1
avers:- D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above
exergue: -/-//palmANTΓpalm, diameter: 28mm, weight: 8,74g, axis: h,
mint: Antiochia, date: 360-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-216, C,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_ANTgamma_Antiochia-360-63_RIC-216_kjg-001_0_00g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Antiochia, RIC VIII 216, AE-1, -/-//palmANTApalm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, #170 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Antiochia, RIC VIII 216, AE-1, -/-//palmANTApalm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, #1
avers:- D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above
exergue: -/-//palmANTApalm, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Antiochia, date: 360-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-216, C,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_X-CON_Arles-360-63_RIC-000_Q-003_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 313, AE-1, -/-//TCON, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R3!!!76 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 313, AE-1, -/-//TCON, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R3!!!
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above (D3).
exergue: -/-//TCON, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arles, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 313, R3!!!
Q-003
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_S-CONST-dot_Arles-360-63_RIC-000_Q-001_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 320, AE-1, -/-/SCONST•, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #178 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 320, AE-1, -/-/SCONST•, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above (D3).
exergue: -/-/SCONST•, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arles, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 320, R!
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_xxONST-x_Arles-360-63_RIC-000_Q-004_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 320, AE-1, -/-/SCONST•, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #269 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 320, AE-1, -/-/SCONST•, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #2
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above (D3).
exergue: -/-/SCONST•, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arles, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 320, R!
Q-002
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_TCONST-x_Arles-360-63_RIC-000_Q-006_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 321, AE-1, -/-/SCONST•, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #165 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 321, AE-1, -/-/SCONST•, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVL IANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above (D3).
exergue: -/-/SCONST•, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arles, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 321, R!
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_SCONST-x_Arles-360-63_RIC-000_Q-001_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 322, AE-1, -/-/SCONST•, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #165 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 322, AE-1, -/-/SCONST•, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLIAN VS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above (D3).
exergue: -/-/SCONST•, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arles, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 322, R!
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_S-CONST-dot_Arles-360-63_RIC-000_Q-002_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 322, AE-1, -/-/SCONST•, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #262 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 322, AE-1, -/-/SCONST•, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #2
avers: D N FL CL IVLIAN VS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above (D3).
exergue: -/-/SCONST•, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Arles, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 322, R!
Q-002
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_x-CONST-A-dot_Constantinopolis-360-63_RIC-000_Q-007_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 161, AE-1, -/-//-/-//CONSPA, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #165 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Constantinopolis, RIC VIII 161, AE-1, -/-//-/-//CONSPA, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (D3).
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//CONSPA, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinopolis, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-161, C
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_X-CYZ-delta_Cyzicus-360-63_RIC-000_Q-002_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VIII 127, AE-1, -/-//CYZΓ, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, #165 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VIII 127, AE-1, -/-//CYZΓ, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (D3).
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//CYZΓ, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-127, C
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_X-CYZ-delta_Cyzicus-360-63_RIC-000_Q-001_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VIII 127, AE-1, -/-//CYZA, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, #165 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Cyzicus, RIC VIII 127, AE-1, -/-//CYZA, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (D3).
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//CYZA, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Cyzicus, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-127, C
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II_RIC-VIII-104_5h_27mm_8,66g.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VIII 104, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//•HERACL•B/•, Bull standing right, Scarce!, #171 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Heraclea, RIC VIII 104, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//•HERACL•B/•, Bull standing right, Scarce!, #1
avers:- D N FL CL IVLIAN VS P F AVG, bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above, in right field.
exergo: -/-//•HERACL•B/•, diameter: 27mm, weight: 8,66g, axis: 5h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-104,p-438, Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AR-Siliqua_FL-CL-IVLIA-NVS-PP-AVG_VOTIS_V_MVLTIS_X_LVG_Lugdunum_RIC-VIII-218_p-_RSC-163a_360-3-AD_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VIII 218, AR-Siliqua, -/-//LVG, VOTIS/V/MVLTIS/X, in wreath, #1264 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VIII 218, AR-Siliqua, -/-//LVG, VOTIS/V/MVLTIS/X, in wreath, #1
avers: FL CL IVLIA NVS P P AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: No legend, VOTIS/V/MVLTIS/X in four line, in wreath.
exergue: -/-//LVG, diameter: 17mm, weight: 2,03g, axis: 0h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 360-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 218, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_LVGDOFFx_Lyon-361-63_RIC-236_Q-001_7_67g.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VIII 236, AE-1, -/-//LUGDOFFP, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #181 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VIII 236, AE-1, -/-//LUGDOFFP, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//LUGDOFFP, diameter: 28mm, weight: 7,67g, axis: h,
mint: Lugdunum (Lyon), date: 360-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-236,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_LVGDOFFx_Lyon-361-63_-RIC-236_kjg-003_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VIII 236, AE-1, -/-//LUGDOFFP, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #269 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VIII 236, AE-1, -/-//LUGDOFFP, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #2
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//LUGDOFFP, diameter: 28mm, weight: 7,98g, axis: h,
mint: Lugdunum (Lyon), date: 360-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-236,
Q-002
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_LVGDOFFx_Lyon-361-63_-RIC-236_Q-003_7_98g.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VIII 236, AE-1, -/-//LUGDOFFP, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #365 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Lugdunum, RIC VIII 236, AE-1, -/-//LUGDOFFP, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #3
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//LUGDOFFP, diameter: 28mm, weight: 7,47g, axis: h,
mint: Lugdunum (Lyon), date: 360-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-236,
Q-003
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_x-NIKO-x_Nikomedia-360-63_RIC-216_Q-001_0_00g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VIII 120, AE-1, -/-//NIKA * ??, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #167 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Nicomedia, RIC VIII 120, AE-1, -/-//NIKA * ??, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right (D3).
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//NIKA * ??, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Nicomedia, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-120, R!
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_x-A-SIRM-x_Sirmium-360-63_RIC-000_Q-001_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 106, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*ASIRMwreath, Bull standing right, #1173 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 106, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*ASIRMwreath, Bull standing right, #1
avers:- D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (D3).
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergo: -/-//*ASIRMwreath, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 106, C
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_A-SIRM_Sirmium-360-63_RIC-000_Q-001_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 107, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*ASIRMpalm, Bull standing right, #165 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 107, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*ASIRMpalm, Bull standing right, #1
avers:- D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (D3).
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergo: -/-//*ASIRMpalm, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 107, C
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_star-B-SIRM-palm_Sirmium-360-63_RIC-000_Q-002_0_0g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 107, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*BSIRMpalm, Bull standing right, #2218 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 107, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, -/-//*BSIRMpalm, Bull standing right, #2
avers:- D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG (J8), Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right (D3).
revers:- SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergo: -/-//*BSIRMpalm, diameter: 28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 107, C
Q-002
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_A-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-002_6h_19mm_3,04g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//ASIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #162 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//ASIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//ASIRM, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-002
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-001_6h_20,5mm_3,35g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #180 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-003_0h_20mm_3,10g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #265 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #2
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//BSIRM, diameter: 20mm, weight: 3,10g, axis: 0h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-003
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_B-SIRM_Sirmium_RIC-VIII-108_p-393_361-3-AD_Q-004_7h_20,5-21,5mm_3,20g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #366 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #3
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//BSIRM, diameter: 20,5-1,5mm, weight: 3,20g, axis: 7h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-003
quadrans
Julian-II-proba-gif2b.gif
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, Nice animation !!!, 69 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium, RIC VIII 108, AE-3, -/-//BSIRM, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, Nice animation !!!,
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-4-15_DN-IVLIANVS-NOB-CAES_FELTEMP-REPARATIO_A-SIS-FordZ_Siscia-361_RIC-VIII-363-p-377_Scarce_Q-001_axis-6h_18mm_1,91g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 363, AE-3, -/-//ΔSIS(revers)Z, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, #197 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 363, AE-3, -/-//ΔSIS(revers)Z, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, #1
avers: D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES, JC10,D1, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing a fallen horseman.
exergue: -/-//ΔSIS(revers)Z, diameter: 18mm, weight: 1,91g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 355 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 363, p-377, Scarce !,
Q-001
quadrans
153_Julianus-II__Siscia,_RIC_VIII_371,_AE-16,_D_N_IVLIANVS_NOB_C,_FELTEMP_REPARATIO,_DeltaSISrevZ,_p-377,_361-67_AD,_S,Q-001,_0h,_16-17mm,_2,54g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 371, AE-3, -/-//ΔSIS(revers)Z, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, #170 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 371, AE-3, -/-//ΔSIS(revers)Z, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, #1
avers: D N IVLIANVS NOB C, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing a fallen horseman.
exergue: M/-//ΔSIS(revers)Z, diameter: 16,0-17,0mm, weight: 2,54g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 361-367 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 371, p-377, Scarce !,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-4-15_DN-IVLIAN-VS-NOB-CAES_FELTEMP-REPARATIO_M_A-SIS-D_Siscia-361-67_RIC-374_selten_Q-001_axis-0h_12-13mm_2,31g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 373, AE-3, -/-//ASISD, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, #1190 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 373, AE-3, -/-//ASISD, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, #1
avers: D N IVLIAN VS NOB CAES, JC10,D1, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right, M or A or H behind the bust.
reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing a fallen horseman.
exergue: -/-//ASISD, diameter: 18mm, weight: 2,31g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 355-361 A.D., ref: RIC-373, Scarce !,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-4-15_DN-IVLIAN-VS-NOB-C_FELTEMP-REPARATIO_M_A-SIS-D_Siscia-361-67_RIC-374_selten_Q-001_15mm_2,49g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 374, AE-3, M/-//A or ΔSISD, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, #1143 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 374, AE-3, M/-//A or ΔSISD, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, #1
avers: D N IVLIAN VS NOB C, JC16,D1, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spearing a fallen horseman.
exergue: M/-//A or ΔSISD, diameter: 15mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 355-361 A.D., ref: RIC-374, Scarce !,
Q-001
quadrans
153_Julianus_II_,_Siscia_RIC_VIII_382,_AE-3,_D_N_IVLIANVS_NOB_C,_FEL_TEMP_REPARATIO,_M_DSISL,_355-61AD,S_Q-001,_6h,_17,5mm,_2,77g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 382, AE-3, M/-//ΔSISL, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, Scarce! #1113 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 382, AE-3, M/-//ΔSISL, FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Fallen horseman, Scarce! #1
avers: D N IVLIAN VS NOB C, JC16,D1, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, The Soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backward, M in left field.
exergue: M/-//ΔSISL, diameter: 17,5mm, weight: 2,77g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 355-361 A.D., ref: RIC VIII 382, Scarce !,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_palmA-SISpalm_Siscia_RIC-VIII-415_p-380_361-3-AD_Q-001_6h_19mm_3,12gx-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 415, AE-3, -/-//palmASISpalm, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1135 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 415, AE-3, -/-//palmASISpalm, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//palmASISpalm, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 415, p-380,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_palmASISCPalm_Siscia_RIC-VIII-422_p-380_361-3-AD_Q-001_0h_20-21mm_gx-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 422, AE-3, -/-//palmASISCpalm, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1141 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 422, AE-3, -/-//palmASISCpalm, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
reverse: No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exergue: -/-//palmASISCpalm, diameter: 20-21mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 422, p-380,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_palm-TES-A-palm_Thessalonica-360-63_RIC-216_Q-002b_0_00g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 225, AE-1, -/-//palmTESApalm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #165 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 225, AE-1, -/-//palmTESApalm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, R!, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//palmTESApalm, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 360-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-225, R!
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_palm-TES-gamma-dot-palm_Thessalonica-360-63_RIC-216_Q-001a_0_00g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 226, AE-1, -/-//palm*TESΓ•palm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Scarce, #165 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 226, AE-1, -/-//palm*TESΓ•palm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Scarce, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//palm*TESΓ•palm, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-226, Scarce !,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_palm-TES-gamma-dot-palm_Thessalonica-360-63_RIC-216_Q-002_0_00g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 226, AE-1, -/-//palm*TESΓ•palm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Scarce, #2163 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 226, AE-1, -/-//palm*TESΓ•palm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Scarce, #2
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//palm*TESΓ•palm, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-226, Scarce !,
Q-002
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-P-F-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_palm-star-TES-B-dot-palm_Thessalonica-361-3_RIC-226_Q-001_6h_26,5-27mm_8,55g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 226, AE-1, -/-//palm*TESB•palm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Scarce, #1136 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII 226, AE-1, -/-//palm*TESB•palm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Scarce, #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//palm* TESB•palm, diameter: 26,5-27,0 mm, weight: 8,55g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII-226, Scarce !,
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_palm-dot-TES-gamma-dot-palm_Thessalonica-360-63_RIC-216_Q-003_0_00g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII Not in !, AE-1, -/-//palm•TESΓ•palm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #175 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII Not in !, AE-1, -/-//palm•TESΓ•palm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//palm•TESΓ•palm, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII Not in, Rare!,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_palm-TES-B-palm_Thessalonica-360-63_RIC-216_Q-001_0_00g-s.jpg
153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII Not in !, AE-1, -/-//palm•TESBpalm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #162 views153 Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC VIII Not in !, AE-1, -/-//palm•TESBpalm, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Rare! #1
avers: D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: -/-//palm•TESBpalm, diameter: 27-28mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII Not in, Rare!,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_xxzz_zzzz-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-001_7h_22-23mm_5,39g-s~0.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 320-322var ???, AE-1, -/-//???, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #1230 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Arles, RIC VIII 320-322var ???, AE-1, -/-//???, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #1
avers:- confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse:- confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above,
exergue: -/-//???, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 5,39g, axis: 7h,
mint: Arles (Barbar), date: ???, ref: RIC VIII 320-322var ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_S-CONxx-xt_Arles-360-63_RIC-000_Q-010_0_0g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0164 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #01
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_T-CONST-xx_Arles-360-63_RIC-000_Q-009_0_0g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0266 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #02
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-002
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_xxxx_xxxx-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-004_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0364 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #03
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-003
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_xxxx_xxxx-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-002a_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0463 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #04
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-004
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_xxzz_yyzz-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-006_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0565 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #05
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-005
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_xxxx_yyzz-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-005_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0664 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #06
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-006
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_xxxx_yyyy-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-003_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0765 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #07
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-007
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_xxxx_xxxx-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-002_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0862 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #08
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-008
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_T-CONST-dot_Arles-360-63_RIC-000_Q-007_0_0g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0962 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #09
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-009
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_x-SIRN-x_Sirmium-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-003_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #1065 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #10
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-010
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-28_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_SECVRITAS-REIPVB_T-CONST-dot_Arles-360-63_RIC-000_Q-008_0_0g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #1165 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Barbar, RIC VIII ???, AE-1, Confusing text, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #11
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue:-/-//-???-, diameter: mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Barbar, date: ??, ref: RIC VIII ???,
Q-011
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-30_BARBAR_x-SIRN-x_Sirmium-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-001_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0165 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #01
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above, ?-SIRN-? in exergue.
exergue:-/-//-SIRN-, diameter:30mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium (Barbar), date: ??, ref: RIC VIII 106-107 ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_x-SIRN-x_Sirmium-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-002_0_00g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0266 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #02
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above, ?-SIRN-? in exergue.
exergue:-/-//-SIRN-, diameter:25mm, weight: 0,0g, axis: h,
mint: Sirmium (Barbar), date: ??, ref: RIC VIII 106-107 ???,
Q-002
quadrans
153-Julianus-II_AE-1-23_-Barbar_-Imitation_AD_Q-051_1h_22,5-23,5mm_6_18g-s.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #0375 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Sirmium ???, RIC VIII 106-107 ???, AE-1, SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, Barbarous Imitation, #03
avers: Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right
reverse: Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above.
exergue: /-//confusing text, diameter: 22,5-23,5mm, weight: 6,18g, axis: 1h,
mint: Sirmium (Barbar), date: ???, ref: RIC VIII 106-107 ???,
Q-003
1 commentsquadrans
Julianus-II__AE-1-25_BARBAR_A-SIS-C_Siscia-361-63_RIC-418var_Q-001_6_93g.jpg
153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 418var., AE-1-25, -/-//ASISC, SECVRITAS REIPVB "BARBAROUS Imitation Siscia", Bull standing right, #185 views153b Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), Siscia, RIC VIII 418var., AE-1-25, -/-//ASISC, SECVRITAS REIPVB "BARBAROUS Imitation Siscia", Bull standing right, #1
avers:- Confusing text, Diademed (pearls), draped and cuirassed bust right.
reverse:- Confusing text, Bull standing right, two stars above, A-SIS-C in exergue.
exergue: -/-//ASISC, diameter: 25mm, weight: 6,93g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia ???, date: ???, ref: RIC-VIII 418 var ??
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RI_176e_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Alexandria 85 29 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES, Bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spears a horseman on left, one hand holding the neck of the horse & the other back at his attacker
Minted in Alexandria (M | _ // ALED), 6th November A.D. 355 - 3rd November A.D. 361
Reference(s) – RIC VIII Alexandria 85 (S)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_176m_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Antioch 18919 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N IVLIANVS- NOB CAES, Bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP - REPARATIO, Soldier spears a horseman on left, clutching the neck of the horse
Minted in Antioch (// ANEI), 6th November A.D. 355 - 3rd November A.D. 361
Reference(s) – RIC VIII Antioch 189 (S)

15.92 mm. 2.06 gms. 180 degrees
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_176j_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Arles 274 28 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN IVLIAN-VS NOB CAES, Bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spears a horseman on left, one hand holding the neck of the horse & the other back at his attacker
Minted in Arles (M // TCON), 6th November A.D. 355 - Spring A.D. 360
Reference(s) – RIC VIII Arles 274 (R)

2.37 gms. 19.94 mm. 180 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_176k_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Lugdunum 195 29 viewsAE3
Obv:– IMP IVLIANVS NOB CAES, Bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP - REPARATIO, Soldier spears a horseman on left, one hand holding the neck of the horse & the other back at his attacker; he wears a Phrygian cap
Minted in Lugdunum (// GSLG), 6th November A.D. 355 to Spring A.D. 360
Reference(s) – RIC VIII Lugdunum 195 (R)

2.18 gms. 18.35 mm. 0 degrees.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_176d_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Lugdunum 239 22 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
Rev:– VOT X MVLT XX, within wreath
Minted in Lugdunum (//PLVGD), Spring A.D. 360- A.D. 363
Reference:– RIC VIII Lugdunum 239 (S)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_176f_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Rome 315 25 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N CL IVL-IANVS N C, Bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spears a horseman on left, one hand holding the neck of the horse & the other back at his attacker
Minted in Rome (// R dot M dot S),
Reference(s) – RIC VIII Rome 315 (S)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_176i_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Sirmium 108 24 viewsAE3
Obv:– DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
Rev:– VOT X MVLT XX, within wreath
Minted in Sirmium (//BSIRM), Spring A.D. 360- A.D. 363
Reference:– RIC VIII Sirmium 108 (C2)

20.80 mm. 3.41 gms. 180 degrees.

A nice strike from fresh dies.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_176h_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Siscia 385 18 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N IVLIANVS NOB C, Bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Helmeted soldier left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield at ground to right. Horseman turns to face the soldier, and reaches his left arm up towards him.
Minted in Siscia (L | _ // DSIS)
Reference(s) – RIC VIII Siscia 385 (Rated S)
maridvnvm
RI_176g_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AE3 - RIC VIII Thessalonica 21218 viewsAE3
Obv:– D N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES, Bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spears a horseman on left, clutching the neck of the horse
Minted in Thessalonica (M | _ // SMTSE)
Reference(s) – RIC VIII Thessalonica 212 (S)
maridvnvm
RI_176l_img.jpg
176 - Julian II - AR Reduced Siliqua - RIC VIII Lugdunum 22721 viewsAR Reduced Siliqua
Obv:– FL CL IVLIA-NVS P P AVG, Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev:– VOTIS V MVLTIS X, within wreath
Minted in Lugdunum (//SLVG), Spring A.D. 360 - 26th June A.D. 363
Reference:– RIC VIII Lugdunum 227

17.26 mm. 2.0 gms. 0 degrees

East Harptree Hoard, which was discovered near Bath in 1887. There were 36 coins of this type found in the hoard.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 176b img.jpg
176 - Julian II - RIC VIII Lugdunum 19967 viewsObv:– C L IVLIANVS NOB C, Bare headed draped and cuirassed bust right, M to left of bust
Rev:– FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier spears a horseman on left, one hand holding the neck of the horse & the other back at his attacker
Minted in Lugdunum (//GSLG), 6th November A.D. 355 to Spring A.D. 360
Reference:– RIC VIII Lugdunum 199 (R)
maridvnvm
RI_176c_img.jpg
176 - Julian II, AE1, RIC VIII Constantinople 16335 viewsObv:– DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right
Rev:– SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above
Minted in Constantinople (palm branch CONSPA palm branch), A.D. 360-363
Reference:– RIC VIII 163 (Rare)
maridvnvm
commodus_RIC218.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 191 AD38 viewsobv: M COMM ANT P FEL AVG BRIT P P (laureate head right)
rev: APOL PAL P M TR P XVI COS VI (Apollo attired in the stola, holding the plectrum in the right hand and resting his left on the lyre, which surmounts on a short column)
ref: RIC III 218 (S), C.24 (8frcs)
mint: Rome
2.7gms, 17mm
Scarce

Apollini Palatino – this coin has reference to the temple, which Emperor Augustus erected at Rome, in honour of his guardian divinity in the Palatium. This temple was destroyed by fire during the reign of Julian the Apostate.
berserker
IMG_4322~0.jpg
185. Julian II Apostata (360-363 A.D.)24 viewsAv.: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG
Rv.: SECVRITAS REIPVB dot
Ex.: palm branch CONSPB palm branch

AE Double Maiorina Ø29 / 8.5g
RIC VIII 164 Constantinople
Scarce!
Juancho
9711a.jpg
193 AD Clodius Albinus Caesar, Sestertius RIC 50111 viewsClodius Albinus Caesar, Sestertius, Rome mint 193 AD
Obv.: D [C]LODIVS AL - BINVS CAES , Head, bare, r.
Rev.: PROVID - AVG COS / S - C , Providentia standing l., holding wand over globe and sceptre.
RIC IV, part I, p. 51, no. 50 ; C 59

Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus was born in Hadrumetum (modern Sousse in Tunisia) and came from a prominent senatorial family. He held high office under Marcus Aurelius and continued under Commodus, becoming consul in 187 and governor of Britain in 191. After the murder of Pertinax and the purchase of the Empire by Didius Julianus, Albinus, joined by his rivals Pescennius Niger and Septimius Severus, made preparations to march on Rome. Severus got there first and, in order to free himself for battle in the East, had Albinus proclaimed Caesar and made him his heir. Needless to say, after his defeat of Niger, Severus turned on Albinus and had him declared a public enemy in 195. Albinus was hailed emperor in Lugdunum in either late 195 or early 196, and spent the next year raising troops: Severus moved into Gaul with his army in 196 and in a huge battle outside Lugdunum on 19 February, defeated Albinus who then committed suicide.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
193_Didius_Julianus_Dupondius_RIC_12_1.jpg
193_Didius_Julianus_Dupondius_RIC_12_122 viewsDidius Julianus (March 28th – early June 193 AD)
AE Dupondius, Rome, March 28th – early June 193 AD
IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG;
Radiate head right
PM TR P COS, S-C;
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe and cornucopiae
10,85 gr, 25 mm
RIC IVa, 12; BMC V, 17; C. 13; CMB I, 3
Ex Künker, Auction 193, lot 827
Ex Künker, Auction 236, lot 1111
1 commentsga77
ClaudiusAsLibertas.jpg
1ap Claudius29 views41-54

As
Bare head, left, TI CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG P M TR P IMP
Libertas, LIBERTAS AVGVSTA SC

RIC 97

According to Suetonius: Claudius was born at Lugdunum (Lyon) on the 1st of August 10BC in the consulship of Iullus Antonius and Fabius Africanus, on the day when the very first altar to Augustus was dedicated there, the child being given the name Tiberius Claudius Drusus. When his elder brother Germanicus was adopted into the Julian family (in 4 AD), he added the name Germanicus also. He lost his father when still an infant (in 9 BC), and throughout his childhood and youth was severely afflicted by various stubborn ailments so that his mind and body lacked vigour, and even when he attained his majority he was not considered capable of a public or private career.

Nevertheless, he applied himself to liberal studies from his earliest youth, and often published examples of his proficiency in each area, though even so he was excluded from public office and failed to inspire any brighter hopes for his future. His mother Antonia the Younger often condemned him as an unfinished freak of Nature, and when accusing someone of stupidity would say: ‘He’s a bigger fool than my son Claudius.’ His grandmother Augusta (Livia) always treated him with utter contempt, and rarely even spoke to him, admonishing him, when she chose to do so, in brief harsh missives, or via her messengers. When his sister Livilla heard the prophecy that he would be Emperor some day, she prayed openly and loudly that Rome might be spared so cruel and unmerited a fate.

Having spent the larger part of his life in such circumstances, he became emperor at the age of fifty (in AD41) by a remarkable stroke of fate. Caligula’s assassins had dispersed the crowd on the pretext that the Emperor wished for solitude, and Claudius, shut out with the rest, retired to a room called the Hermaeum, but shortly afterwards, terrified by news of the murder, crept off to a nearby balcony and hid behind the door-curtains. A Guard, who was wandering about the Palace at random, spotting a pair of feet beneath the curtain where Claudius was cowering, dragged the man out to identify him, and as Claudius fell to the ground in fear, recognised him, and acclaimed him Emperor.

Eutropius summarizes: His reign was of no striking character; he acted, in many respects, with gentleness and moderation, in some with cruelty and folly. He made war upon Britain, which no Roman since Julius Caesar had visited; and, having reduced it through the agency of Cnaeus Sentius and Aulus Plautius, illustrious and noble men, he celebrated a magnificent triumph. Certain islands also, called the Orcades, situated in the ocean, beyond Britain, he added to the Roman empire, and gave his son the name of Britannicus. . . . He lived to the age of sixty-four, and reigned fourteen years; and after his death was consecrated3 and deified.

This was the first "good" coin I ever bought and therefore marks the begiining of an addiction.
Blindado
DidJulSestConMil.jpg
1bq Didius Julianus93 views193

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG
Concorde w/ standard, CONCORDIA MILIT SC

RIC 14

According to the Historia Augusta: Didius Julianus. . . was reared at the home of Domitia Lucilla, the mother of the Emperor Marcus. . . . [T]hrough the support of Marcus he attained to the office of aedile [and] praetor. After his praetorship he commanded the XXII Legion, the Primigenia, in Germany, and following that he ruled Belgium long and well. Here, with auxiliaries hastily levied from the provinces, he held out against the Chauci as they attempted to burst through the border; and for these services, on the recommendation of the Emperor, he was deemed worthy of the consulship. He also gained a crushing victory over the Chatti. Next he took charge of Dalmatia and cleared it of the hostile tribes on its borders. Then he governed Lower Germany. . . .

His consulship he served with Pertinax; in the proconsulship of Africa, moreover, he succeeded him. Pertinax always spoke of him as his colleague and successor. After [Pertinax'] death, when Sulpicianus was making plans to be hailed emperor in the camp, Julianus, together with his son-in-law, . . . discovered two tribunes, Publius Florianus and Vectius Aper, who immediately began urging him to seize the throne; and. . . conducted him to the praetorian camp. When they arrived at the camp, however, Sulpicianus, the prefect of the city and the father-in-law of Pertinax, was holding an assembly and claiming the empire himself, and no one would let Julianus inside, despite the huge promises he made from outside the wall. Julianus then . . . wrote on placards that he would restore the good name of Commodus; so he was admitted and proclaimed emperor. . . .

Julianus had no fear of either the British or the Illyrian army; but being chiefly afraid of the Syrian army, he despatched a centurion of the first rank with orders to murder Niger. Consequently Pescennius Niger in Syria and Septimius Severus in Illyricum, together with the armies which they commanded, revolted from Julianus. But when he received the news of the revolt of Severus, whom he had not suspected, then he was greatly troubled and came to the senate and prevailed upon them to declare Severus a public enemy. . . . Severus was approaching the city with a hostile army. . . and the populace hated and laughed at him more and more every day.

In a short time Julianus was deserted by all and left alone in the Palace with one of his prefects, Genialis, and with Repentinus, his son-in-law. Finally, it was propose'd that the imperial power be taken away from Julianus by order of the senate. This was done, and Severus was forthwith acclaimed emperor, while it was given out that Julianus had taken poison. Nevertheless, the senate despatched a delegation and through their efforts Julianus was slain in the Palace by a common soldier. . . .
Blindado
ClodAlbDenRoma.jpg
1br Clodius Albinus38 views195-197

Denarius

Bare head, right, D CL SEPT ALBIN CAES
Roma seated on shield holding Palladium and scepter, ROMAE AETERNAE

RIC 11

According to the Historia Augusta, which in the case of Albinus is thought to be of dubious veracity: After the death of Pertinax, who was slain at Albinus' advice, various men were hailed emperor at about one and the same time by the senate Julianus at Rome, and by the armies, Septimius Severus in Illyricum, Pescennius Niger in the East, and Clodius Albinus in Gaul. According to Herodian, Clodius had been named Caesar by Severus. But as time went on, each chafed at the other's rule, and the armies of Gaul and Germany demanded an emperor of their own naming, and so all parts of the empire were thrown into an uproar. . . .

It is an undeniable fact, moreover, and Marius Maximus also relates it, that Severus at first intended to name Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus as his successors, in case aught befell him. Later, as it happened, in the interest of his growing sons, and through envy of the affection in which Albinus was held, and most of all becau-e of his wires entreaties, he changed his purpose and crushed both of them in war. But he did name Albinus consul, and this he never would have done had not Aibinus been a worthy man, since he was ever most careful in his choice of magistrate. . . .

As soon as he came of age he entered military service, and by the aid of Lollius Serenus, Baebius Maecianus and Ceionius Postumianus, all his kinsmen, he gained the notice of the Antonines. In the capacity of a tribune he commanded a troop of Dalmatian horse: he also commanded soldiers of the I and the IV legions. At the time of Avidius' revolt he loyally held the Bithynian army to its allegiance. Next, Commodus transferred him to Gaul; and here he routed the tribes from over the Rhine and made his name illustrious among both Romans and barbarians. This aroused Commodus' interest, and he offered Albinus the name of Caesar and the privilege, too, of giving the soldiers a present and wearing the scarlet cloak. But all these offers Albinus wisely refused, for Commodus, he said, was only looking for a man who would perish with him, or whom he could reasonably put to death. . . .

[A]fter a decisive engagement, where countless of his soldiers fell, and very many fled, and many, too, surrendered, Albinus also fled away and, according to some, stabbed himself, according to others, was stabbed by a slave. At any rate, he was brought to Severus only half alive. . . . Albinus' head was cut off and paraded on a pike, and finally sent to Rome.
Blindado
SeptSevDenFund.jpg
1bs Septimius Severus87 views193-211

Denarius

Laureate head, right, SEVERVS PIVS AVG
Septimius, togate and veiled, standing left holding olive branch, FVNDATOR PACIS

RIC 265

According to the Historia Augusta: After the murder of Didius Julianus, Severus, a native of Africa, gained the empire. His home town was Lepcis Magna, his father was Geta and his ancestors had been Roman knights before citizenship had been given to all. . . . He himself was born on the third day before the Ides of April, when Erucius Clarus, for the second time, and Severus were the consuls [11 April A.D.146]. . . .

After his departure to Germany he conducted himself in such a way in his governorship as to increase his reputation, which had already become noteworthy. Up to this point his military activity was as a private citizen. But then, after it had been learned that Commodus had been murdered and, moreover, that Julianus held the empire amid universal hatred, he was proclaimed emperor by the German legions at Carnuntum, on the Ides of August, although he did put up some resistance to the many who urged him on. He gave the soldiers . . . sesterces each. Then, after strengthening the provinces which he was leaving in his rear, he marched on Rome. All yielded to him wherever he went, while the armies of Illyricum and Gaul, under the pressure of their generals, had already sworn allegiance to him - for he was received by everyone as the avenger of Pertinax. At the same time, on the instigation of Julianus, Septimius Severus was declared a public enemy, and envoys were sent to the army who were to order the soldiers to desert him, on the instructions of the Senate. At first, when Severus heard that the envoys had been sent by authority of a senatorial decree, he was very frightened. Afterwards, by bribing the envoys, he ensured that they spoke in his favour before the army and crossed to his side. Having learned this, Julianus caused a decree ofthe Senate to be passed regarding his sharing of the empire with Severus. It is uncertain whether or not he did this as a trick, since he had already, before this, dispatched certain men, well known for their assassinations of generals, who were to kill Severus. Similarly he had sent men to assassinate Pescennius Niger, who had also assumed the position of emperor in opposition to him, on the instigation of the Syrian armies. But Severus escaped the hands of those that Julianus had sent to murder him and sent a letter to the praetorian guard, giving them the signal either to desertJulianus or to kill him. He was obeyed at once; Julianus was killed in the palace and Severus was invited to Rome. Thus Severus became the victor merely at will - something that had never happened to anyone - and hastened to Rome under arms. . . .

The same emperor, although implacable towards offences, likewise displayed singular judiciousness in encouraging all hard-working persons. He was quite interested in philosophy and the practice of rhetoric, and enthusiastic about learning in general. He took some measures against brigands everywhere. He composed a convincing autobiography dealing with both his private and his public life, making excuses only for the vice of cruelty. With regard to this, the Senate pronounced that either he ought not to have been born or that he ought not to die, since he appeared to be both excessively cruel and excessively useful to the republic. . . . . He died at Eboracum [York] in Britain, having subdued the tribes which appeared hostile to Britain, in the eighteeneh year of his reign, stricken by a very grave illness, now an old man. . . .

This emperor wore such meagre clothing that even his tunic scarcely had any purple, while he covered his shoulders with a shaggy cloak. He ate sparingly, being very addicted to his native vegetable, sometimes fond of wine, often abstaining from meat. His person was handsome, he was of huge size,(Dio Cassius, who knew Severus personally, says that he was small) with a long beard and curly white hair. His face inspired reverence, his voice was resonant but with a trace of an African accent right up to his old age. He was equally beloved after his death, when envy, or the fear of his cruelty, had disappeared.
Blindado
FaustaAE3Fausta.jpg
1ed Fausta12 viewsAE 3

Draped bust with pearl necklace, right, FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG
Fausta Constantine II and Constantius II, FAVSTAE NOBILISSIMAE FEMINAE, mintmark: ΓSIS wreath

RIC 197

Zonaras records: When he had succeeded to his father’s realm, [Constantine] ruled Britain and the Alps, and in addition Gaul, still leaning toward the religion of the Hellenes and opposing the Christians, enticed by his wife Fausta toward ardor in the worship of the idols. Fausta was the daughter of Maximianus. . . . From Fausta, the daughter of Maximianus, the sovereign produced three sons—Constantine, Constantius, and Constans—and a daughter Helen, who later married Julian. . . . Fausta, being erotically obsessed with [her stepson Crispus], since she did not find him compliant, denounced him to his father as being in love with her and as having often attempted to use force against her. Hence, Crispus was condemned to death by his father, who had been persuaded by his spouse. When the emperor later realized the truth, he chastened his wife both because of her unchasteness and on account of the murder of his son. For after she had been led into an exceedingly hot bath, there she violently ended her life.
Blindado
ConstantiusIIAECentFelTemp.jpg
1ej Constantius II16 views337-361

Centenionalis

RIC 210?

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANTIVS P F AVG
Soldier spearing fallen horseman who is kneeling forwards on ground on hands and knees. Star in right field, FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Mintmark BSIS?

Constantius II got the East when the empire was divided after Constantine the Great's death. Zosimus recorded, "The empire being thus divided, Constantius who appeared to take pains not to fall short of his father in impiety, began by shedding the blood of his nearest relations. He first caused Constantius, his father's brother, to be murdered by the soldiers; next to whom he treated Dalmatius in the same manner, as also Optatus whom Constantine had raised to the rank of a Nobilissimate. Constantine indeed first introduced that order, and made a law, that every Nobilissimate should have precedence over of the prefects of the court. At that time, Ablabius prefect of the court was also put to death; and fate was just in his punishment, because he had concerted the murder of Sopatrus the philosopher, from envy of his familiarity with Constantine. Being unnatural towards all his relations, he included Hanniballianus with the rest, suborning the solders to cry out, that they would have no governors but the children of Constantine. Such were the exploits of Constantius." He defeated the usurper Magnentius in 351-353. He died of fever while marching to confront Julian the Apostate, who had been declared emperor in Paris.
Blindado
MagnentiusCentenionalis.jpg
1ek Magnentius18 views350-353

Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, D N MAGNEN-TIVS P F AVG
Two victories, VICTORIAE DD NN AVG ET CAES

RIC 173

Zosimus recorded: Magnentius thus gained the empire, and possessed himself all the nations beyond the Alps, and the whole of Italy. Vetranio, general of the Pannonian army, upon hearing of the good fortune of Magnentius, was himself inflamed with the same desire, and was declared emperor by the legions that were with him, at Mursa, a city of Pannonia. While affairs were thus situated, the Persians plundered the eastern countries, particularly Mesopotamia. But Constantine, though he was defeated by the Persians, yet resolved to subdue the factions of Magnentius and Vetranio. . . . Constantius advanced from the east against Magnentius, but deemed it best first to win over Vetranio to his interest, as it was difficult to oppose two rebels at once. On the other hand, Magnentius used great endeavours to make Vetranio his friend, and thus to put an end to the war against Constantius. Both therefore sent agents to Vetranio, who chose to adopt the friendship of Constantius rather than that of Magnentius. The ambassadors of Magnentius returned without effecting their purpose. Constantius desired that both armies might join, to undertake the war against Magnentius. To which proposal Vetranio readily assented. . . . When the soldiers heard this, having been previously corrupted by valuable presents, they cried out, that they would have no mock emperors, and immediately began to strip the purple from Vetranio, and pulled him from the throne with the determination to reduce him to a private station. . . . Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . .

Constantius now gaining the victory, by the army of Magnentius taking to flight, a terrible slaughter ensued. Magnentius, therefore being deprived ofall hope, and apprehensive lest the remnant of his army should deliver him to Constantius, deemed it best to retire from Pannonia, and to enter Italy, in order to raise an army there for another attempt. But when he heard that the people of Rome were in favour of Constantius, either from hatred to himself, or because they had heard of the event of the battle, he resolved to cross the Alps, and .seek for himself a refuge among the nations on that side. Hearing however that Constantius had likewise engaged the Barbarians near the Rhine against him, and that |65 he could not enter Gaul, as some officers had obstructed his passage thither in order to make their court to Constantius, nor through Spain into Mauritania, on account of the Roman allies there who studied to please Constantius. In these circumstances he preferred a voluntary death to a dishonourable life, and chose rather to die by his own hand than by that of his enemy.

Thus died Magnentius, having been emperor three years and six months. He was of Barbarian extraction, but lived among the Leti, a people of Gaul. He understood Latin, was bold when favoured by fortune, but cowardly in adversity, ingenious in concealing his natural evil disposition, and deemed by those who did not know him to be a man of candour and goodness. I have thought it just to make these observations concerning Magnentius, that the world may be acquainted With his true character, since it has been the opinion of some that he performed much good, who never in his life did any thing with a good intention.
Blindado
ConsGallCentConcMil.jpg
1em Constantius Gallus23 viewsCaesar 351-354

Centenionalis

Bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right, A behind head, D N CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C
Emperor, diademed and in military dress, standing facing, head left, holding standard with chi-rho banner in each hand. Star above. Left field: III. CONCORDIA MILITVM. Mintmark: star SIRM.

RIC 22

Zosimus noted: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia; either in order that he might oppose the Persians, or as seems more probable, that he might have an opportunity of taking him off. He and his brothers were the only remaining persons of the family whom Constantius had not put to death, as I have related. When he had clothed Gallus with the Caesarean robe, and appointed Lucilianus general in the Persian war, he marched towards Magnentius with his own troops and those of Vetranio in one body. Constantius II had him tried and put to death for misrule of the East as Caesar. . . . The state-informers, with which such men are usually surrounded, and which are designed for the ruin of those that are in prosperity, were augmented. These sycophants, when they attempted to effect the downfal of a noble in hopes of sharing his wealth or honours, contrived some false accusation against him. This was the practice in the time of Constantius. Spies of this description, who made the eunuchs of the court their accomplices, flocked about Constantius, and persuaded him that his cousin german Gallus, who was a Caesar, was not satisfied with that honour, but wished to be emperor. They so far convinced him of the truth of this charge, that they made him resolve upon the destruction of Gallus. The contrivers of this design were Dynamius and Picentius, men of obscure condition, who endeavoured to raise themselves by such evil practises. Lampadius also, the Prefect of the court, was in the conspiracy, being a person who wished to engross more of the emperor's favour than any other. Constantius listened to those false insinuations, and Gallus was sent for, knowing nothing of what was intended against him. As soon as he arrived, Constantius first degraded him from the dignity of Caesar, and, having reduced him to private station, delivered him to the public executioners to be put to death.
Blindado
JulianIIAE3VotX.jpg
1en Julian II "Apostate"26 views360-363

AE3

Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
Blindado
JovianIIAE3VotMult.jpg
1eo Jovian85 views363-364

AE 3, Heraclea

Diademed bust left, draped & cuirassed, D N IOVIANVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X in wreath, Mintmark HERACA

RIC 110A

Zosimus recorded: A meeting of the officers and soldiers was afterwards convened, in order to appoint a successor to the empire : since it would be impossible for them without a ruler to avoid the dangers to which they were exposed in the midst of an enemy's country. The general voice was in favour of Jovianus, the son of Varronianus, tribune of the domestic forces. When Jovian had assumed the purple and the diadem, he directed his course homewards with all possible speed. . . . They then marched forward four days, continually harassed by the enemy, who followed them when they were proceeding, but fled when the Romans offered any resistance. At length, having gained some distance of the enemy, they resolved to crops the Tigris. For this purpose they fastened skins together, and floated over. When the greater part had gained the opposite bank, the commanders crossed over in safety with the remainder. The Persians, however, still accompanied them, and followed them with a large army so assiduously, that the Romans were in perpetual danger, both from the unfavourable circumstances in which they were placed, and from the want, of provisions. Although the Roman army was in this condition, the Persians were willing to treat for peace, and for that purpose sent Surenas with other |90 officers to the Roman camp. Jovian, upon hearing this, sent to them Sallustius, prefect of the court, together with Aristaeus, who, after some discussion, agreed on a truce for thirty years. The conditions were, that the Romans should give up to the Persians the country of the Rabdiceni, and that of the Candueni, Rhemeni, and Zaleni, besides fifteen castles in those provinces, with the inhabitants, lands, cattle, and all their property ; that Nisibis should be surrendered without its inhabitants, who were to be transplanted into whatever colony the Remans pleased. The Persians also deprived the Romans of great part of Armenia, leaving them but a very small part of it. The truce having been concluded on these conditions, and ratified on both sides, the Romans had an opportunity of returning home unmolested, neither party offering or sustaining any injury, either by open force; or secret machination.

Jovian marched through all the towns in great speed, because they were so filled with grief [because they were being given over to Persian rule], that the inhabitants could not look patiently on him; such being the custom and disposition of those countries. Taking with him the imperial guard, he proceeded to Antioch. . . . Jovian now turning his attention to the affairs of government, made various arrangements, and sent Lucilianus his father-in-law, Procopius, and Valentinian, who was afterwards emperor, to the armic.s in Pannoriia, to inform them of the death of Julian, and of his being chosen emperor. The Bavarians who were at Sirmium, and were left there for its protection, as soon as they received the news, put to death Lucilianus who brought such unwelcome intelligence, without regard to his relationship to the emperor. Such was the respect they had to Jovian's relations, that Valentinian himself only escaped from the death they intended to inflict on him. Jovianus proceeding from Antioch towards Constantinople, suddenly fell sick at Dadostana in Bithynia, and died after a reign of eight months, in which short time he had not been able to render the public any essential service.
Blindado
ValentinianAE3GlorRom.jpg
1ep Valentinian22 views364-375

AE3

Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
Blindado
ProcopiusAEChiRo.jpg
1er Procopius18 views365-366

AE3

Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his design on the following incident.

A eunuch, named Eugenius, had not long before been discharged from the court, who entertained but little friendship for the emperors. Procopius therefore won this man to his interest. . . . Their first attempt was to bribe the court guards, which consisted of two legions. Then arming the slaves, and collecting with ease a considerable multitude, chiefly volunteers, they sent them in the night into the city, and occasioned a general commotion; the people issuing from their houses, and gazing on Procopiusas on a king made in a theatre. But the city being in general confusion, and no person being sufficiently collected in mind by reason of the surprise to know how to act, Procopius imagined his design to be still undiscovered, and that he might secure the empire if the enterprise were no further revealed. Having then seized on Cesarius, whom the emperors had made prefect of the city, and on Nebridius, who was appointed to succeed Sallustius in tbe prefecture of the court, he compelled them to write to the subjects of the empire whatever he wished. He also kept them separate, that they might not consult with each other. Having formed these projects, he proceeded in a splendid manner towards the palace. Ascending a tribunal before the gate, he gave the people great hopes and promises. He then entered the palace to provide for the remainder of his affairs.

The new emperors having divided the army between them, Procopius determined to send persons to the soldiers, who were as yet in confusion, and went by the command of the emperors from place to place without any order. He thus hoped to seduce some of them to his party. Nor did he fail of accomplishing his purpose with ease by distributing money amongst the soldiers and their officers; by which means he collected a considerable force, and prepared to make an open attack on the enemy. Procopius then sent Marcellus into Bithynia with an army against Serenianus and the imperial cavalry that was under his command, in hope of cutting them to pieces. This force having fled to Cyzicus, Marcellus, whose army was superior to theirs both by sea and land, took possession of that town; and having taken Serenianus, who fled into Lydia, put him to death. Procopius was so elevated by this fortunate commencement, that his forces considerably augmented, many being of opinion that he was able to contend with the emperors. Both the Roman legions and the Barbarian troops now flocked to his standard. Besides the reputation of being related to Julian, and of having accompanied him in all the wars he had ever been engaged in, attracted many partizans. He likewise sent ambassadors to the chief of Scythia beyond the Ister, who sent to his assistance ten thousand men. The other Barbarian nations likewise sent auxiliaries to share in the expedition. Procopius however considered that it would be imprudent in him to engage with both emperors together, and therefore thought it best to advance against him who was nearest, and afterwards deliberate on what course to pursue.

Thus was Procopius employed; while the emperor Valens, who heard of this insurrection at Galatia in Phrygia, was filled with consternation at the news. Arbitrio having encouraged him not to despair, he prepared the troops that were with him for war, and sent to his brother to inform him of the designs of Procopius. Valentinian however was little disposed for sending auxiliaries to one who was incapable of defending the empire committed to his charge. Valens was therefore under the necessity of. preparing for war, and appointed Arbitrio to the command of his army. When the armies were ready to engage, Arbitrio circumvented Procopius by a stratagem, and thereby seduced from him a great number of his men, from whom he received previous information of the designs of Procopius. On the advance of the emperor and Procopius towards each other, the two armies met near Thyatira. Procopius at first appeared to have the advantage, by which he would have gained the supreme authority, Hormisdas in the engagement having overpowered the enemy. But Gomarius, another of the commanders of Procopius, imparting his intention to all the soldiers of Procopius who were attached to the emperor, in the midst of the battle cried out Augustus, and gave a signal for them to imitate his example. Thus the most of the troops of Procopius went over to Valens.

After having obtained this victory, Valens marched to Sardes, and from thence into Phrygia, where he found Procopius in a town called Nacolia. Affairs having been ordered for the advantage of the emperor by Naplo, an officer of Procopius, Valens again prevailed, and took him prisoner, and soon afterwards Marcellus, both of whom he put to death.
Blindado
JulianIIAE1Bull.jpg
1i Last Bid to Revitalize Pagan Religion8 viewsJulian II
360-363

AE1

Portrait, right, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Bull, eagle, and two stars, SECVRITAS REIPVB, PCONST in ex.

Julian "the Apostate" issued this coin with the symbols of Jupiter on the reverse as part of his campaign to breath life back into pagan faith.

RIC 318
Blindado
Didius.jpg
20 Didius Julianus75 viewsDenarius. 193 AD. IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right / CONCORD MILIT, Concordia standing left holding legionary eagle & standard. RIC 1, RSC 2, BMC 2. Weight 2.68 g. Die Axis 6 hr. Max Dia 17.1 mm.



1 commentsmix_val
RIC_0391[carac]a.jpg
201a. JULIA DOMNA139 viewsJULIA DOMNA, mother of Caracalla.

When Septimius Severus claimed the empire after Didius Julianus had succeeded Pertinax in 193, two serious rivals challenged him, Pescennius Niger in the East and Clodius Albinus in the West. Julia accompanied her husband in the campaign against Pescennius, having been honored with the title mater castrorum. After this successful campaign, there was another campaign in the East, against the Parthians, in 197. Afterwards, she was with Severus on a journey to Egypt and other parts of the empire. She was widely honored with inscriptions throughout this period, and numerous coin issues emphasized her imperial position.

She opposed Plautianus, the praetorian prefect and father-in-law of Caracalla, and was partially responsible for his downfall and his daughter Plautilla's disgrace. She was often accused of adultery; nonetheless, the emperor chose to ignore these charges, if true, and the marriage continued. Among her passions were literature and philosophy; she gathered writers and philosophers in a kind of salon, and urged Philostratus to write the life of Apollonius of Tyana.

In 212, Caracalla murdered Geta while he sought succor in his mother's arms; covered with his blood, she was forbidden by Caracalla to grieve. Her relationship with Caracalla during the six years of his reign was mixed. She had some public duties but largely devoted herself to philosophy. She accompanied Caracalla to the east on campaign against the Parthians in 217; when she learned, in Antioch, that he had been assassinated, she resolved upon death, which followed her refusal to take food.

AR Denarius
(19mm, 2.86 gm). IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG, draped
bust right / VESTA, Vesta, veiled, seated left,
holding simpulum and sceptre. RIC IV 391 (Caracalla); BMCRE 31 (same); RSC 226. EF. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli73
145187.jpg
201c. Pescennius Niger127 viewsGaius Pescennius Niger was governor of Syria in the year 193 when he learned of the emperor Pertinax's murder. Niger's subsequent attempt to claim the empire for himself ended in failure in Syria after roughly one year. His life before becoming governor of Syria is not well known. He was born in Italy to an equestrian family. He seems to have been older than his eventual rival Septimius Severus, so his birth should perhaps be placed ca. AD 135-40. Niger may have held an important position in the administration of Egypt. He won renown, along with Clodius Albinus, for participation in a military campaign in Dacia early in Commodus' reign. Although Niger could have been adlected into the senate before the Dacian campaign, he was by now pursuing a senatorial career and must have been held in high esteem by Commodus. Niger was made a suffect consul, probably in the late 180s, and he was sent as governor to the important province of Syria in 191.

Niger was a well-known and well-liked figure to the Roman populace. After Pertinax became emperor at the beginning of 193, many in Rome may have hoped that the elderly Pertinax would adopt Niger as his Caesar and heir, but Pertinax was murdered without having made succession plans. When Didius Julianus arrived at the senate house on 29 March 193, his first full day as emperor, a riot broke out among the Roman crowd. The rioters took over the Circus Maximus, from which they shouted for Niger to seize the throne. The rioters dispersed the following day, but a report of their demonstration may well have arrived in the Syrian capital, Antioch, with the news that Pertinax had been murdered and replaced by Julianus.

Spurred into action by the news, Niger had himself proclaimed emperor in Antioch. The governors of the other eastern provinces quickly joined his cause. Niger's most important ally was the respected proconsul of Asia, Asellius Aemilianus, and support began to spread across the Propontis into Europe. Byzantium welcomed Niger, who now was preparing further advances. Niger took the additional cognomen Justus, "the Just." Justice was promoted as the theme of his intended reign, and personifications of Justice appeared on his coins.

Other provincial governors, however, also set their sights on replacing Julianus. Albinus in Britain and Septimius Severus in Upper Pannonia (western Hungary) had each aspired to the purple, and Severus was marching an army on Rome. Severus was still 50 miles from the city when the last of Julianus' dwindling authority disappeared. Julianus was killed in Rome 1 June 193.

Niger sent messengers to Rome to announce his acclamation, but those messengers were intercepted by Severus. A deal was struck between Severus and Albinus that kept Albinus in Britain with the title of Caesar. The larger armies of the western provinces were now united in their support for Severus. Niger's support was confined to the east. Severus had Niger's children captured and held as hostages, and a legion was sent to confront Niger's army in Thrace.

The first conflict between the rival armies took place near Perinthus. Although Niger's forces may have inflicted greater casualties on the Severan troops, Niger was unable to secure his advance; he returned to Byzantium. By the autumn of 193, Severus had left Rome and arrived in the region, though his armies there continued to be commanded by supporters. Niger was offered the chance of a safe exile by Severus, but Niger refused.

Severan troops crossed into Asia at the Hellespont and near Cyzicus engaged forces supporting Niger under the command of Aemilianus. Niger's troops were defeated. Aemilianus attempted to flee but was captured and killed. Not long after, in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south to Antioch. Eastern provincial governors now switched their loyalty to Severus, and Niger faced revolts even in Syria. By late spring 194, the Severan armies were in Cilicia preparing to enter Syria. Niger and his army met the Severan troops near Issus. The battle was a decisive defeat for Niger, who fled back to Antioch. The Syrian capital that only one year earlier had cheered as Niger was proclaimed emperor now waited in fear for the approach of its new master. Niger prepared to flee once more, but outside Antioch he was captured and killed.

Despite his popularity with the Roman mob, Pescennius Niger lacked both the strong loyalty of other senatorial commanders and the number of soldiers that his rival Severus enjoyed. Niger was ultimately unable to make himself the true avenger of Pertinax, and his roughly one-year control of the eastern provinces never qualified him to be reckoned a legitimate emperor.

BITHYNIA, Caesarea. Pescennius Niger. AD 193-194. Æ 22mm (6.35 g). Laureate head right / KAICAREIAC GERMANIKHC, coiled serpent left. RG p. 282, 9, pl. XLIV, 8 (same dies); SNG Copenhagen -; SNG von Aulock -. Near VF, brown patina, rough surfaces. Very rare. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli
coins123.JPG
202a. Plautilla61 viewsVenus

The Roman goddess of love and beauty, but originally a vegetation goddess and patroness of gardens and vineyards. Later, under Greek influence, she was equated with Aphrodite and assumed many of her aspects. Her cult originated from Ardea and Lavinium in Latium. The oldest temple known of Venus dates back to 293 BCE, and was inaugurated on August 18. Later, on this date the Vinalia Rustica was observed. A second festival, that of the Veneralia, was celebrated on April 1 in honor of Venus Verticordia, who later became the protector against vice. Her temple was built in 114 BCE. After the Roman defeat near Lake Trasum in 215 BCE, a temple was built on the Capitol for Venus Erycina. This temple was officially opened on April 23, and a festival, the Vinalia Priora, was instituted to celebrate the occasion.

Venus is the daughter of Jupiter, and some of her lovers include Mars and Vulcan, modeled on the affairs of Aphrodite. Venus' importance rose, and that of her cult, through the influence of several Roman political leaders. The dictator Sulla made her his patroness, and both Julius Caesar and the emperor Augustus named her the ancestor of their (Julian) family: the 'gens Julia' was Aeneas, son of Venus and the mortal Anchises. Ceasar introduced the cult of Venus Genetrix, the goddess of motherhood and marriage, and built a temple for her in 46 BCE. She was also honored in the temple of Mars Ultor. The last great temple of Venus was built by the emperor Hadrianus near the Colusseum in 135 CE.

Roman statues and portraits of Venus are usually identical to the Greek representations of Aphrodite.

AR Denarius. PLAVTILLA AVGVSTA, draped bust right / VENVS VICTRIX, Venus standing left holding apple & palm, leaning on shield, Cupid at her feet. RSC 25.
ecoli
coin260.JPG
321. Carinus31 viewsMarcus Aurelius Carinus, Roman emperor, 283 - July, 285, was the elder son of the emperor Carus, on whose accession he was appointed governor of the western portion of the empire. He fought with success against the German tribes, but soon left the defence of the Upper Rhine to his legates and returned to Rome, where he abandoned himself to all kinds of debauchery and excess. He also celebrated the ludi Romani on a scale of unexampled magnificence.

After the death of Carus, the army in the East demanded to be led back to Europe, and Numerianus, the younger son of Carus, was forced to comply. During a halt at Chalcedon, Numerianus was murdered, and Diocletian, commander of the body-guards, was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers. Carinus at once left Rome and set out for the East to meet Diocletian. On his way through Pannonia he put down the usurper Marcus Aurelius Julianus, and encountered the army of Diocletian in Moesia. Carinus was successful in several engagements, and at the battle on the Margus (Morava), according to one account, the valour of his troops had gained the day, when he was assassinated by a tribune whose wife he had seduced. In another account, the battle is represented as having resulted in a complete victory for Diocletian.

Carinus has the reputation of having been one of the worst of the emperors.

Carinus. 283-285 AD. ? Antoninianus. Antioch mint. IMP C M AVR CARINVS NOB C,radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right / VIRTVS AVGGG Carinus standing right, holding sceptre and receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left, holding long sceptre; B/XXI. RIC 208F.
1 commentsecoli
JulIIVIIIConst150.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Constantinople 150 - SPES REIPVBLICE23 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fair
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Our Lord Claudius Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bare-headed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
Exergue: CONSS (Constantinople mint, sixth officina)

RIC VIII Constantinople 150
2.22g; 15.9mm; 180°
Pep
JulIIVIIISirm81.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Sirmium 081 - SPES REIPVBLICE31 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fair/Fine
Size: AE3

Obverse: DN IVLIA-NVS NOB C
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bareheaded, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear.
Exergue: (A?)SIRM (Sirmium mint, first? officina)

RIC VIII Sirmium 81
1.80g; 17.1mm; 195°
Pep
JulIIVIIISirm81or83.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Sirmium 081 or 083? - SPES REIPVBLICE44 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-361 AD
Condition: Fine
Size: AE4

Obverse: D N IVLIA-NVS NOB C
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bareheaded, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Hope of the Republic.
Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe and spear, a captive at his feet.
Exergue: unknown (SIRM?)

RIC VIII Sirmium 81 or 83?
1.99g; 16.5mm; 345°
Pep
JulVIIISis370.jpg
355-360 AD - Julian II as Caesar - RIC VIII Siscia 370 - FEL TEMP REPARATIO21 viewsCaesar: Julian II (Caes. 355-360 AD)
Date: 355-358 AD
Condition: aFine
Size: AE4

Obverse: DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Our Lord Julian Noble Caesar
Bust right; bare-headed, draped and cuirassed

Reverse: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
The restoration of happy times.
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman, shield on ground at right, horseman wears pointed cap, turns to face soldier and extends left arm.
"M" in left field
Exergue: ?SIS (Siscia mint, unknown officina)

RIC VIII Siscia 370
2.00g; 16.7mm; 30°
Pep
RIC_10_Denario_DIDIA_CLARA_Foro.jpg
42 - 02 - Didia Clara (Augusta 28/03 a 01/06/193 D.C.)26 viewsAR Denario
18 mm - 2.46 gr. - 6 hs.

Anv: DIDIA CLA-RA AVG, Busto vestido viendo a derecha.
Rev: HILA-R - T-EMPOR, Hilaritas estante de frente, viendo a izquierda, portando larga hoja de palma en mano der. y cornucopia en izq.

Hija de Didio Juliano, Emperador que asumió su cargo luego de haberlo ganado en una subasta organizada por la guardia Pretoriana, y que solo gobernó por 66 días.

Acuñada: Mayo-Junio 193 D.C.
Ceca: Roma

Referencias Bilbliográficas: RIC IV #10D (R4) Pag.16, Plate I #19 - Seaby RSC #3 Pag.4 - BMCRE #14ss Pag.14 - Cohen III #3 Pag.403 - Sear RCTV II # 6086 Pag.435 - Vagi #1680 - Hunter #1 Pag.6 - DVM #2 Pag.174 - Salgado MRDS II/1 #4042 Pag.71
mdelvalle
coin269.JPG
501a. Fausta47 viewsFausta Flavia Maxima was the daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximianus. To seal the alliance between them for control of the Tetrarchy, Maximianus married her to Constantine I in 307.

It is suspected that Fausta was fiercely anti-Christian and plotting the Roman empire's return to paganism behind her husband's back. Although the real reasons are not clear, Constantine eventually put her to death along with Crispus, his eldest son by a previous marriage to Minervina, in 326. Eusebius of Caesarea suspected step-mother and step-son to be lovers to each other.

Her sons became Roman Emperors: Constantine II reigned 337 - 340, Constantius II reigned 337 - 361, and Constans reigned 337 - 350. Variety of sources, of more or less reliability, attest that she bore daughters Constantina, Helena and Fausta. Of these, Constantina married her cousins, firstly Hannibalianus and secondly Gallus Caesar, and Helena married Emperor Julian. Apparently a genealogical claim that her daughter Fausta became mother of Emperor Valentinian I is without foundation (Valentinian I and children of Constantine I's second marriage were born in years close to each other, i.e they were of the same generation).

Fausta, wife of Constantine I. 325-326 AD. Æ Follis

OBVERSE: FLAV MAX FAVSTA AVG, mantled bust right
REVERSE: SPES REIP-VBLICAE, Spes standing facing, looking left, head veiled, holding two children in her arms
19mm - 3.1 grams

RIC VII Thessalonica 161 R3

Sear 3903
ecoli
56167.jpg
504. CONSTANTIUS II148 viewsFlavius Iulius Constantius, known in English as Constantius II, (7 August 317 - 3 November 361) was a Roman Emperor (337 - 361) of the Constantinian dynasty

Constantius was the second of the three sons of Constantine I and his second wife Fausta. Constantius was born in Sirmium (in Illyricum) and named Caesar by his father. When Constantine died in 337, Constantius II led the massacre of his relatives decended from the second marriage of his grandfather Constantius Chlorus and Theodora, leaving himself, his older brother Constantine II, his younger brother Constans and two cousins (Gallus and his half-brother Julian) as the only surviving adult males related to Constantine. The three brothers divided the Roman Empire among them, according to their father's will. Constantine II received Britannia, Gaul and Hispania; Constans ruled Italia, Africa, and Illyricum; and Constantius ruled the East.

This division changed when Constantine II died in 340, trying to overthrow Constans in Italy, and Constans become sole ruler in the Western half of the empire. The division changed once more in 350 when Constans was killed in battle by forces loyal to the usurper Magnentius. Until this time, Constantius was preoccupied with fighting the Sassanid Empire, and he was forced to elevate his cousin Gallus to Caesar of the East to assist him, while he turned his attention to this usurper.

Constantius eventually met and crushed Magnentius in the Battle of Mursa Major, one of the bloodiest battles in Roman history, in 351. Magnentius committed suicide in 353, and Constantius soon after put his cousin Gallus to death. However, he still could not handle the military affairs of both the Eastern and German frontiers by himself, so in 355 he elevated his last remaining relative, Julian, to Caesar. As Julian was hailed Augustus by the army in Gaul, Constantius saw no alternative but to face the usurper with violent force. As the two armies sought engagement, Constantius died from a fever near Tarsus on November 3, 361, and Julian was hailed Augustus in the whole of the Roman empire.

Constantius took an active part in the affairs of the Christian church, frequently taking the side of the Arians, and he called the Council of Rimini in 359.

Constantius married three times, first to a daughter of Julius Constantius, then to Eusebia, and last to Faustina, who gave birth to a posthumous daughter, Faustina Constantia, who later married Emperor Gratian.

CONSTANTIUS II. 337-361 AD. Æ 18mm (2.41 gm). Siscia mint. Struck 351-355 AD. D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing falling enemy horseman who wears conical hat; at right, shield on ground; ASIS. RIC VIII 350. Good VF, green patina. Ex CNG
1 commentsecoli73
coin278.JPG
505. Constantius Gallus51 viewsFlavius Claudius Constantius Gallus (c. 325/326 - 354), better known as Gallus Caesar, was a member of the Constantinian dynasty and Caesar of the Eastern Roman Empire (351-354). Gallus was consul three years, from 352 to 354.

Son of Julius Constantius by his first wife Galla, Gallus' paternal grandparents were Western Roman Emperor Constantius Chlorus and his second wife Flavia Maximiana Theodora. Julius Constantius was also a half-brother of Roman Emperor Constantine I, and thus Gallus was a first cousin of Roman Emperors Constantine II, Constantius II and Constans.

Born in Massa Veternensis, Italia, young Gallus saw his father killed by order of his cousin Constantius II.

Gallus became Caesar of the East on March 15 351, added the name of Constantius to his own, and set up residence in Antioch. In order to create a loyality bond with his Caesar, Constantius gave him his elder sister Constantina as wife. Gallus ruled the city in such a severe way that people complained to Constantius, who had him arrested. On the way to his summons he was executed.

His youger half-brother Julian became later Emperor.

Constantius Gallus. 351-354 AD. DN CONSTANTIVS IVN NOB C, bare head bust right, draped & cuirassed / FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, ASIS in ex. RIC 351
2 commentsecoli
coin203.JPG
508. Julian II33 viewsJulian II, the Apostate. 361-363 AD.

...Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.

28mm (8.57 gm). Siscia mint. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / Bull standing right, two stars above; ASISC. RIC VIII 419; LRBC--. VF. Ex-CNG
1 commentsecoli
coin518.JPG
508. Julian II VOTA Sirmium9 viewsSirmium

Sirmium was one of the oldest cities in Europe. Archaeologists have found a trace of organized human life dating from the 5000 BC.

When the Romans conquered the city in the 1st century BC, Sirmium already was a settlement with a long tradition.

In the 1st century, Sirmium gained a status of a colony of the citizens of Rome, and became a very important military and strategic location in Pannonia province. The war expeditions of Roman emperors Traian, Marcus Aurelius, and Claudius II, were prepared in Sirmium.

In 103, Pannonia was split into two provinces: Upper Pannonia and Lower Pannonia, and Sirmius became the capital city of Lower Pannonia.

In 296, Diocletian operated a new territorial division of Pannonia. Instead of previous two provinces, there were four new provinces established in former territory of original province: Pannonia Prima, Pannonia Valeria, Pannonia Savia and Pannonia Secunda. Capital city of Pannonia Secunda was Sirmium.

In 293, with the establishment of tetrarchy, the Roman Empire was split into four parts; Sirmium become one of the four capital cities of Roman Empire, the other three being Trier, Mmediolanum, and Nicomedia. During the tetrarchy, Sirmium was the capital of emperor Galerius. With the establishment of praetorian prefectures in 318, the capital of the prefecture of Illyricum was Sirmium. Sirmium was capital of this prefecture until 379, when the prefecture was divided politically into Eastern and Western Illyricum. The western part (including Sirmium) was included into prefecture of Italia. The eastern part of Illyricum remained a separate prefecture with the capital in Thessalonica.

The city also was an important Christian centre. Several Christian councils were held in Sirmium.

008. Julian II Sirmium

RIC VIII Sirmium 108 ASIRM???

ecoli
coin274.JPG
509. Jovian21 views09. Jovian39 viewsJovian was born at Singidunum in A.D. 330, the son of the commander of Constantius II's imperial bodyguards. He also joined the guards and by A.D. 363 had risen to the post that his father had once held. He accompanied the Roman Emperor Julian on the disastrous Mesopotamian campain of the same year against Shapur II, the Sassanid king. After a small but decisive engagement the Roman army was forced to retreat from the numerically superior Persian force. Julian had been mortally wounded during the retreat and Jovian seized his chance. Some accounts have it that on Julian's death Jovian's soldiers called out "Jovianus!" The cry was mistaken for "Julianus", and the army cheered Jovian, briefly under the illusion that the slain Emperor had recovered from his wound.

Shapur pressed his advantage and Jovian, deep inside Sassanid territory, was forced to sue for peace on very unfavourable terms. In exchange for safety he agreed to withdraw from the provinces east of the Tigris that Diocletian had annexed and allow the Persians to occupy the fortresses of Nisbis, Castra Maurorum and Singara. the King of Armenia, Arsaces, was to stay neutral in future conflicts between the two empires, and was forced to cede some of his kingdom to Shapur. The treaty was seen as a disgrace and Jovian rapidly lost popularity.

After arriving at Antioch Jovian decided to hurry to Constantinople to consolidate his position.

Jovian was a Christian, in contrast to his predecessor Julian the Apostate, who had attempted a revival of paganism. He died on February 17, 364 after a reign of eight months.

Jovian AE3. D N IOVIA NVS P F AVG, diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / VOT V MVLT X inside wreath
ecoli
coin275.JPG
510. Valentinian I55 viewsFlavius Valentinianus, known in English as Valentinian I, (321 - November 17, 375) was a Roman Emperor (364 - 375). He was born at Cibalis, in Pannonia, the son of a successful general, Gratian the Elder.

He had been an officer of the Praetorian guard under Julian and Jovian, and had risen high in the imperial service. Of robust frame and distinguished appearance, he possessed great courage and military capacity. After the death of Jovian, he was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia on February 26, 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.

The two brothers, after passing through the chief cities of the neighbouring district, arranged the partition of the empire at Naissus (Nissa) in Upper Moesia. As Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian took Italia, Illyricum, Hispania, the Gauls, Britain and Africa, leaving to Eastern Roman Emperor Valens the eastern half of the Balkan peninsula, Greece, Aegyptus, Syria and Asia Minor as far as Persia. They were immediately confronted by the revolt of Procopius, a relative of the deceased Julian. Valens managed to defeat his army at Thyatria in Lydia in 366, and Procopius was executed shortly afterwards.

During the short reign of Valentinian there were wars in Africa, in Germany and in Britain, and Rome came into collision with barbarian peoples never of heard before, specifically the Burgundians, and the Saxons.

Valentinian's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions. Milan was at first his headquarters for settling the affairs of northern Italy. The following year (365) Valentinian was at Paris, and then at Reims, to direct the operations of his generals against the Alamanni. These people, defeated at Scarpona (Charpeigne) and Catelauni (Châlons-en-Champagne) by Jovinus, were driven back to the German bank of the Rhine, and checked for a while by a chain of military posts and fortresses. At the close of 367, however, they suddenly crossed the Rhine, attacked Moguntiacum (Mainz) and plundered the city. Valentinian attacked them at Solicinium (Sulz am Neckar, in the Neckar valley, or Schwetzingen) with a large army, and defeated them with great slaughter. But his own losses were so considerable that Valentinian abandoned the idea of following up his success.

Later, in 374, Valentinian made peace with their king, Macrianus, who from that time remained a true friend of the Romans. The next three years he spent at Trier, which he chiefly made his headquarters, organizing the defence of the Rhine frontier, and personally superintending the construction of numerous forts.

During his reign the coasts of Gaul were harassed by the Saxon pirates, with whom the Picts and Scots of northern Britain joined hands, and ravaged the island from the Antonine Wall to the shores of Kent. In 368 Count Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia in honour of the emperor.

In Africa, Firmus, raised the standard of revolt, being joined by the provincials, who had been rendered desperate by the cruelty and extortions of Comes Romanus, the military governor. The services of Theodosius were again requisitioned. He landed in Africa with a small band of veterans, and Firmus, to avoid being taken prisoner, committed suicide.

In 374 the Quadi, a Germanic tribe in what is now Moravia and Slovakia, resenting the erection of Roman forts to the north of the Danube in what they considered to be their own territory, and further exasperated by the treacherous murder of their king, Gabinius, crossed the river and laid waste the province of Pannonia. The emperor in April, 375 entered Illyricum with a powerful army. But during an audience to an embassy from the Quadi at Brigetio on the Danube (near Komárom, Hungary), Valentinian suffered a burst blood vessel in the skull while angrily yelling at the people gathered. This injury resulted in his death on November 17, 375.

His general administration seems to have been thoroughly honest and able, in some respects beneficent. If Valentinian was hard and exacting in the matter of taxes, he spent them in the defence and improvement of his dominions, not in idle show or luxury. Though himself a plain and almost illiterate soldier, Valentinian was a founder of schools. He also provided medical attendance for the poor of Rome, by appointing a physician for each of the fourteen districts of the city.

Valentinian was a Christian but permitted absolute religious freedom to all his subjects. Against all abuses, both civil and ecclesiastical, Valentinian steadily set his face, even against the increasing wealth and worldliness of the clergy. His chief flaw was his temper, which at times was frightful, and showed itself in its full fierceness in the punishment of persons accused of witchcraft, fortune-telling or magical practices.

Valentinian I; RIC IX, Siscia 15(a); C.37; second period: 24 Aug. 367-17 Nov. 375; common. obv. DN VALENTINI-ANVS PF AVG, bust cuir., drap., r., rev. SECVRITAS-REI PVBLICAE, Victory advancing l., holding wreath and trophy. l. field R above R with adnex, r. field F, ex. gamma SISC rev.Z dot (type xxxv)
ecoli
030437LG.jpg
512. Procopius151 viewsProcopius (326 - May 27, 366), was a Roman usurper against Valentinian I, and member of the Constantinian dynasty.

According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Procopius was a native of Cilicia. On his mother's side, Procopius was cousin of Emperor Julian.

Procopius took part in the emperor Julian's campaign against the Persian Empire in 363. He was entrusted of leading 30,000 men towards Armenia, joining King Arsaces, and later return to Julian camp. At the time of Julian's death, there were rumors that he had intended Procopius to be his successor, but when Jovian was elected emperor by the Roman army, Procopius went into hiding to preserve his life. The ancient historians differ on the exact details of Procopius' life in hiding, but agree that he returned to public knowledge at Chalcedon before the house of the senator Strategius suffering from starvation and ignorant of current affairs.

By that time, Jovianus was dead, and Valentinian I shared the purple with his brother Valens. Procopius immediately moved to declare himself emperor. He bribed two legions that were resting at Constantinople to support his efforts, and took control of the imperial city. Shortly after this he proclaimed himself Emperor on September 28, 365, and quickly took control of the provinces of Thrace, and later Bithynia.

Valens was left with the task of dealing with this rebel, and over the next months struggled with both cities and units that wavered in their allegiance. Eventually their armies met at the Battle of Thyatira, and Procopius' forces were defeated. He fled the battlefield, but was betrayed to Valens by two of his remaining followers. Valens had all three executed May 27, 366.


Procopius - Usurper in the east, 365-6 , AE-3, Nicomedia mint


2.90g

Obv: Bust of Procopius, beared left "DN PROCOPIVS PF AVG"

Rev: Procopius standing head right, foot resting on a prow and leaning on a shield. "REPARATIO FEL TEMP" "SMNG" in the exergue.

RIC 10
ecoli73
Julian-II-Nic-121.jpg
52. Julian II.25 viewsAE 1, 363, Nicomedia mint.
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG / Diademed bust of Julian II.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB / Bull standing, two stars above.
Mint mark: NIKΓ between two palm leaves.
8.79 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #121; LRBC #2319; Sear #19159.
Callimachus
17910811_10154754189164011_895183192_n-side.jpg
62 Julian II RIC 22523 viewsJulian II 360-363 AD. AE1 (Double Maiorina). Tessalonica Mint.362-363 AD. (29.30mm) Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, bearded, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right. Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, head facing, two stars above. palm branch TESB palm branch in ex.
RIC 225
Actual name: Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus
Wildwinds: Julian II, "The Apostate": Caesar 355-360 AD, Augustus 360-363 AD. The last true "pagan" emperor who revered the ancient gods until the day he died in 363 from a javelin wound fighting the Persians.
Paddy
Carinus-RIC-252.jpg
94. Carinus.9 viewsAntoninianus, 283 - 285 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG / Radiate bust of Carinus.
Reverse: FIDES MILITVM / Fides standing, holding two standards. K A E in exergue.
3.21 gm., 21 mm.
RIC #252.

According to Gibbon (XII), Carinus "was more than commonly deficient" in the qualities of virtue and prudence. He "displayed . . . the extravagancies of Elagabalus, aggravated by the cruelty of Domitian." It is said that he married no less than 9 wives, although we know the name of only one of them. However, Carinus must have been a fairly competent general since he defeated two formidable rebels -- Julianus and Diocletian. He was murdered by one of his officers (had an affair with the officer's wife) shortly after his victory, and the empire fell into the hands of Diocletian.
Callimachus
Cuarto_Follis_Maximino_II_Antioch_Vagi_2955.jpg
A116-30 -Acuñacion Civica Anonima Semi-Autonoma (311 - 312 D.C.)39 viewsAE15 ¼ de Follis o Nummus 19 x 15 mm 1.2 gr.
Moneda tradicionalmente atribuida a Julian II hasta que J.Van Heesch en su artículo “The last Civic Coinages and the Religious Police of Maximinus Daza”, publicado en el Numismatic Chronicle vol.153 Pags. 66 y subsiguientes (1993), realiza un detallado estudio de este tipo de acuñación cívica anónima del cuarto siglo, donde demuestra que estas monedas se acuñaron bajos los auspicios de Maximino II Daya conmemorando “La Gran Persecución” de los Cristianos y por consiguiente la Victoria Pagana, al honrar con ellas a los antiguos dioses grecorromanos Júpiter, Apolo, Tyche, y Serapis. Recordemos que en dicha persecución (desde finales del 311 a finales del 312 D.C.) se cerraron Iglesias, encarcelando y/o desterrando a los cristianos. Esta campaña fue particularmente fuerte en Nicomedia, Antioquia y Alejandría, los tres centros principales del Imperio de Oriente. Estas persecuciones menguaron al año siguiente posiblemente como resultado de la preocupación de Maximino II al provocar abiertamente a los Emperadores Asociados de Occidente Constantino I y Licinio I.

Anv: "IOVI CONS - ERVATORI" – Júpiter semidesnudo, sentado en un trono a izquierda, portando globo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y largo cetro vertical en la izquierda.
Rev: "VICTOR - IA AVGG" – Victoria avanzando a izquierda, portando guirnalda en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y hoja de palma en la izquierda. "ANT" en exergo y "B" en campo derecho.

Acuñada 311 - 312 D.C.
Ceca: Antiochia (Off. 2da.)

Referencias: Cohen Vol.VIII #53 Pag.49 (Julián II) (10f) - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #7952 Pag.94 – Vaggi #2955 - J.Van Heesch “The last Civic Coinages and the Religious Police of Maximinus Daza (1993)” #2.
mdelvalle
Maiorina Juliano II RIC VIII Siscia 374A.jpg
A135-02 - Juliano II Como Cesar de Constancio II (355 - 360 D.C.)39 viewsAE3 Maiorina ó Centenional 17 x 16 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "DN IVLIAN - VS NOB C" - Busto a cabeza desnuda, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FEL TEMP REPARATIO" - Soldado con yelmo a derecha, portando escudo en brazo izquierdo, alancea con derecha a un jinete caido que porta un gorro en punta, lo mira y extiende su brazo izquierdo hacia él. "ΔSISD" en exergo y " M " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 355 - 356 D.C.
Ceca: Siscia (Off.4ta.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Siscia) #374 Pag.377 - Cohen Vol.VIII #13 Pag.45 - DVM #26 Pag.304 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8832.e. Pag.229 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4063 - LRBC #1237
mdelvalle
Maiorina Juliano II RIC VIII Thessalonica 212E.jpg
A135-04 - Juliano II Como Cesar de Constancio II (355 - 360 D.C.)40 viewsAE3 Maiorina ó Centenional 16 x 15 mm 2.1 gr.

Anv: "[DN CL IVLIANVS] NOB CAES" - Busto a cabeza desnuda, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "FEL TEMP [REPA]RATIO" - Soldado con yelmo a derecha, portando escudo en brazo izquierdo, alancea con derecha a un jinete caido que porta un gorro en punta, lo mira y extiende su brazo izquierdo hacia él. "SMTSε" en exergo y " M " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 355 - 356 D.C.
Ceca: Tessalonica (Off.5ta.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Thessalonica) #210 Pag.421 - Cohen Vol.VIII #13 Pag.45 - DVM #26 Pag.304 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8832.g. Pag.229 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4063 - LRBC #1685
mdelvalle
Nummus Juliano II RIC VIII Constantinople 154I.jpg
A135-10 - Juliano II Como Cesar de Constancio II (355 - 360 D.C.)41 viewsAE4 Nummus 16 x 15 mm 2.3 gr.

Anv: "[D]N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES" - Busto a cabeza desnuda, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "[SPES REIPVBLI]CE" - Emperador con yelmo y vestido militarmente, de pié a izquierda, portando Orbe/globo en la mano de su brazo derecho extendido y lanza en izquierda. "CONSI" en exergo y " C " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 358 - 361 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla (Off.10ma.)
Rareza: R

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Constantinople) #154 Pag.461 - Cohen Vol.VIII #45 Pag.49 - DVM #29 Pag.305 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8834.i. Pag.229 - LRBC #2055
mdelvalle
Centenional Juliano II RIC VIII Arles 324P.jpg
A135-20 - Juliano II (360 - 363 D.C.)40 viewsAE3 Centenional 19 x 20 mm 2.5 gr.

Anv: "DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS P F AVG" - Busto con yelmo diademado y coraza, portando lanza a derecha y escudo a izquierda, viendo a izquierda.
Rev: "VOT X MVLT XX" - Leyenda dentro de una corona de laureles. "PCOSNT" en exergo.

Acuñada 362 - 363 D.C.
Ceca: Arles - Arelate (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: R2

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Arles) #324 Pag.229 - Cohen Vol.VIII #151 Pag.62 - DVM #28 Pag.305 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8915.b. Pag.235 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4074 - LRBC #470
mdelvalle
Doble_Maiorina_Juliano_II_RIC_103B.jpg
A135-30 - Juliano II (360 - 363 D.C.)54 viewsAE1 Doble maiorina 27x29 mm 7.6 gr.

Anv: "DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS P F AVG" - Busto diademado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECVRITAS REI PVB" – Toro a la derecha, viendo al frente, arriba de la cabeza dos estrellas. "•HERACL•B" en exergo.

Este reverso puede representar al toro Ápis (Dios solar, de la fertilidad, y posteriormente de los muertos, en la mitología egipcia) una imagen de culto perdida que se redescubrió durante el reinado de Juliano II. Éste es el último tipo pagano en la acuñación romana.

Acuñada: 3 Nov. 361 – 26 Jun. 363 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Heraclea) #103B Pag.438 - Cohen Vol.VIII #38 Pag.48 - DVM #25 Pag.304 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8914.g.2 Pag.235 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4072 – G.Elmer “Die kupfergeldreform unter Julianus Philosophus” #83 – O.Voetter “Die münzen der romischen Kaiser vsw, von Diocletianus bis zum Romulus. Katalog der Sammlung Gerin” (Vienna, 1921) #4
mdelvalle
Doble_Maiorina_Juliano_II_RIC_224_1.jpg
A135-32 - Juliano II (360 - 363 D.C.)56 viewsAE1 Doble maiorina 28x27 mm 7.4 gr.

Anv: "DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS P F AVG" - Busto diademado, con coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "SECVRITAS REI PVB" – Toro a la derecha, viendo al frente, arriba de la cabeza dos estrellas. "(Palma)TES Γ•" en exergo.

Este reverso puede representar al toro Ápis (Dios solar, de la fertilidad, y posteriormente de los muertos, en la mitología egipcia) una imagen de culto perdida que se redescubrió durante el reinado de Juliano II. Éste es el último tipo pagano en la acuñación romana.

Acuñada: 3 Nov. 361 – 26 Jun. 363 D.C.
Ceca: Thesalonica (Off.3ra.)
Rareza: S

Referencias: RIC Vol.VIII (Thessalonica) #224 Pag.423 - Cohen Vol.VIII #38 Pag.48 - DVM #25 Pag.304 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #8914.f Pag.234 - Sear RCTV (1988) #4072 – LRBC #1695 – O.Voetter “Die münzen der romischen Kaiser vsw, von Diocletianus bis zum Romulus. Katalog der Sammlung Gerin” (Vienna, 1921) #4
mdelvalle
Centenional Procopio Reparatio Fel Temp.jpg
A139-02 - Procopio (365 - 366 D.C.)43 viewsAE3 Centenional 17 x 16 mm 1.9 gr.
Pariente de Juliano II y General de su ejército en la campaña contra los persas. Usurpador en Tracia y Asia Menor

Anv: "DN PROCO-PIVS P F AVG" - Busto Tipo A, con diadema de perlas, coraza y Paludamentum (capote militar) sobre ella, viendo a derecha.
Rev: "REPARATI-[O FEL TEMP]" - Emperador vestido militarmente de pié a izquierda, portando labarum (estandarte militar) con signo Chi-Ro en su bandera, en mano derecha y descansando la izquierda en un escudo que descansa a sus pies. "SMHA" en exergo.

Acuñada 364 - 367 D.C.
Ceca: Heraclea (Off.1ra.)
Rareza: R3

Referencias: RIC Vol.IX (Heraclea) #8 var. (Busto NO LISTADO) Pag.193 - Cohen Vol.VIII #10 Pag.122 - DVM #6 Pag.309 - Salgado MRBI Vol.III #9085.a. Pag.275
mdelvalle
Didia_Clara_01_portrait.jpg
AD 193 - DIDIA CLARA3 viewsDidia Clarawas a daughter and only child to the Roman Emperor Didius Julianus and Empress Manlia Scantilla.

for obverse, reverse and coin details click here
shanxi
Nummus_Julien_II.png
Ae3 Julian II14 viewsAe3 Julien II A/ D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, son buste diadémé, casqué, drapé et cuirassé à gauche, tenant une lance et un bouclier, R/ couronne entourant l'inscription VOT/X/MVLT/XX en 4 lignes, VRB ROM[…] à l’exergue – Rome – 361/363 – RIC.329 (C) – 3,6 g

http://www.nummus-bible-database.com/monnaie-17169.htm
nemesis25
julianII_225.jpg
Apis342 viewsJulian II the philosopher 360 - 363, nephew of Constantin I
AE - Maiorina, 7.30g, 25mm
Thessalonica 1. officina, summer 361 - June 26. 363
obv. DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS PF AVG
bust draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed head r.
rev. SECVRITA[S R]EI PVB
diademed bull r., head facing, two stars above
exergue: TESA between palmbranchs
RIC VIII, Thessalonica 225; C.38
Rare; good F

APIS, holy bull of Memphis/Egypt, herald of god Ptah, making oracles in the name of the god. Each new bull should have a white triangle on the forehead or a moon-like spot at the sides. After his death buried as Osiris-Apis, from which the Serapis cult developed. Julian II has renewed this cult. For a new interpretation of the bull see the remarks in 'Jochen's Folles' to Julian II RIC VIII, 163!
Jochen
maximian_II_antioch.jpg
APOLLONI SANCTO. GENIO ANTIOCHENI, Tyche of Antioch/ Apollo8 viewsMaximinus II Daia (309-313 AD), 16mm, 1.3g. APOLLONI SANCTO. GENIO AN-TIOCHENI, Tyche of Antioch, turreted, wearing cloak and veil, seated facing on rock; at her feet, river god Orontes swimming right / APOLLONI – SANCTO / G / SMA Apollo, wearing long dress and himation, standing facing, head turned left, holding cithara with his left hand, patera in his right hand, C. 1 (Julianus II). Van Heesch, NC 1993, 66, 3a. Minted ca.310-311 A.D. Ex David LiebertPodiceps
Augustus_RIC_37a.JPG
Augustus, 27 BC - 14 AD133 viewsObv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS, oak-wreathed head of Augustus facing right.

Rev: (D)IVVS - IVLIVS across field, a comet of eight rays with upward tail.

Note: "Sidus Iulium" or the Julian Star was a fiery comet that appeared in the heavens in May of 44 BC. On the opening day of the funeral games for Julius Caesar the comet's brightness dramatically intensified so that it was visible even in daylight. The timely appearance of the comet was taken as a sign of Caesar's apotheosis.

Silver Denarius, Caesaraugusta mint, 19 - 18 BC

3.7 grams, 19.5 mm, 180°

RIC I 37a, RSC 98, S1607 (var.), VM 57
3 commentsSPQR Coins
Procopius_37.jpg
B39 viewsProcopius AE 20

Attribution: RIC 17a, LRBC 2082, Constantinople
Date: AD 365-366
Obverse: DN PROCO-PIVS PF AVG, diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust l.
Reverse: REPARATI-O FEL TEMP, Procopius stg. facing, head r., holding labarum in r. hand, l. resting on shield set on ground, Chi-rho in upper r. field & unidentified object at l. foot, CONSA in exergue
Size: 21 mm
Weight: 2.66 grams

A native of Cilicia, Procopius was the first cousin of emperor Julian II. He was placed in charge of 30,000 troops to lead towards Armenia during the conflict with the Persians in AD 363. At the time of Julian II’s death, Jovian was elected emperor by the troops. Procopius, fearing for his life since he was a possible candidate to succeed Julian II, went into hiding. Historians agree that Procopius was suffering from starvation and completely ignorant of the current affairs of the empire when he resurfaced from hiding. By this time, Jovian was dead and Valentinian I and his brother Valens were co-emperors. Procopius quickly made his bid for the purple by bribing two legions at Constantinople and subsequently seizing the imperial capital. He declared himself emperor on September 28, AD 365, and went on to take control of the provinces of Thrace and Bithynia. Valens met the usurper at the Battle of Thyatira and defeated him. Procopius fled the battle and was later betrayed by two of his own followers. Although these two men aided Valens in capturing Procopius, he had all three executed May 27, AD 366.
1 commentsNoah
julian_II_the_barbarian.jpg
Barbaric Counterfeit: Apis bull9 viewsJulian II 'the Apostate,' February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D., Barbaric Counterfeit. 21530. Bronze AE 1, ancient counterfeit imitative of SRCV 4074, Fair, unofficial mint, 6.622g, 24.5mm, 90o, after 361 A.D.; obverse [D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG], diademed draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS REIPVB, Apis bull right, two stars above horns. Ex FORVMPodiceps
julian_bull_1.jpg
BCC LR340 viewsLate Roman AE 1
JulianII 360-363 C.E.
Antioch Mint
Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG
pearl-diad. draped,and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB
bull std rt. two stars above, in
ex. ANT Γ with palm branch on each side.
26.5 mm. 8.24 gm. Axis:0 RIC VIII 216
v-drome
julian_II.jpg
BCC LR3.ax54 viewsLate Roman
Julian II 360-363 C.E.
Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG
Pearl-diademed, draped, and
cuirassed bust right.
Rev:SECVRITAS REIPVB
bull std rt. two stars above, in
ex. ANT beta, with
palm branches on either side.
25.5 x 27.25mm. 8.68 gm. Axis:210
1 commentsv-drome
julianvs1~0.jpg
BULL394 viewsJulian II AD 360-363 minted Heraclea Ae1
S617 8.19g
Diademed bust right with legend DAFLCL IVLIANVS PF AVG
Bull standing right with legend SECVRITAS REIPVB
* in field, HERACLEA in exerge
June 04 £65
mickdale
julian_bull_qq22.jpg
Bull - Julian II The Apostate654 viewsDN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG
SECVRITAS REI PVB
(feather)NIKB.(feather)
RIC VIII 122 Nicomedia

Bull, head facing, standing right; above, two stars

There is still some dirt on this coin which is what shows the mottled appearance. The coin is in remarkable condition, however with high relief and detail.

--Fred (Roscoedaisy)
3 commentsroscoedaisy
Bulls-Of-Julian.jpg
Bulls of Julian394 viewsHere are only some bulls of Julian The Apostate - they are various but all very nice!4 commentsIVLIANVS
Carus_Milne_4738.JPG
Carinus11 viewsBillon tetradrachm, references: Milne 4738, Curtis 1926, BMC Alexandria 2457, Geissen 3186, SNG Cop 958, Emmett 4010; condition: VF, mint: Alexandria, weight: 8.093g, maximum diameter: 19.8mm, die axis: 0o, date struck: 29 Aug 284 - spring 285 A.D.; obverse A K M A KAPINOC CEB, laureate and cuirassed bust right; reverse ETOYC Γ (year 3), Nike advancing right, holding palm-branch and wreath; scarce

From FORVM:
Carinus was the son of Carus who was Praetorian prefect during the reign of Probus. After his father seized power, Carinus was raised to the rank of Caesar in October 282 and left to manage the Western provinces while his father and brother Numerian campaigned against the Persians in the east. The campaign was a success, but Carus was killed by lightning. In 285 Carinus left Rome to confront the usurper Julian I and then Diocletian, who had been declared Augustus by his troops. Carinus was nearly victorious in battle but was murdered by one of his chief officers - apparently Carinus had seduced his wife.

Purchased from FORVM
Sosius
9965.jpg
Carrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, Lindgren 2557122 viewsCarrhae in Mesopotamia, Septimius Severus, AE 24, 193-211 AD
Av.: CEΠTIMIOC [CE]OY.... , naked (laureate?) bust of Septimius Severus right
Rv.: ..Λ]OY KAPPH ΛKA... , front view of a tetrastyle temple, the temple of the moon god Sin, in the middle a sacred stone on tripod, on top of stone: crescent, standards (with crescents on top) on both sides inside the building; another crescent in the pediment.
Lindgren 2557 ; BMC p. 82, #4

The city and the region played an important role in roman history.

Carrhae / Harran, (Akkadian Harrânu, "intersecting roads"; Latin Carrhae), an ancient city of strategic importance, an important town in northern Mesopotamia, famous for its temple of the moon god Sin, is now nothing more than a village in southeastern Turkey with an archeological site.
In the Bible it is mentioned as one of the towns where Abraham stayed on his voyage from Ur to the promised land. Abraham's family settled there when they left Ur of the Chaldeans (Genesis 11:31-32).
Inscriptions indicate that Harran existed as early as 2000 B.C. In its prime, it controlled the point where the road from Damascus joins the highway between Nineveh and Carchemish. This location gave Harran strategic value from an early date. It is frequently mentioned in Assyrian inscriptions about 1100 BC, under the name Harranu, or "Road" (Akkadian harrānu, 'road, path, journey' ).
During the fall of the Assyrian Empire, Harran became the stronghold of its lasts king, Ashur-uballit II, being besiged and conquered by Nabopolassar of Babylon at 609 BC. Harran became part of Median Empire after the fall of Assyria, and subsequently passed to the Persian Achaemenid dynasty.
The city remained Persian untill in 331 BC when the soldiers of the Macedonian king Alexander the Great entered the city.
After the death of Alexander on 11 June 323 BC, the city was claimed by his successors: Perdiccas, Antigonus Monophthalmus and Eumenes. These visited the city, but eventually, it became part of the Asian kingdom of Seleucos I (Nicator), the Seleucid empire, and capital of a province called Osrhoene (the Greek term for the old name Urhai).
The Seleucids settled Macedonian veterans at Harran. For a century-and-a-half, the town flourished, and it became independent when the Parthian dynasty of Persia occupied Babylonia. The Parthian and Seleucid kings both needed the buffer state of Osrhoene which was part of the larger Parthian empire and had nearby Edessa as its capital. The dynasty of the Arabian Abgarides, technically a vassal of the Parthian "king of kings" ruled Osrhoene for centuries.

Carrhae was the scene of a disastrous defeat of the Roman general Crassus by the Parthians. In 53 BC. Crassus, leading an army of 50.000, conducted a campaign against Parthia. After he captured a few cities on the way, he hurried to cross the Euphrates River with hopes of receiving laurels and the title of “Emperor”. But as he drove his forces over Rakkan towards Harran, Parthian cavalry besieged his forces in a pincers movement. In the ensuing battle, the Roman army was defeated and decimated. The battle of Carrhae was the beginning of a series of border wars with Parthia for many centuries. Numismatic evidence for these wars or the corresponding peace are for instance the "Signis Receptis" issues of Augustus and the “Janum Clusit” issues of Nero.
Later Lucius Verus tried to conquer Osrhoene and initially was successful. But an epidemic made an annexation impossible. However, a victory monument was erected in Ephesus, and Carrhae/Harran is shown as one of the subject towns.
Septimius Severus finally added Osrhoene to his realms in 195. The typical conic domed houses of ancient Harran can be seen on the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Forum Romanum.
Harran was the chief home of the moon-god Sin, whose temple was rebuilt by several kings. Sin was one of the great gods of the Assurian-Babylonian pantheon.
Caracalla gave Harran the status of a colonia (214 AD) and visited the city and the temple of the moon god in April 217. Meanwhile the moon god (and sacred stones) had become a part of the Roman pantheon and the temple a place to deify the roman emperors (as the standards on both sides of the temple indicate).

Caracalla was murdered while he was on his way from Temple to the palace. If this had been arranged by Macrinus - the prefect of the Praetorian guard who was to be the new emperor – is not quite clear. On the eighth of April, the emperor and his courtiers made a brief trip to the world famous temple of the moon god. When Caracalla halted to perform natural functions, he was assassinated by one of his bodyguards, Julius Martialis, who had a private grudge against the ruler, because he had not been given the post of centurion.

In 296 AD Roman control was again interrupted when nearby Carrhae the emperor Galerius was defeated by the king Narses / the Sasanid dynasty of Persia. The Roman emperor Julianus Apostata sacrificed to the moon god in 363 AD, at the beginning of his ill-fated campaign against the Sassanid Persians. The region continued to be a battle zone between the Romans and Sassanids. It remained Roman (or Byzantine) until 639, when the city finally was captured by the Muslim armies.

At that time, the cult of Sin still existed. After the arrival of the Islam, the adherents of other religions probably went to live in the marshes of the lower Tigris and Euphrates, and are still known as Mandaeans.
The ancient city walls surrounding Harran, 4 kilometer long and 3 kilometer wide, have been repaired throughout the ages (a.o. by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the sixth century), and large parts are still standing. The position of no less than 187 towers has been identified. Of the six gates (Aleppo gate, Anatolian, Arslanli, Mosul, Baghdad, and Rakka gate), only the first one has remained.

A citadel was built in the 14th century in place of the Temple of Sin. This lies in the south-west quarter of the ancient town. Its ruin can still be visited.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
max pagan com.JPG
Civic Issue under Maximinus II 23 viewsAE 14.8 mm 1.33 grams 310-312 AD
1/4 Nummus
OBV :: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI. Zeus sitting left on throne holding scepter in left and glode in right hands
REV :: VICTOR-IA AVGG. Nike walking left holding wreath in right hand, palm in left. Delta in left , Epsilon in right fields
EX :: unknown
Minted in Antioch ?
Vagi 2955, Sear ( under Julian II) 4080
purchased 04/2008

Note: The Civic Issues of Antioch, Alexandria and Nicomedia were thought to have been produced by Julian II when RIC VI was written, therefore the entire series is missing. This series was produced during the period of Christian persecution by Maximinus II, Diocletian and Galerius and the Antioch issues portray important local statues: the Tyche erected by Eutychides (a pupil of Lysippus), the Apollo by Bryaxis of Athens and possibly the Zeus Nikephoros of the Temple of Apollo at Daphne which Antiochos IV commissioned for his great festival of 167 BC.

Historical information taken from Coinage of the Roman Empire, Vol II, p.516 by David Vagi
Johnny
civic issue.jpg
Civic Issue under Maximinus II49 viewsAnonymous Civic Issue during the time of Maximinus II, AE Quarter Follis, c.310-312, Antioch, Officina 10
GENIO AN_TIOCHENI
Tyche, turreted and veiled, seated facing on rock, river-god Orontes swimming in front
APOLLONI-SANCTO
Apollo standing facing, head left, patera in right hand, lyre in left
I in right field
SMA in exergue
16mm x 17mm, 1.65g
RIC VI, --; Vagi 2954
purchased 09/09/2007
Note: The Civic Issues of Antioch, Alexandria and Nicomedia were thought to have been produced by Julian II when RIC VI was written, therefore the entire series is missing. This series was produced during the period of Christian persecution by Maximinus II, Diocletian and Galerius and the Antioch issues portray important local statues: the Tyche erected by Eutychides (a pupil of Lysippus), the Apollo by Bryaxis of Athens and possibly the Zeus Nikephoros of the Temple of Apollo at Daphne which Antiochos IV commissioned for his great festival of 167 BC.

Historical information from Coinage of the Roman Empire, Vol II, p.516 by David Vagi
Johnny
Cons_121_A_P-R.jpg
Cons 121 A P-R6 views19mm, 2.51g, 12 O'clock
The reverse break FEL TEMP - REPARATIO is not listed in RIC until #135, after Gallus had been replaced by Julian.
agord
Cons_121_B_P-R.jpg
Cons 121 B P-R6 views19mm, 2.45g, 6 O'clock
The reverse break FEL TEMP - REPARATIO is not listed in RIC until #135, after Gallus had been replaced by Julian.
agord
cons_121_Delta_P-R.jpg
Cons 121 Delta P-R6 views16x18mm, 2.14g, 12 O'clock
The reverse break FEL TEMP - REPARATIO is not listed in RIC until #135, after Gallus had been replaced by Julian.
agord
Cons_121_S_P-R.jpg
Cons 121 S P-R7 views19mm, 2.99g, 6 O'clock
The reverse break FEL TEMP - REPARATIO is not listed in RIC until #135, after Gallus had been replaced by Julian.
agord
Cons_122_A_P-R.jpg
Cons 122 A P-R7 views18mm, 2.22g, 12 O'clock
The reverse break FEL TEMP - REPARATIO is not listed in RIC until #135, after Gallus had been replaced by Julian.
agord
Cons_122_Delta_P-R.jpg
Cons 122 Delta P-R7 views18mm, 2.91g, 12 O'clock
The reverse break FEL TEMP - REPARATIO is not listed in RIC until #135, after Gallus had been replaced by Julian.
agord
Cons_122_Z_No_break.jpg
Cons 122 Z No rev break6 views18mm, 2.27g, 1 O'clock
The unbroken reverse legend is not listed in RIC until #135, after Gallus had been replaced by Julian.
agord
Cons_127_A_P-R.jpg
Cons 127 A P-R12 views16mm, 2.64g, 12 O'clock
The reverse break FEL TEMP - REPARATIO is not listed in RIC until #135, after Gallus had been replaced by Julian.
agord
Cons_141_IA_R-E_var-Constantius.jpg
Cons 141 IA R-E var-Constantius7 views17mm, 2.17g, 12 O'clock
For the mark CONSAdot, Field mark dotMdot RIC does not list a FH3 for Constantius, only Julian. FH4 is listed for both.
agord
CTGeyes2GodRIC7.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.46 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC VII 92, EF, 3.456g, 18.1mm, 0o, Heraclea mint, 327 - 329 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, diademed head right, eyes to God; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, •SMHB in exergue.

As leading numismatist Joseph Sermarini notes, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great
(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement; so, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.

Which brings us to Crispus.
Whenever I am engaged in any discussion concerning Constantine I, Crispus is never far from my mind. As historian Hans Pohlsander from SUNY notes, "Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship." And Pohlsander continues with, "There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children)(Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm).

But there is something terribly illogigical about Constantinian apologetics. In 294 BC, prior to the death of his father, Seleucus I; Antiochus married his step-mother, Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes. His elderly father reportedly instigated the marriage after discovering that his son was in danger of dying of lovesickness. If this is the way a "Pagan" father is able to express love for his son, then would not a saintly Christian love his son in at least similar measure? This particular Christian father, about whom St. Nectarios writes, "Hellenism spread by Alexander, paved the way for Christianity by the Emperor Constantine the Great," is unique. It is important to our discussion to take note of the fact that in the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Now would be an appropriate time to recall what Joseph Sermarini noted above, "The 'looking upwards' portraits of Constantine are often described as 'gazing to Heaven (or God).' The model of these portraits is of course that of the Deified Alexander the Great(https://www.forumancientcoins.com/ssl/myforum.asp).

Isn’t it all too possible--even probable--that Constantine had been growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? It is completely out of character for Constantine to merely acquiesce to being Philip to Crispus' Alexander. Remember the Constantine who has proven time and again (recall Constantine's disingenuous promise of clemency to Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, and Constantine decides to murder again. Why "must we, "as Pohlsander adamantly suggests, "resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins? A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

Keep in mind that the obverse device of this coin shows Constantine I "gazing toward God" and was struck within a year or possibly two of Constantine I murdering his first-born son and condemning him to damnatio memoriae.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
Constantius_II_(324-337_as_caesar)_follis_(AE3).png
Constantius II (324-337 as caesar) follis (AE)22 viewsObv.: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C (Cuirassed and laureate bust of emperor) Rev.: GLORIA EXERCITVS (Two soldiers with spear and shield, two standards between them) Exergue: SMKS Diameter: 17 mm Weight: 1,7 g RIC VII 85

According to Ammianus, Constantius was constantly suspicious of plots and usurpers. In the end, this may not have been entirely unwise, as his nephew and successor Julian became little more than a usurper himself, only lucky enough to outlive his uncle, thus avoiding civil war.
Nick.vdw
Constantius III.jpg
Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.83 viewsRev.: LIBERALITAS AVG II, Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopia.

The longest lived of Constantine the Great`s sons and successors, he ruled until 361 A.D. Upon Constantine`s death, Constantius received the entire eastern empire as his inheritance. Soon after he added Thrace to his empire and as his brothers were killed, he annexed their territories. When he defeated the Western usurper Magnentius he was master of the entire empire. Although he started campaigning along the Danube, war with Persia forced his return to the East. Shortly after, he received news that Julian II had been proclaimed Augustus against him. Constantius died on his way to fight this new usurper and Julian II became ruler of the Roman Empire.

Bronze AE 3, RIC 381, VF, Siscia, 1.925g, 17.88mm, 180o, 355 - 361 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M left, GSISL in ex;
Dumanyu2
MAntDeL14.jpg
Crawford 544/29, Marc Antony, for Legio XIV, Denarius, 32-31 BC.84 viewsMarc Antony, for Legio XIV (Gemina Martia Victrix), Patras mint (?), 32-31 BC.,
Denarius (16-17 mm / 3,63 g),
Obv.: above: [AN]T AVG , below: [III VI]R R P C , under oar right, filleted scepter or mast with fluttering banners on prow.
Rev.: LEG - XIV , Aquila (legionary eagle) between two military standards.
Crawf. 544/29 ; Bab. (Antonia) 123 ; BMC 208 ; Sear 369 ; Syd. 1234 .

Die Legio XIV wurde 41 v. Chr. von Augustus aufgestellt. Sie war seit 9 n. Chr. in Moguntiacum (Mainz) stationiert und kämpfte später unter Claudius in Britannien, wo sie 60 oder 61 n. Chr. half, Boudicca niederzuwerfen. Später war die Legion u. a. in Vindobona (Wien) und Carnuntum stationiert. Sie war an den Usurpationen des Saturninus und Regalianus beteiligt.

Legio XIV Gemina Martia Victrix was a legion of the Roman Empire, levied by Octavian after 41 BC. The cognomen Gemina (twin in Latin) suggests that the legion resulted from fusion of two previous ones, one of them possibly being the Fourteenth legion that fought in the Battle of Alesia. Martia Victrix (martial victory) were cognomens added by Nero following the victory over Boudica. The emblem of the legion was the Capricorn, as with many of the legions levied by Augustus.
Invasion of Britain
Stationed in Moguntiacum, Germania Superior, since AD 9, XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix was one of four legions used by Aulus Plautius and Claudius in the Roman invasion of Britain in 43, and took part in the defeat of Boudicca in 60 or 61. In 68 it was stationed in Gallia Narbonensis.
Rebellion on the Rhine
In 89 the governor of Germania Superior, Lucius Antonius Saturninus, rebelled against Domitian, with the support of the XIVth and of the XXI Rapax, but the revolt was suppressed.
Pannonian defense
When the XXIst legion was lost, in 92, XIIII Gemina was sent in Pannonia to substitute it, camping in Vindobona (Vienna). After a war with the Sarmatians and Trajan's Dacian Wars (101-106), the legion was moved to Carnuntum, where it stayed for three centuries. Some subunits of Fourteenth fought in the wars against the Mauri, under Antoninus Pius, and the legion participated to the Parthian campaign of Emperor Lucius Verus. During his war against the Marcomanni, Emperor Marcus Aurelius based his headquarters in Carnuntum.
In support of Septimius Severus
In 193, after the death of Pertinax, the commander of the Fourteenth, Septimius Severus, was acclaimed emperor by the Pannonian legions, and above all by his own. XIIII Gemina fought for its emperor in his march to Rome to attack usurper Didius Julianus (193), contributed to the defeat of the usurper Pescennius Niger (194), and probably fought in the Parthian campaign that ended with the sack of the capital of the empire, Ctesiphon (198).
In support of imperial candidates
In the turmoil following the defeat of Valerian, tXIIII Gemina supported usurper Regalianus against Emperor Gallienus (260), then Gallienus against Postumus of the Gallic empire (earning the title VI Pia VI Fidelis — "six times faithful, six times loyal"), and, after Gallienus death, Gallic Emperor Victorinus (269-271).
5th century
At the beginning of the 5th century, XIIII Gemina still stayed at Carnuntum. It probably dissolved with the collapse of the Danube frontier in 430s. The Notitia Dignitatum lists a Quartodecimani comitatensis unit under the Magister Militum per Thracias; it is possible that this unit is XIV Gemina.

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
s42.JPG
Crispus ALAMANNIA DEVICTA Sirmium39 viewsThe Alamanni were continually engaged in conflicts with the Roman Empire. They launched a major invasion of Gaul and northern Italy in 268, when the Romans were forced to denude much of their German frontier of troops in response to a massive invasion of the Goths. Their depredations in the three parts of Gaul remained traumatic: Gregory of Tours (died ca 594) mentions their destructive force at the time of Valerian and Gallienus (253–260), when the Alemanni assembled under their "king", whom he calls Chrocus, "by the advice, it is said, of his wicked mother, and overran the whole of the Gauls, and destroyed from their foundations all the temples which had been built in ancient times. And coming to Clermont he set on fire, overthrew and destroyed that shrine which they call Vasso Galatae in the Gallic tongue," martyring many Christians (Historia Francorum Book I.32–34). Thus 6th century Gallo-Romans of Gregory's class, surrounded by the ruins of Roman temples and public buildings, attributed the destruction they saw to the plundering raids of the Alemanni.

In the early summer of 268, the Emperor Gallienus halted their advance in Italy, but then had to deal with the Goths. When the Gothic campaign ended in Roman victory at the Battle of Naissus in September, Gallienus' successor Claudius II Gothicus turned north to deal with the Alamanni, who were swarming over all Italy north of the Po River.

After efforts to secure a peaceful withdrawal failed, Claudius forced the Alamanni to battle at the Battle of Lake Benacus in November. The Alamanni were routed, forced back into Germany, and did not threaten Roman territory for many years afterwards.

Their most famous battle against Rome took place in Argentoratum (Strasbourg), in 357, where they were defeated by Julian, later Emperor of Rome, and their king Chnodomar ("Chonodomarius") was taken prisoner.

On January 2, 366 the Alamanni crossed the frozen Rhine in large numbers, to invade the Gallic provinces.

In the great mixed invasion of 406, the Alamanni appear to have crossed the Rhine river, conquered and then settled what is today Alsace and a large part of Switzerland. Fredegar's Chronicle gives an account. At Alba Augusta (Aps) the devastation was so complete, that the Christian bishopric was removed to Viviers, but Gregory's account that at Mende in Lozère, also deep in the heart of Gaul, bishop Privatus was forced to sacrifice to idols in the very cave where he was later venerated may be a generic literary trope epitomizing the horrors of barbarian violence.

Sirmium RIC 49

Crispus AE3. 324-325 AD. FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate head right / ALAMANNIA DEVICTA, Victory advancing right, holding trophy & palm, treading upon bound captive on right, .SIRM. in ex.

need new pic
ecoli
DCLARA-1.jpg
Didia Clara, daughter of Didius Julianus, Augusta, 193 CE.308 viewsÆ sestertius (30.5 mm, 21.24 gm), Rome mint, struck April-June, 193 CE.
Obv: DIDIA CLARA AVG, Draped bust right, hair in bun behind.
Rev: HILAR TEMPOR SC (Legend worn). Hilaritas standing, head left, holding palm branch and cornucopia. RIC 20; BMC 38; Cohen 4; Sear 6087.
2 commentsEmpressCollector
00146-DidiusJulianus.JPG
Didius Julianus22 viewsDidius Julianus Denarius
18 mm 2.68 gm
O: IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG
Laureate bust right
R: CONCORD MILIT
Concordia standing facing, head left, holding vexillum and aquila
Koffy
Screen_Shot_2019-04-05_at_5_06_42_pm.png
Didius Julianus7 viewsSilver Denarius Rome 193 CE
Obverse: [IMP] CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG: Head of Didius Julianus, laureate, right
Reverse: CONCORD MILIT: Concordia, draped, standing front, head left, holding legionary eagle in right hand and vexillum in left hand
RIC 1
David M24
022~0.JPG
Didius Julianus AR Denarius73 viewsRIC IVa 3, RSC 15, BMC 7
2.81 g, 17 mm x 18 mm
IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG, laureate draped & cuirassed right
RECTOR ORBIS, Didius standing left, holding globe & roll
R3
2 commentsMark Z2
D2.jpg
Didius Julianus Sestertius54 viewsObverse:
Laureate head right - 'IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG'

Reverse:
Concordia standing left, holding two standards - 'CONCORDIA MILIT S-C'

Ref: RIC 14, Cohen 3, BMC 7

Notes:
Concord stands holding a legionary eagle and standard, in an ironic appeal to the troops for their loyalty that was doomed to failure. Struck during his brief reign, 28th March – 1st June AD193
Xerxes King of Kings
didius04.jpg
Didius Julianus Sestertius RECTOR ORBIS89 viewsDidius Julianus
AE sestertius.

OBV:IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right.
Rx: RECTOR ORBIS, Julianus standing left holding globe and roll, S C in fields (C double struck).
RCV 6077. 29mm, 18.1g.
Condition aF/VG
recycled picture.
2 commentscliff_marsland
Coin013_quad_sm.jpg
DN CONSTANTIVS PF AVG (the 2nd) / SPES REIPVBLICAE AE3/4 follis, Sirmium, 355-361 7 viewsDN CONSTAN-TIVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right/ SPES [REI - PVBLICAE], emperor helmeted, draped, cuirassed, standing left, holding globe in right hand and spear in left hand. -S- in the left field, [dot in the right field? all other examples of this type have it, but here it is difficult to say] Mintmark BSIRM in exergue.

AE3/4, 16mm, 1.43g, die axis 1h (slightly turned medal alignment), material: bronze/copper-based alloy

Seems RIC VIII Sirmium 86 (mint mark BSIRM and –S- in the left field are enough to narrow the search down even with unclear legends), but other similar types are 80 (with clear fields and the most common) and 82, 88, 90 (no idea what they are, cannot find examples or descriptions). Mint years are probably late, 355-361, because issued together with caesar Julian coins (Julian became caesar in 355).

DN = Dominus Noster = Our Lord, P F AVG = Pius Felix Augustus = the pius (dutiful) and fortunate (happy) emperor, SPES REIPVBLICAE = The hope of the Republic, officina #2 (beta) of SIRMium mint (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia).

CONSTANTIVS II, * 317 in Sirmium, Pannonia (Sremska Mitrovica, Serbia) † 3 November 361 (aged 44) in Mopsuestia, Cilicia (near Adana, southern Turkey) ‡ 13 November 324 – 22 May 337: Caesar under his father, Constantine I; 337 – 340: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constantine II and Constans; 340 – 350: co-Augustus (ruled Asian provinces & Egypt) with Constans; 350 – 3 November 361: mostly (see below) sole Augustus of the Roman Empire.

More biographical info in http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-147501
Yurii P
D591a.jpg
Domitian RIC-591115 viewsAR Denarius, 3.45g
Rome mint, 88 AD
Obv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P VII; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: IMP XV COS XIIII CENS P P P; Minerva adv r., with spear and shield (M1)
RIC 591 (R2). BMC 129. RSC 242. BNC 119.
Acquired from Praefectus Coins, April 2014.

88 was a busy year for Domitian. A war against the Dacians was being fought to avenge the defeat of Cornelius Fuscus (earlier in 86) by Domitian's legate Tettius Julianus, resulting in a victory at the Dacian capital of Tapae late in the year. Also, the Secular Games were held mid to late year and commemorated on the coinage after September. On 1 January 88 Domitian still held his 14th imperial acclamation, but soon he was to rack up three more by the year's end. This coin is dated by his 15th imperial acclamation, presumably from the Dacian campaign, awarded sometime in late summer just before the new title TR P VIII is recorded on the coinage in mid September. The issue this coin is from is quite rare, indicating a very small period of time it could have been struck.

A rare coin in excellent style and condition.
4 commentsDavid Atherton
EB0805_scaled.JPG
EB0805 Julian II / Wreath10 viewsJulian II 360-363, AE22,
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX within wreath. Mintmark CVZICA.
References: Cyzicus RIC 129.
Diameter: 22mm, Weight: 2.598g.
EB
EB0806_scaled.JPG
EB0806 Jupiter / Victory11 viewsTime of Julian II, AE 15, Antioch 360-363 AD.
Obverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter seated left on throne holding globe in right hand and scepter in left.
Reverse: VICTORIA AVGG, Victory standing left holding wreath and palm, ANT in ex.
References: C. 53, SEAR 4080.
Diameter: 15.5mm, Weight: 1.56g.
EB
EB0899_scaled.JPG
EB0899 Julian II / Bull10 viewsJulian II, AE 1, Arles 360-363 AD.
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, two stars above, in right field an eagle standing right on wreath, head left, holding wreath in beak. Mintmark PCONST.
References: RIC VIII Arles 318.
Diameter: 26.5mm, Weight: 6.501g.
1 commentsEB
forvpltft.jpg
FEL TEMP REPARATIO from the Forvm Catalog383 viewsRow 1 Fallen Horseman

Constantius II-Aquileia
Constantius II-Constantinople
Constantius II-Heraclea

Row 2Fallen Horseman

Constantius II-Arles
Constantius II-Thessalonica
Julian II-Sirmium
Julian II-Siscia
Constantius Gallus-Constantinople

Row 3 Barbarian Hut

Constans-Aquileia
Constans-Alexandria
Constantius II-Cyzicus

Row 4 Galley

Constantius II-Thessalonica
Constans-Siscia

Row 5 Galley

Constantius II-Thessalonica
Constantius II-Siscia
Constans-Siscia
Constans-Thessalonica

Row 6 Phoenix

Constantius II-Siscia
Constans-Siscia
2 commentsRandygeki(h2)
coin_6_quart.jpg
FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C (the 2nd) / GLORIA EXERCITVS AE4 follis (324-361 A.D.) 30 viewsFL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C, laureate, draped, cuirassed bust right / GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers facing each other, holding spears and shields, with one standard between them, large filled "dot" on banner. Mintmark: dot AQP in exergue.

AE4, 16+mm, 1.53g, die axis 6 (coin alignment), noticeable shift of the reverse die right, material: bronze/copper-based alloy

FL IVL = Flavius Iulius (the first names), NOB C = Nobilitas Caesar (title before becoming an Augustus, i. e. after he ascended as Caesar in 324, but before the death of his father in 337), Gloria Exercitus (noun + genitive) "The Glory of the Army" AQP = Aquileia mint, primary officina (workshop #1), issue mark "dot".

Mintmark dot AQP points to just one type, RIC VII Aquileia 145, and clears the possible misreading of the end of the obverse legend: it is indeed ...NOB C, not AVG. Strangely though the mint years listed are 337-361, after the ascension as Augustus. A clear example of this type can be seen at WildWinds, and features the same huge filled "dot" as in my coin: http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/ric/constantius_II/_aquileia_RIC_VII_145_P.jpg

There is also an example in this gallery with roughly the same obverse and reverse style:
http://www.forumancientcoins.com/gallery/displayimage.php?pos=-126821

Flavius Julius Constantius Augustus, born 7 August 317, was Roman Emperor from 337 to 361 (caesar to his father in 324-337). The middle and most successful son of Constantine I and Fausta, he ascended to the throne with his brothers Constantine II and Constans upon their father's death. In 340, Constantius' brothers clashed over the western provinces of the empire. The resulting conflict left Constantine II dead and Constans as ruler of the west until he was overthrown and assassinated in 350 by the usurper Magnentius. Unwilling to accept Magnentius as co-ruler, Constantius defeated him at the battles of Mursa Major and Mons Seleucus. Magnentius committed suicide after the latter battle, leaving Constantius as the sole ruler of the empire. His subsequent military campaigns against Germanic tribes were successful: he defeated the Alamanni in 354 and campaigned across the Danube against the Quadi and Sarmatians in 357. In contrast, the war in the east against the Sassanids continued with mixed results.

He was an Arian and clashed with his brother Constans (who was a devote Nicene Orthodox) over this. Subsequently he changed his position somewhat, trying to find a compromise between the two Christian denominations, and subscribed to a milder version of Arianism later known as "Semi-Arianism". In 351, due to the difficulty of managing the empire alone, Constantius elevated his cousin Constantius Gallus to the subordinate rank of Caesar, but had him executed three years later after receiving scathing reports of his violent and corrupt nature. Shortly thereafter, in 355, Constantius promoted his last surviving cousin, Gallus' younger half-brother, Julian, to the rank of Caesar. However, Julian claimed the rank of Augustus in 360, leading to war between the two. Ultimately, no battle was fought as Constantius became ill and died on 3 November 361, though not before naming Julian (of the apostasy infamy) as his successor.
Yurii P
Julian_II_RIC_106.JPG
Flavius Claudius Julianus II, 360 - 363 AD20 viewsObv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, rosette-diademed helmeted, cuirassed bust of Julian, holding a spear and a shield.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / XX in four line within a laurel wreath; (H)ERACL•A in exergue.

AE 3, Heraclea mint, 361 - 363 AD

3.5 grams, 20 mm, 180°

RIC VIII Heraclea 106
SPQR Coins
MISC_Ancona_grosso_Biaggi_34.jpg
Italian States: Ancona. Republic3 viewsBiaggi 34; CNI v. VIII, pp. 3-4, nos. 19-31, plate I/4-5

AR Grosso, struck ca. 13th-14th Century; 2.19 g., 21.77 mm. max.; 270°

Obv: + (star) DE ANCONA (star), cross pattée.

Rev: °• PP • S • QVI (star) – (trefoil) RI ACVS • (rosette) °, St. Judas Cyriacus (Quiriacus) standing facing, holding crozier and raising hand in benediction.

The reverse legend refers to Saint Judas Cyriacus (Quiriacus), patron Saint of Ancona. Local tradition claims that Cyriacus/Quiriacus was a Jew of Jerusalem who had a fateful meeting with the Roman empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, around 327 A.D. Helena was on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem when she encountered Cyriacus, who revealed to her the location of the True Cross upon which Christ was crucified. After guiding the empress to the holy relic, Cyriacus converted to Christianity and became Bishop of Jerusalem, only to suffer martyrdom years later under Julian the Apostate. The city of Ancona is said to have received his relics, minus his head, under empress Galla Placidia, around the middle of the fifth Century (his head is in the town of Provins, France, where it was brought from Jerusalem during the crusades). He has been the city’s patron Saint ever since.

During this period Ancona was an oligarchic republic, ruled by six elected Elders. In 1348, after the city was weakened by the black death and a fire, the Malatesta family took control.
Stkp
juliano-touro1.jpg
IVLIANVS II - RIC 12215 viewsNicomedia 361-362 A.D.
27 mm. 7.1g

RIC 122 Julian II AE1. DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG,
pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
SECVRITAS REI-PVB, Bull standing right, two stars above.
(branch)NIKB(branch) in ex.
xokleng
juliano-touro.png
Ivlianvs II - RIC VIII 22614 viewsTessalonica, 361-363 AD.
32 mm, 8.3g.
DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG
SECVRITAS REIPVB
(palm)*TESA. (palm) in ex.
xokleng
juliano-vot1.jpg
IVLIANVS II - RIC-?8 viewsJulian II . Helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield
VOT X MVLT XX within wreath
TIS(delta) in ex.
xokleng
Jovian_VOT_2b.jpg
Jovian * VOT V / X, Heraclea, 363-364 AD. Æ298 views
Jovian * VOT V MVLT X, Heraclea, Bronze

Obv: D N IOVIANVS PF AVG * Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust left.
Rev: VOT V MVLT X * Within bound laurel-wreath.

Exergue: HERAC B

Mint: Heraclea
Struck: 363-364 AD.

Size: 20.69 mm.
Weight: 3.48 grams
Die axis: 220°

Condition: Quite lovely and appealing coin. Very-nicely centered and confidently struck. Some very light but gentle wear, and two tiny spots of corrosion - one on each side respectively. Superb portrait of this briefly-empowered successor of Julian the Great.
Lovely dark-olive patina – near-black. That which suggests possible silvering on the obverse is not, but is merely some reflected light in the photograph.

Refs:*
RIC 111
LRBC 1913

Tiathena
Jovian.jpg
JovianAE follis, 363-364 AD. Heraclea20 views20 mm., 2.90g., 2400E

Emperor 363-364 AD. Elected Roman Emperor by the army upon the death of Julian II, Jovian reestablished Christianity as the official religion of the Empire.

Jovian AE3 Follis. 363-364 AD. DN IOVIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust left / VOT V . within wreath, mintmark HERACA. RIC VIII Heraclea 108; Sear 19218.
Antonivs Protti
Julian_Obv.JPG
Juilian II Obv16 viewsJulian II; AD 360-363
AE 3; 20mm/2.4g
OBV: DN FL CL IULIANUVS AVG; Helmeted, pearl diademed and cuirassed bust L, holding spear and shield
REV: VOT X MVLT XX; Laurel wreath surrounding lettering; palm branch- TES- palm branch; star in wreath at bottom
(Sear 4074, RIC 227 )
Philip G
Julian.jpg
Julian26 viewsAE Follis
Obv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB ; bull stg. r. , two stars above

This may represent the Bull of Aspis, a lost cult image of which was discovered during Julian's reign. This is the last pagan type on Roman coinage.
Tanit
Julian-.jpg
Julian22 viewsAE Follis
Obv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB ; bull stg. r. , two stars above

RIC VIII Cyzicus 127
1 commentsTanit
083.jpg
Julian , the Apostate40 viewsJulian as Caesar , 355-360 AD
AE4
Obv: DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Rev: SPES REIPVBLICE; Emperor stg. l., holding globe and spear
1 commentsTanit
106269.jpg
Julian 2nd31 viewsJULIAN II. 360-363 AD. AR Siliqua (17mm, 2.09 gm). Lugdunum mint. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / VOT / X / MVLTIS / XX, legend in three lines within wreath; PLVG. RIC VIII 233; RSC 146b. VF, lightly toned, two small flan cracks, light porosity.

From the Tony Hardy Collection.
TLP
julian_RIC8_Arles_274.jpg
Julian Caesar AE3, Fel Temp Horseman (RIC Arles 274)17 viewsArles mint, 3rd officina, 355-360. 17 mm, 2.19 g, 340º.

Obverse: D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES Bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust, looking right.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO Soldier standing left, right knee raised about to spear a fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards. M in center.

Exergue: (TCO)N

Reference: RIC VIII Arles 274.
Manuel
julian_caesar_spes_arles_279_var.jpg
Julian Caesar AE3, Spes Reipublice (RIC Arles 279 var)8 viewsObverse: D N IVLIANVVS NOB CAES Bare head, draped and cuirassed, looking right.
Reverse: SPES REIPVBLICE Emperor, in military garb, holding globe and reversed spear. VA in left field.

Arles mint, 3rd officina, 355-360.

16 mm, 1.59 g, 180º.

Reference: RIC VIII Arles 279 var (unlisted obverse break). Added to Wildwinds.
Manuel
julianI_5_2.JPG
Julian I of Pannonia RIC V, 5118 viewsJulian I of Pannonia, usurper 283-284
AE - Antoninianus, 3.48g, 21.43mm,
Siscia, 1st officina AD 283
obv. DN C M AVR IVLIANVS PF AVG
bust, draped and cuirassed, radiate, r.
rev. VICT - ORIA AVG
Victoria standing frontal, head l., holding wreath and palmbranch
in field: S - A
in exergue XXI
RIC V/2, 5; C.8
R3; good VF

The coins of Julian I of Pannonia are generally rare!
2 commentsJochen
Picture_264.jpg
Julian II10 viewsJulian II (AD 360-363), Siliqua Lugdunum, FL CL IVLIANVS PP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, rev VOTIS / V / MVLTIS / X within wreath, SLVG in exergue (RIC 227; C 163)simmurray
unknown_helmet.jpg
Julian II33 viewsCame stripped of patina in uncleaned lot

Julian II AE3
Tentatively attributed as RIC 329, Rome
Ob: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear
Rv: VOT X MVLT XX within wreath
Ex: VRB ROM, officina off flan
Scotvs Capitis
Julian3.jpg
Julian II43 viewsDN IVLIANVS NOB C
Bare head right

SPES REIPVBLICE
Emperor standing left holding globe and spear

ASIRM or BSIRM, no field marks
RIC VIII Sirmium 81

Sirmium Mint

Sold Forum Auctions
Titus Pullo
00440-JulianII.JPG
Julian II34 viewsJulian II AE1
28 mm 8.95 gm
O: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Diademed, draped, cuirassed bust of Julian II right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVB
Bull standing right, two stars above, *ASIRM and wreath in exergue
John Campbell
Julian_II_spes.jpg
Julian II88 viewsDN FL CL IVLI ANVS PF AVG
Pearl, Diad. draped cuirassed right

SPES REIPVBLICE
Emperor standing left holding globe and spear
SMK
Cyzicus mint
361-363 AD

Ric VIII Cyzicus 124
rare
This is the Wildwinds example!

Sold Forum Auctions
2 commentsTitus Pullo
julian2.jpg
Julian II38 viewsSpes Rei-Pvblice Tiberiusjulius
julian_I.jpg
JULIAN II56 viewsAE 1 (maiorina). 361-363 AD. 8.75 g, 12h. Sirmium ,1st officina. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right. D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG. / Bull standing right, two stars above. SECVRITAS REIPVB . ASIRM between star and palm in exergue. RIC VIII 107 ; LRBC 1622.
CNG photograph.
1 commentsbenito
00julian.jpg
JULIAN II43 viewsAR siliqua. Lugdunum 360-363 AD. 1,97 grs. Diademed,draped,and cuirassed bust right. FL CL IVLIANVS PP AUG. / Victory,wearing long dress,standing left,holding palm in left hand,wreath in raised right hand. VICTORIA DD NN AVG. In exergue LVG.
RIC 212. RSC 58 c.
New York sale XXV. Lot 279.
benito
00julianIIsiliq.jpg
JULIAN II18 viewsAR siliqua. Lugdunum 360-363 AD. 1,97 grs. Diademed,draped,and cuirassed bust right. FL CL IVLIANVS PP AUG. / Victory,wearing long dress,standing left,holding palm in left hand,wreath in raised right hand. VICTORIA DD NN AVG. In exergue LVG.
RIC 212. RSC 58 c.
New York sale XXV. Lot 279.
benito
00julianIIbull.jpg
JULIAN II29 viewsAE 1 (maiorina). 361-363 AD. 8.75 g, 12h. Sirmium ,1st officina. Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right. D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG. / Bull standing right, two stars above. SECVRITAS REIPVB . ASIRM between star and palm in exergue. RIC VIII 107 ; LRBC 1622.
benito
julian_II.jpg
Julian II61 viewsDN FL C IVLIANVS P F AVG
pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right

SECVRITAS REIPVB
bull standing right; palm branch-TESA-palm branch in ex.

8.37g

Thessalonica
360-363 A.D.

RIC 225

New Photo
1 commentsJay GT4
002~2.JPG
Julian II57 viewsJulian II AE 1. D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVB dot, bull standing right, two stars above; palm branch-CONSPA-palm branch.Constantinople
RIC 164

Much better and more green in hand but very glossy and difficult to photo.
4 commentsRandygeki(h2)
julianosiliqua.jpg
JULIAN II46 viewsAR siliqua. Lugdunum 361 AD. 1,72 grs. 6 h. Pearl-diademed,draped and cuirassed bust right. D N IVLIANVS AVG / VOT V MVLT X in four lines within wreath with medallion at top. LVG in exergue.
RIC 229. Bastien, Monnage de Lyon 272. Cohen -
benito
julianosiliqua~0.jpg
JULIAN II26 viewsAR siliqua. Lugdunum 361 AD. 1,72 grs. 6 h. Pearl-diademed,draped and cuirassed bust right. D N IVLIANVS AVG / VOT V MVLT X in four lines within wreath with medallion at top. LVG in exergue.
RIC - Cohen -
1 commentsbenito
JULIAN_II_SISCIA_399.JPG
Julian II39 viewsJulian II - Sisicia Mint - AE3/4 - RIC VIII 399

Obv: D N IVLIAN_VS NOB C, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Rev: SPES REI_PVBLICE, Emperor, helmeted and in military dress, standing left, holding globe in right hand and a spear in left, star in right field, ASIS in exergue

1.6g, 15.6mm, 180 degree die axis, 360-361AD


BiancasDad
JULIAN_II_BULL.JPG
Julian II49 viewsJulian II - Arles Mint - AE1 - RIC VIII 318,319,320?

O: D N FL CL IVLI_ANVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right

R: SECVRITAS REI PVB,Bull, head facing, standing right; two stars above; to right, eagle standing right on wreath, with head to left holding wreath in beak, [?]CONST[?] in exergue

7.2g, 27.0mm, 180 degree die axis, 361-363AD

Note: Unsure about legend break and mint mark
BiancasDad
julia2pek~0.jpg
JULIAN II15 viewsAE 3. Sirmium, 361-363 AD. 2,75 grs. 1 h. Pearl diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding shield and spear. DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG / VOT / X / MVLT / XX in four lines,all within wreath. BSIRM in exergue.
RIC 108. LRBC 1619.

benito
julia2pek.jpg
JULIAN II34 viewsAE 3. Sirmium, 361-363 AD. 2,75 grs. 1 h. Pearl diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding shield and spear. DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG / VOT / X / MVLT / XX in four lines,all within wreath. BSIRM in exergue.
RIC 108. LRBC 1619.
2 commentsbenito
coin3.jpg
Julian II10 viewsJulian II (AD 360-363), Siliqua Lugdunum, FL CL IVLIANVS PP AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right, rev VOTIS / V / MVLTIS / X within wreath, SLVG in exergue (RIC 227; C 163)simmurray
Julian_II.jpg
Julian II18 viewsObv: DNFLCLIVLI ANVSPFAVG Helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX within wreath, ASIRM in ex.
Id: Type: 61, Legend within Wreath "VOT", RIC 108 Sirmium
Size: 19.5mm, 2.93gm
Minted: Sirmium, 361-363AD
From un- cleaned lot summer 2010
ickster
m~16.PNG
Julian II5 viewsJulian II 335 360 AD AE4 15mm (Thickness 1mm) Weight ?

Obverse: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS NOB CS, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, Soldier standing left, right knee raised, spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards
discwizard
m~17.PNG
Julian II6 viewsJulian II 335 360 AD AE4 16mm (Thickness 1mm) Weight ?

Obverse: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS NOB CS, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right

Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, Soldier standing left, right knee raised, spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards.B in left field
discwizard
20171209_054045419_iOS.jpg
Julian II15 viewsMatthew H
julianii.jpg
Julian II11 views355-360 CE (Caesar)
360-363 CE (Augustus)

AE4 Arles

Obverse: DN IVLIAN-VS PF AVG
pearl-diadem, draped, cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE
Emperor helmeted, in military dress standing left, holding globe and spear with star above globe.

Weight: 1,8g
Length: 16mm

Mintmark: TCON
Pericles J2
JulianII.jpg
Julian II7 viewsex Harptree Hoard ex CNGarash p
julc.jpg
Julian II3 viewsAE 28 Jelian ii. Obverse; D D FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse; Bull standing right, two stars above, ANTB in exergue. RIC 216 Antioch 28.7mm 7.8g
NORMAN K
Julian_2a.JPG
Julian II 'The Philosopher' (as Augustus) 16 views361-363 AD
AE3 (20mm, 2.81g)
O: Diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield; D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG.
R: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; •-CONSPA-palm in ex.
Constantinople mint.
RIC VIII 167; Sear 4074v
ex Forvm Ancient Coins

"Let every man choose his own guardian and guide.“
~ Julian
Enodia
julianIIvotxmultxx-.jpg
JULIAN II AE3 - AD362-36316 viewsobv: DN.PL.CL.IVLIANVS.PF.AVG (helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield)
rev: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines across field within wreath / BSIRM
ref: RIC VIII-Sirmium108
3.04g, 19mm
berserker
JULIAN-3.jpg
Julian II RIC VIII 10823 viewsObv:DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
helmeted diademed bust left, cuirassed,
holding spear and shield
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX
VOT X MVLT XX within wreath
BSIRM in ex
20mm 2.4gm
OWL365
Julian_II.JPG
Julian II 'The Philosopher' (as Augustus)81 views361-363 AD
AE3 (19.8mm, 3.12g)
O: Diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding shield and spear; DN FL CL JVLIANVS AVG.
R: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; NIK[A] below.
Nicomedia mint, officina A.
RIC VIII Nicomedia, 123; ERIC II Julian 422; Elmer 132; Sear 4074v
Some smoothing, re-patinated.
ex Nemesis Ancients

"The end and aim of the Cynic philosophy, as indeed of every philosophy, is happiness, but happiness that consists in living according to nature, and not according to the opinions of the multitude. "
~ Julian
3 commentsEnodia
Julian.JPG
Julian II 'The Philosopher' (as Augustus) 33 views361-363 AD
AE Maiorina (29mm, 7.36g)
O: Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; DN F L CL IULIANVS P F AVG.
R: Bull standing right, two stars above; SECVRITAS REIPVB, TESΓ between two palm branches in exergue.
Thessalonica mint, 3rd Officina.
RIC VIII Thes 225; Sear 4072v

"So long as you are a slave to the opinions of the many you have not yet approached freedom or tasted its nectar… "
~ Julian
1 commentsEnodia
aJulian_II.JPG
Julian II 'The Philosopher' (as Augustus) 22 views361-363 AD
AE3 (20mm, 2.69g)
O: Diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield; D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG.
R: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; HERACLA below.
Heraclea mint.
RIC VIII 105; Sear 4074v
ex Auctiones GmbH

“Men should be taught and won over by reason, not by blows, insults, and corporal punishments.”
~ Julian
Enodia
Julian_Siscia.JPG
Julian II 'The Philosopher' (as Augustus)26 views361-363 AD
AE3 (19mm, 2.65g)
O: Diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding shield and spear; DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG.
R: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; BSISC· below.
Siscia mint
RIC VIII 421; Sear 4074v
ex Munzen Sann

“Are you not aware that all offerings whether great or small that are brought to the gods with piety have equal value, whereas without piety, I will not say hecatombs, but, by the gods, even the Olympian sacrifice of a thousand oxen is merely empty expenditure and nothing else?”
~ Julian
1 commentsEnodia
apostate.jpg
Julian II "The Apostate"13 viewsA bronze coin of Julian II. Minted in Sirmium between 355-360 AD

Obverse: D N IVLIA-NVS NOB CAES, cuirassed bust right

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, M in left field, ASIRM* in ex

Attribution: RIC VIII 78
chuy1530
83189q00.jpg
Julian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D102 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D
Bronze AE 1 . Arles mint, 360 - 363 A.D .
Obverse : D N FL CL IVLIA-NVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right .
Reverse : SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, two stars above; lower right, eagle standing on wreath, another wreath in beak, TCONST• in ex .
RIC VIII 322
Ex FORUM
Vladislavs D
70757q00.jpg
Julian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.8 viewsJulian II "the Apostate," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.
11th officina, Antioch mint. 1.964g ,15.0mm . die axis 315o, as Caesar 355 - Feb 360 A.D.
Obverse: D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES, draped and cuirassed bust right .
Reverse: FEL TEMP - REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, ANAI in exergue .
RIC VIII Antioch 189
From the Butte College Foundation, Ex Lindgren , Ex FORUM
Vladislav D
Julian_II_Antioch.JPG
Julian II "The Philosopher" (as Augustus)35 views361-363 AD
AE3 (18mm, 2.32g)
O: Helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield; D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG.
R: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; palm branch ANTB [palm branch] below.
Antioch mint
RIC VIII Antioch 219; Sear 4074v
ex Andre Cichos

Julian anticipated a successful trip to Antioch, but his experience there was a disappointment to him. The people chided him for his appearance, causing him to write ‘The Misopogon’ (or ‘Beard Hater’), a satire on himself but also a scathing indictment of the people of Antioch, whom he considered soft and degenerate, and wrote mockingly… “I say that you are liars and dancers, well skilled to dance in a chorus".
The relationship declined even more after the locals burned the temple of Apollo at Daphne, and further still after Julian’s efforts to make economic reforms designed to end government corruption and ease famine in the city caused by years of drought.
Julian finally left Antioch to march east and fulfill his plan to conquer Persia, but met his death in the attempt. Some say that the spearhead removed from his liver was actually Roman, but we will probably never know for certain.
1 commentsEnodia
julian_II.jpg
Julian II (360 – 363 A.D.)29 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC -, LRBC -, gVF, 3.729g, 18.9mm, 0o, Heraclea mint, 361 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield; reverse VOT X MVLT XX in wreath .mestreaudi
julian-ii-wreath-sirmium.jpg
Julian II (361-363 AD) AE 2, Sirmium mint9 viewsRoman Imperial, Julian II (361-363 AD) AE 2, Sirmium mint

Obverse: DN FL CL IVL-ANVS PF AVG, Helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield.

Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX within wreath; Mintmark: BSIRM

Reference: RIC VIII Sirmium 108, LRBC 1619.
Gil-galad
julianIIspes-.jpg
JULIAN II (as Caesar) AE3 - AD350-35419 viewsobv: D N IVLIANVS NOB C (bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: SPER.REI-PVBLICE / ASIRM (emperor standing left, helmeted and in military dress, holding globe & spear)
ref: RIC VIII-Sirmium81, C.41
1.52g, 17mm
berserker
00135.jpg
Julian II (RIC 108, Coin #135)7 viewsRIC 108, AE3, Sirmium, 361-363 AD.
Obv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG Hlemeted bust left holding spear and shield.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX (BSIRM) Text within wreath.
Size: 19.8mm 3.74gm
MaynardGee
00369.jpg
Julian II (RIC 108, Coin #369)16 viewsRIC 108, AE3, Sirmium, 360-363 AD.
Obv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, helmted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX (ASIRM) Legend within laurel wreath.
Size: 19.2mm 3.16gm
MaynardGee
00494.jpg
Julian II (RIC 216, Coin #494)18 views
Julian II, RIC 216, AE Maiorina, Antioch, 361 - 363 AD.
Obv: D N F L CL IVLIANVS P F AVG Pearl-diademed, draped and
cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB (ANTA) Bull standing right, two stars above.
Size: 28.6mm 7.86gm


MaynardGee
00765.jpg
Julian II (RIC 295, Coin #765)20 viewsRIC 295, AR Siliqua, Arles, 360 - 363 AD
OBV: D N IVLIANVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
REV: VOTIS V MVLTIS X (TCON), Four lines of text in a wreath.
SIZE: 17.8mm, 1.76g
MaynardGee
Julianus_AE3_Arles.JPG
Julian II (the apostate) AE3. 15 viewsDN IVLIAN-VS NOB CAES bust left / FEL TEMP R-EPARATIO, emperor spearing fallen horseman who is wearing Phrygian helmet and reaching backwards, M in center, PCON or TCON in ex. Arles
RIC 271
Antonivs Protti
267 Julian Apostate.jpg
Julian II (the Apostate) RIC VIII 105, Heraclea25 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Bust: Helmeted and cuirassed bust left, spear in right hand and shield in left.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX
4 lines within laurel wreath
Exe: HERACLA
Date: 361-363 AD
Denom: Ae3
Rated "S"
Bluefish
315 Jullian II.jpg
Julian II (The Apostate), RIC VIII 385, Siscia26 viewsObv: DN IVLIANVS NOB C
Bust: Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing fallen horseman. FH3 - Reaching
Exe: Delat SIS. "L" in field left
Date: 355-360 AD
Denom: Ae3
Ref: RIC VIII 385
Rated "S"
Bluefish
JulianII_Bull~2.jpg
Julian II - 355-363 AD AE3 Apis Bull91 views
JULIAN II. 361-363 AD. Æ 28mm * Constantinople mint.

Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB., bull standing right, two stars above; .CONSP(delta)(palm).

Patina: Dark brown

Size: 28mm
Weight: (8.55 gm).

RIC VIII 162; LRBC 2058.

“In the spring of 360, Julian's troops rose in revolt against Constantius, and Julian II was proclaimed as Augustus. The depiction of the bull is well understood. Julian II often slaughtered bulls to Mars, the Roman god of war.

"..On 4 May 360, Venus joined Mars to form a single star between the horns of Taurus, the Bull, as the constellation set in the western sky. Two weeks earlier, Mars was between the horns, and Venus rested on the shoulder of the bull. There can be little doubt that this planetary conjunction, or grouping, is shown on this coin.”
Tiathena
Julianus_II_SMTS_E.jpg
Julian II - AE 39 viewsThessalonica
6.11.355 - February 360 AD
bare draped and cuirassed bust right
D N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
soldier spearing falling horseman (phrygian helmet)
FEL TEMP__REPARATIO
E
SMTS
unlisted in RIC (only Constantius Gallus with this reverse - Thessalonica 190)
2,20g

one is in Helvetica's collection
Johny SYSEL
IIII_Julian_II_BSIRM.jpg
Julian II - AE 37 viewsSirmium
6.11.355 - II 360
draped and cuirassed bust right
D N IVLIA_NVS NOB C
Julian II facing, head left, holding globe and spear
SPES REI_PVBLICE
BSIRM
RIC VIII Sirmium 81
1,68g
Johny SYSEL
Julian_II_360_-_363_AD.jpg
Julian II 360 - 363 AD29 viewsBronze AE 3 (20 mm) 3.4 gram coin
Obverse: Bust Left
Reverse: VOT X MVLTXX in wreath_20.00
Heraclea
RIC 106 Julian II AE3 20mm. D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted bust left, with spear and shield / VOT X MVLT XX, legend in four lines within wreath, HERACL-dot-A. LRBC 1909.
Antonivs Protti
Julian_II_Soberb.JPG
Julian II 360 - 363 AD. Heraclea11 viewsBronze AE 3 (20 mm) 3.4 gram coin _20.00
Heraclea
RIC 106 Julian II AE3 20mm. D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted bust left, with spear and shield / VOT X MVLT XX, legend in four lines within wreath, HERACL-dot-A. LRBC 1909.
Antonivs Protti
Julian_C38.jpg
Julian II AE 1 AD360-AD36353 viewsDie axis 180 degrees
Cyzicus mint
Sear 3972
My First Ancient Coin
Paul D3
roman.jpg
Julian II AE Double Maiorina29 views361-363 AD. Sirmium mint.
Obv.: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG - Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian II.
Rev.: SECVRITAS REI PVB - Bull right, 2 stars above.
RIC 106.
Minos
093C.jpg
Julian II AE Maiorina89 viewsRIC VIII 216 Antioch, LRBC 2640
28 mm, 5.58 gm
DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuir. bust r.
SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, two stars above
Palm branch-ANTD-palm branch in exergue
5 commentsMark Z2
julian_II_01.jpg
Julian II AE122 viewsObv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG - Bearded, pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB - Bull standing right, two stars above; in right field, eagle standing right on wreath, head up, holding wreath in beak; SCONST• in exergue.
Mint: Arles
Date: 360 - 363 AD
Ref: RIC VIII 320
Notes: Rare.
oa
julianII AE1-2.jpg
JULIAN II AE1 (double majorina) AD360-36326 viewsobv: D.N.FL.CL.IVLIANVS.PF.AVG (diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right)
rev: SECVRITAS.REIPVB / ASIRM (Apis Bull standing right, two stars above)
ref: RIC VIII-Sirmium107
6.22gms, 28mm

Julian came to power in 360 CE in a revolt against Constantius II and tried to reinstate pagan gods. Julian would certainly be looking for a heavenly sign to offset the Christian vision of Constantius' father, Constantine the Great. This event materialized on May 4, 360 as Mars and Venus occulted, thus forming one very bright star. This occultation happened to occur in the constellation of Taurus directly between the horns. Two weeks prior to the occultation, the planets were in the exact location indicated on the coin. This was probably the last coin minted by the Romans that had an astrological base.
berserker
julianII AE1-.jpg
JULIAN II AE1 AD360-36347 viewsobv: D.N.FL.CL.IVLIANVS.PF.AVG (bearded, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right)
ref: SECVRITAS.REIPVB / PCONST (bull standing right, two stars above. In right field: eagle standing right on wreath, head up, holding wreath in beak)
rev: RIC VIII-Arles320 (R)
7.88g, 26mm
Rare
berserker
Julian_II_5__opt.jpg
JULIAN II AE2, RIC 127, Apis Bull11 viewsOBV: D N FL CL IVL-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: SECVRITAS REIPVB Bull, two stars above, CYZB in exergue


Minted at Cyzicus, 361-363 AD
Legatus
jullian_II.jpg
Julian II AE321 viewsJulian II AE3 "Vows X Mult XX" SCARCE Julian II AD 355-363 AE3
Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-NVS P F AVG - Helmeted and diademed bust left,
cuirassed holding spear and shield. Rev: VOT X MVLT XX - Within wreath.
Exe: (branch) CONSP (gamma) (branch) Constantinople mint: AD 361-363 =
RIC VIII, 166 (s) Scarce, page 463 - LRBC #2060/ 2.82 g.
Britanikus
Julian_II.jpg
Julian II AE3 A.D. 361-363 RIC 108, Sear (1988 edition) 407425 viewsDN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted diademed bust left, cuirassed, holding spear and shield. / VOT X MVLT XX, in four lines surrounded by wreath, in ex HSIRM, Mint of Sirmium, Yugoslavia.
Maximum Diameter: 20.5 mm
Weight: 3.01 g
TheEmpireNeverEnded
Julian-II-ric-arles-268.jpg
Julian II AE3 as Caesar - Fallen Horseman16 viewsRoman Imperial, Julian II AE3, Arles mint, (360-363 AD), 1.9g, 17mm

Obverse: DN IVLIAN-VS NOB CAES, Bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, Soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a helmet, reaching backwards. Mintmark: TCON "Restoration of Happy Times"

Reference: RIC VIII Arles 268
Gil-galad
julian-ii-reshoot.jpg
Julian II AE3 as Caesar - Fallen Horseman13 viewsRoman Imperial, Julian II AE3, (355-361 AD)

Obverse: DN IVLIA-NVS NOB C, Bare-headed draped & cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, Soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman who is bare-headed, reaching backwards. BSIRM• in ex. "Restoration of Happy Times"

Reference: RIC Sirmium 70
Gil-galad
Julian_II_3~0.jpg
JULIAN II AE3 RIC 200, FELTEMP-REPARATIO25 viewsOBV: FL C L IVLIANVS NOB C, bare-headed, draped & cuirassed bust right, M behind bust
REV: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman wearing pointed cap & reaching backwards, MSLG in ex.


Minted at Lyons, 360-3 AD
Legatus
Julian_II_2_opt.jpg
JULIAN II AE3 RIC 382, FELTEMP-REPARATIO18 viewsOBV: D N IVLIA-NVS NOB C, draped & cuirassed bust right
REV: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman who is wearing a Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards, M to left, DSISL in ex
1.9g, 16mm

Minted at Siscia, 351-4 AD
Legatus
julian-ii-wreath-reshoot.jpg
Julian II AE3, 361-363 AD15 viewsRoman Imperial, Julian II AE3, (361-363 AD), 2.4g, 18.5mm

Obverse: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear.

Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex. "Vow ten years service, total of twenty years.

Reference: RIC Siscia 415
Gil-galad
Julian_II_1_opt.jpg
JULIAN II AE3, RIC 106, Vota13 viewsOBV: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted bust left, with spear and shield
REV: VOT X MVLT XX, legend in four lines within wreath, HERACL-dot-A
2.4g, 20mm

Minted at Heraclea, 361-3 AD
Legatus
Julian_II_5_opt.jpg
JULIAN II AE3, RIC 130, Vota21 viewsOBV: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear in right hand and shield in left hand
REV: VOT / X / MVLT / XX , XX in four lines within wreath. Mintmark: CVZ Gamma


Minted at Cyzicus, 161-3 AD
Legatus
9 +.jpg
Julian II AE436 viewsAE4
Obv: DN IVLIANVS NOB C
Rev: SPES REIPVBLICAE; Emperorstg. l., holding globe and spear
2 commentsTanit
20171102_135730.jpg
JULIAN II APOSTATE (360-363). Follis. Thessalonica.34 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG.
Diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX / TESA.
Legend in four lines within wreath.
RIC 227.
Condition: Very fine.
Weight: 2.58 g.
Diameter: 20 mm.
Canaan
julian-ii-spes-forvm.jpg
Julian II as Caesar, AE3, Constantinopolis mint. 355-361 AD16 viewsRoman Imperial, Julian II as Caesar, AE3, Constantinopolis mint, (355-361 AD), 1.839g, 15.00mm, die axis 180o

Obverse: DN CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES, Bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: SPES REI-PVBLICE, Julian standing left, helmeted, in military dress, holding globe and spear. Mintmark CONSS. "Hope of the Republic"

Reference: RIC VIII Constantinopolis 150

Ex: Forum Ancient Coins +photo
Gil-galad
Julian_II_Bull~0.JPG
Julian II Bull14 viewsJulian II, the apostate, 360 - 363 AD (struck 361 - 363), Heraclea, 27.4mm, 8.55g
OBV: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, curaissed bust right, bearded
REV: SECVRITAS REIPBVB, bull of Apis standing right, two stars above, SMHA in exergue
The last pagan emperor of Rome
RIC 101

RARE
Romanorvm
julian_fh.jpg
Julian II Caesar, 355-36014 viewsAE3, 19mm, 3.1g, 9h; Aquileia mint, AD 355-361.
Obv.: DN IVLIANVS NOB C; Draped and cuirassed bust right, M behind.
Rev.: FEL TEMP REPARATIO; Helmeted soldier on left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground at right. Horseman turns to face soldier and raises left arm; he is bare-headed // dot AQT palm
Reference: RIC VIII Aquileia 225 (p.336).
Notes: eBay sale 5/31/15, biggyg2, 21.
John Anthony
coin973.JPG
Julian II Fel Temp Cyzicus8 viewsJulian II

DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS NOB CS
FEL TEMP-REPARATIO

No mint mark visible

Cyzikus 116
ecoli
Julian_II_FT_Rome.JPG
Julian II FT Rome15 viewsROMAN Imperial - Rome Mint
Julian II - The Apostate (332-363 AD)
RIC VIII Rome 311, S = scarce; AE3, 17.1 mm, 2.33 g; Obverse: DN CL IVL-IANVS N C, bare-headed, cuirassed; Rev: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO.
Horseman bare-headed,, reaching; Ex: R wreath S

Julian II, known as "the Apostate" for his attempts to revive the ancient polythestic worship of
the Roman gods.

SCARCE due to the mintmark of R wreath S.
Romanorvm
julian_bull_imitative_com.JPG
Julian II imitative of RIC VIII Antioch 217 21 viewsAE 23 mm 3.3 grams 361-363 AD
OBV :: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG. ROSETTE diadem, draped and cuirassed, bearded bust right
REV :: SECVRITAS REIPVB. Bull standing right, 2 stars above
EX :: palm branch ANT gamma palm branch
imitative of RIC VIII Antioch 217
from uncleaned lot 06/2008
Johnny
Julian_II_3.jpg
JULIAN II Majorina, RIC VIII 164, Apis Bull32 viewsOBV: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV: SECVRITAS REIPVB• dot, bull right, two stars above, •palm branch-CONSPA-palm branch in ex.
7.95g, 29.48mm

Minted at Constantinople, 3 Nov 361 - 26 June 363 A.D
Legatus
Julian_II_or_Constantius_II_SPES_REI-PVBLICE.JPG
Julian II or Constantius II SPES REI_PVBLICE23 views1.3g and 15mm

Difficult to determine between Julian II and Constantius II as Augustus. The bust is diademed so it is a bust as Augustus. PF are the only identifiable letters on the righ obverse. Mint is unknown.
Romanorvm
Julian_Rev.JPG
Julian II Rev14 viewsJulian II; AD 360-363
AE 3; 20mm/2.4g
OBV: DN FL CL IULIANUVS AVG; Helmeted, pearl diademed and cuirassed bust L, holding spear and shield
REV: VOT X MVLT XX; Laurel wreath surrounding lettering; palm branch- TES- palm branch; star in wreath at bottom
(Sear 4074, RIC 227 )
Philip G
j370.jpg
Julian II RIC 370 Siscia, 355-360 CE13 viewsObverse: DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman who is wearing Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards, M to left, DSIS-Zigzag in ex
RIC VIII Siscia 370, 20.2 mm., 2.4 g.
NORMAN K
JULIAN-1.jpg
Julian II RIC VIII 10521 viewsObv:DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
helmeted diademed bust left, cuirassed,
holding spear and shield
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX
VOT X MVLT XX within wreath
HERACLA in ex
20mm 3.7gm
OWL365
Julian_II_Antioch_RIC_VIII_219.jpg
Julian II RIC VIII 21920 viewsObv: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX, within wreath. Mintmark palm branch ANTΔ palm branch
Mint Antioch 361-363 AD
Weight: 3.43 g. Diameter: 17 mm
Ids: RIC VIII Antioch 219
ickster
JULIAN-2.jpg
Julian II RIC VIII 36378 viewsObv:DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
bare-headed, draped and cuirassed
bust right
Rev: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO
soldier spearing fallen horseman,
reaching backwards
Delta SIS Zigzag in ex
19mm 2.6gm
OWL365
Julian_II.jpg
Julian II RIC VIII Heraclea 10625 viewsAE 3
obv. D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG
helmeted bust left, with spear and shield
rv.VOT/X/MVLT/XX
legend in four lines within wreath
ex. HERACL•A
mint Heraclea
Struck circa 361-363 AD
Holger G
julianII_arles_309_3.jpg
Julian II RIC VIII, Arles 30945 viewsJulian II the philosopher, 361 - 363, nephew of Constantin I
AR - Siliqua, 1.99g, 16mm
Constantia (Arles) 3. officina, 361 - 363
obv. DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS PF AVG
draped, cuirassed bust, pearl-diademed head r.
rev. VOT/X/MVLT/XX
in laurel-wreath, above medaillon with eagle r.
exergue: TCONST
RIC VIII, Arles 309; C.198
VF
Jochen
JulianGloria.JPG
Julian II solidus118 viewsObserve: D.N. IVLINVS NOB. CAES.
Reverse: GLORIA REI PUBLICAE.
Mint: SMANZ
Weight: 4,4 gr.
4 commentsCorduba
Jullian_bull.jpg
Julian II the Philosopher75 viewsD N FL CL IVLIANVS
draped and cuirassed bust of Julian right

SECURITAS REIPVB
bull walking right, two stars above, CYZA in exergue

AE1 7.73g

RIC VIII, 127
LRBC 2511

Ex-Calgary Coin

SOLD!
1 commentsJay GT4
Julian_II_Spes_Reipvblice.JPG
Julian II unlisted variation?21 viewsAD 355-361
DN IVLIAN-VS NOB C
SPES REIPVBLICE
(DELTA?)SISV
SISCIA
RICVII SISCIA 404
Variation: dots in right and left fields
JRoME
Julian_Cyzicus.JPG
Julian II “The Philosopher” (as Augustus)17 views361-363 AD
AE3 (17mm, 2.16g)
O: Pearl diademed. draped and cuirassed bust right; DN FL CL IVLI ANVS PF AVG.
R: Emperor standing left holding globe and spear; SPES REIPVBLICE, SMKΓ in ex.
Cyzicus mint.
Ric VIII Cyzicus 124
From the J. Grande collection

"Choose your friends, then treat them as friends; do not regard them like slaves or servants, but associate with them frankly and simply and generously; not saying one thing of them and thinking something else.”
~ Julian
1 commentsEnodia
Julian_FTR.JPG
Julian II “The Philosopher” (as Caesar)30 views355-360 AD
AE3 (18mm, 2.68g)
O: Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right; D N IVLIANVS NOB C.
R: Soldier spearing fallen horseman; FEL TEMP REPARATIO, M in left field, ∆SISL in ex.
Siscia mint, 4th Officina
RIC VIII Siscia 382; Sear 4063v
ex Forvm Ancient Coins

Nothing says "Happy Days" quite like spearing a man while he's down.
Enodia
Julian_Sirmium.JPG
Julian II “The Philosopher” (as Caesar)21 views355-360 AD
AE3 (16mm, 1.98g)
O: Bare head right; DN IVLIANVS NOB C.
R: Emperor standing left, holding globe and spear; SPES REIPVBLICE, [B]SIRM in ex.
Sirmium mint.
RIC VIII Sirmium 81; Sear 4064
From the J. Grande collection

2 commentsEnodia
Julian_II_Vows~0.jpg
Julian II, 355-363 AD AE3 * Vows173 views
Julian II*, 355-363 AD AE3 * Scarce
"Vows X Mult XX"

Obv: FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG - Helmeted, diademed bust left, cuirassed holding spear and shield.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX – ("I promise ten years and perhaps twenty." Obv: D N) Within wreath on four lines.

Exe: HERACL . A

Mint: Heraclea
Struck: Between November 3rd 361 and June 26th 363 AD.
Workshop A

Size: (c) 20mm
Weight: 2.95 grams

Patina: Very dark green, near-black: beautiful.
Grade: VF

RIC VIII, 106. Scarce, page 438
- LRBC #1908.3.55g

* Conqueror

6 commentsTiathena
Julian_Vot.jpg
Julian II, 360-36312 viewsAE3, 21mm, 2.6g, 12h; Heraclea mint: 361-363
Obv.: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG; helmeted, cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield.
Rev.: VOT / X / MVLT / XX - Legend within wreath // HERACLA
Reference: RIC VIII Heraclea 105 (p. 438)
Notes: eBay sale, 2013, sjb, 12.
John Anthony
Julian centenionalis, 361-363 AD, Antioch.JPG
Julian II, 361-363 AD, Antioch27 viewsJulian II,
AE2 – 27mm
Antioch, 361-363 AD
bearded, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed bust r.
DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG
Bull standing right, 2 stars above to right
SECVRITAS REIPVB
palm branch ANTA palm branch in ex.
RIC 216
C
Ardatirion
ARI-Julian_II-3.jpg
Julian II, AD 355 – 36313 viewsAR Siliqua, Arles, RIC263

Grade XF Strike: 4/5 Surface: 4/5

Obv: DN IVLIAN-VS NOB CAES, pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right

Rev: VOTIS V MVLTIS X within wreath

Julian (Flavius Claudius Iulianus Augustus), also known as Julian the Apostate, was Roman Emperor from 361 to 363, as well as a notable philosopher and author in Greek

My cost was $138
Richard M10
julian_bull_k.jpg
Julian II, AD 355-3636 viewsÆ28, 7.4g, 6h; Arles mint, AD 360-363
Obv.: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG; Diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: SECVRITAS REIPVB; Bull standing right, two stars above, eagle to right, standing right on wreath, holding another wreath in its beak // SCONST
Reference: RIC VIII Arles 319, p. 229 / 16-326-89
John Anthony
0690-310np_noir.jpg
Julian II, AE 1 - *151 viewsDouble Maiorina struck in Antioch, 3 rd officina
D N FL CL IVLI ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julianus right
SECURITAS REIPUB, Bull to right, two stars above. ANT gamma between two branches at exergue
8.73 gr
Ref : Cohen #38, RC #4072, LRBC #2641
1 commentsPotator II
20170522_124023[1].jpg
Julian II, AE, Rome.18 viewsObv. DN CL IVL-IANVS NC, bare-headed, cuirassed bust right.
Rev. SPES REI-PVBLICE: Emperor helmeted, in military dress standing left holding globe and spear.
Mintmark: R wreath Epsilon (R2) or R wreath S (Scarce).
References: RIC VIII Rome 319 or RIC VIII Rome 321.
14mm and 1.93 grams.
2 commentsCanaan
4941_4942.jpg
Julian II, AE1, SECVRITAS REIPVB2 viewsAE1
Julian II
Caesar: 355 - 360AD
Augustus: 360 - 363AD
Issued: November, 361 - June, 363AD
28.5 x 27.5mm
O: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG; Diademed (pearls), cuirassed bust, right.
R: SECVRITAS REIPVB; Bull standing right, two stars above.
Exergue: CVZB
Cyzicus Mint
Aorta: 198: B6, O5, R9, T1, M6.
bronzemat
9/5/14 2/3/17
Nicholas Z
4945_4946.jpg
Julian II, AE3, NO LEGEND, Wreath VOT/X/MVLT/XX, within.5 viewsAE3
Julian II
Caesar: 355 - 360AD
Augustus: 360 - 363AD
Issued: November, 361 - January, 363AD
20.0 x 19.0mm 2.78gr
O: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG; Helmeted, diademed and cuirassed bust, left, holding spear and shield.
R: NO LEGEND; Wreath, VOT/X/MVLT/XX, within.
Exergue: (Palm)ALEB(Palm)
Alexandria Mint
Aorta: 373: B11, O5, R30, T39, M1.
RIC VII Alexandria 92; LRBC 2854.
Musa Numismatic Art ANA Annual Show, Chicago, August, 2013
2/3/17
Nicholas Z
5413_5414.jpg
Julian II, AE4, SPES REIPVBLICE6 viewsAE4
Julian II
Caesar: 355 - 360AD
Augustus: 360 - 363AD
Issued: 355 - 360AD
17.0 x 16.0 2.30gr
O: DN IVLIAN-VS NOB CAES; Bare headed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
R: SPES REI-PVBLICE; Julian standing left, in military dress, holding globe and scepter.
Exergue: TCON
Arelate Mint
RIC VIII 276
Aorta: B4, O9, R10, T7, M4.
lucernae
9/13/17 10/10/17
Nicholas Z
julian.jpg
Julian II, AE4. AD 355-360 16 viewsObv: DN IVLIANVS-NOB CAES, bare-headed, draped, cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SPES REI-PVBLICE, Emperor helmeted, in military dress standing left, holding globe and spear.
ancientone
JULIAN-2-ROMAN.jpg
Julian II, Cyzicus RIC VIII-11611 viewsAE3
Cyzicus mint, 355-361 A.D.
17mm, 2.45g
RIC VIII-116

Obverse:
D N FL CL IVLIANVS NOB CS
Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
FEL TEMP REPARATIO
.M. in field
SMKΔ
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground at right. Horseman, beardless and wearing pointed cap, turns to face soldier and raises right arm.
Will J
31842_0.jpg
Julian II, Double centenionalis, AD 361-363.11 viewsAntioch mint, (26mm., 9.16g.) Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust r. Rev. Bull standing r.; above, two stars. In exergue, palmette ΑΝΤΔ palmette. C 38. RIC 216.Ruslan K
imgonline-com-ua-2to1-6Sf0Fi1uAAz7.jpg
Julian II, Double Centenionalis, AD 361-363.5 viewsNicomedia mint, ( 9,0 g; 26 mm), Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / Bull standing right; two stars above; (palm)NIKA•(palm). RIC VIII 122.Ruslan K
ju113.jpg
Julian II, RIC 113 Nicomedia, 355-360 CE 10 viewsJulian II "the Apostate,"
Bronze AE 4
Obverse: D N IVLA-NVS NOB CAESAR, bare-headed draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: SPES REPVBLICAE, Emperor standing left in military dress holding a globe and spear. 15.5 mm., 2.4 g.
NORMAN K
ju378a.jpg
Julian II, RIC 378 Siscia, 355-360 CE 13 viewsJulian II, AE 18mm, Siscia.
Obverse: DN IVLIAN-VS NOB C, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Reverse: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier standing left, spearing fallen horseman who is wearing Phrygian helmet, reaching backwards, M to left
DSISL in ex. RIC VIII Siscia 378, 18.3 mm., 2.1 g.
sold 4-2018
NORMAN K
jricviii119OR.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII (Nicomedia) 11918 viewsNicomedia mint, Julian II, A.D. AE, 27mm 7.16g, RIC VIII (Nicomedia) 119
O: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right
R: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above
Ex: palm branch-SMNB-palm branch

casata137ec
jiiricviiicon166.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII 166 (Constantinople)56 viewsConstantinople mint, Julian II 361-363 A.D. AE, 19.5mm 3.28g, RIC VIII 166 (Constantinople)
O: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left with shield
R: VOT X MVLT XX, four lines in laurel wreath
Ex: palm branch-CONSPA-palm branch
1 commentscasata137ec
j2ricviiisir70OR.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII Sirmium 7048 viewsSirmium mint, Julian II, 360-363 A.D. AE, 16mm 2.05g, RIC VIII Sirmium 70
O: DN IVLIA-NVS NOB C, bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed, bust r.
R: FEL TEMP-REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen, bare headed, horseman
Ex: BSIRM dot
casata137ec
julianII_arles_RIC318.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII, Arles 31825 viewsJulian II, Apostata, 361-363, nephew of Constantine I
AE 1 (Double Maiorina), 27.5mm, 8.8g
Constantia (Arles), 1st officina, spring 360-26. june 363, 2nd group
obv. DN FL CL JVLI - ANVS PF AV
Bust, bearded, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
rev. Bull, stg. r., head facing, 2 stars above; eagle stg. on wreath r., head l., another wreath in beak, before him
in ex. PCONST
RIC VIII, Arles 318; LRBC 468
R!, VF
Thanks to Salem!

Notify the one-eyed bull!
Jochen
julianII_163.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII, Constantinopolis 163 var.65 viewsJulian II the philosopher 360 - 363, nephew of Constantine I
AE - Maiorina, 7.86g, 23mm
Constantinopolis 4. officina, 1st half of 363 (?)
obv. DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS PF AVG
bust draped, cuirassed, laureate, perl-diademed head r., necklace
rev. SECVRITAS REI PVB
diademed bull, head facing, standing r., two stars above
exergue: CONS Delta between palmbranchs
RIC VIII, Constantinopolis cf. 163 unrecorded; C.38
Rare; about VF
RIC 163 has CONSP Delta between palmbranchs!
Curtis Clay: The mintmark is known in rare smaller pieces, but apparently new on the large bull coins
Added to www.wildwinds.com

The bull is probably not the Apis bull, but an allusion to the planetary constellation in April 360 when Julian became Augustus. On this date the planets Mars and Venus stood between the horns of Taurus at the western heaven.
Jochen
julianII_sirmium_78.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII, Sirmium 7827 viewsJulian II. as Caesar, AD 360-363
AE 3, 2.37g, 18.62
Sirmium, 2nd officina, 6.Nov.355-summer 361
obv. DN IVLIA - NVS NOB C
Bust, draped and cuirassed, bare-headed, r.
rev. FEL TEMP - REPARATIO
Soldier spearing fallen horseman; who has turned to soldier and extends hand to him.
(RIC type FH3 reaching)
in l. field M
in ex. BSIRM star
ref. RIC VIII, Sirmium 78; LRBC 1614
S!, F+/about VF, brown patina

What happpened with the back of the horse?
Jochen
julianII_thess_225.jpg
Julian II, RIC VIII, Thessalonica 22515 viewsJulian II, AD 361-363
AE - Doppelmaiorina (AE 1), 7.30g, 25mm, 180°
Thessalonica, 1st officina, summer 361 - 26.6.363
obv. DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS PF AVG
Bust, draped and cuirassed, pearl-diademed, r.
rev. SECVRITA[S R]EI PVB
Bull, diademed, head facing, stg. r., 2 stars above horns
in ex. TESA between palmbranches
ref. RIC VIII, Thessalonica 225; C. 38
rare (R1), about VF, dark green patina
Jochen
JULIAN-1-ROMAN~0.jpg
Julian II, Sirmium, RIC VIII-07425 viewsAE3
Sirmium mint, 355-361 A.D.
19mm, 2.91g
RIC VIII-74

Obverse:
D N IVLIANVS NOB C
Bare-headed, draped, and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse:
FEL TEMP REPARATIO
M in field
ASIRM.
Helmeted soldier to left, shield on left arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground at right. Horseman bare-headed, turns to face soldier, and extends left arm.
rubadub
jull.jpg
Julian II, The Apostate (355 - 363 A.D.)34 viewsÆ3
O:  D N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES, Bare head, draped and cuirassed right.
R: FEL TEMP REPARATIO. Helmeted soldier to l., shield on l. arm, spearing falling horseman; shield on ground r. Horseman turns head to soldier and extends l. arm. M in l. field, BSIRM star in exergue.
Sirmium Mint, 355-61 A.D.
19mm
2.24g
RIC 78

Scarce
3 commentsMat
RIC_Julian_II_RIC_VIII_Cyzicus_130.JPG
Julian II, The Apostate (Caesar, 355-360 A.D.; Augustus, 360-363 A.D.) (Flavius Claudius Julianus)17 viewsRIC VIII Cyzicus 130

AE3, 20.5 mm, die orientation 0°

Cyzicus mint, first officina, struck 361-363 A.D.

Obv: D N FL CL IVLI—ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear in right hand and shield in left hand.

Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / XX in four lines within wreath, CVZA in exergue.

RIC rarity s
Stkp
RIC_Julian_II_Fel_Temp_RIC_Siscia_371.JPG
Julian II, The Apostate (Caesar, 355-360 A.D.; Augustus, 360-363 A.D.) (Flavius Claudius Julianus)54 viewsRIC VIII Siscia 371

AE3, Struck as Caesar, Siscia mint, fourth officina, 17 mm., nominal weight 2.25 g.

Obv: D N IVLIAN-VS NOB C, bare-headed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier standing left spearing fallen horseman wearing Phrygian helmet and reaching, M in left field, ΔSIS zigzag in exergue.

RIC rarity s
Stkp
RIC_Julian_II_VOT_RIC_VIII_Heraclea_105_var.JPG
Julian II, The Apostate (Caesar, 355-360 A.D.; Augustus, 360-363 A.D.) (Flavius Claudius Julianus)40 viewsRIC VIII Heraclea 105 var. (dot in reverse legend)

AE3, 20 mm., die orientation 0°, nominal weight 2.95g.

Heraclea mint, first officina, struck 361-363 A.D.

Obv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear in right hand and shield in left hand.

Rev: VOT / X / MV • LT / XX, in four lines within wreath, HERACLA in exergue.

RIC rarity s
Stkp
RIC_Julian_II_Securitas_REIPB_RIC_VIII_Arles_318.JPG
Julian II, The Apostate (Caesar, 355-360 A.D.; Augustus, 360-363 A.D.) (Flavius Claudius Julianus)52 viewsRIC VIII Arles 318 var.

AE1 (27 mm), Arles mint, third officina, struck 362 A.D.

Obv: D(ominus) N(oster) FL(avius) CL(audius) IVLI-ANVS P(ius) F(elix) AVG(ustus), bearded, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB, Bull standing right, two stars above, to right eagle standing right and holding wreath in beak, TCONST in exergue.

RIC rarity R

The bull has variously been referred to as a sacrificial bull, the Mithraic bull, the Apis bull, and a zodiacal representation of Julian. Most recently, it has been referred to as a solar symbol, representing Julian’s devotion to the god Sol/Helios, the message being “by his appointment of Julian as emperor in particular . . . Sol guarantees the security of his herds, the state.” Shaun Tougher. “Julian’s bull coinage: Kent revisited.” The Classical Quarterly (New Series 2004), 54, pp 327-330 at 327, quoting D. Woods. “Julian, Gallienus, and the Solar Bull.” American Journal of Numismatics, 12 (2000), 157-169, at 168 n.1.

The coin was issued in all mints except for Trier, Rome and Alexandria. The eagle only appears on the coins struck at Arelatum/Constantina. It typically is depicted standing on a wreath. This is a variant in which the eagle does not stand on a wreath. Cf., CNG Electronic Auction 74, Lot 96.
Stkp
Julian II, VOT X MVLT XX.jpg
Julian II- Heraclea RIC 10667 viewsobv: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG
rev: VOT / X / MVLT / XX in wreath
HERACL*A in exergue
RIC Heraclea 106, VM 29
wolfgang336
coin342.jpg
Julian II. 360-363 AD. RIC VIII 10418 viewsJulian II. 360-363 AD. Æ 28mm (8.60 gm). Struck 361-363 AD. Heraclea mint. D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, two stars above; HERACL. RIC VIII 104 Coin #342
cars100
julianapostatastier.jpg
Julian II. Apostate, double maiorina63 viewsJulian II. Apostate,
Double maiorina, 361-363, HERACLA in ex., Heraclea, 1. Offizin, 8.52g, 30 mm.
Obv.: D N FL C L IVLIANVS P F AVG; bareheaded beardes bust right.
Rev.: SECVRITAS REI PVB; bull right, two stars above.
RIC 104; Sear 4072
good VF
nice black patina, some roughness in fields.

The bull on the reverse cannot be, as often assumed, the one of apis, as it is always depicted with the sun betwenn its horns and the crescent moon above. Probably the picture shows us Julians horoscope, but not as in Augustus' capricorn coins the horoscope of his birth, but his conception. The idea came probably from his religious advisor Maximus of Ephesus. It was interpreted as a fortunate sign for the upcoming war against the Persians. After his military debacle and his death Christian theologists and historians used this as an argument against fortune-telling and astrology.

1 commentshelcaraxe
00339-JulianOfPannonia.JPG
Julian Of Pannonia21 viewsJulian Of Pannonia Antoninians
21 mm 3.05 gm
O: IMP C M AVR IVLIANVS P F AVG
Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right
R: PANNONIAE AVG
The two Pannoniae standing, one looking left and the other right, right hands outstretched; the Pannonia on the right holds ensign; S/XXIG
Koffy
069.png
Julian of Pannonia43 viewsJulian of Pannonia, Usurper (284-285).
BI Antoninianus, Siscia mint.
Obv: IMP C M AVR IVLIANVS PF AVG. Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: FELICITAS TEMPORVM. Felicitas standing facing, head left, holding caduceus and sceptre; in field, S-B; in exergue, XXI.
RIC 2., C. 1 (Fr. 150). BI. g. 3.14 RRR. Very rare.

Notes from the seller (Artemide LI, Lot 322):
"A superb example. Deep brown patina. Minor areas of weakness, otherwise about EF/Good VF."
4 commentsMark Z
Julian_II_Siliqua_1.png
Julian Siliqua 112 viewsJulian II "The Apostate"
AD 361-363
AR Siliqua
Constantia (Arles) mint
RIC 297

O: DN IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right

R: VOTIS V MVLTIS X in wreath, TCON in exergue
Gao
Julian_II_Siliqua_2.png
Julian Siliqua 212 viewsJulian II "The Apostate"
AD 361-363
AR Siliqua
Constantia (Arles) mint
RIC 297

O: DN IVLIANVS PF AVG, pearl diademed, draped & cuirassed bust right

R: VOTIS V MVLTIS X in wreath, TCON in exergue
Gao
julian com.JPG
Julian Spes Republice41 viewsAE 15-17 mm 1.6 grams 360-363 AD
OBV :: DN CL IVLIA-NVS AVG. Pearled diadem, draped and cuirassed bust right
REV :: SPES REPUBLICE. Julian standing facing, head left holding globe and spear
EX :: unknown, possibly Cyzicus
Ric 122
from uncleaned lot 01/2006
1 commentsJohnny
TC-14.jpg
Julian the Apostate (A.D. 360-363)21 viewsAE Follis AE1, A.D. 361-363, Nicomedia, 29.5mm, 8.41g, 180°, RIC VIII 121.
Obv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB. Bull standing right, two stars above; NIKB in ex.
Joseph D5
576_Julian_II__COSPA%.jpg
Julian the Apostate - AE 115 viewsConstantinople
3.11.361 - 26.6.363 AD
pearl-diademed draped and cuirassed bust right
DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bull right, 2 stars above
SECVRITAS REIPVB·
·CONSPA(branch)
RIC VIII Constantinople 162
8,44g
ex Aurea numismatika
1 commentsJohny SYSEL
Julian_II_219.jpg
Julian the Apostate - AE 325 viewsAntioch
3.11.361 - 26.6.363 AD
helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
D N FL CL IVLI_ANVS P F AVG
within wreath:
VOT / X / MV·LT / XX
SMANTB
unlisted
2,58 g 18-16 mm
Johny SYSEL
102_Julian_II_ASIRM.jpg
Julian the Apostate - AE 35 viewsSirmium
3.11.361 - 26.6.363 AD
helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
D N FL CL IVLI_ANVS P F AVG
within wreath:
VOT / X / MVLT / XX
ASIRM
RIC VIII Sirmium 108
2,89 g 20-19 mm
Johny SYSEL
Julien Securitas.jpg
Julian the Philosopher - AE1 (AE 28) of Thessalonica30 viewsD.N. FL. CL. IVLIANVS P.F. AVG
SECVRITAS REIPVB. , bull right under two stars , exergue : TESΔ
1 commentsGinolerhino
Julien César.jpg
Julian the Philosopher as Caesar - AE4 from Alexandria18 viewsD.N. IVLIANVS NOB. CAES.
SPES REIPVBLICAE , Julian standing left holding globe and spear , exergue : ALE[.]
Ginolerhino
julian.jpg
Julian, 360-363, RIC VIII Arles 318/32026 viewsEmperor: Julian Augustus.
Obverse legend: D N FL CL IVLI - ANVS P F AVG.
Reverse legend: SECVRITAS REIPVB.
Exergue: PCON...
Mint: Constantina (Arles), 1st officina, 360-363.

Diameter: 29x27 mm.
Weight: 7,65 g.
Axis: 0º.

Reference: RIC VIII Arles 318 or 320.
Provenance: ex-tascio1 (Ebay), sold in February 2014.
Julian
Julian_RIC_329.JPG
Julian, RIC 32912 viewsDN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG
AE3, 18mm, 2.29g
Pearl-diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
VOT X • MVLT XX in wreath
VRB•ROM•P in ex.
novacystis
Julian-moeda1.jpg
Julian, the Apostate 332-363 AD.87 viewsAE of Julian, the Apostate 332-363 AD.

Weight: 3.0 gr
Ø: 16mm

obv: DN IVLIANVS NOB C - Jovian right.

Rev: SPES REIPVBLICE - Imperor standing left, holding globe and spear.

Exergue : BS pi N??

gF/gF

Sear ?? - RIC ?? - VM 29.
Jorge C
JulianII.JPG
JulianII13 viewsAE3
AD 355-363
DSISL
RIC 382?
JRoME
AAFEb_small.png
Julianus (Julian) II Apostata AE18 viewsJulianus II Apostata. 355-363 AD.

Heraclea. 361-363 AD.

29mm., 7.67g.

D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG. Bust of Julian, pearl-diademed, draped, cuirassed, right

SECVRITAS REI PVB. Bull, standing right, head facing; above, two stars. MintMark: -/-//HERACLA

References: RIC VIII Heraclea 102

AAFE
RL
AAEIb_black.png
Julianus (Julian) II Apostata AE320 viewsJulianus II Apostata. 355-363 AD.

Antioch. 361-363.

20mm, 2.44g

D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG. Bust of Julian, helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed, left, holding spear in right hand and shield in left hand

VOT/X/MVLT/XX within a wreath. MintMark: -/-//(palm branch left)ANTA(palm branch right)

References: RIC VIII Antioch 220

AAEI
1 commentsRL
julianus.jpg
Julianus II AE3 361-363 AD Sirmium mint37 viewsObverse: DN FL CL IULI-ANVS PF AVG; Helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield
Reverse: VOT/X/MVLT/XX in four lines enclose by wreath, ASIRM in Exergue

RIC 108
1 commentsdaverino
00530q00.jpg
Julianus of Pannonia8 viewsAE-Antoninianus
IMP C M AVR IVLIANVS PF AVG; Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust to right.
VICTORIA AVG; Victory stg. left, holding wreath and palm branch; S A in fields.
Ex: XXI
Siscia
RIC 5
Julianus of Pannonia
jc952.JPG
Julius Caesar (fouree)93 viewsJulius Caesar Denarius (fouree') . 46-45 BC, Spanish mint. Diademed head of Venus right, Cupid on her shoulder / CAESAR below Gallia & Gaulish captive seated beneath trophy of Gallic arms. Syd 1014, Crawford 468/1, RSC 13. Can use more cleaning but I'm gona leave it alone.

ex stainless
"Year 46 BC was the last year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Caesar and Lepidus (or, less frequently, year 708 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 46 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. This year had 445 days due to the errors that had accumulated in the pre-Julian calendar, and was therefore nicknamed annus confusionis ("year of confusion"). The Julian calendar was introduced in this year, although it did not go into effect until 45 BC."
1 commentsRandygeki(h2)
231 Julian.jpg
Jullian II (Apostate), RIC VIII 108, Sirmium24 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Bust: Helmeted and wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding spear in right hand and shield in left
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX
4 lines within laurel wreath
Exe: BSIRM
Date: 361-363 AD
Denom: Ae2
Rated "C2"
Bluefish
den001_quad_sm.jpg
L SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?] / P M TR P V COS II P P / Septimius Severus Fortuna denarius (197 AD) 17 viewsL SEPT SEV PERT AVG IMP [VIIII?], laureate head right / P M TR P V COS II P P, Fortuna standing left, holding rudder on globe in right hand, cornucopiae in left.

AR (post 196 mint, so probably 54% purity), 17 mm, 3.48g, die axis 12h.

Both small flan and image style (bust, wreath, shape of the rudder etc.) point towards the mint of Rome rather than the Eastern one. A bit heavier than expected (the standard supposed to be 3.41g), but WildWinds reports a 3.63g denarius of this type. Unfortunately it is impossible to read the number after IMP (it can be either VIIII or X for TR P V), but based on the spacing and, perhaps, a hint of V I think it is VIIII. So this must be RIC IV 104, BMCRE 229, RSC 442 type. Two other, less probable ID possibilities: RIC 115A (Rome, IMP X) and RIC 493 (Eastern mint, Laodicea ad Mare(?) IMP VIIII).

Lucius SEPTimius SEVeverus PERTinax AVGustus IMPerator (in this case not just an imperial title, but a military one, "invested with the Nth imperial acclaim", a victorious general, the number refers to important victories when the title was renewed); Pontifex Maximus (the high priest, starting with Augustus the emperor was always the head of state religion) TRibunitia Potestas (Tribunal power, the function of the tribune of the people, originally an important republican official, was "hijacked" by Augustus when he was building the imperial structure of power and subsequently became another emperor's title, renewed every year and thus very useful for dating coins) V (5th year means 193+4=197, give or take the actual date of renewing the title), COnSul (under the Empire, the office of Consul remained of some importance and was held by the Emperor with some frequency) II (during or after the consulship of 194 and before next one in 202), Pater Patriae (Father of his Country, the title was held by most Augusti but was usually not assumed at the very beginning of the reign). Denarius was the staple of Roman monetary system from 211 BC to mid 3d century AD.

SEPTIMIUS SEVERUS, *11 Apr 145 in Leptis Magna (Khoms, Libya) † 4 Feb 211 (aged 65) Eboracum (York, England) ‡ 14 April 193 – 4 February 211

Septimius Severus was born in the Roman province of Africa. He came from a wealthy and distinguished family of equestrian rank, had Roman ancestry on his mother's side (gens Fulvia was one of the most famous plebeian clans in Rome) and descended from Punic, and perhaps also Libyan, forebears on his father's side. Several members of his family held important imperial offices (although, strangely, not his father who seemed to have no career to speak about). He was trilingual, speaking Punic, Latin and Greek, and got some classical education, but probably less than he wanted to. At 17 he was helped by his influential relatives to relocate to Rome, to be presented to the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and start his political career. With some difficulty he started to advance through the cursus honorum, holding a variety of offices. His career was helped by the Antonine Plague of 166, Septimius avoided it by returning to Leptis Magna for a while, and when he was back in Rome he found his competition conveniently thinned out. Despite him going through an impressive number of offices in a very short time there is very little record of his actual accomplishments in 170s and 180s.

In 191 Severus was appointed governor of Pannonia Superior (one of the provinces on Danube frontier) by Emperor Commodus (on advice from one of Septimius' friends). When the hell was unleashed by the assassination of Commodus on 31 December 192 and 193, , the infamous Year of the Five Emperors started, as a general in charge of significant army Severus was able to fight for the highest office. While he moved on Rome, Pertinax, the first Emperor of 193, was killed by the Praetorian Guard, and the next one, Didius Julianus, who famously bought the emperorship at an auction, was condemned by the Senate and executed, so Septimius entered Rome virtually unopposed. He then wisely appeased the powerful governor of Britannia, Clodius Albinus, who was also proclaimed the Emperor, by offering him the title of Caesar, which implied some degree of co-ruling and a chance to succession (Albinus did not give up that easy, reasserting his claim in three years, but then he was easily dealt with at the Battle of Lugdunum in Gaul). Afterwards he had to fight off the final pretender, Pescennius Niger, the former governor of Syria, who was proclaimed the Emperor by the eastern legions. Losing no time, Severus sent a considerable vanguard force to the East and, later, joined in with additional armies. In a series of battles in 193-195 Niger and his supporters were defeated. The last to surrender was Byzantium, which held even after the head of Niger was sent there. It is interesting to note that during this campaign Septimius visited the tomb of his famous fellow countryman, Hannibal Barca in Libyssa (Gebze, Turkey) and ordered to cover it with fine marble. Severus also took an opportunity to wage a short punitive campaign beyond the eastern frontier, annexing the Kingdom of Osroene as a new province.

After consolidating his rule over the western provinces, Severus waged another brief, more successful war in the east against the Parthian Empire, sacking their capital Ctesiphon in 197 and expanding the eastern frontier to the Tigris. He then enlarged and fortified the Limes Arabicus in Arabia Petraea. In 202 he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern desert frontier of the empire. In 208 he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. In the same year he invaded Caledonia (modern Scotland), but his ambitions were cut short when he fell fatally ill in late 210, dying in early 211 at Eboracum (York, England), and was succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta, thus founding the Severan dynasty. It was the last dynasty of the Roman empire before the Crisis of the Third Century.

In the context of this coin it is interesting to note, that, due to huge military expenses, upon his accession Severus decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 81.5% to 78.5%, although the silver weight actually increased, rising from 2.40 grams to 2.46 grams. Nevertheless, the following year he debased the denarius again because of rising military expenditures. The silver purity decreased from 78.5% to 64.5% – the silver weight dropping from 2.46 grams to 1.98 grams. In 196 he reduced the purity and silver weight of the denarius again, to 54% and 1.82 grams respectively [corresponds to this issue]. Severus' currency debasement was the largest since the reign of Nero.
Yurii P
julian_I~1.jpg
L.SULLA24 viewsAR denarius. 81 BC. 3.86 gr. Diademed head of Venus right. / Double cornucopiae. Below Q. Craw 375/2. RSC Cornelia 33.1 commentsbenito
Julianus-II__AR-Siliqua_FL-CL-IVLIA-NVS-PP-AVG_VOTIS_V_MVLTIS_X_LVG_Lugdunum_RIC-VIII-218_p-_RSC-163a_360-3-AD_Q-001_0h_mm_gx-s~0.jpg
Lugdunum, RIC VIII 218, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AR-Siliqua, VOTIS/V/MVLTIS/X in wreath, LVG, #1211 viewsLugdunum, RIC VIII 218, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AR-Siliqua, VOTIS/V/MVLTIS/X in wreath, LVG, #1
avers: - FL-CL-IVLIA-NVS-PP-AVG, Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
revers: - No legend, VOTIS/V/MVLTIS/X in four line, in wreath.
exerg: -/-//LVG, diameter: 17mm, weight: 2,03g, axis: 0h,
mint: Lugdunum, date: 360-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 218, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
maionia_sept_severus_BMC43.jpg
Lydia, Maionia, Septimius Severus, BMC 4333 viewsSeptimius Severus, AD 193-211
AE 35, 22.57g
struck under archon Julianus
obv. AV [KAI] L CE - P CEVHR[OC PE]R - TIN
Bust, draped and cuirassed, laureate, r.
rev. EPI IO[VLI]AN - OV [TAAB(??) ARXONTOC]
Dionysos, in long garment, holding thyrsos in l. arm, leaning r. on biga drawn by
two centaurs and resting with r. arm on back; the centaur in front, looking back
to Dionysos, is holding a club in r. arm and a torch in raised l. hand, the other
one a torch in r. hand
in ex. MAI[ONW]N
BMC 43, pl. XIV, no.7 (rev. same die); Lanz 32, April 1985, 633 (same dies)
F+, surfaces with porosity
(Thanks to Curtis Clay for attribution!)

A similar type, AE size 10 with slightly different legends, is in the B.M.
2 commentsJochen
DidiusJul.jpg
Marcus Didius Severus Julianus Augustus154 viewsDIDIUS JULIANUS. 193 AD. AR Denarius 19mm. 3.01 gm.
O: IMP CAES M DID IVLIAN AVG Laureate head right
R: P M TR P COS Fortuna standing facing, head left, holding rudder on globe, and cornucopiae.
- RIC IV 2; BMCRE 6; RSC 10. Ex-CNG Printed Auction 66, May 19, 2004, Lot: 1528; ex Wayne Philips

This type with Fortuna was struck in gold, silver and bronze (dupondius and sestertius).

Following the assassination of Pertinax, the praetorian guard put the emperorship up for auction. There was spirited bidding between Flavius Sulpicianus, the father-in-law of the murdered Pertinax, and the senator Didius Julianus, one of the wealthiest men in Rome. When Julianus pledged an accession bonus of 25,000 sestertii per guard, it was a bid that Sulpicianus could not top. The praetorians led Julianus before the terrified Senate, which had no choice but to ratify the coup díetat. The people of Rome, however, were disgusted by this shameful turn of events and sent messengers to seek help from the commanders of the legions in the provinces. Three generals responded and marched on Rome. Septimius Severus, being the closest to Rome, had the upper hand. The praetorians were no match for the battle hardened soldiers from the frontier, and they quickly decided in favor of Severus. Didius Julianus was not so fortunate, as he was captured at the beginning of June and beheaded in the manner of a common criminal. His rule lasted 28 March - 2 June 193 A.D.
1 commentsNemonater
parium_1.jpg
MYSIA, PARIUM JULIUS CAESAR8 viewsMYSIA, PARIUM
JULIUS CAESAR

AE13

Obverse: C-G-I-P (Colonia Gemella Ivlia Pariana), female head right within border of dots

Reverse: D-D (Decreto Decurionum), praefericulum (sacrificial jug)

Mint: Parium

Minted: c. 45 BCE

Dia: 13mm

Ref: RPC I 2259

Semi-autonomous coin issued in this Julian military colony by C. Matuinus and T. Anicius, aediles.
jimbomar
Julian-II-proba-gif2b~0.gif
Nice animatio, 153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, RIC VIII 108, Sirmium, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, B SIRM112 viewsNice animatio, To playing with Photoshop
153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, RIC VIII 108, Sirmium, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, B SIRM
avers: - DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG-J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
revers: - No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exerg: -/-//B-SIRM, diameter: 20,5mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 6h,
mint: Simium, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 108, p-393,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
didius_severus_ensemble.jpg
PADUAN, Didius Julianus16 viewsMédaillon de DIDIUS JULIANUS (193).

Padouan coulé (after cast)

Avers : IMP CAES M DID SEVERVS IVLIAN AVG PP , drapé, cuirassé à droite.
Revers : Quadrige lancé au galop à gauche, l'aurige cour. par la Victoire volant à droite. Exergue : ·COS·II·/ S·C·.
Trou de suspension.
Ref.: Lawrence, 67; Klawans, 99, 2.

Le revers copie le type des tétradrachmes de Syracuse.
Diamètre : 38 mm | Poids : 52,4 g
Vamp
SeptimiusPisidiaAntiochAE22.jpg
Pisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. 105 viewsPisidia, Antioch. Septimius Severus. 198-217 AD. AE 22mm (5.21 gm). Obverse: Laureate, head left. Reverse: Mên standing facing, head right, foot on bucranium, holding sceptre and Nike on globe; cock at feet left. SNG France 3, 1118. Cleaning scratches, very fine. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.)

Michael L. Meckler
Ohio State University

Introduction
Lucius Septimius Severus restored stability to the Roman empire after the tumultuous reign of the emperor Commodus and the civil wars that erupted in the wake of Commodus' murder. However, by giving greater pay and benefits to soldiers and annexing the troublesome lands of northern Mesopotamia into the Roman empire, Septimius Severus brought increasing financial and military burdens to Rome's government. His prudent administration allowed these burdens to be met during his eighteen years on the throne, but his reign was not entirely sunny. The bloodiness with which Severus gained and maintained control of the empire tarnished his generally positive reputation.

Severus' Early Life and Acclamation
Severus was born 11 April 145 in the African city of Lepcis Magna, whose magnificent ruins are located in modern Libya, 130 miles east of Tripoli. Septimius Severus came from a distinguished local family with cousins who received suffect consulships in Rome under Antoninus Pius. The future emperor's father seems not to have held any major offices, but the grandfather may have been the wealthy equestrian Septimius Severus commemorated by the Flavian-era poet Statius.

The future emperor was helped in his early career by one of his consular cousins, who arranged entry into the senate and the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Life as a senator meant a life of travel from one government posting to another. Moorish attacks on his intended post of Baetica (southern Spain) forced Severus to serve his quaestorship in Sardinia. He then traveled to Africa as a legate and returned to Rome to be a tribune of the plebs. Around the year 175 he married Paccia Marciana, who seems also to have been of African origin. The childless marriage lasted a decade or so until her death.

Severus' career continued to flourish as the empire passed from Marcus to Commodus. The young senator held a praetorship, then served in Spain, commanded a legion in Syria and held the governorships of Gallia Lugdunensis (central France), Sicily and Upper Pannonia (easternmost Austria and western Hungary). While in Gallia Lugdunensis in 187, the now-widowed future emperor married Julia Domna, a woman from a prominent family of the Syrian city of Emesa. Two sons quickly arrived, eleven months apart: Bassianus (known to history as Caracalla) in April of the year 188, and Geta in March 189.

News of Pertinax's assassination 28 March 193 in an uprising by the praetorian guard quickly reached Pannonia, and only twelve days later on 9 April 193, Severus was proclaimed emperor. Septimius Severus had the strong support of the armies along the Rhine and Danube, but the loyalty of the governor of Britain, Clodius Albinus, was in doubt. Severus' envoys from Pannonia offered Albinus the title of Caesar, which he accepted.

The Civil Wars with Albinus, Niger, and Didius Julianus
In the city of Rome, Didius Julianus gained the support of the praetorian troops and was promoted as the successor to Pertinax. Although Julianus' authority did not extend much beyond Italy, Severus understood that legitimacy for a Roman emperor meant having one's authority accepted in Rome. He and his army began a swift march to the city. They met practically no resistance on their advance from Pannonia into northern Italy, as Julianus' supporters defected. By the beginning of June when Severus reached Interamna, 50 miles north of Rome, even the praetorian guard stationed in the capital switched sides. Didius Julianus was declared a public enemy and killed. Septimius Severus entered Rome without a fight.

Civil war was not yet over. Another provincial governor also had his eyes on the throne. In Syria, Pescennius Niger had been proclaimed emperor on news of Pertinax's death, and the eastern provinces quickly went under his authority. Byzantium became Niger's base of operations as he prepared to fight the armies of the west loyal to Severus.

Niger was unable to maintain further advances into Europe. The fighting moved to the Asian shore of the Propontis, and in late December 193 or early January 194, Niger was defeated in a battle near Nicaea and fled south. Asia and Bithynia fell under Severus' control, and Egypt soon recognized Severus' authority. By late spring, Niger was defeated near Issus and the remainder of his support collapsed. Syria was pacified. Niger was killed fleeing Antioch. Byzantium, however, refused to surrender to Severan forces. Niger's head was sent to the city to persuade the besieged citizens to give up, but to no avail. The Byzantines held out for another year before surrender. As punishment for their stubbornness, the walls of their city were destroyed.

Severus' Eastern Campaigns
During the fighting, two of the peoples of upper Mesopotamia -- the Osrhoeni and the Adiabeni -- captured some Roman garrisons and made an unsuccessful attack on the Roman-allied city of Nisibis. After the defeat of Niger, these peoples offered to return Roman captives and what remained of the seized treasures if the remaining Roman garrisons were removed from the region. Severus refused the offer and prepared for war against the two peoples, as well as against an Arabian tribe that had aided Niger. In the spring of 195, Severus marched an army through the desert into upper Mesopotamia. The native peoples quickly surrendered, and Severus added to his name the victorious titles Arabicus and Adiabenicus. Much of the upper third of Mesopotamia was organized as a Roman province, though the king of Osrhoene was allowed to retain control of a diminished realm.

The tottering Parthian empire was less and less able to control those peoples living in the border regions with Rome. Rome's eastern frontier was entering a period of instability, and Severus responded with an interventionist policy of attack and annexation. Some senators feared that increased involvement in Mesopotamia would only embroil Rome in local squabbles at great expense. The emperor, however, would remain consistent in his active eastern policy.

Legitimization of the Severan Dynasty
Severus also took steps to cement his legitimacy as emperor by connecting himself to the Antonine dynasty. Severus now proclaimed himself the son of Marcus Aurelius, which allowed him to trace his authority, through adoption, back to the emperor Nerva. Julia Domna was awarded the title "Mother of the Camp" (mater castrorum), a title only previously given to the empress Faustina the Younger, Marcus' wife. Bassianus, the emperor's elder son, was renamed Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and given the title Caesar. It was this last step that marked a decisive break with Albinus.

Albinus had remained in Britain as governor during the struggles between Severus and Niger. Although Albinus had not attempted open revolt against the emperor, he seems to have been in communication with senators about future moves. By the end of 195, Albinus was declared a public enemy by Severus. The governor of Britain responded by proclaiming himself emperor and invading Gaul.

A weary Roman populace used the anonymity of the crowd at the chariot races to complain about renewed civil war, but it was Gaul that bore the brunt of the fighting. Albinus and his supporters were able to inflict losses on the occasion of the initial attacks, but disorder was so great that opportunistic soldiers could easily operate on their own within the lands under Albinus' nominal control.

The tide began to turn early in 197, and after a Severan victory at Tournus, Albinus found himself and his army trapped near Lyon. A battle broke out 19 February 197. In the initial fighting, Albinus' troops forced the Severans into retreat, during which Severus fell off his horse. When the Severan cavalry appeared, however, Albinus' army was routed. Lyon was sacked and Albinus, who was trapped in a house along the river Rhône, committed suicide. Severus ordered Albinus' head to be cut off and sent to Rome for display. Many of Albinus' supporters were killed, including a large number of Spanish and Gallic aristocrats. Albinus' wife and children were killed, as were many of the wives of his supporters. Tradition also told of the mutilation of bodies and denial of proper burial. The emperor revealed a penchant for cruelty that troubled even his fervent supporters. A purge of the senate soon followed. Included among the victims was Pertinax's father-in-law, Sulpicianus.

Severus and the Roman Military
Severus brought many changes to the Roman military. Soldiers' pay was increased by half, they were allowed to be married while in service, and greater opportunities were provided for promotion into officer ranks and the civil service. The entire praetorian guard, discredited by the murder of Pertinax and the auctioning of their support to Julianus, was dismissed. The emperor created a new, larger praetorian guard out of provincial soldiers from the legions. Increases were also made to the two other security forces based in Rome: the urban cohorts, who maintained order; and the night watch, who fought fires and dealt with overnight disturbances, break-ins and other petty crime. These military reforms proved expensive, but the measures may well have increased soldiers' performance and morale in an increasingly unsettled age.

One location that remained unsettled was the eastern frontier. In 197 Nisibis had again been under siege, and the emperor prepared for another eastern campaign. Three new legions were raised, though one was left behind in central Italy to maintain order. The Roman armies easily swept through upper Mesopotamia, traveling down the Euphrates to sack Seleucia, Babylon and Ctesiphon, which had been abandoned by the Parthian king Vologaeses V. On 28 January 198 -- the centenary of Trajan's accession -- Severus took the victorious title Parthicus Maximus and promoted both of his sons: Caracalla to the rank of Augustus and Geta to the rank of Caesar.

Before embarking on the eastern campaign, the emperor had named Gaius Fulvius Plautianus as a praetorian prefect. Plautianus came from the emperor's home town of Lepcis, and the prefect may even have been a relative of the emperor. The victories in Mesopotamia were followed by tours of eastern provinces, including Egypt. Plautianus accompanied Severus throughout the travels, and by the year 201 Plautianus was the emperor's closest confidant and advisor. Plautianus was also praetorian prefect without peer after having arranged the murder of his last colleague in the post.

Upon the return to Rome in 202, the influence of Plautianus was at its height. Comparisons were made with Sejanus, the powerful praetorian prefect under the emperor Tiberius. Plautianus, who earlier had been adlected into the senate, was now awarded consular rank, and his daughter Plautilla was married to Caracalla. The wealth Plautianus had acquired from his close connection with the emperor enabled him to provide a dowry said to have been worthy of fifty princesses. Celebrations and games also marked the decennalia, the beginning of the tenth year of Severus' reign. Later in the year the enlarged imperial family traveled to Lepcis, where native sons Severus and Plautianus could display their prestige and power.

The following year the imperial family returned to Rome, where an arch, still standing today, was dedicated to the emperor at the western end of the Forum. Preparations were also being made for the Secular Games, which were thought to have originated in earliest Rome and were to be held every 110 years. Augustus celebrated the Secular Games in 17 B.C., and Domitian in A.D. 88, six years too early. (Claudius used the excuse of Rome's 800th year to hold the games in A.D. 47.) In 204 Severus would preside over ten days of ceremonies and spectacles.

By the end of 204, Plautianus was finding his influence with the emperor on the wane. Caracalla was not happy to be the husband of Plautilla. Julia Domna resented Plautianus' criticisms and investigations against her. Severus was tiring of his praetorian prefect's ostentation, which at times seemed to surpass that of the emperor himself. The emperor's ailing brother, Geta, also denounced Plautianus, and after Geta's death the praetorian prefect found himself being bypassed by the emperor. In January 205 a soldier named Saturninus revealed to the emperor a plot by Plautianus to have Severus and Caracalla killed. Plautianus was summoned to the imperial palace and executed. His children were exiled, and Caracalla divorced Plautilla. Some observers suspected the story of a plot was merely a ruse to cover up long-term plans for Plautianus' removal.

Severus and Roman Law
Two new praetorian prefects were named to replace Plautianus, one of whom was the eminent jurist Papinian. The emperor's position as ultimate appeals judge had brought an ever-increasing legal workload to his office. During the second century, a career path for legal experts was established, and an emperor came to rely heavily upon his consilium, an advisory panel of experienced jurists, in rendering decisions. Severus brought these jurists to even greater prominence. A diligent administrator and conscientious judge, the emperor appreciated legal reasoning and nurtured its development. His reign ushered in the golden age of Roman jurisprudence, and his court employed the talents of the three greatest Roman lawyers: Papinian, Paul and Ulpian.

The order Severus was able to impose on the empire through both the force of arms and the force of law failed to extend to his own family. His now teenaged sons, Caracalla and Geta, displayed a reckless sibling rivalry that sometimes resulted in physical injury. The emperor believed the lack of responsibilities in Rome contributed to the ill-will between his sons and decided that the family would travel to Britain to oversee military operations there. Caracalla was involved in directing the army's campaigns, while Geta was given civilian authority and a promotion to joint emperor with his father and brother.

Severus was now into his 60s. Chronic gout limited his activities and sapped his strength. The emperor's health continued to deteriorate in Britain, and he became ever more intent on trying to improve the bitter relationship between his two sons. He is reported to have given his sons three pieces of advice: "Get along; pay off the soldiers; and disregard everyone else." The first piece of advice would not be heeded.

Severus died in York on 4 February 211 at the age of 65. His reign lasted nearly 18 years, a duration that would not be matched until Diocletian. Culturally and ideologically Septimius Severus connected his reign to the earlier Antonine era, but the reforms he enacted would eventually alter the very character of Roman government. By creating a larger and more expensive army and increasing the influence of lawyers in administration, Severus planted the seeds that would develop into the highly militaristic and bureaucratic government of the later empire.

Copyright (C) 1998, Michael L. Meckler. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/sepsev.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
cleaning-coins-lot-01-14-2018.jpg
Random Cleaning Projects12 viewsTop Row:

Trajan - Tabae, Caria; Constantius II ; Probus ; Gratian

Second Row:

Gallienus ; Septimius Severus ; Constans ; Aurelian

Third Row:

Julian II ; Valens ; Gratian ; Marcinus and Diadumenian
Gil-galad
LarryW1851.jpg
RGS, Julian the Apostate, AD 360-363509 viewsGold solidus, 22.1mm, 4.46g, EF
Struck at Antioch in Syria c. AD 362-3
FL CL IVLIA-NVS P F AVG, diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right, with long beard / VIRTVS EXERCI-TVS ROMANORVM, helmeted soldier advancing right, head left, dragging captive with right and holding trophy over shoulder; ANT A in exergue. RCOA
Ex: Freeman & Sear
RIC 197 (citing a specimen at Vienna); Cohen 79 var
9 commentsLawrence Woolslayer
Julianus_II_1.jpg
RIC 8, p.438, 104 - Julianus II, Bull 24 viewsJulianus II
Æ-1, Herakleia, AD 361-363
Obv.: DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS P F AVG, Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev.: SECVRITAS REIPVB / • HERACL • B, Bull standing right, two stars above
Ae, 8.01g, 28.3mm
Ref.: RIC 104
1 commentsshanxi
Didius.jpg
Roman Didius Julianus Sestertius74 viewsDidius Iulianus Sestertius, 193 AD, Rome.
Obv: IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG, laureate head right.
Rev: CONCORD MILIT / S - C, Concordia standing front, head left, holding legionary eagle and standard.
RIC IV, Part 1, 14 (R)
Rare
2 commentsTanit
Didius_Julianus,_AE_sestertius.jpg
Roman Empire / Emperor Didius Julianus, Bronze sestertius105 viewsDidius Julianus, AE sestertius

Obverse : IMP CAES M DID SE VERIVLIAN AVG
Laureate head right.

Reverse : P M TR P COS Fortuna standing holding rudder set on globe and cornucopiae , S C at sides

Fine , weight 21.290g, maximum diameter 28.6mm, die axis 180o, 28 Mar - 2 Jun 193 A.D.

Rare. RIC IV 15 , Cohen 12 (30 Fr.), SRCV II 6076

From the Sam Mansourati collection.

“Auction of the Empire”, Didius Julianus became an emperor placing the biggest bid.

Caesar Marcus Didius Severus Julianus Augustus, the son of Quintus Petronius Didius Severus and Aemilia Clara, was born in Milan on either 30 January 133 or 2 February 137 with the correct date being unknown. He was raised and educated in the household of Domitia Lucilla, mother of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and rose through Roman public distinction through the support of the Emperor and his mother. In 170 CE, Julianus commanded the XXII Primigenia Legion in Mogontiacum (Mainz), Germany. Then he replaced Pertinax as proconsul of Africa., and Pertinax, now emperor, was murdered by the Praetorian Guard. This began the event known as, “Auction of the Empire”, which Didius Julianus is infamous for winning. He outbidded the father-in-law of Pertinax, Titus Flavius Claudius Sulpicianus, who was the prefect of Rome, by offering to pay the Praetorian Guard 25000 sesterces for the throne.The Senate declared Julianus emperor in fear of the Roman army, but his rule was to be short-lived; Three other generals and governors across the empire declared themselves the rightful heir, and Septimius Severus marched on Rome. The people of Rome despised and rejected Julianus from the start, because they believed he was involved with the corruption. Without the support of Rome, the Imperial Guard would not fight for Julianus and Severus marched into the palace, declared himself emperor, and killed Didius Julianus after just sixty-six days of rule.
2 commentsSam
17009p00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - JULIAN II26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 166 or 167, VF, 3.047g, 20.0mm, 0o, Constantinople mint, 361 - 363 A.D.; obverse D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, helmeted and cuirassed bust left holding spear and shield; reverse VOT X MVLT XX in wreath, CONSPD in exdpaul7
16128p00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - JULIAN II "THE APOSTATE"25 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 81, VF, 1.979g, 16.3mm, 0o, Sirmium mint, as Caesar, 6 Nov 355 - 3 Nov 361 A.D.; obverse D N IVLIA-NVS NOB C, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SPES REI-PVBLICE, emperor standing left holding globe and spear, ASIRM in exdpaul7
ga_0030.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE - JULIAN II - THE APOSTATE22 viewsJulian II AD 355-363 AE3 "Vows X Mult XX" "I promise ten years and perhaps twenty" Obv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG - Helmeted diademed bust left, cuirassed holding spear and shield Rev: VOT X MVLT XX - Within wreath Exe: ASIRM Sirmium mint: AD 361-363 = RIC VIII, p. 393, 108, 2.59 g.
dpaul7
Clodius_Albinus.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE / Emperor Clodius Albinus (195 - 197 A.D.), as Augustus.38 viewsSilver Denarius.
Obverse : "IMP CAES D CLO ALBIN AVG" Laureate head right.
Reverse : "SPE AVG COS II" Spes advancing left, holding up flower and raising skirt.
Lugdunum mint.
2.04 Gr . Max 17 mm. aF . RIC 41 ( The Roman Imperial Coinage, Volume IV, Part 1, # 41 )

Ex J. S. Vogelaar Collection
EX CNG eAuction 223, Part of Lot 583

Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus was born between 140 and 150 A.D. He came from a wealthy, if not noble, family from Hadrentum in Africa. He was raised to the Senate by the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and was Governor of Bithynia during the revolt of Avidius Cassius. He remained loyal to Aurelius, and also served with distinction under Commodus. Albinus was the Governor of Britain at the time of Commodus’ death in 192 A.D. As one of the leading men of the empire, it was rumored that Albinus was at the least aware of the conspiracy. Pertinax, and then Didius Julianus would succeed Commodus on the throne. After the murder of Julianus, Albinus, along with Pescennius Niger , and Septimius Severus were the three leading men in the Empire. Both Niger and Severus were hailed as Augutus by their legions. Albinus reached an agreement with Severus, in which Albinus supported Severus, and kept the Western Empire under control, while Severus took his legions east to deal with Niger. In return, Severus named Albinus Caesar, and made him his heir. After dealing with Niger, Severus proclaimed his eldest son, Caracalla, as Caesar, thus breaking with Albinus. Left with no choice, Albinus was declared Augustus in 195 A.D, and led his legions from Britain to the continent, where he made his headquarters at Lugdunum (modern Lyons). Albinus was unable to secure the support of the German legions, and was repulsed in his attempts to invade Italy. Finally, in February of 197, Albinus was defeated and killed in a battle near Lugdunum. Severus was left as the sole Emperor of Rome.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
erf_ri2673.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian AE1 Bull319 views25mm counterfeit of Aquilia (as RIC VIII 242)1 commentsflinn
julian_2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, JULIAN II19 viewsJulian II
AE 16mm

obv: head of julian left
rev: VOT X MVLT X X
seaotter
890_iulianus_ges_SW.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II8 viewsJulianus

FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Franz-Josef M
LVGDOFFSbor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE1 Bull LVGDOFFS75 viewsEx; LVGDOFFS, Lugdunum mint (Lyons, France), 2nd officinagparch
JulianFTRSirmor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP Sirmium101 viewsAE3 17.7x18.1mm
Obv. DN IVLIA_NVS NOB C
Bust right, bare head, no beard
Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier spearing falling horseman,
M in left field.
Ex. dot BSIRN dot
Sirmium mint
ca. 355-358 AD
gparch
Julian II RIC VIII Constantinople 165 obv and rev.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II (The Apostate), RIC Constantinople 16566 viewsJulian II
AE3
Constantinople Mint. 361-363 A.D.
18.8mm. 2.97g.
Die Alignment: 0 degrees
Obv: DN FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG - Helmeted, pearl diademed, cuirassed, spear in right hand, shield in left.
Rev: VOT/X/MVLT/XX surrounded by wreath.
Exergue: (palm branch)CONSA(palm branch)
Ref: RIC VIII Constantinople 165. Sear '64-3971var. VM 28.
seraphic
bpCD1V7Julian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II (The Apostate), Sirmium, RIC 106, C, 361-63 AD60 viewsObv: D N FL IVLIANVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB
Bull standing right, two stars above.
8.2 gm 28.5 mm Ae1 Exergue: *ASIRM(wreath)
Comment: Julian met his death in a skirmish on June 26, A.D.363 while on a failed Sassanian campaign.
Massanutten
julian-2-vot.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, JULIAN II - VOTX35 viewsJULIAN II-JULIAN II- Æ 20m Minted at Sirmium

OBV. Helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield
REV. VOT/ X/ MVLT/ XX within wreath
EX. BSIRM.
Attrib.RIC 108,LRBC 1619
black-prophet
JulianANTor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE1 Bull ANT56 viewsAE1, 25.6x26.7mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust right, bearded, pearl diadem
Rev. SECVRITAS REIPVB
Bull standing right, 2 stars above
Ex. branch ANTA branch
Antioch mint, ca. 363 AD
1 commentsgparch
Arlesbullor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE1 bull Arles49 viewsAE1, 27x27.7mm
obv: DN FL CL IVLIA_NUS PF AVG
Bust of Julian right, bearded.
rev: SECVRITAS REIPUB
Bull standing right on line, 2 stars above, small eagle holding wreath, standing on another wreath, at right below bull's head.
ex: TCONSTdot
Arelatum (Constantina) mint
The eagle is unique to this mint. Also unusual is the break in the obverse inscription, between the A and N (instead of between I and A).
gparch
ArleseagleAE1.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE1 Bull Arles46 viewsgparch
0ArlesAE1or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE1 bull Arles58 viewsMintmark is SCONST1 commentsgparch
aCYZICBor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE1 Bull CYZICB24 viewsEx. CYZICB, Cyzicus mint, 2nd officinagparch
HERACLAor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE1 Bull HERACLA27 viewsEx: dot HERACL dot A, dot belowgparch
Julian12905TESAor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE1 Bull TESA56 viewsAE 26.3x27.4mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust right, bearded, pearl diadem
Rev. SECVRITAS REIPVB
Bull standing right, 2 stars above
Ex. dot TESA branch
Thessalonica mint

gparch
093C~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE1 Maiorina145 viewsRIC VIII 216 Antioch, LRBC 2640
28 mm, 5.58 gm
DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuir. bust r.
SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, two stars above
Palm branch-ANTD-palm branch in exergue
3 commentsMark Z
JulianArlesirregularOR.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE1, counterfeit? bull72 viewsAE1, 23.3x24.8mm
obv:___LIVLI___
Bust of Julian right, bearded.
rev:__CVRITAS REI__
Bull standing on line right, two stars above, small eagle holding wreath under bull's head
ex: mostly off flan, appears to be a C__
Eagle identifies this as Arelatum (Constantina) mint
This may be an ancient counterfeit. Workmanship on the official bulls is usually good. This example has uneven striking, irregular planchet, and crude modelling, especially of the bull.
1 commentsgparch
AAE3JIINCor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 Fel Temp28 viewsgparch
NobCFelTempAQor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP Aquiliea30 viewsAE 18.5x19.5mm
Obv. DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Bust right, bare head, M in left field.
Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Falling horseman
Ex. (A)QT
Aquiliea mint, ca. 355-358 AD
gparch
IMPNobCaesor.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 Fel Temp Lugdunum36 viewsO; IMP IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Mint: GPLG Lugdunum third (gamma) officina.
gparch
ROSFelTemp.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP Rome44 viewsAE3
Obv. Bust right, bare head
Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Ex. R wreath S
Rome mint, second officina
gparch
aFTRSirmor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP SIRM61 viewsJulian seems to have had long hair,
curled at the ends, in the Sirmium mint. See also the example from Thessalonica.
gparch
a39.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP Sirmium20 viewsAE3 17.5x19.3mm, 2.61g
Obv. DN IVLIA_NVS NOB C
Bust right, bare head, no beard.
Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Falling horseman,
M in left field.
Ex. BSIRM
Sirmium mint, ca. 355-360 AD
gparch
AFTRSISor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP SIS28 viewsgparch
JulianncFTRor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP Siscia43 views17x17.4mm
obv: DN IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Bust of Julian right, bare head, no beard.
rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Fallen horseman, M in left field
ex: deltaSISsigma
Siscia mint
gparch
AJulFelor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FEL TEMP Siscia53 viewsgparch
AftrNobCor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 FTR SMAN(?)54 viewsAE3 16.7x17.9mm
Struck with good obverse die but worn reverse die.
Mintmark is SM followed by two letters and a dot.
gparch
Aspescon.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 NOB CAES CON (Arles)18 viewsgparch
aTCON.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 SPES Arles19 viewsgparch
Julianspes2OR.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 SPES Siscia18 viewsAE 3
Obv.
Bust right, bare head, no beard.
Rev.
Ex. delta SIS dot
gparch
AleVOT.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT ALE15 viewsAE3 17.8x18.8mm
Mintmark; ALEgamma,
Alexandria mint, third officina.
gparch
Juliantor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT ANT20 viewsAE3 17.3x18.2mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, helmet, spear and shield.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. ANTB
Antioch mint, second officina
gparch
AntiochBor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT ANTB8 viewsAE3, 18.1x19.2mm
Ex: branch ANTB branch
362-363 AD
Antioch mint, second officina
gparch
ANTDeltaor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT ANTdelta12 viewsAE3 , 17.7x19.2mm
Ex; branch ANT delta branch
gparch
CONSPor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT CONSP17 viewsgparch
JulianVota1OR.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT HERACL.A15 viewsAE3
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, spear, shield and helmet.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. HERACLA
gparch
Jae3bor copy.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT HERACL.A32 viewsAE3 18.6x19.6mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, with spear, shield and helmet.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. HERACL dot A
1 commentsgparch
AHeracl606.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT HERACL.A17 viewsAE 18.4x20.3mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, helmet, spear and shield.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. HERACL dot A
Ca. 360-363 AD
gparch
002or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT HERACL.A19 views1 commentsgparch
a35.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT HERACL.B14 viewsAE3 18.3x20.6mm, 2.4g
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, helmet, spear and shield
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. HERACL dot B
Heraclea mint, second officina
ca. 360-363 AD
gparch
ga_0044.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT HERACL.B19 viewsAE3 18.2x19.2mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, with helmet, spear and shield.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath.
Ex. HERACL dot B
Ca. 361-363 AD
Heraclea mint, second officina
gparch
000or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT HERACL.B10 viewsgparch
HeraclB.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT HERACLB10 viewsgparch
SMHPor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT Heraclea SMHB20 viewsEx; SMHB, Heraclea mint, second officina.
FORVM comments--
"Julian begun his reign with a monetary reform, introducing the large silvered bronze (AE 1) with a bull reverse, and a votive type for the smaller denomination (AE 3). Another innovation was the change of mintmark at Heraclea, from SMH to HERACL. RIC records the old style mintmark only for the AE1's. We may assume this variant of the votive type with the old SMH mintmark was produced from a single die at the very beginning of the issue."
As this example used a different die from FORVM's coin, there were at least two dies.
gparch
AE3NIKor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT NIKalpha11 viewsAE3 18.8x20.1mm
Ob. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, helmet, shield and spear.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath.
Ex. NIKA Nicomedia mint, 360-363 AD
gparch
AE3NIKGamor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT NIKgamma14 viewsgparch
Rome.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT Rome11 viewsgparch
JulianVota2OR.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM13 viewsAE3
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, spear, shield, and helmet.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. SIRM
gparch
VotSirm2or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM54 viewsAE 3 18x20.6mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, helmet, spear and shield
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath.
Ex. ASIRM
Sirmium mint
361-363 AD
gparch
JSIRMor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM19 viewsAE3 18.8x19.4mm 3.2g
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, short beard, spear, shield, helmet
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX
Ex. BSIRM
Sirmium mint
361-363 AD
gparch
04932q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM23 viewsAE 3 20.5x21.6mm 3.4g
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, helmet, spear and shield
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. ASIRM
gparch
JulianAE3SIRMor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM41 viewsAE 18.8x19.8mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, wearing helmet, shield and spear.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. ASIRM
1 commentsgparch
Bsirm.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM13 viewsgparch
0sirm.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM9 viewsgparch
05336q00.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIRM8 viewsAE3, 19.4x20.3mm
Ex: BSIRM
362-363 AD
Sirmium mint, second officina
gparch
44_1_b.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT Sirmium15 viewsAE3
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANUS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, with spear, shield and helmet.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. ? SIRM
gparch
JAE3or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT Sirmium19 viewsAE3 19.2x20.1mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, spear, shield and helmet
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. BSIRM
Sirmium mint, 2nd officina
gparch
ebay265sm.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT Sirmium11 viewsgparch
JulSirmor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT Sirmium18 viewsgparch
20_1_b.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIS18 viewsAE3
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, with spear, shield and helmet.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath
Ex. A SIS delta
gparch
dSISCIAor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIS17 viewsAE3, 18.5x20.1mm
Ex: branch delta SIS branch
gparch
ga_0134.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT SIS21 viewsAE3 19.3x19.8mm
Ex: branch BSISC dot
362-363 AD
Siscia mint, 2nd officina
gparch
JulTESor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT TES11 viewsAE 17.9x20.1mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust left, bearded, with spear, shield and helmet.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX, in four lines within wreath.
EX. palm branch TES A
gparch
Atesvot.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT TES18 viewsAE3 18.9x19.7mmgparch
e0_1.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT TES22 viewsgparch
0JIITESAor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT TESA23 viewsgparch
0tesd.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3 VOT TESdelta25 viewsgparch
Julian-II-Apostate.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE3. 361-363 AD. 12 viewsJulian II AE3. 361-363 AD.

obv: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG, helmeted, pearl-diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
rev: VOT X MVLT XX in wreath,
exe: palm branch-TESA-palm branch
Thessalonica ,RIC 228
Scarce
George
AE4SPESSMK2.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE4 AVG SPES SMKG17 viewsgparch
JulianAE4or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE4 FEL TEMP Thessalonica78 viewsAE4 14.5x15.5mm
Obv. DN CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Bust righr, bare head
Rev. FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Falling soldier
Ex. SMTS epsilon
ca. 355-358 AD
gparch
JulianspesOR.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE4 SPES Sirmium16 viewsAE 4
Obv. Bust right, bare head
Rev. Emperor standing, globe in
right hand, spear in left, point down.
Ex. B SIRM
Sirmium mint
gparch
AEAVGVirtusor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE4 Virtvs16 viewsAE4 13.8x14.6mm
FL CL IVLIANVS AVG
Virtvs with captive, holding trophy (VIRT EXERC____)
Mint uncertain (Probably RIC 327, Rome mint)
gparch
bpCD1V3Julian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II as Caesar, Siscia, 355-60 AD41 viewsObv: D N IVLIANVS NOB CAES
Bare-headed and draped bust, right.
Rev: FEL TEMP REPARATIO
Soldier advancing left, spearing fallen horseman.
2.1 gm 17.5 mm Ae3 Exergue: ?
Comment: Condition of coin precludes identification of mintmark. Examination of obverse/reverse inscriptions, fields and sculptures are consistent with Siscia.
Massanutten
julianII_163~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Julian II RIC VIII, Constantinopolis 163 var.381 viewsJulian II the philosopher 360 - 363, nephew of Constantin I
AE - Maiorina, 7.86g, 23mm
Constantinopolis 4. officina, 1st half of 363 (?)
obv. DN FL CL IVLI - ANVS PF AVG
bust draped, cuirassed, laureate, perl-diademed head r., necklace
rev. SECVRITAS REI PVB
diademed bull, head facing, standing r., two stars above
exergue: CONS Delta between palmbranchs
RIC VIII, Constantinopolis cf. 163 unrecorded; C.38
Rare; about VF

RIC 163 has CONSP Delta between palmbranchs!
Curtis Clay: The mintmark is known in rare smaller pieces, but apparently new on the large bull coins
Added to www.wildwinds.com
Jochen
oSiliqbeardor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II siliqua Arles21 views1 commentsgparch
LVGsilor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II siliqua LVG44 viewsSilique réduite, 360-361, C3 - A/FL CL IVLIA-NVS PP AVG - R/VOTIS/V/MVLTIS/X//LVG - RIC VIII 219, RSC 163cgparch
PCONS2or.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II siliqua PCONS22 viewsgparch
aPLVGSiliqua.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II siliqua PLVG15 viewsgparch
ARSLVGor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II siliqua SLVG13 viewsgparch
0SILnobcor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II siliqua TCON17 viewsgparch
siliquaor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II siliqua VOTIS24 viewsgparch
juli_II.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE114 viewsNumis-Student
IVLIANVS-4~0.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE1 Antioch661 viewsJulian II. 360-363 AD. AE1 (8.89 gm). Antioch mint, 4th officina. DNFLCLIVLI-ANVSPFAVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right / SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, two stars above; (palm) ANTD (palm).
RIC VIII 216; LRBC 2640.
Grade: good VF, dark brown patina.
BEAUTIFUL PORTRAIT STYLE!
I can not understand why the coin was graded as gVF only - there are no any visible traces of circulating.
The most perfect portrait of Julian which I have seen ever. If you do not agree, show me better!
13 commentsIVLIANVS
JulianBullArleor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE1 Arles98 viewsAE1, 25.2x28.7mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG
Bust right, bearded, pearl diadem.
Rev. SECVRITAS REIPVB
Bull right standing on line, head lowered; two stars, one between horns; to right, in front of bull, eagle with wreath in beak standing on wreath.
Ex. TCONST
Constantina (Arles) mint, 361-363 AD.
RIC VIII : 318
2 commentsgparch
JBullCONSAor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE1 Constantinople62 views27x28.3mm
Obv: DN FL CL IVLI_ANUS AVG. Bust of Julian right, bearded.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB •. Bull standing on line right, two stars above, in ex: •CONSPA branch
Constantinople mint
RIC VIII : 162
gparch
JulianbullCYZefOR.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE1 Cyzicus67 views24.1x24.3mm
Obv: DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS AVG. Bust of Julian right, bearded and diademed.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPUB. Bull standing on line right, two stars above, in ex: CYZA.
RIC VIII : 127

Unusually small for a bull, very circular planchet. Nice green patina.
1 commentsgparch
JBullCYZor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE1 Cyzicus26 views27.9x28.3mm
obv: DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS AVG
Bust of Julian right, bearded.
rev: SECVRITAS REIPUB
Bull standing on line right, two stars above
ex: CYZΓ, Cyzicus mint, 3rd officina
Cyzicus mint
gparch
Julian-2_Bull_HERACLB~0.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, JULIAN II, AE1 Heraclea. Follis struck A.D.361 - 36314 viewsObverse: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG. Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian II facing right.
Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB. Bull standing facing right; above, two stars; in exergue, •HERACL•B.
RIC VIII : 103 | LRBC : 1910 | VM : 25.
SCARCE
*Alex
Bullwalking.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE1 Nicomedia102 viewsAE1 28.5x29.5mm
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG. Bust right, bearded and diademed.
Rev. SECVRITAS REIPVB. Bull striding right on line, two stars above, in ex. NIKΓ* (Nicomedia mint, third officina).
RIC VIII : 120

Most of the bulls on these coins are static, but this one is definitely moving right along.
1 commentsgparch
Julianus avfällingen, ae .jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE1 Thessalonica. RIC VIII : 225679 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG. Diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.
Rev: SECVRITAS REIPVB. Bull, head facing, standing right; above, two stars; in exergue, TESA between two laurel branches.
Rare.
1 commentsthe_Apostate
4~2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE318 viewsFlavius Claudius Julianus Augustus, AD 355-363.
361-363 AD.
Obverse: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX within wreath. Palm branch, BSISC • in ex.
ggergo
Alex.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE3 Alexandria33 viewsAE3 19.3x19.7mm
Mint; branch ALEΓ branch (Alexandria mint, third officina).
RIC VIII : 91.
gparch
AqvilVOTor.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE3 Aquileia41 viewsAE3 17.2x18.7mm
RIC VIII : 245
gparch
Julian_II_Vows~1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE3 Heraclea 355-363 AD492 viewsJulian II, 355-363 AD AE3 * Scarce
Obv: FL CL IVLI-NVS P F AVG - Helmeted, diademed bust left, cuirassed holding spear and shield.
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX – ("I promise ten years and perhaps twenty." Obv: D N) Within wreath on four lines; in exe: HERACL•A.
Mint: Heraclea, struck: Between November 3rd 361 and June 26th 363 AD. Workshop A
Size: (c) 20mm. Weight: 2.95 grams. Patina: Very dark green, near-black: beautiful. Grade: VF
RIC VIII, 106. Scarce, page 438 - LRBC #1908.3.55g
4 commentsTiathena
julian-1-vot.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, JULIAN II, AE3 Sirmium63 viewsJULIAN II- Æ 20m Minted at Sirmium

OBV. Helmeted bust left, holding spear and shield
REV. VOT/ X/ MVLT/ XX within wreath
EX. ASIRM.
Attrib.RIC 108,LRBC 1619
2 commentsblack-prophet
JulianVota3OR.JPG
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, AE3 Thessalonika50 viewsAE3
Obv. DN FL CL IVLI_ANVS PF AVG. Bust left, spear, shield and helmet.
Rev. VOT X MVLT XX in wreath; in ex. TESΓ
RIC VIII : 227
1 commentsgparch
JulianIIDOCPic.jpg
Roman Empire, Julian II, AE3, Constantinople346 viewsClosest match is RIC 160. This coin is now published on both Wildwinds.com and the dirtyoldcoins website. This coin is "barely" published as the other example had the exergue broken off of it and the mint was assumed Cyzicus..until now...as my coins shows...it is Constantinople.

Gunner
Gunner
silique.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, Siliqua7 viewsSilique de Julien II. Atelier de Trêves ou d'Arles
Avers: D N CL IVLIANVS AVG. Buste drapé et cuirassé, tête nue de Julien II César à droite
Revers: VOTIS V MVLTIS X. Légende en quatre lignes dans une couronne
Kenobi O
bpCD1V5Julian.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II, Thessalonica, RIC 228 (var), S, 361-63 AD65 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLI_ANVS P F AVG
Helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
Rev: VOT/X/MULT/XX
Legend in four lines within laurel wreath.
4.1 gm 20.1 mm Ae3 Exergue: *//branch TESB branch/
Comment: This coin is a minor oddity in that the weight is a little over the high end and with the addition of a star at the top of the wreath in lieu of an oval. (The star that is part of the mintmark is embedded in the wreath ties at the bottom).
Massanutten
moneta 334.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II. unknown mint68 viewsROMAN EMPIRE, Julian II AE4
obv: D N IVLIANVS NOB C. Bare-headed, dr & cuir. bust r.
rev: SPES REIPVBLICE. Emperor standing left, holding globe and spear.
Struck 355-360 at unknown mint
Van Meter 29
Note: Obverse inscription noted is only a best guess.
Jericho
Julianus_II_SMTS_E~0.jpg
Roman Empire, Julian the Apostate, AE 380 viewsThessalonica
6 Nov 355 - Feb 360 AD
bare draped and cuirassed bust right
D N CL IVLIANVS NOB CAES
soldier spearing falling horseman (phrygian helmet)
FEL TEMP_REPARATIO
E
SMTS

!!! unlisted in RIC (Thessalonica 190 var)
another exemplar is in Helvetica collection

There is type with E in field for Constantius Gallus in RIC catalogue but not for Julian. For Julian there is only SMTSE in exergue.
Johny SYSEL
Julianus-II__AE-3_DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG_VOT-X-MVLT-XX_palmA-SISpalm_Siscia_RIC-VIII-415_p-380_361-3-AD_Q-001_6h_19mm_3,12g-s.jpg
Roman Empire, Julianus II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, RIC VIII 415, Siscia, -/-//palm-ASIS-palm, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1185 views153 Julianus-II. (360-363 A.D.), AE-3, RIC VIII 415, Siscia, -/-//palm-ASIS-palm, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath, #1
avers: - DN-FL-CL-IVLI-ANVS-PF-AVG-J8/A3L, Helmeted, diademed, cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield.
revers: - No legend, VOT/X/MVLT/XX in wreath.
exerg: -/-//palm-ASIS-palm, diameter: 19mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 361-363 A.D., ref: RIC-VIII 415, p-380,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
bpLRE1E4Procopius2.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, Procopius, Ae3, Constantinople, RIC 19 (R2), LRBC 2080, 365-66 AD49 viewsObv: D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Pearl diademed, draped and cuirassed bust, right.
Rev: REPARATIO FEL TEMP
Procopius standing, facing, with head right, holding spear and leaning on shield.
2.4 gm 16.3 mm Exergue: CONSA
Comment: Represents the early issues when Procopius used the light and smaller flan standard of his predecessor, Valentinian I. He soon changed to the heavier standard and broader flan size of Julian II and simultaneously turned his portrait to the left. (Thanks to Curtis Clay.)
Massanutten
julian-ii-bull.jpg
Roman Imperial, Julian II AE 1, Antioch mint7 viewsRoman Imperial, Julian II AE 1, Antioch mint

Obverse: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVB, bull standing right, two stars above. Mintmark palm branch-ANTA-palm branch.

Reference: RIC VIII Antioch 216; LRBC 2640.
Gil-galad
Screenshot_2019-06-12_15_10_54.png
Roman Imperial, Julian II as Augustus, AR Siliqua.5 viewsLugdunum 360-363 A.D. 1.80g - 17.8mm, Axis 12h.

Obv: FL CL IVLIA-NVS PF AVG - Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right.

Rev: VOTIS V MVLTIS X - Legend within wreath. Mintmark LVG.

RIC VIII 218.
Christian Scarlioli
Julian_II_RIC-216.jpg
Roman Imperial: Julian II (360-363) Æ Double Maiorina, Antioch (RIC 216; LRBC 2640)15 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS P F AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust of Julian II to right
Rev: SECVRITAS REI PVB; Bull standing right; above, two stars; below, ANTΓ flanked by two palms
Dim: 29 mm, 7.38 g, 6 h
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Julian_II_RIC-106.jpg
Roman Imperial: Julian II (360-363) Æ3, Heraclea (RIC 106; LRBC 1909)19 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLIANVS PF AVG; helmeted and cuirassed bust left, holding spear and shield
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX; legend in four lines within wreath; HERACL·B in exergue
1 commentsQuant.Geek
Julian_II_RIC-106(1).jpg
Roman Imperial: Julian II (360-363) Æ3, Heraclea (RIC 106; LRBC 1909)11 viewsObv: D N FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG; Diademed, helmeted and cuirassed bust of Julian II left, holding spear and shield
Rev: VOT X MVLT XX; legend in four lines within wreath; HERACL·A in exergue
Quant.Geek
Julian_II_RIC_VIII-312.jpg
Roman Imperial: Julian II (361-363) AR Siliqua, Arelate (RIC VIII 312; RSC V 148c)20 viewsObv: DN FL CL IVLI-ANVS PF AVG; Pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right
Rev: VOT / X / MVLT / XX in laurel wreath, circular medallion at top of wreath; TCONST in exergue

Ex Harptree Hoard
1 commentsQuant.Geek