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Byzantine_follis.JPG
224 views
An Anonymous Follis Class A 2 coin, type 21
Obverse: Christ facing, holding book of gospels IC to left XC to rightEmmanovha IC XC (God with us)
Reverse: +IhSYS XRISTYS bASILEY bASILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)
Sear attributes it to the joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII 1020-1028 AD
Grierson in DOC says Romanus III and into Michael IV's
1 commentsJon the Lecturer
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Dy.190C Louis IX (Saint Louis): Gros tournois57 viewsLouis IX, king of France (1226-1270)
Gros tournois (1266-1270)

Silver (958 ‰), 3.94 g, diameter 26 mm, die axis 12h
O: inner circle: +LVDOVICVS REX; cross pattée; outer circle: BHDICTV⋮SIT⋮HOmЄ⋮DNI⋮nRI⋮DЄI⋮IhV.XPI
R: inner circle: +TVRONVS CIVIS; châtel tournois; outer circle: a circlet of 12 fleur-de-lis

The full transcription of the obverse is: benedictvm sit nomen domini nostri dei Jesu Christi, which means ``blessed is the name of our Lord Jesus Christ'' (XPI is in fact a mix of greek and latin letters: χρI[STI]). This choice of religious legend is not surprising for a king as pious as Louis IX.

The value of the denier had become too small for use in commerce. So Louis IX introduced the Gros Tournois in 1266, with a value of 12 deniers tournois (12 is the number of lis, and also of letters of the obverse and reverse legends !). Gros means ``big'' or``thick'', and tournois ``of Tours'' (Tours is a french city). The inner part of a Gros tournois is similar to a denier tournois. An outer circle has been added with the christian legend on the obverse and 12 fleur-de-lis (symbol of French kingship) on the reverse.

Gros tournois were struck in France and entire Europe during one century.
Droger
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0049 - Denarius Aemilia 114-3 BC39 viewsObv/ Laureate female bust (Roma?) r., veiled and wearing diadem; before, ROMA; behind, crossed X.
Rev/ Three arches, on which stands equestrian status - horseman wears cuirass and wreath, and holds spear in r. hand; around, MN AEMILIO; between arches, L E P.

Ag, 18.5 mm, 3.85 g
Moneyer: Mn. Aemilius Lepidus
Mint: Rome
RRC 291/1 [dies o/r: 283/354 - BMCRR Italy 590
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 116, lot 3080
1 commentsdafnis
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0071 - Denarius Pomponia 66 BC30 viewsObv/Laureate head of Apollo r., two crossed flutes behind.
Rev/POMPONI MVSA, Euterpe, muse of lyric poetry, standing r., holding two flutes in r. hand.

Ag, 19.6mm, 3.88g
Moneyer: Q Pomponius Musa.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 410/5 [dies o/r: 10/11] - BMCRE Rome 3613 - Syd.815 - RCV 355 - RSC Pomponia 13 - Calicó 1184.
ex-Jesús Vico, auction nov 2008, lot 290
1 commentsdafnis
0099.jpg
0099 - Denarius Coelia 104 BC46 viewsObv/ Head of Roma l.
Rev/ Victory in biga left, C COIL below horses: above, A with point below; CALD in ex.

Ag, 19.0 mm, 3.94 g
Moneyer: C. Coelius Caldus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 318/1a [dies o/r: 72/90] - Syd. 582 - Bab. Coelia 2
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 125, lot 208
1 commentsdafnis
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0100 - Denarius Furia 63 BC28 viewsObv/ Bust of Ceres r., wheat-ear behind; ear of barley before; III-VIR across fields; BROCCHI below.
Rev/ Curule chair between fasces; L FVRI CN F above.

Ag, 20.7 mm, 3.94 g
Moneyer: L. Furius Cn. f. Brocchus .
Mint: Rome.
RRC 414/1 [dies o/r: 110/122] - Syd. 902a
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 125, lot 221
dafnis
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0101 - Denarius Marcia 82 AC34 viewsObv/ Laureate head of Apollo r.
Rev/ Marsyas walking l. bearing wine skin on shoulder; behind, statue of Victory on column: before, L CENSOR.

Ag, 17.5 mm, 3.78 g
Moneyer: L. Censorinus.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 363/1d [dies o/r: ~197/~228] - Syd. 737 - RSC Marcia 24
ex-M.Iglesias Alvarez, march 2011 (ex - Jesús Vico, auction 125, lot 232)
1 commentsdafnis
0168.jpg
0168 - Semis Augustus 12-11 BC42 viewsObv/ M AGRIP QVIN HIBERO PRAE, bare head of Agrippa (?) r.
Rev/ L BENNIO PRAEF, trophy over shields.

AE, 19.5mm, 4.65g
Mint: Carthago Nova.
APRH/164 – RPC I/164 - AB589
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 132, lot 548 (ex-Hispanic Society of America, colln. Archer M. Huntington, #21102)
1 commentsdafnis
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0183 - Denarius Nonia 59 BC26 viewsObv/ Head of Saturn r., before SVFENAS, behind SC, harpa and conical stone.
Rev/ PR L V P F, Roma seated l. over pile of arms, holding scepter and sword, crowned by Victory standing l. behind; SEX NONI in ex.

Ag, 19.9 mm, 3.65 g
Moneyer: M. Nonius Sufenas.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 2421/1 [dies o/r: 56/62] - Syd. 885 - RSC Nonia 1
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 137, lot 203
dafnis
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0184 - Denarius Crispina 180-2 AC17 viewsObv/ CRISPINA AVGVSTA, togate bust of Crispina r.
Rev/ VENVS, Venus standing l., holding apple with r.h. and raising toga above shoulder with l.h.

Ag, 19 mm, 2.33 g
Mint: Roma.
RIC III/286a [S]
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 137, lot 413
dafnis
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0193 - Denarius Sulpicia 69 BC41 viewsObv/ Veiled bust of Vesta r.; behind, S C.
Rev/ Knife, simpulum and axe; AE CVR in field; P GALB in ex.

Ag
Moneyer: P. Sulpicius Galba.
Mint: Rome.
RRC 406/1 - RSC I/Sulpicia 7.
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 140, lot 79.
dafnis
Tiberius-RIC-3.jpg
021. Tiberius.23 viewsDenarius, ca 16 - 37 AD, Lugdunum mint.
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS / Laureate bust of Tiberius.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM / Livia seated, as Pax, holding branch and sceptre.
3.56 gm., 18 mm.
RIC #3; Sear #1763.

Because this is the denarius that was in circulation at the time of Jesus, this coin is often called the "Tribute Penny" -- a name which is derived from the Authorized (King James) Version of the Bible where the word denarius was translated as penny.
Callimachus
0222_ACIP581.jpg
0222 - Punic - AE 1/2 unit - 237-209 BC27 viewsObv/ Head of Mars r.
Rev/ Palm tree with fruits.

AE, 19.1 mm, 5.58 g
Mint: Qart Hadasht
ACIP/581 [R3] - CNH/HC41 [R3]
ex-Jesús Vico, auction 148, lot 120
1 commentsdafnis
03_Tiberius,_RIC_I_30.jpg
03 02 Tiberius RIC 30150 viewsTiberius. 14-37 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyon) Mint. 3.78 g., 19 mm. Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right. Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax, seated right, holding scepter and olive branch. Feet on footstool. Ornate chair legs. One line below throne. RIC I 30, RSC 16a.

The well known "tribute penny." When brought a coin as requested, Jesus asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
8 commentsLucas H
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03.- Pontos AE18 (125-100 BC)9 viewsPontos. Amisos. Time of Mithradates VI Eupator, circa 125-100 BC. (Bronze, 20.33-18.67 mm., 8.36 g). Diademed head of Artemis to right; at her shoulder, bow and quiver. Rev. ΑΜΙ - ΣΟΥ Tripod. Black patina. VF.
Purchased at Jesus Vico online auction in 2019.
Oscar D
040_Hunyadi-Matyas,_(Mathias-Corvinus),_(1458-1490_A_D_),_H-718,_C2-234,_U-564_f,_K-P,_P-219-4,_Kremnitz,_1472-78,_Q-001,_1h,_15,5-16,0mm,_0,53g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.f, P-219-04, K/P//--, Madonna and child, #0165 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.f, P-219-04, K/P//--, Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•VnGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion with Crown). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATROn VnGARI•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots,(Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/P//--, were struck by Paul Peck, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5-16,0mm, weight: 0,53g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1472-1478 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Huszár-718, CNH-2-234, Unger-564.f., Pohl-219-04,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
040_Hunyadi-Matyas,_(Mathias-Corvinus),_(1458-1490_A_D_),_H-718,_C2-234,_U-564_g,_K-A,_P-219-2,_Kremnitz,_1472-78,_Q-001,_2h,_15,0-16,5mm,_0,62g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.g, P-219-02, K/A//--, Madonna and child, #0164 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.g, P-219-02, K/A//--, Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•VnGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion with Crown). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATROnA VnGARIЄ•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots,(Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/A//--, were struck by Augustin Langsfelder, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0-16,5mm, weight: 0,62g, axis: 2h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1472-1478 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Huszár-718, CNH-2-234, Unger-564.g., Pohl-219-02,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
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040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-567.b., Madonna and child, #01174 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-567.b., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠M•MATHIE•R•VNGARIE, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak. One dots both side of the shield. (Legend variation!)
reverse: PATRON VNGARIE, Nimbate and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K-P/Rozette) on each side; line border, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ P/Rozette//--, were struck by Peter Schaider, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5mm, weight: 0,49g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1488 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-567.b., CNH-2-232, Huszár-722, Pohl-223-01,
Q-001

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040 Matyas Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Obulus, U-578.h., #0177 views040 Matyas Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR-Obulus, U-578.h., Madonna and child, #01
avers: Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak.
revers: Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
exe, mint mark: K/ V/A//--, were strucked by Veit Mühlstein and Augustin Langsfelder, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 12,0-13,0mm, weight: 0,30g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1479 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-578.h., CNH-2-244, Huszar-728, Pohl-220-07,
Q-001

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040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.e, P-219-05, K/ P/V//--, Madonna and child, #01115 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, H-718, C2-234, U-564.e, P-219-05, K/ P/V//--, Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠m•mAThIЄ•R•hVnGARIЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion with Crown). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATROn VnGAR•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots,(Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ P/V//--, were struck by Paul Peck/Veit Mühlstein, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5-16,5mm, weight: 0,44g, axis: 10h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1472-1478 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Huszár-718, CNH-2-234, Unger-564.e., Pohl-219-05,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_562e_C2-235A_H-717g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.e., Madonna and child, #01101 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.e., Madonna and child, #01
avers: •m•mAThIЄ•R•hVnTARIЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak.
reverse: PATROn VnGARIAЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.
exergue, mint mark: B/+ on top of the horseshoe//-- were struck by Stephan Kowach (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g,
mint: Hungary, Buda (by Pohl),
date: 1469 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.e., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-05,
Q-001
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040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #01104 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA-mAThIЄ•R•VnGARIЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATROnA VnGARIAЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ K over Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 0,71g, axis: 9h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1468 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.h., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-08,
Q-001

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040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #02115 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #02
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•VnG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: PATROnA VnGARIAЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ K over Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 16,5mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 10h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1468 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.h., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-08,
Q-002

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040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #03122 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #03
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•VnG, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: PATROnA VnGARI, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ K over Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0-16,5mm, weight: 0,53g, axis: 3h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1468 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.h., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-08,
Q-003

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040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #04121 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.h., Madonna and child, #04
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•VnGAR, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak. (Legend variation!)
reverse: •PATROnA VnGARI•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ K over Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 16,0-16,5mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1468 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.h., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-08,
Q-004

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040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.i., Madonna and child, #01115 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.i., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠ m mAThIЄ R VnGARIЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: PATROn VnGAR, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5-16,5mm, weight: 0,63g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1469 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.i., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-09,
Q-001
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040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.m., Madonna and child, #0199 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-562.m., Madonna and child, #01
avers: m mAThIЄ•R hVnGARЄ, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: PATROn VnGARЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots. (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: n/ hammers//--, were struck by Bürgertschaft, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,5-16,0mm, weight: 0,51g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Nagybánya (today Romania : Baia Mare) by Pohl,
date: 1470 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-562.m., CNH-2-235A, Huszár-717, Pohl-216-13,
Q-001

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Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_564_c_C2-234_H-718_mOnETA_mAThIE_R_VnGARI__PATROn-VnGARI__K_Sigma_Q-001_6h_16mm_0,46g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-564.c., Madonna and child, #0196 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-564.c., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•R•hVnGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATROn VnGARI•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ G//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 16,0mm, weight: 0,46g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1472-1478 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-564.c., CNH-2-234, Huszár-718, Pohl-219-03,
Q-001

quadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Denar_U_565-a_C2-239A-E_H-719_xM_MAThIE_R_hUnGARI_PATRO-VnGARI_K_P-V_Q-001_5h_15-15,5mm_0,65g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-565.a., Madonna and child, #0185 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-565.a., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠m•mAThIЄ•R•hVnGARI, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak, (Legend variation!).
reverse: •PATRO VnGARI, Crowned Madonna sitting, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots, (Legend variation!).
exergue, mint mark: K/ P/V//--, were struck by Paul Peck/Veit Mühlstein, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 15,0-15,5mm, weight: 0,65g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1479-1485 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-565.a., CNH-2-239A, Huszár-719, Pohl-221-03,
Q-001

quadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Garas_U_550-d_C2-213A-E_H-692-695_P-193-2,_mOnETA_mAThIE_REIS_hVnOAR,_PATROnA_VnGARIE,_1479-85_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_26,5mm,_2,9g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Gross, U-550.d-var., Madonna and child, #01166 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Gross, U-550.d-var., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•RЄIS•hVnOAR, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads(two!!), Crown(!!) and Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak. (Legends error! "•RЄIS•hVnOAR" instead of "•RЄGIS•hVnGAR" and variation!)
reverse: PATROnA VnGARIЄ, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots. (Legend variation!)
exergue, mint mark: K/ Shield//--, were struck by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 26,5mm, weight: 2,9g, axis: 6h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1469 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-550.d-var., CNH-2-213A-Evar., Huszár-692, Pohl-193-02,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Matyas-Hunyadi_Garas_U_550-j_C2-213A-E_H-695_P-197-05_mOnETA_mAThIE_REGIS_Vn__PATROnA-hVnGARIE__1479-85_AD_Q-001_4h_26,0mm_3,05g-s.jpg
040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Gross, U-550.j., Madonna and child, #01155 views040 Mátyás Hunyadi., (Matthias Corvinus), King of Hungary, (1458-1490 A.D.) AR Gross, U-550.j., Madonna and child, #01
avers: ✠mOnЄTA•mAThIЄ•RЄGIS•Vn, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, (three!) Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Inside of the central shield, the raven standing and turning left. The ring in its beak. (Legend variation!)
reverse: •PATROnA hVnGARIЄ•, Madonna sitting on a veil on her head, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark on each side; border of dots.(Legend variation!)
exergue, mint mark: K/ V/A//--, were struck by Veit Mühlstein and Augustin Langsfelder, kammergraf, (by Pohl), diameter: 26,0mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 4h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1479-1485 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-550.j., CNH-2-213A-Evar., Huszár-695, Pohl-219-05,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
II_Ulaszlo_Den_U-638-d_C2-276_H-803_M_WLADISLAI_R_VNGARIE__PATRON-_---_-VNGARIE_1495-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.d., #0187 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.d., #01
avers: M•WLADISLAI•R•VNGARIЄ•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in the inner shield.
reverse: PATRON VNGARIЄ, Nimbate and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K - B/AF/M) on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: K /B/AF/M//-- were struck by Andreas Hellebrand and Franz Körnidl (by Pohl), diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1496 A.D., ref: Unger-638.d., CNH-2-276, Huszár-803, Pohl-238-03,
Q-001
quadrans
Wladislai-II-4a-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.e., #01161 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Denarius, U-638.e., #01
avers: M•WLADISLAI•R•VNGARIЄ•, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in the inner shield.
reverse: PATRON VNGARI•Є, Nimbate and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K-S/Є) on each side; line border.
exergue, mint mark: K/S/Є//-- were struck by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl (by Pohl), diameter: 16 mm, weight: 0,52g, axis: 5h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1497 A.D., ref: Unger-638.e., CNH-2-276, Huszár-803, Pohl-238-04,
Q-001

quadrans
040_Ulászló_II__(Wladislas_II_,_Jagellion)_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1490-1516_A_D_)_AR_Obulus,_H-813,_P-240-3,_U-647d,_1497AD,_Q-001,_11h,_11,5-12mm,_0,31g-s.jpg
041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Obulus, H-813, U-647.d., #01183 views041 Ulászló II. (Wladislas II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1490-1516 A.D.) AR Obulus, H-813, U-647.d., #01
avers: No legend, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), a Bohemian lion in the central shield.
reverse: No legend, Nimbate, and Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding Nimbate infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (K-S/Є) on each side, line border.
exergue, mint mark: K/S/Є//-- were struck by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl (by Pohl), diameter: 11,5-12,0 mm, weight: 0,31g, axis: 11h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica) by Pohl,
date: 1497 A.D., (by Pohl), ref: Huszár-813, CNH 2 284, Pohl 240-03, Unger 647.d.,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Lajos-II_,_(1516-1526_AD),_(Ladislaus_II,_Jagiellon),_AR-Denar,_H-841,_C2-306A,_U-673a,_P-255-32,_A-V,HK,_1526,_Q-001,_8h,_14,5-15mm,_0,56g-s.jpg
042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-673a., Madonna and child, A/V//HK, 1526, #0174 views042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-673a., Madonna and child, A/V//HK, 1526, #01
avers: LVDOVICVS ᵒRᵒVNGARI*1626*, Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in the inner shield. The date (1526) above the shield between two flowers, and flower with five petals, the border of dots.
reverse: PATRONA HK VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (A-V) on each side, HK below, the border of dots.
exergue/mint mark: A/V//HK, diameter: 14,5-15,0mm, weight: 0,56g, axis: 8h,
mint: Hungary, Visegrád (Pohl), date: 1526 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Huszar-841, CNH-2-306A, Unger-673a., Pohl-255-32,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Lajos-II__(1516-1526_AD)_(Ladislaus_II,_Jagiellon)_Denar_U-675-a_C2-308A_H-846_L-B-1521_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-a., Madonna and child, L-B, 1521, #0177 views042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-a., Madonna and child, L-B, 1521, #01
avers:- Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in inner shield. The date (1521) above the shield between two flower, and flower with five petals between two dots on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (L-B) on each side; border of dots.
exe, mint mark: L/B//-- diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1521 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-675-a., CNH-2-308A, Huszar-846, Pohl-258-01, "Moneta Nova"
Q-001
quadrans
Lajos-II__(1516-1526_AD)_(Lodovicus_II,_Jagiellon)_Denar_U-675-a_C2-308A_H-846_L-B-1523_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-a., Madonna and child, L-B, 1523, #0186 views042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-a., Madonna and child, L-B, 1523, #01
avers:- Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in inner shield. The date (1523) above the shield, and rozette with five petals between two small circle on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (L-B) on each side; border of dots.
exe, mint mark: L/B//-- diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Buda, date: 1523 A.D. (Pohl), ref: Unger-675-a., CNH-2-308A, Huszar-846, Pohl-258-01, "Moneta Nova"
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Lajos-II__(1516-1526_AD)_(Lodovicus_II,_Jagiellon)_Denar_U-675-e_C2-308A_H-846_L-K-1522_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-e., Madonna and child, L-K, 1522, #0171 views042 Lajos II. (Lodovicus II., Jagellion)., King of Hungary, (1516-1526 A.D.) AR Denar, U-675-e., Madonna and child, L-K, 1522, #01
avers:- Hungarian shield, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian (Hungarian) stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion). Polish eagle in inner shield. The date (1522) above the shield between two flower, and flower with five petals between two dots on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Crowned Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her right arm, mint-mark (L-K) on each side; border of dots.
exe, mint mark: L/K//-- diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica, by Pohl), date: 1522 A.D. (by Pohl), ref: Unger-675-e., CNH-2-308A, Huszar-846, Pohl-258-02, "Moneta Nova"
Q-001
quadrans
Mathias-II__(1608-1619AD)_AR-Den_MAT_II_D_G_HV_BO_REX_1613_PATRONA-Shield-HVNGARI_K-B_U-869_C3-240_H-1140_1613_Q-001_1h_14,5-15mm_0,37g-s.jpg
047 Mathias II., (Mathias of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1608-1619 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-869, 1613 A.D.,79 views047 Mathias II., (Mathias of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1608-1619 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-869, 1613 A.D.,
avers:- MAT•II•D•G•HV•BO•REX•1613, Crowned Hungarian shield in circle of dots, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- PATRONA HVNGARI•, Madonna seated facing, on crescent, in sunburst, in circle of dots, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, Austrian shield with band below, border of dots.
diameter: 14,5-15mm, weight: 0,37g, axis: 1h,
mint: Hungary, , mint mark:
date: A.D., ref: Unger-, CNH-, Huszar-,
Q-001
quadrans
Leopoldus-I-Denar_a-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-1107a, /1683, Madonna and child, #0170 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Denarius, U-1107a, /1683, Madonna and child, #01
avers:- •LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Hungarian shield in circle, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- PATRONA•HVNGA•1683, Madonna seated facing on crescent in sunburst in circle, holding infant Jesus in her left, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1683 A.D., ref: Unger-1107a, CNH-, Huszar-1503/1683,
Q-001
quadrans
Leopoldus-I-Duarius-3_-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1698, #0168 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1698, #01
avers:- LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Madonna seated facing on crescent, holding infant Jesus in her left, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, DUARIVS/1698 (date) below, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, P/H//DVARIVS/1698, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1698 A.D., ref: Unger-1105a, CNH-, Huszar-1499,
Q-001
quadrans
Leopoldus-I-Duarius-2_-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1700, #0176 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1700, #01
avers:- + LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Madonna seated facing on crescent, holding infant Jesus in her left, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, DUARIVS/1700 (date) below, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, P/H//DVARIVS/1700, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1700 A.D., ref: Unger-1105a/1700, CNH-, Huszar-1499/1700,
Q-001
quadrans
Leopoldus-I-Duarius-1_-s.jpg
050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1703, #0164 views050 Leopoldus I., (Leopoldus I. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1657-1705 A.D.), AR-Duarius, U-1105a, /1703, #01
avers:- + LEOP•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•B•REX, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side, border of dots.
revers:- Madonna seated facing on crescent, holding infant Jesus in her left, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, DUARIVS /•1703• (date) below, border of dots.
diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: K/B//--, P/H//DVARIVS/•1703•, Körmöcbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica),
date: 1703 A.D., ref: Unger-1105a/1703, CNH-, Huszar-1499/1703,
Q-001
quadrans
053_Károly_III_,_(Carolus_VI__of_Habsburg),_King_of_Hungary,_(1711-1740_A_D_),_AR-den,_1733_AD,_K-B,_Huszar-1641,_Q-001,_h,_26,5mm,_g-s.jpg
053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Denar, Huszár-1641, 1733, K-B, #01164 views053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Denar, Huszár-1641, 1733, K-B, #01
avers: +CAR•VI•D•G•R•I•S•A•G•H•H•B•R•, Crowned Hungarian shield, mint-mark (K-B) on each side.
reverse: PATRONA•HUNGA•1733, Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her left arm.
diameter: 26,0-26,5mm, weight: g, axis: 0h,
mint mark: K/B//--, mint: Hungary, Körmöczbánya (Kremnitz, today Slovakia: Kremnica), date: 1733 A.D., ref: Huszár 1641/1733, Unger-2 1208/1733,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Karolus-III(VI)_POLTURA_1715_U2-1202_H-1631_J_N__P-H_Q-001_0h_18-19,5mm_0,90ga-s.jpg
053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Poltura, U2-1202, /1715, #01100 views053 Károly III., (Carolus VI. of Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1711-1740 A.D.), AR-Poltura, U2-1202, /1715, #01
avers: CAROLUS•VI•D:G:R:I:S:A:G:H:H:B:R•, Emperor bust right in circle, border of dots.
revers: P-H//POLTURA/*1715*/*, Madonna seated facing, holding infant Jesus in her left arm, P - H (Patrona - Hungariae) on each side, POLTURA / date below, border of line and border of dots.
diameter: 18-19,5mm, weight: 0,90g, axis: 0h,
mint: Hungary, mint mark: P-H//POLTURA/*1715*/*,,
date: 1715 A.D., ref: Unger-2 1202/1715, Huszar 1631,
Q-001
quadrans
056_Jozsef_II_,_(1780-1790_A_D_),_AR-halb-Thaler,_U-III-1324a,_H-1875,_A-Wien,1789_AD,_Q-001_0h_33,8mm_14,02g-s.jpg
056 Jozsef II., (Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1780-1790 A.D.), AR-1/2 Thaler, U III 1324a, 1789 A, 114 views056 Jozsef II., (Habsburg), King of Hungary, (1780-1790 A.D.), AR-1/2 Thaler, U III 1324a, 1789 A,
avers: IOS II•D•_G•R•IMP•S•A•_G•H•B•REX•A_•A•D•B•& L•, Two winged Angel holding Hungarian Crown over the Hungarian Shield.
revers: S•MARIA_MATER DEI_ A _PATRONA HUNG•1789•X, Crowned Madonna (Virgin Marie) seated, child (Jesus) on the left arm.
diameter: 33,8mm, weight: 14,02g, axis: 0h,
exe, mint mark: -/-//A, mint: Wien, date: 1826 A.D.,
ref: Unger III 1324a, Huszár-1875,
Q-001
quadrans
BasIISear1813.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A213 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: Fair
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with probable in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

Sear 1813; probable DO A2.25
15.47g; 35.3mm; 30°
Pep
BasIIDOA2_24.jpg
0976-1025 AD - Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) - Anonymous Follis, Class A2.2420 viewsEmperor: Basil II (Bulgaroktonos) (r. 976-1025 AD)
Date: 976-1025 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class A2

Obverse: -
Bust of Christ facing, bearded, with nimbus cross having in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand raised in blessing in sling of cloak, left holds book with in jeweled border. In field, - .

Reverse: ///
above and beneath.

DO A2.24; Sear 1813
13.40g; 29.0mm; 180°
Pep
1028-1034 Anon B S 1823 2.jpg
1028-1034 - follis (Anonymous class B)62 views+ EMMANOVHΛ , bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels ; in field IC / XC (icon of the "Pantocrator")
Cross on three steps dividing IS / XC // bAS / ILE // bAS / ILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)

Sear 1823
Ginolerhino
1034-1041 Anon C S 1825.jpg
1034-1041 - follis (Anonymous class C)73 views+ EMMANOVHΛ , 3/4 length figure of Christ standing (icon of the "Antiphonetes") , in field IC / XC
Jewelled cross dividing IC / XC / NI / KA ("Jesus Christ conquers").

Sear 1825
Ginolerhino
NicIIIDOI.jpg
1078-1081 AD - Nicephorus III (Botaniates) - Anonymous Follis, Class I11 viewsEmperor: Nicephorus III (Botaniates) (r. 1078-1081 AD)
Date: 1078-1081 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Anonymous Follis, Class I

Obverse: No legend
Bust of Christ facing, having long, slightly forked beard and cross nimbus with one pellet in each arm, wearing tunic and himation; right hand blessing inwards in sling of cloak, left holds book, with on cover, from beneath. In field, - .

Reverse: No legend
Latin cross with one large and two small pellets at each extremity, small cross at intersection, and pellet with floral ornaments to left and right at base. Above, crescents to left and right.

DO I; Sear 1889
5.13g; 22.9mm; 195°
Pep
AlexISear1909.jpg
1081-1118 AD - Alexius I Comnenus - Follis - Thessalonica mint17 viewsEmperor: Alexius I Comnenus (r. 1081-1118 AD)
Date: 1081-1092 AD
Condition: aFair
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
Bust of the Virgin facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; She holds before Her the infant Christ whose nimbate head facing is represented; to left, ; to right, ; on either side of Virgin's head, uncertain wedge-shaped object.

Reverse: - ]
Alexius standing facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding labarum and globus cruciger.

Thessalonica mint
Sear 1909
4.27g; 26.1mm; 165°
Pep
ManISear1966.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy26 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
4.49g; 31.3mm; 180°
Pep
ManISear1966_2.jpg
1143-1180 AD - Manuel I Comnenus - Sear 1966 - Billon Aspron Trachy - 2nd Example10 viewsEmperor: Manuel I Comnenus (r. 1143-1180 AD)
Date: 1143-1180 AD
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Billon Aspron Trachy

Obverse: -
Christ, bearded, seated facing on throne without back, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium; in left hand, book of Gospels.

Reverse: -
The Virgin, nimbate (on right) and Manuel (on left), both standing facing; the Virgin wears pallium and maphorium, and with Her right hand crowns the emperor, who wears divitision and loros, and holds labarum and globus cruciger; between their heads, ; to right, .

Constantinople mint
Sear 1966
3.96g; 30.4mm; 180°
Pep
tiberius_RIC28.jpg
14-37 AD - TIBERIUS AR denarius - struck 14-37 AD53 viewsobv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS (laureate head right)
rev: PONTIF MAXIM (Livia (as Pax) seated right, holding olive-branch and inverted spear; ornate legs to chair)
ref: RIC I 28, RSC 16b (2frcs)
mint: Lugdunum
3,57gms, 18mm

The story of the Tribute Penny may be the best-known Biblical reference to a coin. Tiberius reigned during the ministry of Jesus and it is logical that his silver denarius was the coin used by Christ ("Give unto Caesar that which is Caesar's and give unto the Lord that which is the Lord's"). Although the inscription refers to Tiberius' position as Pontifex Maximus and there are no overt references to Livia, many scholars feel that users of the coins would have associated the figure with Livia and that this association was probably intended by Tiberius. An obligatory issue for collectors.
1 commentsberserker
Follis Anonimo Clase A2 SB01813.jpg
15-02 - Follis AnĂłnimo Clase A2 (976 - 1025 D.C.)28 viewsAtribuida al reinado conjunto de Basilio II y Constantino VIII.
AE Follis 30 x 27 mm 9.6 gr.

Anv: "EMMA - NOVHΛ", "IX - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Busto de Cristo de frente nimbado (Forma rectangular en la cruz del limbo), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios (5 puntos en el libro).
Rev: " IhSUS / XRISTUS / bASILEU / bASILE " (Jesús Cristo Rey de Reyes), leyenda en 4 líneas, debajo y arriba ornamentos tipo 47 (Forma rectangular).

Acuńada 976 - 1025 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1813 Pag. 376 - Bellinger D.O. pp.651 - B.M.C. (Basil II and Constantine VII) #21-40 - Ratto M.B.(Basil II and Constantine VII) #1951-65 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. pp.596/8 #1-66
mdelvalle
Follis Anonimo Clase D SB01836.jpg
15-04 - Follis AnĂłnimo Clase D (1042 - 1055 D.C.) 25 viewsAtribuida al reinado de Constantino IX.
AE Follis 28 x 26 mm 10.9 gr.

Anv: "IX - XC" (en campos izq. y derecho) - Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con ambas manos.
Rev: " IhSUS / bASILEU / bASILE " (Jesús Rey de Reyes), leyenda en 3 líneas, ornamentado debajo con "- u -" y arriba con "- + -".

Acuńada 1042 - 1055 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1836 Pag. 378 - Bellinger D.O. pp.685/7 - B.M.C. (Constantine X) #10-17 - Ratto M.B.(Constantine X) #2015/7 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. pp.601 #107/19
mdelvalle
tiberius tribute penny.jpg
16 - 37 A.D. Tiberius - Ric 30 "Tribute Penny"154 viewsSilver denarius, Lugdunum mint, 3.494g, 18.8mm, 225o, 16 - 37 A.D.;
TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right;
PONTIF MAXIM, Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; nicely centered
RIC 30, RSC 16a, S 1763, VF

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible.
2 commentsjimwho523
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_-unofficial_mint,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_7h,_25,5mm,_2,47g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01138 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: Illegible legend instead of "REX BELA REX STS", Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 25,5 mm, weight: 2,7g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: CÁC I. 16.15./?./?., unofficial mint!, unknown sigla in exergue right site, lying retrograde "S".
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_cup_Q-002_9h_27,0mm_3,04ga-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01113 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,0 mm, weight: 3,04g, axis: 9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./??.??./??.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_cup_Q-003_10h_26,5mm_3,50ga-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #0199 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./??.??./??., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 3,50g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./??.??./??.,
Q-001
quadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_a1_7-8,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_9h,_26mm,_2,79g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.07./008., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01120 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.07./008., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0 mm, weight: 2,79g, axis:9h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a1.07./008.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_Q-0x1_axis-10h_27,0mm_3,22g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.23./024., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01151 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a1.23./024., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,0 mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 10h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a1.23./024.,
Q-001
quadrans
Bela-III_U-114_C1-098_H-072_Q-005_4h_26,0mm_2,56g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a10.01./183., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01154 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./a10.01./183., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,0 mm, weight: 2,56g, axis: 4h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./a10.01./183.,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_d1c1_2-334,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_0h,_26,5mm,_3,24g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./d1c1.01./334., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01131 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./d1c1.01./334., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 3,24g, axis: 0h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./d1c1.01./334.,
Q-001
quadrans
16_15_Béla_III_,_King_of_Hungary,_(1172-1196_A_D_),_Cu-27,_CÁC_I__16_15_k3_1-258,_H-072,_CNH_I_-098,_U-114,_Q-001,_7h,_26,5mm,_2,33g-s.jpg
16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./k3.01./258., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01135 views16.15. Béla III., King of Hungary, (1172-1196 A.D.), Cu-27, CÁC I. 16.15./k3.01./258., H-072, CNH I.-098, U-114, #01
avers: REX BELA REX STS, Two kings enthroned facing, holding scepter with lily and orb, column between the thrones with a cross on the top. The line of dots under the feet, three lines within crescent below, a border of dots.
reverse: SANCTA MARIA, Mary enthroned facing, with nimbus, holding Jesus and scepter with lily, cross on each side of her head, a border of dots.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 26,5 mm, weight: 2,33g, axis:7h,
mint: Esztergom, date: A.D., ref: Huszár-072, CNH I.-098, Unger-114, Tóth-Kiss-Fekete: CÁC I.(Catalog of Árpadian Coinage I./Opitz I.), Privy-Mark/Szigla: 16.15./k3.01./258.,
Q-001
quadrans
s-l400_(52)~0.jpg
1672 KB - Hungary - 6 Krajczar, Silver, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I25 views Hungary - 1672, AR Six Krajczar coin.
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I (the hogmouth) of the Hapsburg family that ruled Austria for centuries.

obv:" LEOPOLDUS.D.G.R.I.S.GE.HU.B.REX." - Laureate crowned, draped bust facing right, titles encircling designs.
Below Bust of Emperor ; Roman Numerals: "VI" encircled at 6 O'Clock, denomination, 6 Silver Krajczar.

rev:" PATRONA.HUNGARIĆ .1672. " - Madonna(Mary) holding Christ child in arms.
Coat of Arms below at 6 O'Clock.
2 commentsrexesq
hungary_1678_15-krajczar_02.JPG
1678 KB - Austria-Hungary - Hungary 1678 KB Silver 15 Krajczar200 views Hungary, 1678 - Silver 15 krajczar.
Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I.
"K B" mintmark = Kremnitz (Kormoczbanya) Mint, Hungary.

obv: LEOPOLD.D:G.R.I.S.A.G.H.B.REX - Laureate bust right.
Roman numerals 'XV' below bust; 15 Krajczar, Silver.

rev: PATRONA . HUNGARIAE 16+78 - Radiating Madonna and child. -KB- on either side. Shield/Arms below.

Titles on both sides written on scrolls. Very nice.
rexesq
IMG_0184.JPG
3.0 Hungary - 1552 - Ferdinand I69 viewsHoly Roman Emperor Ferdinand I, King of Hungary
1552
obv. - Mary and baby Jesus
Zam
Aspron Trachy Vellón Manuel I SB01966.jpg
58-12 - Manuel I (08/04/1143 - 24/09/1180 D.C.)73 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 30 mm 5.4 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "IC - XC" (Jesús Cristo) en campos izquierdo y derecho - Cristo sentado en trono con respaldo de frente, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), sosteniendo el Libro de los Evangelios con mano izquierda." * " en campo izquierdo.
Rev: " MANγHΛ - ΔεCΠOT " Emperador de pié de frente a izquierda vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando Labarum (Lábaro, Enseńa militar usado como estandarte imperial), en mano derecha y Orbe con cruz en izquierda. A su derecha La Virgen de pié de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), con su mano derecha corona al Emperador.

Acuńada 1143 - 1180 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #1966 Pag. 396 - Hendy CMBE pl.16.1-15, pl.17.1-4 - B.M.C.#40-51 - Ratto M.B.#2127/34 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #17-42
mdelvalle
a0_1.jpg
6. Constantine X, Class E anonymous follis31 viewsConstantine X
1059 - 1067
Class E anonymous follis

obv. - Jesus with nimbus, holding book of gospels, IC - XC
Zam
Aspron Trachy Vellón Alexio III SB02012.jpg
62-05 - Alexio III Angelus Commenus (08/04/1195 - 17/07/1203 D.C.)84 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 25 x 27 mm 2.6 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "IC - XC" (Jesús Cristo) en campos izquierdo y derecho - Busto de Cristo sin barba, vistiendo nimbus cruciger (Halo redondo con cruz que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Collobium (Túnica especial sin mangas), levantando su mano derecha en seńal de bendición y sosteniendo un rollo de pergamino con mano izquierda." + Kε ROHΘεI " leyenda rodeando el busto.
Rev: " AΛEΣIω ΔεCΠ O KωNcTANTI " Emperador a derecha y San Constantino, barbado y nimbado a izquierda, ambos de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco) y Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores). Portando entre ellos Orbe con cruz y labarum (Lábaro, Enseńa militar usado como estandarte imperial), el Emperador en mano derecha y el santo en la izquierda.

Acuńada 1195 - 1203 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2012 Pag. 407 - Hendy CMBE pl.22.8-12, pl.23.1-7 - B.M.C.#16-18 - Ratto M.B.#2005/13 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-16
mdelvalle
a43.jpg
7. Manuel Comnenus AE Trachy45 viewsManuel Comnenus
1143 - 1180
Constantinople Mint
AE Trachy

obv. IC - XC Jesus enthroned
rev. Manuel standing on left, being crowned by Mary
Zam
AugustusAE19Sardeis.jpg
702a, Augustus, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.37 viewsAugustus, 27 BC - 14 AD. AE 19mm (5.98 gm). Lydia, Sardeis. Diodoros Hermophilou. Obverse: head right. Reverse: Zeus Lydios standing facing holding scepter and eagle. RPC I, 489, 2986; SNG von Aulock 3142. aVF. Fine portrait. Ex Tom Vossen.

De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
TiberiusTributePennyRICI30RSCII16aSRCV1763.jpg
703a, Tiberius, 19 August 14 - 16 March 37 A.D., Tribute Penny of Matthew 22:20-2148 viewsSilver denarius, RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV 1763, gVF, Lugdunum mint, 3.837g, 18.7mm, 90o, 16 - 37 A.D.; obverse TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right; reverse PONTIF MAXIM, Pax/Livia seated right holding scepter and branch, legs on chair ornamented, feet on footstool; toned. Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Tiberius (A.D. 14-37)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

Introduction
The reign of Tiberius (b. 42 B.C., d. A.D. 37, emperor A.D. 14-37) is a particularly important one for the Principate, since it was the first occasion when the powers designed for Augustus alone were exercised by somebody else. In contrast to the approachable and tactful Augustus, Tiberius emerges from the sources as an enigmatic and darkly complex figure, intelligent and cunning, but given to bouts of severe depression and dark moods that had a great impact on his political career as well as his personal relationships.

. . . .

Early life (42-12 B.C.)
Tiberius Claudius Nero was born on 16 November 42 B.C. to Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. Both parents were scions of the gens Claudia which had supplied leaders to the Roman Republic for many generations. . . [I]n 39 B.C., his mother Livia divorced Ti. Claudius Nero and married Octavian, thereby making the infant Tiberius the stepson of the future ruler of the Roman world. Forever afterward, Tiberius was to have his name coupled with this man, and always to his detriment.

. . . .

Accession and Early Reign (A.D. 14 - 23)
The accession of Tiberius proved intensely awkward. After Augustus had been buried and deified, and his will read and honored, the Senate convened on 18 September to inaugurate the new reign and officially "confirm" Tiberius as emperor. Such a transfer of power had never happened before, and nobody, including Tiberius, appears to have known what to do. Tacitus's account is the fullest. . . Rather than tactful, he came across to the senators as obdurate and obstructive. He declared that he was too old for the responsibilities of the Principate, said he did not want the job, and asked if he could just take one part of the government for himself. The Senate was confused, not knowing how to read his behavior. Finally, one senator asked pointedly, "Sire, for how long will you allow the State to be without a head?" Tiberius relented and accepted the powers voted to him, although he refused the title "Augustus."

. . . .

Tiberius allowed a trusted advisor to get too close and gain a tremendous influence over him. That advisor was the Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, who would derail Tiberius's plans for the succession and drive the emperor farther into isolation, depression, and paranoia.

Sejanus (A.D. 23-31)
Sejanus hailed from Volsinii in Etruria. He and his father shared the Praetorian Prefecture until A.D. 15 when the father, L. Seius Strabo, was promoted to be Prefect of Egypt, the pinnacle of an equestrian career under the Principate. Sejanus, now sole Prefect of the Guard, enjoyed powerful connections to senatorial houses and had been a companion to Gaius Caesar on his mission to the East, 1 B.C. - A.D. 4. Through a combination of energetic efficiency, fawning sycophancy, and outward displays of loyalty, he gained the position of Tiberius's closest friend and advisor.

. . . .

[I]n a shocking and unexpected turn of events, [a] letter sent by Tiberius from Capri initially praised Sejanus extensively, and then suddenly denounced him as a traitor and demanded his arrest. Chaos ensued. Senators long allied with Sejanus headed for the exits, the others were confused -- was this a test of their loyalty? What did the emperor want them to do? -- but the Praetorian Guard, the very troops formerly under Sejanus's command but recently and secretly transferred to the command of Q. Sutorius Macro, arrested Sejanus, conveyed him to prison, and shortly afterwards executed him summarily. A witch-hunt followed. . . All around the city, grim scenes were played out, and as late as A.D. 33 a general massacre of all those still in custody took place.

Tiberius himself later claimed that he turned on Sejanus because he had been alerted to Sejanus's plot against Germanicus's family. This explanation has been rejected by most ancient and modern authorities, since Sejanus's demise did nothing to alleviate that family's troubles.

. . . .

The Last Years (A.D. 31-37)
The Sejanus affair appears to have greatly depressed Tiberius. A close friend and confidant had betrayed him; whom could he trust anymore? His withdrawal from public life seemed more complete in the last years. Letters kept him in touch with Rome, but it was the machinery of the Augustan administration that kept the empire running smoothly. Tiberius, if we believe our sources, spent much of his time indulging his perversities on Capri.

. . . .

Tiberius died quietly in a villa at Misenum on 16 March A.D. 37. He was 78 years old. There are some hints in the sources of the hand of Caligula in the deed, but such innuendo can be expected at the death of an emperor, especially when his successor proved so depraved. The level of unpopularity Tiberius had achieved by the time of his death with both the upper and lower classes is revealed by these facts: the Senate refused to vote him divine honors, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!" (in reference to a method of disposal reserved for the corpses of criminals).

Tiberius and the Empire
Three main aspects of Tiberius's impact on the empire deserve special attention: his relative military inertia; his modesty in dealing with offers of divine honors and his fair treatment of provincials; and his use of the Law of Treason (maiestas).

. . . .

Conclusion
. . . Tiberius's reign sporadically descended into tyranny of the worst sort. In the right climate of paranoia and suspicion, widespread denunciation led to the deaths of dozens of Senators and equestrians, as well as numerous members of the imperial house. In this sense, the reign of Tiberius decisively ended the Augustan illusion of "the Republic Restored" and shone some light into the future of the Principate, revealing that which was both promising and terrifying.

[For the entire article please refer to http://www.roman-emperors.org/tiberius.htm]

Copyright © 1997, Garrett G. Fagan. Used by permission.

"Some of the things he did are hard to believe. He had little boys trained as minnows to chase him when he went swimming and to get between his legs and nibble him. He also had babies not weaned from their mother breast suck at his chest and groin . . . "
(Suetonius. The Twelve Caesars. Trans. Robert Graves. London: Penguin Books, 1979. XLIV).

Jesus, referring to a "penny" asked, "Whose is this image and superscription?" When told it was Caesar, He said, ''Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's and unto God the things that are God's" (Matthew 22:20-21). Since Tiberius was Caesar at the time, this denarius type is attributed by scholars as the "penny" referred to in the Bible(Joseph Sermarini).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
Strange Byzantine Obverse and Reverse.jpg
976-1025 A.D. - follis (Anonymous class A2)22 viewsThis coin has Christ on the obverse and the reverse contains the inscription +IhSUS, XRISTUS, bASILEU, bASILE. This would mean Jesus Christ, King of Kings. Thanks for all the I.D. help I received.cwonsidler
P3028729.jpg
A2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD. AE 25-30mm11 viewsA2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD..
Basil II + Constantine VIII
Obv. facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger,
Rev. + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
Lee S
DSCN5002.jpg
A2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD. AE 27-30mm 8 viewsA2 Anonymous Follis. 976 - 1025 AD.
Basil II + Constantine VIII
Obv. facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger,
Rev. + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
Lee S
DSCN4999.jpg
A3 Anonymouse Follis , 1023-1028 AD . AE 26-28mm9 viewsA3 Anonymouse Follis , 1023-1028 AD .
Basil II & Constantine VIII
Obv. facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger
Rev. + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
Lee S
Clipboard01~0.jpg
AE Anonymous follis of Christ, cCass B, Romanus III or Michael IV.41 viewsEMMANOVHΛ, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC

Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)

SBCV 1823.
Will Hooton
U3141F1OAZMMBUO.JPG
Anonymous AE Follis12 viewsAttributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)

Obverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings."
Mint: Constantinople

SB 1813 Class A2. AE 32, 14.12g
Belisarius
lg_anonA.jpg
Anonymous Class A2, time of Basil II34 viewsAnonymous Class A2, time of Basil II and Constanti
AE Follis
+ EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wears nimbus cruciger ornamented in each limb of cross with squares, pallium and colobium, Gospels in both hands with five pellets in center, to left IC, to right XC
+ IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings), ornamentation (square) above legend (Type 47)
Mint: (976 - 1025 AD)
References: Sear 1813
Class A2 Ornament type 47
1 commentsScotvs Capitis
lg_classB_03.jpg
Anonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael30 viewsAnonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 6.47g / 28.5mm / -
+ EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
lg_classB_02.jpg
Anonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael32 viewsAnonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 11.71g / 28.5mm / -
+ EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
lg_classB_01.jpg
Anonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael23 viewsAnonymous Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 7.83g / 27mm / -
+ EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
classB_03.jpg
Anonymous Follis Class B19 viewsAnonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 6.47g / 28.5mm
Ob: + EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Rv: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
kingofkings.jpg
Anonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael59 viewsAnonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 6.47g / 28.5mm
Ob: + EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Rv: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
classB_02.jpg
Anonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael19 viewsAnonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 6.47g / 28.5mm
Ob: + EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Rv: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
classB_01.jpg
Anonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael18 viewsAnonymous Follis Class B, time of Romanus III or Michael
AE Follis 6.47g / 28.5mm / -
Ob: + EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Rv: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Mint: (1028-1041 AD)
References: Sear 1823
Scotvs Capitis
Weird Byzantine Obverse and Reverse.jpg
Anonymous Follis, c1025AD22 viewsThe obverse is a bust of Christ, haloed, the reverse is 4 lines of letters, approximating (cross)ihsys/xristys/basiley/basile or Jesus/Christ/King/Of Kings. Thanks for the attribution help irish.

cwonsidler
anon_A_3.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A28 viewsAE FOLLIS 31.5 mm 10.65 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
(no longer in collection)
laney
anon_a_2b.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A22 viewsAE FOLLIS 35 mm max. 11.69 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
anon_A_1.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A30 viewsAE FOLLIS 24X27 mm 6.56 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
2_class_a_a_8L.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A21 viewsAE FOLLIS 28 mm max. 9.68 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
class_A_anon.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS A15 viewsAE FOLLIS 30.5mm max. 11.2 g
O: FACING BUST OF CHRIST PANTOCRATOR
R: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings)
(attributed to Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 1028 AD)
laney
anon_b.jpg
ANONYMOUS FOLLIS, CLASS B20 viewsAE FOLLIS 26 mm 6.72 g
O: Facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, holding gospels with both hands
R: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) above limbs, bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE (King of Kings) below limbs
(struck under Romanus III or Michael IV, 12 Nov 1028 - 10 Dec 1041 A.D.)
laney
AntoSec5-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 855, Sestertius of AD 149 (Aequitas) 25 viewsĆ Sestertius (23.9, Ř32mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 149.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XII, laureate head of Antoninus Pius right.
Rev.: COS IIII (around) S C (in field), Aequitas standing, holding scales and cornucopiae.
RIC 855
ex Jesus Vico S.A. auction (2012)
Charles S
ANTOSEg5-2.jpg
Antoninus Pius, RIC 891, Sestertius of AD 151-152 (Annona)39 viewsĆ Sestertius (27,0g, Ř 30mm, 6h). Rome, AD 151-152.
Obv.: IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: TR POT XV COS IIII around, ANNONA AVG in ex., S | C, Annona seated left holding corn ears above modius and holding cornucopiae.
RIC 891 (common); BMCRE 1891; Cohen 50; Strack 1069; Banti 29 (34 spec.)
Double struck reverse.
Ex Jesús Vico, S.A., auction 142, June, 2015.

2 commentsCharles S
augtet.jpg
Augustus (27 BC-14 AD)79 viewsAugustus (27 BC-14 AD)
AR Tetradrachm
Syria-Antiochia ad Orontem
O: KAIΣAPOΣ ΣEB_AΣTOY, Laureate head right
R: ETOYΣ-ZK-NIKHΣ, Tyche seated right on rocks, palm branch in left hand, river god Orontes swimming right below, YPA monogram, IB / ANT monogram in right field Regnal Year 27 (5/4 BC), COS 12.
27mm
14.06g
Prieur 51; RPC 4152; McAlee 181
Ex David Hendin, 2004

Note: The ZK breaking the reverse legend is the regnal year 27, IB is for consulship 12. Minted in what is possibly the year of the birth of Jesus Christ.
5 commentsMat
Tiberius_37.jpg
B267 views Tiberius AR Denarius

Attribution: RIC I 30, RSC II 16a, SRCV I 1763, Lugdunum
Date: 19 August, AD 14 – 16 March, AD 37
Obverse: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head r.
Reverse: PONTIF MAXIM, Livia, as Pax, seated r., holding olive branch & long scepter; ornate legs to chair
Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.6 grams
* NOTE: chipped piece & metal adhesions from prior mounting of coin as jewelry
(Image of Tiberius courtesy of Bill Storage: Ara Pacis Museum, Rome)

"He was large and strong of frame, and of a stature above the average... He strode along with his neck stiff and bent forward, usually with a stern countenance and for the most part in silence, never or very rarely conversing with his companions... All of these mannerisms of his, which were disagreeable and signs of arrogance, were remarked by Augustus, who often tried to excuse them to the senate and people by declaring that they were natural failings, and not intentional." - Suetonius Life of Tiberius LXVIII

When Augustus died on August 19, AD 14, Tiberius was considered to be the logical successor. The issue, however, was that there had never been a transfer of power by succession, only through seizure of leadership by force. Although Tiberius superficially sought to preserve the idea of the emperor being “First Citizen” to appease the senate, it was abundantly clear who was in control of the empire. Tiberius made a clever move to sequester the support of the legions through a pay increase. The reverse of this coin depicts Livia seated. Being Tiberius’ mother, she campaigned relentlessly to place her son as the natural heir to the position of emperor. Once in control, Tiberius allowed her to keep the title of Augusta, granted to her by Augustus in his will, but refused her the honor of being recognized as “Mother of her Country” or that of lictor. This was an astute political move to limit Livia’s influence. In the long run Tiberius was unable to maintain the demeanor or tact that Augustus possessed, and was seen as a stiff and arrogant tyrant by many. Tiberius spent much of the latter part of his reign at his private retreat on the island of Capri. He fell ill in AD 37 and died March 16 at the age of 77 in his seaside villa at Misenum.
The denarius of Tiberius with Livia as Pax on the reverse is commonly known as the 'Tribute Penny,' the coin to which Jesus referred to when he was discussing paying taxes to the Romans, and said "render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mark 12:17 & Matthew 22:20-21). Although there are two other reverse types on denarii of Tiberius, they were only issued during the first two years of his reign, while the Pax reverse was employed throughout the remainder, making it the more likely coin referred to. The term 'penny' is from the AD 1611 King James translation of the Bible, and was adopted since the penny was the standard denomination of the time.
6 commentsNoah
B_059_Anonim_Follis,_SB_1812var,_(Basil_II__and_Constantine_VIII__cc989_AD),_A2,_F41,_SB-1812var_,_Q-001,_6h,_25-26,5mm,11,31g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1812var., AE-Follis, Class A2/F41type, (Basil II. and Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1103 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1812var., AE-Follis, Class A2/F41type, (Basil II. and Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1
Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.
averse: +EMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, ust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings".
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 10,30g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences., date: cc989 A.D., ref:SB 1813, Class A2/F41type,
Q-001
quadrans
B_059_Anonim-Follis,_SB_1813,_AE-Follis,_Class_A2,_(Constantine_VIII__(976-1025_A_D_)),SB-1818-p-350_Q-001,_0h,_28mm,_10_30g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1128 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1
Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.
averse: +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings".
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 10,30g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences., date: 976-1025 CE, ref:SB 1813, Class A2/F39type,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
B_059_Imitation-Barbar_Anonim-Follis_SB--p-_Q-001,_6h,_24,5-26,5mm,_9,04g-s.jpg
B 059 Anonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation), 113 viewsB 059 Anonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation),
(Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.)
averse: +ЄMMΔ VOHΛI instead of +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings", all S are "revers" !!!
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24,5-26,6mm, weight: 9,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ancient (Barbar) Imitation., date: ??? A.D., ref: SB ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Christ_follis_1_k.jpg
Basil II and Constantine VIII, AD 976 - 102512 viewsĆ anonymous follis, class A2, 32mm, 12.6g, 6h; Constantinople mint
Obv.: + EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wears nimbus cruciger ornamented in each limb of cross, pallium and colobium, Gospels in both hands, to left IC, to right XC
Rev.: + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings), ornamentation above and below
Reference: SBCV 1813
John Anthony
Bavaria_1756_Thaler.JPG
Bavaria, Maximilian III Joseph, 1745 - 177715 viewsObv: D . G . MAX . IOS . U . B . & P . S . D . C . P . R . S . R . I . A . & EL . L . L., bare-headed bust, draped, facing right.

Rev: PATRONA BAVARIAE, The Holy Mother holding an infant Jesus, 1756 below.

Silver Thaler, Munich mint, 1756

27.5 grams, 42.12 mm
SPQR Coins
BULGARIAN.jpg
BULGARIA - IVAN ALEXANDER119 viewsBEAUTIFUL Medieval AR Grosh Jesus and Two Kings -- Bulgarian Kingdom -- Nice toned with high relief Silver grosh of Ivan Alexander (1331 - 1371 A.D.) 22 mm, 1.73 g. Obv.: Christ enthroned facing, hands raised in benediction. Monograms in Cyrillic on both sides. Rev.: Ivan Alexander (left) and Michael Asen (right) both sides of banner. Monograms in Cyrillic on both sides. dpaul7
BULGARIA IVAN STATIMIR.jpg
BULGARIA - Ivan Stratismir92 viewsBULGARIA Vidin Kingdom - Ivan Stratismir (1356 – 1396) Reduced silver Grosh, Vidin mint. Rare r4 mint mark grosh. This one is second emission with diameter 18 mm and weight 0.56 g. The first issue has same diameter but weight 1.40 g. This one has unusually good details.
Obv.: Bust of Jesus Christ facing. Legend in Bulgarian between two doted circles.
Rev.: The king enthroned facing. Flower (star?) as a mint mark in the lower field. Legend in Greek between two doted circles.
Ref.: A. Radushev, G. Jecov. Catalog of the Bulgarian Medieval Coins. p. 178, 1.14.4
1 commentsdpaul7
MISC_Bulgaria_Stratsimir.jpg
Bulgaria, Second Empire, Vidin Kingdom. Ivan Stratsimir (1356-1396)13 viewsDimnik & Dobrinić 11/10.1.3; Raduchev & Zhekov 1.14.6; cf. Youroukova & Penchev 107; Ljubić III, 2; cf. Moushmov 7542.

AR Groši/grosh (described in older references as a half groši/grosh); Third Chronological Group, variant B; Vidin mint; struck circa 1380-1385; .74 g., 17.52 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Nimbate bust of Christ with cross within halo, raising right hand in benediction and holding Gospel book in left hand, IC - XC (= Jesus Christ) across field, all within beaded circle, abbreviated legend +IW СRАЦИМИР ЦРББ (= Ivan Stratsimir Tsar of the Bulgars).

Rev.: Nimbate Ivan Stratsimir wearing domed crown seated facing, holding scepter decorated with a lily forming a trefoil (with the lily depicted in heraldic manner; i.e., the central petal stands upright but the side petals bend downward) in his right hand and an akakia in his left, axe between his feet, abbreviated legend +IW СRАЦИМИР ЦРББ (= Ivan Stratsimir Tsar of the Bulgars).

Ivan Alexander divided his kingdom between his two sons. Ivan Stratsimir received Vidin. In 1365, the Hungarian King Louis I of Anjou captured Vidin. Sratsimir and his family were held captive in Croatia for four years but in 1369 Sratsimir was restored to his throne under Hungarian overlordship. After the Ottoman invasion in 1388, he was forced to acknowledge Ottoman overlordship and garrisons. In 1396 Sratsimir and his subjects aligned themselves with the anti-Ottoman Crusade led by the Hungarian king Sigismund of Luxemburg. The crusade ended in disaster at the battle of Nikopol on September 25, 1396. By the end of 1397 Sultan Bayezid I approached Vidin and, assured by the promise of his safety, Ivan Stratsimir came out to meet him. On the order of Bayezid I, Ivan Stratsimir was arrested and conveyed to Bursa, while the Sultan confiscated the contents of the Vidin treasury. Sratsimir's fate is unknown. Vidin was likely annexed by the Ottoman Empire in 1397, but at least part of the realm remained under the control of Sratsimir's son and heir Constantine II.
Stkp
MISC_Bulgaria_Ivan_Alexander_D_D_11-9_1_2.jpg
Bulgaria, Second Empire. Ivan Aleksandar (1331-1371) and Mihail Ansen IV (1331-1355)17 viewsDimnik & Dobrinić 11/9.1.2; Raduchev & Zhekov Type I, 1.13.3-6; Youroukova & Penchev 74-80; Ljubić I, 6 (as Peter Asen)

AR Groši/grosh, Type II. struck circa 1331-1355; 1.32 g., 20.11 mm. max., 0°

Obv.: Christ standing facing before throne, raising hands in benediction, IC - XC (= Jesus Christ) and monograms (standing for Aleksandar and Tsar) across field.

Rev.: Ivan Aleksandar and his son Mihail Asen IV standing facing, each holding cross-tipped scepter, holding between them a long staff with a tripod-like base and a banner; monograms across inner fields above (standing for Aleksandar and Tsar) and outer fields below (for Pious and Mihail); stars flanking base of staff.
Stkp
Basil_II___Constantine_VIII.jpg
Byzantine Anonymous Follis of Christ, Class A3, Basil II & Constantine VIII, c. 1023 - 11 November 1028 A.D.134 viewsBronze anonymous follis, Anonymous follis of Christ, class A3; SBCV 1818; Grierson ornaments 24a, gVF, well centered, excellent portrait detail but nose a bit flat, attractive toned bare metal, a few scratches, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, weight 9.833g, maximum diameter 27.5mm, die axis 180o, c. 1023 - 11 Nov 1028 A.D.; obverse + EMMANOVHL, facing nimbate bust of Christ, two pellets in each arm of the cross, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC; reverse + IhSuS / XRISTuS / bASILEu / bASILE (Jesus Christ King of Kings), ornaments above and below legend;

The emperor's name and portrait are not part of the design on the Byzantine types referred to as anonymous folles. Instead of the earthly king, these coins depict Jesus Christ, King of Kings.

FORVM Ancient Coins.

*A spectacular artistic portrait of Christ.
The Sam Mansourati Collection.
2 commentsSam
BYZANTINE_Anonymous_Romanus_III_JESUS_KING_OF_KINGS_(2).jpg
BYZANTINE Anonymous Romanus III JESUS KING OF KINGS45 viewsAnonymous
Item description: Byzantine Empire 1028-1041 AD Emperor Romanus III, Overse: EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands , Reverse: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE "King of Kings"
Size: 31 mm Weight: 4.9 g Around 980 Years Old
_2300
Antonivs Protti
BYZANTINE_Anonymous_Romanus_III_JESUS_KING_OF_KINGS.jpg
BYZANTINE Anonymous Romanus III JESUS KING OF KINGS27 viewsAnonymous
Item description: Byzantine Empire 1028-1041 AD Emperor Romanus III, Overse: EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium and holding book of Gospels with both hands , Reverse: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS-XS (Jesus Christ) bAS-ILE/bAS-ILE "King of Kings"
29 mm. 11.6 g
_2750
Antonivs Protti
romanus.jpg
Byzantine Anonymous, time of Romanus III or Michael IV, AD 1028 - 104117 viewsAE Class B Follis, 31 x 28mm, 10.1g, 6h; Constantinople mint.
Obv.: EMMANOVHΛ, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, IC - XC (Jesus Christ) flanking across field.
Rev.: Cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS - XS (Jesus Christ) / bAS-ILE / bAS-ILE (King of Kings)
Reference: SBCV 1823.
Notes: sold to JB, 10/15/15.
John Anthony
Jesus_Christ.jpg
Byzantine Cross41 viewsByzantine cross, missing lower segment. 4th - 11th century.1 commentsNick.vdw
IMG_20180527_103151.jpg
Byzantine Empire16 viewsAE1 969 - 976 CE

Obverse: Christ facing with book of Gospels, + EMMANOVHA IX-XC.

Reverse: +IhSvS
XRISTvS
bASILEv
bASILE
(Jesus Christ king of kings)
Pericles J2
michael_iv_class_c_follis.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Anonymous Class C91 viewsAnonymous Follis Class C Michael IV Jesus Christ Class C Follis Attributed to Michael IV Obv: EMMANOVHA - Facing bust of Jesus Christ, holding nimbus cross and gospel Rev: IC-XC/ NI-KA - Short cross divides inscription into four equal parts Byzantine Empire AD 1034-1041 = D. Sear Byzantine Coinage and Their Values, p. 377, 1825 7.95 g. The coin was struck during the time the Byzantine emperor Michael IV (1034-1041 AD) and it is the basic denomination. Part of the coinage during this period was struck without the attribution of the emperor but as apotheos of the Christ. The obverse legend EMANUIL (in Greek) is from Hebrew (imanuil) meaning: The God is with us. The reverse is abbreviation IC = Isus = Jesus; XC = Hristo= Christ; NIKA = Nikator = Victor, Victorious. dpaul7
anonimus_follis.png
Byzantine Follis Romanus III or Michael IV, 12 November 1028 - 10 December 1041 A.D. Class B12 viewsBronze anonymous follis, class B; SBCV 1823, VF,Constantinople mint, obverse EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC; reverse cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS - XS / BAS-ILE / BAS-ILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings). 86177

Class B are often over-struck on class A2.
Britanikus
Anonim-Follis_AE-28_SB-1818_Q-001_10_30g.jpg
Byzantine, Anonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), 405 viewsAnonymous Follis, SB 1813, AE-Follis, Class A2/F39type, (Constantine VIII. (976-1025 A.D.)), #1
Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.
averse: +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings".
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 27,5mm, weight: 10,30g, axis: h,
mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences., date: 976-1025 CE, ref:SB 1813, Class A2/F39type,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
Imitation-Barbar_Anonim-Follis_SB--p-_Q-001_6h_24,5-26,5mm_9,04g-s.jpg
Byzantine, Anonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation), 188 viewsAnonymous Follis, SB ????, AE-Follis, Class A2 (?), (Ancient (Barbar) Imitation),
(Class A2, attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII.)
averse: +ЄMMΔ VOHΛI instead of +ЄMMA NOVHΛ, IC-XC, Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
reverse: +IhSyS / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings", all S are "revers" !!!
exe: -/-//--, diameter: 24,5-26,6mm, weight: 9,04g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ancient (Barbar) Imitation., date: ??? A.D., ref: SB ???,
Q-001
quadrans
Basil_II___Constantine_VIII_-_Christ-.jpg
Byzantine, Christ, Anonymous Folles. temp. Basil II & Constantine VIII, circa 976-1025. 481 viewsĆ Follis (28mm, 12.04 g, 6h). Class A2. Constantinople mint. Nimbate half-length bust of Christ facing, holding Gospels / [+] IhSЧ[S]/[X]PISTЧS/[Ь]ASILЄЧ/ЬASILЄ in four lines ( Jesus Christ King of Kings ); rectangular ornament below. DOC A2.47; SB 1813. VF, dark green patina with earthen highlights/deposits, a few cleaning scratches. EX ; The Prue Morgan Fitts Collection.

EX The Sam Mansourati Collection.

*A fine masterpiece of one of the very early portraits of Christ according to Saint Veronica 's Veil.
**The emperor's name and portrait are not part of the design on the Byzantine types referred to as anonymous folles. Instead of the earthly king, these coins depict Jesus Christ, King of Kings.

Given as a Christmas Present to Dear friend , brother and great dentist , Dr. Manuel M. Cunanan .
Sam
1443_C_Postumius.jpg
C. Postumius - AR denarius3 viewsRome
˛73 BC
ą74 BC
draped bust of Diana right, bow and quiver over shoulder
hound bounding right, hunting spear below
C·POSTVMI / (TA)
ąCrawford 394/1a, RSC I Postumia 9, Sydenham 785, SRCV I 330
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Jesus Vico
Johny SYSEL
1441_C_Servilius_Mf.jpg
C. Servilius M.f. - AR denarius4 viewsRome
˛137 BC
ą136 BC
helmet head of Roma right
wreath left
(XVI) ROMA
the Dioscuri riding in opposite directions, heads turned confronting, each with star above his head and holding a spear
C·SERVEILI·M·F
ąCrawford 239/1, Sydenham 525, RSC I Servilia 1, BMCRR Italy 540, SRCV I 116
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Jesus Vico

It's the first issue with ROMA on obverse also Dioscuri are riding unconventionally from each other.
Johny SYSEL
Charles_de_Blois.JPG
Charles de Blois (1319-1364)17 viewsGros au lion
3,77g
27mm
+ . MONETA tręfle BRITAN '
"Monnaie de Bretagne"
Le lion de Flandres debout ŕ gauche dans une bordure de onze cercles séparés par des I et contenant un lion semblable au dessus de la croisette, et onze quintefeuilles évidées
ChA ROL LVS DVX
"Charles Duc"
+ BNDICTV :. SIT :. NOME :. DNI :. NRI :. HV :. XPI
"Béni soit le nom de notre seigneur Dieu Jésus-Christ"
Croix anglaise coupant la premičre légende
Jézéquel 159c
Bigot 425
de Mey 158 (double gros)
PYL
limoges.JPG
Charles de Blois (1319-1364)13 viewsGros aux fleurs de lys pour Limoges
3,59g
29mm
+ VICEC * LEMOVICEN
"Vicomte de Limoges"
champs de lys infini dans une bordure de treize lys cerclés séparés par de I
+ KO DEI GRA CIA
"Charles par la grâce de Dieu
+ BNDICTV :. SIT :. NOM :. DNI :. NRI :. : DEI :. IHV :. XPI
"Béni soit le nom de notre seigneur Dieu Jésus-Christ"
croix anglaise cantonnée de quatre couronnelles
Jézéquel L16
Bigot 474
PYL
37.JPG
Charles de Blois (1319-1364)12 viewsGros
3,55g
30mm
+ KAROLVS : DEI : GRA : BRITANORVM : DVX .
"Charles par la grâce de Dieu Duc des Bretons"
Lys florencé, surmonté d'une couronnelle, avec trčfle en cśur, dans un polylobe tréflé accosté de roses
+ BNDICTV : SIT NOME : DNI : NRI : DEI : HV : XP
"Béni soit le nom de notre seigneur Dieu Jésus-Christ"
Croix pattée cantonnée de quatre fleurs de lys
Jézéquel 155a1
de Mey 147
Bigot 404
PYL
charles_de_blois_2.JPG
Charles de Blois (1319-1364)11 viewsGros au lion
3,95g
27mm
+ . MONETA tręfle BRITAN '
"Monnaie de Bretagne"
Le lion de Flandres debout ŕ gauche dans une bordure de onze cercles séparés par des I et contenant un lion semblable au dessus de la croisette, et onze quintefeuilles évidées
ChA RRO LVS DVX
"Charles Duc"
+ BNDICTV :. SIT :. NOME :. DNI :. NRI :. HV :. XPI
"Béni soit le nom de notre seigneur Dieu Jésus-Christ"
Croix anglaise coupant la premičre légende
Jézéquel 159b
de Mey 158 (double gros)
PYL
sb1813classA234mm1246g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE15 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
34mm, 12.46g
wileyc
sb1813classA233mm1566gjpg.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE14 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
33mm, 15.66g
wileyc
sb1813classA230mm1456g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE18 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
30mm, 14.56g
wileyc
sb1813classA228mm1480g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE22 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
28mm, 14.80g
wileyc
ab1813classA228mm1207g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE19 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1823 Class A2
28mm, 12.07g
wileyc
sb1813classA2.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE12 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
30mm, 14.48g
wileyc
sb1813classA224mm1509g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE19 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
34mm, mm, 15.09g
g
wileyc
sb1818_40b_32mm_13_96g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE15 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
32mm, 13.96g
wileyc
sb1813_orn_47_28mm8_81g.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE12 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Ornamentation #47
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
28mm, 8.81g
Clipped
wileyc
sb1813_40b_30mm_14_59gjpg.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE24 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
orn-40b
30mm, 14.59g
wileyc
sb1813_29mm_1342g_.jpg
Class A2, sb1813 attributed to joint reign of Basil II and Constantine VIII, 976-1025 CE19 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1813 Class A2
29mm, 13.42gg
wileyc
sb1818classA334mm914g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)15 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
34mm, 9.14g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA327mm1043g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)16 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
27mm, 10.43g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA330mm1013g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)7 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 10.13g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA330mm1097g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)10 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 10.97g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA36mm961g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)23 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
36mm, 9.61gg

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
1 commentswileyc
sb1818classA328mm1126gjpg.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)27 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
28mm, 11.26g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
1 commentswileyc
sb1818classA329mm1017g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)27 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
29mm, 10.17g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
1 commentswileyc
sb1818classA330mm776g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)27 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 7.76g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
1 commentswileyc
sb1818classA329mm1035g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)16 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
29mm, 10.35g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA3f3230mm965g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)16 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
ornament cross, cross, cross, Ornamentation style F32
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 9.65gg


Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA3f4530mm1042g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)11 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
ornament type 45 forum
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 10.42g
Ornamentation style F45

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA#f14b28mm1079g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)6 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
28mm, 10.79g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classAf4130mm930g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)9 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 9.30g
Ornamentation style F41

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818classA328mm894g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)18 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
28mm, 8.94gg

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818_29mm8_41g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)15 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
29mm, 8.41g
Ornamentation style unclear

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1818_30mm984g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)14 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
30mm, 9.84gg
Ornamentation style unclear
wileyc
sb1813_24a_28mm10_09g.jpg
Class A3, sb1818 attributed to Constantine VIII (1025-1028 CE)18 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cross with various ornaments in each limb.. pallium and colobium, and holding books of Gospels.
Reverse: +IhSyB / XRISTUS/ bASILEy/bASILE - in 4 lines, Greek legend, "Jesus Christ, King of Kings.
Mint: Constantinople though Metclaf states several provincial mints within this group. some with rev legend differences.
Date: 976-1025 CE
SB 1818 Class A3
28mm, 10.09g

Class A3 in this case is presented a a group intermediate in weight between Classes A1 and A3 generally considered around 9-10g. Originally classed by D. M. Metcalf he feels that the weight reduction from Class A2 may have been around 1020 CE. Phillip Grierson with Dumbarton Oaks Catalogue does not separate Class A3 from class A2.
wileyc
sb1867classg27mm549g.jpg
Class G, sb1867 attributed to Romanus IV 1068-1071 CE27 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cr., pallium and colobium, and raising r. hand in benediction; in l., hand scroll ; to l., IC to r., XC barred.
Reverse: Facing bust of virgans roans, nimbate and wearing palladium and maphorium; to l., MP to r., OV; border of large pellets.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1068-1071 CE
SB 1867 Class G
27mm, 5.49g
-The depiction of the Virgin Mary with her hands upraised in prayer ("orans") is of very ancient origin in Christian art. In the mausoleum of St Agnes in Rome is a depiction dating to the 4th century which depicts the Theotokos with hands raised in prayer and the infant Jesus sitting upon her knees. There is also an ancient Byzantine icon of the Mother of God "Nikopea" from the 6th century, where the Virgin Mary is depicted seated upon a throne and holding in her hands an oval shield with the image of "Emmanuel"

s the Virgin appears to be praying –her arms are extended outward- this icon type is also called the Virgin Orans. The title Orans (a person praying) comes from a type of non-narrative symbolic figure with outstretched arms we find in the catacombs and on sarcophagi (used in other situations, as well). Such figures –always female- were common in pagan imagery and were thought to symbolize filial piety. They were used, in funerary art, to represent the human soul (also thought to be female) of a deceased person. The early Christians adopted the figure for the same symbolic reason. Some art historians are of the opinion that the so called “orans” (or orant) figure also symbolized the whole Church at prayer. For this reason, the Virgin Orans is sometimes understood to be Mary, in her role as image of the Church, bringing Christ to the world and interceding for mankind with her Son. Orans or orant are generic terms now often used to describe any person in life or art praying with outstretched arms.
wileyc
sb1867_25mm_971g.jpg
Class G, sb1867 attributed to Romanus IV 1068-1071 CE21 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cr., pallium and colobium, and raising r. hand in benediction; in l., hand scroll ; to l., IC to r., XC barred.
Reverse: Facing bust of virgans roans, nimbate and wearing palladium and maphorium; to l., MP to r., OV; border of large pellets.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1068-1071 CE
SB 1867 Class G
25mm, 9.71g
-The depiction of the Virgin Mary with her hands upraised in prayer ("orans") is of very ancient origin in Christian art. In the mausoleum of St Agnes in Rome is a depiction dating to the 4th century which depicts the Theotokos with hands raised in prayer and the infant Jesus sitting upon her knees. There is also an ancient Byzantine icon of the Mother of God "Nikopea" from the 6th century, where the Virgin Mary is depicted seated upon a throne and holding in her hands an oval shield with the image of "Emmanuel"

s the Virgin appears to be praying –her arms are extended outward- this icon type is also called the Virgin Orans. The title Orans (a person praying) comes from a type of non-narrative symbolic figure with outstretched arms we find in the catacombs and on sarcophagi (used in other situations, as well). Such figures –always female- were common in pagan imagery and were thought to symbolize filial piety. They were used, in funerary art, to represent the human soul (also thought to be female) of a deceased person. The early Christians adopted the figure for the same symbolic reason. Some art historians are of the opinion that the so called “orans” (or orant) figure also symbolized the whole Church at prayer. For this reason, the Virgin Orans is sometimes understood to be Mary, in her role as image of the Church, bringing Christ to the world and interceding for mankind with her Son. Orans or orant are generic terms now often used to describe any person in life or art praying with outstretched arms.
wileyc
sb1867_24mm_768g.jpg
Class G, sb1867 attributed to Romanus IV 1068-1071 CE23 viewsObverse: Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cr., pallium and colobium, and raising r. hand in benediction; in l., hand scroll ; to l., IC to r., XC barred.
Reverse: Facing bust of virgans roans, nimbate and wearing palladium and maphorium; to l., MP to r., OV; border of large pellets.
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1068-1071 CE
SB 1867 Class G
24mm, 7.68g
-The depiction of the Virgin Mary with her hands upraised in prayer ("orans") is of very ancient origin in Christian art. In the mausoleum of St Agnes in Rome is a depiction dating to the 4th century which depicts the Theotokos with hands raised in prayer and the infant Jesus sitting upon her knees. There is also an ancient Byzantine icon of the Mother of God "Nikopea" from the 6th century, where the Virgin Mary is depicted seated upon a throne and holding in her hands an oval shield with the image of "Emmanuel"

s the Virgin appears to be praying –her arms are extended outward- this icon type is also called the Virgin Orans. The title Orans (a person praying) comes from a type of non-narrative symbolic figure with outstretched arms we find in the catacombs and on sarcophagi (used in other situations, as well). Such figures –always female- were common in pagan imagery and were thought to symbolize filial piety. They were used, in funerary art, to represent the human soul (also thought to be female) of a deceased person. The early Christians adopted the figure for the same symbolic reason. Some art historians are of the opinion that the so called “orans” (or orant) figure also symbolized the whole Church at prayer. For this reason, the Virgin Orans is sometimes understood to be Mary, in her role as image of the Church, bringing Christ to the world and interceding for mankind with her Son. Orans or orant are generic terms now often used to describe any person in life or art praying with outstretched arms.
wileyc
anon_j_class.jpg
Class J Follis. Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus. Sear 190018 viewsAnonymous Follis "Jesus Christ" J Class Follis, 4.41g. Attributed to Alexius I Comnenus. Apr 4th, 1081 to Aug 15th, 1118. Obv: IC-XC - Facing bust of Jesus Christ, holding gospel Rev: no legend – Cross on top of Crescent, with globules surrounding, Sear 1900.Podiceps
Gn__Lucretius_Trio.jpg
Cn. Lucretius Trio - AR denarius9 viewsRome
˛141 BC
ą136 BC
head of Roma left wearing winged helmet
TRIO
X
Dioscuri riding on horses right, stars over pilei, holding spear and reins
CN·LVCR
ROMA
ąCrawford 237/1a, RSC I Lucretia 1, BMCRR Rome 929, Sydenham 450, SRCV I 114 Lucretia
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
4,0g
ex Jesus Vico
Johny SYSEL
commse17-2.jpg
Commodus, RIC (Marcus Aurelius) 1524, Sestertius of AD 175-17658 viewsĆ Sestertius (24.8g, Ř33mm, 5h), Rome mint, struck AD 175-176.
Obv.: L.AVREL.COMMODO CAES AVG FIL GERM SARM, bare headed draped bust of young Commodus facing right.
Rev.: IOVI CONSERVATORI (around) S C (in field), Large figure of Jupiter standing left holding long sceptre and thunderbolt over smaller figure of Commodus, standing left and holding a trophy.
RIC (Marcus Aurelius) 1524 (R)
ex Jesus Vico S.A.
Charles S
COMMSE16.jpg
Commodus, RIC 308c, Sestertius of AD 181 (Jupiter)37 viewsĆ Sestertius (25.9g, Ř33mm, 6h). Rome mint. Struck AD 181.
Obv.: M·COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG, laureate head of Commodus facing right.
Rev.: IVPPITER CONSERVATOR·TR P VI IMP IIII COS III P P (around) S C (across field), Jupiter naked standing l. holding thunderbolt and long sceptre holding cloak over Commodus, togate, standing l. holding a branch and a sceptre.
RIC 308c (scarce); Cohen 273 (12fr).
ex Jesus Vico S.A. (2012)
1 commentsCharles S
CTGSolInvAE3London.jpg
Constantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.57 viewsAE 3: RIC VI 282, 312-313 AD, 3.3 g, 22 mm; London, EF; Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P AVG, Laureate draped cuirassed bust right; Reverse: SOLI INV-IC-TO COMITI, Sol standing facing, right hand raised, globe in left hand, PLN in ex., star in left field; an attractive bronze with great detail. Ex Ancient Imports.

As I have noted elsewhere, I have chosen the date 395 AD, with the emperor Arcadius, to mark the beginning of the Byzantine Empire in my collection.

That said, it seems appropriate to display a couple of coins struck for the man whose decision made Byzantium possible. As historian John Julius Norwich has writen, “The Byzantine Empire, from its foundation by Constantine the Great on Monday, 11 May 330 to its conquest by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II on Tuesday, 29 May 1453, lasted for a total of 1,123 years and 18 days – a period of time comfortably longer than that which separates us from the Norman conquest of England in 1066. For everyone except astronomers and geologists, such a period must be considered a long time . . ." (Norwich, John Julius. A Short History of Byzantium. New York: Vintage Books, 1999. xxxvii).


Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, is as controversial as he is "great."


From John Julius Norwich:
"The first thing to be said is that no ruler in all history--not Alexander nor Alfred, not Charles nor Catherine, not Fredrick nor even Gregory--has ever more fully merited his title of "the Great . . . [he has] a serious claim to be considered--excepting only Jesus Christ, the Prophet Mohammed and the Buddha--the most influential man who ever lived" (Norwich, John Julius. The Middle Sea: A History of the Mediterranean. New York: Doubleday, 2006. 50-1).

From Michael Grant:
". . . But he was also murderous, and the many whom he murdered, or executed, included not only his rival Licinius (to whom he had promised survival) but also his own eldest son and his own second wife Fausta. There is no excusing those deaths, at any time or in any society . . . There are, and remain, certain absolute standards, and by his death-dealing Constantine offended signally against them. . . It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . . (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).

J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
sb1757.jpg
Constantine VII and Romanus I AR Miliaresion Constantinople Sear 1757 24 viewsObv: + IhSUS XRIStUS nICA ("May Jesus Christ conquer")
Cross crosslet on three steps, small globus beneath; at center of cross, x; triple border ornamented with sixteen equally spaced globules.
Rev: +CONST' T' / noRFVRoG' / CE ROMANO / En Xw EVSEb' / b' RWmEon ("Constantine Porphyrogenitos and Romanos, by the grace of Christ the pious Emperors of the Romans").
Task_Force
a62.jpg
Constantine VII and Romanus I AR Miliaresion Constantinople Sear 1757 21 viewsObv: + IhSUS XRIStUS nICA ("May Jesus Christ conquer")
Cross crosslet on three steps, small globus beneath; at center of cross, x; triple border ornamented with sixteen equally spaced globules.
Rev: +CONST' T' / noRFVRoG' / CE ROMANO / En Xw EVSEb' / b' RWmEon ("Constantine Porphyrogenitos and Romanos, by the grace of Christ the pious Emperors of the Romans").
Task_Force
CCS-5.jpg
Crusaders: Tancred, Regent (1101-1112) Ć Follis, Antioch (Metcalf, Crusades-81; CCS-5)11 viewsObv: IC XC (Ιησούς Χριστός; Jesus Christ); Facing bust of Christ Pantokrator, nimbate, wearing tunic and cloak, holding Gospels
Rev: Cross pattée with pellet at end of each bar; TA NK P H in quarters; fleuronné at base
SpongeBob
UBJ-48.jpg
Danish India, Tranquebar: Christian IV (1588-1648) Pb Cash (UBJ-48; Gray-34a; KM#28)7 viewsObv: Crowned C4 monogram
Rev: IHS, with 4-petal flower beneath reverse field, for Jesus
SpongeBob
UBJ-48(1).jpg
Danish India, Tranquebar: Christian IV (1588-1648) Pb Cash (UBJ-48; Gray-34a; KM#28)8 viewsObv: Crowned C4 monogram
Rev: IHS, with 4-petal flower beneath reverse field, for Jesus
SpongeBob
UBJ-48(2).jpg
Danish India, Tranquebar: Christian IV (1588-1648) Pb Cash (UBJ-48; Gray-34a; KM#28)4 viewsObv: Crowned C4 monogram
Rev: IHS, with 4-petal flower beneath reverse field, for Jesus
SpongeBob
UBJ-106.jpg
Danish India, Tranquebar: Frederik III (1648-1670) Pb Cash (UBJ-106; Gray-84e; KM#78)10 views Obv: Crowned F3 monogram
Rev: Cross, with J O below cross, blundered version of J C for "Jesus Christ "
Quant.Geek
UBJ-106(1).jpg
Danish India, Tranquebar: Frederik III (1648-1670) Pb Cash (UBJ-106; Gray-84e; KM#78)10 viewsObv: Crowned F3 monogram
Rev: Cross, with J O below cross, blundered version of J C for "Jesus Christ
Quant.Geek
Ethiopian_Coptic_Bible-004.jpg
Ethiopian Coptic Ge’ez Bible (ca. 18th Century)11 viewsEthiopian Handwritten Coptic Ge’ez Bibles were produced as early as the fourteenth century until the late 19th century throughout Ethiopia, the first country to become an independent African nation. Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia in the 4th century when Syrian missionaries first translated the Bible into Ge’ez, the language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The surviving body of Ge’ez literature in composed almost entirely of Christian liturgy, as education was exclusively the responsibility of priests and monks. The bibles produced typically contain the gospels of the New Testament, recounting the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the foundation of the Christian faith with illuminated miniature paintings depicting the lives of the Saints.Quant.Geek
Ethiopian_Coptic_Bible-003.jpg
Ethiopian Coptic Ge’ez Bible (ca. 18th Century)7 viewsEthiopian Handwritten Coptic Ge’ez Bibles were produced as early as the fourteenth century until the late 19th century throughout Ethiopia, the first country to become an independent African nation. Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia in the 4th century when Syrian missionaries first translated the Bible into Ge’ez, the language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The surviving body of Ge’ez literature in composed almost entirely of Christian liturgy, as education was exclusively the responsibility of priests and monks. The bibles produced typically contain the gospels of the New Testament, recounting the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the foundation of the Christian faith with illuminated miniature paintings depicting the lives of the Saints.Quant.Geek
Ethiopian_Coptic_Bible-002.jpg
Ethiopian Coptic Ge’ez Bible (ca. 18th Century)10 viewsEthiopian Handwritten Coptic Ge’ez Bibles were produced as early as the fourteenth century until the late 19th century throughout Ethiopia, the first country to become an independent African nation. Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia in the 4th century when Syrian missionaries first translated the Bible into Ge’ez, the language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The surviving body of Ge’ez literature in composed almost entirely of Christian liturgy, as education was exclusively the responsibility of priests and monks. The bibles produced typically contain the gospels of the New Testament, recounting the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the foundation of the Christian faith with illuminated miniature paintings depicting the lives of the Saints.Quant.Geek
Ethiopian_Coptic_Bible-001.jpg
Ethiopian Coptic Ge’ez Bible (ca. 18th Century)9 viewsEthiopian Handwritten Coptic Ge’ez Bibles were produced as early as the fourteenth century until the late 19th century throughout Ethiopia, the first country to become an independent African nation. Christianity was introduced to Ethiopia in the 4th century when Syrian missionaries first translated the Bible into Ge’ez, the language of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church. The surviving body of Ge’ez literature in composed almost entirely of Christian liturgy, as education was exclusively the responsibility of priests and monks. The bibles produced typically contain the gospels of the New Testament, recounting the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the foundation of the Christian faith with illuminated miniature paintings depicting the lives of the Saints.Quant.Geek
FF_Strasbourg_Gla_Roberts_9070.JPG
France (Feudal): Strasbourg (Municipality of Strasbourg), 1482-166754 viewsRoberts 9070, Boudeau 1335, Engel-Lehr 398-401

AR kreuzer (two deniers), 17 mm.

Obv: + GLA • IN EXCELS DO, central lily.

Rev: + MONETA • ARGEN, central lily.

The obverse legend is an abbreviated form of “GLORIA IN EXCELSIS DEO” ("Glory to God in the highest”), which are the words sung by the angels at the birth of Jesus in Luke 2:14. The words entered the Roman Catholic liturgy as the title and first words of a hymn known as the Great Doxology and the Hymnus Angelicus.
Stkp
FR_Philip_IV_gros_tournois.png
France (Royal). Philippe IV, le Bel (the Fair) (1285-1314)28 viewsAR Gros Tournois ŕ l’O rond (958‰ fineness). Struck 1285-1290. 3.81 g., 24.76 mm. max. (clipped), 0°

Ciani 206, LaFaurie 218, Duplessy 214, Dhénin 258, Roberts 2461

Obv.: + BNDICTV: SIT: NOmE: DNI: nRI: DEI: IhV. XPI with 3-pellet stops (= Benedictum Sit Nomen Domini Nostri Dei Ihesu Christus = Blessed in the name of our Lord, Jesus Christ) around + PhILIPPVS REX around cross pattée.

Rev.: + TVRONVS CIVIS (= City of Tours) around châtel tournois, surrounded by floral border of twelve embedded lis.

Van Hengel (1997) Group 200 (PhILLIPPVS legend with no punctuation marks in PhILLIPVS REX and TVRONVS CIVITAS). Van Hengel initially hesitated over whether this group is imitative, i.e., the work of professional moneyers and struck by a minting authority with the right to mint coins, somewhere. He later (1999) concluded that the group is imitative. The variable letter characteristics of the coin, according to the Van Hengel system, are:
• The first three Ns in the obverse outer legend appear as Hs, which is a later development;
• The M in NOME is open, as per Tyler-Smith letter form 2 var., another late development;
• There is no single pellet stop before XPI;
• The R in PhILLIPVS is a variant letter form not depicted by Tyler-Smith;
• The T on the reverse is a non-specific variant letter form depicted but not numbered by Tyler-Smith;
• The Vs on the reverse are a variant letter form not depicted by Tyler-Smith;
• The N on the reverse is Tyler-Smith variant letter form 2 (retrograde).
2 commentsStkp
AntipasHalfUnit.jpg
Herod Antipas Half Unit84 viewsHERODIANS. Herod Antipas (4 BCE - 39 CE). Tiberias Mint, Ć half denomination, 19.4mm, 5.3 g.
O: TIBE PIAC in two lines within wreath.
R: HPΩΔOY TETPAPXOY (Herod Tetrarch), vertical palm branch, L to left, ΛZ to right, (RY 37 = 33/34 CE)
Hendin-1212 in GBC 5; ex. Hendin; ex. Teddy Kollek Collection; Menorah Coin Project ANT 15, Die 02/R12; Sear certificate.

Herod Antipas was the son of Herod the Great and Malthace, a Samaritan woman. He was brought up in Rome with his brother Archelaus.

In Herod’s will, Antipas had been named to receive the kingship, but Herod changed his will, naming Archelaus instead. Antipas contested the will before Augustus Caesar, who upheld Archelaus’ claim but divided the kingdom, giving Antipas the tetrarchy of Galilee and Perea. “Tetrarch,” meaning ‘ruler over one fourth’ of a province, was a term applied to a minor district ruler or territorial prince.

Antipas married the daughter of Aretas, king of Arabia. But on one of his trips to Rome, Antipas visited his half brother Herod Philip, the son of Herod the Great and Mariamne II (not Philip the tetrarch). While visiting, he became infatuated with Philip’s wife Herodias, who was quite the ambitious woman. He took her back to Galilee and married her, divorcing Aretas’ daughter and sending her back home. This insulting action brought war. Aretas invaded and Antipas suffered major losses before receiving orders from Rome for Aretas to stop.

According to Josephus, Herod's defeat was popularly believed to be divine punishment for his execution of John the Baptist. Tiberius ordered Vitellius, the governor of Syria, to capture or kill Aretas, but Vitellius was reluctant to support Herod and abandoned his campaign upon Tiberius' death in 37.

It was Herod Antipas’ adulterous relationship with Herodias that brought reproof from John the Baptizer. John was correct in reproving Antipas, because Antipas was nominally a Jew and professedly under the Law. This would lead to John's murder being schemed during a celebration of Antipas' birthday.

On the last day of Jesus’ earthly life, when he was brought before Pontius Pilate and Pilate heard that Jesus was a Galilean, Pilate sent him to Herod Antipas who happened to be in Jerusalem. Herod, disappointed in Jesus, discredited him and made fun of him, then sent him back to Pilate, who was the superior authority as far as Rome was concerned. Pilate and Herod had been enemies, possibly because of certain accusations that Herod had leveled against Pilate. But this move on Pilate’s part pleased Herod and they became friends.
Nemonater
Herodwithscriptcopy.jpg
Herod I (the Great)111 viewsHerod I (the Great). 40-4 BCE. Ć 8 Prutot, 22mm, 5.82 g. Samaria mint. Dated RY 3 (40 BCE). O: Ceremonial bowl (lebes) on tripod; date L Γ (Year 3) to left, monogram to right. Greek Inscription: BAΣIΛEΩΣ HPΩΔOΥ (of King Herod.) R: Military helmet with cheek guards and straps, star above, palms flanking. Meshorer 44; Hendin 486; RPC I 4901.


Although there is debate over exactly what year “Year 3” refers to, the monogram TP may well indicate the third year of Herod’s tetrarchy. Josephus writes that Mark Antony appointed Herod as tetrarch (TETPAPXHΣ) in 42 B.C.E., which would bring us to 40/39 B.C.E. This is also when Herod was crowned as King of Judaea by the Roman Senate with the approval of Octavian (soon to be Augustus.)

This dating helps to explain the meaning of the obverse image of a soldier’s helmet. Although Herod was appointed as king, the Hasmonaean king, Mattathias Antigonus, was still ruling over Judea and did not recognize Roman authority. Herod would therefore have to raise an army, which he did, and, after a three month siege, conquered Jerusalem in 37 B.C.E.


Although Herod accomplished a great deal during his thirty-year + reign, including the building of massive palaces and amphitheaters and enlarging the temple, he is most remembered as a jealous, paranoid murderer, willing to do anything to maintain his political power.

Herod ordered the death of his Hasmonaean wife Mariamne and her brother Aristobulus. Later he had his two sons by Mariamne killed as well. This effectively eliminated the most serious threats to his power in Judaea. Caesar Augustus observed that it was safer to be Herod’s pig than Herod’s son. His wickedness reached its peak years later when, in fear of a rival king, he ordered the killing of all the boys two years of age and under in Bethlehem.

The Bible writer Matthew records Jesus’ birth taking place, “in the days of Herod the king.” A star led astrologers to Herod proclaiming the birth “of the one born king of the Jews.” The resulting slaughter of these children fulfilled the prophesy at Jeremiah 31:15, “This is what Jehovah has said, ‘In Ra′mah a voice is being heard, lamentation and bitter weeping; Rachel weeping over her sons. She has refused to be comforted over her sons, because they are no more.’”
4 commentsNemonater
Hungary_Mathias_II_1616.JPG
Hungary, Mathias II, 1608 - 161931 viewsObv: MAT - D - G - RO - I - S - AV - GE - HV - B - R, Arms of Hungary (Árpádian stripes and double cross in crown on thee hills) within a circle.

Rev: PATRO HVNGA 1616, The Holy Mother, crowned, seated in a crescent, holding an infant Jesus in her left arm, and a cross in her right.

Silver Denar, Kremnitz mint, 1616 AD

0.59 grams, 14.12 mm, 180°
1 commentsMatt Inglima
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Hungary, Rudolf, 1572 - 1608 ( Kremnitz mint 1591 )17 viewsHungary, Rudolf, 1572 - 1608
Silver denar . 0.484g, 15.5mm, Kremnitz mint, 1591
Obverse : RVD • II • RO • I • S • AV • G • H • B • R •, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon .
Reverse : PATR * 1591 * HVNG, crowned Madonna seated facing holding infant Jesus, K–B (privy mark) in fields .
Huszár 1059
Vladislav D
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Hungary, Vladislas II (Wladislaw II), 1490 - 1516 (Kremnitz mint 1500 - 1502 )29 viewsHungary, Vladislas II (Wladislaw II), 1490 - 1516
Silver denar . 0.559g, 15.2mm, Kremnitz mint, 1500 - 1502 .
Obverse : M WLADISLAI R VNGAR, four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon .
Reverse : PATRON VNGARI, Madonna seating facing, crowned, infant Jesus in arms K - h (privy mark) across fields .
Huszár 1059
Vladislav D
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Hungary. Maria Theresa of Austria 1740 - 1780. .583 Silver 20 Krajczar 1765-KB.89 viewsHungary. Maria Theresa of Austria 1740 - 1780. .583 Silver 20 Krajczar 1765-KB. M. THERESA. D: GR. IMP. GH. HU. BO. REG, bust right within wreath / PATRONA REGNI HUNGARIA 1765, Madonna seated on thrown facing, infant Jesus in her left arm, throne flanked by branches, value on mantle below.

KM 366.1
oneill6217
Huszár-72.jpg
Hungary: Belá III (1172-1196) Follis (Huszár-72, Unger-114)41 viewsObv: SANCTA—MARIA, Nimbate Madonna facing the front, scepter in right hand, infant Jesus in left. Two crosses above.
Rev: REX BELA on left, REX STS on right; Two kings seated on thrones facing, each holding scepter and globus cruciger; long cross between. Inverted crescent and three lines in exergue.
SpongeBob
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Hungary: Ferdinánd I (1526-1564) BI Denár (Huszár-935, Réthy-40, Unger-745a)33 viewsObv: FERDINAND · D · G · R · VNG ✶ 1537 ✶; Quartered Coat of Arms (strips, double cross, leopard heads, Bohemian lion), at the heart , Austrian Shield
Rev: PATRONA · ✶ · VNGARIE; Virgin Mary, crowned, enthroned facing, holding infant Jesus; across field, K-B (Kremnitz)
1 commentsSpongeBob
HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-7_2.JPG
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-7, Unger 562g, Réthy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype B199 viewsHungary. Matthias “Corvinus” (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: M MAhTIE R • hVGARIE ◦, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in center.

Rev: PATROn – VnGARIE, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, h–T (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.
This privy mark was struck in Hermannstadt (formerly Nagyszeben, Hungary (Translyvania), now Sibiu, Romania) by Thomas Althemberger, kammergraf, in 1468 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. It is a highly variable type with four subtypes. Subtype B is one of the more common subtypes, comprising around 30% of the coins in the emission. This is an uncommon privy mark, appearing only on this subtype and on only around 2% of the coins of this type.

Subtype B coins lack a cross at the beginning of the obverse legend, which is M MAThIE • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant), either lack an escutcheon or have just faint hints of an escutcheon, and there is no ring in the raven's beak. They are neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.
Stkp
HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-8_variety.png
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-8, Unger 562h, Réthy II 235A, Frynas 34.35118 viewsHungary. Matthias Corvinus/Mátyás Hunyadi (1458-1490).

AR denar (aver. fineness approx. .500 AR; ideal weight .59023 g.); .49 g., 15.51 mm. max., 90°

Obv: + m•ATh[IE]•[R•]Vn[G]ARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with prominent feet on branch within partial escutcheon.

Rev: PATROnA - VnGARIE, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–K/shield in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 per Pohl and Unger, except that Pohl extends the type to 1484 re one scarce mintmark. Huszár and Gyöngyössy assign date ranges of 1468-1471 and 1468-1477, respectively, presumably in recognition of the later striking of coins bearing that one scarce mark. Frynas simply assigns a date of 1468 to this type.

This mark was struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, in 1468.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3, Unger value 7 DM, Frynas rarity C. By my provisional estimate, roughly 10% of this type bears this mark. This is a highly variable type. Coins with this mark typically have the obverse legend + mOnETA • mAThIE • R • VnG (or a minor variation), whereas coins of this type with the mark K-shield (also struck in Kreminitz under Constorfer, but in 1469) have the obverse legend + m • mAThie • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant). In either event, the raven is within a whole or partial escutcheon, stands on a twig and has prominent feet. This coin is unusual in that it bears the latter legend, but the obverse die was erroneously engraved to omit the second "m" (for Mathie). I have only seen one other example of this mark with the latter legend, and it was also erroneously engraved in this manner, although from a different die. In my article on this coinage, I classified coins bearing this mark and the former legend as Subtype D1 and D2 (depending on the presence or absence of the large clearly defined ring ). The variety with the latter legend, represented by this coin, was then unknown to me and not mentioned.
2 commentsStkp
HUN_Matyas_Huszar_718_Pohl_219-3_#2.png
Huszár 718, Pohl 219-3, Unger 564c, Réthy II 234, Frynas 34.36. 61 viewsHungary. Matthias Corvinus/Mátyás Hunyadi (1458-1490)

AR denar AR denar (aver. fineness approx. .500 AR; ideal weight .59023 g.); .48 g., 15.90 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + MOnETA MAThIE • R • VnGAR, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Berszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: • PATROn – VnGARI •, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–C in fields.

The type was struck 1472-1478 per Pohl. Huszár, Unger, Gyöngyössy and Frynas all assign a date range of 1471-1481.

This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf. Although Pohl does not assign a specific date to this mark, Gyöngyössy assigns 1471.

Huszár/Pohl rarity 4, Unger value 7 DM, Frynas rarity C. By my provisional estimate, roughly 30% of this type bears this mark. Coins of this type with this mark most commonly have this obverse legend (or a minor variant). In my article on this coinage, I classified coins bearing this legend as Subtype A.
Stkp
HUN_Matyas_Huszar_722_Pohl_223-1_var.jpg
Huszár 722, Pohl 223-1 var. (O over P/rosette), Unger 567b&e var. (same), Réthy II 232, Frynas 34.40, Kaplan Subtype A36 viewsHungary. Matthias/Mátyás Hunyadi ("Corvinus") (1458-1490)

AR denar (average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.), .61 g., 15.80 mm. max., 180°

Obv: + M [•] MATHIE [• R] • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring on branch in escutcheon, pellets to sides.

Rev: PATRON - VNGARIE, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K-O/P/rosette (mintmark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1487-1490 (per Pohl and Gyöngyössy) or 1489-1490 (per Huszár and Unger) or 1489 per Frynas. This mintmark is unrecorded. Coins of the type bearing a similar mark (K-P/rosette without the O over the P) were struck in Körmöcbánya/Kremnitz, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Peter Schaider, oberkammergraf (per Pohl), in 1489 (per Pohl & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 10, Unger rarity 7, Frynas rarity C. This type is comprised of three subtypes, with Kaplan Subtype A accounting for around 70% of the coins. This mintmark is unrecorded.

Kaplan Subtype A has pellets to the sides of the shield. It is depicted in Pohl, and also in Unger and Réthy (albeit inaccurately; they do not depict a ring prominently in the raven’s beak).
2 commentsStkp
HUN_Matyas_Huszar_722_Pohl_223-4_var.jpg
Huszár 722, Pohl 223-4 var., Unger 567d var., Réthy II 232, Kaplan Subtype C 94 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, .54 g., 15.74 mm. max., 0°

Obv: + M • MATHIE • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring in escutcheon, annulets to sides.

Rev: PATRON — VNGARIE, Crowned nimbate Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—•/˘ (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1487-1490 (per Pohl) or 1489-1490 (per Huszár & Unger), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Casper Stek for Peter Schaider, oberkammergraf (per Pohl), in 1487 (per Poh) or 1490 (per Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This type has three subtypes. Subtype C only appear with this privy mark, and comprise a small fraction of the coins of this emission. This is an unrecorded mintmark variety due to the pellet above the ˘.

Subtype C coins have annulets to the sides of the shield. It is depicted in Huszár.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Matyas_Huszar_722_Pohl_223-2_nimbate.jpg
Huszár 722var., Pohl 223-2, Unger 567c, Réthy II 232, Kaplan Subtype B 101 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, .58 g., 16.04 mm. max.,180°

Obv: + M • MATHIE • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRO — VNGARIE, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—P/thin rosette (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1487-1490 (per Pohl) or 1489-1490 (per Huszár & Unger), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Peter Schaider, oberkammergraf (per Pohl), in 1489 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This type has three subtypes. Subtype B comprises around 30% of the coins of this emission.

Subtype B coins do not have pellets to the sides of the shield. It is depicted in Huszár.
Stkp
HUN_Matyas_Huszar_728_Pohl_720-5.jpg
Huszár 728, Pohl 220-5, Unger 578f, Réthy II 244, Frynas H.34.51.33 viewsHungary. Matthias/Mátyás Hunyadi ("Corvinus") (1458-1490).

AR obolus (average fineness .500 AR, average weight .59023 g.), .26 g., 12.2 mm. max., 0°.

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Berszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her left, K–P* (privy mark) in fields.

Type struck 1471-1481 (per Huszár), 1471-1486 (per Gyöngyössy), 1471-1488 (per Unger) or 1472-1485 (per Pohl). Privy mark was struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Paul Peck, kammergraf, or possibly Paul Modrár, ca. 1472-1478 (per Pohl) or 1472-1477 (per Gyöngyössy).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 6, Unger value 15 KM, Frynas rarity N.
Stkp
HUN_Bela_III_Huszar_72.JPG
Huszár 72; Toth-Kiss 16.5 var. sigla 0.1/1; Unger 114; Réthy I 98-100; Frynas H.15.24; Adamovszky A223 ff.114 viewsHungary. Béla III (1172-1196)

AE denomination unknown (average: 2.88 g., 22.5-27.5 mm.), 3.10 g., 26.41 mm. max., 270°

Obv (concave): REX BELA (on left, running counterclockwise)-REX STS (on right, running clockwise), Two kings seated on thrones facing, each holding scepter and globus cruciger; long cross between. Inverted crescent and three lines in exergue.

Rev (convex): SANCTA-MARIA, Nimbate Madonna facing the front, scepter in right hand, infant Jesus in left. Two crosses above.

Struck in Esztergom. Struck 1172-1182 (per Gyöngyössy, whose dating has not been accepted by later catalogers and appears to be speculative).

Note: “The financially unsuccessful attempt at minting copper coins was carried out exactly as its prototype, the Byzantine coppers. On these copper coins the stiff representation of the two royal figures recalls Byzantine icons, and the symmetry prevailing in the design creates a favorable impression. This direct adoption of the Byzantine model, as well as the whole attempt at coining copper money, may be ascribed to the fact that King Béla III spent a long period of time at the Byzantine court” (Huszár 1963, at 9-10).

Huszár rarity 1, Toth-Kiss rarity 20, Unger rarity 8, Frynas rarity C. Unrecorded variety with unusual ELA in BELA and retrograde first S in STS, as confirmed by József Géza Kiss via personal email communication on December 14, 2018.
Stkp
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Huszár 803, Pohl 238-2, Unger 638c, Réthy II 276. Kaplan Subtype A190 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, .52 g., 15.5 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon, annulets to sides.

Rev: PATRON—VNGARIE •, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—M/AF (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1498 (per Unger) or 1492-1499 (per Pohl) or 1490-1502 (per Huszár). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Andreas Hellebrand and Franz Körnidl (per Pohl) in 1494 (per Unger) or 1495 per Pohl.

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Kaplan subtype A is the standard form of this emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are nimbate (described in Huszár, depicted in Unger & Réthy), and sub-subtype 1 is the most common variety, in which there are annulets to the sides of the shield (depicted in Unger).
Stkp
Wladislaus_II_Huszar_803.JPG
Huszar 803, Pohl 238-4, Unger 638e, Rethy II 276. Kaplan (pub. pending) Subtype A1253 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulaszlo II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar.

Obv: M.WLADISLAI.R.VNGARIE., Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Arpadian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon, hollow pellets at sides.

Rev: PATRON--VNGARIE, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K--S/retrograde E in fields.

Struck in Kremnitz (formerly Kormocbanya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl, joint unterkammergraffen, in 1497 (per Pohl & Unger) or ca. 1490-1502 (per Huszar).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Kaplan subtype A is the standard form of this emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are nimbate (described in Huszar, depicted in Unger & Rethy), and sub-subtype 1 is the most common variety, in which there are hollow pellets to the sides of the shield (depicted in Unger). This is a less common variation of the mintmark in that the E is retrograde.
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_803_Pohl_238-4_A1.JPG
Huszár 803, Pohl 238-4, Unger 638e, Réthy II 276. Kaplan Subtype A182 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, .45 g., 15-16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI • R • V]NGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon, annulets at sides.

Rev: PATRON—VNGARIE, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—S/E (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1498 (per Unger) or 1492-1499 (per Pohl) or 1490-1502 (per Huszár). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl, joint unterkammergraffen (per Pohl) in 1497 (per Pohl & Unger).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Kaplan subtype A is the standard form of this emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are nimbate (described in Huszár, depicted in Unger & Réthy), subtype 1 is the most common variety, in which there are annulets to the sides of the shield (depicted in Unger).
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_807_Pohl_242-2_Subtype_A.JPG
Huszár 807, Pohl 242-2, Unger 641b, Réthy II 272B, Kaplan Subtype A117 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, .49 g, 15 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI •R • VNGARI •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: PATRONA • – • VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—H (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502, except for one rare mint mark that was struck ca. 1505 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype A is the form of the emission, in which the bottom of the Madonna’s robe has a single distinctive fold in its center (depicted in Huszár and Pohl, but not described in Huszár, the text of which is erroneous in its description of the Madonna on this emission). Subtype A is rare with this privy mark.

aUnc with bronze patina.
Stkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_807_Pohl_242-2_Subtype_B2_var.jpg
Huszár 807, Pohl 242-2, Unger 641b, Réthy II 272B. Kaplan Subtype B247 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, .56 g., 15.55 mm. max. 270°

Obv: m • WLADISLAI •R • VNGAR _ [retrograde N], Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), large Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: [PATR]ON — VNGARIE • [retrograde Ns], Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—H (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502, except for one rare mint mark that was struck ca. 1505 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype B is the form of the emission, in which the Madonna’s robe is even at the bottom (depicted in Réthy and Pohl). On the sub-subtype B2 coins the letter “M” on the obverse is in a Gothic style. The subtype B2 coins bearing the K-H mark appear to all have a larger Polish eagle on the obverse and retrograde Ns throughout.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_807_Pohl_242-3_var.JPG
Huszár 807, Pohl 242-3, Unger 641c, Réthy II 272B, Kaplan Subtype C101 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 15-15.5 mm.

Obv: * WLADISLAI * VNGARI •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center, rosettes above and to sides of shield.

Rev: PATRON * R VNGAR •, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, n-A (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502, except for this privy (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) in 1505 Ambrosius Literatus, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is a rare privy mark. According to Huszár and Pohl, there are one to three stars on the coins bearing this mark, on the obverse above and to the sides of the shield. The style of the Madonna’s robe and crown do not fit within Kaplan Subtypes A and B, and are assigned to a catch-all Subtype C.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1503_K-H_Pohl_253-3_#2.JPG
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-3, Unger 646b, Réthy II 277-278A, dated 1503 41 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, .37 g., 16.11 mm. max., 0°

Obv: 1503 : WLADISLAI ◦ R ◦ VNGA ◦, shield w/ Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion, & Polish eagle in escutcheon in center.

Rev: * PATRONA ◦ -- ◦ VNGARI ◦, Crowned Madonna w/ infant Jesus to her right, K-H flanking.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger) or 1490-1498 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5. Hungary's first dated business strike and an uncommon date.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1503_K-H_Pohl_253-3_#1.JPG
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-3, Unger 646b, Réthy II 277-278A, dated 1503 41 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, .38 g., 15.84 mm. max., 0°

Obv: 1503 : WLADISLAI ◦ R ◦ VNGAR ◦, shield w/ Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion, & Polish eagle in escutcheon in center.

Rev: * PATRONA ◦ -- ◦ VNGAR ◦, Crowned Madonna w/ infant Jesus to her right, K-H flanking.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger) or 1490-1498 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5. Hungary's first dated business strike and an uncommon date.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1506_Pohl_253-3_KG.jpg
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-3, Unger 646b, Réthy II 278A, dated 1506 35 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, .41 g., 15.48 mm. max., 180°

Obv: 1506 * WLADISLAI * R * VNGARI *, shield w/ Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion, & Polish eagle in escutcheon in center.

Rev: * PATRONA * --* VNGARIE *, Crowned Madonna w/ infant Jesus to her right, K-H flanking.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger) or 1490-1498 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_1514_Huszar_811_Pohl_253-4_K-G.jpg
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-4, Unger 646c, Réthy II 278A, dated 1514.23 viewsHungary. Wladislaus/Ulászló II (1490-1516). AR denar, .55 gr., 15.87 mm. max.,180°.

Obv: WLADISLAI * R * VNGARIE * 1514 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Georg Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1515_Pohl_253-4_KG.jpg
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-4, Unger 646c, Réthy II 278A, dated 1515 31 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, .56 g., 15.88 mm. max., 270°

Obv: 1515 * WLADISLAI * R * VNGARI *, shield w/ Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion, & Polish eagle in escutcheon in center

Rev: * PATRONA * --* VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna w/ infant Jesus to her right, K-G flanking.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger) or 1490-1498 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Georg Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Ulaszlo_II_1508_Huszar_811_Pohl_253-4_K-G.jpg
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-4, Unger 646c, Réthy II 278A; dated 150814 viewsHungary. Ulászló/Wladislaus II (1490-1516)

AR denar, .51 g., 15.38 mm. max., 270°

Obv: WLADISLAI * R * VNGARIE * 1508 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: * PATRONA * – * VNGARIE *, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl and Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya,
now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Georg Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity 4, Pohl rarity5, Unger rarity 3.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1517_Pohl_255-1.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-1, Unger 673m, Réthy II 306A, dated 1517162 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 15.5 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1517 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K-G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Georg Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_contemprary_counterfeit.png
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525 (contemporary counterfeit).15 viewsHungary. Louis/Lajos II (1516-1526)

AR (contemporary counterfeit) denar, .33 g., 15.46 mm. max., 90°.

Obv: [LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI] * 1525, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon [bungled and retrograde legend and date].

Rev: [PATRONA] * – * [VNGAR]IE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B in fields [bungled and retrograde legend].

Type struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl, Unger & Gyöngyössy). Officially struck coins bearing this privy mark struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Bernhard Beheim, the kammergraf appointed by Queen Maria in 1524, who continued in office until 1545 (per Pohl).

The silver content of this coin appears to be comparable to that of the inflationary currency referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova” (Huszár 846, Pohl 258, Unger 675, Réthy II 308A). Four hundred denars, each weighing on average 0.49 g., were struck form an Ofner mark of silver and had an average fineness of 0.250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity 3, Unger value 8 DM (re official emission).
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HUN_Lajos_II_1525_Huszar_841_Pohl_255-19_K-B.jpg
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525.21 viewsHungary. Louis/Lajos II (1516-1526). AR denar, .55 gr., 15.29 mm. max., 180°.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1525 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz/Körmöcbánya, now Kremnica, Slovakia, by Bernhard Beheim, who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545 (per Pohl).
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1526_Pohl_255-24.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-24, Unger 673i, Réthy II 306A, dated 1526 87 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 15x16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R ◦ VNGAR * 1526 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, C–lily (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kaschau (Kassa in Hun., now Košice, Slovakia) under a city (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3 (but with an uncommon privy mark).
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1527_Pohl_255-38_L-K.jpg
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-38, Unger 673u, Réthy II 306A, dated 1527 36 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, ): .64 g., 15.83 mm. max., 180°

Obv: 1527 * LVDOVICVS ◦ R ◦ VNGAR *, shield w/ Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion, & Polish eagle in escutcheon in center.

Rev: PATRONA * --* VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna w/ infant Jesus to her right, L-K flanking.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (Körmöcbánya, in Hun., now Kremnica, Slovakia) and was a posthumous issue of Louis II (per Pohl). Louis II died on August 29, 1526 when he drowned while fleeing from the Turks after the carnage of the battle of Mohács.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
1 commentsStkp
HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_846_1523_Pohl_258-2.JPG
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-2, Unger 675e, Réthy II 308A, dated 1523 56 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1523, with rosettes on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, rosette between two pellets on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—K (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) (per Pohl).

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_853.jpg
Huszár 853, Pohl 258-33, Unger 677b, Réthy II 313, dated 1524 26 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, .53 g, 14.50 mm. max., 180°

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, 1 with pellets above and below to left, [• 52] • above, and 4 with pellets above and below to right.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L–R/N (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1524-1525 (per Huszár & Unger). Pohl classifies this type as a mintmark variety of Huszár 846, Unger 675, Réthy II 308A. That type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck from an Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 6.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_855_Pohl_259-1.jpg
Huszár 855, Pohl 259-1, Unger 652c, Réthy II 314A23 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR obolus, .27 g., 11.67 mm., 180°

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in escutcheon, rosettes above and to sides.

Rev: Nimbate Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—A (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1501-1526 (per Unger) or 1503-1526 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Alexius Thurzó, in 1520-1521 (per Pohl).

Note: This emission was struck under Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516) and continued under Louis II, and the coins bearing this privy mark are assigned to Louis II by all of the references.

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 7.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_857_Pohl-260-1.jpg
Huszár 857, Pohl 260-1, Unger 682b, Réthy II 31516 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR obolus, .23 g., 12.14 mm., 0°

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, Bohemian lion, Polish eagle and Dalmatian leopard heads), rosettes above and to sides.

Rev: Nimbate Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—K (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) in 1520-1525 (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 6.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_716.JPG
Huszár 716, Pohl 217, Unger 563, RĂ©thy II 236 284 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + M MAThIE R VnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in center.

Rev: PETROn — VnGAR, Nimbate (beaded halo) veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—patriarchal cross (privy mark) in fields.

This type was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Veit Mülstein, oberkammergraf, in 1470-1471 (per Pohl) or 1468-1470 (per Huszár & Unger, although these dates do not entirely coincide with Mülstein's tenure at the Kremnitz mint). Said to possibly be a contemporary counterfeit by Huszár.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6.

The substitution of the letter E for the letter A in the word PATROn is not described in Huszár (although depicted there, and in Pohl), nor depicted in Unger or Réthy. Mülstein also made this substitution in another emission bearing this privy mark.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-10_A.JPG
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-10, Unger 562j, RĂ©thy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype A 237 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + M MAThIE R VnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in center.

Rev: PETROn – VnGAR, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K – patriarchal cross (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.
This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Veit Mülstein, oberkammergraf, in 1470 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This is a highly variable type with four Subtypes. Subtype A is the most common variety, comprising around 50% of the coins in the emission. This is a common privy mark, appearing only on this subtype and on around 15% of the coins of this type.

In Subtype A coins, the obverse legend is + M MAThIE • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant), per Huszár and Pohl, but contrary to the description in Huszár, there is either no escutcheon or just faint hints of an escutcheon, and there is no ring in the raven's beak. They are depicted in Huszár/Pohl but not depicted in Unger or Réthy.

The substitution of the letter E for the letter A in the word PATROn is not described in Huszár (although depicted there, and in Pohl), nor depicted in Unger or Réthy. Mülstein also made this substitution in another emission bearing this privy mark.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-13.JPG
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-13, Unger 562m, RĂ©thy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype B 268 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: M MAThIE • R VnGARE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in center.

Rev: PATROn – VnGARE, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, n–crossed hammers (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.
Those with this privy mark were struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) under a collective citizenry mark in 1470 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. It is a highly variable type with four Subtypes. Subtype B is one of the more common, comprising around 30% of the coins in the emission. This is a common privy mark, appearing only on this subtype and on almost 30% of the coins of this type.

Subtype B coins lack a cross at the beginning of the obverse legend, which is M MAThIE • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant), either lack an escutcheon or have just faint hints of one, and are without a ring in the raven's beak. They are neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.

The heads of the Madonna and infant Jesus tend to be angled to the right on coins of this type with this privy mark. They also display a differently styled letter A than all others of the type.

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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-4_C.JPG
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-4, Unger 562d, RĂ©thy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype C188 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: M • MAThIE • R • hVnGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: PATROn – VnGARIE, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, B–S (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.
This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) by Stephen Mikola or Stephen Kowách in 1468 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. It is a highly variable type with four Subtypes. Subtype C is one of the least common, comprising around 10% of the coins in the emission. This is an uncommon privy mark, appearing only on this subtype and on only around 1% of the coins of this type.

Subtype C coins lack a cross at the beginning of the obverse legend, which is M • MAThIE • R • hVnGARIE • (or a minor variant), have an escutcheon, and are without a ring in the raven's beak. They are neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.

There is typically a highly stylized Gothic letter T, which looks like the letter C, on coins of this subtype. On those struck in Buda this letter appears on the obverse.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-5_C.JPG
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-5, Unger 562e, RĂ©thy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype C174 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: M • MAThIE • R • hVnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: PATROn – VnGARIE, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, B–trident (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl) with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. Those with this privy mark were struck in Buda (now Budapest) by Stephen Kowách in 1469 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. It is a highly variable type with four Subtypes. Subtype C is one of the least common, comprising around 10% of the coins in the emission. This is an uncommon privy mark, appearing only on this subtype and on only around 1% of the coins of this type.

Subtype C coins lack a cross at the beginning of the obverse legend, which is M • MAThIE • R • hVnGARIE • (or a minor variant), have an escutcheon, and are without a ring in the raven's beak. They are neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.

There is typically a highly stylized Gothic letter T, which looks like the letter C, on coins of this subtype. On those struck in Buda this letter appears on the obverse.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-6.JPG
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-6, Unger 562f, RĂ©thy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype C 228 viewsHungary. Matthias “Corvinus” (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • MAThIE • R • hVnGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: MATROnA – hVnGAR rosette, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, C–lily (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl) with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. Those with this privy mark were struck in Kaschau (Kassa in Hun., now Košice, Slovakia) under a collective citizenry privy mark in 1468 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. It is a highly variable type with four Subtypes. Subtype C is one of the least common, comprising around 10% of the coins in the emission. This is an uncommon privy mark, appearing only on this subtype and on less than 5% of the coins of this type.

Subtype C coins lack a cross at the beginning of the obverse legend, which is M • MAThIE • R • hVnGARIE • (or a minor variant), have an escutcheon, and are without a ring in the raven's beak. They are neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.

There is typically a highly stylized Gothic letter T, which looks like the letter C, on coins of this subtype, but this feature is not present on this coin. The reverse legend is typically MATROnA (or a minor variant) rather than PATROnA (or a minor variant) on coins of this type from this mint.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-7_B.JPG
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-7, Unger 562g, RĂ©thy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype B196 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: M MAhTIE [•] R • hVGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in center.

Rev: PATRO – VGARIE, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, h–T (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.
This privy mark was struck in Hermannstadt (formerly Nagyszeben, Hungary (Translyvania), now Sibiu, Romania) by Thomas Althemberger, kammergraf, in 1468 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. It is a highly variable type with four subtypes. Subtype B is one of the more common subtypes, comprising around 30% of the coins in the emission. This is an uncommon privy mark, appearing only on this subtype and on only around 2% of the coins of this type.

Subtype B coins lack a cross at the beginning of the obverse legend, which is M MAThIE • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant), either lack an escutcheon or have just faint hints of an escutcheon, and there is no ring in the raven's beak. They are neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-8_D2.JPG
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-8, Unger 562h, RĂ©thy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype D1 167 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + MOnETA • MAThIE • R VnG, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with hint of ring in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRO[n] — VnGARIE, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–K/shield (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.
This privy mark were struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, in 1468 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is a highly variable type with four subtypes. Subtype D is the least common, comprising around 10% of the coins in the emission. This is a variable subtype, with two sub-subtypes. Sub-subtype 1 is the more common, comprising around 8% of the coins of this emission. This is a less common privy mark, appearing only on this subtype and on around 10% of the coins of this type.

In Subtype D1 coins, the obverse legend is + MOnETA • MAThIE • R • VnG (or a minor variant), the raven is within an escutcheon, and there is either no ring in its beak or just a hint of a ring, all per Unger and Réthy.

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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-9_A_1.JPG
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-9, Unger 562i, RĂ©thy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype A 200 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + M MAThIE R VnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in center.

Rev: PATROn — VnGAR •, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K –shield (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.
This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya,
Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, in 1469 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is a highly variable type with four subtypes. Subtype A is the most common variety, comprising around 50% of the coins in the emission. This is a common privy mark, appearing only on this subtype and on around 33% of the coins of this type.

In Subtype A coins, the obverse legend is + M MAThIE.R.VnGARIE (or a minor variant), per Huszar and Pohl, but contrary to the description in Huszár, there is either no escutcheon or just faint hints of an escutcheon, and there is no ring in the raven's beak. They are depicted in Huszár/Pohl but not depicted in Unger or Réthy.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_717_Pohl_216-9_var_Subtype_A.JPG
Huszár 717, Pohl 216-_, Unger 562_, RĂ©thy II 235A, Kaplan Subtype A141 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar 16 mm..

Obv: + M • MAThIE • R [•] VnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in lightly outlined escutcheon in center, hints of a ring in its beak.

Rev: PATROn — VnGAR, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, R –shield (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1468-1470 (per Unger), 1468-1481 (per Huszár) or 1468-1484 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.
The shield privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya,
Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf, in 1469 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is a highly variable type with four subtypes. Subtype A is the most common variety, comprising around 50% of the coins in the emission. This is an unrecorded privy mark, due to the presence of the R rather than the K.

In Subtype A coins, the obverse legend is + M MAThIE.R.VnGARIE (or a minor variant), per Huszar and Pohl, but contrary to the description in Huszár, there is either no escutcheon or just faint hints of an escutcheon, and there is no ring in the raven's beak or just the hint of a ring. They are depicted in Huszár/Pohl but not depicted in Unger or Réthy.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_718_Pohl_218-2_A.JPG
Huszár 718, Pohl 219-2, Unger 564g, RĂ©thy II 234, Kaplan Subtype A 154 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + MOnETA MAThIE • R • VnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Berszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: • PATROnA – VnGARI •, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–A (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1471-1481 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1472-1478 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Augustin Langsfelder, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This is a variable type with two subtypes. Subtype A is the more common, comprising around 80% of the coins of the emission. This privy mark appears on only this subtype, and on around 20% of the coins of this type.

In Subtype A coins, the obverse legend is + MOnETA • MAThIE • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant). They are described and/or depicted in all of the catalogs.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_718_Pohl_219-3.JPG
Huszár 718, Pohl 219-3, Unger 564c, RĂ©thy II 234, Kaplan Subtype A 135 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + MOnETA MAThIE • R • VnGAR, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Berszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: • PATROn – VnGARI •, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–C (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1471-1481 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1472-1478 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Johannes Constorfer, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This is a variable type with two subtypes. Subtype A is the more common, comprising around 80% of the coins of the emission. This privy mark appears on almost 30% of the coins of this type.

In Subtype A coins, the obverse legend is + MOnETA • MAThIE • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant). They are described and/or depicted in all of the catalogs.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_718_Pohl_219-4_A.JPG
Huszár 718, Pohl 219-4, Unger 564f, RĂ©thy II 234, Kaplan Subtype A 185 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + MOnETA • MAThIE • R • VnGAR, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Berszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: • PATROn – VnGARI •, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–P (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1471-1481 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1472-1478 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Paul Peck, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This is a variable type with two subtypes. Subtype A is the more common, comprising around 80% of the coins of the emission.

In Subtype A coins, the obverse legend is + MOnETA • MAThIE • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant). They are described and/or depicted in all of the catalogs.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_718_Pohl_219-5_B.JPG
Huszár 718, Pohl 219-5, Unger 564e, RĂ©thy II 234, Kaplan Subtype B 160 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, doublestrike.

Obv: [+] M • MAThIE • R [• VnGARI], Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Berszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRO — [VnGARIE], Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—P/V (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1471-1481 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1472-1478 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Paul Peck, kammergraf, and Veit Mülstein, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This is a variable type with two subtypes. Subtype B is the less common, comprising around 20% of the coins of the emission. This privy mark appears on around 5% of the coins of this type.

In Subtype B coins, the obverse legend is + M • MAThIE • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant). They are neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_718_Pohl_219-6_Subtype_A.jpg
Huszár 718, Pohl 219-6, Unger 564d, RĂ©thy II 234, Kaplan Subtype A157 viewsHungary. Matthias “Corvinus” (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, 0.455 g., 15.9 mm, die orientation 45°.

Obv: + MOnETA • MAThIE • R • VnGAR, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Berszterce), legless raven in escutcheon.

Rev: PATROn – VnGAR, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–V (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1471-1481 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1472-1478 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Veit Mülstein, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This is a variable type with two subtypes. Subtype A is the more common, comprising around 80% of the coins of the emission. This privy mark appears on coins of both subtypes and on around 15% of the coins of this type.

In Subtype A coins, the obverse legend is + MOnETA • MAThIE • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant).

ex Forum Ancient Coins
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Matyas_Huszar_718_Pohl_219-6~0.JPG
Huszár 718, Pohl 219-6, Unger 564d, RĂ©thy II 234, Kaplan Subtype B 176 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + M • MAThIE • R • VnGARI, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Berszterce), legless raven in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRO – VnGAR – •, Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–V (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1471-1481 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1472-1478 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Veit Mülstein, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This is a variable type with two subtypes. Subtype B is the less common, comprising around 20% of the coins of the emission. This privy mark appears on coins of both subtypes and on around 15% of the coins of this type.

In Subtype B coins, the obverse legend is + M • MAThIE • R • VnGARIE (or a minor variant). They are neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_719_Pohl_221-1.JPG
Huszár 719, Pohl 221-1, Unger 565b, RĂ©thy II 239A170 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + M • MAThIE • R • VnGARI, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Berszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: • PATROn – VnGARI, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her left, K–P (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1479-1485 (per Pohl) or 1482-1486 (per Huszár & Unger), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Paul Peck, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This privy mark appears on almost 20% of the coins of this type.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_719_Pohl_221-2.JPG
Huszár 719, Pohl 221-2, Unger 565c, RĂ©thy II 239A 169 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: + M • MAThIE • R • VnGAR, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Beszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: PATROnA — VnGARI, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her left, K—rosette (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1482-1486 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1479-1485 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Paul Peck, kammergraf.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is a common privy mark, appearing on around 20% of the coins of this type.
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Matthias_Huszar_719.JPG
Huszár 719, Pohl 221-3, Unger 565a, RĂ©thy II 239A 217 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: + M • MAThIE • R • hVnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Beszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: • PATROn — VnGARI, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her left, K—P/V (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1482-1486 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1479-1485 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Paul Peck, kammergraf, and Veit Mülstein, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is an uncommon privy mark, appearing on only around 1% of the coins of this type.

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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_719_Pohl_221-4_.JPG
Huszár 719, Pohl 221-4, Unger 565d, RĂ©thy II 239A 180 viewsObv: + M • MAThIE • R • hVnGARI, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Beszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: • PATROn — VnGARI, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her left, K—V/A (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1482-1486 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1479-1485 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) Augustin Langsfelder, kammergraf, and Veit Mülstein, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is a common privy mark, appearing on around 60% of the coins of this type.
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Matthias_Huszar_720~0.JPG
Huszár 720, Pohl 222-9, Unger 566j, RĂ©thy II 233A, Kaplan Subtype A165 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: M MAThIE R hVnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: PATROn — VnGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, n—crossed hammers (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1479-1485 (per Pohl) or 1482-1490 (per Huszár & Unger), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) as a collective bourgeoisie issue (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This emission is considerably less common than this rarity rating would suggest.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_722_Pohl_223-1_Subtype_A.JPG
Huszár 722, Pohl 223-1, Unger 567b&e, RĂ©thy II 232, Kaplan Subtype A 206 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: + M • MATHIE • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring in escutcheon, pellets to sides.

Rev: PATRON — VNGARIE •, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—P/rosette (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1487-1490 (per Pohl) or 1489-1490 (per Huszár & Unger), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Peter Schaider, oberkammergraf (per Pohl), in 1489 (per Pohl & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This type has three subtypes. Subtype A comprises around 70% of the coins of this emission. This privy mark appears on multiple subtypes, and on roughly 85% of the coins of this type.

Subtype A coins have pellets to the sides of the shield. It is depicted in Pohl, and also in Unger and Réthy (albeit inaccurately – they do not depict a ring in the raven’s beak).
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_722_Pohl_223-1_Subtype_B.JPG
Huszár 722, Pohl 223-1, Unger 567b&e, RĂ©thy II 232, Kaplan Subtype B 150 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: + M • MATHIE • R • VNGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRON — VNGARIE, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—P/rosette (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1487-1490 (per Pohl) or 1489-1490 (per Huszár & Unger), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Peter Schaider, oberkammergraf (per Pohl), in 1489 (per Pohl & Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This type has three subtypes. Subtype B comprises around 30% of the coins of this emission. This privy mark appears on multiple subtypes, and on roughly 85% of the coins of this type.

Subtype B coins do not have pellets or annulets to the sides of the shield. It is depicted in Huszár.

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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_722_Pohl_223-4_Subtype_C.JPG
Huszár 722, Pohl 223-4, Unger 567d, RĂ©thy II 232, Kaplan Subtype C 161 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: + M • MATHIE • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring in escutcheon, annulets to sides.

Rev: PATRON — VNGARIE, Crowned nimbate Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—˘ (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1487-1490 (per Pohl) or 1489-1490 (per Huszár & Unger), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Casper Stek for Peter Schaider, oberkammergraf (per Pohl), in 1487 (per Pohl) or 1490 (per Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This type has three subtypes. Subtype C only appear with this privy mark, and comprise a small fraction of the coins of this emission.

Subtype C coins have annulets to the sides of the shield.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_722_Pohl_223-2_Subtype_B.JPG
Huszár 722var., Pohl 223-2var., Unger 567cvar., RĂ©thy II 232var., Kaplan Subtype B 156 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: + M • MATHIE • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRON — VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—P/thin rosette (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1487-1490 (per Pohl) or 1489-1490 (per Huszár & Unger), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Peter Schaider, oberkammergraf (per Pohl), in 1489 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This type has three subtypes. Subtype B comprises around 30% of the coins of this emission. This coin is unusual in that the Madonna is not nimbate.

Subtype B coins do not have pellets or annulets to the sides of the shield. It is depicted in Huszár.
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Matthias_Huszar_724.JPG
Huszár 724, Pohl 225, Unger 569a-b, RĂ©thy II 238, Kaplan (unpublished) Subtype B 190 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar.

Obv: +MOnETA • – • hVnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring in escutcheon, small Szapolyai shield (rampant unicorn facing left) below.

Rev: PATRO – VNGAR, Crowned nimbate Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, S–W in fields.

The type was probably struck in occupied Vienna by István Szapolyai, the Hungarian provincial governor, 1487-1490 (per Pohl) or 1489-1490 (per Huszár) or ca. 1485-1490 (per Unger), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.

Subtype B is an uncommon variation of an uncommon emission, in that the obverse legend is in a Gothic style rather than a Renaissance style. It is neither described nor depicted in any of the catalogs.

Historic Note: There had been tension and sporadic warfare between Matthias and Frederick III of Austria (the Holy Roman Emperor) from the inception of Matthias's reign. On June 1, 1485 Vienna fell to the Hungarian forces. Matthias made the city his capital, and declared himself Duke of Austria. The city reverted to Habsburg control immediately after Matthias died.

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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_724_Poh_225_A.JPG
Huszár 724, Pohl 225, Unger 569a-b, RĂ©thy II 238, Kaplan Subtype A233 viewsHungary. Matthias “Corvinus” (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR denar, 14.5 mm.

Obv: + MONETA – VNGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring in escutcheon, small Szapolyai shield (rampant unicorn facing left) below.

Rev: PATRO – VNG, Crowned nimbate Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, S–W in fields.

The type was probably struck in occupied Vienna by István Szapolyai, the Hungarian provincial governor, 1487-1490 (per Pohl) or 1489-1490 (per Huszár) or ca. 1485-1490 (per Unger), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g.

Subtype A is the standard variety of this emission, in which the legends are in a Renaissance style.

Historic Note: There had been tension and sporadic warfare between Matthias and Frederick III of Austria (the Holy Roman Emperor) from the inception of Matthias's reign. On June 1, 1485 Vienna fell to the Hungarian forces. Matthias made the city his capital, and declared himself Duke of Austria. The city reverted to Habsburg control immediately after Matthias died.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_728_Pohl_220-4.JPG
Huszár 728, Pohl 220-4, Unger 578--, RĂ©thy II 244 189 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR obol.

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, crowned lion of Berszterce), raven in escutcheon.

Rev: Veiled Madonna with infant Jesus to her left, K–P (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1471-1481 (per Huszár), 1471-1488 (per Unger), or 1472-1485 (per Pohl), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Paul Peck, kammergraf, or possibly Paul Modrár, ca. 1472-1478 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 6.
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HUN_Matyas_Huszar_729_Pohl_226-1.JPG
Huszár 729, Pohl 226-1, Unger 579a, RĂ©thy II 242227 viewsHungary. Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458-1490). AR obol, .32 g.

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring in its beak within escutcheon, pellets to sides.

Rev: Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K–P/rossette (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck in 1488-1490 (per Pohl), 1489 (per Unger), or 1489-1490 (per Huszár), with an average fineness of approximately .500 silver, and an average weight of .59023 g. This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Peter Schaider, oberkammergraf, in 1488 (per Pohl) or 1489 (per Unger).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_803_Pohl_238-1.JPG
Huszár 803, Pohl 238-1, Unger 638b, RĂ©thy II 276. Kaplan (pub. pending) Subtype A1132 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI.R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon, annulets to sides.

Rev: PATRON—VNGARIE •, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—˘ (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1498 (per Unger) or 1492-1499 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Caspar Stek for Peter Schaider, oberkammergraf (per Pohl) in 1492-1493 (per Pohl) or 1490-1494 (per Unger).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Kaplan subtype A is the standard form of this emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are nimbate (described in Huszár, depicted in Unger & Réthy), and sub-subtype 1 is the most common variety, in which there are annulets to the sides of the shield (depicted in Unger).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_803_Pohl_238-3.JPG
Huszár 803, Pohl 238-3, Unger 638d, RĂ©thy II 276. Kaplan (pub. pending) Subtype A1149 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI.R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon, annulets to sides.

Rev: PATRON—VNGARIE •, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—M/AF/B (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1498 (per Unger) or 1492-1499 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Andreas Hellebrand and Franz Körnidl (per Pohl) in 1495 (per Unger) or 1496 per Pohl.

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Kaplan subtype A is the standard form of this emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are nimbate (described in Huszár, depicted in Unger & Réthy), and sub-subtype 1 is the most common variety, in which there are annulets to the sides of the shield (depicted in Unger).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_803_Pohl_238-4_non-nimbate.JPG
Huszár 803, Pohl 238-4 var., Unger 638e, RĂ©thy II 276. Kaplan Subtype B2157 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 15+ mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA—VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—S/E (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1498 (per Unger) or 1492-1499 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl, joint unterkammergraffen (per Pohl) in 1497 (per Pohl & Unger).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype B is a rare variety of the emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are not nimbate (described and depicted in Huszár and Pohl). This privy mark is rare on Subtype B coins, and is not recorded by Pohl (it is only recorded by Mucza). Sub-subtype 2 is the variety in which there are neither pellets nor annulets to the sides of the shield (depicted in Huszár and Pohl).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_803_Pohl_238-4.JPG
Huszár 803, Pohl 238-4, Unger 638e, RĂ©thy II 276. Kaplan (pub. pending) Subtype A2119 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI.R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRON—VNGARIE •, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—S/E (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1498 (per Unger) or 1492-1499 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl, joint unterkammergraffen (per Pohl) in 1497 (per Pohl & Unger).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Kaplan subtype A is the standard form of this emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are nimbate (described in Huszár, depicted in Unger & Réthy), and sub-subtype 2 is variety, in which there are neither annulets nor pellets to the sides of the shield (depicted in Réthy).
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_803_Pohl_238-4_A3.JPG
Huszár 803, Pohl 238-4, Unger 638e, RĂ©thy II 276. Kaplan Subtype A3111 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLA[I • R • V]NGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon, pellets at sides.

Rev: PATRON—VNGARIE, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—S/E (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1498 (per Unger) or 1492-1499 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl, joint unterkammergraffen (per Pohl) in 1497 (per Pohl & Unger).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Kaplan subtype A is the standard form of this emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are nimbate (described in Huszár, depicted in Unger & Réthy), and sub-subtype 3 is an uncommon variety, in which there are pellets to the sides of the shield.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_803_Pohl_238-5_blackened.JPG
Huszár 803, Pohl 238-5, Unger 638f, RĂ©thy II 276. Kaplan (pub. pending) Subtype B2 123 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 17 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA – VNGARIE •, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–T (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1502 (per Huszár) or 1490-1498 (per Unger) or 1492-1499 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in 1498 (per Pohl & Unger) in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó or Matthias Tengler, each of whom was a kammergraf at Kremnitz sometime during the year 1498 (per Pohl). As none of the subsequent emissions attributed to Thurzó bear this mark, it would appear that this mark was more likely struck by Tengler, who would otherwise have served without leaving any mark.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype B is a rare variety of the emission, in which the Madonna and infant Jesus are not nimbate (described and depicted in Huszár and Pohl), and Sub-subtype 2 is the variant of the subtype in which there are neither pellets nor annulets to the sides of the shield (also depicted in Huszár and Pohl). This privy mark only appears on Subtype B coins.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_804.JPG
Huszár 804, Pohl 237, Unger 639a, RĂ©thy II 273 140 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAIE • R • VNGARI •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with closed wings in center, annulets to sides of shield.

Rev: • PATRONA – VNGARIE •, Nimbate Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K–˘ (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1491 (per Pohl) or 1490-1494 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Caspar Stek for Peter Schaider, oberkammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_805.JPG
Huszár 805, Pohl 243-1, Unger 642a, RĂ©thy II 274 188 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI • R • VNGARI •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: • PATRON – VNGARIE, Nimbate Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–h (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_806_Pohl_241-1_Subtype_A.JPG
Huszár 806, Pohl 241-1, Unger 640a, RĂ©thy II 272A, Kaplan Subtype A (pub. pending) 180 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with closed wings in center.

Rev: PATROnA—VnGARI •, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K--h in fields.

The type was struck in 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype A coins are those in which the letter “A” is a Gothic letter. It is not depicted in any of the references, although the coin described and depicted in Huszár portrays one letter “A” in this manner. It is the more common of the two subtypes of the emission.
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Wladislaus_II_Huszar_806.JPG
Huszár 806, Pohl 241-1, Unger 640a, RĂ©thy II 272A, Kaplan Subtype B (pub. pending) 192 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI • R • VnGARIE, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with closed wings in center.

Rev: PATROnA--VnGARI., Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K--h in fields.

Struck in Kremnitz (formerly Kormocbanya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzo, kammergraf, ca. 1498-1503 (per Unger) or ca. 1500-1502 (per Huszar and Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype B coins are those in which the letter “A” is a stylized Renaissance letter without an interior bar and a bar at the apex of the letter. It is not depicted in any of the references, although the coin described and depicted in Huszár portrays one letter “A” in this manner. It is the less common of the two subtypes of the emission.

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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_807_Pohl_242-_n-G.JPG
Huszár 807, Pohl 242--, Unger 641-, RĂ©thy II 272B. Kaplan Subtype C.119 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: [M *] WLADISLAVS * R * VNGARI *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: PATRONA ◦—* VNGARI[E *], Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, n—G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502 (per Huszár) or 1500-1502, except for one rare mint mark that was struck ca. 1505 (per Pohl). This privy mark is unrecorded on this emission, although it is recorded on a parallel obulus (Huszár 816, Pohl 247-4, Unger 649-d, Réthy II 280) of Wladislaus II which type was struck 1498-1501 (per Huszár and Unger) or 1500-1507 (per Pohl). While the “n” mark is typically associated with the Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) mint, Pohl does not attribute that obulus to any particular mint and I therefore hesitate to attribute this denar to that mint.

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype C is an unrecorded form of the emission, in which the Madonna’s robe is bloated. This coin is the second example of the subtype that I have encountered, and the bloating is less extreme than in the other example; this coin is closer to Subtype A. This is an unrecorded privy mark on this emission, and the only example of it that I have encountered.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_807_Pohl_242-1_Subtype_A.JPG
Huszár 807, Pohl 242-1, Unger 641a, RĂ©thy II 272B. Kaplan Subtype A (pub. pending)135 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI •R • VNGARI •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: PATRON • — • VNGARI •, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—h (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502, except for one rare mint mark that was struck ca. 1505 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype A is the form of the emission, in which the bottom of the Madonna’s robe has a single distinctive fold in its center (depicted in Huszár and Pohl, but not described in Huszár, the text of which is erroneous in its description of the Madonna on this emission)

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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_807_Pohl_242-1_Subtype_B1.JPG
Huszár 807, Pohl 242-1, Unger 641a, RĂ©thy II 272B. Kaplan Subtype B1 (pub. pending)158 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI •R • VNGARI •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: PATRON — VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—h (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502, except for one rare mint mark that was struck ca. 1505 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype B is the form of the emission, in which the Madonna’s robe is even at the bottom (depicted in Réthy and Pohl). On the sub-subtype B1 coins the letter “M” on the obverse is in a Renaissance style.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_807_Pohl_242-2_Subtype_B2.JPG
Huszár 807, Pohl 242-1, Unger 641a, RĂ©thy II 272B. Kaplan Subtype B2 (pub. pending)135 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI •R • VNGARI •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: PATRON — • VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—h (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502, except for one rare mint mark that was struck ca. 1505 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype B is the form of the emission, in which the Madonna’s robe is even at the bottom (depicted in Réthy and Pohl). On the sub-subtype B2 coins the letter “M” on the obverse is in Gothic style.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_807_Pohl_242-2_Subtype_B1.JPG
Huszár 807, Pohl 242-2, Unger 641b, RĂ©thy II 272B. Kaplan Subtype B1 (pub. pending)129 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI •R • VNGARI •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: PATRON — VNGARI •, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—H (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502, except for one rare mint mark that was struck ca. 1505 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype B is the form of the emission, in which the Madonna’s robe is even at the bottom (depicted in Réthy and Pohl). On the sub-subtype B1 coins the letter “M” on the obverse is in a Renaissance style.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_807_Pohl_242-2_Subtype_C.JPG
Huszár 807, Pohl 242-2, Unger 641b, RĂ©thy II 272B. Kaplan Subtype C (pub. pending)144 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm, .58 gr.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI •R • VNGAR •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: PATRONA ◦—◦ VNGARI ◦, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—H (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502, except for one rare mint mark that was struck ca. 1505 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. Subtype C is an unrecorded form of the emission, in which the Madonna’s robe is bloated. This coin is the only example of the subtype that I have encountered.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_807_Pohl_242-3.JPG
Huszár 807, Pohl 242-3, Unger 641c, RĂ©thy II 272B. Kaplan Subtype C (unpublished)118 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm., .58 gr.

Obv: * WLADISLAI *R * VNGAR, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: PATRO — N * R VNGAR, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, n—A (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1500-1502, except for this privy (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Nagybánya (now Baia Mare, Romania) in 1505 Ambrosius Literatus, kammergraf (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. This is a rare privy mark. According to Huszár and Pohl, there are one to three stars on the coins bearing this mark, apparently on the obverse above and the sides of the shield. They are absent from this coin, which is apparently an less common variant for the mark. The style of the Madonna’s robe and crown do not fit within Kaplan Subtypes A and B, and are assigned to a catch-all Subtype C.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_809_Pohl_245-1.JPG
Huszár 809, Pohl 245-1, Unger 644a, RĂ©thy II 272C101 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI •R • VNGAR •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRON — VNGARI •, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—h (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1501-1502 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. This emission is considerably less common than the rarity rating would suggest.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_809_Pohl_245-2.JPG
Huszár 809, Pohl 245-2, Unger 644b, RĂ©thy II 272C84 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm., .45 gr.

Obv: M • WLADISLAI •R • VNGAR •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRON - VNGARI ::, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K-H (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1503 (per Unger) or 1501-1502 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 3. This emission is considerably less common than the rarity rating would suggest.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1504_Pohl_253-3.JPG
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-3, Unger 646b, RĂ©thy II 278A, dated 1504 97 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: WLADISLAI * R * VNGAR * 1504 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: * PATRONA * – * VNGARIE *, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–H (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1505_Pohl_253-3.JPG
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-3, Unger 646b, RĂ©thy II 278A, dated 1505 85 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: WLADISLAI * R * VNGAR * 1505 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: * PATRONA * – * VNGARIE *, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–H (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1507_Pohl_253-3.JPG
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-3, Unger 646b, RĂ©thy II 278A, dated 1507 88 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: WLADISLAI * R * VNGAR * 1507 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: * PATRONA * – * VNGARI *, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–H (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1508_Pohl_253-3.JPG
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-3, Unger 646b, RĂ©thy II 278A, dated 1508 67 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: WLADISLAI * R * VNGARI * 1508 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: * PATRONA * – * VNGARIE *, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–H (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger) or 1490-1498 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1510_Pohl_253-4.JPG
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-4, Unger 646c, RĂ©thy II 278A, dated 1510 66 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 15-16 mm.

Obv: WLADISLAI * R * VNGARI * 1510 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: * PATRONA * – * VNGARIE *, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger) or 1490-1498 (per Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Georg Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1511_Pohl_253-4.JPG
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-4, Unger 646c, RĂ©thy II 278A, dated 1511 66 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: WLADISLAI * R * VNGARI * 1511 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: * PATRONA * – * VNGARIE *, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Georg Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1512_Pohl_253-4_KG.JPG
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-4, Unger 646c, RĂ©thy II 278A, dated 1512 69 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: WLADISLAI * R * VNGAR * 1512 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: * PATRONA * – * VNGARIE *, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Georg Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_811_1513_Pohl_253-4.JPG
Huszár 811, Pohl 253-4, Unger 646c, RĂ©thy II 278A, dated 1513 54 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: WLADISLAI * R * VNGARIE * 1513 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: * PATRONA * – * VNGARIE *, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1503-1518 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Georg Thurzó, kammergraf, (per Pohl).

Huszár rarity rating 4/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_813_Pohl_239-4.JPG
Huszár 813, Pohl 239-4, Unger 647d, RĂ©thy II 2284. 125 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR obulus, 12 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Bohemian lion in escutcheon.

Rev: Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—S/E (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1490-1497 (per Unger) or 1491-1498+ (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Stephanus Ryzmegl and Erasmus Rezl, joint unterkammergraffen (per Pohl) in 1497 (per Pohl & Unger).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_815_Pohl_246-2.JPG
Huszár 815, Pohl 246-2, Unger 650a, RĂ©thy II 281187 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR obolus, 11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in center.

Rev: Nimbate Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—h (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1498-1501 (per Unger) or 1500-1502 (per Pohl and Huszár). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 5.
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HUN_Ulaszlo_II_Huszar_819_Pohl_249-1.JPG
Huszár 819, Pohl 249-1, Unger 652b, RĂ©thy II 283137 viewsHungary. Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516). AR obolus, 11 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle with outstretched wings in escutcheon, rosettes above and to sides.

Rev: Nimbate Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K—H (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1500-1502 (per Huszá) or 1501-1526 (per Unger) or 1503-1508 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Hans Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszar/Pohl rarity rating 7.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1516_Pohl_255-1.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-1, Unger 673m, Réthy II 306A, dated 1516 60 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1516 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Georg Thurzó, who leased this mint from 1509-1516, when he withdrew and relocated to Augsburg (per Pohl), yet coins apparently continued to be struck with his mark through 1520.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.

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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1518_Pohl_255-1.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-1, Unger 673m, Réthy II 306A, dated 1518 52 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1518 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Georg Thurzó, who leased this mint from 1509-1516, when he withdrew and relocated to Augsburg (per Pohl), yet coins apparently continued to be struck with his mark through 1520.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1519_Pohl_255-1.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-1, Unger 673m, Réthy II 306A, dated 1519 58 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1519 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Georg Thurzó, who leased this mint from 1509-1516, when he withdrew and relocated to Augsburg (per Pohl), yet coins apparently continued to be struck with his mark through 1520.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1526_Pohl_255-11.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-11, Unger 673a, Réthy II 306A, dated 1526 57 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGAR * 1526 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, A-V (privy mark) in fields, HK ligature (engraver’s mark) below.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Visegrád by Alexius Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1526_Pohl_255-18.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-18, Unger 673n, Réthy II 306A, dated 1526 52 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGA * 1526 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–A (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Alexius Thurzó, who leased this mint from 1517-1524 (per Pohl), yet coins apparently continued to be struck with his mark through 1527.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1526_Pohl_255-19.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-19, Unger 673o, Réthy II 306A, dated 1526 53 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGA * 1526 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–B (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Bernhard Beheim, who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1520_Pohl_255-2.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-2, Unger 673n, Réthy II 306A, dated 1520 49 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGA * 1520 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–A (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Alexius Thurzó, who leased this mint from 1517-1524 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1521_Pohl_255-2.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-2, Unger 673n, Réthy II 306A, dated 1521 53 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1521 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–A (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Alexius Thurzó, who leased this mint from 1517-1524 (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.

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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1525_Pohl_255-20.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-20, Unger 673p, Réthy II 306A, dated 1525 49 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGARI * 1525 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–β (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Bernhard Beheim (who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545) and Johannes Lengyel (who was co-kammergraf, with Beheim, in 1525/1526) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1526_Pohl_255-20.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-20, Unger 673p, Réthy II 306A, dated 1526 55 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS * R * VNGAR * 1526 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–β (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Bernhard Beheim (who was appointed kammergraf by Queen Maria in 1524, and remained kammergraf through 1545) and Johannes Lengyel (who was co-kammergraf, with Beheim, in 1525/1526) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_841_1526_Pohl_255-33.JPG
Huszár 841, Pohl 255-33, Unger 673ζ, RĂ©thy II 306A, dated 1526 55 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: LVDOVICVS ◦ R ◦ VNGAR * 1526 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L–V (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1516-1527 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Visegrád and was a posthumous issue of Louis II (per Pohl). Louis II died on August 29, 1526 when he drowned while fleeing from the Turks after the carnage of the battle of Mohács.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 3.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_846_1525_Pohl_258-11.JPG
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-11, Unger 675t, Réthy II 308A, dated 1525 63 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1525, with annulets on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, rosette between two annulets on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—S (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl).

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_846_1522_Pohl_258-2.JPG
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-2, Unger 675e, Réthy II 308A, dated 1522 91 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1522, with rosettes on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, rosette between two pellets on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—K (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) (per Pohl).

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.

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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_846_1524_Pohl_258-2.JPG
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-2, Unger 675e, Réthy II 308A, dated 1524 168 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1524, with rosettes on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, rosette between two annulets on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—K (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) (per Pohl).

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_846_1525_Pohl_258-24_var.JPG
Huszár 846, Pohl 258-24 var, Unger 675n var., Réthy II 308A, dated 1525 ?149 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: 1525 [?], with annulets on either side of date, above four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Polish eagle in escutcheon, R—D with rosettes above and below on sides of shield.

Rev: Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, L—R (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1521-1525 (per Huszár & Unger) or 1521-1526 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) under a collective municipal moneyer-mark.

This type was an inflationary currency that was referred to by contemporaries as “moneta nova.” On average, 400 denars, each weighing 0.49 g., were struck form Ofner mark of silver with a fineness of 0,250 (per Huszár). They were officially valued at ˝ a denar, but the public did not accept them at this overvalued rate (per Huszár & Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This series of privy marks is not recorded, but is closest to Pohl 258-24, Unger 675n (K-D on obverse and L-R on reverse).
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HUN_Lajos_II_Huszar_855.JPG
Huszár 855, Pohl 259-2, Unger 652d, Réthy II 314A 137 viewsHungary. Louis II (Lajos II in Hun.) (1516-1526). AR obolus, 10-12 mm.

Obv: Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), Eagle in escutcheon, rosettes above and flanking shield.

Rev: Nimbate, crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–G (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1501-1526 (per Unger) or 1503-1526 (per Pohl). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Georg Thurzó, in 1508-1519 (per Pohl).

Note: This emission was struck under Wladislaus II (Ulászló II in Hun.) (1490-1516) and continued under Louis II. Although coins bearing this privy mark are assigned to Louis II by all of the references, given the dates of issue per Pohl, it was struck under both reigns.

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 7.
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HUN_Janos_Szapolyai_Huszar_881_1527_Pohl_265-14.JPG
Huszár 881, Pohl 265-14, Unger 699l, RĂ©thy II 331A, dated 1527 191 viewsHungary. John Zapolyai (János Szapolyai in Hun.) (1526-1540). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: IOHANNES * R * VNGAR * 1527 *, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Árpádian stripes), wolf in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA * – * VNGARIE, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, K–T (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1527-1530 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Kremnitz (formerly Körmöcbánya, Hungary, now Kremnica, Slovakia) by Jacobus Tornallyai (who leased the mint in 1527) or Alexius Thurzó (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4.
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HUN_Janos_Szapolyai_Huszar_881_1530_Pohl_265-2.JPG
Huszár 881var., Pohl 265-2var., Unger 699zvar., RĂ©thy II 331Avar., dated 1530 134 viewsHungary. John Zapolyai (János Szapolyai in Hun.) (1526-1540). AR denar, 16 mm.

Obv: IOHANNES • DG • R •VNGARI 1530, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Árpádian stripes), wolf in escutcheon.

Rev: PATRONA – VNGARIE •, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, Λ–B (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1527-1530 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 4. This coin is a variety not reflected in the references in that the obverse legend contains the letters “DG” at 6:30.
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HUN_Janos_Szapolyai_Huszar_886_1530_Pohl_272~0.JPG
Huszár 886var., Pohl 272var., Unger 705var., RĂ©thy II 332var., dated 1530 127 viewsHungary. John Zapolyai (János Szapolyai in Hun.) (1526-1540). AR denar, 15 mm.

Obv: IOHANNES DG R VNGARIE 1530, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Árpádian stripes), wolf in escutcheon.

Rev: • PATRONA – ◦ – ◦ VNGARIE •, Crowned Madonna with infant Jesus to her right, A–B (privy mark) in fields.

The type was struck 1530 (per Huszár, Pohl & Unger). This privy mark was struck in Buda (now Budapest) (per Pohl).

Huszár/Pohl rarity rating 7. This coin is a variety not reflected in the references in that the obverse legend reads “IOHANNES DG R VNGARIE” rather than “IOHANNES VNGARIE R
Stkp
imit.jpg
Huzar 992 local forgery Austria42 viewsLocal Counterfeit, Noble issue denar found in Austria, imitating:

Maximillian II, Kremnitz mint, 1571; obverse MAX • II • D • G • E • RO • I • S • AV • GE • HV • B • R, four-part shield with Hungarian arms: Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion; reverse PATRONA • • VNGARIE, Madonna seated facing, crowned, infant Jesus in her right arm, K - B (privy mark) in fields; Huzar 992

This one is copper, with silver wash, suggesting that it was made by local nobility for "emergency money"
oneill6217
MISC_Italian_Aquileia_Bernardi_69_.JPG
Italian States. Aquileia, Patriarchate.56 viewsCNI VI 1, Bernardi 69a, Biaggi 193.

AR Soldo da 12 bagattini (denar), .57 gr., 16 mm., struck 1412-1420 under Patriarch Louis II of Teck (Italian, Ludovico II di Teck; German, Ludwig II von Teck) (1412-1439).

Obv: +LODOVICVS ◦ dVX ◦ d ◦ TECh, shield with Patriarchal coat of arms (diamond pattern).

Rev: PAThE – AQVILE, Nimbate Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right.

Aquileia was founded by the Romans in 180/181 B.C., and became one of the most prominent cities in the Roman Empire. It was destroyed by Attila in 452 A.D. and again by the Lombards in 590. The Lombard Dukes of Friuli ruled Aquileia and the surrounding territory until 774, when Charlemagne conquered the Lombard duchy and turned it into a Frankish duchy of the Carolingian Empire. By the 11th century, the patriarch of Aquileia had grown strong enough to assert temporal sovereignty over Friuli and Aquileia. In 1077, the Holy Roman Emperor gave the region to the patriarch as a feudal possession. Louis II of Teck was a German prelate, who was elected as patriarch with the help of Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxemburg, the King of Hungary. During the war with the Republic of Venice, which broke out in 1411, Louis sided for Sigismund. The patriarchate was conquered by Venice in 1419, and the patriarch lost his temporal authority on July 7, 1420, when his territories were secularized by Venice.
1 commentsStkp
MISC_Italy_Aquiliea_Bernardi_47_Bertrando.jpg
Italian States. Aquileia, Patriarchate.16 viewsBernardi 47, Biaggi 170, CNI VI p. 26, 6-8

AR denaro (median weight 0.97 g.; nominal weight .1.10 g., nominal fineness 0.573); .72 g., 19.09 mm. max., 180◦.

Struck 1340 under Patriarch Bertrando di San Genesio (1334-1350).

Obv: [BERTR]--AnDVS•P•, Nimbate (ornate halo of annulets) Virgin Mary seated, holding nimbate infant Jesus to her left.

Rev: + AQVIL--ECEnS•, Eagle with spread wings facing left, B on its breast.

Bernardi rarity R.
Stkp
MISC_Italy_Norman_Sicily_Roger_II_D__Andrea-Contreras_227.jpg
Italian States: Norman Sicily. Roger II (Count 1105-1130; King 1130-1154)10 viewsD'Andrea-Contreras 227, Travaini 192; Spahr 77; Biaggi 1217-1222; MEC Italy XIV 180-182

AE Follaro, fourth period (initial phase), from 1129 or 1130 perhaps to 1138. most presumably Messina mint. 1.76 g., 14.14 mm. max, 90°

Obv: King seated on throne, P/O/Γ/E/P/I/O/C -- A/N/A/Σ [=Roger -- King/ANAΣ is the Greek form of the Latin Rex and the Arabic Malik]

Rev: Cross potent, IC-XC-NI-KA (=Jesus Christ Conquors) in quadrants.
Stkp
jesus.jpg
Jesus306 viewsJesus Christ - the incarnate son of the living God according to the Christians; a rebellious and blasphemous troublemaker according to the Jewish authorities; and the leader of an annoying cult in Judea according to the Romans.

Silver Grosh, 1331 to 1355 AD, Europe: The obverse (front) of this coin is JESUS CHRIST wearing a halo. The reverse scene is Ivan Alexander and his co-ruler Michael Asen (died in 1355).

Noah
ChristPantocratorStCatherines.jpg
Jesus Christ, Pantocrator45 viewsThe iconic image of Christ Pantocrator (Christ, Ruler of All) was one of the first images of Christ developed in the Early Christian Church and remains a central icon of the Eastern Orthodox Church. In the half-length image, Christ holds the New Testament in his left hand and blesses with his right.

The oldest known surviving example of the icon of Christ Pantocrator was painted in encaustic on panel in the sixth or seventh century, and survived the period of destruction of images during the Iconoclastic Disputes that racked the Eastern church, 726 A.D. to 815 A.D. and 813 A.D. to 843A.D., by being preserved in the remote desert of the Sinai, in Saint Catherine's Monastery. The gessoed panel, finely painted using a wax medium on a wooden panel, had been coarsely overpainted around the face and hands at some time around the thirteenth century. It was only when the overpainting was cleaned in 1962 that the ancient image was revealed to be a very high quality icon, probably produced in Constantinople (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christ_Pantocrator).

The Christ Pantocrator Icon at St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai

In 544 AD, a cloth bearing an image of Jesus was discovered hidden above a gate in Edessa's city walls. Six years later, an icon was produced at St. Catherine's Monastery in the Sinai.
(See: http://www.shroudofturin4journalists.com/history.htm)

There are startling similarities between the icon and the image we see on the Shroud of Turin. There are, perhaps, too many similarities for it to be a mere coincidence.

The general placement of facial features including eyes, nose and mouth. In fact, when a transparency of the Shroud face is superimposed over the icon, there are no significant variations.

The hair on the left side (your right) falls on the shoulder and swoops outward. The hair on the other side is shorter.

The eyes are very large.

The nose is particularly thin and long. The face is gaunt.

There is a gap in the beard below a concentration of facial hair that is just below the lower lip.

The neck is particularly long.

It is particularly interesting to note that starting about this time a dramatic change took place in the way Jesus was portrayed on coins, icons, frescoes and mosaics. Before this time, Jesus was usually portrayed in storybook settings such as a young shepherd or modeled after the Greek Apollo.

After the discovery of the Edessa Cloth, images of Jesus were suddenly full-frontal facial images.

The story of the Shroud of Turin is fascinating. It began, for me, ironically when I thought the "story" had finally been laid to rest. Carbon 14 dating conducted in 1988 had just proved that the Shroud was medieval. Along with most, I accepted these results--the fact that two of my former Alma Maters (The University of Arizona and Oxford University) were involved in the testing lent a comfortable sense of closure (to give them their due, scientists from the Institut für Mittelenergiephysik in Zurich, Columbia University, and the British Museum were also involved in the tests). I was re-engaged by the Shroud story in 2005 when an article in the scholarly, peer-reviewed scientific journal Thermochimica Acta by an equally eminent scientist, Raymond N. Rogers, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory, subverted the 1988 tests. Very briefly, the sample cut from the Shroud in 1988 was shown not to be valid. In fact, the article noted, the Shroud was much older than the carbon 14 tests suggested. Curiouser and curiouser. . . and I'll leave the story at this juncture. If you are interested, see the following site:
http://www.shroudofturin4journalists.com/pantocrator.htm

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
janeof.JPG
JUDAEA, Alexander Janneus, Prutah26 viewsBronze Prutah,
Obverse: BASILEWS ALEXANDROU (King Alexander) around anchor.
Reverse: Eight ray star (or wheel) surrounded by diadem (solid circle, sometimes looks like a wagon wheel), Hebrew inscription “Yehonatan the king” between the rays.

The anchor on the obverse of this coin was adopted from the Seleucids, who used it to symbolize their naval strength. Anchors are depicted upside down, as they would be seen hung on the side of a boat ready for use.
The star on the reverse of the coin symbolizes heaven.

This coin is called “The Widow's Mite” (Mark 12:41-44)
"41 Now Jesus sat opposite the treasury and saw how the people put money into the treasury. And many who were rich put in much. 42 Then one poor widow came and threw in two mites, which make a quadrans. 43 So He called His disciples to Himself and said to them, "Assuredly, I say to you that this poor widow has put in more than all those who have given to the treasury; 44 for they all put in out of their abundance, but she out of her poverty put in all that she had, her whole livelihood."
anthivs
widows_mite3.jpg
Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. (Widow's Mite)21 viewsBronze lepton, Hendin 472, Fair, Jerusalem, 1.065g, 14.1mm, 78 - 76 B.C.;
obverse - barbaric, blundered legend, BASILEWS ALEXANDROU, anchor upside-down, as if hanging on the side of a boat, inside circle;
reverse - barbaric blundered Aramaic inscription, King Alexander Year 25, star of eight rays surrounded by circle of dots;

Jesus sat down opposite the place where the offerings were put and watched the crowd putting their money into the temple treasury. Many rich people threw in large amounts. But a poor widow came and put in two very small copper coins, worth only a fraction of a penny. Calling his disciples to him, Jesus said, "I tell you the truth, this poor widow put more into the treasury than all the others. For all of them have contributed out of their abundance; but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had, all she had to live on."
b70
0162.jpg
L. Cassius Caeicianus, Denar3 viewsL. Cassius Caeicianus, Denar

RRC: 321/1
102 bc
3,74 gr

AV: CAEICIAN, Draped bust of Ceres left wearing barley-wreath
RV: L CASS(I), 2 yoked oxen, •N above

ex Künker, Auktion 318, Lot 887, 11.03.2019
Reported as ex Jesus Vico, Madrid 2009, Nr. 235.
1 commentsNorbert
M__Atilius_Saranus.jpg
M. Atilius Saranus - AR denarius8 viewsRome
˛before 150 BC
ą148 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
SAR(AN)
X
Dioscuri on horses riding right, stars over pilei, holding spear and reins
M·ATILI
ROMA
ąCrawford 214/1a, Sydenham 398a, RSC I Atilia 8 var., SRCV I 92
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,8g
ex Jesus Vico

Denomination mark X is moved to the right side for the first time to make space for moneyer's name. Moneyer is probably the son of Praetor 152 BC with the same name.
Johny SYSEL
1442_M_Servilius_Cf.jpg
M. Servilius C.f. (Vatia) - AR denarius4 viewsRome
˛97 BC
ą100 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
E
Two dismounted horsmen fighting duel with their horses behind, each holding sword and shield
M·SERVEILI·C·F
L
ąCrawford 327/1, BMCRR Rome I 1660, Sydenham 602, RSC I Servilia 13, SRCV I 206
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
ex Jesus Vico

Reverse depicts moneyer's ancestor Marcus Servilius Pulex Geminus, consul 202 BC, veteran of the second punic war who according to Livy won every of the 23 duels which he fought.
Moneyer is probably brother P. Servilius C.f. M.n. Vatia Isauricus, consul 79 BC.
Johny SYSEL
LEG_VI.jpg
Mark Antony Legionary Denarius LEG VI 100 viewsANT AVG III VIR R P C
galley r. mast with banners at prow

Rev LEG VI legionary eagle between two standards

Patrae mint 32-31BC

The photo appears to show this as LEG VII but in hand you can see that the second I is a scratch
Background History on the VI Legion

Raised in Cisalpine Gaul in 58 BC by Julius Caesar, the Sixth Legion served with him during his tenure as governor and was withdrawn to Spain in 49 BC where it earned the title “Hispaniensis”.

Later seeing action at Pharsalus in 48 BC, Julius Caesar took the 6th to Alexandria to settle the dispute in Egypt with Cleopatra. Alexandria was laid to siege and the 6th was almost wiped out losing almost two thirds of its entire manpower. Julius Caesar eventually triumphed when reinforcements arrived.

Julius Caesar took his “Veteran Sixth Legion” with him to Syria and Pontus. The Legion then served in Pontus under Caesar in 48 BC and 47 BC. This culminated in the battle of Zela where victory was won by Legio VI.

During Caesar’s African war against Scipio, the Sixth Legion deserted en masse from Scipio to reinforce Caesar and fought under him.

The legion was disbanded in 45 BC after Munda establishing a colony at Arelate (Arles), but was re-formed by Lepidus the following year (44 BC) and given over to Marcus Antonius the year after that. Following the defeat of the republican generals Cassius and Brutus in successive battles at Philippi in 42 BC and the subsequent division of control between Antony and Octavian, a colony was again formed from retired veterans at Beneventum in 41 BC (this is the colony which it is believed became Legio VI Victrix) and the remainder of Legio VI Ferrata was taken by Antony to the East where it garrisoned Judea.

Legio VI fought in the Parthian War in 36 BC.

Another Legio VI Victrix evidently saw action at Perusia in 41 BC, which presents us with a problem because the official Legio VI Ferrata was at that moment with Anthony in the East. This is explained in Lawrence Keppie's excellent book The Making of the Roman Army - from Republic to Empire (pp.134); “Octavian did not hesitate to duplicate legionary numerals already in use by Antony. The latter had serving with him legio V Alaudae, legio VI Ferrata and legio X Equestris. Soon we find Octavian's army boasting of a legio V (the later Macedonica), legio VI (the later Victrix) and legio X (soon to be Fretensis). Of these, legio V and legio X, and less certainly legio VI, bore under the empire a bull-emblem which would normally indicate a foundation by Caesar; but the true Caesarian legions with these numerals (Alaudae, Ferrata and Equestris) were with Antony.”

It would seem, therefore, that Octavian had again used the veterans of Caesars Sixth Legion, this time from those left at Beneventum, to form the core of his own Sixth Legion used at Perusia.

Both Legio VI’s (Ferrata and Victrix) fought at the Battle of Actium, after this event the legio VI Ferrata was dispatched back to Judea and the next time we hear of the legio VI Victrix was in Spain.

Legio VI Ferrata was severely mauled at the Battle of Actium in 31 BC by the forces loyal to Caesar's nephew and heir, Octavian. Following the Battle of Actium, another colony of veterans seems to have been created at Byllis, probably together with soldiers from other legions, and the remainder of VI Ferrata was moved to Syria/Judea where it was to remain.

From 9 BC to 73 AD the VI Ferrata was garrisoned the area of Judea. It was in this time frame that Jesus Christ was tried before Pontius Pilatus, the Roman Governor of Judea.

From 54 AD to 68 AD the Legion served under Corbulo at Artaxata and Tigranocerta against the Parthians. In 69 AD the Legion returned to Judea and fought in the Jewish Civil War. As the Jewish Civil War wound down, the sixth was placed under Mucianis and fought against Vitellius. Legion VI was largely responsible for Mucianis victory over the forces of Vitellius during the brief Roman Civil War .
Titus Pullo
Mattatayah_Prutah.JPG
Mattatayah Prutah17 views40-37 BC, Prutah, Last Jewish King, , , 1.67g. Hendin-483. Obv: Double cornucopia, ear of barley between. Rx: Hebrew legend (Mattatayah) within wreath. . Very Fine, good metal
Judaea
EX Harlan J Berk

Mattatayah info?
http://www.jjraymond.com/religion/marymotherofjesus2.html
Romanorvm
1489dena.jpg
Matthias "Corvinus" (Mátyás Hunyadi in Hun.) (1458 - 1490 A.D.)47 viewsAR Hugary Denar
1488
O:+ M • MATHIE • R • VNGARIE •, Four-part shield with Hungarian arms (Árpádian stripes, patriarchal cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lion), raven with ring in escutcheon, annulets to sides.
R: PATRON — VNGARIE, Nimbate crowned Madonna with nimbate infant Jesus to her right, K—P/rosette (privy mark) in fields.
16mm
.4g
Kremnictz (Körmöczbánya) Mint
P=Mintmaster Peter Schaider
Huszar 722, Unger 567-b, and Corp. Num. Hung. II. 232 (Pohl)
2 commentsMat
1479-nX-denar-h720-imatyas-m.jpg
Mátyás Hunyadi (Matthias Corvinus) - King of Hungary (1458-1490 A.D.) - H# 717, ÉH# 562m, CNH II# 235A, Frynas# H.34.35, Pohl# 216-1351 viewsAR Denar
Struck in: 1470 (Pohl), 1468-1481 (Huszár), 1468-1470 (Unger)
n—crossed hammers - Nagybánya mint, Bürgerschaft
Mass: 0.50 g , Diameter: 15.87 mm

Obverse:
Fourfold Hungarian coat of arms: Hungarian Árpád stripes, Hungarian double cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lions. In chest shield Hunyadi crow with ring in peak;
Lettering: M MATHIE • R hVGARIE
Translation: Money of Mátyás, King of Hungary

Reverse:
Madonna in a veil with baby Jesus in her right arms divides mintmark
Lettering: PATROn VnGARIE
Translation: Patron of Hungary
3 commentsreebeezlee
1479-nkalapacsok-denar-h720-imatyas-m.jpg
Mátyás Hunyadi (Matthias Corvinus) - King of Hungary (1458-1490 A.D.) - H# 720, ÉH# 566i, CNH II# 233A, Frynas# H.34.37, Pohl# 222-933 viewsAR Denar
Struck in: 1479-1486 (Pohl), 1482-1490 (Huszár, Unger)
n—crossed hammers - Nagybánya mint, Bürgertum
Mass: 0.52 g , Diameter: 16.16 mm

Obverse:
Fourfold Hungarian coat of arms: Hungarian Árpád stripes, Hungarian double cross, Dalmatian leopard heads, Bohemian lions. In chest shield Hunyadi crow with ring in peak
Lettering: M MAThIE R hVnGARIE
Translation: Money of Mátyás, King of Hungary

Reverse:
Crowned Madonna looking left holds baby Jesus in her right arms, divides mintmark
Lettering: PATROn — VnGARIE
Translation: Patron of Hungary
2 commentsreebeezlee
1056_bela_compl.jpg
MEDIEVAL, Hungary, Bela III of Arpad, AE Scyphate Follis, AD 1172-119626 viewsObverse: + SANCTA-MARIA Madonna, nimbate, seated left, holding infant Jesus and flower.
Reverse: R_EX BELA-R_EX STS; Kings Bella and Stephen seated facing on throne.
Franz-Josef M
hungary-taler-004.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), Hungary - 1 Taler, 1782953 viewssilver coin with 27,85 grams
Ruler: Josef II (1765 - 1790)
(B) Kremnitz mint
Obv.: Coat of arms of Hungary - IOS II.D.G.R.IMP.S.A.GHB.REX.A.A.D.B.&.L.
Rev.: Crwned madona with sceptre and the baby Jesus - S.MARIA MATER DAI (B) PATRONA HUNG.1782 . X .
Huszar: 1869, Dav.: 1168
1 commentslincon r2
hungary_maria_theres.jpg
MODERN MILLED (up to 19th Century), HUNGARY, Maria II Theresa, AE Denar.14 viewsObv: HUNGARIAE•PATRONA•. Madonna seated facing holding infant Jesus, all surrounded by nimbus.
Rev: M•THERESIA•D•G•R•IMP•HU•PO•REG•1768. Crowned coat of arms.
Franz-Josef M
Meshorer-112.jpg
Nabataea: Aretas IV (9 BCE - 40 CE) Ć Unit24 viewsNabataean Kingdom, Aretas IV, 9 B.C. - 40 A.D., one of the three Biblical kings. Bronze AE 15, , 3.47gm, 19mm, Petra mint, obverse jugate laureate and draped bust of Aretas IV and Shaquilath right; reverse two cornucopias crossed and filleted, Aramaic legend, "Aretas, Shaquilath" in two lines above and one below; beautiful red earthen patina. SNG ANS 1438 - 43, Choice EF.


Aretas ruled around the time of Jesus' birth and was one of the three kings that most likely visited the baby Jesus while Judaea was under Herod the great rule. "After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea, during the time of King Herod, Magi from the east came to Jerusalem and asked, 'Where is the one who has been born king of the Jews? We saw his star in the east and have come to worship him" Matthew 2:1-8
1 commentsSpongeBob
MEC-212.jpg
Normans in Sicily: Roger II (1130-1154) AR Ducale, Palermo (Spahr 72; MEC 212; Biaggi 1770)10 viewsObv: + IC • XC • RG • IN AE TRN (Jesus Christus regnat in aeternum); Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels
Rev: King Roger and his son Roger, duke of Apulia, staff with cross at each end between them, beneath the king R RX SCLS (Rogerius Rex Siciliae), beneath the duke, R • D X • AP (Rogerius Dux Apuliae) and AN R X (Anno decimo del regno) between them
Quant.Geek
MEC-212(1).jpg
Normans in Sicily: Roger II (1130-1154) AR Ducale, Palermo (Spahr 72; MEC 212; Biaggi 1770)27 viewsObv: + IC • XC • RG • IN AE TRN (Jesus Christus regnat in aeternum); Bust of Christ facing, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, and raising right hand in benediction; in left hand, book of Gospels
Rev: King Roger and his son Roger, duke of Apulia, staff with cross at each end between them, beneath the king R RX SCLS (Rogerius Rex Siciliae), beneath the duke, R • D X • AP (Rogerius Dux Apuliae) and AN R X (Anno decimo del regno) between them
1 commentsQuant.Geek
JCoverstrikeHJBlg.jpg
Peek-a-boo Jesus29 viewsA very interesting overstrike.

Romanus IV Diogenes, 1068-1071
AE Follis
10.57 g
Constantinople
Obv: IC-XC over NI-KA to left and right of bust of Christ facing, dotted cross behind head, wearing pallium and colobium, holding book of Gospels with both hands
Rev: C-R P-delta in the four angles of a cross with globe and two dots at each extremity, X in the center.
Ref: Sear 1866, DO-8

Attribution from seller (HJB). I need to get the Sear Byz reference book and see what the original overstruck coin might be. SB-1867?
TIF
Silver_1_of_16_shekel_(Abd__astart,_Straton_I)_Phoenicia.jpg
Persian Empire, Sidon, Phoenicia, Ba'Alshillem II, c. 401 - 366 B.C.62 viewsSilver 1/16 shekel, Elayi 2004 851 ff.; Hoover 10 240; Betlyon 27 (Abd'astart, Straton I); BMC Phoenicia p 146, 36 (same); SNG Cop 197 ff. (same), gVF, well struck on a crowded flan, toned, 0.843g, 9.5mm, 0o, Phoenicia, Sidon mint, c. 371 - 370 B.C.; obverse : war galley left, Phoenician letter beth above; reverse : King of Persia (to left) standing right, slaying erect lion to right, Phoenician letter ayin between them.





Sidon, named for the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Genesis 10:15, 19), is frequently referred to by the prophets (Isaiah 23:2, 4, 12; Jeremiah 25:22; 27:3; 47:4; Ezekiel 27:8; 28:21, 22; 32:30; Joel 3:4). The Sidonians long oppressed Israel (Judges 10:12) but Solomon entered into a matrimonial alliance with them, and thus their form of idolatrous worship found a place in the land of Israel (1 Kings 11:1, 33). Jesus visited the "coasts" of Tyre and Sidon (Matthew 15:21; Mark 7:24) where many came to hear him preach (Mark 3:8; Luke 6:17). After leaving Caesarea, Paul's ship put in at Sidon, before finally sailing for Rome (Acts 27:3, 4).

FORVM Ancient Coins / The Sam Mansourati Collection.
Sam
Tyre_AR_Shekel_90-89_BC.jpg
Phoenicia, Tyre, Year 37 (90-89 BC). Judas' 30 Pieces of Silver9 viewsPhoenicia, Tyre AR Shekel. Year 37 (90-89 BC)
weight = 14.34g
NGC MS - Strike 5/5 - Surface 4/5 [4281170-003]
Kevin P
type_I.jpg
Principality of Kiev. Vladimir I. 980-1015. Billon Srebrennik (Fragment) 161 viewsPrincipality of Kiev. Vladimir I. 980-1015. Billon Srebrennik (Fragment)
Struck circa 988-1010
Obverse : Duke in the hat with pendants. Cross with a long handle in the right hand. Next to the left shoulder - the symbol of princely power - the trident ( Royal symbol of Rurick ). Legend: "ВЛАДИМИРЪ А СЕ ЕГО С". or similar
Reverse: Nimbate bust of Jesus Christ. On the sides legend "ИС ХС".
Sotnikowa/Spasski Type I
Vladislav D
Ptolemy II.jpg
Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt62 viewsPtolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, Ptolemy II, Philadelphos, 285 - 246 B.C.

Sidon is mentioned by the prophets Isaiah (e.g. Isaiah 23:2,4,12), Jeremiah (Jeremiah 25:22, 27:3, 47:4), Ezekiel (Ezekiel 27:8, 28:21, 32:30) and Joel (Joel 3:4). Jesus visited Sidon on (Matthew 15:21, Mark 3:8, Mark 7:24, Luke 6:17). Paul sailed for Rome from Sidon (Acts 27:3,4).

Silver tetradrachm, Svoronos 713, SNG Cop 506, aVF, Sidon mint, 14.39g, 27.0mm, 0o, obverse diademed head of Ptolemy I right wearing aegis; reverse, eagle standing left on thunderbolt.



1 commentsDumanyu2
MISC_Ragusa_grosso.jpg
Ragusa (now, Dubrovnik, Croatia)22 viewsDimnik & Dobrinić 10/6.4.1; Rengjeo 1328 ff; Mimica __; Dolenec __; CNI VI p. 467 no. 3

AR dinar (= grosso or groš); Type I struck 1337-1438 (per Dolenec) or 1284-1372 (per CNI); 1.12 g., 19.04 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Nimbate bust of Christ with cross within halo, raising right hand in benediction and holding Gospel book in left hand, within a pearled mandorla, IC - XC (= Jesus Christ) across field.

Rev.: S • BLASIV-S • RAGVSII •, nimbate St. Blasius, raising right hand in benediction and holding bishop's crozier in left hand.
1 commentsStkp
MISC_Ragusa_grosso_II_1617-21.jpg
Ragusa (now, Dubrovnik, Croatia)1 viewsDimnik & Dobrinić 10/6.4.2 var.; Viščević ___; Barac __; Dolenec __; Rengjeo __; Mimica 539; Rešetar 1443; CNI VI p. 475 no. 70.

AR dinar (= grosso or groš); Type II struck 1617-1621 (per Dimnik & Dobrinić citing Dolenec) or Type XLVII struck 1617-1621 (per Mimica); Type X struck 1617-1621 (per CNI); .68 g., 17.34 mm. max., 270°

Obv.: Nimbate bust of Christ with cross within halo, raising right hand in benediction and holding globe in left hand, within a pearled mandorla, IC - XC (= Jesus Christ) across field.

Rev.: S • BLASIVS RACVSII • nimbate St. Blase, raising right hand in benediction and holding bishop's crozier and town gate and towers in left hand, large cross on front of his vestments, R (privy mark) in left field.

The dinar was minted following the edict issued by the Great Council in 1337 and continued until 1621. The weight standard (1 dinar = 30 folari) was based on the Venetian standard, and the depiction of Jesus on the obverse is borrowed from the Venetian golden ducat. The depiction of St. Blase on the reverse is patterned on the portrayal by Ancona of its patron saint on its coins. The designation of obverse and reverse is per Dimnik & Dobrinić, who note that most references designate the sides in opposite manner.
Stkp
MISC_Ragusa_grosso_III_1594.jpg
Ragusa (now, Dubrovnik, Croatia)2 viewsDimnik & Dobrinić 10/6.4.2 var.; Viščević ___; Barac __; Dolenec __; Rengjeo __; Mimica 536; Rešetar 1418; CNI VI p. 474 no. 59, Plate XXX, 10.

AR dinar (= grosso or groš); Type III struck 1594 (per Dimnik & Dobrinić citing Dolenec) or Type XLVI struck 1594-1613 (per Mimica); Type VIII struck 1593-1613 (per CNI); .56 g., 17.13 mm. max., 180°

Obv.: Nimbate bust of Christ with cross within halo, raising right hand in benediction and holding Gospel book in left hand, head of St. Blase on chest, within a pearled mandorla, IC - XC (= Jesus Christ) across field.

Rev.: S BLASIV-S RAGVSI-I nimbate St. Blase, raising right hand in benediction and holding bishop's crozier in left hand, town gate and towers on vestments, R (privy mark) in left field.

The dinar was minted following the edict issued by the Great Council in 1337 and continued until 1621. The weight standard (1 dinar = 30 folari) was based on the Venetian standard, and the depiction of Jesus on the obverse is borrowed from the Venetian golden ducat. The depiction of St. Blase on the reverse is patterned on the portrayal by Ancona of its patron saint on its coins. The designation of obverse and reverse is per Dimnik & Dobrinić, who note that most references designate the sides in opposite manner.
Stkp
Domitian_RIC_145.jpg
RIC 014556 viewsDomitian. Denarius. Rome 82-83 CE .
Obv: head laureate r; IMP CAES DOMITIANVS AVG PM
Rev: Salvs std l with corn ears and poppy; SALVS AVGVST.
RIC 145 (R).
Jesus Vico Mail bid auction # 153 Lot 3135 March 7, 2019



There are many who believe that the denarii of Domitian are boring. This is because the denarii of Domitian are dominated by the ubiquitous Minerva reverse. There are however denarii without the typical Minerva reverse. This is one of those. On the reverse you can see SALVS seated with corn ears and poppy. SALVS is a Roman goddess associated with safety and health. This applied to both the individual and the state in general.

Another interesting feature of this denarius is the portrait on the obverse. Although it looks rather flat in the photo, the portrait is in quite high relief. I also like that all of the devices on the coin are clear and that the legends are clear and readable.

In short, I think that this is a very attractive coin and that was enough for me to want to add it to my collection.

3 commentsorfew
RIC_211_Vespasianus.jpg
RIC 0211 Vespasianus56 viewsObv: IMP CAES VESPASIAN AVG P M TR P P P COS III, Laureate head right
Rev: S P Q R / OB / CIVES / SERVATOS, in four lines, in oak wreath
AE/Sestertius (33.59 mm 25.55 g 6h) Struck in Rome 71 A.D. (2nd group)
RIC 211 (R), BMCRE unlisted, BNF 552
ex Jesus Vico Auction V01 lot 105
5 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Domitian_RIC_342.jpg
RIC 034263 viewsDomitian. Denarius. Rome 85 CE. (Fifth Issue)
Obv: Head laureate r; IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM PM TR P V
Rev: Minvera advancing r with spear and shield; IMP VIIII COS XI CENS POT PP
RIC-342. (R2)
Jesus Vico Mail bid auction # 153 Lot 3136 March 7, 2019



This is yet another rare coin of Domitian. It is so scarce that even the British museum does not have an example. What makes it rare is the legend on the reverse.Note that instead of CENS PPP the legend reads CENS POT PP. There were only 2 issues that used this legend on denarii, the fourth and the fifth. All of the coins in this issue are rare. They are all either R2 (very few examples known) or R3 (unique).

The fourth and fifth issues of Domitian's denarii for 85 CE are important because the mark a reform to the coinage. According to RIC this reform took place between the third issue (CENS POTES) and the fourth issue (CENS POT). This reform reduced the fineness of the denarii to post reform Neronian standards.

For me the above does increase the interest of the coin, but I bought it because I loved the look of it. I love the way the CENS POT legend on the reverse frames the figure of Minerva. and I find the portrait well done and attractive.
3 commentsorfew
RIC_349_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0349 Domitianus60 viewsObv : IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM COS XI CENS POT P P, Laureate head right, with aegis
Rev : ANNONA AVGVST / S C (in exergue); Annona standing right, with cornucopiae, facing Ceres, seated left, with corn ears and torch; in the background, modius on altar and prow
AE/Sestertius (33.97 mm 26.03 g 6h) Struck in Rome 85 A D (1st issue)
RIC 349 (C), BMCRE 323, BNF 349
ex Jesus Vico Sale 137 Lot 338
4 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
Domitian_RIC_568.jpg
RIC 056865 viewsDomitian AR Denarius. Rome 88 CE Group 2
Obv: Head laureate r; IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERMANIC COS XIII
Rev: Minerva Minerva stg l with thunderbolt and spear; CENS P.P.P.
RIC-568 (R2) BMC 139 RSC 27
Jesus Vico Mail bid auction # 153 Lot 3133 March 7, 2019



I was very excited to win this one. It took a little over one month to receive the coin. It required export paperwork and this can be a slow process.

There is an interesting feature of the obverse legend on this coin. It is very common to see GERM in the obverse legend on coins of Domitian. What is not common is to see GERMANIC in the legend. That alone makes this coin special and worth collecting.

This coin is also special because of the reverse. Note that there is no typical edge lettering. The only legend is across the fields of the coin. This is not a typical Domitian Minerva denarius. In fact, there are only 2 types of Domitian denarii with CENS PPP on the reverse. There is RIC 568 like this coin which is rated R2 for rarity, and there is RIC 569 which is rated R. I have wanted this type for a while but because of the rarity I had to wait until one appeared on the market. When this one did appear I bid aggressively and won the coin.

The other special characteristic is the condition. I loved the portrait on this one. The photo does not do it justice. The portrait is in very high relief and is in fine style.

6 commentsorfew
RIC_737_Domitianus.jpg
RIC 0737 Domitianus22 viewsObv: IMP CAES DOMIT AVG GERM P M TR P XI, Laureate head right
Rev: IMP XXII COS XVI CENS P P P, Minerva standing left, with thunderbolt and spear; shield at her left side
AR/Denarius (19.05 mm 3.296 g 6h) Struck in Rome 92 A.D. (2nd issue)
RIC 737 (R), RSC, BMCRE, BNF unlisted
ex Jesus Vico Online Auction 5 Lot 113
2 commentsFlaviusDomitianus
ANTOSEg5-2~1.jpg
ROMAN EMPIRE, ANTONINUS PIUS sestertius, RIC 891 74 viewsĆ Sestertius (27,0g, Ř 30mm, 6h). Rome, AD 151-152.
Obv.: IMP CAES T AEL HADR ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P, laureate head right.
Rev.: TR POT XV COS IIII around, ANNONA AVG in ex., S | C, Annona seated left holding corn ears above modius and holding cornucopiae.
RIC 891 (common); BMCRE 1891; Cohen 50; Strack 1069; Banti 29 (34 spec.)
Double struck reverse.
Ex Jesús Vico, S.A., auction 142, June, 2015.
2 commentsCharles S
Constantine_RIC_38_copy.png
Roman Empire, Constantine I, Follis. Constantinople (328-9) 111 viewsConstantine I. Follis. Constantinople (328-9)
Obv: CONSTANTINVS MAX AVG, rosette-diademed, draped bust right
Rev: CONSTANTINIANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, looking right, holding palm branch in each hand, trophy in background, captive seated left at foot.
Officina letter B in left field. Mintmark CONS star.
RIC VII 38 (R4). EF-/EF. Very scarce.
Ex: Dattari Collection
Jesus Vico Auction 147 March 9, 2017
6 commentsorfew
5590.jpg
Roman lead seal “Good Shepherd”186 viewsRoman lead seal “Good Shepherd” c. 3rd-4th century AD
Jesus Christ, as the Good Shepherd, standing left, wearing short sleeveless tunic, carrying sheep across his shoulders. Two more sheep on either side.
Cf. J. Spier “Late antique gems” S10-17, Asamer and Winter “Antike Bleiplomben”, 122, no. 4; 18x14x7mm; 4.45g; extremely fine
2 commentsGert
Christ_follis_2_k.jpg
Romanus III or Michael IV, AD 1028 - 104111 viewsĆ anonymous follis, class B,32mm, 14.2g, 6h.
Obv.: EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC.
Rev.: cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS - XS / BAS-ILE / BAS-ILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)
Reference: SBCV 1823
John Anthony
anon_k.jpg
Romanus III or Michael IV, AD 1028 - 104112 viewsĆ anonymous follis, class B, 33mm, 14.7g, 6h.
Obv.: EMMANOVHL, facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands, to left IC, to right XC.
Rev.: cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS - XS / BAS-ILE / BAS-ILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)
Reference: SBCV 1823 / 17-91-35
John Anthony
Anon_follis_k.jpg
Romanus III or Michael IV, AD 1028 - 104110 viewsĆ anonymous follis, class B, 30x26mm, 11.5g, 6h.
Obv.: EMMANOVHL; facing bust of Christ, wearing nimbus cruciger, pallium and colobium, holding gospels with both hands.
Rev.: cross on three steps with pellet at each extremity, in fields IS - XS / BAS-ILE / BAS-ILE (Jesus Christ, King of Kings)
Reference: SBCV 1823
John Anthony
Roma-Lead-seal-Q-030_xxmm_xxg-sx.jpg
Rome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT"179 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT"
"The upper register indeed shows Christ as the good shepherd. The lower register shows a married couple with their child. Can't tell their gender from this photo. A cross (or christogram?) above. The inscription probably reads ICOV XPICT - I(H)COV XPICT(OV), Jesus Christ. I'd say the date is first half 4th century." by Gert, Thank you Gert.
1 commentsquadrans
Roma-Lead-seal-Q-030_xxmm_xxg-sx~0.jpg
Rome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT"296 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT"
"The upper register indeed shows Christ as the good shepherd. The lower register shows a married couple with their child. Can't tell their gender from this photo. A cross (or christogram?) above. The inscription probably reads ICOV XPICT - I(H)COV XPICT(OV), Jesus Christ. I'd say the date is first half 4th century." by Gert, Thank you Gert.
2 commentsquadrans
Roma-Lead-seal-Q-030_xxmm_xxg.jpg
Rome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT" Higher magnification,345 viewsRome, Lead Seal, #30, "ICOVXPICT" Higher magnification,
"The upper register indeed shows Christ as the good shepherd. The lower register shows a married couple with their child. Can't tell their gender from this photo. A cross (or christogram?) above. The inscription probably reads ICOV XPICT - I(H)COV XPICT(OV), Jesus Christ. I'd say the date is first half 4th century." by Gert, Thank you Gert.
2 commentsquadrans
Shekel_33_34~0.jpg
Shekel Tyre CY 159, 33-34CE127 viewsShekel Tyre CY 159, 33-34CE
PHOENICIA, Tyre. 126/5 BC-AD 65/6. AR Shekel (14.29 g g, 12h). Dated CY 159 (AD 33/4).
O: Bust of Melkart right, wearing laurel wreath.
R: Eagle standing left on prow, palm frond over right wing; to left, PNΘ (date) above club; to right, KP above monogram; Phoenician letter between legs; TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY around.
- Rouvier 2107 var. (monogram); RPC 4663; SNG Copenhagen -; BMC 204 var. (monogram & letter between legs); HGC 10, 357; DCA 920.

Perhaps the most desirable date in the 191 year series due to 33 C.E. being the most widely accepted year for Jesus execution.

Tacitus, a Roman historian who lived during the latter part of the first century C.E., wrote: “Christus [Latin for “Christ”], from whom the name [Christian] had its origin, suffered the extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of one of our procurators, Pontius Pilatus.”—The Complete Works of Tacitus (New York, 1942), “The Annals,” Book 15, par. 44.
2 commentsNemonater
6F0173A9-02C1-4828-B2F6-71D857883D2F.jpeg
Sikyon, Peloponnesos, Greece, c. 100 - 60 B.C.9 viewsThe affectionate dove, the bird of love, was sacred to the goddess of love, Venus (Aphrodite). Doves were said to draw her heavenly chariot, and the Syrian Aphrodite Ashtarte was said to have been hatched from an egg and nursed by doves. The phrase attributed to Jesus, "Be ye therefore wise as serpents, and harmless as doves" (Matthew 10.16), was no random metaphor but a traditional Syrian invocation.
GS87458. Silver triobol, BCD Peloponnesos 344.1; BMC Peloponnesus p. 52, 197; HGC 5 217 (S), aVF, toned, off center, reverse double struck, die wear, porous, Sikyon mint, weight 2.158g, maximum diameter 15.5mm, die axis 135o, magistrate Olympiadas, c. 100 - 60 B.C.; obverse dove flying right, no control symbol; reverse large Σ, OΛYM/ΠI-A/∆AΣ in three horizontal lines, all within incuse square
1 commentsMark R1
Anan.jpg
The Widow's Mite - Mark 12: 41-4439 views 41Καὶ καθίσας κατέναντι τοῦ γαζοφυλακίου ἐθεώρει πῶς ὁ ὄχλος βάλλει χαλκὸν εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον: καὶ πολλοὶ πλούσιοι ἔβαλλον πολλά: 42καὶ ἐλθοῦσα μία χήρα πτωχὴ ἔβαλεν λεπτὰ δύο, ὅ ἐστιν κοδράντης. 43καὶ προσκαλεσάμενος τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς, Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν ὅτι ἡ χήρα αὕτη ἡ πτωχὴ πλεῖον πάντων ἔβαλεν τῶν βαλλόντων εἰς τὸ γαζοφυλάκιον: 44πάντες γὰρ ἐκ τοῦ περισσεύοντος αὐτοῖς ἔβαλον, αὕτη δὲ ἐκ τῆς ὑστερήσεως αὐτῆς πάντα ὅσα εἶχεν ἔβαλεν, ὅλον τὸν βίον αὐτῆς.

41 Jesus sat down opposite the treasury, and saw how the multitude cast money into the treasury. Many who were rich cast in much. 42 A poor widow came, and she cast in two small brass coins,* which equal a quadrans coin.† 43 He called his disciples to himself, and said to them, “Most certainly I tell you, this poor widow gave more than all those who are giving into the treasury, 44 for they all gave out of their abundance, but she, out of her poverty, gave all that she had to live on.”
Mark 12: 41-44

41Sedl si naproti chrámové pokladnici a díval se, jak do ní lidé vhazují peníze. A mnozí bohatí dávali mnoho.
42Přišla také jedna chudá vdova a vhodila dvě drobné mince, dohromady čtyrák.
43Zavolal své učedníky a řekl jim: „Amen, pravím vám, tato chudá vdova dala víc než všichni ostatní, kteří dávali do pokladnice.
44Všichni totiž dali ze svého nadbytku, ona však ze svého nedostatku: dala, co měla, všechno, z čeho měla být živa.“
Mk 12, 41-44

Judaean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze lepton, Hendin 1152 or 1153, Jerusalem mint, 95 - 76 B.C.; obverse star of eight rays surrounded by diadem, crude barbaric style, sometimes surrounded by a barbaric blundered Aramaic inscription, King Alexander Year 25; reverse BAΣIΛEΩΣ AΛEΞAN∆POY (barbaric and blundered), anchor upside-down in circle
Bohemian
pautalia_Marcus_Aurelius_Ruzicka60a.jpg
Thracia, Pautalia, Marcus Aurelius Ruzicka 60a var.81 viewsMarcus Aurelius AD 161-180
AE 18, 4.17g
obv. AVT KAI M AVR ANTWNINOC
bust draped and cuirassed(?), bare head, r.
rev. PAVT - ALIW - TWN
infant Dionysos sitting in a plaited winnowing fan, seen half from behind, r., stretching arms, behind him Thyrsos
Ruzicka 60a
rare, good F, some roughness

So-called 'Dionysos Liknites', paradigm for 'Jesus in the crib'

For more information look at the thread 'Coins of mythological interest'
6 commentsJochen
Ti__Minucius_C_f__Augurinus.jpg
Ti. Minucius C.f. Augurinus - AR denarius4 viewsRome
ą˛134 BC
head of Roma right wearing winged helmet
(XVI)
column (Columna Minucia) surmounted by statue holding scepter, heads of grain around column; L. Minucius Augurinus (Praefectus Annonae 439 BC) standing right, wearing toga, foot on modius, holding patera; M. Minucius Faesus (Augur 300 BC) wearing toga, holding lituus
RO_MA
TI·MINVCI C·F__AVGVRINI
ąCrawford 243/1, SRCV I 120, RSC I Minucia 9, Sydenham 494
˛Mark Passehl - Roman moneyer & coin type chronology, 150 – 50 BC
3,9g
ex Jesus Vico
Johny SYSEL
Tiberius_Tribute_penny.jpg
Tiberius96 viewsTiberius, denarius.
RIC 30, RSC 13a.
struck in Lugdunum, 36-37 AD.
3.7 gr. 19mm.
Obv: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right.
Rev: PONTIF MAXIM, female figure (Livia?) seated right on chair with ornamented legs holding sceptre and branch, feet rest on footstool.
This type is commonly known as the 'Tribute Penny,' the coin to which Jesus referred to when he was discussing paying taxes to the Romans, and said "render to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's" (Mark 12:17).

It took me some time to find a tribute penny this nice.
2 commentsMarsman
RS012-Roman-AR_denarius,_Tiberius_(ca_14-37_AD)-026000.JPG
TIBERIUS (14-37 AD), AR denarius, "Tribute Penny"51 viewsObverse- TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS, laureate head right.
Reverse- PONTIF MAXIM, Livia as Pax, seated right on throne with ornate legs, single line below, holding long scepter and olive branch.
RIC 30, 18 mm, 3.77 g.
NGC Ch F (Strike 4/5, Surface 3/5), cert. #4095350-002.
Ex-Michael Swoveland (aka "Aethelred") through private deal on Collectors Universe, January 2011. Purchased raw.
Comments: For Tiberius, one simply HAS to have the "Tribute Penny" of Biblical mention (Mark 12:15), right? Everybody knows these were circulating during the life, ministry, and crucifixion of Christ, so they're eternally popular and historically important. The Tribute penny from my original collection in 2007 came from Michael Swoveland, and by coincidence, when it came time to find another, I bought this one from him as well. It is of similar grade with my first one, though I like the toning on this one a bit better. Both were around the same price.
2 commentslordmarcovan
TibG1.jpg
Tiberius Pax Group 188 viewsGroup 1, c. 15 - 18 A.D. Lugdunum mint.
O: TI CAESAR DIVI AVG F AVGVSTVS; One of the ribbons of Tiberius' laurel wreath falls over his neck.
R: PONTIF MAXIM; Legs of the throne are plain, the throne is on a raised base represented by a second line above the exergual line, no footstool.

This coin has become relatively famous, and expensive, due to the fact that Tiberius was Emperor during the entire time of Jesus ministry. Jesus’ only recorded reference to Caesar is when Pharisees, along with party followers of Herod Antipas, try to trap Jesus. Matthew 22:15-22 contains one record of the exchange.
“Teacher,” these men say, “we know you are truthful and teach the way of God in truth, and you do not care for anybody, for you do not look upon men’s outward appearance. Tell us, therefore, What do you think? Is it lawful to pay head tax to Caesar or not?”
Jesus is not fooled by the flattery. He realizes that if he says, ‘Don’t pay the tax,’ he will be guilty of sedition against Rome. If he says, ‘Yes, you should pay this tax,’ the Jews, who despise their subjugation to Rome, will hate him. So he answers: “Why do you put me to the test, hypocrites? Show me the head tax coin.”
When they bring him a denarius, he asks, “Whose image and inscription is this?”
“Caesar’s,” they reply.
“Pay back, therefore, Caesar’s things to Caesar, but God’s things to God.”

It was the governments—represented by “Caesar”— that minted these coins and helped establish their value. So in Jesus view, they had the right to ask that it be paid back in the form of taxes. At the same time, he showed that “God’s things”—our life and worship—cannot rightfully be claimed by any human institution.

Baptiste Giard divides Tiberius' PONTIF MAXIM coins (aurei and denarii), into six groups, based on what he believes is the evolution of style over time.1 To some extent the portraits also reflect Tiberius' aging over a period of about 22 years. An excellent writeup can be found at http://www.forumancientcoins.com/numiswiki/view.asp?key=tribute%20penny.
2 commentsNemonater
20170504_110848.jpg
Tiberius, Syria, Decapolis. Gadara. A.D. 14-37. CY 92 (A.D. 28/9). 22 viewsObv: TIBEPIω KAICAP[I], bare head of Tiberius right.
Rev: [Γ]AΔAPEΩ[N], turreted, veiled and draped bust of Tyche right; behind, date (L ЧB).
References: Spijkerman 11; Rosenberger 15; SNG ANS 1291; RPC 4812.
19mm, 5.83 grams
This coin would have been in circulation at the time that Jesus was preaching there.
Canaan
Troas_Birytis_Cabirus.jpg
Troas, Birytis, Cabirus Wearing Pilus34 viewsTROAS, Birytis, AE18, 300 BC, 5.6g, 18mm, SNG Copenhagen 247, BMC Troas pg. 40, 1ff, Laffaille 447, SNG von Aulock 1502-1503, SEAR Greek 4056
OBV: Beardless Cabirus left, wearing pileus, star on either side
REV: B-I/P-Y either side of club, within laurel wreath

RARE

Among the Thessalonian pantheon was an interesting figure called Cabirus. The cult of Cabirus was centered in Macedonia and Thrace. It focused on a legendary young man who was murdered by his two brothers. It was said that Cabirus would return one day to aid the powerless of the city. His symbol was the hammer, and he easily became associated with and worshipped by the working class in Thessalonica. Although no one knows why, at some point the Cabirus cult was taken over by the ruling elite and included in the official cult. Since it was common belief in those days that the gods listened more attentively to the wealthy than to the poor, the powerless of Thessalonica felt as though their hope had been taken from them.

In the light of the Cabirus cult, it is easy to understand how Paul’s preaching of Jesus could have easily gained traction in Thessalonica. After all, Jesus himself, like Cabirus, was a young man wrongly murdered who had indeed risen from the dead to bring good news to the poor and downtrodden. (Murphy-O’Connor, 74-75)
Romanorvm
Tyre,_Phoenicia,_106_-_105_B_C_,_Judas___30_Pieces_of_Silver.jpg
Tyre, Phoenicia, 106 - 105 B.C., Judas' 30 Pieces of Silver76 viewsSilver Shekel, BMC Phoenicia p. 238, 99 (also with Phoenician letter nun between legs); HGC 10 357; Cohen DCA 919, EF, well centered and struck on a tight flan, toned, marks, encrustations, some light corrosion, 13.857g, 27.4mm, 0o, Tyre mint, c. 106 - 105 B.C.
Obverse : laureate head of Melqart right, lion's skin knotted around neck.
Reverse : TYPOY IEPAΣ KAI AΣYΛOY (of Tyre the holy and inviolable), eagle left, right foot on ship's ram, palm frond under wing, date AK (year 21) over club left, HAP monogram right, Phoenician letter nun (control letter) between legs.

From The Sam Mansourati Collection / FORVM Ancient Coins.


Judas' 30 Pieces of Silver;
"Then one of the 12, called Judas Iscariot, went unto the chief priests, and said unto them, 'What will ye give me, and I will deliver him unto you?' And they covenanted with him for 30 pieces of silver." Matthew 26:14-15. Shekels of Tyre were the only currency accepted at the Jerusalem Temple and are the most likely coinage with which Judas was paid for the betrayal of Christ.

The Temple Tax Coin;
"..go to the sea and cast a hook, and take up the fish that first cometh up; and when thou has opened his mouth, thou shalt find a piece of money: that take, and give unto them [the temple tax collectors] for me and thee." Since the tax was one half shekel per man the coin would have to be a shekel to pay the tax for both Jesus and Peter. Matthew 17:24-27.

* Rare date.
**The most valuable type of coins in existence.
5 commentsSam
medievalsilver1.JPG
Unknown silver8 viewsJesus on one side?JRoME
GratusLargeAmphoraI.jpg
Valerius Gratus84 viewsJUDAEA, Procurators. Valerius Gratus. 15-26 CE. Ć Prutah 15mm, Jerusalem mint. Dated RY 4 of Tiberius (17 CE).
O: TIBEPIOC (Tiberius) above vine leaf and tendril on branch.
R: KAICAP (Caesar) above kantharos (drinking vessel) with scroll handles, L–Δ (date) across lower field.
Meshorer 325; Hendin 1337; RPC I 4962.

Gratus is best known for being the governor who removed High Priest Annas ben Seth, appointing Ishmael ben Phabi I, Eleazar ben Ananias and Josephus Caiphas. According to the Talmud, money was paid to obtain the position of High priest, leading to the frequent change in this appointment.

Caiphas officiated during Jesus’ earthly ministry and the early part of the apostles’ ministry. He presided as high priest over Jesus’ trial before the Sanhedrin, in company with his father-in-law Annas. [Mt 26:3, 57; Lu 3:2; Joh 11:49, 51; 18:13, 14, 24, 28] He and Annas called Peter and John before them and commanded them to stop preaching. [Ac 4:6, 18] Caiaphas was the high priest who authorized Saul to receive letters to the synagogue at Damascus for the arrest of Christians.—Ac 9:1, 2, 14

Interestingly, this coin might be the last issued by Gratus. Kenneth Lonnqvist suggests that Pontius Pilate may have replaced Gratus as early as 17/18 CE rather than 26. His arguement is based on both the metallurgy of the later coins as well as the palm branch iconography which "as far as Roman provincial coinage of Judaea is concerned-mostly or always connected with the arrival of a new Roman governor."
1 commentsNemonater
widows_mite_2.jpg
Widow's Mite Lepton37 viewsJesus sat down opposite the place where the offerings were put and watched the crowd putting their money into the temple treasury. Many rich people threw in large amounts. But a poor widow came and put in two very small copper coins, worth only a fraction of a penny. Calling his disciples to him, Jesus said, "I tell you the truth, this poor widow put more into the treasury than all the others. For all of them have contributed out of their abundance; but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had, all she had to live on."b70
Widows_Mite.jpg
Widow's Mite Lepton, Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus, 103 -76 B.C.135 viewsBronze lepton, Hendin 471 or 472, Jerusalem mint, 95 - 76 B.C.; obverse BASILEWS ALEXANDROU (of King Alexander), around anchor; reverse eight ray star surrounded by diadem (or wheel), Hebrew inscription "Yehonatan the king" between rays

Jesus sat down opposite the place where the offerings were put and watched the crowd putting their money into the temple treasury. Many rich people threw in large amounts. But a poor widow came and put in two very small copper coins, worth only a fraction of a penny. Calling his disciples to him, Jesus said, "I tell you the truth, this poor widow put more into the treasury than all the others. For all of them have contributed out of their abundance; but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had, all she had to live on."
b70
SeverusAlexanderRIC70RSC325s.jpg
[1009a] Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.83 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 70, RSC 325, S -, EF, Rome mint, 2.803g, 20.7mm, 0o, 227 A.D.; Obverse: IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right; Reverse: P M TR P VI COS II P P, Emperor standing left, sacrificing from patera in right over a tripod, scroll in left; cameo-like obverse with toned portrait and legend and bright fields, slightly frosty surfaces, details of head on reverse figure unstruck, slightly irregular flan. Ex FORVM.

In this year Ardashir invaded Parthia and established the Sassanid Dynasty, which claimed direct descent from Xerxes and Darius. The Eastern power grew stronger and the threat to the Romans immense.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother (Joseph Sermarini).

De Imeratoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth, of only seventeen years of age, the reins of government were in the hands of two women, of his mother Mamaea, and of Maesa, his grandmother. After the death of the latter, who survived but a short time the elevation of Alexander, Mamaea remained the sole regent of her son and of the empire." (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 6: Modern Library Edition, p. 130)

"As the imperial system developed, it disclosed its various arcana one by one. How much does the personality of the ruler matter? Less and less, it should seem. Be he boy, buffoon, or philosopher, his conduct may not have much effect on the administration. Habit and routine took over, with groups and grades of bureaucrats at hand to fill the posts." (Syme, Emperors and Biography, 146)

The passages quoted above emphasize two important aspects of the principate of Severus Alexander (or Alexander Severus), his youth and the influence of women during his reign. The significance of the latter invites brief discourse about the four women known as the "Severan Julias," whose origin was Syria. Julia Domna became the second wife of Septimius Severus and bore him two sons, the later emperors Caracalla and Geta. Her role in the administration of her husband was significant, which her expansive titulature, "mother of the camp and the senate and the country," reflected. Her sister, Julia Maesa, had two daughters, each of whom produced a son who was to become emperor. Julia Soaemias was the mother of Elagabalus, and shared his fate when he was assassinated. Julia Mamaea bore Alexander, who succeeded his cousin; he was very young and hence much under the control of grandmother and mother. For the first time in its imperial history, the empire of Rome was de facto, though not de iure, governed by women.

The literary sources, while numerous, are limited in value. Chief among them, at least in scope, is the biography in the Historia Augusta, much the longest of all the lives in this peculiar collection. Though purporting to be the work of six authors in the early fourth century, it is now generally considered to have been produced by one author writing in the last years of this century. Spacious in its treatment of the emperor and extremely favorable to him on the whole, it has little historical merit, seeming rather an extended work of fiction. It must be used with the utmost caution.

Herodian, whose history covered the period 180-238, was a contemporary of Severus Alexander, and his coverage of the latter's reign is extensive. Another contemporary, Dio Cassius, who was consul in 229 and whose judgments would have been most valuable, is unfortunately useless here, since his history survives only in abbreviated form and covers barely a page of printed text for the whole reign (Book 80). Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, the Epitome de Caesaribus, and other Latin sources are extremely brief, informing us of only the occasional anecdote. Christian writers make minimal contribution; legal texts offer much instruction, particularly those dealing with or stemming from Ulpian; coins, inscriptions, papyri, and archaeology help fill the gaps left by the literary sources.

Early Life and Education
The future emperor was born in Arca Caesarea in Phoenicia on October 1, 208 although some sources put the date three years earlier (as Gibbon assumed, see above), the son of Gessius Marcianus, whose career advanced in the equestrian cursus, and of Julia Mamaea, niece of the then empress, Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. He was raised quietly and well educated, at the instance of his mother. He came into the public eye only in 218, when, after Macrinus' murder of Caracalla and accession to the purple, he and his mother were declared hostes publici. In June of that year, Elagabalus defeated Macrinus and succeeded him as emperor. Alexander and Mamaea were soon rehabilitated. As his cousin's activities, religious, political, and personal, became increasingly unacceptable, Alexander was drawn ever more into public life. In mid 221, he assumed the toga virilis, was adopted by Elagabalus as a colleague, was granted the name Alexander, and elevated to the rank of Caesar. There had been talk that he was the illegitimate child of Caracalla, which won him support among the army, and this was confirmed, at least for public consumption, by his filiation in the official titulature back to Septimius. He was now styled Imp. Caes. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. fil., divi Antonini Magni Pii nepos, divi Severi pronepos M. Aurelius Alexander, nobilissimus Caesar imperi et sacerdotis, princeps iuventutis. The connection with Septimius Severus was crucial, since he was the only one of these predecessors who had been deified. Alexander was about 12˝ years old. Less than a year later, on March 13, 222, with the murder of Elagabalus, Alexander was hailed as emperor by the army. He considered this date as his dies imperii. He became thereby the youngest emperor in Rome's history. He was immediately thereafter given the titles of Augustus, pater patriae, and pontifex maximus.

His Principate; Grandmother, Mother, Ulpian
Having had no experience in government, the young emperor was largely dependent upon the two senior women in his life to guide his actions. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, may well have died as early as 223, so that his mother, Julia Mamaea, played the major role in the empire's administration from early on until the end. The only other figures who could rival her were the two Praetorian Prefects, both eminent jurists, Ulpian and Paulus, who are well-known to us because of the numerous citations of their legal views and administrative decisions preserved in the Corpus Iuris Civilis. Both were members of Alexander's consilium. Alexander attempted to restore some of the senate's prestige and functions, but with little success. He was even unable to protect Ulpian against the anger of the praetorians, who then murdered the jurist in 223.

Had his principate been peaceful, he might have developed into a significant emperor, certainly in comparison with his immediate predecessors. He was married once, in 225 to Sallustia Orbiana, who received the official titulature Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta, but she was banished to Libya two years later. Her father, L. Seius Sallustius, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

According to the HA life, Alexander was a "good" person, and his mother certainly attempted to guide him well, but much of the last decade of his reign was preoccupied with serious military threats against the empire's prestige, nay existence. In those dangerous circumstances, his abilities, which had not earlier been honed, proved inadequate.

Domestic Policy
Perhaps the greatest service which Alexander furnished Rome, certainly at the beginning of his reign, was the return to a sense of sanity and tradition after the madness and fanaticism of Elagabalus. He is said to have honored and worshipped a variety of individuals, including Christ. His amiability assisted his relationship with the senate, which gained in honor under him without any real increase in its power. Besides jurists in high office, literary figures were also so distinguished; Marius Maximus, the biographer, and Dio Cassius, the historian, gained second consulships, the former in 223, the latter in 229.

The emperor's building program made its mark upon the face of Rome. The last of the eleven great aqueducts, the aqua Alexandrina, was put into service in 226; he also rebuilt the thermae Neronianae in the Campus Martius in the following year and gave them his own name. Of the other constructions, perhaps the most intriguing are the Diaetae Mammaeae, apartments which he built for his mother on the Palatine.

The Persian and German Wars
The first great external challenge appeared in the east, where the Parthian dynasty, which had ruled the Iranian plateau and other large areas for centuries, and who for long had been one of Rome's great rivals, was overthrown by the Persian family of the Sassanids by 227. They aspired to restore their domain to include all the Asian lands which had been ruled in the glory days of the Persian Empire. Since this included Asia Minor as well as all other eastern provinces, the stage was set for continuing clashes with Rome.

These began late in the decade, with significant success early on for the Sassanids. But Rome gradually developed a defense against these incursions, and ultimately the emperor, with his mother and staff, went to the east in 231. There actual military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. Persia's early successes soon faded as Rome's armies brought their power and experience to bear. The result was an acceptance of the status quo rather than a settlement between the parties. This occurred in 233 and Alexander returned to Rome. His presence in the west was required by a German threat, particularly along the Rhine, where the tribes took advantage of the withdrawal of Roman troops for the eastern war.

In 234, Alexander and Julia Mammaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Upper Germany. The military situation had improved with the return of troops from the east, and an ambitious offensive campaign was planned, for which a bridge was built across the Rhine. But Alexander preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the enemy. This policy outraged the soldiers, who mutinied in mid March 235 and killed the emperor and his mother. He had reached the age of 26˝ years and had been emperor for almost precisely half his life. He was deified by the senate and received other posthumous honors. With the accession of Maximinus Thrax, the Severan dynasty came to an end.

Death and Evaluation
Tacitus' famous dictum about Galba, that he was properly considered capax imperii, capable of being emperor, until he showed, when emperor, that he was not, could never have been applied to Severus Alexander. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imeratoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/alexsev.htm . Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
SevAl.jpg
[1009b] Severus Alexander, 13 March 222 - March 235 A.D.110 viewsSilver denarius, RIC 19, S -, aF, Rome, 2.806g, 20.0mm, 0o, 223 A.D.; obverse IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG, laureate and draped bust right; reverse P M TR P II COS P P, Jupiter standing left cloak over arms, holding long scepter and thunderbolt. Nice portrait. Ex FORVM.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander was promoted from Caesar to Augustus after the murder of his cousin, Elagabalus. His reign was marked by great economic prosperity, and he enjoyed great success against the barbarian tribes. His mother Julia Mamaea was the real power in the empire, controlling her son's policies and even his personal life with great authority. Severus had an oratory where he prayed under the edict, written on the wall, "Do not unto others what you would not have done to yourself" and the images of various prophets including Mithras, Zoroaster, Abraham and Jesus. Mutinous soldiers led by Maximinus I murdered both Severus Alexander and his mother (Joseph Sermarini).


De Imeratoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Alexander Severus (A.D. 222-235)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"But as Alexander was a modest and dutiful youth, of only seventeen years of age, the reins of government were in the hands of two women, of his mother Mamaea, and of Maesa, his grandmother. After the death of the latter, who survived but a short time the elevation of Alexander, Mamaea remained the sole regent of her son and of the empire." (Gibbon, Decline and Fall, chap. 6: Modern Library Edition, p. 130)

"As the imperial system developed, it disclosed its various arcana one by one. How much does the personality of the ruler matter? Less and less, it should seem. Be he boy, buffoon, or philosopher, his conduct may not have much effect on the administration. Habit and routine took over, with groups and grades of bureaucrats at hand to fill the posts." (Syme, Emperors and Biography, 146)

The passages quoted above emphasize two important aspects of the principate of Severus Alexander (or Alexander Severus), his youth and the influence of women during his reign. The significance of the latter invites brief discourse about the four women known as the "Severan Julias," whose origin was Syria. Julia Domna became the second wife of Septimius Severus and bore him two sons, the later emperors Caracalla and Geta. Her role in the administration of her husband was significant, which her expansive titulature, "mother of the camp and the senate and the country," reflected. Her sister, Julia Maesa, had two daughters, each of whom produced a son who was to become emperor. Julia Soaemias was the mother of Elagabalus, and shared his fate when he was assassinated. Julia Mamaea bore Alexander, who succeeded his cousin; he was very young and hence much under the control of grandmother and mother. For the first time in its imperial history, the empire of Rome was de facto, though not de iure, governed by women.

The literary sources, while numerous, are limited in value. Chief among them, at least in scope, is the biography in the Historia Augusta, much the longest of all the lives in this peculiar collection. Though purporting to be the work of six authors in the early fourth century, it is now generally considered to have been produced by one author writing in the last years of this century. Spacious in its treatment of the emperor and extremely favorable to him on the whole, it has little historical merit, seeming rather an extended work of fiction. It must be used with the utmost caution.

Herodian, whose history covered the period 180-238, was a contemporary of Severus Alexander, and his coverage of the latter's reign is extensive. Another contemporary, Dio Cassius, who was consul in 229 and whose judgments would have been most valuable, is unfortunately useless here, since his history survives only in abbreviated form and covers barely a page of printed text for the whole reign (Book 80). Aurelius Victor, Eutropius, the Epitome de Caesaribus, and other Latin sources are extremely brief, informing us of only the occasional anecdote. Christian writers make minimal contribution; legal texts offer much instruction, particularly those dealing with or stemming from Ulpian; coins, inscriptions, papyri, and archaeology help fill the gaps left by the literary sources.

Early Life and Education
The future emperor was born in Arca Caesarea in Phoenicia on October 1, 208 although some sources put the date three years earlier (as Gibbon assumed, see above), the son of Gessius Marcianus, whose career advanced in the equestrian cursus, and of Julia Mamaea, niece of the then empress, Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus. He was raised quietly and well educated, at the instance of his mother. He came into the public eye only in 218, when, after Macrinus' murder of Caracalla and accession to the purple, he and his mother were declared hostes publici. In June of that year, Elagabalus defeated Macrinus and succeeded him as emperor. Alexander and Mamaea were soon rehabilitated. As his cousin's activities, religious, political, and personal, became increasingly unacceptable, Alexander was drawn ever more into public life. In mid 221, he assumed the toga virilis, was adopted by Elagabalus as a colleague, was granted the name Alexander, and elevated to the rank of Caesar. There had been talk that he was the illegitimate child of Caracalla, which won him support among the army, and this was confirmed, at least for public consumption, by his filiation in the official titulature back to Septimius. He was now styled Imp. Caes. M. Aurelii Antonini Pii Felicis Aug. fil., divi Antonini Magni Pii nepos, divi Severi pronepos M. Aurelius Alexander, nobilissimus Caesar imperi et sacerdotis, princeps iuventutis. The connection with Septimius Severus was crucial, since he was the only one of these predecessors who had been deified. Alexander was about 12˝ years old. Less than a year later, on March 13, 222, with the murder of Elagabalus, Alexander was hailed as emperor by the army. He considered this date as his dies imperii. He became thereby the youngest emperor in Rome's history. He was immediately thereafter given the titles of Augustus, pater patriae, and pontifex maximus.

His Principate; Grandmother, Mother, Ulpian
Having had no experience in government, the young emperor was largely dependent upon the two senior women in his life to guide his actions. His grandmother, Julia Maesa, may well have died as early as 223, so that his mother, Julia Mamaea, played the major role in the empire's administration from early on until the end. The only other figures who could rival her were the two Praetorian Prefects, both eminent jurists, Ulpian and Paulus, who are well-known to us because of the numerous citations of their legal views and administrative decisions preserved in the Corpus Iuris Civilis. Both were members of Alexander's consilium. Alexander attempted to restore some of the senate's prestige and functions, but with little success. He was even unable to protect Ulpian against the anger of the praetorians, who then murdered the jurist in 223.

Had his principate been peaceful, he might have developed into a significant emperor, certainly in comparison with his immediate predecessors. He was married once, in 225 to Sallustia Orbiana, who received the official titulature Sallustia Barbia Orbiana Augusta, but she was banished to Libya two years later. Her father, L. Seius Sallustius, was perhaps raised to the rank of Caesar by Alexander and was put to death in 227 on a charge of attempted murder of the emperor. The only other recorded uprising against Alexander is that of Taurinus, who was hailed as Augustus but drowned himself in the Euphrates.

According to the HA life, Alexander was a "good" person, and his mother certainly attempted to guide him well, but much of the last decade of his reign was preoccupied with serious military threats against the empire's prestige, nay existence. In those dangerous circumstances, his abilities, which had not earlier been honed, proved inadequate.

Domestic Policy
Perhaps the greatest service which Alexander furnished Rome, certainly at the beginning of his reign, was the return to a sense of sanity and tradition after the madness and fanaticism of Elagabalus. He is said to have honored and worshipped a variety of individuals, including Christ. His amiability assisted his relationship with the senate, which gained in honor under him without any real increase in its power. Besides jurists in high office, literary figures were also so distinguished; Marius Maximus, the biographer, and Dio Cassius, the historian, gained second consulships, the former in 223, the latter in 229.

The emperor's building program made its mark upon the face of Rome. The last of the eleven great aqueducts, the aqua Alexandrina, was put into service in 226; he also rebuilt the thermae Neronianae in the Campus Martius in the following year and gave them his own name. Of the other constructions, perhaps the most intriguing are the Diaetae Mammaeae, apartments which he built for his mother on the Palatine.

The Persian and German Wars
The first great external challenge appeared in the east, where the Parthian dynasty, which had ruled the Iranian plateau and other large areas for centuries, and who for long had been one of Rome's great rivals, was overthrown by the Persian family of the Sassanids by 227. They aspired to restore their domain to include all the Asian lands which had been ruled in the glory days of the Persian Empire. Since this included Asia Minor as well as all other eastern provinces, the stage was set for continuing clashes with Rome.

These began late in the decade, with significant success early on for the Sassanids. But Rome gradually developed a defense against these incursions, and ultimately the emperor, with his mother and staff, went to the east in 231. There actual military command rested in the hands of his generals, but his presence gave additional weight to the empire's policy. Persia's early successes soon faded as Rome's armies brought their power and experience to bear. The result was an acceptance of the status quo rather than a settlement between the parties. This occurred in 233 and Alexander returned to Rome. His presence in the west was required by a German threat, particularly along the Rhine, where the tribes took advantage of the withdrawal of Roman troops for the eastern war.

In 234, Alexander and Julia Mammaea moved to Moguntiacum (Mainz), the capital of Upper Germany. The military situation had improved with the return of troops from the east, and an ambitious offensive campaign was planned, for which a bridge was built across the Rhine. But Alexander preferred to negotiate for peace by buying off the enemy. This policy outraged the soldiers, who mutinied in mid March 235 and killed the emperor and his mother. He had reached the age of 26˝ years and had been emperor for almost precisely half his life. He was deified by the senate and received other posthumous honors. With the accession of Maximinus Thrax, the Severan dynasty came to an end.

Death and Evaluation
Tacitus' famous dictum about Galba, that he was properly considered capax imperii, capable of being emperor, until he showed, when emperor, that he was not, could never have been applied to Severus Alexander. A child when chance brought him to the principate, with only two recommendations, that he was different from Elagabalus and that he was part of the Severan family, he proved to be inadequate for the challenges of the time. Military experience was the prime attribute of an emperor now, which Alexander did not have, and that lack ultimately cost him his life. Guided by his mother and employing the services of distinguished men, he returned dignity to the imperial household and to the state. He did the best he could, but that best was not good enough in the early decades of the third century A.D., with the great threats from east and north challenging Rome's primacy and, indeed, existence.

Copyright (C) 2001, Herbert W. Benario. Published on De Imeratoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors; http://www.roman-emperors.org/alexsev.htm . Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U2476F1EBKBPIDB.jpg
[18H469] Bronze prutah19 views3925. Bronze prutah, Hendin 469, TJC K, F, Jerusalem mint, 2.70g, 16.3mm, 95 - 76 B.C.; obverse BASILEWS ALEXANDROU (of King Alexander), around anchor; reverse eight ray star surrounded by diadem (or wheel), Hebrew inscription "Yehonatan the king" between rays.

Jesus sat down opposite the place where the offerings were put and watched the crowd putting their money into the temple treasury. Many rich people threw in large amounts. But a poor widow came and put in two very small copper coins, worth only a fraction of a penny. Calling his disciples to him, Jesus said, "I tell you the truth, this poor widow put more into the treasury than all the others. For all of them have contributed out of their abundance; but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had, all she had to live on."
Cleisthenes
AlxJanHen470.jpeg
[18H470] Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.12 viewsJudean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C. Bronze prutah, Hendin 470, F, Jerusalem, 1.72g, 14.8mm, 95 - 76 B.C. Obverse: BASILEWS ALEXANDROU (of King Alexander), around anchor; Reverse: star with eight pellets instead of rays (no inscription between) surrounded by diadem; reverse 1/2 off center.

"And now the king's wife loosed the king's brethren, and made Alexander king, who appeared both elder in age, and more moderate in his temper than the rest" (Josephus, Wars, I, IV:1).

Jesus sat down opposite the place where the offerings were put and watched the crowd putting their money into the temple treasury. Many rich people threw in large amounts. But a poor widow came and put in two very small copper coins, worth only a fraction of a penny. Calling his disciples to him, Jesus said, "I tell you the truth, this poor widow put more into the treasury than all the others. For all of them have contributed out of their abundance; but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had, all she had to live on."
Cleisthenes
12932p00.jpg
[18H471] Judean Kingdom, Alexander Jannaeus (Yehonatan), 103 - 76 B.C.26 viewsBronze lepton, Hendin 471, .722g, 13.6mm, Jerusalem mint, 78 - 76 B.C.; obverse BASILEWS ALEXANDROU (of King Alexander), anchor upside-down inside circle, L KE (= year 25) near anchor points; reverse Aramaic inscription, King Alexander Year 25, star of eight rays surrounded by diadem of dots.

Jesus sat down opposite the place where the offerings were put and watched the crowd putting their money into the temple treasury. Many rich people threw in large amounts. But a poor widow came and put in two very small copper coins, worth only a fraction of a penny. Calling his disciples to him, Jesus said, "I tell you the truth, this poor widow put more into the treasury than all the others. For all of them have contributed out of their abundance; but she out of her poverty has put in everything she had, all she had to live on."
See: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=105&pos=0
Cleisthenes
HerodArchelausHendin505.jpg
[18H505] Herod Archelaus, Ethnarch 4 B.C. - 6 A.D.17 viewsHerod Archelaus Prutah, Hendin 505, 17.9mm, 3.37 grams. VF/VF+, Reverse: Helmet; Obverse: Grapes, Heavy FULL weight, 4 B.C.E. - 6 C.E. A nice BOLD coin with a large flan and HEAVY weight. Ex Zuzim Judaea.

JUDEA: Bronze [prutah] of Herod Archelaus, 4 BC-AD 6. The obverse shows a bunch of grapes, with the name of Herod in Greek; the reverse has a helmet with cheek pieces, two crests (probably of horse's hair) on the left and on the right, and a small caduceus below (Banks, Florence Aiken. Coins of Bible Days. New York: Sandford J Durst Numismatics Publications, 1955. 86).

". . . the widow . . . . may have offered grape-and-helmet-adorned [prutah] of Herod Archelaus, the son of Herod the Great whose reign had inspired such fear in Joseph as to cause him to take Mary and the young child Jesus to Galilee instead of to Judea upon their return from Egypt (Banks, Florence Aiken. Coins of Bible Days. New York: Sandford J Durst Numismatics Publications, 1955. 97).

Son of Herod the Great, he inherited the southern part of his father's kingdom – Judaea, Samaria and Idumaea. Jerusalem was his capital. Augustus denied him the title king and gave him the title ethnarch, with a promise to name him king if he governed well. He was so unpopular with his subjects that Augustus deposed him, banished him to Gaul and annexed his territory (Joseph Sermarini).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate29BCHendin648.jpg
[18H648] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 29 BC48 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, "SIMPULUM;" Hendin 648, AVF/VF, 15.3mm, 2.20 grams, struck 29 C.E. Nice round, good weight Pontius Pilate Prutah.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cćsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
PontiusPilate30BCHendin649.jpg
[18H649] Pontius Pilate Prefect under Tiberius Prutah, "LIZ", 30 BC70 viewsPONTIUS PILATE PRUTAH, 'LIZ;' Hendin 649, VF, 15.5mm, 1.90 grams. Struck 30 C.E. Nice historic coin.

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cćsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
PontiusPilate31BCHendin650.jpg
[18H650] Pontius Pilate prefect for Tiberius Prutah, 31 BC68 viewsPONTIUS PILATUS PRUTAH. Hendin 650, aVF, 14.3mm, 1.94 grams. Minted 31 C.E. FULL "LIH" Date, (H partially hidden behind pretty patina can be revealed.)

THE COINS OF PONTIUS PILATE
Jean-Philippe Fontanille

INTRODUCTION
They are not really beautiful, or truly rare, nor are they of very great monetary value. Yet these apparently modest coins carry in their weight an era and an act which would have immense consequence to the history of the world. Indeed, they are closely associated with three basic factors which saw the foundation of Christianity :
1 - The temporal proximity : Most modern experts agree in recognising that the year now designated 30 C.E. marked the trial and the death of Jesus. Given that time-frame, Pilate's coins were minted in 29, 30 and 31 C.E.
2 - The geographic proximity : The most credible hypothesis indicates that these particular coins where struck in Jerusalem, the city in which the significant events took place.
3 - The human proximity : Pontius Pilate himself designed and put the coins into circulation, and of course he was the man who conducted the trial and ordered the crucifixion of Jesus.

So it is that everyone, whether a believer or simply a lover of history or of numismatics, will find in these coins direct evidence of and witness to an episode the memory of which has survived 2000 years : A momentous event which has to a great extent fashioned the world we know.

Throughout this article we will also note the exceptional character of Pilate's coins: Exceptional in the nature of the images they bear, for the numerous variants they offer, for the presence of countermarks, and above all for the part their originator played in history. The putative appearance of these coins imprints on the Turin shroud has yet to be confirmed by more solid scientific proofs.

Pilate's coins are Roman coins, the words on them are Greek, they were circulated in Judea, and today they are to be found distributed among world-wide collectors after having spent 2000 years buried in the earth. They were minted and used during a period which produced an event destined to change the face of the world, and issued at the command of one of the principal actors in that event. An amazing and dramatic destiny for apparently such humble and unassuming little coins !

For 35 years Pilate's coins were passed from hand to hand every day. They knew the scent of spice-stalls, heard the merchants' ranting, smelled the sweat and dust of daily works. They were alive to the sounds of Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek and Latin voices ¬ now haggling over a price, now offering prayers to YHVH, Jesus or Jupiter.

Nobody prays to Jupiter any more [?], but Pilate's coins are surviving witnesses to a time when the first Christians were considered as a messianic sect among several others in the midst of Judaism in crisis. The absolute split between Judaism and Christianity took place from about 70 C.E, the year which marked the tragic ending of the first Jewish rebellion. It was from that time, too, that Pilate's money ceased to be used.

Like each one of us, who carries always a few small coins in the bottom of our pockets; there is no doubt that some of Pilate's coins resonated to the last words of the most famous of all supplicants. A very long story had its beginning...

2. MANUFACTURE AND CIRCULATION
LOCATION OF MINTS
Although the prefects had their residencies in Cesarea, the administrative capital of the province, it seems that their money was minted in Jerusalem. Indeed, a specimen dated year 31 has been found in this town in an incomplete state of manufacture.

DURATION OF USE
It would seem that Pilate's money was in current use for at least 35 years. Indeed, some of it has been discovered among other coins during the excavation of remains of dwellings destroyed by the Romans during the first Jewish revolt, which is evidence that they were still in use at that time.

AREA OF CIRCULATION
These coins circulated far beyond the frontiers of Judea. Some samples have been discovered as far away as Antioch in present-day Turkey, nearly 500 kilometres from Jerusalem where they were minted. Others have also been found in Jordan. These limits represent a circulation area of at least 100.000 square kilometres, that is five times larger than the size of the state of Israel. Taking into account that it was a time when distances were expressed in terms of days of march, one begins to see the important influence of these coins.

3. THE IMAGES AND THE TEXTS
THE SIMPULUM
A fairly frequent symbol from the Roman religion of the time, the simpulum was a utensil used by the priests during their religious ceremonies. This little ladle, provided with shaft and a handle, allowed the priests to taste the wine which they poured onto the head of an animal destined for sacrifice, after which the soothsayer was empowered to examine the animal's entrails for signs and portents sent to men by the Gods through the medium of the interpreter. As I pointed, none of this would have been obvious at first sight of the motif except perhaps to a Roman citizen. However, it throws some light on the theory put forward by F.A. Banks [Coins of the Bible Days].

This wasn't the first time that the simpulum appeared on Roman coins, but it is the first time it figured alone. This fact gives an additional specificity to Pilate's coins, not only in the context of Judea but also in comparison with all the other coins of the Empire.

THE THREE EARS OF BARLEY
The three ears or barley are featured on the opposing face of the simpulum. Unlike the simpulum, these ears of barley are not in contravention of the Jewish Law. The motif is nevertheless distinctive because it is the first time it appears on a Judean coin. The motif would reappear twelve years later on one of Herod Agrippa's coin, then on another, much rarer, of Agrippa II (ears of barley held in a hand). After that, the motif disappeared altogether from ancient Jewish coins.

THE LITUUS
The lituus was the wooden staff which the augurs held in the right hand; it symbolised their authority and their pastoral vocation. It was raised toward heavens while the priests invoked the Gods and made their predictions. Legend records that Romulus used it at the time of Rome's foundation in 753 B.C.E. It is interesting to note that the cross used in present times is the direct descendant of the lituus. As with the simpulum, Pilate's coinage is exceptional in that it alone displays the lituus as the sole object illustrated on the face.

THE WREATH
The laurel wreath is a symbol of power and victory, and figures on various ancient Greek and Roman coins. In Judea it can be found during the reign of John Hyrcanus I (134 to 104 B.C.E.). After that, Herod Antipas, speaker for Pilate, used it on all his coins. On Pilate's coins, the laurel wreath figures on the reverse side of the lituus, framing the date.

THE DATES
The notation of dates uses a code invented by the Greeks whereby each letter of the alphabet was assigned a number. This code would be used again in Judaism under the name of Guematria. The system is simple : the first ten letters of the alphabet are linked to units (1,2,3...), the following ten letters to tens (10,20,30...) and the four remaining letters to the first four hundreds. The "L" is an abbreviation meaning "year". Tiberius became emperor on September 17 of year 14 C.E, so we have :

LIS = Year 29 C.E. * LIZ = Year 30 C.E. * LIH = Year 31 C.E.

THE TEXTS
The legends on Pontius Pilate's coins are written in Greek. Judea, governed by the Ptolemy dynasty (301 to 198 B.C.E) then by the Syrians until 63 B.C.E, came under the same powerful influence of the Hellenic culture which touched the other territories of the ancient Persian Empire won by Alexander the Great. In spite of a certain amount of resistance, this Hellenistic heritage eventually crept into every aspect of daily life. Apart from the dates, the texts on Pilate's coinage consisted of only three different words : - TIBEPIOY KAICAPOC (Of Tiberius Emperor) on all three coins; - IOYLIA KAICAPOC (Empress Julia) added to the coin of year 29.
http://www.numismalink.com/fontanille1.html


Pontius Pilate
After the deposition of the eldest son of Herod, Archelaus (who had succeeded his father as ethnarch), Judea was placed under the rule of a Roman procurator. Pilate, who was the fifth, succeeding Valerius Gratus in A.D. 26, had greater authority than most procurators under the empire, for in addition to the ordinary duty of financial administration, he had supreme power judicially. His unusually long period of office (A.D. 26-36) covers the whole of the active ministry both of St. John the Baptist and of Jesus Christ.
As procurator Pilate was necessarily of equestrian rank, but beyond that we know little of his family or origin. Some have thought that he was only a freedman, deriving his name from pileus (the cap of freed slaves) but for this there seems to be no adequate evidence, and it is unlikely that a freedman would attain to a post of such importance. The Pontii were a Samnite gens. Pilate owed his appointment to the influence of Sejanus. The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Cćsarea; where there was a military force of about 3,000 soldiers. These soldiers came up to Jerusalem at the time of the feasts, when the city was full of strangers, and there was greater danger of disturbances, hence it was that Pilate had come to Jerusalem at the time of the Crucifixion. His name will be forever covered with infamy because of the part which he took in this matter, though at the time it appeared to him of small importance.
Pilate is a type of the worldly man, knowing the right and anxious to do it so far as it can be done without personal sacrifice of any kind, but yielding easily to pressure from those whose interest it is that he should act otherwise. He would gladly have acquitted Christ, and even made serious efforts in that direction, but gave way at once when his own position was threatened.
The other events of his rule are not of very great importance. Philo (Ad Gaium, 38) speaks of him as inflexible, merciless, and obstinate. The Jews hated him and his administration, for he was not only very severe, but showed little consideration for their susceptibilities. Some standards bearing the image of Tiberius, which had been set up by him in Jerusalem, caused an outbreak which would have ended in a massacre had not Pilate given way. At a later date Tiberius ordered him to remove certain gilt shields, which he had set up in Jerusalem in spite of the remonstrances of the people. The incident mentioned in St. Luke 13:1, of the Galilaeans whose blood Pilate mingled with the sacrifices, is not elsewhere referred to, but is quite in keeping with other authentic events of his rule. He was, therefore, anxious that no further hostile reports should be sent to the emperor concerning him.
The tendency, already discernible in the canonical Gospels, to lay stress on the efforts of Pilate to acquit Christ, and thus pass as lenient a judgment as possible upon his crime, goes further in the apocryphal Gospels and led in later years to the claim that he actually became a Christian. The Abyssinian Church reckons him as a saint, and assigns 25 June to him and to Claudia Procula, his wife. The belief that she became a Christian goes back to the second century, and may be found in Origen (Hom., in Mat., xxxv). The Greek Church assigns her a feast on 27 October. Tertullian and Justin Martyr both speak of a report on the Crucifixion (not extant) sent in by Pilate to Tiberius, from which idea a large amount of apocryphal literature originated. Some of these were Christian in origin (Gospel of Nicodemus), others came from the heathen, but these have all perished.
His rule was brought to an end through trouble which arose in Samaria. An imposter had given out that it was in his power to discover the sacred vessels which, as he alleged, had been hidden by Moses on Mount Gerizim, whither armed Samaritans came in large numbers. Pilate seems to have thought the whole affair was a blind, covering some other more important design, for he hurried forces to attack them, and many were slain. They appealed to Vitellius, who was at that time legate in Syria, saying that nothing political had been intended, and complaining of Pilate's whole administration. He was summoned to Rome to answer their charges, but before he could reach the city the Emperor Tiberius had died.
Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/12083c.htm

As the man who presided over the trial of Jesus, who found no fault with the defendant and washed his hands of the affair by referring it back to the Jewish mob, but who signed the final death warrant, Pontius Pilate represents almost a byword for ambivalence.
He appears in a poor light in all four Gospels and in a favourable light in the apocryphal Gospel of Peter where the Jews take all the blame for Jesus' death.
In the later Acts of Pilate, he is both cleared of responsibility for the Crucifixion and is said to have converted to Christianity.
In the drama of the Passion, Pilate is a ditherer who drifts towards pardoning Jesus, then drifts away again. He tries to pass the buck several times, makes the decision to save Jesus, then capitulates.
The former Archbishop of Canterbury, the late Robert Runcie once wrote, "It would have been better for the moral health of Christianity if the blame had stayed with Pilate."
In a poignant moment in the course of the trial, Pontius Pilate responds to an assertion by Jesus by asking "What is truth?"
The truth about Pilate is difficult to ascertain since records are few. Legends say he was a Spaniard or a German, but most likely he was a natural-born Roman citizen from central Italy.
But the fact that he was definitely the Procurator of Judea from 26 to 36 AD helps to establish Jesus as a real person and fixes him in time.
The official residence of the procurators was the palace of Herod at Caesarea, a mainly non-Jewish city where a force of some 3,000 Roman soldiers were based.
These would come to Jerusalem during the time of feasts when there was a greater danger of disturbances. This would explain Pilate's presence in the city during the time of the Crucifixion.
Pilate is recorded by several contemporary historians; his name is inscribed on Roman coins and on a stone dug up in Caesarea in the 1960s with the words, PONTIUS PILATUS PRAEFECTUS PROVINCIAE JUDAEAE.
The governorship of Judea was only a second-rate posting, though having the Jewish religious capital, Jerusalem, on its patch would have increased its importance.
Pilate ruled in conjunction with the Jewish authorities and was under orders from Emperor Tiberius, to respect their culture. He was a soldier rather than a diplomat.
The Jews relied on the Romans to keep their own rebellious factions under control. But they appeared to hate Pilate.
One contemporary Jewish historian Philo, describes him as a violent thug, fond of executions without trial. Another, Josephus, records that, at the start of his term, Pilate provoked the Jews by ordering the imperial standards to be carried into Jerusalem.
But he backed off from an all-out confrontation. On the other hand, later, he helped himself to Jewish revenues to build an aqueduct.
When, according to Josephus, bands of resistance fighters, supported by crowds of ordinary people, sabotaged the project by getting in the way of Pilate's workmen, he sent in his soldiers. Hundreds were massacred.
Anne Wroe, author of a recent book Pilate: the Biography of an Invented Man, says that for some modern scholars, given this propensity for violence when the occasion warranted, the idea of Pilate as a waverer is nonsense.
A Roman governor, they point out, would not have wasted two minutes thinking about a shabby Jewish villain, one among many. Wroe's depiction of Pilate, however, suggests he was something of a pragmatist.
His first duty was to keep the peace in Judea and to keep the revenues flowing back to Rome. "Should I have jeopardised the peace for the sake of some Jew who may have been innocent?", she has Pilate asking. "Should I have defied a furious crowd, maybe butchered them, to save one life?"
Whatever the truth about the real Pontius Pilate, such dilemmas are what he has come to symbolise.
Anne Wroe makes the modern comparisons of Neville Chamberlain in 1938. Bill McSweeney, of the Irish School of Ecumenics suggests that "without the Pilates of Anglo-Irish politics, we might never have had the Good Friday Agreement".
Tony Blair has said of Pilate: "It is possible to view Pilate as the archetypal politician, caught on the horns of a dilemma."
Even if, in reality, the Jesus affair was nothing but a small side-show in the career of Pontius Pilate, it had monumental repercussions for his image.
His inclusion in the Christian creeds, in the words of Robert Runcie, "binds the eternal realms to the stumbling, messy chronology of earthly time and place".
BBC: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/1273594.stm

The Ethiopian Church recognized Pilate as a saint in the sixth century, based on the account in the Acts of Pilate

Although historians can pinpoint the exact date of death of many distinguished historical figures, the date of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ remains a matter of scholarly debate. Christ’s birth is most often dated between 7-5 BC (some scholars have suggested, however, His birth was as early as 20 BC). Christ’s Death and Resurrection is dated between 29-36 AD.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
TrajSepphorisGalilee.jpg
[18H907] Trajan, 25 January 98 - 8 or 9 August 117 A.D., Sepphoris, Galilee220 viewsBronze AE 23, Hendin 907, BMC 5, Fair, 7.41g, 23.1mm, 0o, Sepphoris mint, 98 - 117 A.D.; obverse TPAIANOS AYTO]-KPA[TWP EDWKEN, laureate head right; reverse SEPFW/RHNWN, eight-branched palm bearing two bunches of dates.

At the crossroads of the Via Maris and the Acre-Tiberias roads, Sepphoris was the capital of Galilee and Herod Antipas' first capital. Damaged by a riot, Antipas ordered Sepphoris be rebuilt. Flavius Josephus described the rebuilt Sepphoris as the "ornament of all Galilee." Since Sepphoris was only five miles north of Nazareth, Jesus and Joseph may have found work in Antipas' rebuilding projects. Sepphoris was built on a hill and visible for miles. This may be the city that Jesus spoke of when He said, "A city set on a hill cannot be hidden."

Marcus Ulpius Traianus, a brilliant general and administrator was adopted and proclaimed emperor by the aging Nerva in 98 A.D. Regarded as one of Rome's greatest emperors, Trajan was responsible for the annexation of Dacia, the invasion of Arabia and an extensive and lavish building program across the empire. Under Trajan, Rome reached its greatest extent. Shortly after the annexation of Mesopotamia and Armenia, Trajan was forced to withdraw from most of the new Arabian provinces. While returning to Rome to direct operations against the new threats, Trajan died at Selinus in Cilicia.
See: http://www.forumancientcoins.com/catalog/indexfrm.asp?vpar=55&pos=0.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Trajan (A.D. 98-117)

Herbert W. Benario
Emory University

Introduction and Sources
"During a happy period of more than fourscore years, the public administration was conducted by the virtue and abilities of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the two Antonines. It is the design of this and of the two succeeding chapters to describe the prosperous condition of their empire, and afterwards, from the death of Marcus Antoninus, to deduce the most important circumstances of its decline and fall, a revolution which will ever be remembered and is still felt by the nations of the earth."

This is perhaps the most important and best known of all Edward Gibbon's famous dicta about his vast subject, and particularly that period which he admired the most. It was a concatenation of chance and events which brought to the first position of the principate five men, each very different from the others, who each, in his own way, brought integrity and a sense of public duty to his tasks. Nerva's tenure was brief, as many no doubt had expected and hoped it would be, and perhaps his greatest achievement was to choose Trajan as his adoptive son and intended successor. It was a splendid choice. Trajan was one of Rome's most admirable figures, a man who merited the renown which he enjoyed in his lifetime and in subsequent generations.

The sources for the man and his principate are disappointingly skimpy. There is no contemporaneous historian who can illuminate the period. Tacitus speaks only occasionally of Trajan, there is no biography by Suetonius, nor even one by the author of the late and largely fraudulent Historia Augusta. (However, a modern version of what such a life might have been like has been composed by A. Birley, entirely based upon ancient evidence. It is very useful.) Pliny the Younger tells us the most, in his Panegyricus, his long address of thanks to the emperor upon assuming the consulship in late 100, and in his letters. Pliny was a wordy and congenial man, who reveals a great deal about his senatorial peers and their relations with the emperor, above all, of course, his own. The most important part is the tenth book of his Epistulae, which contains the correspondence between him, while serving in Bithynia, and the emperor, to whom he referred all manner of problems, important as well as trivial. Best known are the pair (96,97) dealing with the Christians and what was to be done with them. These would be extraordinarily valuable if we could be sure that the imperial replies stemmed directly from Trajan, but that is more than one can claim. The imperial chancellery had developed greatly in previous decades and might pen these communications after only the most general directions from the emperor. The letters are nonetheless unique in the insight they offer into the emperor's mind.

Cassius Dio, who wrote in the decade of the 230s, wrote a long imperial history which has survived only in abbreviated form in book LXVIII for the Trajanic period. The rhetorician Dio of Prusa, a contemporary of the emperor, offers little of value. Fourth-century epitomators, Aurelius Victor and Eutropius, offer some useful material. Inscriptions, coins, papyri, and legal texts are of major importance. Since Trajan was a builder of many significant projects, archaeology contributes mightily to our understanding of the man.

Early Life and Career
The patria of the Ulpii was Italica, in Spanish Baetica , where their ancestors had settled late in the third century B.C. This indicates that the Italian origin was paramount, yet it has recently been cogently argued that the family's ancestry was local, with Trajan senior actually a Traius who was adopted into the family of the Ulpii. Trajan's father was the first member of the family to pursue a senatorial career; it proved to be a very successful one. Born probably about the year 30, he perhaps commanded a legion under Corbulo in the early sixties and then was legate of legio X Fretensis under Vespasian, governor of Judaea. Success in the Jewish War was rewarded by the governorship of an unknown province and then a consulate in 70. He was thereafter adlected by the emperor in patricios and sent to govern Baetica. Then followed the governorship of one of the major military provinces, Syria, where he prevented a Parthian threat of invasion, and in 79/80 he was proconsul of Asia, one of the two provinces (the other was Africa) which capped a senatorial career. His public service now effectively over, he lived on in honor and distinction, in all likelihood seeing his son emperor. He probably died before 100. He was deified in 113 and his titulature read divus Traianus pater. Since his son was also the adoptive son of Nerva, the emperor had officially two fathers, a unique circumstance.

The son was born in Italica on September 18, 53; his mother was Marcia, who had given birth to a daughter, Ulpia Marciana, five years before the birth of the son. In the mid seventies, he was a legionary legate under his father in Syria. He then married a lady from Nemausus (Nimes) in Gallia Narbonensis, Pompeia Plotina, was quaestor about 78 and praetor about 84. In 86, he became one of the child Hadrian's guardians. He was then appointed legate of legio VII Gemina in Hispania Tarraconensis, from which he marched at Domitian's orders in 89 to crush the uprising of Antonius Saturninus along the Rhine. He next fought in Domitian's war against the Germans along Rhine and Danube and was rewarded with an ordinary consulship in 91. Soon followed the governorship of Moesia inferior and then that of Germania superior, with his headquarters at Moguntiacum (Mainz), whither Hadrian brought him the news in autumn 97 that he had been adopted by the emperor Nerva, as co-ruler and intended successor. Already recipient of the title imperator and possessor of the tribunician power, when Nerva died on January 27, 98, Trajan became emperor in a smooth transition of power which marked the next three quarters of a century.

Early Years through the Dacian Wars
Trajan did not return immediately to Rome. He chose to stay in his German province and settle affairs on that frontier. He showed that he approved Domitian's arrangements, with the establishment of two provinces, their large military garrisons, and the beginnings of the limes. Those who might have wished for a renewed war of conquest against the Germans were disappointed. The historian Tacitus may well have been one of these.

Trajan then visited the crucial Danube provinces of Pannonia and Moesia, where the Dacian king Decebalus had caused much difficulty for the Romans and had inflicted a heavy defeat upon a Roman army about a decade before. Domitian had established a modus vivendi with Decebalus, essentially buying his good behavior, but the latter had then continued his activities hostile to Rome. Trajan clearly thought that this corner of empire would require his personal attention and a lasting and satisfactory solution.

Trajan spent the year 100 in Rome, seeing to the honors and deification of his predecessor, establishing good and sensitive relations with the senate, in sharp contrast with Domitian's "war against the senate." Yet his policies essentially continued Domitian's; he was no less master of the state and the ultimate authority over individuals, but his good nature and respect for those who had until recently been his peers if not his superiors won him great favor. He was called optimus by the people and that word began to appear among his titulature, although it had not been decreed by the senate. Yet his thoughts were ever on the Danube. Preparations for a great campaign were under way, particularly with transfers of legions and their attendant auxiliaries from Germany and Britain and other provinces and the establishment of two new ones, II Traiana and XXX Ulpia, which brought the total muster to 30, the highest number yet reached in the empire's history.

In 101 the emperor took the field. The war was one which required all his military abilities and all the engineering and discipline for which the Roman army was renowned. Trajan was fortunate to have Apollodorus of Damascus in his service, who built a roadway through the Iron Gates by cantilevering it from the sheer face of the rock so that the army seemingly marched on water. He was also to build a great bridge across the Danube, with 60 stone piers (traces of this bridge still survive). When Trajan was ready to move he moved with great speed, probably driving into the heart of Dacian territory with two columns, until, in 102, Decebalus chose to capitulate. He prostrated himself before Trajan and swore obedience; he was to become a client king. Trajan returned to Rome and added the title Dacicus to his titulature.

Decebalus, however, once left to his own devices, undertook to challenge Rome again, by raids across the Danube into Roman territory and by attempting to stir up some of the tribes north of the river against her. Trajan took the field again in 106, intending this time to finish the job of Decebalus' subjugation. It was a brutal struggle, with some of the characteristics of a war of extirpation, until the Dacian king, driven from his capital of Sarmizegethusa and hunted like an animal, chose to commit suicide rather than to be paraded in a Roman triumph and then be put to death.

The war was over. It had taxed Roman resources, with 11 legions involved, but the rewards were great. Trajan celebrated a great triumph, which lasted 123 days and entertained the populace with a vast display of gladiators and animals. The land was established as a province, the first on the north side of the Danube. Much of the native population which had survived warfare was killed or enslaved, their place taken by immigrants from other parts of the empire. The vast wealth of Dacian mines came to Rome as war booty, enabling Trajan to support an extensive building program almost everywhere, but above all in Italy and in Rome. In the capital, Apollodorus designed and built in the huge forum already under construction a sculpted column, precisely 100 Roman feet high, with 23 spiral bands filled with 2500 figures, which depicted, like a scroll being unwound, the history of both Dacian wars. It was, and still is, one of the great achievements of imperial "propaganda." In southern Dacia, at Adamklissi, a large tropaeum was built on a hill, visible from a great distance, as a tangible statement of Rome's domination. Its effect was similar to that of Augustus' monument at La Turbie above Monaco; both were constant reminders for the inhabitants who gazed at it that they had once been free and were now subjects of a greater power.

Administration and Social Policy
The chief feature of Trajan's administration was his good relations with the senate, which allowed him to accomplish whatever he wished without general opposition. His auctoritas was more important than his imperium. At the very beginning of Trajan's reign, the historian Tacitus, in the biography of his father-in-law Agricola, spoke of the newly won compatibility of one-man rule and individual liberty established by Nerva and expanded by Trajan (Agr. 3.1, primo statim beatissimi saeculi ortu Nerva Caesar res olim dissociabiles miscuerit, principatum ac libertatem, augeatque cotidie felicitatem temporum Nerva Traianus,….) [13] At the end of the work, Tacitus comments, when speaking of Agricola's death, that he had forecast the principate of Trajan but had died too soon to see it (Agr. 44.5, ei non licuit durare in hanc beatissimi saeculi lucem ac principem Traianum videre, quod augurio votisque apud nostras aures ominabatur,….) Whether one believes that principate and liberty had truly been made compatible or not, this evidently was the belief of the aristocracy of Rome. Trajan, by character and actions, contributed to this belief, and he undertook to reward his associates with high office and significant promotions. During his principate, he himself held only 6 consulates, while arranging for third consulates for several of his friends. Vespasian had been consul 9 times, Titus 8, Domitian 17! In the history of the empire there were only 12 or 13 private who reached the eminence of third consulates. Agrippa had been the first, L. Vitellius the second. Under Trajan there were 3: Sex. Iulius Frontinus (100), T. Vestricius Spurinna (100), and L. Licinius Sura (107). There were also 10 who held second consulships: L. Iulius Ursus Servianus (102), M.' Laberius Maximus (103), Q. Glitius Atilius Agricola (103), P. Metilius Sabinus Nepos (103?), Sex. Attius Suburanus Aemilianus (104), Ti. Iulius Candidus Marius Celsus (105), C. Antius A. Iulius Quadratus (105), Q. Sosius Senecio (107), A. Cornelius Palma Frontonianus (109), and L. Publilius Celsus (113). These men were essentially his close associates from pre-imperial days and his prime military commanders in the Dacian wars.

One major administrative innovation can be credited to Trajan. This was the introduction of curators who, as representatives of the central government, assumed financial control of local communities, both in Italy and the provinces. Pliny in Bithynia is the best known of these imperial officials. The inexorable shift from freedmen to equestrians in the imperial ministries continued, to culminate under Hadrian, and he devoted much attention and considerable state resources to the expansion of the alimentary system, which purposed to support orphans throughout Italy. The splendid arch at Beneventum represents Trajan as a civilian emperor, with scenes of ordinary life and numerous children depicted, which underscored the prosperity of Italy.

The satirist Juvenal, a contemporary of the emperor, in one of his best known judgments, laments that the citizen of Rome, once master of the world, is now content only with "bread and circuses."

Nam qui dabat olim / imperium, fasces, legiones, omnia, nunc se / continet, atque duas tantum res anxius optat, / panem et circenses. (X 78-81)

Trajan certainly took advantage of that mood, indeed exacerbated it, by improving the reliabilty of the grain supply (the harbor at Ostia and the distribution system as exemplified in the Mercati in Rome). Fronto did not entirely approve, if indeed he approved at all. The plebs esteemed the emperor for the glory he had brought Rome, for the great wealth he had won which he turned to public uses, and for his personality and manner. Though emperor, he prided himself upon being civilis, a term which indicated comportment suitable for a Roman citizen.

There was only one major addition to the Rome's empire other than Dacia in the first decade and a half of Trajan's reign. This was the province of Arabia, which followed upon the absorption of the Nabataean kingdom (105-106).

Building Projects
Trajan had significant effect upon the infrastructure of both Rome and Italy. His greatest monument in the city, if the single word "monument" can effectively describe the complex, was the forum which bore his name, much the largest, and the last, of the series known as the "imperial fora." Excavation for a new forum had already begun under Domitian, but it was Apollodorus who designed and built the whole. Enormous in its extent, the Basilica Ulpia was the centerpiece, the largest wood roofed building in the Roman world. In the open courtyard before it was an equestrian statue of Trajan, behind it was the column; there were libraries, one for Latin scrolls, the other for Greek, on each side. A significant omission was a temple; this circumstance was later rectified by Hadrian, who built a large temple to the deified Trajan and Plotina.

The column was both a history in stone and the intended mausoleum for the emperor, whose ashes were indeed placed in the column base. An inscription over the doorway, somewhat cryptic because part of the text has disappeared, reads as follows:

Senatus populusque Romanus imp. Caesari divi Nervae f. Nervae Traiano Aug. Germ. Dacico pontif. Maximo trib. pot. XVII imp. VI p.p. ad declarandum quantae altitudinis mons et locus tant[is oper]ibus sit egestus (Smallwood 378)

On the north side of the forum, built into the slopes of the Quirinal hill, were the Markets of Trajan, which served as a shopping mall and the headquarters of the annona, the agency responsible for the receipt and distribution of grain.

On the Esquiline hill was constructed the first of the huge imperial baths, using a large part of Nero's Domus Aurea as its foundations. On the other side of the river a new aqueduct was constructed, which drew its water from Lake Bracciano and ran some 60 kilometers to the heights of the Janiculum Hill. It was dedicated in 109. A section of its channel survives in the basement of the American Academy in Rome.

The arch in Beneventum is the most significant monument elsewhere in Italy. It was dedicated in 114, to mark the beginning of the new Via Traiana, which offered an easier route to Brundisium than that of the ancient Via Appia.

Trajan devoted much attention to the construction and improvement of harbors. His new hexagonal harbor at Ostia at last made that port the most significant in Italy, supplanting Puteoli, so that henceforth the grain ships docked there and their cargo was shipped by barge up the Tiber to Rome. Terracina benefited as well from harbor improvements, and the Via Appia now ran directly through the city along a new route, with some 130 Roman feet of sheer cliff being cut away so that the highway could bend along the coast. Ancona on the Adriatic Sea became the major harbor on that coast for central Italy in 114-115, and Trajan's activity was commemorated by an arch. The inscription reports that the senate and people dedicated it to the []iprovidentissimo principi quod accessum Italiae hoc etiam addito ex pecunia sua portu tutiorem navigantibus reddiderit (Smallwood 387). Centumcellae, the modern Civitavecchia, also profited from a new harbor. The emperor enjoyed staying there, and on at least one occasion summoned his consilium there.

Elsewhere in the empire the great bridge at Alcantara in Spain, spanning the Tagus River, still in use, testifies to the significant attention the emperor gave to the improvement of communication throughout his entire domain.

Family Relations; the Women
After the death of his father, Trajan had no close male relatives. His life was as closely linked with his wife and female relations as that of any of his predecessors; these women played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. His wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

His sister Marciana, five years his elder, and he shared a close affection. She received the title Augusta, along with Plotina, in 105 and was deified in 112 upon her death. Her daughter Matidia became Augusta upon her mother's death, and in her turn was deified in 119. Both women received substantial monuments in the Campus Martius, there being basilicas of each and a temple of divae Matidiae. Hadrian was responsible for these buildings, which were located near the later temple of the deified Hadrian, not far from the column of Marcus Aurelius.

Matidia's daughter, Sabina, was married to Hadrian in the year 100. The union survived almost to the end of Hadrian's subsequent principate, in spite of the mutual loathing that they had for each other. Sabina was Trajan's great niece, and thereby furnished Hadrian a crucial link to Trajan.

The women played public roles as significant as any of their predecessors. They traveled with the emperor on public business and were involved in major decisions. They were honored throughout the empire, on monuments as well as in inscriptions. Plotina, Marciana, and Matidia, for example, were all honored on the arch at Ancona along with Trajan.

The Parthian War
In 113, Trajan began preparations for a decisive war against Parthia. He had been a "civilian" emperor for seven years, since his victory over the Dacians, and may well have yearned for a last, great military achievement, which would rival that of Alexander the Great. Yet there was a significant cause for war in the Realpolitik of Roman-Parthian relations, since the Parthians had placed a candidate of their choice upon the throne of Armenia without consultation and approval of Rome. When Trajan departed Rome for Antioch, in a leisurely tour of the eastern empire while his army was being mustered, he probably intended to destroy at last Parthia's capabilities to rival Rome's power and to reduce her to the status of a province (or provinces). It was a great enterprise, marked by initial success but ultimate disappointment and failure.

In 114 he attacked the enemy through Armenia and then, over three more years, turned east and south, passing through Mesopotamia and taking Babylon and the capital of Ctesiphon. He then is said to have reached the Persian Gulf and to have lamented that he was too old to go further in Alexander's footsteps. In early 116 he received the title Parthicus.

The territories, however, which had been handily won, were much more difficult to hold. Uprisings among the conquered peoples, and particularly among the Jews in Palestine and the Diaspora, caused him to gradually resign Roman rule over these newly-established provinces as he returned westward. The revolts were brutally suppressed. In mid 117, Trajan, now a sick man, was slowly returning to Italy, having left Hadrian in command in the east, when he died in Selinus of Cilicia on August 9, having designated Hadrian as his successor while on his death bed. Rumor had it that Plotina and Matidia were responsible for the choice, made when the emperor was already dead. Be that as it may, there was no realistic rival to Hadrian, linked by blood and marriage to Trajan and now in command of the empire's largest military forces. Hadrian received notification of his designation on August 11, and that day marked his dies imperii. Among Hadrian's first acts was to give up all of Trajan's eastern conquests.

Trajan's honors and reputation
Hadrian saw to it that Trajan received all customary honors: the late emperor was declared a divus, his victories were commemorated in a great triumph, and his ashes were placed in the base of his column. Trajan's reputation remained unimpaired, in spite of the ultimate failure of his last campaigns. Early in his principate, he had unofficially been honored with the title optimus, "the best," which long described him even before it became, in 114, part of his official titulature. His correspondence with Pliny enables posterity to gain an intimate sense of the emperor in action. His concern for justice and the well-being of his subjects is underscored by his comment to Pliny, when faced with the question of the Christians, that they were not to be sought out, "nor is it appropriate to our age." At the onset of his principate, Tacitus called Trajan's accession the beginning of a beatissimum saeculum, and so it remained in the public mind. Admired by the people, respected by the senatorial aristocracy, he faced no internal difficulties, with no rival nor opposition. His powers were as extensive as Domitian's had been, but his use and display of these powers were very different from those of his predecessor, who had claimed to be deus et dominus. Not claiming to be a god, he was recognized in the official iconography of sculpture as Jupiter's viceregent on earth, so depicted on the attic reliefs of the Beneventan arch. The passage of time increased Trajan's aura rather than diminished it. In the late fourth century, when the Roman Empire had dramatically changed in character from what it had been in Trajan's time, each new emperor was hailed with the prayer, felicior Augusto, melior Traiano, "may he be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan." That reputation has essentially survived into the present day.

Copyright (C) 2000, Herbert W. Benario.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
AusgustusActiumDenarius.jpg
[603a] Octavian, 16 January 27 B.C. - 19 August 14 A.D.49 viewsAR denarius; BMC 461; struck at Lugdunum between 15-13 BC , C 1411, RIC 171a; Date: 17.8 mm, 3.5 grams; F+; Obverse: AVGVSTVS [DI]VI F, Bare head right; Reverse: IMP X, Apollo standing facing, holding plectrum in right hand and lyre in left, ACT in exergue. A decent denarius commemorating The Battle of Actium against Antony in 31 BC. Ex McSorley Westchester Stamp and coin show 1970. Ex Ancient Imports.


De Imperatoribus Romanis:
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers

AUGUSTUS (31 B.C. - 14 A.D.)

Garrett G. Fagan
Pennsylvania State University

In the course of his long and spectacular career, he put an end to the advancing decay of the Republic and established a new basis for Roman government that was to stand for three centuries. This system, termed the "Principate," was far from flawless, but it provided the Roman Empire with a series of rulers who presided over the longest period of unity, peace, and prosperity that Western Europe, the Middle East and the North African seaboard have known in their entire recorded history. Even if the rulers themselves on occasion left much to be desired, the scale of Augustus's achievement in establishing the system cannot be overstated. Aside from the immense importance of Augustus's reign from the broad historical perspective, he himself is an intriguing figure: at once tolerant and implacable, ruthless and forgiving, brazen and tactful. Clearly a man of many facets, he underwent three major political reinventions in his lifetime and negotiated the stormy and dangerous seas of the last phase of the Roman Revolution with skill and foresight. With Augustus established in power and with the Principate firmly rooted, the internal machinations of the imperial household provide a fascinating glimpse into the one issue that painted this otherwise gifted organizer and politician into a corner from which he could find no easy exit: the problem of the succession.

(For a very detailed and interesting account of the Age of Augustus see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm)

Death and Retrospective

In his later years, Augustus withdrew more and more from the public eye, although he continued to transact public business. He was getting older, and old age in ancient times must have been considerably more debilitating than it is today. In any case, Tiberius had been installed as his successor and, by AD 13, was virtually emperor already. In AD 4 he had received grants of both proconsular and tribunician power, which had been renewed as a matter of course whenever they needed to be; in AD 13, Tiberius's imperium had been made co-extensive with that of Augustus. While traveling in Campania, Augustus died peacefully at Nola on 19 August, AD 14. Tiberius, who was en route to Illyricum, hurried to the scene and, depending on the source, arrived too late or spent a day in consultation with the dying princes. The tradition that Livia poisoned her husband is scurrilous in the extreme and most unlikely to be true. Whatever the case about these details, Imperator Caesar Augustus, Son of a God, Father of his Country, the man who had ruled the Roman world alone for almost 45 years, or over half a century if the triumviral period is included, was dead. He was accorded a magnificent funeral, buried in the mausoleum he had built in Rome, and entered the Roman pantheon as Divus Augustus. In his will, he left 1,000 sesterces apiece to the men of the Praetorian guard, 500 to the urban cohorts, and 300 to each of the legionaries. In death, as in life, Augustus acknowledged the true source of his power.

The inscription entitled "The Achievements of the Divine Augustus" (Res Gestae Divi Augustae; usually abbreviated RG) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself.

In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him.

Copyright © 1999, Garrett G. Fagan.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Augustus (the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born) is without any doubt one of the most important figures in Roman history.

It is reported that when he was near death, Augustus addressed those in attendance with these words, "If I have played my part well, applaud!"

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr
Cleisthenes
   
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