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Search results - "Isaac"
B_068_Isaac_II__Angelus_(1185-1195_A_D_),_SB_2005,_AE-Half-Tetarteron,_Thessalonica,_Q-001_6h_20x20mm_5,69g-1-2-s.jpg
65 viewsquadrans
sear1966clipped.jpg
Manuel I Komnenus clipped billion aspron trachy SB196666 viewsObverse: IC-XC (bar above) in field, Christ bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and colobion, seated upon throne without back; holds gospels in left hand.
Reverse: MAN(monogram)HA AECIIOT or var, MP OV bar above in upper right field, Full-length figure of emperor, bearded on left, crowned by Virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar-peice, and jewelled loros of simplified type; holds in right hand labarum-headed scepter, and in left globus cruciger. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.
four main varieties:
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 1167-1183?
Sear 1966 Var d, Fourth coinage; H 16.14,15; 17.1-4
rev: Jewel within circle on loros waist
16mm .89gm
As discussed in the Byzantine forumThese are the "neatly clipped" trachies.
During the reign of Manuel I the silver content of the trachy was dropped from c.6% to c.3%, but later types were sometimes issued with the higher silver content.
In Alexius III's time these high silver types were clipped down to half size, probably officially, presumably so as to match the lower silver content of the later issues.
Of course this would only have worked as long as the populace accepted the idea that the clipped coins were all high silver versions to start with. Once smarties started clipping ordinary coins these types would soon have have fallen out of favour and been withdrawn.

Ross G.


During the reign of Alexius III were reused coins of previous releases, clipping its border in a very regular mode and thus reducing to half their weight. Regularity of shearing and the fact that they were found to stock uniforms, suggesting that this clipping is a formal issuance of mint. Based on the stocks found in Constantinople , some of which consist only of clipped coins, it may safely be dated between 1195 and 1203.
Hendy and Grierson believe that this shearing was a consequence of the devaluation of trachy mixture during the reign of Isaac II and Alexius III. They reduced by half the already low silver content of this coin: shearing coins of previous emperors, still widely in circulation, made their trachy consistent with the intrinsic value of current emissions. Of course, this does not justify the clipping of coins already degraded of Isaac II and Alexius III. Therefore, reason for their declassification is not understood. I think that reason of Ross is right!
The structure of their dispersion in hoards indicates that, however, were made after the other emissions. Clipped trachys appear in small amounts along with regular trachy in hoards, represents a rarity. Were clipped trachys of Manuel I, Andronicus I, Isaac II and Alexius III, and perhaps of John II; those of Manuel are less scarce. In principle, we must believe that all trachys after Manuel I have been clipped, although many have not yet appeared.

Antvwala
wileyc
056_Isaac_II.JPG
056. Isaac II, 1185-1195. BI Trachy.41 viewsObv. Isaac
Rev. Christ
S2003.
LordBest
IssacIISB2005.jpg
1185-1195 AD - Isaac II - Sear 2005 - Tetarteron47 viewsEmperor: Isaac II (r. 1185-1195 AD)
Date: 1185-1195 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Tetarteron

Obverse: Facing bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding jewelled sceptre (sometimes surmounted by trefoil device) and globus cruciger; to left, O//AP; to right, /MI (or similar)

Reverse: Bust of Issac facing, wearing crown and loros, and holding cruciform sceptre and akakia; to left, ICA/AKI/OC; to right, ΔE/CΠO/TH/C (or similar).

Thessalonica mint
Sear 2005
1.89g; 17.9mm; 150°
Pep
1713_ANNE_FARTHING.JPG
1713 Anne AE Pattern Farthing5 viewsObverse: ANNA DEI GRATIA. Draped bust of Anne facing left.
Reverse: BRITANNIA • 1713 •. Britannia seated facing left, left arm holding spear and resting on shield, raised right hand holding olive-branch; exergue blank.
Diameter: 22mm on thick flan. | Weight: 5.1gms. | Die axis: 6h
PATTERN - EXTREMELY RARE

All of Anne's farthings are patterns, no farthings were issued for general circulation during her reign. The portrait of Anne on this example was designed by John Coker (1670 - 1741). Coker joined the Royal Mint in 1697 and became chief engraver there in 1705.

Although Anne farthings are generally very rare, there are at least six distinct pattern varieties known to exist and there is one variety, dated 1714, of which, according to Peck, between 300 and 500 coins may have been produced. The fact that such a large number of these farthings were released in the last year of Anne's reign may be because the type was about to be produced for general circulation at the time of Anne's death on the 1st of August. Sir Isaac Newton was Master of the Mint, and he had high ideals about the quality of the coinage, and the Anne farthing is certainly vastly superior in striking and design to the pieces of William III. The old figure of Britannia used since Charles II's time was discarded in favour of a sharper high relief design in which the bare leg on the former figure of Britannia is covered up, reportedly on the orders of the Queen.
All the other farthing varieties are certainly patterns, and were never struck as currency for circulation.

This particular coin is of good weight and metal and it appears to be a die match for another Anne pattern farthing, in this instance struck in silver, which was sold at the 12th September 2011 Heritage Long Beach Signature World & Ancient Coins Auction. It was Lot 27289 and, for comparison purposes, I have illustrated it below.
*Alex
1793_Newton_farthing.JPG
1793 AE Farthing, London, Middlesex.89 viewsObverse: Ic • NEWTON. Bare headed bust of Isaac Newton facing left.
Reverse: FARTHING. Britannia, helmeted and draped, facing left seated on globe, shield at her side, holding olive-branch in her extended right hand and spear in her left; in exergue, 1793.
Edge: “Plain".
Diameter : 21mm
Dalton & Hamer : 1160 | Cobwright : I.0010/F.0050 (listed as an evasion piece)

The die engraver for this token was most likely Thomas Wyon but the manufacturer is uncertain.

Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. Newton shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of calculus and also made seminal contributions to optics. He built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum.
Newton's “Principia” formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation, which came to dominate scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries.
Newton was a fellow of Trinity College and a Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. Unusually for a member of the Cambridge faculty of the day, he refused to take holy orders in the Church of England, perhaps because he privately rejected the doctrine of the Trinity.
In his later life, Newton became president of the Royal Society and became Warden of the Royal Mint in 1696. He became Master of the Royal Mint in 1699 and was very instrumental in developing techniques to try and prevent the counterfeiting of English coinage.
*Alex
s-1934-1c.jpg
1934A ALEXIUS AE HALF TETARTERON S-1934 DOC 44 CLBC 2.4.10 20 viewsOBV Bust of Virgin wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand labarum onlong shaft and in l. Globus crucifer.

Size 16.67mm

Weight 2.9gm

This coin and S-1933 I believe were minted in Cyprus, these coins were once very rare but recently they have been hitting the market much more frequently. Most of these offerings are coming from Cyprus dealers.

I currently have several examples of this coin and this is my favorite, I love the style of coin, it reminds me of the detailed coinage of Isaac Commenus of Cyprus

DOC lists 2 examples with weight ranging from 1.57 gm to 2.15gm and both are sized at 16mm .
Simon
r3.jpg
1986 ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 65 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size 19.51mm

Weight 3.3 gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

I have had this one from the early years of my collection, it far surpasses my other example
Simon
z5~0.jpg
1986 ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON SBCV-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 12 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size 20.84

Weight 4.55gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

I have had this one from the early years of my collection, it far surpasses my other example
Simon
s-1986b.jpg
1986A ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 57 views OBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size 20/16mm

Weight 4.2gm

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

In todays marketplace this is a true rarity. This one is flawed by scrapes from time.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm


Simon
s-1986.jpg
1986C ANDRONICUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-1986 DOC 5 CLBC 5.4.1 35 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, standing on dais, holds nimbate beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by Christ bearded and nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys holds in r. hand labarum on long shaft and in l. anexikakia, Christ wearing tunic and kolobion, holds gospels in l. hand.

Size

Weight

Metropolitan Issues were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content added but for Andronicus I can’t find how much under Manuel it fluctuated between 1% and 4% however by this time I would assume a decline. By the time of Isaac II the amount was 1% to 2% these still were more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Metropolitan issues are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues.

DOC lists 14 examples with weights from 2.49gm to 4.54gm and sizes from 18mm to 23mm

This is a new acquisition as par of an old collection, not great but some details not usually seen.
Simon
q8.jpg
1993 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1993 DOC 6 CLBC 6.3.1 4 viewsOBV Bust of virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r hand scepter cruciger, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 19.73 mm

Weight 1.9 gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 1 example with a weight of 2.48 and sized at 19mm.

Battered example, Very rare . This coin was originally attributed as a Manuel coin, the version this one was based off of. However a few details that are clear prove it to be Isaac, the main one is the hand scepter cruciger vs a labrum and the type of cross style on the globus cruciger.
Simon
1c~2.jpg
1993a ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1993 DOC 6 CLBC 6.3.1 43 viewsOBV Bust of virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, divitision and chlamys; holds in r hand scepter cruciger, and in l. globus cruciger.

Size 19.66 mm

Weight 2.2 gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

This example has a clear inscription on the left of the reverse. The coin would only grade as aF/F but a nice addition and a second example to add to this collection.

DOC list 1 example with a weight of 2.48 and sized at 19mm.
Simon
j6.jpg
1994 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1994 DOC 7CLBC 6.3.6A 25 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; r. hand raised in benediction. Holds gospels in l.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and saigon; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. ?

Size 20mm

Weight 2.39gm


DOC list 2 examples with a weight of 2.67 gm and sized at 19mm and 21mm
Simon
y3~0.jpg
1994B ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1994 DOC 7 CLBC 6.3.6A44 viewsOBV Bust of Christ, bearded and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion; r. hand raised in benediction. Holds gospels in l.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion or divitision and saigon; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. ?

Size  19.34mm

Weight 2.7gm


DOC list 2 examples with a weight of 2.67 gm  and sized at 19mm and 21mm
Simon
s-1998e.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A32 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 22.52mm

Weight 2.7gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.
Simon
s-1998f.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 32 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.20mm

Weight 3.4gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm
Simon
1o.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 57 views
OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 18.5/20mm

Weight 4.2

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire. This issue is heavier than normal, Isaac is wearing a sash at waist.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm

Really a nice example, all detail is still there , some wear but beautiful example.
Simon
1i.jpg
1998 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6B 57 views
OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross. The coin differs with a Circular legend

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.35mm

Weight 2.2gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

This coin is listed in CLBC as rare, it differs from the normal coin is the circular legend. Other variations of this coin appear in Isaacs attire. This coin brags of a beautiful green yellow Patina and an unusually detailed reverse.
Simon
s-1998.jpg
1998A ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1998 DOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A 66 viewsOBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 20.26mm

Weight 3.2gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm
Simon
m5.jpg
1999 ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON S-1999 DOC 10B CLBC 6.3.7 34 views

OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on RIGHT. crowned by virgin nimbate on l.. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in L hand scepter cruciger and in r. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 18.72mm

Weight 2.9gm

This issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire.

DOC list 1 examples with a weight of 2.84 gm and sized at 19mm

This issue is considered to be very rare, 5/5 , Grierson considers it to be an error of S-1998 and I must agree, still a wonderful piece to add to my collection
1 commentsSimon
Sear-2005.jpg
2004 ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 40 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 20.36mm

Weight 3.2gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
sear2005d.jpg
2004A ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.141 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 18/20.5 mm

Weight 3.2gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
Sear2005b.jpg
2004B ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 41 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 16./19mm

Weight 2.7gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
sear2005c.jpg
2004C ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 43 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field

Metropolitan Issue were minted in Constantinople, each of these coins had an added silver content of around 1% for this issue. These more than likely were tariffed at a higher rate than the Thessalonica issues that have been shown to have no silver content. Cosmopolitan issue are in general far scarcer than the Thessalonica issues

Size 20/17mm

Weight 3.6 gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm
Simon
k3.jpg
2004D ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 63 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field


Size 20.mm

Weight 5.3 1gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm

Nicest example I have ever seen, just added to my collection, almost perfect except for wear on the Virgins face VF/EF
Simon
s-2004-2c.jpg
2004E ISAAC II ANGELUS METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 39 views
OBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field


Size

Weight

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm

I have managed to acquire several of these throughout the years. This example was part of an old collection I recently acquired.
Simon
b3~1.jpg
2005 ISAAC II ANGELUS AE TETARTERON S-2005V C DOC 5 CLBC 7.4.2 39 viewsOBV Bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type, holds in r. a trefoil- headed scepter, and in l. Globus cruciger.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma. Divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 22mm

Weight 4.8gm

DOC lists 11 examples with weights ranging from 3.21 gm to 5.37gm
Simon
s-2005c.jpg
2005A ISAAC II ANGELUS AE TETARTERON S-2005V B DOC 5 CLBC 7.4.2 55 viewsOBV Bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type, holds in r. a spear, and in l. Globus cruciger.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma. Divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 20/17mm

Weight 3.8gm

DOC lists 11 examples with weights ranging from 3.21 gm to 5.37gm

Really a Beautiful coin, I am sure under that green patina full detail remains.
Simon
p3.jpg
2005B ISAAC II ANGELUS AE TETARTERON S-2005V A DOC 5 CLBC 7.4.2 2 viewsOBV Bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type, holds in r. a jeweled sceptre, and in l. Globus cruciger.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma. Divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 20mm

Weight 4.1gm

Interesting example of the three known devices that Michael holds in this version a jeweled scepter.

DOC lists 11 examples with weights ranging from 3.21 gm to 5.37gm
Simon
S-2006c.jpg
2005C ISAAC II ANGELUS AE TETARTERON S-2005V A DOC 5 CLBC 7.4.262 viewsOBV Bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type, holds in r. a jeweled sceptre, and in l. Globus cruciger.

REV Bust of emperor wearing stemma. Divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of a simplified type; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia.

This is a Thessalonica minted coin, it contains no silver. It is believed to be valued at 1/864 Hyperpyron and the Metropolitan (Constantinople) issues at 1/288 Hyperpyron. This coins are much more common than Metropolitan coins and very abundant in today’s marketplace.

Size 19.91mm

Weight 3.2gm

Interesting example of the three known devices that Michael holds in this version a jeweled scepter.

DOC lists 11 examples with weights ranging from 3.21 gm to 5.37gm
Simon
Aspron Trachy Vellón Isaac II SB02003.jpg
61-05 - Isaac II Angelus (12/09/1185 - 08/04/1195 D.C.)49 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 30 x 27 mm 4.1 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando al frente.
Rev: " I / CAA / KI / OC (a izquierda) ΔEC / ΠO /TH / C (a derecha)" Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco), Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y sagion (Sago - capa corta romana de uso militar). Portando Cetro con crucifijo y Akakia(Rollo de pergamino o tejido fuerte, relleno de tierra, que llevaban los emperadores bizantinos como símbolo de su mortalidad. En realidad es una cristianización de la mappa consular romana). Él es coronado por la Mano de Dios arriba a la derecha. " * " en campo izquierdo.

Acuñada 1185 - 1195 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2003 Pag. 405 - Hendy CMBE pl.20.9-13, pl.21.1-7 - B.M.C.#19-31 - Ratto M.B.#2180, 2184-91 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-40
mdelvalle
Aspron Trachy Vellón Isaac II SB02003_1.jpg
61-06 - Isaac II Angelus (12/09/1185 - 08/04/1195 D.C.)77 viewsAE/Vellón Aspron Trachy 27 x 29 mm 2.8 gr.
Moneda "Escifulada" cóncava.

Anv: "MΡ - ΘV" (Madre de Dios) en campos izquierdo y derecho - La Virgen sentada en un trono de frente, vistiendo nimbus (Halo redondo que rodea su busto), Pallium (Tipo de capa o manto) y Maphorium (Largo velo que cubre su cabeza y hombros), sosteniendo delante de Ella la cabeza nimbada de un Cristo niño mirando al frente. " * " en campo izquierdo.
Rev: " I / CAA / KI / OC (a izquierda) ΔEC / ΠO /TH / C (a derecha)" Emperador de pié de frente vistiendo corona, divitision (Larga túnica de seda usada por los Emperadores y Obispos, de color púrpura o blanco), Loros (Ropa elaboradamente adornada que constituye el vestido consular de los Emperadores) y sagion (Sago - capa corta romana de uso militar). Portando Cetro con crucifijo y Akakia(Rollo de pergamino o tejido fuerte, relleno de tierra, que llevaban los emperadores bizantinos como símbolo de su mortalidad. En realidad es una cristianización de la mappa consular romana). Él es coronado por la Mano de Dios arriba a la derecha.

Acuñada 1185 - 1195 D.C.
Ceca: Constantinopla

Referencias: Sear BCTV #2003 Pag. 405 - Hendy CMBE pl.20.9-13, pl.21.1-7 - B.M.C.#19-31 - Ratto M.B.#2180, 2184-91 - Morrisson C.M.b.B.N. #1-40
mdelvalle
B_065_Isaac_II__Angelus_(1185-1195_A_D_),_SB_2005,_AE-Half-Tetarteron,_Thessalonica,_Q-001_6h_20x20mm_5,69g-as.jpg
B 065 Isaac II. Angelus (1185-1195 A.D.), SB 2005, AE-Tetarteron, Thessalonica, Facing bust of Archangel Michael,66 viewsB 065 Isaac II. Angelus (1185-1195 A.D.), SB 2005, AE-Tetarteron, Thessalonica, Facing bust of Archangel Michael,
avers: ICA /AKI /OC - ΔE /CΠO /TH /C (or similar) to left and right of Isaac, crowned bust facing, wearing loros, holding cross-tipped sceptre and akakia.
reverse: Abbreviated version of O/X/AP-X/MI (or similar) to left and right of facing bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding jewelled sceptre (sometimes surmounted by trefoil) and cross on globe.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20x20mm, weight: 5,69g, axis:6h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: A.D., ref: SB 2005,
Q-001
quadrans
B_065_Isaac_II__Angelus_(1185-1195_A_D_),_SB_2006,_AE-Half-Tetarteron,_Thessalonica,_Q-001_6h_17x17mm_3,26g-as.jpg
B 065 Isaac II. Angelus (1185-1195 A.D.), SB 2006, AE-Half-Tetarteron, Thessalonica, Facing bust of Archangel Michael,74 viewsB 065 Isaac II. Angelus (1185-1195 A.D.), SB 2006, AE-Half-Tetarteron, Thessalonica, Facing bust of Archangel Michael,
avers: ICA /AKI /OC - ΔE /CΠO /TH /C (or similar) to left and right of Isaac, crowned bust facing, wearing loros, holding cross-tipped sceptre and akakia.
reverse: Abbreviated version of O/X/AP-X/MI (or similar) to left and right of facing bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding jewelled sceptre (sometimes surmounted by trefoil) and cross on globe.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 17x17mm, weight: 3,26g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: A.D., ref: SB 2006,
Q-001
quadrans
BCC_LS30.jpg
BCC LS3012 viewsLead Seal
Caesarea Maritima
Late 6th - Early 7th Century CE
Obv: Facing portrait, nimbate,
Mother and Child. Cross to left.
Rev: Block monogram with Greek letters:
A, C, K, Ι, O, Υ,
ISAAKIOS (Isaac, a Hebrew name)
16 x 14.5mm. 5.39gm. Axis:0
J. Berlin Caesarea Collection
v-drome
BYZANTINE_ISAAC_II_ANGELUS_TRACHY_SB2003.jpg
BYZANTINE EMPIRE - Isaac II Angelus42 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE - Isaac II Angelus (1185-1195 & 1203-1204) Billon Aspron Trachy, 1st Reign issue. Obv.: The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; she holds before her the himbate head of the infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP - Θν (with line above). Rev.: Isaac standing facing, wearing a crown, divitision and loros, and sagion; he holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper right field; to left ΙC / ΑΑ / Κ / Ι / ΟC ; to right ΔΕΣ / Π / Ο / Τ /ΗC Reference: SBC 2003dpaul7
Sear-2003.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Isaac II Angelus, 1st Reign (1185-1195 CE) BI Aspron Trachy, Constantinople (Sear 2003; DOC 3b)34 viewsObv: MP - ΘV in upper field; Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon thrown with back; holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast
Rev: ICAAKIOC ΔЄCΠOTHC in two columnar groups; Full-length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, collar-piece, jeweled loros of simplified type, and sagion; holds in right hand scepter cruciger, and in left, anexikakia; Manus Dei in upper right field
Quant.Geek
Sear-2005.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Isaac II Angelus, 1st Reign (1185-1195) Æ Tetarteron, Thessalonica (Sear-2005; DOC-5a)21 viewsObv: Facing bust of St. Michael the Archangel, holding trefoil-tipped scepter and globus cruciger
Rev: Facing bust of Isaac, holding cross-tipped scepter and akakia
1 commentsSpongeBob
Sear-2005(1).jpg
Byzantine Empire: Isaac II Angelus, 1st Reign (1185-1195) Æ Tetarteron, Thessalonica (Sear-2005; DOC-5a)17 viewsObv: Facing bust of St. Michael the Archangel, holding trefoil-tipped scepter and globus cruciger
Rev: Facing bust of Isaac, holding cross-tipped scepter and akakia
SpongeBob
Sear-2005~0.JPG
Byzantine Empire: Isaac II Angelus, 1st Reign (1185-1195) Æ Tetarteron, Thessalonica (Sear-2005; DOC-5d.3)11 viewsObv: Facing bust of St. Michael the Archangel, holding trefoil-tipped scepter and globus cruciger
Rev: Facing bust of Isaac, holding cross-tipped scepter and akakia
Quant.Geek
098~0.JPG
BYZANTINE, Bulgarian Imitation 1200-1202(?)53 viewsObv: Virgin Enthroned
Rev: Emperor Holding Sceptre and Akakia
DO IV pl XXVI 2
Imitation of Isaac II Angelus, Sear 2003
Laetvs
pic004.jpg
BYZANTINE, Isaac Comnenus301 viewsIsaac Comnenus
unsurper in cyprus
AE tetarteron
Obv.The virgin standing right with hands raised.
Rev. Isaac standing facing.
1 commentsseaotter
s-1998bb.jpg
BYZANTINE, ISAAC COMNENUS OF CYPRUS AG TETARTERON SBCV-1998 180 viewsDOC 610 CLBC 6.3.6A GR 1125

OBV Christ Emmanuel, beardless and nimbate, wearing tunic and kolobion, seated upon throne with back; r hand raised in benediction holds scroll in l. Pellet in each limb of nimbus cross.

REV Full length figure of emperor on l. crowned by virgin nimbate. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, collar piece, and jeweled loros of simplified type; holds in r hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Virgin wears tunic and maphorion.

Size 18.5/20mm

Weight 4.2

These issues in Cyprus have a small amount of silver in them 1.5% make them more related to the Metropolitan issue of the empire. This issue is heavier than most listed types. Variations of Isaac Comnenus coinage seem more common than the Byzantine Emperors, in this case the sash on the Emperors waist.

I have decided not clean this coin any further,I think it is attractive as it stands.

DOC list 4 examples with a weight of 2.81 to 2.84 and sized at 19mm to 21mm
1 commentsSimon
ISAACIIbestot.jpg
BYZANTINE, ISAAC II AE Tetarteron S-2005 DOC5589 viewsFacing bust of the Archangel Michael beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding sceptre with trifoil device. and gl.cr. Rev Bust of Isaac facing wearing crown and loros and holding cruiciform sceptre and akakia. 21mm Nice Very Fine! **** Note the trifoil device that Archangel Michael holds.***** DOC 5a.1 2 commentsSimon
IsaacIIS2003.JPG
BYZANTINE, Isaac II Angelus 1185-1195 Constantinople75 viewsObv: Virgin Enthroned
Rev: Emperor Holding Scepter and Akakia
Sear 2003
Laetvs
IsaacIICTD.jpg
BYZANTINE, ISAAC II ANGELUS, METROPOLITIAN TETARTERON S-2004 DOC 4 CLBC 7.4.1 91 viewsOBV Full length figure of Virgin nimbate, orans, standing on dais, wearing tunic and maphorion; beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor wearing stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field


Size 20.mm

Weight 5.3 1gm

DOC lists 16 examples with weights from 1.70gm to 4.36 and sizes 19mm to 24x18mm

Nicest example I have ever seen, just added to my collection, almost perfect except for wear on the Virgins face VF/EF
1 commentsSimon
byz-xx4-s.jpg
Byzantine, Isaac II. Angelus (1185-1195 A.D.), SB 2005, AE-Tetarteron, Thessalonica,549 viewsIsaac II. Angelus (1185-1195 A.D.), SB 2005, AE-Tetarteron, Thessalonica,
avers: Abbreviated version of O/X/AP-X/MI (or similar) to left and right of facing bust of Archangel Michael, beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding jewelled sceptre (sometimes surmounted by trefoil) and cross on globe.
reverse: ICA /AKI /OC - ΔE /CΠO /TH /C (or similar) to left and right of Isaac, crowned bust facing, wearing loros, holding cross-tipped sceptre and akakia.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 20x20mm, weight: 5,69g, axis: 6h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: A.D., ref: SB 2005,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
clippedtrachysb200321mm249g.jpg
Clipped trachy of Issac II SB 20039 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003
21mm, 2.49g
wileyc
clippedtrachysb200320mm136g.jpg
Clipped trachy of Issac II SB 200314 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003
20mm, 1.36g
wileyc
clippedtrachysb2003_21mm1_49g.jpg
Clipped trachy of Issac II SB 200313 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.
Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003
21mm 1.49g
wileyc
10039b.jpg
Crusader States, Normans of Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro, Spahr 117.75 viewsCrusader States, Sicily, William II, AD 1166-1189, AE Trifollaro (24-25 mm), 8,82 g.
Obv.: Facing head of lioness within circle of dots.
Re.: Palm tree with five branches and two bunches of dates, within circle of dots.
Biaggi 1231, Spahr 117 ; Grie 210 (Roger II); Thom 2480 .

William II of Sicily (1153-1189), called the Good, was king of Sicily and Naples from 1166 to 1189.
William was only thirteen years old at the death of his father William I, when he was placed under the regency of his mother, Margaret of Navarre.
Until the king came of age in 1171 the government was controlled first by the chancellor Stephen du Perche, cousin of Margaret (1166-1168), and then by Walter Ophamil, archbishop of Palermo, and Matthew of Ajello, the vice-chancellor.
William's character is very indistinct. Lacking in military enterprise, secluded and pleasure-loving, he seldom emerged from his palace life at Palermo. Yet his reign is marked by an ambitious foreign policy and a vigorous diplomacy. Champion of the papacy and in secret league with the Lombard cities he was able to defy the common enemy, Frederick I Barbarossa. In 1174 and 1175 he made treaties with Genoa and Venice and his marriage in February 1177 with Joan, daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine, marks his high position in European politics.
In July 1177, he sent a delegation of Archbishop Romuald of Salerno and Count Roger of Andria to sign the Treaty of Venice with the emperor. To secure the peace, he sanctioned the marriage of his aunt Constance, daughter of Roger II, with Frederick's son Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry VI, causing a general oath to be taken to her as his successor in case of his death without heirs. This step, fatal to the Norman kingdom, was possibly taken that William might devote himself to foreign conquests.
Unable to revive the African dominion, William directed his attack on Egypt, from which Saladin threatened the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem. In July 1174, 50,000 men were landed before Alexandria, but Saladin's arrival forced the Sicilians to re-embark in disorder. A better prospect opened in the confusion in Byzantine affairs which followed the death of Manuel Comnenus (1180), and William took up the old design and feud against Constantinople. Durazzo was captured (June 11, 1185). Afterwards while the army marched upon Thessalonica, the fleet sailed towards the same target capturing on their way the Ionian islands of Corfu, Cephalonia,Ithaca and Zakynthos. In August Thessalonica surrendered to the joint attack of the Sicilian fleet and army.
The troops then marched upon the capital, but the troop of the emperor Isaac Angelus overthrew the invaders on the banks of the Strymon (September 7, 1185). Thessalonica was at once abandoned and in 1189 William made peace with Isaac, abandoning all the conquests. He was now planning to induce the crusading armies of the West to pass through his territories, and seemed about to play a leading part in the Third Crusade. His admiral Margarito, a naval genius equal to George of Antioch, with 60 vessels kept the eastern Mediterranean open for the Franks, and forced the all-victorious Saladin to retire from before Tripoli in the spring of 1188.
In November 1189 William died, leaving no children. Though Orderic Vitalis records a (presumably short-lived) son in 1181: Bohemond, Duke of Apulia. His title of "the Good" is due perhaps less to his character than to the cessation of internal troubles in his reign. The "Voyage" of Ibn Jubair, a traveller in Sicily in 1183-1185, shows William surrounded by Muslim women and eunuchs, speaking and reading Arabic and living like "a Moslem king."

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

my ancient coin database
1 commentsArminius
Sear-1991.jpg
Cyprus: Usurper Isaac Comnenus (1185-1191) Æ Aspron Trachy, Type A (Sear-1991; DOC-IV, 2.1)24 viewsObv: Virgin nimbate, wearing tunic and maphorion, seated upon throne without back; holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast. MP OV in field.
Rev: Full-length figure of emperor on left, and St. George, beardless and nimbate, holding between them patriarchal cross on long shaft at the base of which a small globe. Emperor wears stemma, divitision, and chlamys; holds anexikakia in right hand. Saint wears short military tunic and breast-plate; holds sword in left hand.
SpongeBob
Sear-1992.jpg
Cyprus: Usurper Isaac Comnenus (1185-1191) Æ Aspron Trachy, Type B (Sear-1992; DOC-IV, 3)23 viewsObv: Beardless, nimbate bust of Christ Emmanuel, wearing tunnic and kolobion; holds scroll in left hand, symbol in each limb of nimbus cross.
Rev: Full-length figure of emperor wearing stemma, skaramangion, or divitision, and sagion; holds in right hand scepter cruciger, and in left, anexikakia. Manus Dei in upper right field.
SpongeBob
Sear-1998.jpg
Cyprus: Usurper Isaac Comnenus (1185-1191) Æ Tetarteron, Type B (Sear-1998; DOC 10a)37 viewsObv: Christ Pantokrator enthroned facing
Rev: Isaac standing facing, being crowned by the Virgin Mary
SpongeBob
EB1009_scaled.JPG
EB1009 Mary / Isaac II7 viewsIsaac II Angelus, billon aspron trachy, Constantinople mint, 1185-1195 AD.
Obverse: MP-Θ[V] to left and right of Mary, nimbate, seated facing, holding before her the nimbate head of infant Christ facing left.
Reverse: [I CAA KI OC] to left, [ΔEC ΠO TH C] to right, Isaac, standing facing on the left, crowned, wearing divitision, loros and sagion, and holding cross-headed sceptre and akakia, crowned by hand of God in upper right field.
References: SB 2003, BMC 19-31.
Diameter: 26mm, Weight: 3.894g.
EB
JCT_Home_of_Old_Israel.JPG
Home of Old Israel (New York, New York)140 viewsAE token, 32.5 mm., undated (but probably minted in 1928).

Obv: תשליכני לצת זקנה אל [Do not cast us off in our old age. (Psalm 71:9)] and 204 HENRY ST., N.Y.C. along toothed rim, TO PITY/IS HUMAN/TO HELP/IS/GODLIKE/HOME OF/OLD ISRAEL, between busts of woman and bearded man.

Rev: HELP US BUILD OUR NEW HOME and 301-2-3 EAST BWAY., N.Y.C. along toothed rim with rosettes between, CONTRIBUTION.ONE DOLLAR, beneath building.

Ref: Meshorer, Coins Reveal 146; Randolph, Marc A. “Jewish Homes for the Aged Tokens,” The Shekel, XXXVI No. 3 (May-June 2003) 14-19, Figure 7.

Note: Founded in 1922 by real estate developer Louis Singer as a privately-endowed non-sectarian institution providing free housing, meals, activities and care of the aged, the Home moved from Henry Street to 70 Jefferson Street on March 31, 1929. It relocated to Far Rockaway, Queens in 1965. In the early 1970s the Home merged into the Jewish Association for Services for the Aged.

Note: In 1922, the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (the rabbinical seminary of Yeshiva University) was located at 301-303 East Broadway, and only moved to 186th Street and Amsterdam Avenue in 1928/1929. The Home must not have also occupied the East Broadway address, therefore, until 1928/1929. Thus, the token can be tentatively dated to 1928 (while the Home was still located at Henry Street but after it expanded into East Broadway). It was probably issued in connection with the 1928 fund drive for the Jefferson Street property.
Stkp
Isacco_usurpatore_2.jpg
Isaac Comnenus, usurper in Cyprus21 viewsJoppich 5.1 - scarceantvwala
zhalftet.jpg
ISAAC II TBD195 viewsFacing bust of the Archangel Michael beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding sceptre with spear. and gl.cr. Rev Bust of Isaac facing wearing crown and loros and holding cruiciform sceptre and akakia 15mm is it S-2006 DOC-6 or just overclipped?

Even clipped the image is still smaller than the normal 20mm full tetarteron version.
Simon
isacco_26_1_2.jpg
Isaac II - patriarchal cross14 viewsVery scarce
Not in DOC, Joppich, Morrisson, Grierson or Sear
antvwala
isacco_26_1_1.jpg
Isaac II - patriarchal cross18 viewsVery scarce
Not in DOC, Joppich, Morrisson, Grierson or Sear
antvwala
xb1.jpg
ISAAC II AE Tetarteron S-2004 DOC 4213 viewsThe Vigin orans stg. facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; on her breast and nimbate hd. of the infant Christ facing to l. Rev Isaac Stg. facing wearing crown divitision and chalmys and holding cruciform and akakia in upper field to r manus dei ( Hands of God.), Constantinople mint, 20mm Fine + Rarly seen coin, rarer than Sear lists.
Simon
Michaelisaac2.jpg
ISAAC II AE Tetarteron S-2005 DOC 5194 viewsFacing bust of the Archangel Michael beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding sceptre with unknown device. and gl.cr. Rev Bust of Isaac facing wearing crown and loros and holding cruiciform sceptre and akakia. 21mm Nice Very Fine! DOC 5
Simon
ISAACIIDOC5.jpg
ISAAC II AE Tetarteron S-2005 DOC5171 viewsFacing bust of the Archangel Michael beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding jeweled sceptre and gl.cr.
Rev Bust of Isaac facing wearing crown and loros and holding cruiciform sceptre and akakia. 20mm Fine .

**** Note the diffrent syle of sceptre that the Archangel holds.****
Simon
ISAACIIDOC5a~0.jpg
ISAAC II AE Tetarteron S-2005 DOC5222 viewsFacing bust of the Archangel Michael beardless and nimbate, wearing loros and holding sceptre with trifoil device. and gl.cr. Rev Bust of Isaac facing wearing crown and loros and holding cruiciform sceptre and akakia. 21mm Nice Very Fine! **** Note the trifoil device that Archangel Michael holds.***** DOC 5a.1Simon
trachyisaacii.jpg
Isaac II AE Trachy S-2003 DOC 3b. unlisted var.310 viewsVirgin Nimbate, wearing tunic and Maphorion, seated upon a throne with back holds beardless, nimbate head of Chriist on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma divitision collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and saigon; holds in r. hand scepter cruciger and in l. anexikakia. Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper r. field. Unlisted Var. Emperor holds a patriarchal cross on shaft instead of hand scepter cruicger. EF
Simon
isaac1_Easy-Resize_com.jpg
Isaac II Angelus4 viewsIsaac II Angelus
AR trachy
Constantinople mint
1185-1195 AD
26mm
1.8g
SB 2003
Adam P2
manu.jpg
Isaac II Angelus (1185-95 A.D.)26 viewsBillon Aspron Trachy
O: MP ThV, The Virgin seated on a throne, facing. She holds a nimbate head of the infant Christ facing.
R: I/CAA/KI/OC DEC/PO/TH/C, Isaac standing facing, holding a cruciform scepter and akakia.
Constantinople mint, 1185 - 1195 A.D.
4.93g
SB 2003, BMC 19-31.
Mat
isaac_II_bulgar_imit.jpg
Isaac II Angelus Billon Aspron Trachy, 'Bulgarian' imitative, SBCV 200330 viewsBulgaria, Imitative of Isaac II Angelus Billon Aspron Trachy, c. 1200 - 1202 A.D. Bronze aspron trachy nomisma, DOC IV, part 1, p. 440, 2 (Type B imitative of Issac II Angelus, SBCV 2003; DOC IV, part 1, 3, 1185 - 1195 A.D.), VF, 3.720g, 24.9mm, 180o, c. 1200 - 1202 A.D.; obverse MP-“Q”V, the Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate, wears pallium and maphorium, holds before Her nimbate head of infant Christ; reverse I/CAA/KI/OC - “De”C/“P”O/TH/C, Isaac standing facing facing, wearing crown, divitision, loros, and sagion, cruciform scepter in left, akakia in right, crowned by hand of God above right. Greek magnates in Thrace probably issued the earliest 'Bulgarian' imitative types in the years immediately following the fall of Constantinople to finance their military operations against the crusaders in northern Greece. When the Bulgarians gained control of Thrace they continued production until sometime between 1215 and 1220, with issues becoming increasingly crude and smaller. Ex FORVMPodiceps
isaac_II_EL.jpg
Isaac II Angelus. 1185-1195. EL aspron trachy; Sear 200216 viewsIsaac II Angelus. 1185-1195. EL aspron trachy (30mm, 4.11g, 5 h). Constantinople. The Virgin enthroned facing, holding the nimbate head of the infant Christ; ornaments on throne back / Isaac standing facing, holding cruciform scepter and akakia, being crowned by Archangel Michael. SB 2002. EF, deposits on obverse, large flan crack. Ex Sayles & Lavender.Podiceps
lg_isaac_II_Angelus.jpg
Isaac II Aspron Billon Trachy50 viewsIsaac II
Aspron Billon Trachy 3.41g / - / -
- The Virgin enthroned facing, nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; MP - OV
- Isaac standing facing, wearing crown, divitision and loros, and sagion; he holds cruciform scepter and acacia, and is crowned by Manus Dei in upper field tor.; to l., I / CAA / KI / OC; to r., Delta EC / NO/TH/C
Mint:Constantinople (1185-1195)
References: Sear 2003
Scotvs Capitis
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Isaac II Billion Trachy DOC- 3 S-2003 with Stars267 viewsVirgin Nimbate, wearing tunic and Maphorion, seated upon a throne with back holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast. Stars in field.

REV Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma divitision collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and saigon; holds in r. hand sceptre cruciger and in l. anexikakia Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper r. field. Note stars in field! 30mm

Another nice example of of this coin, Almost all of the details from the legend to Manus Dei ( Hands of God) are visable, coin also has traces of silvering..
Simon
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Isaac II Billion Trachy S-2003 DOC Var A287 viewsVirgin Nimbate, wearing tunic and Maphorion, seated upon a throne with back holds beardless, nimbate head of Chriist on breast.

REV Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma divitision collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and saigon; holds in r. hand sceptre cruciger and in l. anexikakia Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper r. field. Var A three jewels in collar piece.
Simon
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Isaac II Billion Trachy S-2003 with Stars255 viewsVirgin Nimbate, wearing tunic and Maphorion, seated upon a throne with back holds beardless, nimbate head of Christ on breast. Stars in field.

REV Full length figure of emperor, wearing stemma divitision collar piece, jeweled loros of a simplified type and saigon; holds in r. hand sceptre cruciger and in l. anexikakia Manus Dei ( Hands of God) in upper r. field.

Messy strike of rev but still has silvering on both sides.
Simon
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Isaac II, Angelus EL Aspron Trachy35 viewsIsaac II, Angelus
EL Aspron Trachy - / 27.5mm / -
- MHP QV, Mary enthroned facing, holding the nimbate head of the infant Christ
- ICAAKIO ­EC, Isaac standing facing, holding cruciform scepter & akakia, being crowned by Archangel Michael
Mint: Constantinople (1185-1195)
References: Sear 2002
Scotvs Capitis
Isaac_II,_SBCV_2003.JPG
Isaac II, SBCV 200319 viewsNo legend
Facing Virgin enthroned holding icon of infant head of Christ, MV - ΘV to sides
[I/CAA/KI/OS] - ΔEC/ΠT/ [H/C]
Crowned, facing figure of Isaac wearing loros, holding cruciform scepter and akakia, being crowned by manus Dei
Constantinople mint
Billon Trachy, 24mm, 1.90g
novacystis
Isaac_II,_SBCV_2003~0.JPG
Isaac II, SBCV 200315 viewsVirgin enthroned, nimbate, holding nimbate head of infant Christ, MP/ΘV in fields to side
I CAA KI OC / ΔEC ΠT H C in columns
Crowned figure of Isaac facing, wearing loros, holding cruciform scepter and akakia, crowned by Manus Dei
Constantinople
Billon Aspron Trachy, 29mm, 3.64g
novacystis
Isaac_II,_SBCV_2005.JPG
Isaac II, SBCV 200539 views[O/X/AP] - X/MI
Facing bust of Archangel Michael holding jeweled scepter and globus cruciger
ICA AKI OC - ΔEC/ΠT/H
Facing bust of Isaac wearing loros, holding cruciform scepter and akakia
Thessalonica mint

AE tetarteron, 20mm, 3.81g
1 commentsnovacystis
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Issac II Billion aspron trachy SB 200354 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003, Hendy pl 20.9-13.
25mm 2.45 gm silvering intact
wileyc
2003b.jpg
Issac II Billion aspron trachy SB 200359 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.
Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003, Hendy pl 20.9-13.
25mm 3.02 gm silvering intact
wileyc
2003a.jpg
Issac II Billion aspron trachy SB 200370 viewsObverse: The Virgin enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.
Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (as in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003, Hendy pl 20.9-13.
26mm 3.52 gm silvering intact
wileyc
sb200325mm265g.jpg
Issac II Billion aspron trachy SB 200346 viewsObverse: The Virgan enthroned facing nimbate and wearing pallium and maphprium, holding nimbate head of infant Christ facing; on either side of nimbus MP-theta-V barred.Reverse: Isacc stanging facing wearing crown, divitision and loros, and saigon which is sometimes ornamented with a star (no star in this coin); Isaac holds cruciform sceptre and akakia, and is crowned by manus Dei in upper field to r.; to L., I/CAA/KI/OC to r., deltaEC/IIO/TH?C or similar as there are varying forms
Mint: Constantinople
Date 1185-1195 CE
Sear 2003, Hendy pl 20.9-13.
25mm, 2.65g
wileyc
b11_issac_II.jpg
Issac II billon aspron trachy12 views Obv. MP-theta V to left and right of Mary, nimbate, seated facing, holding before her the nimbate head of infant Christ
Rev. I CAA KI OC to left, DEC PO TH C to right, Isaac, standing facing
Skyler
Phliasia,_Phlious_AE_Chalkous_-_ex_BCD,_Brand___Weber.jpg
Phliasia, Phlious, ca. 400-350 BC, Æ Chalkous 37 viewsBull butting left, head lowered and turned to face viewer.
Large Φ with two pellets.

HGC 5, 177; BCD Peloponnesos 129; Weber 3882 (this coin); MacIsaac Issue 2, G.

(14 mm, 1.60 g, 3h).
CNG Classical Numismatic Review XXXIX, 1, April 2014, 834574; ex- BCD Collection (not in LHS sale); ex- Virgil M. Brand Collection (Part 7, Sotheby’s, 25 October 1984), lot 306 (part of); ex- Sir Hermann Weber Collection, no. 3882 purchased from W.C. Thieme, Leipzig, 1888.

Provenance Notes:
Sir Hermann David Weber (1823-1918) was a German physician who had a very distinguished lifetime career in medicine in England, including that of being a doctor to the royal family. Collecting from the late 1870’s, he amassed one of the largest private collections of ancient Greek coins of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It consisted of over 8,500 coins in total. Weber purchased this humble Phlious chalkous in 1888 from the dealer W.C. Thieme, Leipzig. Spink and Son purchased the collection from the executors of Weber’s estate, with the condition that the firm undertake the publication of the collection. This was duly completed by the mid-1920’s in a four-volume work that remained a standard reference for ancient Greek coinage throughout much of the twentieth century. Spink and Son dispersed the Weber collection, from whence this coin found its way into the collection of the prominent American collector Virgil M Brand.

Virgil M. Brand (1862-1926), born into a wealthy American brewing family in Chicago, developed an interest in coin collecting in 1889 and amassed one of the greatest private collections of all time, consisting of 386,000 ancient and modern coins including 68,000 gold coins. Each coin in the collection was documented by an entry in what became a thirty-volume set of descriptive ledgers. A lifetime bachelor and somewhat eccentric character, Brand chose to live modestly in a small apartment above his brewery in Chicago, shunning ostentation and devoting his time to the pursuit of his collecting, reading and local charity. He spent over $3 million on coins during his life. The collection was housed in cigar boxes that were packed into leather satchels, hidden behind his book collection. Virgil M. Brand died intestate and amongst various probate disputes his two brothers began to sell off the most prominent pieces from the collection in the 1930’s. Eventually, Jane Brand Allen, a niece of Virgil M. Brand, inherited the remains of the collection. These coins were sold in a series of auctions conducted by Sotheby’s, Bowers and Merena and Spink and Son during the 1980’s.

By this means the coin came into the collection of BCD the pre-eminent collector of mainland Greek coins during the last half of the twentieth century. BCD disposed of the coins of the Peloponnesos from his collection in 2006 at which time this coin passed into the inventory of the Classical Numismatic Group from whom it was purchased after its listing in the first edition of the newly revived Classical Numismatic Review produced by the company in April 2014.
2 commentsn.igma
Phlious_AE_Chalkous.jpg
Phliasia, Phlious, ca. 400-350 BC, Æ Chalkous 13 viewsBull butting right, head lowered and turned to face viewer.
Large Φ with four pellets.

HGC 5, 173 (this coin); BCD Peloponnesos 114 (this coin); MacIsaac Issue 1, D. Very rare with right charging bull, one of a few examples known.

(12 mm, 1.31 g, 2h).
Auctiones GmbH 2, 15 January 2012, 34; ex-BCD Collection: LHS Numismatics 96 (May 2006) Lot 114; found in Arcadia, Orchomenos according to BCD Peloponnesos (LHS 96) Catalogue and BCD Collection tag.
n.igma
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Roman lead seal “Sacrifice of Isaac” 3rd-4th century AD180 viewsRoman lead seal “Sacrifice of Isaac”
3rd-4th century AD
Abraham standing left, holding dagger in uplifted right hand; before him, kneeling left, Isaac; to right, tree with ram; to right above, hand of God
Cf. J. Spier “Late antique gems” S4 (with inscription EIC ΘEOC) and S5 (scene reversed); 17x14x6mm; 4.38 gram.

The story of the sacrifice of Isaac (Genesis 22, 1-19) serves as an archetypical story of salvation and the ram sent by God to replace Isaac as a sacrifice was (and still is) interpreted by chistians as a typology for Christ. For this reason it was a popular iconographical theme during the earliest stages of christianity.
Gert
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sb 2003 Isaac II9 viewsSégusiaves
9789451664_10d3435617_o.jpg
sb 2003 v Isaac II11 viewsSégusiaves
12248754526_3b6d3f4def_o.jpg
sb 2004 Isaac II21 views1 commentsSégusiaves
11134856106_a7be53e0df_o.jpg
sb 2061 Isaac II14 viewsSégusiaves
9789453866_bcefec604a_o.jpg
sb 2062 Isaac II9 viewsSégusiaves
9789446554_5234f73201_o.jpg
sb 2062 Isaac II15 viewsSégusiaves
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Sear 199118 viewsIsaac Comnenus of Cyprus (1184 – 1191 CE). Billon aspron trachy, weight 3.65g, diameter 30mm. Isaac seems to have operated two mints; on stylistic grounds this type is generally attributed to the main mint, but the location of that mint is uncertain. Abu Galyon
Sear_2003.jpg
Sear 200383 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 3.3g, diameter 26mm. Hendy’s 3rd variety, distinguished by the star below the emperor’s right arm. Abu Galyon
Sear_2003_[2].jpg
Sear 200369 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 3.5g, diameter 29mm. Noticeable visible silvering. Abu Galyon
Sear_2003_[3].jpg
Sear 200329 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 3.99g, diameter 27mm. Abu Galyon
Sear_2003_[4].jpg
Sear 200313 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 2.91g, diameter 27mm.Abu Galyon
Sear_2003_[5].jpg
Sear 200313 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Billon aspron trachy, weight 3.40g, diameter 25mm.Abu Galyon
Sear_2004.jpg
Sear 200429 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Tetarteron, weight 2.92g, diameter 19mm. Mint of Constantinople.Abu Galyon
Sear_2005.jpg
Sear 200539 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Tetarteron, weight 3.11g, diameter 20mm. Mint of Thessalonica.Abu Galyon
Sear_2005_[2].jpg
Sear 200525 viewsIsaac II Angelus (1185 – 1195 CE) Tetarteron, weight 4.17g, diameter 23mm. Mint of Thessalonica. On this example the Archangel Michael’s sceptre has a trefoil top. Abu Galyon
Louis_XIV_AE_(Brass)_Jeton.jpg
Struck c.1644 – 1645, Louis XIV (1643 - 1715), AE (Brass) Jeton7 viewsObverse: LVD•XIIII•D:G•FR•ET•NA•REX. Laureate and cuirassed youthful bust of Louis XIV facing right; • B • (for Briot) below.
Reverse: CONSILIO•NIL•NISI•. The escutcheon of France, surrounded by the chain of the Ordre du Saint-Esprit (Order of the Holy Spirit): Necklace and Cross. The legend translates as “He undertakes nothing without Council”, a reference to the administrative council of the king.

Struck at the Monnaie de Louvre mint, Paris, France
Die engraver: Nicholas Briot
Dimensions: 25.65mm | Weight: 5.4gms | Die Axis: 12
Ref. Feuardent: 239 var.

Nicholas Briot (c.1579–1646) was an innovative French coin engraver, medallist and mechanical engineer, who is credited with the invention of the coining-press. He emigrated to England in 1625 and in 1626 he was commissioned to make 'puncheons and dies' for the Coronation of Charles I. His Coronation Medal established his reputation and he went on to produce a considerable number of dies for medals and coins in the following years. In 1633, he was appointed chief engraver to the Royal Mint and went to Scotland to prepare and coin the coronation pieces of Charles I. These demonstrated both his artistic skill and the technical superiority of his new coining machinery and in 1635, on the death of Sir John Foulis, Briot was appointed Master of the Mint in Scotland and superintended the Scottish coinage for several years. Briot was then recalled to England by the King, and on the outbreak of the English Civil War he took possession of the coining apparatus at the Tower and had it removed 'for the purpose of continuing the coining operations in the cause of the King'. Briot travelled to France in the early 1640's and sent coining presses to his brother Isaac, now in a senior position at the Paris Mint, he died on Christmas Eve 1646.
*Alex
man1pano.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)155 viewsManuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180). AE billon trachy; Sear 1964; 30mm, 3.91g.; Constantinople mint; aF. Obverse: MP-OV-The Virgin enthroned. Nimbate and wearing pallium and maphorium; Reverse: Maueil standing facing, wearing crown, holding labarum and globe surmounted by Patriachal cross. Ex SPQR.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

Cleisthenes
ManuelStGeorge.jpg
[1663a] Byzantine Empire: Manuel I Comnenus Megas (1143-1180)---NOT TO BE CONFUSED WITH---[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)131 viewsMANUEL I COMNENUS AE tetarteron. 1143-1180 AD. 19mm, 2.8g. Obverse: Bust of St. George facing, beardless, wearing nimbus, tunic, cuirass and sagion, and holding spear. Reverse: MANVHL-DECPOT, bust of Manuel facing, wearing crown and loros, holding labarum & globe-cross. Simply wonderful style, very sharp for the issue. A gorgeous late Byzantine coin! Ex Incitatus.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

MANUEL I COMNENUS (A.D. 1143-1180)

Andrew Stone
University of Western Australia

Introduction: Sources
The reign of the emperor Manuel I Comnenus (5 April 1143- 24 September 1180) could well be regarded as a high-water mark of Byzantine civilization. It was the apogee of the so-called "Comnenian Restoration". Politically, the emperor undertook an ambitious foreign policy which has been seen by some, particularly in the light of many ultimate failures, as "misguided imperialism", recent scholarship has come to question this traditional judgment and suggests instead that the the Comnenian foreign policy was rather an energetic seizing of the different opportunities that presented themselves in the rapidly changing constellations of powers of the time. Such measures were made possible by the internal security of the empire under this, its third, Comnenian incumbent, although there were a few other aspirants to the throne, not least among them the emperor's cousin Andronicus. Manuel and other key members of the "Comnenian system", as it has been called, were patrons of rhetoric and other forms of learning and literature, and Manuel himself became keenly interested in ecclesiastical affairs, even if here his imperialistic agenda was a factor as he tried to bring Constantinopolitan theology in line with that of the west in a bid to unite the Church under his crown.

In terms of volume of contemporary material, Manuel is the most eulogised of all Byzantine emperors, and the panegyric addressed to him supplements the two major Byzantine historians of the reign, the more critical Nicetas Choniates and the laudatory John Cinnamus, as primary sources for the student of the period to study. The Crusader historian William of Tyre met Manuel personally, and such was the scope of Manuel's diplomacy that he is mentioned incidentally in western sources, such as Romuald of Salerno. Among authors of the encomia (panegyrics) we have mentioned are Theodore Prodromus and the so-called "Manganeios" Prodromus, who wrote in verse, and the prose encomiasts Michael the Rhetor, Eustathius of Thessalonica and Euthymius Malaces, to name the most important. Manuel, with his penchant for the Latins and their ways, left a legacy of Byzantine resentment against these outsiders, which was to be ruthlessly exploited by Andronicus in the end.

Manuel as sebastokrator
Manuel was born in the imperial porphyry birthchamber on 28 November 1118. He was the fourth of John II's sons, so it seemed very unlikely that he would succeed. As a youth, Manuel evidently accompanied John on campaign, for in the Anatolian expedition of 1139-41 we find Manuel rashly charging a small group of the Turkish enemy, an action for which he was castigated by his father, even though John, we are told, was inwardly impressed (mention of the incident is made in John's deathbed speech in both John Cinnamus and Nicetas Choniates). John negotiated a marriage contract for Manuel with Conrad III of Germany; he was to marry Bertha of Sulzbach. It seems to have been John's plan to carve out a client principality for Manuel from Cilicia, Cyprus and Coele Syria. In the event, it was Manuel who succeeded him.

The Securing of the Succession 1143
In the article on John II it is related how the dying John chose his youngest son Manuel to succeed him in preference to his other surviving son Isaac. Manuel was acclaimed emperor by the armies on 5 April 1143. Manuel stayed in Cilicia, where the army was stationed, for thirty days, to complete the funeral rites for his father. He sent his father's right-hand man John Axuch, however, to Constantinople to confine Isaac to the Pantokrator Monastery and to effect a donation of two hundredweight of silver coin to the clergy of the Great Church. The surviving encomium of Michael Italicus, Teacher of the Gospel, for the new emperor can be regarded as a return gift for this largesse. In the meantime the Caesar John Roger, husband of Manuel's eldest sister Maria, had been plotting to seize the throne; the plot was, however, given away by his wife before it could take effect. Manuel marched home to enter Constantinople c. July 1143. He secured the good-will of the people by commanding that every household should be granted two gold coins. Isaac the younger (Manuel's brother) and Isaac the elder (Manuel's paternal uncle), were both released from captivity and reconciled with him. Manuel chose Michael Oxeites as the new patriarch and was crowned either in August or November 1143.

Manuel confirmed John Axuch in the office of Grand Domestic, that is, commander of the army, appointed John of Poutze as procurator of public taxes, grand commissioner and inspector of accounts and John Hagiotheodorites as chancellor. John of Poutze proved to be an oppressive tax collector, but was also unsusceptible to bribery. However, this John diverted monies levied for the navy into the treasury, which would, as we shall see, further Byzantine dependence on the maritime Italian city-states of Venice, Genoa and Pisa.

Early Campaigns: 1144-1146
Manuel's first concern was to consolidate the work of his father in securing the eastern frontier. He sent a force under the brothers Andronicus and John Contostephanus against the recalcitrant Crusader prince Raymond of Antioch, which consisted of both an army and a navy, the latter commanded by Demetrius Branas. Raymond's army was routed, and the naval force inflicted no small damage on the coastal regions of the principality. In the meantime the Crusader city of Edessa fell to the Turkish atabeg Zengi. Raymond therefore travelled to Constantinople as a suppliant to Manuel. It was subsequently decided, in the light of Manuel's imperial status, that the terms under which he would marry Bertha of Sulzbach should be improved. Manuel asked for 500 knights, and Conrad happily granted them, being prepared to supply 2000 or 3000 if need be all for the sake of this alliance. Bertha took the Greek name Irene.

The Seljuk sultanate of Rum under Masud had become the ascendant Turkish power in Anatolia. Manuel himself supervised the rebuilding of the fortress of Melangeia on the Sangarius river in Bithynia (1145 or 1146). In the most daring campaign of these early years, after building the new fort of Pithecas in Bithynia, Manuel advanced as far into Turkish territory as Konya (Iconium), the Seljuk capital. He had been wounded in the foot by an arrow at a mighty battle at Philomelium (which had been Masud's headquarters), and the city had been rased; once at Konya, he allowed his troops to despoil the graves outside the city walls, before taking the road home.

Cinnamus relates that the gratutitous heroics which Manuel displayed on this campaign were calculated to impress Manuel's new bride. Manuel and his army were harried by Turks on the journey home. Manuel erected the fort of Pylae before leaving Anatolia.

[For a detailed and interesting discussion of the reign of Manuel I Comnenus please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/mannycom.htm]

Frederick Barbarossa and the "two-emperor problem"
Frederick Barbarossa, who was to become a constant menace to Manuel's designs, had succeeded his uncle Conrad III in 1152, but unlike him proved in the end unprepared to make any territorial concessions in Italy. The origins of this "cold war" between the two empires cannot be dated with any certainty, but there may have been a tendency to date it too early. One school of thought would not date the outbreak of this rivalry to any earlier than 1159-60, the death of Manuel's German wife, Bertha-Irene. About this time there was a scare at Constantinople that Frederick Barbarossa would march on Byzantium, perhaps reflecting a desire on Frederick's part to crusade (which he eventually did, in the reign of Isaac II Angelus). The new Pope, Alexander III, by, as it would seem, offering to grant Manuel the imperial crown, used it as a bargaining chip to play off the emperors of west and east against one another. Manuel may have supported Alexander during the papal schism of 1160-1177 because he was the preferred candidate of Hungary and the Crusader states, both of which he hoped would recognise him as their feudal overlord. By this means he could claim sovereign rights over the crusading movement, and thereby turn it to his advantage. The playing off of Manuel against Frederick continued right up until 1177, the Peace of Venice, whereby Frederick agreed to recognise Pope Alexander, the autonomy of Sicily and of the northern Italian communes. But this result was not a foregone conclusion in the 1160s and early 1170s, and Manuel used Byzantine gold to win supporters in Italy and thereby keep Frederick occupied.

Marriage to Maria of Antioch 1161
Bertha-Irene died in late 1159/early 1160. Manuel sought to strengthen his ties with the Crusader principalities by selecting an eastern Latin princess for his wife. The exceedingly beautiful Maria of Antioch, daughter of Raymond of Antioch, was chosen, and the nuptials celebrated at Christmas, 1161.


Dynastic considerations 1169-1172
Manuel's wife Maria of Antioch gave birth to a baby boy 14 September 1169 in the porphyry marble birthchamber, the cause of great festivities. The infant was crowned emperor in 1171. With the death of Stephen III of Hungary in 1172, Stephen's brother Béla was sent out from Constantinople to assume the throne (though without Sirmium and Dalmatia being surrendered to the Hungarian crown). A husband for Maria Porphyrogenita was therefore required. At first it was proposed that she marry William II of Sicily, who was outraged when she failed to show up at Taranto on the appointed day, the emperor having had second thoughts.


The final months 1180
Manuel took ill in the month of March 1180. During this period of terminal illness the last major religious controversies took place. We are told that Manuel directed that the anathema pronounced against the god of Muhammad be removed from the abjuration against the Islamic faith declared by converts to Christianity. Manuel was opposed by the last patriarch of his reign, Theodosius Boradiotes (1179-1183), as well as, notably, by Eustathius of Thessalonica. Both parties were satisfied in the end upon a reading of the emperor's proposed amendments to the abjuration. This controversy would seem to be a different one from the one alluded to in Eustathius' funeral oration for Manuel, since Manuel is praised by Eustathius for his stance in it, which seems to have revolved around a book written by a convert from Islam that magnified the Father at the expense of the Son (and therefore had Arian overtones). It became apparent that the emperor was dying, and, on the advice of Theodosius, he renounced astrology. As his end approached, he assumed the monastic habit and the name Matthew, demanding that his wife Maria become a nun. Manuel's son Alexius was but eleven, and the minority would prove to be disastrous for Byzantium. Manuel died thirty-seven years and nine months from the beginning of his reign.

General strategies in Manuel's foreign policy
The funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica is an interesting document in that it discusses some of the general policies pursued over Manuel's reign. It endorses his policy of dividing his enemies, the Petchenegs, the Sicilian Normans and the Turks, among themselves by using Byzantine gold, a policy of "divide and rule". We have seen how this was applied especially in Italy. Another general policy was to create friendly buffer states on the frontiers of the empire, most notably Hungary (and Serbia) and the Crusader States. Manuel would deliberately underpin the most powerful potentate in each region (the king of Hungary, the king of Jerusalem, the sultan of Konya) and thereby emphasise his own absolute sovereignty. In the funeral oration this granting of autonomy is justified as the reward for good service, as in the parable of the talents. We also see in the panegyric of the 1170s the downplaying of the idea of world rule which was so prevalent in the reign of John. Although Manuel claimed sovereign rights over many of his neighbours, his territorial claims were limited: coastal southern Italy, Dalmatia and Sirmium, coastal Egypt. The Byzantines seem to have come to terms with the reality of nation states and it is in Manuel's reign that they begin to refer to themselves not only as "Romans", but as "Hellenes", in order to demarcate themselves from the barbarians surrounding them.

Manuel's taxation, government and army
Nicetas Choniates roundly criticises Manuel in his history for increasing taxes and lavishing money on his family and retainers, particularly his Latin favourites. We have also seen how money was spent in Manuel's ambitious foreign policy. Mention is made of two towers, one at Damalis, and one next to the monastery of the Mangana, between which a chain could be stretched to block the Bosphorus. Then there was the work done at both the Great Palace and the Palace of the Blachernae, galleries, a pavilion alla Turca and numerous mosaics. He also founded a monastery at Kataskepe at the mouth of the Black Sea, which was endowed from the imperial treasury.

Choniates further criticizes the continuation and spread of the granting of pronoiai, parcels of land, the income from each of which supported a soldier. Many of these were granted to foreigners, for example, Turks captured in the Meander campaigns were settled around Thessalonica. The pronoia would pay not only for a soldier's upkeep, but his expensive equipment, for in Manuel's reign the bow and arrow and circular shield had been replaced by a heavier western-style panoply of armour, large triangular shield and lance. Choniates laments how fashionable a practice it had become in Manuel's reign to forsake the land or one's trade and become enlisted in the army.

Manuel and the "Comnenian system"
Throughout Manuel's reign, as under his father John, the top tier of the aristocracy was formed by the emperor's family, the Comneni, and the families into which they married. The extended family was, however, by now becoming unwieldy, and beginning to lose its cohesion, as the example of Manuel's cousin Andronicus shows. Under Manuel it was degree of kinship to the emperor which determined one's rank, as synodal listings show. So it was that very quickly after Manuel's death the upper tier of the aristocracy splintered into separate groups, each with its own identity and interests.

Literature
The various aristocratic courts, that of the emperor and other key members of the extended family, most notably the sebastokrator Isaac Comnenus the elder and the sebastokratorissa Irene, widow of Manuel's brother Andronicus, attracted literati who would seek to serve under them. Such figures would not only turn their hands to literature, encomia in prose or poetry, expositions on mythology, commentaries on Homer or the philosophers, historical chronicles and even, in this period, romances - the twelfth century is a high point of literary production at Constantinople, so much so that some have even talked of a "Comnenian renaissance" - but they would seek to perform more menial, such as administrative, duties to support themselves. Such men would often come from noble families whose prestige had been eclipsed by the Comnenian upper tier of the aristocracy. Serving under a lord was one way of advancing oneself, entering the Church was another.

The patriarchal church and education
The deacons of the church of St Sophia were a powerful group, the chartophylax being second only to the patriarch. These deacons would either go on to become bishops in the provinces, or possibly first hold one of the professorial chairs associated with the patriarchal church. First there were the "teachers", didaskaloi of the Gospels, Epistles and Psalter. Then there was the maistor ton rhetoron, "master of the rhetors", responsible for delivering speeches in praise of the emperor on January 6 each year and of the patriarch on the Saturday prior to Palm Sunday, as well as for other state occasions. And there was the hypatos ton philosophon, "consul of the philosophers", an office which had lapsed but was revived under Manuel.

Character and Legacy
Was Byzantium of the middle to late twelfth century living on borrowed time? Until recently this was the verdict of many scholars. Yet John II and Manuel had, if there is any kernel of truth in their encomia, at least temporarily reversed the overrunning of Anatolia by the Turks, and Manuel had won Dalmatia and Sirmium from Hungary. But Byzantine collapse was rapid, which is the reason why scholars have searched in the reigns of John and Manuel for the beginnings of the disintegration that occurred under the last Comneni and the Angeli. The history and comments of Nicetas Choniates have been adduced as vindicating this view. The victory of the military aristocracy that the establishment of the Comnenian dynasty represents has been seen as both the reason for the temporary reversal of Byzantine fortunes - government by three very capable autocrats - and of ultimate failure, because of the splintering into factions that oligarchy, such as was present in the Comnenian system, foments. A Marxist interpretation is that the feudalisation of the Byzantine Empire, the depletion of the free peasantry, that began to take place in the middle period was the reason for its ultimate failure. But to the Byzantines at the time Byzantium seemed to be holding its own; the "nations" around were being kept at bay, and even though the panegyric of renovation is less evident than in the reign of John II, the emperor remains despotes, "master" of the oikoumene, "world". Indeed, Manuel would be remembered in France, Genoa and the Crusader States as the most powerful sovereign in the world.

We have mentioned the funeral oration for Manuel by Eustathius of Thessalonica. This contains a series of vignettes of the personal aspects of Manuel. There are commonplaces: the emperor is able to endure hunger, thirst, heat and cold, lack of sleep and so on, and sweats copiously in his endeavours on the empire's part. Although these ideas have been recycled from earlier reigns, notably that of John II, the contemporary historians agree that Manuel was an indefatigable and daring warrior. However, there are more specifically individual touches in the Eustathian oration. Manuel had a manly suntan and was tall in stature. The emperor was capable of clever talk, but could also talk to others on a man-to-man basis. Eustathius makes much of the emperor's book-learning (Cinnamus claims to have discussed Aristotle with the emperor). The restoration of churches was a major concern for Manuel. He also had some expertise in medicine (he had tended Conrad III of Germany and Baldwin III of Jerusalem personally). Manuel showed temperance in eating and drinking, with a certain liking for beer as well as wine, the latter being mixed sour after the manner of ascetics. Likewise, he would not slumber long. He would generally choose walking over riding. The oration closes on the widow and orphan Manuel has left behind. The situation resulting for the Byzantine Empire at this stage, with the vacuum created by Manuel would result in no less than implosion.

Copyright (C) 2003, Andrew Stone.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Manuel1ComAR_Sear2601.jpg
[1685a] Empire of Trebizond: Manuel I Komnenos Megas (1218-1263 AD)313 viewsEmpire of Trebizond: Manuel I, Komnenos, Silver Asper, Sear-2601, struck 1238-1263, 2.9 grams, 21.9 mm. Nice VF; Obverse: St. Eugenius standing facing, holding a long cross; Reverse: Manuel standing facing, holding labarum and akakia, Manus Dei in upper right field. Nicely centered with technically 'mint state' surfaces, but a touch of strike unevenness and irregular toning. Ex Glenn Woods.

Manuel I Megas Komnenos (Greek: Μανουήλ Α΄ Μέγας Κομνηνός, Manouēl I Megas Komnēnos), (c. 1218 – March 1263), Emperor of Trebizond from 1238 to 1263, surnamed the "Great Captain", was the second son of Alexios I, the first emperor of Trebizond, and Theodora Axouchina. He succeeded his brother, John I Axouchos. In spite of his alleged military abilities, Trebizond became or remained a vassal to the Seljuk Turks and, after the Battle of Köse Dag in 1243, to the Mongols of Persia. Trapezuntine forces served in the battle as Seljuk tributaries. The Seljuk forces were shattered in the defeat and the Sultanate of Iconium began to decline.

In 1253, Manuel negotiated for a dynastic alliance with King Louis IX of France, by which he hoped to secure the help of the Crusaders against the Seljuks and Laskarids of Nicaea, but Louis advised him to seek a wife from the Latin Empire of Constantinople. Jean de Joinville testifies to Manuel's wealth, saying he sent Louis: "various precious things as a gift; amongst others, bows made of the wood of the service tree, whose arrow-notches screwed into the bow, and when they were released, one saw that they were very sharp and well made."

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 revived the trade route running north from Armenia and the upper Euphrates valley to Erzerum and then through the Zigana Pass to Trebizond. This trade route caused the beginnings of Trebizond's commercial prosperity, because goods from the Silk Road were now transported to Trebizond and the Black Sea, instead of to the Mediterranean. Although some bronze coins have been attributed to Alexios I, and silver aspers were certainly coined by John I, Manuel struck both bronze coins and a large silver currency. Trapezuntine coins circulated widely outside the empire, especially in Georgia.

Manuel rebuilt the Hagia Sophia monastery in Trebizond between 1250 and 1260. Eastmond describes Manuel's church as 'the finest surviving Byzantine imperial monument of its period.' When Michael VIII Palaiologos recaptured Constantinople from the Latin Empire in 1261 he unsuccessfully demanded that Manuel abandon his claim to the Byzantine succession.

Manuel married three times and left several children, four of whom reigned after him. By his first wife, Anna Xylaloe, a Trapezuntine noblewoman he had:
• Andronikos II, who succeeded as emperor.

By his second wife, the Iberian princess Rusudan, he had:
• Theodora

By his third wife, Irene Syrikaina, another Trapezuntine noblewoman, he had four children:
• George
• Anonymous daughter, who married King Demetre II of Georgia
• Anonymous daughter
• John II.

The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τής Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade. Queen Tamar of Georgia provided troops to her nephew Alexios I, who conquered the Pontic Greek city of Trebizond, Sinope and Paphlagonia. It is often known as "the last Greek Empire."

Foundation
When Constantinople fell in the Fourth Crusade in 1204 to the Western European and Venetian Crusaders, the Empire of Trebizond was one of the three smaller Greek states that emerged from the wreckage, along with the Empire of Nicaea and the Despotate of Epirus. Alexios, a grandson of Byzantine emperor Andronikos I Komnenos, son of Rusudan daughter of George III of Georgia, made Trebizond his capital and asserted a claim to be the legitimate successor of the Byzantine Empire.

The Byzantine Emperor Andronikos I had been deposed and killed in 1185. His son Manuel was blinded and may have died of his injuries. The sources agree that Rusudan, the wife of Manuel and the mother of Alexios and David, fled Constantinople with her children, to escape persecution by Isaac II Angelos, Andronikos' successor. It is unclear whether Rusudan fled to Georgia or to the southern coast of the Black Sea where the Komnenos family had its origins. There is some evidence that the Comnenian heirs had set up a semi-independent state centred on Trebizond before 1204.

The rulers of Trebizond called themselves Grand Komnenos (Megas Komnenos) and at first claimed the traditional Byzantine title of "Emperor and Autocrat of the Romans." After reaching an agreement with the Byzantine Empire in 1282, the official title of the ruler of Trebizond was changed to "Emperor and Autocrat of the entire East, of the Iberians and the Transmarine Provinces" and remained such until the empire's end in 1461. The state is sometimes called The Komnenian Empire because the ruling dynasty descended from Alexios I Komnenos.

Trebizond initially controlled a contiguous area on the southern Black Sea coast between Soterioupolis and Sinope, comprising the modern Turkish provinces of Sinop, Ordu, Giresun, Trabzon, Bayburt, Gümüşhane, Rise and Artvin. In the thirteenth century, the empire controlled Perateia which included Cherson and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula. David Komnenos expanded rapidly to the west, occupying first Sinope, then Paphlagonia and Heraclea Pontica until his territory bordered the Empire of Nicaea founded by Theodore I Laskaris. The territories west of Sinope were lost to the Empire of Nicaea by 1206. Sinope itself fell to the Seljuks in 1214.

Prosperity
While Epirus effectively disintegrated in the 14th century, and the Nicaean Empire succeeded in retaking Constantinople and extinguishing the feeble Latin Empire, only to be conquered in 1453 by the Ottoman Empire, Trebizond managed to outlive its competitors in Epirus and Nicaea.

Trebizond was in continual conflict with the Sultanate of Iconium and later with the Ottoman Turks, as well as Byzantium, the Italian republics, and especially the Genoese. It was an empire more in title than in fact, surviving by playing its rivals against each other, and offering the daughters of its rulers for marriage with generous dowries, especially with the Turkmen rulers of interior Anatolia.

The destruction of Baghdad by Hulagu Khan in 1258 made Trebizond the western terminus of the Silk Road. The city grew to tremendous wealth on the Silk Road trade under the protection of the Mongols. Marco Polo returned to Europe by way of Trebizond in 1295. Under the rule of Alexios III (1349–1390) the city was one of the world's leading trade centres and was renowned for its great wealth and artistic accomplishment.

Climax and Civil War
The small Empire of Trebizond had been most successful in asserting itself at its very start, under the leadership of Alexios I (1204–1222) and especially his younger brother David Komnenos, who died in battle in 1214. Alexios' second son Manuel I (1238–1263) had preserved internal security and acquired the reputation of a great commander, but the empire was already losing outlying provinces to the Turkmen, and found itself forced to pay tribute to the Seljuks of Rum and then to the Mongols of Persia, a sign of things to come. The troubled reign of John II (1280–1297) included a reconciliation with the Byzantine Empire and the end of Trapezuntine claims to Constantinople. Trebizond reached its greatest wealth and influence during the long reign of Alexios II (1297–1330). Trebizond suffered a period of repeated imperial depositions and assassinations from the end of Alexios' reign until the first years of Alexios III, ending in 1355. The empire never fully recovered its internal cohesion, commercial supremacy or territory.

Decline and Fall
Manuel III (1390–1417), who succeeded his father Alexios III as emperor, allied himself with Timur, and benefited from Timur's defeat of the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Ankara in 1402. His son Alexios IV (1417–1429) married two of his daughters to Jihan Shah, khan of the Kara Koyunlu, and to Ali Beg, khan of the Ak Koyunlu; while his eldest daughter Maria became the third wife of the Byzantine Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. Pero Tafur, who visited the city in 1437, reported that Trebizond had less than 4,000 troops.

John IV (1429–1459) could not help but see his Empire would soon share the same fate as Constantinople. The Ottoman Sultan Murad II first attempted to take the capital by sea in 1442, but high surf made the landings difficult and the attempt was repulsed. While Mehmed II was away laying siege to Belgrade in 1456, the Ottoman governor of Amasya attacked Trebizond, and although defeated, took many prisoners and extracted a heavy tribute.

John IV prepared for the eventual assault by forging alliances. He gave his daughter to the son of his brother-in-law, Uzun Hasan, khan of the Ak Koyunlu, in return for his promise to defend Trebizond. He also secured promises of help from the Turkish emirs of Sinope and Karamania, and from the king and princes of Georgia.

After John's death in 1459, his brother David came to power and misused these alliances. David intrigued with various European powers for help against the Ottomans, speaking of wild schemes that included the conquest of Jerusalem. Mehmed II eventually heard of these intrigues, and was further provoked to action by David's demand that Mehmed remit the tribute imposed on his brother.

Mehmed's response came in the summer of 1461. He led a sizeable army from Brusa, first to Sinope whose emir quickly surrendered, then south across Armenia to neutralize Uzun Hasan. Having isolated Trebizond, Mehmed quickly swept down upon it before the inhabitants knew he was coming, and placed it under siege. The city held out for a month before the emperor David surrendered on August 15, 1461.

With the fall of Trebizond, the territory of "the Last Greek Empire" was extinguished.


List of Trapezuntine Emperors

• Alexios I Megas Komnenos (1204–1222)
• Andronikos I Gidos (1222–1235)
• John I Axouchos Megas Komnenos (1235–1238)
• Manuel I Megas Komnenos (1238–1263)
• Andronikos II Megas Komnenos (1263–1266)
• George Megas Komnenos (1266–1280)
• John II Megas Komnenos (1280–1284)
• Theodora Megale Komnene (1284–1285)
• John II Megas Komnenos (restored, 1285–1297)
• Alexios II Megas Komnenos (1297–1330)
• Andronikos III Megas Komnenos (1330–1332)
• Manuel II Megas Komnenos (1332)
• Basil Megas Komnenos (1332–1340)
• Irene Palaiologina (1340–1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (1341)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (1341)
• Anna Anachoutlou Megale Komnene (restored, 1341–1342)
• John III Megas Komnenos (1342–1344)
• Michael Megas Komnenos (restored, 1344–1349)
• Alexios III Megas Komnenos (1349–1390)
• Manuel III Megas Komnenos (1390–1416)
• Alexios IV Megas Komnenos (1416–1429)
• John IV Megas Komnenos (1429–1459)
• David Megas Komnenos (1459–1461)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manuel_I_of_Trebizond
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empire_of_Trebizond


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
     
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