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Search results - "Imperial"
Unknown_Roman_Imperial.jpg
11 viewsShea B
constantinupolis-1.jpg
Constantinopolis - RIC 18817 viewsCity Commemorative
330-333 AD.
CONSTANTINOPOLIS, crested, laureate helmeted bust
of Constantinopolis left in imperial mantle & holding sceptre /
Victory with open wings standing left, right foot on a vessel's prow holding sceptre & leaning on shield,
SMTSD in ex.
xokleng
Section2_Page_17_Image_0001.jpg
*Late Roman Mints48 viewsFrom:
ERIC The Encyclopedia of Roman Imperial Coins
by Rasiel Suarez

ERIC I and ERIC II are great resources for coin identification and the history behind the coins. Author Ras Suarez is a heck of a nice guy and very accessible to collectors. He has made all of ERIC I freely available at:
http://www.dirtyoldbooks.com/eric.html
Sosius
2550311.jpg
22 Didius Julianus70 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Didius Julianus
AD 193
Ć Sestertius (28mm, 19.82 g, 11h). Rome mint.

Laureate head right / Fortuna standing left, holding rudder set on globe and cornucopia.

RIC IV 15. Fine, brown patina, scratches
Ex CNG
RI0128
6 commentsSosius
Julia_Soaemias_Sear_2170.jpg
29.4 Julia Soaemias10 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Julia Soaemias
Mother of Elagabalus
AR Denarius, 3.05g, AD 220

IVLIA SOAEMIAS AVG, draped bust right / VENVS CAELESTIS, Venus standing left, holding apple and sceptre, star in field

RIC 241; C 8; RCV 7719
Sosius
2550332.jpg
3.5 Herennius Etruscus32 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Herennius Etruscus
As Caesar, AD 249-251.
AR Antoninianus (22mm, 4.87 g, 12h). Rome mint. 3rd-4th emission, AD 250.

O: Radiate and draped bust right, seen from behind

R: Sprinkler, simpulum, jug, patera and lituus.
RIC IV 143 (Decius); RSC 14. VF, flan flaw on obverse, light reverse porosity, struck from a worn reverse die.

Ex-CNG
2 commentsSosius
rjb_car_04_08.jpg
341cf88 viewsCarausius 287-93AD
Antoninianus
Obv “IMP CARAVSIVS PF AVG”
Radiate bust in imperial mantle left jugate with Sol
Rev “PAX AVGVSTI”
Pax walking left holding branch and sceptre
Camulodunum mint
-/-//CXXI
RIC - (cf 341)
1 commentsmauseus
Probus_RIC_V_Siscia_767.jpg
6 Probus33 viewsPROBUS
AE Antoninianus, Siscia Mint
IMP CM AVR PROBVS PF AVG, Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle-tipped scepter / SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, holding whip, right hand raised, XXIV below
RIC V-2 Siscia 767; F/VF, encrustations.
Sosius
Probus_Unident_Ant.jpg
6 Probus22 viewsPROBUS
Antoninianus, Cyzicus Mint
IMP CM AVR PROBVS PF AVG, Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle-tipped sceptre / SOLI INVICTO, Sol driving spread quadriga, CM below, XXIS in ex.
RIC V-2 Cyzicus 911
Sosius
Probus_Ant_RIC_911_gallery.jpg
6 Probus51 viewsProbus.
276-282 AD
Ć antoninianus (21.9 mm, 3.84 g, 6 h), Cyzicus Mint, 281 AD
IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG, radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding eagle-tipped scepter / SOLI INVICTO, Sol driving facing quadriga, head left, holding whip and raising hand; CM//XXIQ in exergue. RIC 911. gVF.
Ex Agora Auctions
2 commentsSosius
2550340.jpg
70.5 Hanniballianus12 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Hanniballianus
Rex Regum, AD 335-337. Ć Follis (15mm, 1.73 g, 12h). Const. mint, 6th officina. Struck AD 336-337.

O: Bareheaded, draped, and cuirassed bust right.
R: Euphrates reclining right, leaning upon scepter; reed behind, overturned urn below, CONSς.

RIC VII 147; LRBC 1036. Good Fine, dark green patina with some earthen deposits.

Ex CNG
Sosius
2550341.jpg
76 Julian II42 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Julian II
AD 360-363. AR Siliqua (18mm, 1.87 g, 12h). Lugdunum (Lyon) mint. Struck AD 361.

O: Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right R: Pearl-diademed, draped, and cuirassed bust right / VOTIS/ V/ MVLTIS/ X in four lines within wreath; LVG.

RIC VIII 218; RSC 163a. Sear (2014) 19130. VF, toned, flan crack, graffiti on reverse.

Ex CNG
2 commentsSosius
AncientRomanEmpire-AR-denarius-Otho-062500.jpg
Ancient Rome (Imperial): silver denarius of Otho, ca. January-April, 69 AD29 viewslordmarcovan
vrbs1s.jpg
City Commemorative, RIC VII 187 Thessalonica, AE 324 viewsObverse:VRBS ROMA, Helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak. Plume on front of helmet.
Reverse:She-wolf standing left, suckling the twins Romulus and Remus, O on wolf's shoulder, 2 stars above.
Mintmark SMTS epsilon, 16.1 mm., 2.5 g.
Ref: RIC VII Thessalonica 187

Notes: This variation with O on wolf's shoulder
NORMAN K
cc249.jpg
City Commemorative, RIC VII 249 Siscia18 viewsObverse: VRBS ROMA: helmeted bust of Roma wearing imperial cloak, plume on front of helmet.
Reverse: no legend. She wolf standing left suckling the twins Romulus and Remus. 2 stars above.
Mintmark SIS Siscia, 18.55 mm., 2.0 g.
Ref: RIC VII 249
NORMAN K
Hartill-17_741.jpg
Imperial China, Southern Song: Duan Ping (1234-1236) AE 5 Cash (Hartill-17.741)12 viewsObv: 端平通寶 Duan Ping tong bao (1234-1236); Long bao
Rev: Blank
SpongeBob
Roman_Imperial_RIC164b.jpg
Roman Imperial: Maximinus II Daia (310-313) BI Follis, Antioch (RIC-164b)26 viewsObv: IMP C GAL VAL MAXIMINVS PF AVG; Laureate head right
Rev: GENIO AVGVSTI; Genius standing facing, holding head of Sol in right, cornucopia in left. ✶ / S in fields, ANT in exergue

SpongeBob
00013x00.jpg
36 viewsROME
PB Tessera (19mm, 2.71 g, 12 h)
Imperial issue (?)
Venus Victrix standing right, resting arm on cippus and holding transverse scepter and clasping hands with Mars, standing left
Fortuna standing left, holding rudder and cornucopia
Rostowzew 153, pl. III 2; München 16-7; Kircheriano 572, 582, 738, and 741

Rostowzew places this with the "Tesserae capitibus et nominibus imperatorum signatae" on the basis of type. In my studies, I have noticed that many of the types bearing Imperial portraiture or names are much more finely engraved, often with a centering dot and pronounced rims.
Ardatirion
00064x00.jpg
29 viewsJAPAN, Imperial. Meiji Era.1868-1912
AV Ni Bu (13mm, 2.60 g, 12 h)
Edo mint. Struck 1868-1869
Two paulownia flowers; Ni Bu flanking
Mitsusugu
Hartill, Japanese 8.32b; JNDA 09-29

Acquired in the Philippines theater during World War Two.
Ardatirion
00001x00~0.jpg
58 viewsJAPAN, Imperial. temp. Kanbun Era-Enpō Era. AD 1668-1673.
Ć Mun (25mm, 3.84 g, 12 h)
Saiji Bun-sen type
Kameido, Edo mint in Musashi province
Kanei Tsuho in Hŕnzě
Bun in Hŕnzě
Hartill, Japanese 4.102; Ogawa 25
Ardatirion
00004x00~0.jpg
24 viewsJAPAN, Imperial. Kyōhō Era. AD 1716-1738
Ć Mun (24mm, 3.34 g)
Ishinomaki, Sendai mint in Mutsu province
Cast AD 1728-1732
Kanei Tsuho in Hŕnzě
Blank
Hartill, Japanese 4.138; Ogawa 126
Ardatirion
00003x00~0.jpg
20 viewsJapan, Imperial. temp. Genbun Era-Kanpō Era. AD 1741-1744
Ć Mun (23mm, 2.15 g, 12 h)
Takatsu, Osaka mint in Settsu province
Kanei Tsuho in Hŕnzě
Gen in Hŕnzě
Hartill, Japanese 4.197; Ogawa 274
Ardatirion
00005x00~1.jpg
30 viewsJapan, Imperial. Kanpō  Era. AD 1741-1744
Ć Mun (23mm, 1.91 g, 12 h)
Ashijisen type
Ashio mint in Shimatsuke province
Kanei Tsuho in Hŕnzě
Ashi in Hŕnzě
Hartill, Japanese 4.202; Ogawa 293
Ardatirion
louis1-denier-melle-lin.JPG
D.609 Louis the Pious (denier, Melle, class 2)49 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Denier (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 1.48 g, 20 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée
R/ META / . / LLVM

Louis' deniers correspond to his father's (Charles the Great) ``novus denarius'', whose weight is supposed to be near 1.7 g with a certain variability.

This denier is typical of Class 2 of Louis' coinage (819-822).
A circular inscription of the name of the ruler surrounds a cross pattée on the observe. The quite surprising Hlvdovvicvs initially comes from the germanic name Chlodowig ("Clovis"). This one was first transcribed to latin as Chlodowicvs. The initial C then disappeared, which explains the H at the beginning. The w(=vv) finally became a standard v, which gave Lvdovicvs (Louis). The imperial title imp is also given.

The reverse consists of the mint name, in field. The mint name may be split in 2 or 3 lines.
Droger
louis1-obole-melle-lin.JPG
D.613var Louis the Pious (obol, Melle, class 2)34 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
Obol (Melle, class 2, 819-822)

Silver, 0.74 g, 17 mm diameter, die axis 9 h

O/ LVDO / VVIC
R/ +METALLVM; cross pattée

As the value of a denier was quite important (a sheep typically cost 10 deniers during Charles the Great's reign), a smaller coin was needed. Clearly speaking, an obol is a half-denier. The carolingian coinage is typically one of silver deniers and obols. Obols and deniers were usually produced by pairs of the same kind.

Contrary to the related denier, the name of the ruler is here in the field and the mint name surrounds a cross pattée.
The absence of the imperial title made think that the coin had been struck when Louis was king of Aquitaine (before the death of Charles the Great). However there are similar obols with out of Aquitain mints. The absence of the imperial title (as well as an abbreviated name Lvdovvic instead of Hlvdovvicvs) may be due to a lack of space.
Droger
louis1-denier-temple.JPG
D.1179 Louis the Pious (denier, class 3)50 viewsLouis the Pious, king of the Franks and Holy Roman emperor (813-840)
"Temple" denier (unknown mint, class 3, 822-840)

Silver, 1.56 g, 20.5 mm diameter, die axis 3 h

O/ +HLVDOVVICVS IMP; cross pattée with 4 pellets
R/ +XPISTIANA RELIGIO; temple

The XPISTIANA should be read "χρISTIANA", nice mix of greek and latin letters.

This is the most common carolingian coin (Class 3 of Louis' coinage).
The obverse is the same as Class 2. However, the reverse is a signature of the alliance between the Carolingians and the Roman Church, which began with Louis' father (Charles the Great) and the systematic introduction of a cross on coins. Louis carried on...

There is no indication of the mint name on this coinage. This fact is generally interpreted as a reinforcement of the imperial autority. Many people tried to localize the precise location of mints. Simon Coupland proposed an attribution, using stylistic similarities to other coins of well known mints. Some cases are easy to attribute but not this one (maybe Quentovic or Verdun ?)...

Droger
charles2-denier-bourges-emp.JPG
D.198 Charles II the Bald (denier, class 3, Bourges)27 viewsCharles the Bald, king of the Franks (840-877) and Holy Roman Emperor (875-877)
Denier (Bourges, class 2, 876-877)

Silver, 1.47 g, 19 mm diameter, die axis 12h

O/ +CΛRLVS IMP ΛVG; cross pattée
R/ +BITVRICES CIVIT; carolingian monogram

In 875, after the death of his nephew, the Emperor Louis II, Charles received the imperial crown.
The related coinage clearly shows the imperial title in a roman way, IMP AVG. This coinage may be undistinguishable from the one of Charles the Fat (885-887), when he assumed West Francia kingship (before being chased by Eudes, count of Paris and next king of the Franks).
Droger
probus_mars_res.jpg
(0276) PROBUS18 views276 - 282 AD
AE 22 mm, 3.25 g
O: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
R: VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy; T in lower right field; XXI in exe.
Siscia mint

laney
PROBUS__TEMPLE.jpg
(0276) PROBUS TEMPLE54 viewsAE ANT. 22 mm 3.13 g
276 - 282 AD
OBV: PROBVS PF AVG
RAD BUST L IN IMPERIAL MANTLE, HOLDING EAGLE-TIPPED SCEPTER
REV: ROMAE AETER
ROME SEATED FACING IN HEXASTULE TEMPLE, VICTORY IN R HAND, SCEPTER IN L
RVD IN EXE ROME
PORT OF AEQVITI SERIES, OFFICINA 4 EMISSION 7, STRUCK 282 AD
RIC 187
1 commentslaney
licin_iovi_w.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS26 views308 - 324 AD
Struck 317 - 320 AD
AE 17.5 mm, 3.38 g
O: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG, Laureate bust left in imperial mantle, mappa in right hand, globe and scepter in left
R: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing facing, head left, naked but for chlamys across left shoulder, Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left, bound captive before, S in right field; SMANT in exergue
Antioch mint RIC VII, 27 (R1)
laney
LICINIUS_I_IOVI_L_GAMMA.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I31 views308 - 324 AD
Silvered AE 19 mm 3.25 g
O: IMP LICINIVS AVG, laur bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter and globe in left hand, mappa in right
R: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe, wreath to left, Gamma to right
SMK in exe
Cyzicus
laney
licinius_iovi_cap.jpg
(0308) LICINIUS I23 views308 - 324 AD
AE 18.5 mm 3.00 g Struck 317-320, Officina 8
O: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG Laureate bust left in imperial mantle, mappa in right hand, globe and scepter in left
R: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI AVGG Jupiter standing facing, head left, naked but for chlamys across left shoulder, Victory on globe in right hand, scepter in left, bound captive before, H in right field SMANT in exergue,
Antioch RIC VII, 27
laney
Roma-Heraclea-1.jpg
..SMHε.87 viewsAE3/4 Follis, 2.42 g, 17 mm, 11 h

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic

She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 2 stars above

Exergue: ..SMHε.

Heraclea mint

RIC VII 134
drjbca
UR .SMHE.jpg
.SMHε59 viewsAE3/4 Follis, 2.48 g, 17 mm, 6 h, 330-333 AD

Obverse: VRBS ROMA
Helmeted (with plume) wearing imperial cloak and ornamental necklace, bust left

Reverse: Anepigraphic
She-wolf to left suckling Romulus and Remus, 2 stars above

Exergue: .SMHε

Heraclea mint

RIC VII 119
drjbca
Prob3.jpg
001 - Probus Antoniniani - RIC 18763 viewsObv: PROBVS PF AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev: ROMA AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
Minted in Rome (RV Δ in exe) Emission 7 Officina 4, AD 282.

This coin is part of the AEQVITI series of Rome (V).
pierre_p77
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002b. Livia48 viewsLivia, as history most often knows her, was the wife of Augustus for over fifty years, from 38 BC until his death in AD 14 , an astonishingly long time in view of life expectancy in ancient Rome. Although certainty about their inner lives and proof for what we would consider a loving relationship is necessarily lost to us, we can infer genuine loyalty and mutual respect between the two. They remained married despite the fact that she bore him no child. Livia's position as first lady of the imperial household, her own family connections, her confident personality and her private wealth allowed her to exercise power both through Augustus and on her own, during his lifetime and afterward. All the Julio-Claudian emperors were her direct descendants: Tiberius was her son; Gaius (Caligula), her great-grandson; Claudius, her grandson; Nero, her great-great-grandson.

Tiberius and Livia- Thessalonica, Macedonia/Size: 22.5mm/Reference: RPC 1567
Obverse: TI KAISAR SEBASTOS, bare head of Tiberius right Reverse: QESSALONIKEWN SEBASTOU, draped bust of Livia right.

Ex-Imperial Coins
ecoli
Maximiano.jpg
005 - Maximian (second regin 306-308 AD), half follis - RIC 91b44 viewsObv: DN MAXIMIANO FELICISS, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, right hand rised.
Rev: PROVIDENTIA DEORVM, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, holding branch in right hand and leaning on sceptre left.
Minted in Alexandria (gamma in mid field. ALE in exe), officina 3, earlier to mid 308 AD (that is before his second abdication at the conference in Carnuntum). Scarce according to RIC.

The coin type is supposed to honor the senior emperors Diocletian and Maximian after their abdication in 305 AD.
pierre_p77
NeroDECVRSIOSestertiusRome.JPG
005. Nero 54-68AD. AE Sestertius, Rome mint, 63AD. DECVRSIO. 38.6mm200 viewsObv. Laureate ead right, wearing aegis NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR P IMP P P
Rev. Nero on horseback prancing right, wearing cuirass, short tunic, and billowing cloak, spear in right hand, to right soldier moving right. carrying vexillum; to leftin shallow relief, soldier running right DECVRSIO in ex
BMCRE 155; Cohen 94, RIC I 176 var (obv legend)
38.6mm, 180o, 63 A.D. Rome mint.
This sestertius was an early emission from the Rome Mint, which resumed striking bronze after about 10 years of inactivity. The talented engraver, perhaps with extra time for this initial project, produced one of the best dies in the entire imperial bronze series. The special style, complemented by superior execution, has similarities to later medallions.


The fine expressive portrait has higher relief than the more common Lugdunum issues.
The reverse uses the roundness of the flan and three geometric planes of relief to both present the scene in a format that draws the eye to the emperor and show movement that is lacking on almost all other Roman coins. The rare use of geometric planes was repeated on ADLOCVTIO sestertii of Galba five years later, perhaps the work of the same artist. Rome sestertii after 70 A.D. are of far less impressive style.


The lack of SC leaves the reverse fields uncluttered. SC stood for Senatus Consultum, "By Decree of the Senate" and signified the role of the Senate in the minting of brass and bronze coinage. Many sestertii of Caligula and some brass and bronze of Nero lack SC. Subsequent issues include SC again, until inflation produced the demise of the sestertius under Gallienus, c. 265 AD
5 commentsLordBest
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005d. Agrippina II89 viewsLYDIA, Hypaepa. Agrippina Jr., mother of Nero. Augusta, 50-59 AD. Ć 14mm (2.33 gm). Draped bust of Agrippina right / Cult statue of Artemis. RPC I 2541; SNG Copenhagen -.

Julia Vipsania Agrippina Minor or Agrippina Minor (Latin for "the younger") (November 7, AD 15 – March 59), often called "Agrippinilla" to distinguish her from her mother, was the daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina Major. She was sister of Caligula, granddaughter and great-niece to Tiberius, niece and wife of Claudius, and the mother of Nero. She was born at Oppidum Ubiorum on the Rhine, afterwards named in her honour Colonia Agrippinae (modern Cologne, Germany).

Agrippina was first married to (1st century AD) Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus. From this marriage she gave birth to Lucius Domitius Ahenobarbus, who would become Roman Emperor Nero. Her husband died in January, 40. While still married, Agrippina participated openly in her brother Caligula's decadent court, where, according to some sources, at his instigation she prostituted herself in a palace. While it was generally agreed that Agrippinilla, as well as her sisters, had ongoing sexual relationships with their brother Caligula, incest was an oft-used criminal accusation against the aristocracy, because it was impossible to refute successfully. As Agrippina and her sister became more problematic for their brother, Caligula sent them into exile for a time, where it is said she was forced to dive for sponges to make a living. In January, 41, Agrippina had a second marriage to the affluent Gaius Sallustius Crispus Passienus. He died between 44 and 47, leaving his estate to Agrippina.

As a widow, Agrippina was courted by the freedman Pallas as a possible marriage match to her own uncle, Emperor Claudius, and became his favourite councillor, even granted the honor of being called Augusta (a title which no other queen had ever received). They were married on New Year's Day of 49, after the death of Claudius's first wife Messalina. Agrippina then proceeded to persuade Claudius to adopt her son, thereby placing Nero in the line of succession to the Imperial throne over Claudius's own son, Brittanicus. A true Imperial politician, Agrippina did not reject murder as a way to win her battles. Many ancient sources credited her with poisoning Claudius in 54 with a plate of poisened mushrooms, hence enabling Nero to quickly take the throne as emperor.

For some time, Agrippina influenced Nero as he was relatively ill-equipped to rule on his own. But Nero eventually felt that she was taking on too much power relative to her position as a woman of Rome. He deprived her of her honours and exiled her from the palace, but that was not enough. Three times Nero tried to poison Agrippina, but she had been raised in the Imperial family and was accustomed to taking antidotes. Nero had a machine built and attached to the roof of her bedroom. The machine was designed to make the ceiling collapse — the plot failed with the machine. According to the historians Tacitus and Suetonius, Nero then plotted her death by sending for her in a boat constructed to collapse, intending to drown Agrippina. However, only some of the crew were in on the plot; their efforts were hampered by the rest of the crew trying to save the ship. As the ship sank, one of her handmaidens thought to save herself by crying that she was Agrippina, thinking they would take special care of her. Instead the maid was instantly beaten to death with oars and chains. The real Agrippina realised what was happening and in the confusion managed to swim away where a passing fisherman picked her up. Terrified that his cover had been blown, Nero instantly sent men to charge her with treason and summarily execute her. Legend states that when the Emperor's soldiers came to kill her, Agrippina pulled back her clothes and ordered them to stab her in the belly that had housed such a monstrous son.

ecoli
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007. Galba (68 AD - 69 AD)154 viewsGALBA. 68-69 AD.

Galba had displayed talent and ambition during his lengthy career. He enjoyed distinguished ancestry, moved easily among the Julio-Claudian emperors (with the exception of Nero towards the end of his principate), and had been awarded the highest military and religious honors of ancient Rome. His qualifications for the principate cannot be questioned. Even so, history has been unkind to him. Tacitus characterized Galba as "weak and old," a man "equal to the imperial office, if he had never held it." To be sure, Galba's greatest mistake lay in his general handling of the military. His treatment of the army in Upper Germany was heedless, his policy towards the praetorians short sighted. Given the climate in 68-69, Galba was unrealistic in expecting disciplina without paying the promised rewards.

AR Denarius (18mm, 2.97 gm). Rome mint. Bare head right / Legend in three lines within oak wreath. RIC I 167; RSC 287. Ex-CNG
2 commentsecoli73
Personajes_Imperiales_1.jpg
01 - Personalities of the Empire83 viewsPompey, Brutus, Julius Caesar, Marc Antony, Augustus, Livia, Caius & Lucius, Agrippa, Nero Claudius Drusus, Germanicus, Agrippina Sr., Tiberius, Drusus and Antonia1 commentsmdelvalle
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010 Augustus160 viewsDivus Augustus Ć As. Commemorative by Tiberius. DIVVS AVGVSTVS PATER, radiate head left, thunderbolt before / Eagle standing on globe facing, wings spread, head right, S C at sides. RIC 82 [Tiberius]


"I found Rome built of bricks; I leave her clothed in marble."


This was one of my first ancients, it was my first early imperial.
1 commentsrandy h2
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010. Vespasian 69 AD - 79 AD36 viewsVespasian

The character of this emperor showed very little, if anything, of the pagan tyrant. Though himself a man of no literary culture, he became the protector of his prisoner of war, the Jewish historian Josephus, a worshipper of the One God, and even permitted him the use of his own family name (Flavius). While this generosity may have been in some degree prompted by Josephus's shrewd prophecy of Vespasian's elevation to the purple, there are other instances of his disposition to reward merit in those with whom he was by no means personally sympathetic. Vespasian has the distinction of being the first Roman Emperor to transmit the purple to his own son; he is also noteworthy in Roman imperial history as having very nearly completed his seventieth year and died a natural death: being in feeble health, he had withdrawn to benefit by the purer air of his native Reate, in the "dewy fields" (rosei campi) of the Sabine country. By his wife, Flavia Domitilla, he left two sons, Titus and Domitian, and a daughter, Domitilla, through whom the name of Vespasian's empress was passed on to a granddaughter who is revered as a confessor of the Faith.

A man of strict military discipline and simple tastes, Vespasian proved to be a conscientious and generally tolerant administrator. More importantly, following the upheavals of A.D. 68-69, his reign was welcome for its general tranquility and restoration of peace. In Vespasian Rome found a leader who made no great breaks with tradition, yet his ability ro rebuild the empire and especially his willingness to expand the composition of the governing class helped to establish a positive working model for the "good emperors" of the second century. In contrast to his immediate imperial predecessors, Vespasian died peacefully - at Aquae Cutiliae near his birthplace in Sabine country on 23 June, A.D. 79, after contracting a brief illness. The occasion is said to have inspired his deathbed quip: "Oh my, I must be turning into a god!"

Denarius. IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right / VES-TA to either side of Vesta standing left, holding simpulum & scepter. RSC 574
ecoli
Personajes_Imperiales_2.jpg
02 - Personalities of the Empire59 viewsCalígula, Claudius, Britannicus , Agrippina jr., Nero, Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian, Domitila, Titus, Domitia and Julia Titi1 commentsmdelvalle
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02. Gordian I / RIC 1.79 viewsDenarius, March - April 238, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP M ANT GORDIANVS AFR AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian I.
Reverse: P M TR P COS P P / Gordian I standing, togate, holding branch, and wearing parzonium.
2.88 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #1; Sear #8446.

The third century saw numerous usurpers in various parts of the Empire. However, the local revolt in Africa which brought Gordian I and his son to power was the first and only time the cause of a usurper was taken up by the Senate before a current emperor was dead. Thus the Gordiani became legitimate Roman emperors, and their coinage, all minted at the imperial mint in Rome, became legitimate coinage of the Empire.

Provenance:
ex Gillardi Collection.
Tinchant sale (1962).
3 commentsCallimachus
augustus_RIC207.jpg
027 BC-14 AD - AUGUSTUS AR denarius - struck 2 BC-ca. 13 AD85 viewsobv: CAESAR AVGVSTVS DIVI F PATER PATRIAE (laureate head right)
rev: AVGVSTI F COS DESIG PRINC IVVENT, C L CAESARES below (Gaius & Lucius standing front, each with a hand resting on a round shield, a spear, & in field above, a lituus right & simpulum left ["b9"])
ref: RIC I 207, BMC 533, RSC 43
mint: Lugdunum
3.35gms, 18mm

This type was struck to celebrate Gaius and Lucius Caesars, the sons of Marcus Agrippa, as heirs to the imperial throne. Gaius became Princeps Iuventutis in 5 BC and Lucius in 2 BC. They died in 4 AD and 2 AD respectively, thus promoting Tiberius to heir apparent. An obligatory issue for collectors.
berserker
Personajes_Imperiales_3.jpg
03 - Personalities of the Empire53 viewsNerva, Trajan, Plotina, Marciana, Matidia, Hadrian, Sabina, Aelius, Antoninus Pius, Faustina I, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus and Lucillamdelvalle
Probus_ant_gr.jpg
031 - Probus (276-282 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 877 (unlisted var.)105 viewsObv. IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, radiate and cuirassed bust left, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped sceptre.
Rev. VIRTVS PROBI AVG, emperor galloping right, spearing enemy whose shield lies beneath horse.
Minted in Serdica (KA delta in exe), 4th officina, 4th emission, c 277 AD or 280-81 AD.
22-23 mm in diam, 3,38g
Bust type H.

Not listed with this bust type in RIC.

Ex. Martin Griffiths Probus collection.
5 commentspierre_p77
Maximian_unlist.jpg
032 - Maximian (286-305 AD), Antoninianus - RIC 404, 407 (hybrid unlisted in RIC)44 viewsObv: IMP MAXIMIANUS AVG, radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding globe.
Rev: PAX AVGG, Minerva standing left, leaning on shield, holding olive branch and spear.
Minted in Lugdunum (C in exe, * in left field) 292-294 AD.

This coin is a hybrid between RIC 404 (as above but without the * and C(?)) and 407 (with * and C) and not listed in RIC. However Bastien lists this coin (vol 7, nr 488) with five examples cited. Not a very pretty coin but somehow interesting anyway as it turned out. Thanks to Jochen and maridvnvm of the FORUM´s classical numismatics discussion board for the info.

[Sold]
2 commentspierre_p77
Copy_of_hadrian_denarius_FEL-PR_3_31gr_obv_09_rev_07.JPG
04 - Hadrian Denarius - Felicitas seated - FEL PR in exergue50 viewsImperial Rome, Hadrian 117–138 AD.
Silver Denarius of Rome.
obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
rev: P M TR P COS III - Felicitas seated left with caduceus & cornucopiae, FEL P R in exergue.

Weight: 3.31g.

RIC 120, RSC 600a.
1 commentsrexesq
Copy_of_hadrian_denarius_FEL-PR_3_31gr_obv_07_rev_06.JPG
04 - Hadrian Denarius - Felicitas seated - FEL PR in exergue 54 viewsImperial Rome, Hadrian 117–138 AD.
Silver Denarius of Rome.
obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
rev: P M TR P COS III - Felicitas seated left with caduceus & cornucopiae, FEL P R in exergue.

Weight: 3.31g.

RIC 120, RSC 600a.
rexesq
Copy_of_hadrian_denarius_FEL-PR_3_31gr_obv_02.JPG
04 - Hadrian Denarius - Felicitas seated - FEL PR in exergue - obverse.27 viewsImperial Rome, Hadrian 117–138 AD.
Silver Denarius of Rome.
obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
rev: P M TR P COS III - Felicitas seated left with caduceus & cornucopiae, FEL P R in exergue.

Weight: 3.31g.

RIC 120, RSC 600a.
rexesq
hadrian_denarius_FEL-PR_3_31gr_02.jpg
04 - Hadrian Denarius - Felicitas seated - FEL PR in exergue - reverse. 10 viewsImperial Rome, Hadrian 117–138 AD.
Silver Denarius of Rome.
obv: IMP CAESAR TRAIAN HADRIANVS AVG - Laureate bust right, drapery on far shoulder.
rev: P M TR P COS III - Felicitas seated left with caduceus & cornucopiae, FEL P R in exergue.

Weight: 3.31g.

RIC 120, RSC 600a.
rexesq
Personajes_Imperiales_4.jpg
04 - Personalities of the Empire57 viewsCommodus, Crispina, Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Manlia Scantilla, Didia Clara, Pescennius Níger, Clodius Albinus, Septimius Severus, Julia Domna, Caracalla, Plautilla, Geta and Macrinusmdelvalle
Caligula_denarius.jpg
04 Gaius (Caligula) RIC I 2222 viewsGaius (Caligula) 37-41 A.D. AR Denarius. Lugdunum (Lyons) Mint 37 AD. (3.3g, 18.5mm, 2h). Obv: C CAESAR AVG GERM P M TR POT COS, bare head right. Rev: anepigraphic, Augustus, radiate head right between two stars. RIC I 2, BMC 4, Sear 1808. Ex personal collection Steve McBride/Incitatus Coins.

Son of Germanicus, Gaius was adopted by Tiberius and was proclaimed Emperor on Tiberius’ death. His reign, marked by cruelty, was ended when he was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard. There is some question when the Imperial Mint was moved from Lugdunum to Rome, but the majority view holds at least Gaius’ early issues were still from Lugdunum.

With more than moderate wear and damage, this coin still has an almost complete obverse legend, and is a decent weight. It was very difficult for me to track down a denarius of Gaius.
2 commentsLucas H
GI_044b_img.jpg
044 - Hadrian Drachm - Pontos, Amisos25 viewsSilver drachm
Obv:– AVT KAI TPA ADPIANOC CEB P P VP G, Laureate bust left
Rev:– AMICOV ELEVQEPA-C ETOVC PXE, Demeter standing left holding corn ears & branched staff
Pontos, Amisos. Dated Year 166 of Amisos = 133-134 AD.
References:- cf SGI 1139, cf SNGvA 80. BMC Greek, pg. 22 Pontus 91. J.H. Nordbo, Imperial Silver Coinage of Amisus, 131/2-137/8 AD, Studies...Thomsen, p. 168, Year 166=133/4 AD, specimens 102-113
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RIC_V_183_Probus.jpg
048. Probus A.D. 276-282. AE Antoninianus. 82 viewsAE Antoninianus. Rome mint.

Obv: IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev: ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
Ex: R(wreath)Δ.
21 mm, 3.39 g
RIC V, Part 2, 183

EF
1 commentsLordBest
Personajes_Imperiales_5.jpg
05 - Personalities of the Empire49 viewsDiadumenian, Elagabalus, Julia Maesa, Julia Soaemias, Aquilia Severa, Annia Faustina, Severus Alexander, Julia Mamaea, Orbiana, Maximinus I, Paulina, Maximus and Gordian Imdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_5~0.jpg
05 - Personalities of the Empire61 viewsDiadumenian, Elagabalus, Julia Maesa, Julia Soaemias, Aquilia Severa, Annia Faustina, Severus Alexander, Julia Mamaea, Orbiana, Maximinus I, Paulina, Maximus and Gordian I1 commentsmdelvalle
domitian as caesar wolf and twins.JPG
05 Domitian as Caesar RIC 961149 viewsAR Denarius, 3.17g
Rome Mint, 77-78 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: COS V; She-wolf and twins l. : in ex., boat
RIC 961 (C2). BMC 240. RSC 51. BNC 208.
Ex eBay, February 2007.

The first instance of the she-wolf and twins reverse as a type on Roman Imperial coins. Domitian Caesar, unlike Titus Caesar, used different reverse types than his father Vespasian. The she-wolf and twins is unique to Domitan's coinage. One wonders how much leverage Domitian had for choosing his own reverse designs.

A wonderful coin with good metal and a pleasing portrait. The picture does not reflect this very well however.

2 commentsVespasian70
antoninus-pius_divus-antoninus_altar_2_99gr_obv_14.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - Posthumous Issue - Altar 11 viewsImperial Rome
Antoninus Pius ( 138-161 AD.)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint.
Posthumous Issue struck under Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right.
rev: DIVO PIO - Altar/Shrine with doors closed.

RIC III-441 (Marcus Aurelius).

2.99gr.
rexesq
antoninus-pius_divus-antoninus_altar_2_99gr_obv_13.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - Posthumous Issue - Altar 10 viewsImperial Rome
Antoninus Pius ( 138-161 AD.)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint.
Posthumous Issue struck under Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right.
rev: DIVO PIO - Altar/Shrine with doors closed.

RIC III-441 (Marcus Aurelius).

2.99gr.
rexesq
antoninus-pius_divus-antoninus_altar_2_99gr_obv_01_rev_02.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - Posthumous Issue - Altar 33 viewsImperial Rome
Antoninus Pius ( 138-161 AD.)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint.
Posthumous Issue struck under Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right.
rev: DIVO PIO - Altar/Shrine with doors closed.

RIC III-441 (Marcus Aurelius).

2.99gr.
3 commentsrexesq
antoninus-pius_divus-antoninus_altar_2_99gr_00.JPG
06 - Antoninus Pius - AR Denarius - Posthumous Issue - Altar.21 viewsImperial Rome
Antoninus Pius ( 138-161 AD.)
Silver Denarius. Rome Mint.
Posthumous Issue struck under Emperor Marcus Aurelius.

obv: DIVVS ANTONINVS - Bare head right.
rev: DIVO PIO - Altar/Shrine with doors closed.

RIC III-441 (Marcus Aurelius).

2.99gr.
--------
Seller Photo.
2 commentsrexesq
hadrian_3x_tet_den_den_obv_01.jpg
06 - Hadrian Tetradrachm AD126/7 - Hadrian Denarii35 viewsTop: Hadrian Tetradrachm from Alexandria, Egypt. Eirene reverse. 12.65 grams.

Bottom Right: Hadrian AR Denarius, Roma reverse. Rome Mint. 3.22 grams.
Bottom Left: Hadrian AR Denarius, Fortuna reverse. Rome Mint.
(More photos and photos of reverses of both Denarii in my "Roman Imperial Denarii" Gallery)
1 commentsrexesq
Personajes_Imperiales_6.jpg
06 - Personalities of the Empire46 viewsGordian II, Pupienus, Balbinus, Gordian III, Tranquilina, Philip I, Octacilla Severa, Philip II, Trajan Decius, Her. Etruscilla, Her. Etrusco, Hostilian, Trebonianus Gallus and Aemilianusmdelvalle
Domitian_as_caesar_legionary_standard.jpg
06 Domitian as Caesar RIC-1081113 viewsAR Denarius, 3.45g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, r.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Clasped hands holding legionary eagle set on prow
RIC 1081 (C2). BMC 269. RSC 393. BNC 240.
Acquired from Beast Coins, April 2007.


The reverse represents 'Concordia Militum', harmony of the troops. Domitian quite possibly was plotting against Titus after Vespasian's death by appealing to the troops with a double donative. This coin might provide numismatic evidence of such. Suetonius states: " On the death of his father he hesitated for some time whether to offer a double largess to the soldiers, and he never had any compunction about saying that he had been left a partner in the imperial power, but that the will had been tampered with."

A nice coin with average wear and an interesting history behind it.


Vespasian70
Nero_RIC_I_15.jpg
06 Nero RIC I 1539 viewsNero. 54-68 A.D. AR Denarius. Rome Mint. 54 A.D. Oct.-Dec.. (3.43g, 19.1mm, 9h) . Obv: NERO CAESAR AVG IMP, bare head right. Rev: PONTIF MAX TR P IIII PP around oak-wreath enclosing EX SC. RIC I 15 (R2).

A worn but scarce pre-reform denarius from early in Nero’s reign. Despite the wear, the weight of this specimen is quite nice. The EX SC with the oak wreath could allude to the Senate’s awarding of the corona civica to Nero. This specimen also has a very unusual die axis for imperial coinage of the Roman mint from this time.
1 commentsLucas H
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_08_rev_05.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
rexesq
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_01_rev_04.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES23 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
2 commentsrexesq
faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_obv_09_rev_06.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES17 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
rexesq
faustina-jr_AR-Denarius_CERES_00.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES25 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
2 commentsrexesq
Copy_of_faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_w-quarter_obv_01.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES - with US 25 Cent coin.8 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
--------------------------------
*US Quarter Dollar (25 cents) to right, for size comparison.
--------------------------------
rexesq
Copy_of_faustina-jr_AR-denarius_CERES_3_4gr_w-quarter_obv_05.JPG
07 - Faustina Jr. - AR Denarius - CERES - with US 25 Cent coin.12 viewsAncient Roman Empire
Empress Faustina Jr. (161 - 175 AD)
also known as 'Faustina the Younger', daughter of Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius (138 - 161 AD) and Roman Empress Faustina Sr. (138 - 141 AD) also known as 'Faustina the Elder'.
Faustina Jr. was wife of the Roman Emperor, who also happened to be her maternal cousin, Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius (161 - 180 AD).
She was also mother to the future Emperor 'Commodus' (180 - 192 AD, sole reign ).

obv: FAVSTINA AVGVSTA - Draped bust of Empress Faustina facing right.
rev: CERES - Ceres seated left, holding corn ears and long torch.

Size: 19 mm
Weight: 3.4 Grams
----
--------
----
Imperial Lifetime Issue Minted During the Reign of Marcus Aurelius.

References: RIC 669, RSC 35, BMC 79
---
-
--------------------------------
*US Quarter Dollar (25 cents) to right, for size comparison.
--------------------------------
rexesq
Personajes_Imperiales_7.jpg
07 - Personalities of the Empire50 viewsVolusian, Corn. Supera, Valerian I, Mariniana, Gallienus, Salonina, Valerian II, Saloninus, Regalianus, Dryantilla, Macrianus, Quietus, Postumus and Laelianus.mdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_8.jpg
08 - Personalities of the Empire79 viewsMarius, Victorianus, Domitian II, Tetricus I, Tetricus II, Claudius II, Quintillus, Aurelianus, Severina, Zenobia, Vaballathus, Tacitus, Florianus and Probus2 commentsmdelvalle
V1088.jpg
08a Domitian as Caesar RIC-108886 viewsAR Denarius, 3.14g
Rome Mint, 79 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: CAESAR AVG F DOMITIANVS COS VI; Head of Domitian, laureate, bearded, l.
Rev: PRINCEPS IVVENTVTIS; Vesta std. l., with Palladium and sceptre
RIC 1088 (R3). BMC p. 46 note. RSC 379. BNC -.
Ex Den of Antiquity (eBay), October 2012.

A very rare (4th known) left facing portrait of the common Vesta and Palladium reverse. It is listed in Cohen as 379 (citing lot 784 of the de Moustier Sale of 1872) , although the new RIC states it is unverified (?). The lone example cited by RIC is in G. Mazzini's Monete imperiali romane, vol. 1. Also, Curtis Clay has a specimen, same die pair as mine. Left facing portraits of Domitian are extremely rare, especially those as Caesar.

Worn but all the major devices are visible.

Thanks to Curtis Clay for additional attribution help!
David Atherton
Personajes_Imperiales_9.jpg
09 - Personalities of the Empire52 viewsSaturninus, Carus, Carinus, Urbica, Nigrinianus, Numerianus, Diocletian, Maximian, Carausius, Allectus, Constantius I, Theodora, Galerius and Galeria Valeriamdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_9~0.jpg
09 - Personalities of the Empire33 viewsCarinus, Magnia Urbica, Nigrinianus, Numerianus, Diocletian, Maximian, Carausius, Allectus, Constantius I, Theodora, Galerius, Galeria Valeria, Severus II and Maxentiusmdelvalle
trajan mines coin RIC709-RR.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AE quadrans - struck 104-110 AD72 viewsobv: IMP CAES TRAIAN AVG GER DAC (laureate head right)
rev: METALLI VLPIANI (Aequitas standing left, holding scales and cornucopia)
ref: RIC II 709 (R2), Cohen 182 (30frcs)
3.23gms, 17mm
Very rare

Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the name of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Others theorize that these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function,much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. The exact denomination is unclear. Most appear to be quadrans in the 14-17mm range but some larger examples could be considered semisses.
berserker
trajan_RIC243.jpg
098-117 AD - TRAJAN AR denarius - struck 112-114 AD127 viewsobv: IMP TRAIANO AVG GER DAC P M TR P COS VI PP (laureate bust right, slight drapery on left shoulder)
rev: SPQR OPTIMO PRINCIPI (Abundantia standing left, holding cornucopiae and grain ears; at her feet, a child holding a roll), in ex. ALIM ITAL [Alimenta Italiae]
ref: RIC II 243, C.9 (3frcs)
mint: Rome
2.91gms, 19mm

The Alimenta was a welfare program for poor children and orphans. Credit for designing the program is usually attributed to Nerva, but it was increased and formally organized under Trajan. The Alimenta was funded from several sources. Probably, money from the Dacian Wars was used to initially underwrite the program; however, the long-term existence of the program was insured through 5% interest paid by wealthy landowners on loans and estate taxes. Philanthropy was also encouraged and contributed to the total funding.
Under Alimenta, boys of freemen received 16 sesterces monthly, girls received 12, while children borne out of wedlock received a bit less. The Alimenta was supplemented with a special young girls foundation initiated by Antoninus Pius in honor of his deceased wife Faustina. Municipal magistrates administered the alimentary funds and in turn were supervised by imperial clerks who had the status of knights.
1 commentsberserker
V1446dark.jpg
09a Domitian as Caesar RIC 1446113 viewsAR Denarius, 3.04g
Ephesus mint, 71 AD (Vespasian)
Obv: DOMITIANVS CAESAR AVG F; Bust of Domitian, cuirassed, seen from front, Medusa head on breast of cuirass, fold of cloak on left shoulder, head bare, r.
Rev: CONCORDIA AVG; Ceres std. l., on ornate high-backed chair, with corn ears and poppy and cornucopiae; in exergue, EPHE
RIC 1446 (C). BMC 470. RSC 38. RPC 847 (10 spec.). BNC 363.
Acquired from Lucernae, eBay, January 2015.

In Domitian's first imperial coinage issue he was given special treatment regarding the bust type chosen. The engravers at Ephesus depicted him cuirassed with a cloak draped over his left shoulder. Vespasian and Titus were not engraved so elaborately (although at Antioch Titus' bust is draped). Why this is so is a mystery. Unusually Domitian shares the same reverse types as Vespasian and Titus in this series, unlike at Rome where he largely had his own unique types. This Ceres reverse is probably the most common of his Ephesus denarii.

A worn coin to be sure, but the handsome bust shines through the wear.
5 commentsDavid Atherton
ANTOSE86a.jpg
1. Aeneas travels from Troy to Italy 47 viewsAntoninus Pius. 138-161 AD. Sestertius (24.15g, Ř 33mm, 12h). Rome mint. Struck AD 140-144.
Obv.: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right.
Rev.: S C [left and right in field], Aeneas wearing a short tunic and cloac, advancing right, carrying Anchises on left shoulder and holding Ascanius by right hand. Anchises (veiled and draped) carries a box in left hand, Ascanius wears a short tunic and Phrygian cap and caries a pedum in left hand. RIC 627[R2], BMCRE 1292, Cohen 761; Banti (I Grandi Bronzi Imperiali) 373 (4 specimens); Foss 57b.

This sestertius was issued in preparation of the 900th anniversary of Rome which was celebrated in A.D.147.
The scene depicts Aeneas leaving Ilium, as the Romans called Troy, with Ascanius and Anchises. According to Vergil (Aeneid, Book 2), Aeneas, the son of the goddess Venus and the Trojan Anchises, fled with some remnants of the inhabitants of Troy as it fell to the Greeks, taking with him his son, Ascanius, his elderly father, Anchises, and the Palladium, the ancient sacred statue of Athena. The Trojans eventually made their way west to resettle in Italy. There they intermarried with the local inhabitants and founded the town of Lavinium, and thereby became the nucleus of the future Roman people. One of the descendants of Aeneas' son Ascanius (known now as Iulus) was Rhea Silvia, mother of Romulus and Remus, founders of Rome. The mythological depictions on this coin reinforce the importance of Ilium, not only as the seedbed of the future Roman people, but also as the mother city of the future caput mundi.
Charles S
Personajes_Imperiales_10.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire44 viewsSeverus II, Maxentius, Romulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Alexander, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Valerius Valens, Licinius II, Crispus and Martinianusmdelvalle
Personajes_Imperiales_10~0.jpg
10 - Personalities of the Empire43 viewsRomulus, Constantine I, Helena, Fausta, Licinius I, Constantia, Maximinus II, Licinius II, Crispus, Constantine II, Delmatius, Hanibalianus, Constans and Constantius II.

mdelvalle
Vespasian_RSC_574.jpg
10 Vespasian Denarius, 72 AD8 viewsROMAN IMPERIAL
Vespasian
AR Denarius, struck 72-73 AD

O: IMP CAES VESP AVG P M COS IIII, laureate head right

R: VES-TA to either side of Vesta standing left, holding simpulum & scepter.

RSC 574, BMC 71.

Fine
RI0067
Sosius
101a.jpg
101a Probus. bill antoninianus25 viewsobv: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG rad. bust l. in imperial mantle, holding eagle tipped scepter
rev: S_O_L_I INVICTO Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
ex: KA.A.
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102a. Plotina136 viewsPlotina, wife of Trajan.

Under Trajan, his female relations played enormously important roles in the empire's public life, and received honors perhaps unparalleled. Trajan's wife, Pompeia Plotina, is reported to have said, when she entered the imperial palace in Rome for the first time, that she hoped she would leave it the same person she was when she entered. She received the title Augusta no later than 105. She survived Trajan, dying probably in 121, and was honored by Hadrian with a temple, which she shared with her husband, in the great forum which the latter had built.

Ć trial strike of denarius dies (23 mm, 7.42 g). Rome. [PL]OTINA AVG IMP TRAIANI, diademed and draped bust right, hair in queue down neck / CAES AVG GERMA [D]A[C] COS V[I P P], Vesta seated left, holding palladium in right hand, sceptre in left. Cf. RIC 730 (Trajan); cf. BMC 526 (Trajan); cf. RSC 3. VF, rough green patina. Very unusual and probably unique. Ex Spink 160 (9-10 October 2002), 852.
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104. Antoninus Pius37 viewsAntoninus Pius

The long reign of the emperor Antoninus Pius is often described as a period of peace and quiet before the storm which followed and plagued his successor, Marcus Aurelius. In addition to the relative peacefulness, this emperor set the tone for a low-keyed imperial administration which differed markedly from those of his two immediate predecessors, Trajan and Hadrian. Antoninus managed to govern the empire capably and yet with such a gentle hand that he earned the respect, acclaim, and love of his subjects. Antoninus Pius died in March of A.D. 161, after giving the appropriate imperial watchword which so typified his reign, "equanimity". He was soon afterward deified by the Senate.

RI2. Denarius. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P XXIIII, laureate head right / FELIC SAEC COS IIII, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus & leaning on short column. RSC 361. RIC 309
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104. Antoninus Pius & Marcus Aurelius32 viewsAntoninus Pius & Marcus Aurelius

In preparation for the succession, Antoninus' daughter Faustina married Marcus Aurelius in A.D. 145 and she soon became Augusta in place of her deceased mother. Marcus Aurelius was associated in imperial powers and he and L. Verus both held the consulship multiple times in preparation for their accession. In his Meditations, Marcus Aurelius expressed his enduring love and respect for his adoptive father: "Do all things as a disciple of Antoninus. Think of his constancy in every act rationally undertaken, his invariable equability, his piety, his serenity of countenance, his sweetness of disposition, his contempt for the bubble of fame, and his zeal for getting a true grasp of affairs."

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Sestertius. ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III, laureate head right / AVRELIVS CAESAR AVG PII COS S-C. Cohen 34.
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106a. Crispina48 viewsCrispina married the sixteen year-old, Commodus in the summer of 178 and brought him, as a dowry, a large number of estates. These, when added to the Imperial holdings, gave him control of a substantial part of Lucanian territory. The actual ceremony was modest but was commemorated on coinage and largesse was distributed to the people. An epithalamium for the occasion was composed by the sophist Julius Pollux.

Upon her marriage, Crispina received the title of Augusta, and thus, became Empress of the Roman Empire as her husband was co-emperor with her father-in-law at the time. The previous empress and her mother-in-law, Faustina the Younger, having died three years prior to her arrival.

Like most marriages of young members of the nobiles, it was arranged by paters: in Crispina's case by her father and her father-in-law, Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Crispina probably meant little to her egocentric husband though she was a beautiful woman. The other possible reason being that Commodus was known to prefer the company of men. Crispina is described as being a graceful person with a susceptible heart, but there is no medal extant of her.

As Augusta, Crispina was extensively honoured with public images, during the last two years of her father-in-law's reign and the initial years of her husband's reign. She did not seem to have any significant political influence over her husband during his bizarre reign. However, she was not exempted from court politics either as her sister-in-law, Lucilla, was an ambitious woman and was reportedly jealous of Crispina, the reigning empress, due to her position and power.

Crispina's marriage failed to produce an heir due to her husband's inability, which led to a dynastic succession crisis. In fact, both Anistius Burrus (with whom Commodus had share his first consulate as sole ruler) and Gaius Arrius Antoninus, who were probably related to the imperial family, were allegedly put to death 'on the suspicion of pretending to the throne'.

After ten years of marriage, Crispina was falsely charged with adultery by her husband and was banished to the island of Capri in 188, where she was later executed. After her banishment, Commodus did not marry again but took on a mistress, a woman named Marcia, who was later said to have conspired in his murder.

Crispina, wife of Commodus, 177-192, AE Dupondius or As (24x25mm), aVF. Sear RCV 6018. Obv. CRISPINA AVGVSTA, draped bust right. Rev. IVNO LVCINA S C, Juno standing left holding patera and scepter. The coin is brown and green, on a squarish flan.
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107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!203 views107 Severina (270-275 A.D.), T-3203 (Estiot), RIC V-I 019var, Antioch, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORDIA AVG, V//XXI, Emperor and Empress, R!
avers:- SEVERINA-PF-AVG, Empress right, diademed, draped, on a lunar crescent. (E2)
revers:- CONCORDIA-AVG, Emperor togate (no laurel crown) standing right, clasping the hand of Empress standing left. (Emperor and Empress 1)
"A very interesting coin from the historical point of view as it belongs to the issues dating from Severina's interregnum after the assassination of Aurelian (september-november 275).
"As far as the organisation of coin production was concerned, we see that from the end of 274, certain officinae in some of the mints struck coins exclusively for Severina: this is the case with issues 2-4 at Lyon, issues 10-11 at Rome and issue 4 at Ticinum. After the death of Aurelian, the officinae are no longer shared between Aurelian and Severina: at Lyon, there is a 5th issue attested by coins in the name of Severina only, and the same applies to the 12th issue at Rome where the empress monopolizes the six active équipes, and the 5th issue at Ticinum, where all six officinae struck coins just for Severina. It is clear that the Empress as regent was exercising alone power and right to coin.
In fact the evidence shows that all eight mints that were active in the autumn of 275 across the Empire were producing issues in the name of Severina alone. The mint at Serdica struck coins for Severina with the legend Severina Augusta.The mint at Antioch exceptionally gave the Empress the titles P(ia) F(elix), normally reserved for emperors; on the reverse, the legend is changed from the plural form Concordia Augg (Augustorum) to the singular Concordia Aug, which may be expanded as Concordia Augustae. The type no longer shows the standard reverse, Aurelian shaking the hand of Concordia, but an anonymous male figure, now without laurel-wreath and sceptre, shaking the hand of Severina, who is easily recognizable by her characteristic hairdress and is shown in a larger size. At Alexandria, coins in the name of Severina continued to be struck as the mint received the news of Aurelian’s assassination, and stopped issuing his coins: the hoards from Karanis have 5 tetradrachms of the 7th year of Aurelian (that is after 29 August 275), but 25 of Severina."
(From the website Monnaies de l'Empire Romain / Roman Imperial Coinage 268-276 AD : http://www.ric.mom.fr/en/info/hist5#severine)"
by S. Estiot. Thank you S. Estiot.
exerg: V//XXI, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,61g, axes: 0h,
mint: Antioch, iss-7, off-5, date: 275 A.D., ref: RIC-19var., T-3203 (Estiot), C-,
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107. Pertinax35 viewsPertinax

Only a mediocre public speaker, Pertinax was first and foremost a gritty old soldier. He was heavily built, had a pot belly, although it was said, even by his critics, that he possessed the proud air of an emperor.
He possessed some charm, but was generally understood to be a rather sly character. He also acquired a reputation for being mean and greedy. He apparently even went as far as serving half portions of lettuce and artichoke before he became emperor. It was a characteristic which would not serve him well as an emperor.

When he took office, Pertinax quickly realized that the imperial treasury was in trouble. Commodus had wasted vast sums on games and luxuries. If the new emperor thought that changes would need to be made to bring the finances back in order he was no doubt right. But he sought to do too much too quickly. In the process he made himself enemies.

The gravest error, made at the very beginning of his reign, was to decide to cut some of the praetorian's privileges and that he was going to pay them only half the bonus he had promised.
Already on 3 January AD 193 the praetorians tried to set up another emperor who would pay up. But that senator, wise enough to stay out of trouble, merely reported the incident to Pertinax and then left Rome.

The ordinary citizens of Rome however also quickly had enough of their new emperor. Had Commodus spoilt them with lavish games and festivals, then now Pertinax gave them very little.
And a truly powerful enemy should be the praetorian prefect Laetus. The man who had after all put Pertinax on the throne, was to play an important role in the emperor's fate. It isn't absolutely clear if he sought to be an honest advisor of the emperor, but saw his advise ignored, or if he sought to manipulate Pertinax as his puppet emperor. In either case, he was disappointed.

And so as Pertinax grew ever more unpopular, the praetorians once more began to look for a new emperor. In early March, When Pertinax was away in Ostia overseeing the arrangements for the grain shipments to Rome, they struck again. This time they tried to set up one of the consuls, Quintus Sosius Falco.

When Pertinax returned to Rome he pardoned Falco who'd been condemned by the senate, but several praetorians were executed. A slave had given them away as being part of the conspiracy.
These executions were the final straw. On 28 March AD 193 the praetorians revolts.
300 hundred of them forced the gates to the palace. None of the guards sought to help their emperor.
Everyone, so it seemed, wanted rid of this emperor. So, too, Laetus would not listen as Pertinax ordered him to do something. The praetorian prefect simply went home, leaving the emperor to his fate.

Pertinax did not seek to flee. He stood his ground and waited, together with his chamberlain Eclectus. As the praetorians found him, they did not discover an emperor quivering with fear, but a man determined on convincing them to put down their weapons. Clearly the soldiers were over-awed by this brave man, for he spoke to them for some time. But eventually their leader found enough courage to step forwards and hurl his spear at the emperor. Pertinax fell with the spear in his chest. Eclectus fought bravely for his life, stabbing two, before he two was slain by the soldiers.
The soldiers then cut off Pertinax' head, stuck it on a spear and paraded through the streets of Rome.

Pertinax had ruled for only 87 days. He was later deified by Septimius Severus.

RI1. Pertinax. A.D. 193. AR denarius (18.0 mm, 2.74 g, 7 h). Rome mint. Rare. IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG, laureate head right / OPI DIVIN TR P COS II, Ops seated left, holding two stalks of grain, resting hand on seat of throne. RIC 8a; RSC 33; BMCRE 19. aVF, flan crack.
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11 - Personalities of the Empire51 views
Magnentius, Decentius, Vetranius, Constantius Gallo, Julian II, Jovian, Valentinianus I, Valens, Procopius, Gratianus, Valentinianus II, Theodosius I, Aelia Flacilla and Magnus Maximus
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11-20 - Smyrna en Ionia - BRITANICO (50 - 54 D.C.)17 viewsAE15 - 1/2 Assarión (Provincial)
15 mm 4,05 gr 0 hr.

Tiberio Claudio César Británico en latín Tiberius Claudius Caesar Britannicus (12 de febrero de 41 - 11 de febrero de 55) fue un noble romano, nacido del matrimonio entre el emperador Claudio y su tercera esposa, Valeria Mesalina. En el momento de su nacimiento, sólo un mes después del inicio del reinado de Claudio, fue nombrado heredero del Imperio; no obstante hubo tres factores: la condena a muerte de su madre a causa de bigamia, el matrimonio de Claudio con Agripina y la adopción de Nerón, descendiente del recordado Germánico, que provocaron que los ciudadanos romanos no le consideraran como sucesor imperial. Fue asesinado el día anterior a su decimocuarto cumpleańos. (Fuente Wikipedia)

Anv: "ZMYP" debajo - Busto vestido a cabeza desnuda viendo a derecha.
Rev: "ΕΠΙ ΦΙΛΙΣ ΤΟΥ ΕΙΚΑΔΙΟ Σ", (Philistos y Eikadios Magistrados), Nike avanzando a derecha, portando un trofeo sobre su hombro.

Acuńada 50 - 54 D.C.
Ceca: Smyrna en Ionia

Referencias: Vagi #650 - Lingren #562 - KLDSE XXXI #37 pag.223 - SNG Cop #1351 - SNG Von Aulock #7995 - BMC Vol.16 #284 Pag.270 - RPC I #2476 Pag.419
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 185, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, Roma seated in temple,319 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 185, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, Roma seated in temple,
avers:- IMP-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R wreath E, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 3,50g, axes: 10h,
mint: Rome, 5th emission, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 185, p-37,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 185, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, Roma seated in temple,122 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 185, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, Roma seated in temple,
avers:- IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R crescent E, diameter: 22,0-23,0mm, weight: 3,86g, axes: 11h,
mint: Rome, 4th. emission, date: 279 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 185, p-37,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #171 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #1
avers:- PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes: h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 187, p-37,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #2178 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #2
avers:- PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, diameter: 22mm, weight: 2,75g, axes: 5h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 187, p-37,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #3178 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 187, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H, -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, Roma seated in temple, #3
avers:- PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exerg: -/-//R-thunderbolt-Δ, diameter: 21mm, weight: 2,70g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 187, p-37,
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1 commentsquadrans
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 200, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R Thunderbolt Γ, Sol in quadriga galloping left, 135 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 200, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R Thunderbolt Γ, Sol in quadriga galloping left,
avers:- IMP-PROB-VS-P-F-AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle. (6,H)
revers:- SOLI-INVICT-O, Sol in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left holding whip and globe.
exergo: -/-//R Thunderbolt Γ, diameter: 21,5-22,7mm, weight: 3,15g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission of Rome, 281 A.D., date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 200, p-,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 202, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R crescent E, Sol in quadriga galloping left, C,353 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 202, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R crescent E, Sol in quadriga galloping left, C,
avers:- IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle. (6,H)
revers:- SOL-I-IN-VIC-TO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left holding whip on globe.
exergo: -/-//R crescent E, diameter: 22,5-24,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, 5th emission of Rome, 278 A.D., date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 202, p-100,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 202, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R dot in crescent B, Sol in quadriga galloping left, 87 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 202, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R dot in crescent B, Sol in quadriga galloping left,
avers: IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle. (6,H)
revers: SOLI-INVIC-TO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left holding whip on globe.
exergo: -/-//R dot in crescent B, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 2,65g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, 5th emission of Rome, 278 A.D., date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 202, p-100,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 202, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R dot in crescent E, Sol in quadriga galloping left, 108 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 202, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R dot in crescent E, Sol in quadriga galloping left,
avers: IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle. (6,H)
revers: SOL-I-IN-VIC-TO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left holding whip on globe.
exergo: -/-//R dot in crescent E, diameter: 22-24mm, weight: 4,01g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, 5th emission of Rome, 278 A.D., date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 202, p-100,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 202, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R*B, Sol in quadriga galloping left, #1223 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 202, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R*B, Sol in quadriga galloping left, #1
avers:- IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle. (6,H)
revers:- SO-LI-IN-VIC-TO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left holding whip on globe.
exergo: -/-//R*B, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,20g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, 3rd emission of Rome, 278, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 202, p-39,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 202, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R*B, Sol in quadriga galloping left, #2106 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 202, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R*B, Sol in quadriga galloping left, #2
avers:- IMP-PRO-BVS-AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle. (6,H)
revers:- SO-LI-IN-VIC-TO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left holding whip on globe.
exergo: -/-//R*B, diameter: 22-23,5mm, weight: 3,20g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, 3rd emission of Rome, 278, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 202, p-39,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 203, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R Thunderbolt Γ, Sol in quadriga galloping left, 74 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 203, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R Thunderbolt Γ, Sol in quadriga galloping left,
avers:- PRO-BVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle. (6,H)
revers:- SOL-I-IN-VIC-TO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left holding whip and globe.
exergo: -/-//R Thunderbolt Γ, diameter: 22,5-24,5mm, weight: 3,16g, axis: 6h,
mint: Rome, 6th emission of Rome, 281 A.D., date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 203, p-39,
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112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204 var (Not in RIC this officina), Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, Sol in spread quadriga,97 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204 var (Not in RIC this officina), Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- SO-LI-I-N-VICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding globe and whip.
exergo: -/-//* R-B, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Rome, 3rd emission of Rome, 278, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 204 var (Not in RIC this officina), p-39,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_exe-R_RIC-V-II-204var(Not_in_thisBust)-p-39_Rome_2nd-emiss_277-AD_Q-x01_axis-5h_22-25mm_4,66g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204 var, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H-var (Not in RIC), Sol in spread quadriga,113 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204 var, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H-var (Not in RIC), Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, and globe in right hand. (H-var Not in RIC)
revers:- SO-LI-IN-VIC-TO, Sol in spread quadriga holding globe and whip.
exergo: -/-//R, diameter: 22-25mm, weight: 4,66g, axis: 5h,
mint: Rome, 2nd emission of Rome, 277, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 204var (Not in RIC), p-39,
Q-001
"What is particularly interesting in this coin is that it was unlisted till now with this exergue // R (cf. S. Estiot & Ph. Gysen, L'atelier de Rome au début du rčgne de Probus: corpus et documents inédits, Revue Numismatique 2006, tables p. 254-255)
[downloadable : http://www.academia.edu/1368399/Latelier_de_Rome_au_debut_du_regne_de_Probus_276-277_corpus_et_documents_inedits ]
In fact since our 2006 article has been published, I realized that there was such a coin in Vienna: so Joe's is the second known exemplary; furthermore, it has been struck with the same reverse die as the coin in Vienna. "by S.Estiot, Thank you S. Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_SO-L-I-INVIC-T-O_R_RIC-V-II-204-p39_3rd-em-Rome_278-AD_Q-001_0h_21,5-22,5mm_3,04ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R, Sol in spread quadriga,178 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 204, Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R, Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- SO-L-I-IN-VIC-T-O, Sol in spread quadriga holding globe and whip.
exergo: -/-//R, diameter:21,5-22,5 mm, weight:3,04 g, axis: 0h,
mint: Rome, 3rd emission of Rome, 278, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 204, p-39,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_---_112_Probus_AE-Ant-Silv_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG_SO-L-I-I-N-VIC-T-O_R-E_RIC-V-II-205var(Not_in_Bust_and_off_)-p-39_Rome_2nd-em-5th-off_277-AD_Q-001_7h_23,5mm_4,25g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 205var. (???), Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R E, Sol in spread quadriga, Not in RIC this Bust and officina !!!108 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 205var. (???), Rome, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//R E, Sol in spread quadriga, Not in RIC this Bust and officina !!!
avers: IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers: SO-L-I-I-N-VIC-T-O, Sol faceing in spread quadriga holding globe and whip.
exergo: -/-//R E, diameter:23,5 mm, weight:4,25g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, 3rd emission of Rome, 278, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 205var. (???), p-39, Not in RIC this Bust and officina !!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG-CONS-II_CONSERVAT-AVG_T_XXT_Bust-H_RIC-352_p-55_Ticinum-4th-em_278-AD_Rare_Q-001_axis-6h_21-23,5mm_3,83g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 352, Ticinum, CONSERVAT AVG, Bust-H2, -/-//TXXT, Sol standing left, #1, Rare!!!208 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 352, Ticinum, CONSERVAT AVG, Bust-H2, -/-//TXXT, Sol standing left, #1, Rare!!!
avers:- IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS II, Radiate bust left, in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.(H2)
revers:- CONSERVAT AVG, Sol standing, looking left, right hand raised, left holding the globe.
exerg: -/-//TXXT, diameter: 21,0-23,5mm, weight: 3,83g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinium, 4th emission of Ticinum, 278, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-352, p-55, C-191, Rare !!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_352,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_PROBVS_AVG_CONS_II,_CONSERVAT_AVG,_Ticinum_4th-em,_3rd-off,_278-AD_Q-002,_7h,_21,5-23,0mm_3,53g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 352, Ticinum, CONSERVAT AVG, Bust-H2, -/-//TXXT, Sol standing left, #2, Rare!!!138 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 352, Ticinum, CONSERVAT AVG, Bust-H2, -/-//TXXT, Sol standing left, #2, Rare!!!
avers:- IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS II, Radiate bust left, in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.(H2)
revers:- CONSERVAT AVG, Sol standing, looking left, right hand raised, left holding the globe.
exerg: -/-//TXXT, diameter: 21,5-23,0mm, weight: 3,53g, axis: 7h,
mint: Ticinium, 4th emission of Ticinum, 278, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-352, p-55, C-191, Rare !!!
Q-002
quadrans
RIC_359,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_AVG_(H2),_FELICITAS_SEC,_SXXT,_Ticinum,_em-3rd_,_off-2,_277-8_AD,_Q-001,_5h,_22-24mm,_3,40g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 359, Ticinum, FELICITAS SEC, Bust-H2, -/-//SXXT, Felicitas standing left, Rare!#175 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 359, Ticinum, FELICITAS SEC, Bust-H2, -/-//SXXT, Felicitas standing left, Rare!#1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle. (H2)
reverse: FELICITAS SEC, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//SXXT, diameter: 22,0-24,0mm, weight: 3,40g, axes: 5h,
mint: Ticinum, 3rd. emission 2nd officinae, date: 277-278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 359, Rare!
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
112_Probus_(276-282_A_D_),_Ticinum,_RIC_V-II_480,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_PROBVS_AVG_(H2),_CONCORD_MILIT,_E_PXXT,_em-9,_off-1,_281AD,_Q-001,_6h,_23-24mm,_3,88g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 480, Ticinum, CONCORD MILIT, Bust H2, E/-//PXXI, Concordia standing left, #1130 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 480, Ticinum, CONCORD MILIT, Bust H2, E/-//PXXI, Concordia standing left, #1
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H2)
reverse: CONC ORD MILIT, Concordia standing left, holding two ensigns.
exergue: E/-//PXXI, diameter: 23,0-24,0mm, weight: 3,88g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th. emission, 1st. off. date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 480, p-69,
Q-001
This coin is part of the EQVITI series (E) of Ticinum.
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG-(H)_CONC-ORD-MILIT_E_P-XXI_RIC-V-II-480-p-69_Ticinum_10th-em_C-_282-AD_Q-001_6h_21,5-23,5mm_3,05g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 480, Ticinum, CONCORD MILIT, Bust H2, E/-//PXXI, Concordia standing left, #266 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 480, Ticinum, CONCORD MILIT, Bust H2, E/-//PXXI, Concordia standing left, #2
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.(H2)
reverse: CONC ORD MILIT, Concordia standing left, holding two ensigns.
exergue: E/-//PXXI, diameter: 21,5-23,5mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th. emission, 1st. off. date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 480, p-69,
Q-002
This coin is part of the EQVITI series (E) of Ticinum.
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG-(H)_SALVS-AVG_V-Star_T-XXI_RIC-V-II-499-p-_Ticinum_10th-em_C-_282-AD_Q-001_0h_21-22mm_3,27g-s~0.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 499, Ticinum, SALVS AVG, Bust-H, V/*//TXXI, Salus standing right,112 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 499, Ticinum, SALVS AVG, Bust-H, V/*//TXXI, Salus standing right,
avers:- IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG, Bust of Probus left, radiate, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped sceptre. (H)
revers:- SALVS-PVBLIC, Salus standing right, feeding serpent in arms.
exerg: V/*//TXXI, diameter: 21-22mm, weight: 3,27g, axes: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, 10th. emission, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-499, p-71,
Q-001
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("V") of Ticinum.
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG-CONS-IIII-(H)_SALVS-AVG_V-Star_T-XXI_RIC-V-II-504-p-71_Ticinum_9th-emiss_C-_281-AD_RR_Q-001_5h_21,5-24mm_3,45g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 504, Ticinum, SALVS AVG, Bust-H, V/-//TXXI, Salus standing right, RR!!631 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 504, Ticinum, SALVS AVG, Bust-H, V/-//TXXI, Salus standing right, RR!!
avers:- IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG-CONS-IIII, Bust of Probus left, radiate, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped sceptre. (H)
revers:- SALVS-AVG, Salus standing right, feeding serpent in arms.
exerg: V/-//TXXI, diameter: 21,5-24mm, weight: 3,45g, axes: 5h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th. emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-504, p-71, RR!!
Q-001
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("V") of Ticinum.
2 commentsquadrans
RIC_508_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG_MART-I-PACIF_I_star_Q-XXI_RIC-508_p-71_Ticinum-10th-emission_282-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/*//QXXI, Mars walking left,161 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/*//QXXI, Mars walking left,
avers: IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers: MART-I-PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.
exerg: I/*//QXXI, diameter: 20,4-24,0mm, weight: 3,81g, axes: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, 10th-emission, date: 282A.D., ref: RIC V-II 508, p-71 ,
Q-001
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("I") of Ticinum.
quadrans
RIC_508_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG_MART-I-PACIF_I_Q-XXI_RIC-508_p-71_Ticinum-9th-emission_281-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5-24mm_3,01g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #194 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #1
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers: MART I PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.
exerg: I/-//QXXI, diameter: 22,5-24mm, weight: 3,01g, axes: 0h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th-emission, date: 281A.D., ref: RIC V-II 508, p-71 ,
Q-001
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("I") of Ticinum.
quadrans
RIC_508_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG_MART-I-PACIF_I_Q-XXI_RIC-508_p-71_Ticinum-9th-emission_281-AD_Q-002_6h_22,0-24,5mm_4,19g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #2127 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 508, Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H, I/-//QXXI, Mars walking left, #2
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers: MART I PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield.
exerg: I/-//QXXI, diameter: 22,0-24,5mm, weight: 4,19g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th-emission, date: 281A.D., ref: RIC V-II 508, p-71 ,
Q-002
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("I") of Ticinum.
2 commentsquadrans
RIC_516_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG_PAX-AVGVSTI_T_VXXI_Bust-H_RIC-516_p-72_Ticinum-9th-em_281-AD_Q-001_6h_22-22,5mm_3,20g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 516, Ticinum, PAX AVGVSTI, Bust-H, T/-//VXXI, Pax standing left,87 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 516, Ticinum, PAX AVGVSTI, Bust-H, T/-//VXXI, Pax standing left,
avers: IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG, Bust of Probus left, radiate, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped sceptre. (H)
revers: PAX-AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre.
exerg: T/-//VXXI, diameter: 22-22,5mm, weight: 3,20g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th. emission, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-516, p-72,
Q-001
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("T") of Ticinum.
quadrans
RIC_521,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_PROBVS_AVG_CONS_IIII,_PAX_AVGVSTI,_T_VXXI,_H2,_Ticinum,_em-9,_off-5,_281AD,_Rare,_Q-001,_6h,_20,5-26mm,_2,41g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 521, Ticinum, PAX AVGVSTI, Bust H/H2, T/-//VXXI, Pax standing left, Rare!96 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 521, Ticinum, PAX AVGVSTI, Bust H/H2, T/-//VXXI, Pax standing left, Rare!
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS IIII, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H/H2)
reverse: PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre.
exergue: T/-//VXXI, diameter: 20,5-26,0mm, weight: 2,41g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th. emission, 5th. officinae, date: 282 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 521, Rare!
Q-001
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("T") of Ticinum.
2 commentsquadrans
RIC_525,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_PROBVS_AVG_(H2),_SECVRIT_PERP,_VIXXI,_I,_Ticinum,_em-9th_,_off-6,_281_AD,_Q-001,_6h,_22,5-24mm,_3,72g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 525, Ticinum, SECVRIT PERP, Bust-H2, -/I//VIXXI, Securitas standing left, #173 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 525, Ticinum, SECVRIT PERP, Bust-H2, -/I//VIXXI, Securitas standing left, #1
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG, Bust of Probus left, radiate, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped scepter. (H2)
reverse: SECVRIT PERP, Securitas standing left, leaning on column, legs crossed, hand raised to head.
exergue: -/I//VIXXI, diameter: 22,5-24,0mm, weight: 3,72g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th. emission, 6th. officina, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 525, p-73,
Q-001
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("I") of Ticinum.
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-PROBVS-AVG-(H)_SECVRIT-PERP_I_VIXXI_RIC-V-II-525-p-73_Ticinum_9th-em_C-_281-AD_Q-001_6h_22-22,5mm_3,91g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 525, Ticinum, SECVRIT PERP, Bust-H2, -/I//VIXXI, Securitas standing left, #2261 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 525, Ticinum, SECVRIT PERP, Bust-H2, -/I//VIXXI, Securitas standing left, #2
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG, Bust of Probus left, radiate, wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped scepter. (H2)
reverse: SECVRIT PERP, Securitas standing left, leaning on column, legs crossed, hand raised to head.
exergue: -/I//VIXXI, diameter: 22-22,5mm, weight: 3,91g, axes: 6h,
mint: Ticinum, 9th. emission, 6th. officina, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 525, p-73,
Q-002
This coin is part of the EQVITI series ("I") of Ticinum.
quadrans
RIC_544var_,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_PROBVS_AVG_CONS_III,_MARTI_PACIF,_Ticinum_6th-em,_4th-off,_279AD_Q-001,_11h,_22,0mm_3,4ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 544ver., Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H2/H, Δ/-//--, Mars walking left, Rare! #165 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 544ver., Ticinum, MARTI PACIF, Bust-H2/H, Δ/-//--, Mars walking left, Rare! #1
avers: IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS III, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H)
reverse: MART I PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear, and shield.
exergue: Δ/-//--, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 3.40g, axes: 11h,
mint: Ticinum, 6th-emission, 4th-off., date: 279A.D., ref: RIC V-II 544var., Rare!
Q-001
3 commentsquadrans
RIC_862,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_AVG_(H),_S_OL_I_INVIC_T_O,_KADelta,_Serdica-4th-emission_277Pink-or-280-81Gysen-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5-23mm_4,25g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 862, Serdica, Bust-H (H2), -/-//KAΔ, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, #1153 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 862, Serdica, Bust-H (H2), -/-//KAΔ, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, #1
avers:- IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Bust Type (H-H2), Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
revers:- S OL I INVIC T O, Sol faceing left in spred quadriga, rising right hand and holding whip in left hand.
exergo: -/-//KAΔ, no exergual line, diameter: 22,5-23,0mm, weight: 4,25g, axis: 0h,
mint: Serdica, date: 277 A.D. by Pink or 280-81 A.D. by Gysen, ref: RIC V-II 862, p-112, 4th emission,
Q-001
5 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG-(H)_S-OLI-INVIC-T-O_KA-dot-gamma-dot_RIC-862_Serdica-4th-emission_277Pink-or-280-81Gysen-AD_Q-001_7h_22,5mm_3,71g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 862, Serdica, Bust-H (H2), -/-//KA•Γ•, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, #1286 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 862, Serdica, Bust-H (H2), -/-//KA•Γ•, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, #1
avers:- IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Bust Type (H-H2), Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
revers:- S OL I INVIC T O, Sol faceing left in spred quadriga, rising right hand and holding whip in left hand.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, no exergual line, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,71g, axis: 7h,
mint: Serdica, date: 277 A.D. by Pink or 280-81 A.D. by Gysen, ref: RIC V-II 862, p-112, 4th emission,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG-(H-r_)_S-O-LI-INVICTO_KAdotGammadot_RIC-V-II-864-p112_Serdica_276-AD_Q-001_6h_22mm_4,45g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 864 var, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H right (Not in RIC), -/-//KA•Γ•, Sol in spread quadriga,121 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 864 var, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H right (Not in RIC), -/-//KA•Γ•, Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H-var right, Not in RIC)
revers:- S-O-LI-IN-VICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding globe and whip.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, no exergual line, diameter: 22mm, weight: 4,45g, axis: 6h,
mint: Serdica, 3rd emission of Serdica, 277, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 864 (Not in RIC), p-112,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG-(H)_SOLI-INVICTO_KA-dot-gamma-dot_RIC-864_Serdica-4th-emission_277Pink-or-280-81Gysen-AD_Q-001_h_22mm_x_xxga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 864, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//KA•Γ•, Sol in spread quadriga,101 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 864, Serdica, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H, -/-//KA•Γ•, Sol in spread quadriga,
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG, Bust Type H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
revers:- SOLI-INVICTO, Sol faceing left in spred quadriga, rising right hand and holding whip in left hand.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, no exergual line, diameter: 22mm, weight: x,xxg, axis: h,
mint: Serdica, date: 277 A.D. by Pink or 280-81 A.D. by Gysen, ref: RIC-V-II-864, p-112, 4th emission,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG(H)_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_KA-dot-Gamma-dot_RIC--p-114_Serdica--em--AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 877, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-H, (Bust-H Not in RIC), -/-//KA•Γ•, Emperor riding right, #192 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 877, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-H, (Bust-H Not in RIC), -/-//KA•Γ•, Emperor riding right, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Emperor riding right, spearing enemy, shield beneth the horse.
exergo:-/-//KA•Γ•, diameter: mm, weight: g, axes:h
mint: Serdica, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-877 (Bust-H Not in RIC), p-113,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_KAA_RIC-877var-p-113_Serdica_4th-em_281-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5-23,5mm_4,05g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 877var. Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-H, (Tis officina "KAA" and Bust-H Not in RIC), -/-//KAA, Emperor riding right, Rare, #1221 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 877var. Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-H, (Tis officina "KAA" and Bust-H Not in RIC), -/-//KAA, Emperor riding right, Rare, #1
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Emperor riding right, spearing enemy, shield beneth the horse.
exergo:-/-//KAA, diameter: 22,5-23,5mm, weight: 4,05g, axes:0h
mint: Serdica, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-877var. (Tis officina "KAA" and Bust-H Not in RIC), p-113,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant-_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-PIVS-AVG(H)_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_KA-dot-Delta-dot_RIC-V-II--p-_Serdica-_-AD_Q-001_5h_21,5-24mm_3,46ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 880var, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-Η, -/-//KA•Δ•, Emperor riding right, Rare!133 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 880var, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-Η, -/-//KA•Δ•, Emperor riding right, Rare!
avers: IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-PIVS-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (Η)
revers: VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Emperor riding right, spearing enemy, shield beneth the horse.
exergo: -/-//KA•Δ•, diameter: 23mm, weight: 4,4g, axes:11h
mint: Serdica 4ht emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-880 var., p-114, Rare,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_exe-no_RIC-V-II-911-p118_Cyzicus_276-AD__Q-001_6h_22mm_3,28g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2a-, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//--, Sol facing in spread quadriga, R3! #192 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2a-, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//--, Sol facing in spread quadriga, R3! #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol facing in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand.
exergue: -/-//--, diameter: 22mm, weight: 3,28g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, 2nd. emission, - officina, date: 276-277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-2a-, p-118, (La Venčra: 1 example), R3!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG(H)_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_B_RIC-V-II-911-p118_Cyzicus_276-AD__Q-001_6h_22mm_3,73ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-2, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//B, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #184 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-2, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//B, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol facing in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: -/-//B, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 3,73g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, 2nd. emission, 2nd. officina, date: 276-277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-2a-2, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG(H)_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_Gamma_RIC-V-II-911-p118_Cyzicus_276-AD__Q-001_0h_21-22,5mm_3,12g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//Γ, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #1103 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//Γ, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol facing in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: -/-//Γ, diameter: 21,0-22,5mm, weight: 3,12g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 2nd. emission, 3rd. officina, date: 276-277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-2a-3, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG(H)_SO-LI-N-VICT-O_Gamma_RIC-V-II-911-p118_Cyzicus_276-AD__Q-002_6h_22mm_3,92g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//Γ, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #2106 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-2b-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, -/-//Γ, Sol facing in spread quadriga, #2
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol facing in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: -/-//Γ, diameter: 22,0mm, weight: 3,92g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, 2nd. emission, 3rd. officina, date: 276-277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-2a-3, p-118,
Q-002
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI_RIC-911_Cyzicus_3rd-em_280-AD_Q-001_5h_22-24mm_4,40g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3c-, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXI, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1131 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3c-, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXI, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXI, diameter: 22,0-24,0mm, weight: 4,40g, axis: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, - officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3c-, p-118,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-P_RIC-911_Cyzicus_3rd-em_280-AD_Q-001_5h_21,5mm_2,34g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-1, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIP, Sol left in spread quadriga, #178 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-1, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIP, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIP, diameter: 21,5mm, weight: 2,34g, axis: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 1st. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-1, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-P_Bust-H_RIC-911-p-118_Cyzicus_280-AD_Q-001_11h_23mm_3,42gax-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-1, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIP, Sol left in spread quadriga, #269 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-1, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIP, Sol left in spread quadriga, #2
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIP, diameter: 23,0mm, weight: 3,42g, axis: 11h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 1st. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-1, p-118,
Q-002
quadrans
RIC_911,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,__IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_P_F_AVG_(H-H2),_SO_LI_IN_VICT_O,_CM_XXIS,_p118,_3rd_em_,_2nd_off_,_Cyzicus,_280-AD,_Q-001_6h_22,5mm_3,49g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-2, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIS, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1121 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-2, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIS, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIS, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,49g, axis: 6h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 2nd. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-2, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-T_Bust-H_RIC-911-p-118_Cyzicus_280-AD_Q-001_1h_22,5-23mm_3,35g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIT, Sol left in spread quadriga, #194 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-3, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIT, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIT, diameter: 22,5-23,0mm, weight: 3,35g, axis: 1h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 3rd. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-3, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-Q_Bust-H_RIC-911-p-118_Cyzicus_280-AD_Q-001_0h_23-23,5mm_3,68ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-4, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIQ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #183 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-4, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIQ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIQ, diameter: 23-23,5mm, weight: 3,68g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 4th. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-4, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-Q_Bust-H_RIC-911-p-118_Cyzicus_280-AD_Q-002_0h_22,5-23mm_4,31g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-4, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIQ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #2117 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-4, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIQ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #2
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIQ, diameter: 22,5-23,0mm, weight: 4,31g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 4th. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-4, p-118,
Q-002
quadrans
RIC_911-3-5,_112_Probus,_AE-Ant,__IMP_C_M_AVR_PROBVS_P_F_AVG_(H-H2),_SO_LI_IN_VICT_O,_CM_XXIV,_p118,_3rd_em_,_5th_off_,_Cyzicus,_280-AD,_Q-001,_5h,_22,5mm,_3,90g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-5, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIV, Sol left in spread quadriga, #181 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-3d-5, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIV, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIV, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,90g, axis: 5h,
mint: Cyzicus, 3rd. emission, 5th. officina, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-3d-5, p-118,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
RIC_911_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_SO-LI-INVICT-O_CM_XXI-E_Bust-H_RIC-911-p-118_Cyzicus_280-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_3,72gax-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-4-5, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIЄ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #175 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II 911-4-5, Cyzicus, SOLI INVICTO, Bust-H2/H, CM//XXIЄ, Sol left in spread quadriga, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SO LI INVICT O, Sol left in spread quadriga, raising right hand and holding the whip in left hand. No exergual line.
exergue: CM//XXIЄ, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,72g, axis: 0h,
mint: Cyzicus, 4th. emission, 5th. officina, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 911-4-5, p-118,
Q-001
quadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_DEO-ET-DOMINO-PROBO-INVICTO-AVG-(H)_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_KAdo-tGamma-dot_RIC-_Serdica_-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_22-24mm_2,99g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II ???, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-H, -/-//KA•Γ•, Emperor riding right, Rare !!!198 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II ???, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-H, -/-//KA•Γ•, Emperor riding right, Rare !!!
avers:- DEO-ET-DOMINO-PROBO-INVICTO-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Emperor riding right, spearing enemy, shield beneth the horse.
exergo: -/-//KA•Γ•, diameter: 22-24mm, weight: 2,99g, axes:6h,
mint: Serdica ? ht emission, date: A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-???, p-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_BONO-IMP-PROBO-INVICTO-AVG-(H)_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_KAA_RIC-_Serdica_-AD_Q-001_axis-7h_21,5-22,5mm_3,06g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II ???, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-H, -/-//KA•A•, Emperor riding right, Rare !!!209 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II ???, Serdica, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Bust-H, -/-//KA•A•, Emperor riding right, Rare !!!
avers:- BONO-IMP-PROBO-INVICTO-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle. (H)
revers:- VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG, Emperor riding right, spearing enemy, shield beneth the horse.
exergo: -/-//KA•A•, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 3,06g, axes:7h,
mint: Serdica ? ht emission, date: A.D., ref: RIC-V-II-???, p-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_PROBV-S-P-F-AVG_ROMAE-AETER_R-Thunderbolt-Delta_RIC-Not_in_Rome--AD_Very_Rare_Q-001_7h_21,5-22mm_4,02gx-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in !!!, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H-var. right (Not in RIC), Roma seated in temple, Very Rare !!!127 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in !!!, Rome, ROMAE AETER, Bust-H-var. right (Not in RIC), Roma seated in temple, Very Rare !!!
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, and globe in left hand. (H-var Not in RIC)
revers:- ROMAE-AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre.
exergo: -/-//R-Thunderbolt-Δ, diameter: 21,5-22mm, weight: 4,02g, axis: 7h,
mint: Rome, date: 281 A.D., ref: RIC V-II (Not in RIC), p-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG_OR-IENS-AVG_S-XX-T_RIC-_AD_Q-001_axis-0h_22-23mm_3,55g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in , Ticinum, ORIENS AVG, Bust-H, -/-//SXXT, Sol in quadriga left, extr. Rare !!!339 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in , Ticinum, ORIENS AVG, Bust-H, -/-//SXXT, Sol in quadriga left, extr. Rare !!!
avers:- IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
revers:- OR-IENS-AVG, Sol radiate and nimbate in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left holding whip.
exergo: -/-//SXXT, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 3,55g, axis: h,
mint: Ticinum, issue 3, date: A.D., ref: RIC- Not in RIC, Listed by S.Esitot (Probus Ticinum (S. Estiot, colloque Pflaum_2006)),Tabl V. pic. 11, Extr. rare. 3 known specimens,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_VIRTVS-AVG_R-B_Bust-H_RIC-Not-in-p-_2nd-em_Rome_277-AD_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in, Rome, Bust-H (H2), -/-//RB, VIRTVS AVG, Soldier standing left, #188 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), AE-Antoninianus, RIC V-II Not in, Rome, Bust-H (H2), -/-//RB, VIRTVS AVG, Soldier standing left, #1
avers:- IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (H-H2))
revers:- VIRTVS AVG, Soldier standing left, right hand resting on shield, left holding spear..
exerg: -/-//RB, diameter: 21,0-22,0mm, weight: 3,59g, axis: 11h,
mint: Rome, 2nd. emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II Not in RIC (Rev, legend!), p-,
Q-001
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RIC_650_A_026_No_112_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(1,H)_CONCORD-MILIT_V_XXI_RIC-650_7th-em_Siscia_Alf-26-No112_280-AD_Q-001_6h_21,5-25mm_3,59g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0026.0112, V//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 650, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORD MILIT, Emperor clasping the hand of Concordia, #1136 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0026.0112, V//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 650, AE-Antoninianus, CONCORD MILIT, Emperor clasping the hand of Concordia, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H).
reverse: CONCORD MILIT, Emperor standing right, clasping the hand of Concordia.
exergue: V//XXI, diameter: 21,5-25mm, weight: 3,59g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, 7th. emission, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 650, Alföldi 0026.0112,
Q-001
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Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_CONERVAT-AVG_XXI-VI_RIC-V-II-670_-5th-em_Siscia_Alf-27-No-_278-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_3,46ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0027.0064, -/-//XXIVI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 670, AE-Antoninianus, CONSERVAT AVG, Sol standing left, #1161 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0027.0064, -/-//XXIVI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 670, AE-Antoninianus, CONSERVAT AVG, Sol standing left, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H).
reverse: CONSERVAT AVG, Sol standing left, right hand raised, left holding the globe.
exergue: -/-//XXIVI, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,46g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 5th. emission of Siscia, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 670, p-89, Alföldi 0027.0064,
Q-001
quadrans
RIC_---_A_---_No_---_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PROBVS-INV-AVG_FELICITAS-AVG-N_XXI_RIC-(not-in)-V-II-686var_Alf_-32avar-No-_Siscia_2nd-emission_277-AD_Q-001_0h_22,5mm_3_22g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0032.0000 (This bust Not in from this type !!!), -/-//XXI, Bust A/C, RIC V-II 686var. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!), AE-Antoninianus, FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!125 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0032.0000 (This bust Not in from this type !!!), -/-//XXI, Bust A/C, RIC V-II 686var. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!), AE-Antoninianus, FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left, Extremely Rare!!!
avers: IMP PROBVS INV AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right, seen from front. (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!)
reverse: FELICITAS AVG N, Felicitas standing left by altar, holding caduceus and cornucopiae.
exergue: -/-//XXI, diameter: 22,5mm, weight: 3,22g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 2nd. emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 686var., (This bust not listed in RIC from this type!!!),
Q-001
"Thank you for showing this very rare coin reverse FELICITAS AVG(usti) N(ostri), Felicitas holding a long caduceus and a cornucopiae: the draped bust seen from front is unlisted in Alföldi's work on the mint of Siscia under Probus (so ref: Alföldi 32, -), I know it from another coin in a private collection, which shares the same obverse die as yours >> unreferenced coin, two specimens, one obverse die.
The new reverses introduced at that time in the Pannonian mint of Siscia celebrate Probus as "Augustus Noster" (Our Emperor) as the emperor is of Pannonian extraction. The marking which omits the officina number is a clue for an issue of common base aureliani minted parallelly with an imperial donativum in gold.
Very nice coin..S. Estiot" Thank you S.Estiot.
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_PAX-AVGVSTI_T_XXI_RIC-713_p-93_Alf-Typ-42-No-4_Siscia-5th-em_278-AD_Q-001_axis-6h_21,5-22,5mm_3,83g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0042.0004, -/T//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 713, AE-Antoninianus, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, Scarce!95 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0042.0004, -/T//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 713, AE-Antoninianus, PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, Scarce!
avers: IMP PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H).
reverse: PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and transverse sceptre.
exergue: -/T//XXI, diameter: 21,5-22,5 mm, weight: 3,83g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, 7th. emission, date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 713, p-93, C-, Alföldi 0042.0004, Scarce!
Q-001
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Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_ROMAE-AETERNAE_XXI-T_Siscia_RIC-V-II-739-p96_Alf-60-No-3_4th-emiss-277-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0060.0003, -/-//XXIT, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 739, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding globe, #171 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0060.0003, -/-//XXIT, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 739, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding globe, #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H).
reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding globe and sceptre, beside her, shield.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission of Siscia, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 739, p-96, C-, Alföldi 0060.0003,
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Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_ROMAE_AETERNAE_XXI-Q_Siscia_RIC-V-II-737-p96_277-AD-4off_Q-001_h_mm_ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0061.0004, -/-//XXIQ, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 737, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory, Scarce! #1104 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0061.0004, -/-//XXIQ, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 737, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory, Scarce! #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H)
reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory and sceptre, beside her, shield.
exergue: -/-//XXIQ, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, 4th emission of Siscia, late 277, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 737, p-96, C-558-562, Alföldi 0061.0004, (11 specimens), Scarce!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-PF-AVG_ROMAE_AETERNAE_XXI-V_Siscia_RIC-V-II-737-p96_277-AD-5off_Q-001_axis-5h_21-23mm_3,57g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0061.0005, -/-//XXIV, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 737, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory, Scarce! #1122 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0061.0005, -/-//XXIV, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 737, AE-Antoninianus, ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory, Scarce! #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H).
reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE, Roma seated in a temple, holding Victory and sceptre, beside her, shield.
exergue: -/-//XXIV, diameter: 21-23 mm, weight: 3,57g, axis:5h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission of Siscia, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 737, p-96, C-558-562, Alföldi 0061.0005, Scarce!
Q-001
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Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_SOLI-INVICTO_XXI-P_RIC-781var-p-102_Alf-73-No-46_Siscia_4thd-em-277-AD_Rare_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0073.0046, -/-//XXIP, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 776, AE-Antoninianus, SOLI INVICTO, Sol facing in spread quadriga (on clouds), #192 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0073.0046, -/-//XXIP, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 776, AE-Antoninianus, SOLI INVICTO, Sol facing in spread quadriga (on clouds), #1
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SOLI INVICTO, Sol facing in spread quadriga (on clouds), raising right hand and holding globe and whip in left hand.
exergue: -/-//XXIP, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia 4th emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 776, p-101, Alföldi 0073.0046,
Q-001
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Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-AVG_SOLI-IN-VICT-O_XXIT_RIC-768_C-000_Siscia-6th-emission_279_Q-001_21-23mm_3_53g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0076.0097, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II 768, AE-Antoninianus, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, Rare!!145 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0076.0097, -/-//XXIT, Bust B/F, RIC V-II 768, AE-Antoninianus, SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, Rare!!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate, bust right in the imperial mantle. (B/F).
reverse: SOLI IN VICT O, Sol in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left holding a whip.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 21-23mm, weight: 3,53g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, 6th. emission of Siscia, date: 279 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 768, p-100, C-655-657, Alföldi 0076.0097, Rare!!
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_SOL-I-IN-VI-C-TO-AV-G_XXI-VI_RIC-781var-p-102_Alf-83-No-6_Siscia_4thd-em-277-AD_Rare_Q-001_0h_22-23mm_3,97g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0083.0006var., -/-//XXIVI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 781var., AE-Antoninianus, SOLI INVICTO, Sol facing in spread quadriga (Clouds underneath quadriga but no wheels!), Rare!!!152 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0083.0006var., -/-//XXIVI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 781var., AE-Antoninianus, SOLI INVICTO, Sol facing in spread quadriga (Clouds underneath quadriga but no wheels!), Rare!!!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: SOLI INVICTO AVG, Sol facing in spread quadriga (Clouds underneath quadriga but no wheels!), raising right hand and holding globe and whip in left hand.
exergue: -/-//XXIVI, diameter: 22-23mm, weight: 3,97g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia 4th. emission, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 781var., p-101, Alföldi 0083.0006var., Rare!!!
Q-001
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Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-AVG-(H)_VIRTVS-P-ROBI-AVG_XXI-VI_RIC-816-p-100_Alf-96-No-133_Siscia_5th-em-278-AD_Scarce_Q-001_axis-h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0133, -/-//XXIVI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 816, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, Scarce!84 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0133, -/-//XXIVI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 816, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, Scarce!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H),
reverse: VIRTVS P ROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy.
exergue: -/-//XXIVI, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: 0h,
mint: Siscia, 5th. emission, date: 278 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 816, p-106, Alföldi 0096.0133, Scarce!
Q-001
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Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_VIRTV-S-PR-OBI-AVG_S_XXI_RIC-810-p-105_Alfoldi-96-no-64_Siscia-7th-em_280-AD_Q-001_11h_21,5-22,5mm_3,76ga-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0172, -/S//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 810, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right,77 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0172, -/S//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 810, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right,
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H).
reverse: VIRTV S PR OBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy.
exergue: -/S//XXI, diameter: 21,5-22,5mm, weight: 3,76g, axis: 11h,
mint: Siscia, 7th em., date: 280 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 810, p-105, Alföldi 0096.0172,
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Probus_AE-Ant-Silvered_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_VIRT-VSPR-OBI-AVG_XXI-S_RIC-810-p-105_Alfoldi-96-no-178_Siscia-4th-em_277-AD_Q-001_1h_21,5-23,5mm_3,18g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0178, -/-//XXIS, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 810, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, 66 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0096.0178, -/-//XXIS, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 810, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right,
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H).
reverse: VIRT VS PR OBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy.
exergue: -/-//XXIS, diameter: 21,5-23,5mm, weight: 3,18g, axis:1h,
mint: Siscia, 4th em., date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 810, p-105, Alföldi 0096.0178,
Q-001
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RIC_817_A_097_No_015_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-CM-AVR-PROBVS-PF-AVG_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_Gamma_XXI_RIC-817_p-106_NotinRIC-Gamma-Siscia_277-AD_Q-001_6h_21,5-23mm_3,01g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0097.0000 Not in !!!, Γ//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II Not in this officina Γ, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor riding right, Rare!!!98 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0097.0000 Not in !!!, Γ//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II Not in this officina Γ, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor riding right, Rare!!!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H)
reverse: VIRTVS P ROBI AVG, Emperor galloping right with spear and shield, spearing half-kneeling enemy warding off the attack.
exergue: Γ//XXI, diameter: 22-24mm, weight: 3,64g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II Not in RIC, Alföldi 0097.0000 Not in Alföldi !!!,
Q-001
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RIC_817_A_097_No_012_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG-(H)_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_XXIT_RIC-V-II-817_Alf-97-no12_Siscia_4th-em-277AD_Q-001_h_mm_gx-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0097.0012, -/-//XXIT, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 817, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor riding right, 84 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0097.0012, -/-//XXIT, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 817, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor riding right,
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping right, spearing kneeling enemy who warding off an attack.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: 21-22,5mm, weight: 3,54g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, 4th emission, date: 277 A.D. ref: RIC V-II 817, p-, Alföldi 0097.0012,
Q-001
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RIC_818_A_098_No_---_112_Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-C-M-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_VIRTVS-P-ROBI-AVG_T_XXI_RIC-(not-in)-818var_Alfoldi-98-no-x_Siscia-2nd_-emission_277_Q-001_h_22mm_x_xxg-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0098.0054var. (without shield beneath horse!), T//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 818var., AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, Rare!89 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0098.0054var. (without shield beneath horse!), T//XXI, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 818var., AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, Rare!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H)
reverse: VIRTVS P ROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, spearing an half-prostrate enemy warding off an attack, not (!!!) shield underneath Emperor's horse.
exergue: T//XXI, diameter: 22-24mm, weight: 3,64g, axis: 5h,
mint: Siscia, 7th. emission of Siscia, date: 280(?) A.D., ref: RIC V-II 818var., p-106, Alföldi 0098.0054var. (without shield beneath horse!),
Q-001
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Probus_AE-Ant_IMP-CM-AVR-PROBVS-P-F-AVG_VIRTVS-PROBI-AVG_XXIT_RIC-818_p-106_Alf-98_no-56_277-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0098.0056, -/-//XXIT, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 818, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, Scarce!72 views112 Probus (276-282 A.D.), Siscia, Alföldi 0098.0056, -/-//XXIT, Bust H2/H, RIC V-II 818, AE-Antoninianus, VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, Scarce!
avers: IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Bust Type H2/H, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle. (H2/H)
reverse: VIRTVS P ROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, spearing Half-prostrate enemy warding off an attack, his shield underneath Emperor's horse.
exergue: -/-//XXIT, diameter: mm, weight: g, axis: h,
mint: Siscia, 4th. emission of Siscia, date: 277 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 818, p-106, Alföldi 0098.0056,
Q-001
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112- Constantine-20.JPG
112- Constantine The Great -2042 viewsSilvered AE3, 317-320 AD, Cyzicus mint.
Obv: IMP CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding globe and mappa.
Rev: IOVI CONSERVATORI CAESS, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and sceptre. Wreath left A right.
SMK in exergue.
17mm, 3.1gm.
Mule, RIC 8 Obv, RIC 10-12 Rev.
jdholds
119_Diocletianus,_Siscia,_RIC_V-II_255,_AE-Ant,_IMP_C_DIOKLETIANVS_AVG,_CLEMENTIA_TEMP,_A_XXI,_288AD,_Q-001,_0h,_22-23mm,_3,48g-s.jpg
119 Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC V-II 255, AE-Antoninianus, A//XXI, CLEMENTIA TEMP, Diocletian and Jupiter standing facing each other, #1142 views119 Diocletianus (284-305 A.D.), Siscia, RIC V-II 255, AE-Antoninianus, A//XXI, CLEMENTIA TEMP, Diocletian and Jupiter standing facing each other, #1
avers: IMP C DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle (Consular bust), holding sceptre surmounted by an eagle.
reverse: CLEMENTIA TEMP, Emperor standing right holding spear and receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, A between them.
exergue: A//XXI, diameter: 22-23 mm, weight: 3,48 g, axes: 0h,
mint: Siscia, date: 288 A.D., ref: RIC V-II 255, p-247, C-479,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
119k_new.jpg
119k Licinius I. AE follis21 viewsobv: IMP LICI_NIVS AVG laur. bust L. wearing imperial mantle, holding scepter, mappa and globe
erv: IOVI CONS_ERVATORI AVGG Jupiter std. l. holding victory on globe and scepter
ex: (wreath)-Z//SMK.
hill132
Personajes_Imperiales_12.jpg
12 - Personalities of the Empire49 viewsFlavius Victor, Arcadius, Eudoxia, Honorius, Gala Placidia, Johannes, Theodosius II, Aelia Pulcheria, Valentinianus III, Marcian, Leon I, Severus III, Zenon I and Anastasius I (pre-reform)mdelvalle
Maximianus-Herculeus_AE-Silvered-Ant_IMP-MAXIMIANVS-P-F-AVG_PRIMIS-Xdot-MVLTIS-XX_XXI-Z_RIC-V-II-Not_in__p-_Rome-AD_Q-001_h_mm_g-s.jpg
120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC V-II Not in !!!, AE-Ant., -/-//XXIZ, PRIMIS X•MVLTIS XX, Jupiter standing left, Extremely Rare! #197 views120 Maximianus Herculeus (285-286 Caesar, 286-305, 307-308 & 310 A.D. Augustus), Rome, RIC V-II Not in !!!, AE-Ant., -/-//XXIZ, PRIMIS X•MVLTIS XX, Jupiter standing left, Extremely Rare! #1
avers:- IMP MAXIMIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by an eagle. (8,H).
revers:- PRIMIS X•MVLTIS XX, Jupiter standing left, holding thunderbolt and scepter.
exerg: -/-//XXIZ, diameter: 2,20mm, weight: 3,21g, axes: 0h,
mint: Rome, date: A.D., ref: RIC-V-II- Not in !!!, p-,
Q-001
1 commentsquadrans
128-1_Decia_2.jpg
128/1. Decia - denarius (206-200 BC)19 viewsAR Denarius (uncertain mint, 206-200 BC)
O/ Helmeted head of Roma right; X behind head.
R/ The Dioscuri galloping right; shield & carnyx below horses; ROMA in exergue.
4.01g; 20.5mm
Crawford 128/1 (less than 10 obverse dies/less than 12 reverse dies)
- Privately bought from Münzen & Medaillen Basel.
- Ex collection of Elvira Elisa Clain-Stefanelli (1914-2001), former director of the National Numismatic Collection (part of the Smithsonian Institute).
- Naville Numismatics Live Auction 29, lot 479.

* Anonymous (shield & carnyx), Decius?:

This very rare issue has traditionally been attributed to a descendant of a line of three heroes named Publius Decius Mus. The first of that name was Consul in 340 BC; he received the Grass Crown after having saved his army from destruction against the Samnites, then sacrificed himself at the Battle of Vesuvius during his consulship in an act of devotio (exchanging his life against the victory of his army). His son was four times Consul (312, 308, 297 and 295 BC) and similarly sacrificed himself at the Battle of Sentinum in 295 BC against a coalition of Etruscans, Samnites, and Gauls. The third of that name was Consul in 279 BC and fought against Pyrrhus, who successfully thwarted his attempt to sacrifice himself like his ancestors (cf. discussion in Broughton, vol. I, p. 193).

300 years later, Trajan restored several issues of the Republic, including this one, but with the addition of DECIVS MVS on the obverse (RIC 766). Babelon thus assumed that this denarius was minted by the son of the last Publius Decius Mus (Decia 1). In this hypothesis, the shield and Carnyx refers to the second Mus -- the one who fought the Gauls.

However, Crawford contested this view, writing: "The restoration of this issue by Trajan with the added legend DECIVS MVS provides no grounds whatever for supposing that it was originally struck by someone of that name - the family was certainly extinct by this period."

It is still very strange that Trajan picked this rare denarius, from an irregular mint, for restoration. He could have chosen many other anonymous issues of the early Roman coinage, and simply add the name of Decius Mus. It thus shows that the imperial mint had retained some specimens or archives of previous issues up to the 3rd century BC, because due to its rarity, this denarius had already disappeared from circulation by the time of Trajan. A list of the magistrates behind each issue could therefore have been kept as well; Trajan might have selected the moneyers whom he thought were significant for the history of Rome and restored their issue. A Publius Decius Subulo was living in these years (Livy, xliii. 17) and perhaps minted this coin; his name could have been preserved in the archives of the mint, which might have led Trajan to pick his denarius for restoration.
1 commentsJoss
14-Gordian-III-RIC-116.jpg
13. Gordian III / RIC 116.24 viewsDenarius, 240 AD, Rome mint.
Obverse: IMP GORDIANVS PIVS FEL AVG / Laureate bust of Gordian.
Reverse: VIRTVTI AVGVSTI / Hercules standing, resting right hand on hip and left hand club set on rock; lion-skin beside club.
3.58 gm., 20 mm.
RIC #116; Sear #8684.

The chronology of the denarii coinage of Gordian III has been poorly understood because Roman Imperial Coinage (RIC) has it mixed up in its listings. For example, it will tell you that 5 denarii (Diana, Pietas, Salus, Securitas, and Venus) were issued in the summer of 241 to commemorate the marriage of Gordian and Tranquillina. Recent thinking tells another entirely different story. The following summary is based on a posting by Curtis Clay, November 25, 2011, on the Forum Ancient Coins Classical Numismatics Discussion Board.
Although antoniniani were issued for a while under Caracalla and Elagabalus, the denarius was the standard silver denomination throughout the reigns of Severus Alexander, Maximinus Thrax, and into the first part of the joint reign of Balbinus & Pupienus. (This, by the way, is when the PIETAS AVGG denarius of Gordian as Caesar was issued.) Sometime during the short reign of Balbinus & Pupienus, the antoninianus supplanted the denarius as the standard silver denomination. When Gordian III became emperor (July 238), his administration continued to follow the then current practice of issuing only antoniniani.

Early in 240, Gordian apparently decided to revert back to the traditional coinage of the Empire and began to issue only denarii. The denarii issued at this time were the following:

P M TR P III COS P P / Horseman
DIANA LVCIFERA
PIETAS AVGVSTI
SALVS AVGVSTI
SECVRITAS PVBLICA
VENVS VICTRIX

No antoniniani exist with these reverse types.

The next issue of denarii was issued in the summer of 240 after Gordian became COS II, and consists of these types:

P M TR P III COS II P P / Emperor standing
P M TR P III COS II P P / Apollo seated
AETERNITATI AVG
IOVIS STATOR
LAETITIA AVG N
VIRTVTI AVGVSTI

Within a short time, however, it was decided to go back to having the antoninianus as the standard silver denomination. Antoniniani were issued again, at first with the same reverse types as the second issue of denarii. That is why these reverse types exist on denarii and antoniniani even though they were not issued at the same time.

So the period the mint issued denarii rather than antoniniani as the standard silver denomination lasted from about March through August, 240. This was the last time denarii were issued for general circulation. The antoninianus lasted until Diocletian’s coinage reform of 295, after which Roman coinage was so vastly different that there was no question of returning to the denarius.

The 13 denarii of Gordian III are presented in this album in this order:
Gordian III as Caesar denarius - 1 coin.
First issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Second issue of denarii - 6 coins.
Callimachus
DiocleAnt.jpg
1301a, Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. (Antioch)93 viewsDIOCLETIAN (284 – 305 AD) AE Antoninianus, 293-95 AD, RIC V 322, Cohen 34. 20.70 mm/3.1 gm, aVF, Antioch. Obverse: IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right, draped & cuirassed; Reverse: CONCORDIA MILITVM, Jupiter presents Victory on a globe to Diocletian, I/XXI. Early Diocletian with dusty earthen green patina.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
DicletianConcordCyz.jpg
1301b, Diocletian, 20 November 284 - 1 March 305 A.D.57 viewsDiocletian. RIC V Part II Cyzicus 256 var. Not listed with pellet in exegrue
Item ref: RI141f. VF. Minted in Cyzicus (B in centre field, XXI dot in exegrue)Obverse:- IMP CC VAL DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust right. Reverse:- CONCORDIA MILITVM, Diocletian standing right, holding parazonium, receiving Victory from Jupiter standing left with scepter.
A post reform radiate of Diocletian. Ex Maridvnvm.

De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Diocletian ( 284-305 A.D.)

Ralph W. Mathisen
University of South Carolina


Summary and Introduction
The Emperor Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (A.D. 284-305) put an end to the disastrous phase of Roman history known as the "Military Anarchy" or the "Imperial Crisis" (235-284). He established an obvious military despotism and was responsible for laying the groundwork for the second phase of the Roman Empire, which is known variously as the "Dominate," the "Tetrarchy," the "Later Roman Empire," or the "Byzantine Empire." His reforms ensured the continuity of the Roman Empire in the east for more than a thousand years.

Diocletian's Early Life and Reign
Diocletian was born ca. 236/237 on the Dalmatian coast, perhaps at Salona. He was of very humble birth, and was originally named Diocles. He would have received little education beyond an elementary literacy and he was apparently deeply imbued with religious piety He had a wife Prisca and a daughter Valeria, both of whom reputedly were Christians. During Diocletian's early life, the Roman empire was in the midst of turmoil. In the early years of the third century, emperors increasingly insecure on their thrones had granted inflationary pay raises to the soldiers. The only meaningful income the soldiers now received was in the form of gold donatives granted by newly acclaimed emperors. Beginning in 235, armies throughout the empire began to set up their generals as rival emperors. The resultant civil wars opened up the empire to invasion in both the north, by the Franks, Alamanni, and Goths, and the east, by the Sassanid Persians. Another reason for the unrest in the army was the great gap between the social background of the common soldiers and the officer corps.

Diocletian sought his fortune in the army. He showed himself to be a shrewd, able, and ambitious individual. He is first attested as "Duke of Moesia" (an area on the banks of the lower Danube River), with responsibility for border defense. He was a prudent and methodical officer, a seeker of victory rather than glory. In 282, the legions of the upper Danube proclaimed the praetorian prefect Carus as emperor. Diocletian found favor under the new emperor, and was promoted to Count of the Domestics, the commander of the cavalry arm of the imperial bodyguard. In 283 he was granted the honor of a consulate.

In 284, in the midst of a campaign against the Persians, Carus was killed, struck by a bolt of lightning which one writer noted might have been forged in a legionary armory. This left the empire in the hands of his two young sons, Numerian in the east and Carinus in the west. Soon thereafter, Numerian died under mysterious circumstances near Nicomedia, and Diocletian was acclaimed emperor in his place. At this time he changed his name from Diocles to Diocletian. In 285 Carinus was killed in a battle near Belgrade, and Diocletian gained control of the entire empire.

Diocletian's Administrative and Military Reforms
As emperor, Diocletian was faced with many problems. His most immediate concerns were to bring the mutinous and increasingly barbarized Roman armies back under control and to make the frontiers once again secure from invasion. His long-term goals were to restore effective government and economic prosperity to the empire. Diocletian concluded that stern measures were necessary if these problems were to be solved. He felt that it was the responsibility of the imperial government to take whatever steps were necessary, no matter how harsh or innovative, to bring the empire back under control.

Diocletian was able to bring the army back under control by making several changes. He subdivided the roughly fifty existing provinces into approximately one hundred. The provinces also were apportioned among twelve "dioceses," each under a "vicar," and later also among four "prefectures," each under a "praetorian prefect." As a result, the imperial bureaucracy became increasingly bloated. He institutionalized the policy of separating civil and military careers. He divided the army itself into so-called "border troops," actually an ineffective citizen militia, and "palace troops," the real field army, which often was led by the emperor in person.

Following the precedent of Aurelian (A.D.270-275), Diocletian transformed the emperorship into an out-and-out oriental monarchy. Access to him became restricted; he now was addressed not as First Citizen (Princeps) or the soldierly general (Imperator), but as Lord and Master (Dominus Noster) . Those in audience were required to prostrate themselves on the ground before him.

Diocletian also concluded that the empire was too large and complex to be ruled by only a single emperor. Therefore, in order to provide an imperial presence throughout the empire, he introduced the "Tetrarchy," or "Rule by Four." In 285, he named his lieutenant Maximianus "Caesar," and assigned him the western half of the empire. This practice began the process which would culminate with the de facto split of the empire in 395. Both Diocletian and Maximianus adopted divine attributes. Diocletian was identified with Jupiter and Maximianus with Hercules. In 286, Diocletian promoted Maximianus to the rank of Augustus, "Senior Emperor," and in 293 he appointed two new Caesars, Constantius (the father of Constantine I ), who was given Gaul and Britain in the west, and Galerius, who was assigned the Balkans in the east.

By instituting his Tetrarchy, Diocletian also hoped to solve another problem. In the Augustan Principate, there had been no constitutional method for choosing new emperors. According to Diocletian's plan, the successor of each Augustus would be the respective Caesar, who then would name a new Caesar. Initially, the Tetrarchy operated smoothly and effectively.

Once the army was under control, Diocletian could turn his attention to other problems. The borders were restored and strengthened. In the early years of his reign, Diocletian and his subordinates were able to defeat foreign enemies such as Alamanni, Sarmatians, Saracens, Franks, and Persians, and to put down rebellions in Britain and Egypt. The easter frontier was actually expanded.

.
Diocletian's Economic Reforms
Another problem was the economy, which was in an especially sorry state. The coinage had become so debased as to be virtually worthless. Diocletian's attempt to reissue good gold and silver coins failed because there simply was not enough gold and silver available to restore confidence in the currency. A "Maximum Price Edict" issued in 301, intended to curb inflation, served only to drive goods onto the black market. Diocletian finally accepted the ruin of the money economy and revised the tax system so that it was based on payments in kind . The soldiers too came to be paid in kind.

In order to assure the long term survival of the empire, Diocletian identified certain occupations which he felt would have to be performed. These were known as the "compulsory services." They included such occupations as soldiers, bakers, members of town councils, and tenant farmers. These functions became hereditary, and those engaging in them were inhibited from changing their careers. The repetitious nature of these laws, however, suggests that they were not widely obeyed. Diocletian also expanded the policy of third-century emperors of restricting the entry of senators into high-ranking governmental posts, especially military ones.

Diocletian attempted to use the state religion as a unifying element. Encouraged by the Caesar Galerius, Diocletian in 303 issued a series of four increasingly harsh decrees designed to compel Christians to take part in the imperial cult, the traditional means by which allegiance was pledged to the empire. This began the so-called "Great Persecution."

Diocletian's Resignation and Death
On 1 May 305, wearied by his twenty years in office, and determined to implement his method for the imperial succession, Diocletian abdicated. He compelled his co-regent Maximianus to do the same. Constantius and Galerius then became the new Augusti, and two new Caesars were selected, Maximinus (305-313) in the east and Severus (305- 307) in the west. Diocletian then retired to his palace at Split on the Croatian coast. In 308 he declined an offer to resume the purple, and the aged ex-emperor died at Split on 3 December 316.

Copyright (C) 1996, Ralph W. Mathisen, University of South Carolina
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
MaxentiusRIC163.jpg
1307a, Maxentius, February 307 - 28 October 312 A.D.60 viewsBronze follis, RIC 163, aEF, Rome mint, 5.712g, 25.6mm, 0o, summer 307 A.D.; obverse MAXENTIVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse CONSERVATO-RES VRB SVAE, Roma holding globe and scepter, seated in hexastyle temple, RT in ex; rare. Ex FORVM; Ex Maridvnvm


De Imperatoribus Romanis : An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

Maxentius (306-312 A.D.)

Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Salve Regina University

Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius, more commonly known as Maxentius, was the child of the Emperor Maximianus Herculius and the Syrian, Eutropia; he was born ca. 278 A.D. After Galerius' appointment to the rank of Caesar on 1 March 293, Maxentius married Galerius' daughter Valeria Maximilla, who bore him a son named Romulus and another son whose name is unknown. Due to his haughty nature and bad disposition, Maxentius could seldom agree with his father or his father-in-law; Galerius' and Maximianus Herculius' aversion to Maxentius prevented the young man from becoming a Caesar in 305. Little else is known of Maxentius' private life prior to his accession and, although there is some evidence that it was spent in idleness, he did become a Senator.

On 28 October 306 Maxentius was acclaimed emperor, although he was politically astute enough not to use the title Augustus; like the Emperor Augustus, he called himself princeps. It was not until the summer of 307 that he started using the title Augustus and started offending other claimants to the imperial throne. He was enthroned by the plebs and the Praetorians. At the time of his acclamation Maxentius was at a public villa on the Via Labicana. He strengthened his position with promises of riches for those who helped him obtain his objective. He forced his father Maximianus Herculius to affirm his son's acclamation in order to give his regime a facade of legitimacy. His realm included Italy, Africa, Sardinia, and Corsica. As soon as Galerius learned about the acclamation of Herculius' son, he dispatched the Emperor Severus to quell the rebellion. With the help of his father and Severus' own troops, Maxentius' took his enemy prisoner.

When Severus died, Galerius was determined to avenge his death. In the early summer of 307 the Augustus invaded Italy; he advanced to the south and encamped at Interamna near the Tiber. His attempt to besiege the city was abortive because his army was not large enough to encompass the city's fortifications. Negotiations between Maxentius and Galerius broke down when the emperor discovered that the usurper was trying to win over his troops. Galerius' troops were open to Maxentius' promises because they were fighting a civil war between members of the same family; some of the soldiers went over to the enemy. Not trusting his own troops, Galerius withdrew. During its retreat, Galerius' army ravaged the Italian countryside as it was returning to its original base. If it was not enough that Maxentius had to deal with the havoc created by the ineffectual invasions of Severus and Galerius, he also had to deal with his father's attempts to regain the throne between 308 and 310. When Maximianus Herculius was unable to regain power by pushing his son off his throne, he attempted to win over Constantine to his cause. When this plan failed, he tried to win Diocletian over to his side at Carnuntum in October and November 308. Frustrated at every turn, Herculius returned to his son-in-law Constantine's side in Gaul where he died in 310, having been implicated in a plot against his son-in-law. Maxentius' control of the situation was weakened by the revolt of L. Domitius Alexander in 308. Although the revolt only lasted until the end of 309, it drastically cut the size of the grain supply availble for Rome. Maxentius' rule collapsed when he died on 27 October 312 in an engagement he had with the Emperor Constantine at the Milvian Bridge after the latter had invaded his realm.

Copyright (C) 1996, Michael DiMaio, Jr.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
RI_132xp_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC - - Bust type H (Rome) (RB)36 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (//RB) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC - Bust Type H (Not listed for this obverse legend in RIC). Would be after 204 in RIC. 3 examples in La Venera, 6 others known to Estiot.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132su_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 090 - (Lugdunum) (IIII)27 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left wearing imperial mantle, holding Victory on globe in right hand
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre
Minted in Lugdunum (IIII in exe) Emission 8 Officina 4. Autumn to Late A.D. 281
Reference:– Cohen -. Bastien 341 (3 examples cited). RIC 90 var (not listed with this bust type)

3.28 gms
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132uu_img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 111 var (Lugdunum) (IIII) 28 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left wearing imperial mantle, holding Victory on globe in right hand
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Soldier standing left, holding Victory and spear, left hand on shield.
Minted in Lugdunum (//IIII) Emission 5 Officina 4. End A.D. 277 to start A.D. 278 (Bastien)
Reference(s) – Cohen 821. Bastien 258 (7 examples cited). RIC 111 var (Not listed with this bust type in RIC).

3.80 gms

This is a scarcer bust type as are most of the coins from the 5th emission. I only have one other example of this bust type in my collection and it isn't as nice as this one .
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132wt_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 185 - Bust Type H16 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (R Dotted Crescent B) Emission 4 Officina 2. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 185 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132iy img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 187 - Bust type H (Rome) (R Thunderbolt Δ)47 viewsObv:– PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (R Thunderbolt Δ in exe) Emission 6 Officina 4. A.D. 281
Reference(s) – RIC 187 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132gq img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 187 - Bust type H (Rome) (RVΔ)56 viewsObv:– PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– ROMAE AETER, Roma seated in temple, holding Victory and sceptre
Minted in Rome (RVΔ in exe) Emission 7 Officina 4. A.D. 282
Reference(s) – RIC 187 Bust type H
Weight 3.43 gms
Size 22.68 mm

Part of the AEQVITI series of Rome (V)
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132tb img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 200 - Bust type H (Rome) (R wreath Γ)18 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in chariot riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (R wreath Γ in exe) Emission 5 Officina 1. A.D. 280
Reference(s) – RIC 200 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI_132as_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 202 - Bust type H (Rome) (R * E)18 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in chariot riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (R * E in exe) Emission 3 Officina 5. A.D. 278
Reference(s) – RIC 202 Bust type H
Weight 4.36 gms
Size 25.19 mm
maridvnvm
RI 132tk img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 202 - Bust type H (Rome) (R Crescent B)28 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in chariot riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (R Crescent B in exe) Emission 4 Officina 2. A.D. 279
Reference(s) – RIC 202 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI_132vg_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 202 - Bust type H (Rome) (R dot in crescent E)36 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in chariot riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (R crescent E) Emission 4 Officina 5. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 202 Bust type H

Weight 4.87g. 24.96mm.
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132cm img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 202 - Bust type H (Rome) (R dotted crescent E)30 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in chariot riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (R dotted crescent E in exe) Emission 4 Officina 5. A.D. 279
Reference(s) – RIC 202 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132rv img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 203 - Bust type H (Rome) (R Thunderbolt Γ)27 viewsObv:– PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in chariot riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (R Thunderbolt Γ in exe) Emission 6 Officina 3. A.D. 281
Reference(s) – RIC 203 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132ja img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 204 - Bust type H (Rome) (R)52 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (R in exe) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 204 Bust type H
Weight 5.63 gms.
Size 23.25 mm
maridvnvm
RI_132ja_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 204 - Bust type H (Rome) (R)35 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (R in exe) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 204 Bust type H
Weight 5.63 gms.
Size 23.25 mm

New image of old coin.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132ja_img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 204 - Bust type H (Rome) (R)29 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (R in exe) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 204 Bust type H
Weight 5.63 gms. Size 23.25 mm
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132nr img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 204 - Bust type H (Rome) (RB)52 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (RB in exe) Emission 2, Officina 2. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 204 Bust type H
2 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132nr_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 204 - Bust type H (Rome) (RB)37 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (RB in exe) Emission 2, Officina 2. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 204 Bust type H
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132tf img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 204 - Bust type H (Rome) (RE)19 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (RE in exe) Emission 2, Officina 5. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 204 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI_132xl_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 204 - Bust type H (Rome) (RE)33 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga riding left, holding globe and whip
Minted in Rome (RE in exe) Emission 2. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 204 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI_132xc_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 234 - Bust Type H26 viewsObv:– IMP C M [AVR] PROBV[S] P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, scepter surmounted by eagle in right hand
Rev:– VIRTVS AVGVSTI, Soldier standing left, right hand resting on shield, spear in left
Minted in Rome (//RE) Emission 2, Officina 5. A.D. 277
Reference(s) – RIC 234 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132qv img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 325 Bust type H var (Ticinum) (PXXT)46 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev:– CONCORD MIL, Emperor and Concordia clasping hands
Minted in Ticinum (* / PXXT) Emission 3, Officina 1. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 325 Bust Type H var (Unlisted with * in centre field, issues with the star are at least Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 132gf img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 352 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (TXXT) 31 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS II, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– CONSERVAT AVG, Sol standing, looking left, right hand raised, left holding globe
Minted in Ticinum (TXXT) Emission 4, Officina 3. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 352 Bust type H

A decent example of a scarcer dated type.
maridvnvm
RI 132qg img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 360 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (SXXT)34 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– FELICITAS SEC, Felicitas standing left, holding caduceus and cornucopiae
Minted in Ticinum (SXXT) Emission 3 Officina 2. A.D.277
Reference:– RIC 360 Bust type H (Rated Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 132tn img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 363 var. - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (*|_//VIXXT)25 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– FIDES MILIT, Fides standing left, with two ensigns
Mint – Ticinum (* in left field, VIXXT in exe.) Emission 3, Officina 6. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 365 Bust type H var (not listed with star in left field)

This is the first known example of this reverse to have a star.
maridvnvm
RI 132hc img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 365 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (VIXXT)37 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– FIDES MILIT, Fides standing left, with two ensigns
Mint – Ticinum (VIXXT) Emission 4, Officina 6. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 365 Bust type H (Scarce)
Weight 3.50 gms
Size 25.67mm

Whilst this coin may look like the eagle tipped sceptre is not present, it is evident with the coin in hand.
maridvnvm
RI 132uk img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 378 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (SXXT)20 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS II, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– HERCVLI PACIF, Hercules standing left, holding olive-branch, club and lion’s skin
Minted in Ticinum (SXXT in exe) Emission 4 Officina 2. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 382 Bust type H (R)

Ex-Forvm
maridvnvm
RI 132ge img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 427 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (PXXT) 34 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Ticinum (PXXT in exe)
Reference:– RIC 427 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132ul img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 432- Bust Type H (Ticinum) (PXXT)21 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS II, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Ticinum (//PXXT) Emission 4, Officina 1. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 432 Bust Type H (R)

Ex-Forvm
maridvnvm
RI_132xj_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 480 - Bust Type H18 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– CONCORD MILIT, Concordia, draped, standing left, holding standard in each hand
Minted in Ticinum (E | * / PXXI) Emission 10 Officina 1. A.D. 282
Reference:– RIC 480 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI_132wg_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 489 Bust Type H26 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– PROVIDENT AVG, Providentia standing left, holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Ticinum (Q | _ / SXXT) Emission 5, Officina 2. 279 A.D.
Reference(s) – RIC 489 Bust type H
Part of EQVITI series II (Q)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132t_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 490 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (Q | _ / SXXI)25 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– PROVIDENT AVG, Providentia standing left, holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Ticinum (Q in left field, SXXI in exe) Emission 9, Officina 2. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 490 Bust type H
Part of coded EQVITI series
maridvnvm
RI 132fj img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 493 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (Q | _ / SXXI)35 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PROVIDENT AVG, Providentia standing left, holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Ticinum (Q in left field, SXXI in exe)
Reference:– RIC 493 Bust type H
Part of coded EQVITI series
maridvnvm
RI_132ct_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 498 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (V | _ / TXXI)19 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SALVS AVG, Salus standing right feeding snake in arms
Minted in Ticinum (V in left field, TXXI in exe) Emission 9 Officina 3. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 498 Bust type H
Part of coded EQVITI series
maridvnvm
RI 132hp img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 499 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (V | * / TXXI)43 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SALVS AVG, Salus standing right feeding snake in arms
Minted in Ticinum (V in left field, Star in right field, TXXI in exe) Emission 10 Officina 3. A.D. 282
Reference:– RIC 499 Bust type H
Part of coded EQVITI series
maridvnvm
RI 132m img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 508 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (I | _ / QXXI)28 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinum (I in left field, QXXI in exe), Emission 9, Officina 4. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 508 Bust type H
Part of coded EQVITI series (first I)
maridvnvm
RI_132xf_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 508- Bust Type H22 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinium (I | * / QXXI), Emission 10, Officina 4. A.D. 282
Reference(s) – RIC 508 Bust type H

Part of EQVITI series II (I)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132ng img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 511 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (I | _ / QXXI)40 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG CONS III, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinum (I in left field, QXXI in exe), Emission 9, Officina 4. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 511 Bust type H (Scarce)
Part of coded EQVITI series (first I)
maridvnvm
RI_132wj_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 516 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (T | * / VXXI)14 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre
Minted in Ticinum (T | * /VXXI) Emission 10 Officina 5, A.D. 282
Reference(s) – RIC 516 Bust type H

Part of EQVITI series II (T)
maridvnvm
RI_132ab_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 524 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (_ | I / VIXXI)21 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SECVRIT PERP, Securitas standing left, leaning on column, legs crossed, hand raised to head
Minted in Ticinum (I in right field, VIXXI in exe) Emission 9 Officina 6. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 524 Bust type H
Part of coded EQVITI series (second I)
maridvnvm
RI_132vx_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 524a Bust Type H13 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– SECVRIT PERP, Securitas standing left, leaning on column, legs crossed, hand raised to head
Minted in Ticinium (_ | I / VIXXI) Emission 9 Officina 6. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 524a Bust type H

Some underlying silvering but also some encrustations in the bottom right field on the reverse. Do I have the patience to try and remove it though?
maridvnvm
RI 132cu img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 525 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (* | I / VIXXI)46 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SECVRIT PERP, Securitas standing left, leaning on column, legs crossed, hand raised to head
Minted in Ticinum (* in left field, I in right field, VIXXI in exe) Emission 10 Officina 6. A.D. 282
Reference:– RIC 525 Bust type H
Part of coded EQVITI series (second I)
maridvnvm
RI 132id img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 525 - Bust Type H (Ticinum) (_ | I / VIXXI)28 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SECVRIT PERP, Securitas standing left, leaning on column, legs crossed, hand raised to head
Minted in Ticinum (I in right field, VIXXI in exe) Emission 9 Officina 6. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 525 Bust type H
Part of coded EQVITI series (second I)
maridvnvm
RI 132uj img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 544 Bust type H (Ticinum)19 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG CONS III, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– MARTI PACIF, Mars walking left, holding olive-branch, spear and shield
Minted in Ticinum (//ΔXXI) Emission 6, second phase with XXI, Officina 2. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 544 Bust Type H (R2)

Ex-Forvm
maridvnvm
RI_132vm_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 546 Bust Type H17 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and scepter.
Minted in Ticinum (//EXXI) Emission 6 Officina 5. A.D. 279
Reference:– RIC 546 Bust Type H.

No examples on probvs.net.
maridvnvm
RI 132ph img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 624 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIV)67 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– ADVENTVS AVG, Emperor riding left right hand raised, left holding scepter (without captive)
Minted in Siscia (XXIV in exe) Emission 5 Officina 5. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 624 Bust type H. Alföldi type 5, n° 96
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132ph_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 624 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIV)72 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– ADVENTVS AVG, Emperor riding left right hand raised, left holding scepter (without captive)
Minted in Siscia (XXIV in exe) Emission 5 Officina 5. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 624 Bust type H. Alföldi type 5, n° 96

New image of old coin.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132jj_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 624 var. - Bust Type H (Siscia) (S / XXI)20 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– ADVENTVS AVG, Emperor riding left right hand raised, left holding scepter (without captive)
Minted in Siscia (S in centre field, XXI in exe) Emission 2, Officina 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 624 var. Bust type H (Not listed for this emission and officina in RIC). Alföldi type 5, n° 92
Weight 3.15 gms
Size 22.00mm
Martin Griffiths
RI 132lj img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 643 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (S / KA)36 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– CLEMENTIA TEMP, Emperor standing right, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre
Minted in Siscia (S / KA) Emission 7 Officina 2. A.D. 280
Reference:– Alfoldi type 17, n° 16. RIC 643 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132no img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 646 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (P / KA)28 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– CLEMENTIA TEMP, Emperor standing right, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle, receiving globe from Jupiter standing left, holding sceptre
Minted in Siscia (P / KA) Emission 7, Officina 1. A.D. 280
Reference:– Alfoldi type 17, n° 4. RIC 646 Bust Type H (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 132qe img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 670 Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)14 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– CONSERVAT AVG, Sol advancing left, right hand raised and carrying whip in left
Minted in Siscia (XXIVI in exe) Emission 5 Officina 6. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 670 Bust Type H. Alföldi type 27, n° 64
maridvnvm
RI_132fw_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 704 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | T / XXI)26 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre
Minted in Siscia (T in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7, Officina 3. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 704 Bust type H. Alföldi type 41, n° 77
Martin Griffiths
RI 132hu img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 704 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | T / XXI)11 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre
Minted in Siscia (T in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7, Officina 3. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 704 Bust type H. Alföldi type 41, n° 77
maridvnvm
RI_132xe_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 704 - Bust Type H var32 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVG, Pax standing left, olive-branch in right hand, transverse scepter in left
Minted in Ticinium (Q | _ / XXI), Emission 7, Officina 4. A.D. 280
Reference(s) – RIC 704 var. (Q right); Alföldi Siscia V, type 41, 79 (citing London); Pink VI/1, p. 53;

Coins with the officina mark in the left field are very much the exception with >99% of coins with the officina mark in the field being in the right field
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132af img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 711 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | V / XXI)28 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and sceptre
Minted in Siscia (V in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7 Officina 5. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 711 Bust Type H
maridvnvm
RI 132lv img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 712 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | P / XXI)22 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and transverse sceptre.
Minted in Siscia (P in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7 Officina 1. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 712 Bust type H. Alföldi type 42, n° 77
maridvnvm
RI_132dq_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 715 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | P / XXI)16 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and transverse sceptre.
Minted in Siscia (P in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7 Officina 1. A.D. 280
Reference:– Cohen 422. Alföldi, Plate XXIII, Type 42, Nş 114. RIC 715 Bust type H
Despite RIC's rating of "C", this would appear to be a scarce coin.
maridvnvm
RI 132kn img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 715 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | S / XXI)17 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVGVSTI, Pax standing left, holding olive-branch and transverse sceptre.
Minted in Siscia (S in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7 Officina 2. A.D. 280
Reference:– Cohen 422. Alföldi, Plate XXIII, Type 42, Nş 115. RIC 715 Bust type H
Despite RIC's rating of "C", this would appear to be a scarce coin
maridvnvm
RI 132r img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 767 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIQ)32 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadrigga galloping left, right hand raised, left hand holding whip
Minted in Siscia (XXIQ in exe) Emission 4 Officina 4. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 767 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI_132gv_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 774 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIV)26 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in quadriga galloping left, right hand raised, left hand holding whip
Minted in Siscia (XXIV in exe)
Reference:– RIC 774 Bust type H
Martin Griffiths
RI_132ft_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 776 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)41 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, holding globe
Minted in Siscia (XXIVI in exe) Emission 4, Officina 6. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 776 Bust type H
Martin Griffiths
RI_132ko_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 776 var - Bust Type H (Siscia) (-)28 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga
Minted in Siscia (No marks). Emission 2. A.D. 277.
Reference:– RIC 776 var Bust type H (not listed in RIC without field marks). Alföldi type 73, n° 30
maridvnvm
RI_132yn_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 776 var - Bust Type H (Siscia) (D / XXI)3 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga
Minted in Siscia (D / XXI). Emission 2. A.D. 277.
Reference:– Alföldi type 73, n° 36. RIC 776 var Bust Type H (Not listed for this officina in RIC)

3.50g, 22.18mm, 180o
maridvnvm
RI 132oe img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 778 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIS)22 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga
Minted in Siscia (XXIS). Emission 2 Officina 6. A.D. 277.
Reference:– RIC 778 Bust type H. Alföldi type 73, n° 44
maridvnvm
RI 132pp img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIP)14 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars advancing right, holding a trophy and spear
Minted in Siscia (XXIP in exe. looks like ++IP) Emission 4 Officina 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 177 (Narrow ties)
maridvnvm
RI 132pb img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIP)16 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars advancing right, holding a trophy and spear
Minted in Siscia (XXIP in exe. looks like ++IP) Emission 4 Officina 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 177 (Narrow ties)
maridvnvm
RI 132ed img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIS)46 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars advancing right, holding a trophy and spear
Minted in Siscia (XXIS in exe) Emission 4 Officina 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Not listed in Alföldi with wide ties from this officina, cf. Alföldi type 96, n° 188 (wide ties)
maridvnvm
RI 132i img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIS)12 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars advancing right, holding a trophy and spear
Minted in Siscia (XXIS in exe) Emission 4 Officina 2. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 178 (Narrow ties)
maridvnvm
RI_132cz_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIT)10 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– VIRTVS PR-OBI AVG, Mars advancing right,holding trophy and spear.
Minted in Siscia (XXIT in exe) Emission 4 Officina 3. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 179
Martin Griffiths
RI 132oa img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIT)16 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– VIRTVS P-RO-BI AVG, Mars advancing right,holding trophy and spear.
Minted in Siscia (XXIT in exe) Emission 4 Officina 3. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 179
maridvnvm
RI_132io_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIV)20 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars advancing right,holding trophy and spear.
Minted in Siscia (XXIV in exe) Emission 4 Officina 5. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 181
Martin Griffiths
RI 132kh img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)14 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars advancing right,holding trophy and spear.
Minted in Siscia (XXIVI in exe) Emission 4 Officina 6. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 182
maridvnvm
RI 132pj img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)12 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars advancing right,holding trophy and spear.
Minted in Siscia (XXIVI in exe) Emission 4 Officina 6. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 182
maridvnvm
RI_132em_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | P / XXI)18 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars advancing right, holding a trophy and spear
Minted in Siscia (P in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7 Officina 1. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 171
Martin Griffiths
RI 132lq img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | Q / XXI)25 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars, in military attire, walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Siscia (Q in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7 Officina 4. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 12
maridvnvm
RI 132og img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | S / XXI)16 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars advancing right, holding a trophy and spear
Minted in Siscia (S in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7 Officina 2. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 172
maridvnvm
RI 132sk img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 810 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_|V/XXI)22 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars advancing right, holding a trophy and spear
Minted in Siscia (V in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7 Officina 5, A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 810 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 175
maridvnvm
RI 132kh img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 811 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)32 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy.
Mint – Siscia (XXIVI) Emission 4 Officina 6. A.D. 278
Reference:– RIC 811 Bust type F. Alföldi type 96, n° 182
maridvnvm
RI 132ot img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 811 var - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | Q / XXI)27 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars in military attire, walking right, holding a trophy and spear.
Mint – Siscia (_ | Q / XXI) Emission 7 Officina 4. A.D. 280
Reference:– Unlisted in Alföldi. cf Alföldi type 95, n° 1 (XXIQ). RIC 811 var. Bust type H. Not listed in military attire in RIC.
maridvnvm
RI 132ny img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 812 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)19 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Siscia (XXIVI in exe) Emission 5 Officina 6. A.D. 278
Reference(s) – Alföldi type 96, n° 40, RIC 812 Bust Type H
maridvnvm
RI 132ri img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 812 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)17 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Siscia (//XXIVI) Emission 5 Officina 6. A.D. 278
Reference(s) – Alföldi type 96, n° 40, RIC 812 Bust Type H
maridvnvm
RI 132qu img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 814 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)15 viewsObv:– IMP C PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Siscia (XXIVI in exe) Emission 5 Officina 6. A.D. 278
Reference(s) – RIC 815 Bust Type H. Alföldi - cf. Alföldi type 96, n° 24 (XXVI sic)
maridvnvm
RI 132nc img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 815 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)30 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Siscia (XXIVI in exe) Emission 5 Officina 6. A.D. 278
Reference(s) – RIC 815 Bust Type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 6
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132xh_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 815 - Bust Type H var15 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle.
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy
Minted in Siscia (_ | T // XXI), Emission 7, Officina 3. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 815 Bust Type H var (not listed for this officina) ; Alföldi type 96, n° -. (Not listed for this officina by Alföldi)
maridvnvm
RI 132pg img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 816 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)24 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust l. in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy; sometimes at foot, one or two captives
Minted in Siscia (XXIV in exe) Emission 4, Officina 6. Late A.D. 277
Reference:- RIC 816 Bust type H. Alföldi type 96, n° 133
maridvnvm
RI 132fy img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 816 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | P / XXI)50 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy; sometimes at foot, one or two captives
Minted in Siscia (P in right field, XXI in exe.) Emission 7, Officina 1. A.D. 280.
Reference:– RIC 816 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI_132ly_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 816 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | P / XXI)22 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS P-R-OBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy; sometimes at foot, one or two captives
Minted in Siscia (P in right field, XXI in exe.) Emission 7, Officina 1. A.D. 280.
Reference:– RIC 816 Bust type H
Martin Griffiths
RI 132pi img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 816 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | V / XXI)21 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy; sometimes at foot, one or two captives
Minted in Siscia (V in right field, XXI in exe.) Emission 7, Officina 5. A.D. 280.
Reference:– RIC 816 Bust type H
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132ia img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 816 var - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIQ) (Unlisted bust for this officina in RIC)43 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust l. in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy; sometimes at foot, one or two captives
Minted in Siscia (XXIQ in exe) Emission 4, Officina 4. Late A.D. 277
Reference:- RIC 816 var Bust type H (C). Unlisted bust for this officina in RIC
Weight 3.73 gms
Size 21.90mm
maridvnvm
RI_132lo_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 816 var - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIV) (Unlisted with this officina in RIC)13 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust l. in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy; sometimes at foot, one or two captives
Minted in Siscia (XXIV in exe) Emission 4, Officina 5. Late A.D. 277
Reference:- RIC 816 var Bust type H. Unlisted with this officina in RIC
Martin Griffiths
RI 132gc img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 816 var - Bust Type H (Siscia) (_ | S / XXI) (Unlisted bust for this emission in RIC)76 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust l. in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Mars walking right, holding spear and trophy; sometimes at foot, one or two captives
Minted in Siscia (S in right field, XXI in exe) Emission 7, Officina 2. A.D. 280
Reference:- Alföldi, Table XLVIII, Type 96, Nş 123. RIC 816 var Bust type H (C). Unlisted bust for this emission in RIC
maridvnvm
RI 132mq img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 817 (near - unlisted) - Radiate bust left wearing imperial mantle (Siscia) (Shield / XXIVII)64 viewsObv:– IMP PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left wearing imperial mantle
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping right, spearing enemy
Minted in Siscia (Shield / XXIVII in exe) Emission 4, Officina 7. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC unlisted but would be near RIC 817 (This reverse type is not listed with this obverse legend). Alföldi type 97, n° 1
maridvnvm
RI 132mf img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 818 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (T / XXI)20 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, spearing enemy. Crawling enemy facing down
Minted in Siscia (T in centre field, XXI in exe) Emission 7, Officina 3. Late A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 818 Bust type H. Unlisted in Alföldi cf. type 98, n° 31 (different captive), cf type 98, n° 31 (different emission).
maridvnvm
RI 132fk img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 818 - Bust Type H (Siscia) (XXIVI)46 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping left, spearing enemy. Crawling enemy facing down
Minted in Siscia (XXIS in exe) Emission 4, Officina 2. Late A.D. 277
Reference:– Cohen 913. Alföldi type 98, n° 34. RIC 818 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132ap img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 838 - Bust Type H (Serdica) (* / KAΔ)31 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– CLEMENTIA TEMP, Emperor standing right, holding eagle tipped sceptre, receiving globe from Jupiter, holding staff, standing left.
Minted in Serdica (* in centre field, KAΔ in exe) Emission 2, Officina 4. A.D. 276 A.D.
Reference:– RIC 838 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132hm img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 861 - Bust Type H (Serdica) (KAA)44 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, holding whip
Minted in Serdica (KAA in exe) Emission 4 Officina 1. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 861 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132u img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 861 - Bust Type H (Serdica) (KA•Γ•)53 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, holding whip
Minted in Serdica (KA•Γ• in exe) Emission 4 Officina 3. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 861 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI_132ey_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 861 var. - Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (Serdica) (Γ)45 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, holding globe, whip and billowing cloak.
Minted in Serdica (Γ in exe) Emission 3 Officina 3.
Reference:– RIC 861 var. Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (This bust type is not listed in RIC. This issue mark is not listed for this mint).

There is growing evidence that this coin forms part of an unlisted second series of mintmarks used during the third emission of Serdica using Greek letters that ran in parallel to the Roman equivalent.

A fascinating coin with lots of fine detail.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132ey_img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 861 var. - Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (Serdica) (Γ) 31 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, holding globe, whip and billowing cloak.
Minted in Serdica (Γ in exe) Emission 3 Officina 3.
Reference:– RIC 861 var. Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (This bust type is not listed in RIC. This issue mark is not listed for this mint).

There is growing evidence that this coin forms part of an unlisted second series of mintmarks used during the third emission of Serdica using Greek letters that ran in parallel to the Roman equivalent.

A fascinating coin with lots of fine detail.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132ga_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 862 - Bust Type H (Serdica) (KAB)42 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left
Minted in Serdica (KAB in exe)
Reference:– RIC 862 Bust type H
A lovely example with a good strike and fully silvered.
3 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132vt_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 862 Bust Type H21 viewsAntonianus
Obv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left
Minted in Serdica (KAB) Emission 4, Officina 2. Minted A.D. 277.
Reference:– RIC 862 Bust type H

Nearly filly silvered.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132ip img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 862 var. - Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (Serdica) (KAA)67 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS AVG, Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, holding globe, whip and billowing cloak.
Minted in Serdica (KAA in exe) Emission 4 Officina 1. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 862 var. Radiate bust right in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle (This bust type is not listed in RIC.)
maridvnvm
RI 132hf img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 864 - Bust Type H (Serdica) (KA•Γ•)33 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, right hand raised, holding whip in left
Mint – Serdica (KA•Γ• in exe) Emission 4 Officina 3. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 864 Bust Type H
maridvnvm
RI 132ke img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 864 - Bust Type H (Serdica) (None)39 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, right hand raised, holding whip in left
Mint – Serdica (No marks) Emission 3
Reference:– RIC 864 Bust Type H
maridvnvm
RI 132fu img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 864 var - Bust Type H (Serdica) (Δ) (unlisted issue mark for mint)72 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, right hand raised, holding globe in left
Minted in Serdica (Δ in exe)
Reference:– RIC 864 var. Bust type H (This series of emission marks is not documented in RIC or Pink for this mint)
There is growing evidence that this coin is part of an unlisted second series of mintmarks used during the third emission of Serdica using Greek letters that ran in parallel to the Roman equivalent.
A nicely struck coin with lots of detail and plenty of silvering.
maridvnvm
RI 132fu img~0.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 864 var - Bust Type H (Serdica) (Δ) (unlisted issue mark for mint) (updated image)28 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga, right hand raised, holding globe in left
Minted in Serdica (Δ in exe)
Reference:– RIC 864 var. Bust type H (This series of emission marks is not documented in RIC or Pink for this mint)
There is growing evidence that this coin is part of an unlisted second series of mintmarks used during the third emission of Serdica using Greek letters that ran in parallel to the Roman equivalent.
A nicely struck coin with lots of detail and plenty of silvering.

A new image of this pleasing coin.
maridvnvm
RI 132jv img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 877 var - Bust Type H (Serdica) (KAΔ) (unlisted with this bust type)56 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping right, spearing enemy whose shield lies beneath horse
Minted in Serdica (KAΔ in exe) Emission 4 Officina 4. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 877 var. Bust type H. (RIC does not list this entry with this bust type)
maridvnvm
RI 132fb img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 877 var - Bust Type H (Serdica) (KA•Δ•) (unlisted with this bust type)44 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate and cuirassed bust left wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle tipped scepter
Rev:– VIRTVS PROBI AVG, Emperor galloping right, spearing enemy whose shield lies beneath horse
Minted in Serdica (KA•Δ• in exe) Emission 4 Officina 4. A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 877 var. Bust type H. (RIC does not list this entry with this bust type)
maridvnvm
RI 132hw img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (Γ)68 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left (Sol always facing front for this emission)
Minted in Cyzicus (Γ in exe) Emission 2 Officina 3. end of A.D. 276 to begining of A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132hw_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (Γ)17 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left (Sol always facing front for this emission)
Minted in Cyzicus (Γ in exe) Emission 2 Officina 3. end of A.D. 276 to begining of A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H

Updated image.
maridvnvm
RI 132ks img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (A)20 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left (Sol always facing front for this emission)
Minted in Cyzicus (A in exe) Emission 2 Officina 1. end of A.D. 276 to begining of A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132up img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (B)28 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left (Sol always facing front for this emission)
Minted in Cyzicus (B in exe) Emission 2 Officina 2. end of A.D. 276 to begining of A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H

Ex - Philippe Gysen
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132hq img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXI∆)101 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXI∆ in exe) Emission 4 Officina 4. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132dk img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIΓ)81 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIΓ in exe) Emission 4 Officina 3. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132hz img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXI)37 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXI in exe) Emission 3. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132md img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIA)24 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIA in exe) Emission 4 Officina 1. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132pz img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIB)32 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIB in exe) Emission 4 Officina 2. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132bw img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIE)113 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIE in exe) Emission 4 Officina 5. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_132bw_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIE)18 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIE in exe) Emission 4 Officina 5. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H

Updated image
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 132ic img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIh)35 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIh in exe) Emission 3 Officina 6. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132gk img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIP)44 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIP in exe) Emission 3 Officina 1. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132hi img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIQ)45 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIQ in exe) Emission 3 Officina 4. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132eb img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIS)54 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIS in exe) Emission 3 Officina 2. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132ka img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIT)32 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIT in exe) Emission 3 Officina 3. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132ce img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIV)51 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIV in exe) Emission 3 Officina 5. A.D. 280
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132mo img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIV)21 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIV in exe) Emission 4 Officina 5. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132fz img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (CM / XXIZ)47 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in spread quadriga holding whip
Minted in Cyzicus (CM in centre field, XXIZ in exe) Emission 4 Officina 6. A.D. 281
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI_132jq_img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (D)9 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left (Sol always facing front for this emission)
Minted in Cyzicus (D in exe) Emission 2 Officina 5. end of A.D. 276 to begining of A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132kl img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (E)28 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left (Sol always facing front for this emission)
Minted in Cyzicus (E in exe) Emission 2 Officina 5. end of A.D. 276 to begining of A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI 132jn img.jpg
132 - Probus - RIC 911 - Bust Type H (Cyzicus) (None)63 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR PROBVS P F AVG, Radiate, bust left in imperial mantle, holding scepter surmounted by eagle
Rev:– SOLI INVICTO, Sol in a spread quadriga facing, radiate, cloak billowing out behind, raising right hand, holding whip in left (Sol always facing front for this emission)
Minted in Cyzicus (None) Emission 2. end of A.D. 276 to begining of A.D. 277
Reference:– RIC 911 Bust type H
maridvnvm
RI_136v_img.jpg
136 - Numerian Ant. - RIC -24 viewsObv:- IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG, Radiate bust right wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped scepter in right hand
Rev:- MARS VICTOR, Mars advancing right with spear and trophy
Minted in Lugdunum (C in right field)
References:- RIC - (not listed with this bust type in RIC). Bastien 562 (3 examples cited)

The consular busts are scarce for this dynasty.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_136v_img~0.jpg
136 - Numerian Ant. - RIC -20 viewsObv:- IMP C NVMERIANVS AVG, Radiate bust right wearing imperial mantle and holding eagle-tipped scepter in right hand
Rev:- MARS VICTOR, Mars advancing right with spear and trophy
Minted in Lugdunum (C in right field)
References:- RIC - (not listed with this bust type in RIC). Bastien 562 (3 examples cited)

The consular busts are scarce for this dynasty.
maridvnvm
RI 137d img~0.jpg
137 - Carinus - RIC V part II Lugdunum 216 var28 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG, Radiate, bust right in imperial mantle
Rev:– SALVS AVGG, Salus standing right, feeding snake
Minted in Lugdunum (_|D / LVG), Emission 7, Officina 4. early A.D. 284
Reference:– RIC 216 var (not listed with this bust type in RIC). Cohen -. Bastien 574 (1 example cited)

This would appear to be only the second example if this bust type for Carinus known.
maridvnvm
RI_137e_img.jpg
137 - Carinus - RIC V part II Lugdunum 216 var24 viewsObv:– IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG, Radiate, bust right in imperial mantle
Rev:– SALVS AVGG, Salus standing right, feeding snake
Minted in Lugdunum (_|D / LVG), Emission 7, Officina 4. early A.D. 284
Reference:– RIC 216 var (not listed with this bust type in RIC). Cohen -. Bastien 574 (1 example cited)

This would appear to be only the second example of this bust type for Carinus known.
maridvnvm
Urbs-Roma_AE-9,5_monogram_RIC-958cf-X_Q-001_axis-0h_9,5mm_0,99g-s.jpg
137 Commemorative, (336-337 A.D.), AE-4, Heraclea, RIC VII 156, URBS ROMA, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers, with one standard, R3!!!,142 views137 Commemorative, (336-337 A.D.), AE-4, Heraclea, RIC VII 156, URBS ROMA, GLORIA EXERCITVS, Two soldiers, with one standard, R3!!!,
avers: - URBS-ROMA, helmeted, wearing imperial cloak,
revers:- GLOR-IA-EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers holding spears and shields with one standard between them.
exerg: SMHB, diameter: 9,5mm, weight: 0,99g, axes: 0h,
mint: Heraclea, date: 336-337 A.D., ref: RIC VII 156, p-561, R3!!!,
Q-001
quadrans
antpius-RIC70.jpg
138-161 AD - ANTONINUS PIUS AR denarius - struck 140-143 AD25 viewsobv: ANTONINVS AVG PIVS P P TR P COS III (bare head right)
rev: GENIVS POP ROMANI (Genius standing front, head right, with scepter & cornucopiae)
ref: RIC III 70, RSC 405 (6frcs), BMC 207
3.15gms, 18mm

The Roman genius, representing man's natural optimism, always endeavoured to guide him to happiness; that man was intended to enjoy life is shown by the fact that the Roman spoke of indulging or cheating his genius of his due according as he enjoyed himself or failed to do so, when he had the opportunity. The genius publicus Populi Romani - probably distinct from the genius Urbis Romae, to whom an old shield on the Capitol was dedicated, stood in the forum near the temple of Concord, in the form of a bearded man, crowned with a diadem, and carrying a cornucopiae and sceptre. In imperial times the genius of Augustus and of the reigning emperor, as part of the sacra of the imperial family, were publicly worshipped. The reverse probably commemorate this (the scepter as Genius attributum is unusual).
berserker
St.Helena.jpg
1401a, St. Helena, Augusta 8 November 324 - 328 to 330 A.D., mother of Constantine the Great96 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 148, VF, Alexandria mint, 3.243g, 19.4mm, 165o, 327 - 328 A.D. Obverse: FL HELENA AVGVSTA, diademed and mantled bust right wearing double necklace; Reverse: SECVRITAS REIPVBLICE, Securitas holding branch downward in right and lifting fold of robe in left, wreath left, I right, SMAL in exergue; rare.

The mother of Constantine the Great, born about the middle of the third century, possibly in Drepanum (later known as Helenopolis) on the Nicomedian Gulf; died about 330. She was of humble parentage; St. Ambrose, in his "Oratio de obitu Theodosii", referred to her as a stabularia, or inn-keeper. Nevertheless, she became the lawful wife of Constantius Chlorus. Her first and only son, Constantine, was born in Naissus in Upper Moesia, in the year 274. The statement made by English chroniclers of the Middle Ages, according to which Helena was supposed to have been the daughter of a British prince, is entirely without historical foundation. It may arise from the misinterpretation of a term used in the fourth chapter of the panegyric on Constantine's marriage with Fausta, that Constantine, oriendo (i. e., "by his beginnings," "from the outset") had honoured Britain, which was taken as an allusion to his birth, whereas the reference was really to the beginning of his reign.

On the death of Constantius Chlorus, in 308, Constantine, who succeeded him, summoned his mother to the imperial court, conferred on her the title of Augusta, ordered that all honour should be paid her as the mother of the sovereign, and had coins struck bearing her effigy. Her son's influence caused her to embrace Christianity after his victory over Maxentius. This is directly attested by Eusebius (Vita Constantini, III, xlvii): "She (his mother) became under his (Constantine's) influence such a devout servant of God, that one might believe her to have been from her very childhood a disciple of the Redeemer of mankind". It is also clear from the declaration of the contemporary historian of the Church that Helena, from the time of her conversion had an earnestly Christian life and by her influence and liberality favoured the wider spread of Christianity. Tradition links her name with the building of Christian churches in the cities of the West, where the imperial court resided, notably at Rome and Trier, and there is no reason for rejecting this tradition, for we know positively through Eusebius that Helena erected churches on the hallowed spots of Palestine. Despite her advanced age she undertook a journey to Palestine when Constantine, through his victory over Licinius, had become sole master of the Roman Empire, subsequently, therefore, to the year 324. It was in Palestine, as we learn from Eusebius (loc. cit., xlii), that she had resolved to bring to God, the King of kings, the homage and tribute of her devotion. She lavished on that land her bounties and good deeds, she "explored it with remarkable discernment", and "visited it with the care and solicitude of the emperor himself". Then, when she "had shown due veneration to the footsteps of the Saviour", she had two churches erected for the worship of God: one was raised in Bethlehem near the Grotto of the Nativity, the other on the Mount of the Ascension, near Jerusalem. She also embellished the sacred grotto with rich ornaments. This sojourn in Jerusalem proved the starting-point of the legend first recorded by Rufinus as to the discovery of the Cross of Christ.

Constantine I, in 327, improved Drepanum, his mother's native town, and decreed that it should be called Helenopolis, it is probable that the latter returned from Palestine to her son who was then residing in the Orient. Constantine was with her when she died, at the advanced age of eighty years or thereabouts (Eusebius, "Vita Const.", III, xlvi). This must have been about the year 330, for the last coins which are known to have been stamped with her name bore this date. Her body was brought to Constantinople and laid to rest in the imperial vault of the church of the Apostles. It is presumed that her remains were transferred in 849 to the Abbey of Hautvillers, in the French Archdiocese of Reims, as recorded by the monk Altmann in his "Translatio". She was revered as a saint, and the veneration spread, early in the ninth century, even to Western countries. Her feast falls on 18 August.

(See The Catholic Encyclopedia: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07202b.htm)

Cleisthenes
CtG AE3.jpg
1403a,1, Constantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D.46 viewsConstantine I (the Great), 307-337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 16, C -, VF, 2.854g, 19.1mm, 180o, Constantinople mint, 327 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, rosette diademed head right; Reverse: GLORIA EXERCITVS, Soldier standing left, head right, resting left hand on shield and holding inverted spear in right, G in left field, CONS in exergue; very rare (R3).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
Const1GlrEx.jpg
1403b, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D., Bronze AE 3, RIC 137, VF, Constantinople mint, 1.476g, 16.4mm, 180o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, CONS[ ] in exergue. Ex FORVM.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGDafne.jpg
1403c, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D.49 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC VII 35, choice aEF, Constantinople mint, 3.336g, 20.0mm, 180o, 328 A.D.; Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONSTANTINI-ANA DAFNE, Victory seated left on cippus, head right, palm frond in each hand, trophy and captive before, CONS in exergue, B left; scarce. Ex FORVM.

"The information about Constantine's campaign across [the Danube] is obscure and untrustworthy. The question, therefore, of what he achieved by this enterprise was, and is, subject to contradictory interpretations. On the one hand, the Panegyrists claimed that he had repeated the triumphs of Trajan. On the other, his own nephew, Julian the Apostate, spoke for many when he expressed the view that this second 'conquest' of Dacia was incomplete and extremely brief . . . monetary commemoration was accorded to the building, at about the same time [AD 328], of the river frontier fortress of Constantiniana Dafne (Spantov, near Oltenita) . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix, 1998. 58-9).

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
1 commentsCleisthenes
CTGKyzAE3.jpg
1403d, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Cyzicus)37 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 199, gVF, corrosion, Cyzicus, 1.402g, 16.2mm, 0o, 336 - 337 A.D. Obverse: CONSTANTI-NVS MAX AVG, laurel and rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS•, two soldiers, each holding spear and shield on ground, flanking standard, SMKA in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGVOTXXX.jpg
1403e, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)28 viewsConstantine the Great, Bronze AE 3, RIC 69, VF, Heraclea, 3.38g, 19.0mm, 180o, 325 - 326 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: D N CONSTANTINI MAX AVG, VOT XXX in wreath, SMHD in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
12817p00.jpg
1403f, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Heraclea)20 viewsBronze follis, RIC 5, F/aF, 3.513g, 20.4mm, 180o, Heraclea mint, 313 A.D.; obverse IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; reverse IOVI CONSER-VATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left holding Victory and scepter, eagle with wreath in beek at feet, B in right field, SMHT in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTGaeFolNico.jpg
1403g, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Nicomedia)22 viewsConstantine the Great, early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. Bronze follis, RIC 12, aVF, Nicomedia mint, 2.760g, 22.0mm, 0o, 313 - 317 A.D. Obverse: IMP C FL VAL CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONS-ERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, G right, SMN in exergue; scarce.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG.jpg
1403h, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)36 viewsBronze follis, RIC 232b, gVF, Siscia, 3.87g, 23.8mm, 180o, early 313 A.D. Obverse: IMP CONSTANTINVS P F AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG NN, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe and scepter, eagle with wreath in beak left, E right, SIS in exergue.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_SisCmpGte.jpg
1403i, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Siscia)42 viewsSilvered AE 3, RIC 214, VF, Siscia mint, 3.187g, 19.3mm, 0o, 328 - 329 A.D.
Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, ASIS and double crescent in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CTG_ThesCmpGte.jpg
1403j, Constantine I (the Great), early 307 - 22 May 337 A.D. (Thessalonica)26 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 153, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.955g, 19.7mm, 0o, 326 - 328 A.D. Obverse: CONSTAN-TINVS AVG, laureate head right; Reverse: PROVIDEN-TIAE AVGG, campgate with two turrets, star above, dot right, SMTSG in exergue.

Flavius Valerius Constantinus, Constantine the Great, was the son of Helena and the First Tetrarchic ruler Constantius I. Constantine is most famous for his conversion to Christianity and the battle of the Milvian Bridge where he defeated emperor Maxentius. It is reputed that before the battle, he saw the words "In Hoc Signo Victor Eris" (By this sign you shall conquer) emblazoned on the sun around the Chi Rho, the symbol of Christianity. Other sources claim the vision came to Constantine I in a dream. The story continues that after placing this Christogram on the shields of his army, he defeated his opponent and thus ruled the empire through divine providence. Constantine I also shifted the capital of the empire to Constantinople, establishing the foundation for an Empire that would last another 1000 years. He died in 337 and his sons divided the Roman territories.

The Emperor Constantine I was effectively the sole ruler of the Roman world between 324 and 337 A.D.; his reign was perhaps one of the most crucial of all the emperors in determining the future course of western civilization. By beginning the process of making Christianity the religious foundation of his realm, he set the religious course for the future of Europe which remains in place to this very day. Because he replaced Rome with Constantinople as the center of imperial power, he made it clear that the city of Rome was no longer the center of power, and he also set the stage for the Middle Ages. His philosophical view of monarchy, largely spelled out in some of the works of Eusebius of Caesarea, became the foundation for the concept of the divine right of kings which prevailed in Europe.

Constantine was not a "Christian convert" in any traditional sense. He was not baptized until close to death, and while that was not an uncommon practice, the mention of Christ in his speeches and decrees is conspicuous by its absence. Eusebius, Church historian and Constantine biographer, is responsible for much of the valorization of Constantine as the Christian Emperor. The somnambulant "sign" in which Constantine was to become victor at the Milvian Bridge is, not so surprisingly, revealed to posterity long after the "fact." Throughout his reign, Constantine continues to portray himself on coins as a sun god (Freeman, Charles. Egypt, Greece and Rome: Civilizations of the Ancient Mediterranean; Second Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. 582). Above all, Constantine was a pragmatist. It would be cynical to egregiously disavow his commitment to Christianity, but it would be equally wrong to think that he would allow Christianity to meddle in the governance of his empire. As he reputedly told a group of bishops, "You are bishops of those within the church, but I am perhaps a bishop appointed by God of those outside." Whatever the motives for his decision to support Christianity, Christianity benefitted from the arrangement. So, too, did Constantine. It was a match made in heaven.
J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

For perhaps the best Constantine The Great site on the web, see Victor Clark's Constantine The Great Coins: http://www.constantinethegreatcoins.com/
Cleisthenes
CrispusRIC17.jpg
1404a, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. 38 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 17, aEF, Cyzicus mint, 3.196g, 19.9mm, 315o, 321 - 324 A.D.; Obverse: D N FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: IOVI CONSERVATORI, Jupiter standing left holding Victory on globe in right and scepter in left, eagle with wreath in beak to left, X / IIG and captive right, SMKD in exergue; scarce (RIC R3). Ex FORVM.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.


Cleisthenes
crispus_votV.jpg
1404b, Crispus, Caesar 317 - 326 A.D. (Thessalonica)35 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 118, VF, Thessalonica mint, 2.740g, 18.0mm, 180o, 320 - 321 A.D. Obverse: FL IVL CRISPVS NOB CAES, laureate, draped and cuirassed bust left; Reverse: CAESARVM NOSTRORVM, VOT V in wreath, TSDVI in exergue.

Flavius Julius Crispus was the son of Constantine I by his first wife. A brilliant soldier, Crispus was well loved by all until 326 A.D., when Constantine had him executed. It is said that Fausta, Crispus stepmother, anxious to secure the succession for her own sons falsely accused Crispus of raping her. Constantine, learning of Fausta`s treachery, had her executed too.


De Imperatoribus Romanis;
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families

Crispus Caesar (317-326 A.D.)

Hans Pohlsander
SUNY Albany

Crispus was the oldest son of the emperor Constantine I and played a fairly important role in the political and military events of the early fourth century. The regular form of his full name is Flavius Iulius Crispus, although the forms Flavius Claudius Crispus and Flavius Valerius Crispus also occur. His mother was a woman named Minervina, with whom Constantine had a relationship, probably illegitimate, before he married Fausta in 307. When Minervina died or when Constantine put her aside we do not know. Nor do we know when she gave birth to Crispus; we may assume, of course, that it was before 307. Some modern authorities, on good grounds, think that it was in 305. Crispus' place of birth must have been somewhere in the East, and it is not known when he was brought to Gaul and when, where, or under what circumstances he was separated from his mother.

Constantine entrusted the education of his son to the distinguished Christian scholar Lactantius, thereby giving a clear sign of his commitment to Christianity. We are not told when Lactantius assumed his duties, but a date before 317 seems likely. Nor do we know how successful he was in instilling Christian beliefs and values in his imperial pupil. No later than January of 322 Crispus must have married a woman named Helena -- not to be confused with Constantine's mother or daughter by the same name- and this woman bore him a child in October of 322. Constantine, we learn, was pleased.

Crispus' official career began at an early age and is well documented. On March 1 of 317, at Serdica (modern Sofia), his father appointed him Caesar. The consulship was his three times, in 318, 321, and 324. While nominally in charge of Gaul, with a prefect at his side, he successfully undertook military operations against the Franks and Alamanni in 320 and 323.

In 324, during the second war between Constantine and Licinius, he excelled as commander of Constantine's fleet in the waters of the Hellespont, the Propontis, and the Bosporus, thus making a significant contribution to the outcome of that war. The high points of his career are amply reflected in the imperial coinage. In addition to coins, we have his portrait, with varying degrees of certainty, in a number of sculptures, mosaics, cameos, etc. Contemporary authors heap praises upon him. Thus the panegyrist Nazarius speaks of Crispus' "magnificent deeds," and Eusebius calls him "an emperor most dear to God and in all regards comparable to his father."

Crispus' end was as tragic as his career had been brilliant. His own father ordered him to be put to death. We know the year of this sad event, 326, from the Consularia Constantinopolitana, and the place, Pola in Istria, from Ammianus Marcellinus. The circumstances, however, are less clear. Zosimus (6th c.) and Zonaras (12th c.) both report that Crispus and his stepmother Fausta were involved in an illicit relationship. There may be as much gossip as fact in their reports, but it is certain that at some time during the same year the emperor ordered the death of his own wife as well, and the two cases must be considered together. That Crispus and Fausta plotted treason is reported by Gregory of Tours, but not very believable. We must resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins. A similar claim had already been made by Julian the Apostate. We must also, I think, reject the suggestion of Guthrie that the emperor acted in the interest of "dynastic legitimacy," that is, that he removed his illegitimate first-born son in order to secure the succession for his three legitimate younger sons. But Crispus must have committed, or at least must have been suspected of having committed, some especially shocking offense to earn him a sentence of death from his own father. He also suffered damnatio memoriae, his honor was never restored, and history has not recorded the fate of his wife and his child (or children).

Copyright (C) 1997, Hans A. Pohlsander. Published on De Imperatoribus Romanis;An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors and their Families:
http://www.roman-emperors.org/crispus.htm


What If?

St. Nectarios, in his book, The Ecumenical Synods, writes "Hellenism spread by Alexander paved the way for Christianity by Emperor Constantine the Great."

Constantine's upward gaze on his "Eyes to Heaven" coins recall the coin portraits of Alexander the Great (namely coins struck by the Diodochi), which served as prototypes for the divine ruler portraiture of much of the Hellenistic age. The diadem, of which this is the most elaborate type, was adopted by Constantine and the members of his house as a new symbol of sovereignty.

In the Greek Orthodox Church, Constantine the Great is revered as a Saint.

Is it just possible? Constantine, knowing what happened (or thinking that he does) to Phillip II of Macedon—assassinated on the eve of his greatness, in a plot that most likely involved his wife—and possibly his son. . . isn’t it just possible that Constantine is growing obsessively jealous of his ever more successful and adulated son? Imagine the Constantine who has proven time and again (think: Licinius) that he is a completely self-serving liar and a murderer, decides to murder again? Why "must we resolutely reject the claim of Zosimus that it was Constantine's sense of guilt over these deeds which caused him to accept Christianity, as it alone promised him forgiveness for his sins [?] (see: above). A similar claim had already been made by Julian the [Philosopher]."

Perhaps it is time to cease being apologists for the sometime megalomaniacal Constantine. As Michael Grant notes, "It is a mocking travesty of justice to call such a murderer Constantine the Great . . ." (Grant, Michael. The Emperor Constantine. London: Phoenix Press, 1998. 226).


Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
U809F1JMXNTCBT.jpg
1407a, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Antioch)51 viewsAE4, 337-361 A.D. Antioch, aVF/VF,Obv:– DN CONSTANTIVS P F AVG, Pearl and rosette diadem, head right/R: Wreath with VOT XX MVLT XXX, SMANB in exe.RIC VIII Antioch 113,Item ref: RI170b.

AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obv: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed. R: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards Exe: SMHB.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

1 commentsCleisthenes
Cnstntius2b.jpg
1407h, Constantius II, 337-361 A.D. (Heraclea)32 viewsConstantius II 337-361 A.D. AE3, 2.80 grams, 330-333, Heraclea, aVF. Obverse: FL IVL CONSTANTIVS NOB C - Laureate bust right, draped and cuirassed; Reverse: GLOR-IA EXERC-ITVS - Two soldiers looking in at each other and both holding a spear; between them, two standards; SMHB in exergue.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated his cousin, Julian, to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success led his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore, left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.
By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Constantius II.jpg
1407r, Constantius II, 22 May 337 - 3 November 361 A.D.39 viewsBronze AE 3, RIC 272, aVF, 2.203g, 18.1mm, 0o, Rome mint, 352 - 355 A.D.; obverse D N CONSTAN-TIVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse FEL TEMP REPARATIO, soldier spearing fallen horseman, RT in ex.

Constantius II was born in Illyricum in August AD 317, the son of Constantine the Great and Fausta, and was proclaimed Caesar in AD 323.

In AD 337, at the death of his father Constantine, he acceded to the throne together with his two brothers Constantine II and Constans. But this accession by the three brothers was tainted by the murder of their cousins Dalmatius and Hannibalianus, whom Constantine had also intended as joint heirs. These murders are believed to have been masterminded by Constantius II.

Eventually, Constantius II was left as the sole emperor of the Roman empire. Constantius elevated Julian to the rank of Caesar (junior emperor) and gave him his sister Helena in marriage. Julian was assigned the task of dealing with the Frankish leader, Silvanus, who had proclaimed himself emepror at Colonia Agrippina. Julian's success lead his men to declare him Augustus. Julian, while reluctant to take the throne, accepted.

Constantius II, therefore left the Mesopotamian frontier and marched his troops west, seeking to deal with the usurper. As he reached Cilicia in the winter of AD 361, he was overcome by a sudden fever and died at Mopsucrene. Julian, the Apostate, succeded him as Emperor.

Our chief source for Constantius' reign is the great historian Ammianus Marcellinus. He presents a mixed view of that emperor. In some ways a sound administrator and competent general, Constantius is also portrayed as easily influenced by those around him such as his wives, courtiers and the eunuchs of the court (Ammianus 21. 16. 16). Ammianus (21.16.18) also attacks Constantius' great interest in Church affairs--alleging that he bankrupted the courier service with calls for Church councils. Of course, imperial interest in Church affairs was a major policy of his father Constantine and it may be that Constantius was trying to emulate his model (if only with mixed success). Indeed, Constantius II (like his brothers Constantine II and Constans) was raised a Christian. Among his many laws is the famous CTh 16.10.2 of 341 which either prohibited or re-issued his father's prohibition of pagan sacrifices. Sympathetic to Arianism, he spent a great deal of his reign calling Church councils. One of the longest-reigned emperors in Roman history, Constantius is hard for the modern historian to fully understand both due to his own actions and due to the interests of the authors of primary sources for his reign.

By Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University & Robert Frakes, Clarion University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Julian2VotXConstantinople.jpg
1409a, Julian II "the Philosopher," February 360 - 26 June 363 A.D.143 viewsJulian II, A.D. 360-363; RIC 167; VF; 2.7g, 20mm; Constantinople mint; Obverse: DN FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG, helmeted & cuirassed bust right, holding spear & shield; Reverse: VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath; CONSPB in exergue; Attractive green patina. Ex Nemesis.


De Imperatoribus Romanis,
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Julian the Apostate (360-363 A.D.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Michael DiMaio, Jr., Salve Regina University

Introduction

The emperor Flavius Claudius Julianus reigned from 360 to 26 June 363, when he was killed fighting against the Persians. Despite his short rule, his emperorship was pivotal in the development of the history of the later Roman empire. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20th century. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. The adoption of Christianity by emperors and society, while still a vital concern, was but one of several issues that concerned Julian.

It is fortunate that extensive writings from Julian himself exist, which help interpret his reign in the light of contemporary evidence. Still extant are some letters, several panegyrics, and a few satires. Other contemporary sources include the soldier Ammianus Marcellinus' history, correspondence between Julian and Libanius of Antioch, several panegyrics, laws from the Theodosian Code, inscriptions, and coinage. These sources show Julian's emphasis on restoration. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. At the same time this theme of restoration was central to all emperors of the fourth century. Julian thought that he was the one emperor who could regain what was viewed as the lost glory of the Roman empire. To achieve this goal he courted select groups of social elites to get across his message of restoration. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society.

Early Life

Julian was born at Constantinople in 331. His father was Julius Constantius, half-brother of the emperor Constantine through Constantius Chlorus, and his mother was Basilina, Julius' second wife. Julian had two half-brothers via Julius' first marriage. One of these was Gallus, who played a major role in Julian's life. Julian appeared destined for a bright future via his father's connection to the Constantinian house. After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. From 333 to 335, Constantine conferred a series of honors upon his three half-siblings, including appointing Julius Constantius as one of the consuls for 335. Julian's mother was equally distinguished. Ammianus related that she was from a noble family. This is supported by Libanius, who claimed that she was the daughter of Julius Julianus, a Praetorian Prefect under Licinius, who was such a model of administrative virtue that he was pardoned and honored by Constantine.

Despite the fact that his mother died shortly after giving birth to him, Julian experienced an idyllic early childhood. This ended when Constantius II conducted a purge of many of his relatives shortly after Constantine's death in 337, particularly targeting the families of Constantine's half-brothers. ulian and Gallus were spared, probably due to their young age. Julian was put under the care of Mardonius, a Scythian eunuch who had tutored his mother, in 339, and was raised in the Greek philosophical tradition, and probably lived in Nicomedia. Ammianus also supplied the fact that while in Nicomedia, Julian was cared for by the local bishop Eusebius, of whom the future emperor was a distant relation. Julian was educated by some of the most famous names in grammar and rhetoric in the Greek world at that time, including Nicocles and Hecebolius. In 344 Constantius II sent Julian and Gallus to Macellum in Cappadocia, where they remained for six years. In 351, Gallus was made Caesar by Constantius II and Julian was allowed to return to Nicomedia, where he studied under Aedesius, Eusebius, and Chrysanthius, all famed philosophers, and was exposed to the Neo-Platonism that would become such a prominent part of his life. But Julian was most proud of the time he spent studying under Maximus of Ephesus, a noted Neo-Platonic philospher and theurgist. It was Maximus who completed Julian's full-scale conversion to Neo-Platonism. Later, when he was Caesar, Julian told of how he put letters from this philosopher under his pillows so that he would continue to absorb wisdom while he slept, and while campaigning on the Rhine, he sent his speeches to Maximus for approval before letting others hear them. When Gallus was executed in 354 for treason by Constantius II, Julian was summoned to Italy and essentially kept under house arrest at Comum, near Milan, for seven months before Constantius' wife Eusebia convinced the emperor that Julian posed no threat. This allowed Julian to return to Greece and continue his life as a scholar where he studied under the Neo-Platonist Priscus. Julian's life of scholarly pursuit, however, ended abruptly when he was summoned to the imperial court and made Caesar by Constantius II on 6 November 355.

Julian as Caesar

Constantius II realized an essential truth of the empire that had been evident since the time of the Tetrarchy--the empire was too big to be ruled effectively by one man. Julian was pressed into service as Caesar, or subordinate emperor, because an imperial presence was needed in the west, in particular in the Gallic provinces. Julian, due to the emperor's earlier purges, was the only viable candidate of the imperial family left who could act as Caesar. Constantius enjoined Julian with the task of restoring order along the Rhine frontier. A few days after he was made Caesar, Julian was married to Constantius' sister Helena in order to cement the alliance between the two men. On 1 December 355, Julian journeyed north, and in Augusta Taurinorum he learned that Alamannic raiders had destroyed Colonia Agrippina. He then proceeded to Vienne where he spent the winter. At Vienne, he learned that Augustudunum was also under siege, but was being held by a veteran garrison. He made this his first priority, and arrived there on 24 June 356. When he had assured himself that the city was in no immediate danger, he journeyed to Augusta Treverorum via Autessioduram, and from there to Durocortorum where he rendezvoused with his army. Julian had the army stage a series of punitive strikes around the Dieuse region, and then he moved them towards the Argentoratum/Mongontiacum region when word of barbarian incursions reached him.

From there, Julian moved on to Colonia Agrippina, and negotiated a peace with the local barbarian leaders who had assaulted the city. He then wintered at Senonae. He spent the early part of the campaigning season of 357 fighting off besiegers at Senonae, and then conducting operations around Lugdunum and Tres Tabernae. Later that summer, he encountered his watershed moment as a military general. Ammianus went into great detail about Julian's victory over seven rogue Alamannic chieftains near Argentoratum, and Julian himself bragged about it in his later writing. After this battle, the soldiers acclaimed Julian Augustus, but he rejected this title. After mounting a series of follow-up raids into Alamannic territory, he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia, and on the way defeated some Frankish raiders in the Mosa region. Julian considered this campaign one of the major events of his time as Caesar.

Julian began his 358 military campaigns early, hoping to catch the barbarians by surprise. His first target was the Franks in the northern Rhine region. He then proceeded to restore some forts in the Mosa region, but his soldiers threatened to mutiny because they were on short rations and had not been paid their donative since Julian had become Caesar. After he soothed his soldiers, Julian spent the rest of the summer negotiating a peace with various Alamannic leaders in the mid and lower Rhine areas, and retired to winter quarters at Lutetia. In 359, he prepared once again to carry out a series of punitive expeditions against the Alamanni in the Rhine region who were still hostile to the Roman presence. In preparation, the Caesar repopulated seven previously destroyed cities and set them up as supply bases and staging areas. This was done with the help of the people with whom Julian had negotiated a peace the year before. Julian then had a detachment of lightly armed soldiers cross the Rhine near Mogontiacum and conduct a guerilla strike against several chieftains. As a result of these campaigns, Julian was able to negotiate a peace with all but a handful of the Alamannic leaders, and he retired to winter quarters at Lutetia.

Of course, Julian did more than act as a general during his time as Caesar. According to Ammianus, Julian was an able administrator who took steps to correct the injustices of Constantius' appointees. Ammianus related the story of how Julian prevented Florentius, the Praetorian Prefect of Gaul, from raising taxes, and also how Julian actually took over as governor for the province of Belgica Secunda. Hilary, bishop of Poitiers, supported Ammianus' basic assessment of Julian in this regard when he reported that Julian was an able representative of the emperor to the Gallic provincials. There is also epigraphic evidence to support Julian's popularity amongst the provincial elites. An inscription found near Beneventum in Apulia reads:
"To Flavius Claudius Julianus, most noble and sanctified Caesar, from the caring Tocius Maximus, vir clarissimus, for the care of the res publica from Beneventum".

Tocius Maximus, as a vir clarissimus, was at the highest point in the social spectrum and was a leader in his local community. This inscription shows that Julian was successful in establishing a positive image amongst provincial elites while he was Caesar.

Julian Augustus

In early 360, Constantius, driven by jealousy of Julian's success, stripped Julian of many troops and officers, ostensibly because the emperor needed them for his upcoming campaign against the Persians. One of the legions ordered east, the Petulantes, did not want to leave Gaul because the majority of the soldiers in the unit were from this region. As a result they mutinied and hailed Julian as Augustus at Lutetia. Julian refused this acclamation as he had done at Argentoratum earlier, but the soldiers would have none of his denial. They raised him on a shield and adorned him with a neck chain, which had formerly been the possession of the standard-bearer of the Petulantes and symbolized a royal diadem. Julian appeared reluctantly to acquiesce to their wishes, and promised a generous donative. The exact date of his acclamation is unknown, but most scholars put it in February or March. Julian himself supported Ammianus' picture of a jealous Constantius. In his Letter to the Athenians, a document constructed to answer charges that he was a usurper, Julian stated that from the start he, as Caesar, had been meant as a figurehead to the soldiers and provincials. The real power he claimed lay with the generals and officials already present in Gaul. In fact, according to Julian, the generals were charged with watching him as much as the enemy. His account of the actual acclamation closely followed what Ammianus told us, but he stressed even more his reluctance to take power. Julian claimed that he did so only after praying to Zeus for guidance.

Fearing the reaction of Constantius, Julian sent a letter to his fellow emperor justifying the events at Lutetia and trying to arrange a peaceful solution. This letter berated Constantius for forcing the troops in Gaul into an untenable situation. Ammianus stated that Julian's letter blamed Constantius' decision to transfer Gallic legions east as the reason for the soldiers' rebellion. Julian once again asserted that he was an unwilling participant who was only following the desire of the soldiers. In both of these basic accounts Ammianus and Julian are playing upon the theme of restoration. Implicit in their version of Julian's acclamation is the argument that Constantius was unfit to rule. The soldiers were the vehicle of the gods' will. The Letter to the Athenians is full of references to the fact that Julian was assuming the mantle of Augustus at the instigation of the gods. Ammianus summed up this position nicely when he related the story of how, when Julian was agonizing over whether to accept the soldiers' acclamation, he had a dream in which he was visited by the Genius (guardian spirit) of the Roman state. The Genius told Julian that it had often tried to bestow high honors upon Julian but had been rebuffed. Now, the Genius went on to say, was Julian's final chance to take the power that was rightfully his. If the Caesar refused this chance, the Genius would depart forever, and both Julian and the state would rue Julian's rejection. Julian himself wrote a letter to his friend Maximus of Ephesus in November of 361 detailing his thoughts on his proclamation. In this letter, Julian stated that the soldiers proclaimed him Augustus against his will. Julian, however, defended his accession, saying that the gods willed it and that he had treated his enemies with clemency and justice. He went on to say that he led the troops in propitiating the traditional deities, because the gods commanded him to return to the traditional rites, and would reward him if he fulfilled this duty.

During 360 an uneasy peace simmered between the two emperors. Julian spent the 360 campaigning season continuing his efforts to restore order along the Rhine, while Constantius continued operations against the Persians. Julian wintered in Vienne, and celebrated his Quinquennalia. It was at this time that his wife Helena died, and he sent her remains to Rome for a proper burial at his family villa on the Via Nomentana where the body of her sister was entombed. The uneasy peace held through the summer of 361, but Julian concentrated his military operations around harassing the Alamannic chieftain Vadomarius and his allies, who had concluded a peace treaty with Constantius some years earlier. By the end of the summer, Julian decided to put an end to the waiting and gathered his army to march east against Constantius. The empire teetered on the brink of another civil war. Constantius had spent the summer negotiating with the Persians and making preparations for possible military action against his cousin. When he was assured that the Persians would not attack, he summoned his army and sallied forth to meet Julian. As the armies drew inexorably closer to one another, the empire was saved from another bloody civil war when Constantius died unexpectedly of natural causes on 3 November near the town of Mopsucrenae in Cilicia, naming Julian -- the sources say-- as his legitimate successor.

Julian was in Dacia when he learned of his cousin's death. He made his way through Thrace and came to Constantinople on 11 December 361 where Julian honored the emperor with the funeral rites appropriate for a man of his station. Julian immediately set about putting his supporters in positions of power and trimming the imperial bureaucracy, which had become extremely overstaffed during Constantius' reign. Cooks and barbers had increased during the late emperor's reign and Julian expelled them from his court. Ammianus gave a mixed assessment of how the new emperor handled the followers of Constantius. Traditionally, emperors were supposed to show clemency to the supporters of a defeated enemy. Julian, however, gave some men over to death to appease the army. Ammianus used the case of Ursulus, Constantius' comes sacrum largitionum, to illustrate his point. Ursulus had actually tried to acquire money for the Gallic troops when Julian had first been appointed Caesar, but he had also made a disparaging remark about the ineffectiveness of the army after the battle of Amida. The soldiers remembered this, and when Julian became sole Augustus, they demanded Ursulus' head. Julian obliged, much to the disapproval of Ammianus. This seems to be a case of Julian courting the favor of the military leadership, and is indicative of a pattern in which Julian courted the goodwill of various societal elites to legitimize his position as emperor.

Another case in point is the officials who made up the imperial bureaucracy. Many of them were subjected to trial and punishment. To achieve this goal, during the last weeks of December 361 Julian assembled a military tribunal at Chalcedon, empanelling six judges to try the cases. The president of the tribunal was Salutius, just promoted to the rank of Praetorian Prefect; the five other members were Mamertinus, the orator, and four general officers: Jovinus, Agilo, Nevitta, and Arbetio. Relative to the proceedings of the tribunal, Ammianus noted that the judges, " . . . oversaw the cases more vehemently than was right or fair, with the exception of a few . . .." Ammianus' account of Julian's attempt at reform of the imperial bureaucracy is supported by legal evidence from the Theodosian Code. A series of laws sent to Mamertinus, Julian's appointee as Praetorian Prefect in Italy, Illyricum, and Africa, illustrate this point nicely. On 6 June 362, Mamertinus received a law that prohibited provincial governors from bypassing the Vicars when giving their reports to the Prefect. Traditionally, Vicars were given civil authority over a group of provinces, and were in theory meant to serve as a middle step between governors and Prefects. This law suggests that the Vicars were being left out, at least in Illyricum. Julian issued another edict to Mamertinus on 22 February 362 to stop abuse of the public post by governors. According to this law, only Mamertinus could issue post warrants, but the Vicars were given twelve blank warrants to be used as they saw fit, and each governor was given two. Continuing the trend of bureaucratic reform, Julian also imposed penalties on governors who purposefully delayed appeals in court cases they had heard. The emperor also established a new official to weigh solidi used in official government transactions to combat coin clipping.

For Julian, reigning in the abuses of imperial bureaucrats was one step in restoring the prestige of the office of emperor. Because he could not affect all elements of society personally, Julian, like other Neo-Flavian emperors, decided to concentrate on select groups of societal elites as intercessors between himself and the general populace. One of these groups was the imperial bureaucracy. Julian made it very clear that imperial officials were intercessors in a very real sense in a letter to Alypius, Vicar of Britain. In this letter, sent from Gaul sometime before 361, the emperor praises Alypius for his use of "mildness and moderation with courage and force" in his rule of the provincials. Such virtues were characteristic of the emperors, and it was good that Alypius is representing Julian in this way. Julian courted the army because it put him in power. Another group he sought to include in his rule was the traditional Senatorial aristocracy. One of his first appointments as consul was Claudius Mamertinus, a Gallic Senator and rhetorician. Mamertinus' speech in praise of Julian delivered at Constantinople in January of 362 is preserved. In this speech, Claudius presented his consular selection as inaugurating a new golden age and Julian as the restorer of the empire founded by Augustus. The image Mamertinus gave of his own consulate inaugurating a new golden age is not merely formulaic. The comparison of Julian to Augustus has very real, if implicit, relevance to Claudius' situation. Claudius emphasized the imperial period as the true age of renewal. Augustus ushered in a new era with his formation of a partnership between the emperor and the Senate based upon a series of honors and offices bestowed upon the Senate in return for their role as intercessor between emperor and populace. It was this system that Julian was restoring, and the consulate was one concrete example of this bond. To be chosen as a consul by the emperor, who himself had been divinely mandated, was a divine honor. In addition to being named consul, Mamertinus went on to hold several offices under Julian, including the Prefecture of Italy, Illyricum, and Africa. Similarly, inscriptional evidence illustrates a link between municipal elites and Julian during his time as Caesar, something which continued after he became emperor. One concrete example comes from the municipal senate of Aceruntia in Apulia, which established a monument on which Julian is styled as "Repairer of the World."

Julian seems to have given up actual Christian belief before his acclamation as emperor and was a practitioner of more traditional Greco-Roman religious beliefs, in particular, a follower of certain late antique Platonist philosophers who were especially adept at theurgy as was noted earlier. In fact Julian himself spoke of his conversion to Neo-Platonism in a letter to the Alexandrians written in 363. He stated that he had abandoned Christianity when he was twenty years old and been an adherent of the traditional Greco-Roman deities for the twelve years prior to writing this letter.

(For the complete text of this article see: http://www.roman-emperors.org/julian.htm)

Julian’s Persian Campaign

The exact goals Julian had for his ill-fated Persian campaign were never clear. The Sassanid Persians, and before them the Parthians, had been a traditional enemy from the time of the Late Republic, and indeed Constantius had been conducting a war against them before Julian's accession forced the former to forge an uneasy peace. Julian, however, had no concrete reason to reopen hostilities in the east. Socrates Scholasticus attributed Julian's motives to imitation of Alexander the Great, but perhaps the real reason lay in his need to gather the support of the army. Despite his acclamation by the Gallic legions, relations between Julian and the top military officers was uneasy at best. A war against the Persians would have brought prestige and power both to Julian and the army.

Julian set out on his fateful campaign on 5 March 363. Using his trademark strategy of striking quickly and where least expected, he moved his army through Heirapolis and from there speedily across the Euphrates and into the province of Mesopotamia, where he stopped at the town of Batnae. His plan was to eventually return through Armenia and winter in Tarsus. Once in Mesopotamia, Julian was faced with the decision of whether to travel south through the province of Babylonia or cross the Tigris into Assyria, and he eventually decided to move south through Babylonia and turn west into Assyria at a later date. By 27 March, he had the bulk of his army across the Euphrates, and had also arranged a flotilla to guard his supply line along the mighty river. He then left his generals Procopius and Sebastianus to help Arsacius, the king of Armenia and a Roman client, to guard the northern Tigris line. It was also during this time that he received the surrender of many prominent local leaders who had nominally supported the Persians. These men supplied Julian with money and troops for further military action against their former masters. Julian decided to turn south into Babylonia and proceeded along the Euphrates, coming to the fortress of Cercusium at the junction of the Abora and Euphrates Rivers around the first of April, and from there he took his army west to a region called Zaitha near the abandoned town of Dura where they visited the tomb of the emperor Gordian which was in the area. On April 7 he set out from there into the heart of Babylonia and towards Assyria.

Ammianus then stated that Julian and his army crossed into Assyria, which on the face of things appears very confusing. Julian still seems to be operating within the province of Babylonia between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. The confusion is alleviated when one realizes that,for Ammianus, the region of Assyria encompassed the provinces of Babylonia and Assyria. On their march, Julian's forces took the fortress of Anatha, received the surrender and support of several more local princes, and ravaged the countryside of Assyria between the rivers. As the army continued south, they came across the fortresses Thilutha and Achaiachala, but these places were too well defended and Julian decided to leave them alone. Further south were the cities Diacira and Ozogardana, which the Roman forces sacked and burned. Soon, Julian came to Pirisabora and a brief siege ensued, but the city fell and was also looted and destroyed. It was also at this time that the Roman army met its first systematic resistance from the Persians. As the Romans penetrated further south and west, the local inhabitants began to flood their route. Nevertheless, the Roman forces pressed on and came to Maiozamalcha, a sizable city not far from Ctesiphon. After a short siege, this city too fell to Julian. Inexorably, Julian's forces zeroed in on Ctesiphon, but as they drew closer, the Persian resistance grew fiercer, with guerilla raids whittling at Julian's men and supplies. A sizable force of the army was lost and the emperor himself was almost killed taking a fort a few miles from the target city.
Finally, the army approached Ctesiphon following a canal that linked the Tigris and Euphrates. It soon became apparent after a few preliminary skirmishes that a protracted siege would be necessary to take this important city. Many of his generals, however, thought that pursuing this course of action would be foolish. Julian reluctantly agreed, but became enraged by this failure and ordered his fleet to be burned as he decided to march through the province of Assyria. Julian had planned for his army to live off the land, but the Persians employed a scorched-earth policy. When it became apparent that his army would perish (because his supplies were beginning to dwindle) from starvation and the heat if he continued his campaign, and also in the face of superior numbers of the enemy, Julian ordered a retreat on 16 June. As the Roman army retreated, they were constantly harassed by guerilla strikes. It was during one of these raids that Julian got caught up in the fighting and took a spear to his abdomen. Mortally wounded he was carried to his tent, where, after conferring with some of his officers, he died. The date was 26 June 363.

Conclusion

Thus an ignominious end for a man came about who had hoped to restore the glory of the Roman empire during his reign as emperor. Due to his intense hatred of Christianity, the opinion of posterity has not been kind to Julian. The contemporary opinion, however, was overall positive. The evidence shows that Julian was a complex ruler with a definite agenda to use traditional social institutions in order to revive what he saw as a collapsing empire. In the final assessment, he was not so different from any of the other emperors of the fourth century. He was a man grasping desperately to hang on to a Greco-Roman conception of leadership that was undergoing a subtle yet profound change.
Copyright (C) 2002, Walter E. Roberts and Michael DiMaio, Jr. Used by permission.

In reality, Julian worked to promote culture and philosophy in any manifestation. He tried to reduce taxes and the public debts of municipalities; he augmented administrative decentralisation; he promoted a campaign of austerity to reduce public expenditure (setting himself as the example). He reformed the postal service and eliminated the powerful secret police.
by Federico Morando; JULIAN II, The Apostate, http://www.forumancientcoins.com/NumisWiki/view.asp?key=Julian%20II

Flavius Claudius Iulianus was born in 331 or maybe 332 A.D. in Constantinople. He ruled the Western Empire as Caesar from 355 to 360 and was hailed Augustus by his legions in Lutetia (Paris) in 360. Julian was a gifted administrator and military strategist. Famed as the last pagan emperor, his reinstatement of the pagan religion earned him the moniker "the Apostate." As evidenced by his brilliant writing, some of which has survived to the present day, the title "the Philosopher" may have been more appropriate. He died from wounds suffered during the Persian campaign of 363 A.D. Joseph Sermarini, FORVM.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.




2 commentsCleisthenes
RI_141bt_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Antoninianus - RIC V Pt 2, 177 Bust Type H28 viewsAntoninianus
Obv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle headed sceptre
Rev:– PRIMIS X MVLTIS XX, Victory standing right, left, holding victory ileft foot on rock, inscribing VO/T X on shield on palm tree
Minted in Rome (_ R // XXID).
Reference:– Cohen 388. RIC V Pt. 2 177 Bust Type H (Rated scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_141cr_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Antoninianus - RIC V Pt 2, 28 17 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding globe in right hand
Rev:– IOVI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding victory in right hand and leaning on scepter in left hand, at foot eagle
Minted in Lugdunum (// A). Emission 7. Officina 1. Spring A.D. 290 – A.D. 291
Reference:– Cohen 151 (2f) Bastien 322 (9 examples cited). RIC V 28
maridvnvm
RI_141bs_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Antoninianus - RIC V Pt 2, 28 Bust Type H16 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle headed sceptre
Rev:– IOVI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding victory in right hand and leaning on scepter in left hand, at foot eagle
Minted in Lugdunum (// A). Emission 7. Officina 1. Spring A.D. 290 – A.D. 291
Reference:– Cohen 153 (2f) Bastien 323 (39 examples). RIC V Pt. 2, 28 Bust Type H
22mm. 2.77g

Ex- H.J. Berk
maridvnvm
RI_141cp_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Follis - RIC VI Ticinum 56a 11 viewsFollis
Obv:- D N DIOCLETIANO BEATISSIMO SEN AVG, Laureate bust right in imperial mantle, with olive branch and mappa
Rev:- PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia and Quies standing, extending hands to each other
Minted in Ticinum (_ | Pellet // TT). c. A.D. 305
Reference(s) – Cohen 422. RIC VI Ticinum 56a
maridvnvm
RI_141br_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - Follis - RIC VI Trier 677a (corr. Cyzicus)70 viewsObv:– D N DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, branch upward in right hand, vertical sceptre in left
Minted in Cyzicus (not Trier) ( S | F / KS //PTR)
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 677a (R) (see notes)
Notes:- This is perhaps one of the most unusual issues in the entire follis series. It is nearly always attributed to Trier (Treveri), but a comparison of portrait styles and an examination of follis hoards reveals that this issue was not struck in Trier but in Cyzicus. Two officinae struck this issue, and the KS in the field between the two figures is actually the mintmark, not the PTR. A look at the coins of Cyzicus (RIC 22-23) shows that the same two officinae struck this issue without the PTR also. The Senior Augustus issues of Diocletian and Maximianus were struck at every mint currently in operation. Apparently, the first coins of this type were prepared at Trier and examples were sent to the various mints for the individual mints to copy. At Cyzicus, the die engravers copied everything, including the Trier mintmark and put their own mintmark in the field. Eventually someone soon realized the mistake and new dies were prepared with the mintmark in its proper location.

Nicely silvered with little / no visible wear.
maridvnvm
RI 141w img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 28 Bust Type H26 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle headed sceptre
Rev:– IOVI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding victory in right hand and leaning on scepter in left hand, at foot eagle
Minted in Lugdunum (A in exe). Emission 7. Officina 1. Spring A.D. 290 – A.D. 291
References:– Cohen 153 (2f). RIC V part 2 Lugdunum 28 Bust Type H. , Bastien 323.
maridvnvm
RI_141cm_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 8915 viewsObv:– IMP DIOCLETIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding globe in right hand
Rev:– SALVS AVGG, Salus standing right, feeding snake from patera.
Minted in Lugdunum (//C). 7th Issue, Spring A.D. 290 - 291
Reference:– RIC V Part II Lugdunum 89. Bastien VII 401 (3 examples cited)

A rare bust type for Diocletian. Worn reverse die.
maridvnvm
RI 141s img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI Lugdunum 22524 viewsObv:– DN DIOCLETIANO P F S AVG, Laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, holding olive branch in right hand and mappa in left
Rev:– QVIES AVGG, Quies standing left, holding branch in right hand and leaning on scepter with left
Minted in Lugdunum (S in left field, C in right field, PLC in exe). Summer A.D. 307
Reference:– RIC VI Lugdunum 225 (Scarce)

Weight:- 8.39 gms
Size:- Obv. X-Axis 22.22mm, Obv. Y-Axis 22.94mm

Ths coin comes from a small, scarce issue with a wide weight range (6-9gms), which according to a footnote in RIC may well have overlapped and accompanied with more than one of the surrounding issues.
maridvnvm
RI 141v img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI Rome 116a (Post Abdication - Senior Augustus)39 viewsObv:– DN DIOCLETIANO BEATISS SEN AVG, Laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, holding olive branch in right hand and mappa in left
Rev:– PROVIDENT DEOR QVIES AVGG, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies, standing left holding branch in right hand and leaning on scepter in left hand
Minted in Rome (S in left field, F in right field, RP in exe) c. A.D. 305
References:– RIC VI Rome 116a (R)
maridvnvm
RI_141co_img.jpg
141 - Diocletian - RIC VI Trier 713 13 viewsFollis
Obv:– D N DIOCLETIANO P F S AVG, Laureate bust right, wearing imperial mantle, holding olive branch in right hand and mappa in left
Rev:– QVIES AV-GVSTORVM, Quies standing facing, head left, holding branch in right hand and leaning on scepter in left hand.
Minted in Trier (S-C//PTR). c. Summer A.D. 307
Reference:– RIC VI Trier 713 (R)
maridvnvm
145_Constantinus_II_,_Siscia,_RIC_VII_126,__#915;,_AE-3,_CONSTANTINVS_IVN_NOB_C,_VIRTVS_EXERCIT,_VOT_X,_S-F-HL,__#915;SISstar,_321-4-AD,_Q-001,_6h,_18,5mm,_3,05g-s.jpg
145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 126, AE-3 Follis, S/F/HL//ΓSIS*, VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT X with two bound captives, R2!!!181 views145 Constantinus-II. (316-337 A.D. Caesar, 337-340 A.D. Augustus), Siscia, RIC VII 126, AE-3 Follis, S/F/HL//ΓSIS*, VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT X with two bound captives, R2!!!
avers: CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate bust left wearing the imperial mantle, holding Victory on globe and mappa.
reverse: VIRTVS EXERCIT, Standard inscribed VOT X with two bound captives seated to left and right of its base. S in left field, F over HL (ligate) in right field.
exergue: S/F/HL//ΓSIS*, diameter: 18,5mm, weight: 3,05g, axis: 6h,
mint: Siscia, date: 321-324 A.D., ref: RIC VII 126, R2!!!,
Q-001
4 commentsquadrans
RI 146ai img~0.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 39923 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle
Rev:– PAX AVGG Pax standing left, with Victory on globe and scepter
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe.). Emission 7, Officina 2. Spring A.D. 290 A.D. 291
References:– RIC V Part 2 399 (S). Bastien Volume VII 385 (7 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 146w img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 399 Bust Type H21 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVGG Pax standing left, with Victory on globe and scepter
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe.). Emission 7, Officina 2. Spring A.D. 290 A.D. 291
References:– RIC V Part 2 399 Bust Type H (S). Bastien Volume VII 387
maridvnvm
RI_146dt_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 399 Bust Type H12 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– PAX AVGG Pax standing left, with Victory on globe and scepter
Minted in Lugdunum (B in exe.). Emission 7, Officina 2. Spring A.D. 290 A.D. 291
References:– RIC V Part 2 399 Bust Type H (S). Bastien Volume VII 387
maridvnvm
RI 146z img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 422 Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding globe38 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding globe
Rev:– SALVS AVGG, Salus standing right, feeding snake from patera
Minted in Lugdunum (C in exe.). Emission 7, Officina 3. Spring A.D. 290 A.D. 291
References:– RIC V Part 2 422 Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding globe (R). Bastien Volume VII 415

Rare bust. Almost completely silvered. Nicely detailed reverse especially on platter.
maridvnvm
RI 146bd img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 422 var Bust Type H10 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding eagle tipped sceptre
Rev:– SALVS AVGG, Salus standing right, feeding snake from patera
Minted in Lugdunum (T in exe.). Emission 6, Officina 3. Autumn A.D. 289 to Early A.D. 290
References:– RIC V Part 2 422 Bust Type H. Bastien Volume VII 297 (8 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_146cc_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 422 var Bust Type H18 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding eagle tipped sceptre
Rev:– SALVS AVGG, Salus standing right, feeding snake from patera
Minted in Lugdunum (C in exe.). Emission 7, Officina 3. Spring A.D. 290 A.D. 291
References:– RIC V Part 2 422 Bust Type H. Bastien Volume VII 416 (22 examples cited)
Martin Griffiths
RI 146aj img.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 447 Bust Type H12 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VIRTVS AVGG, Soldier standing left holding olive-branch and spear, beside him shield
Minted in Lugdunum (//III). Emission 11, Officina 3. November to End A.D. 293
Reference:– RIC V Pt 2 Lugdunum 447 Bust Type H. Cohen 556. Bastien VII 581 (7 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI 146am img~0.jpg
146 - Maximianus - RIC V pt II 466 Bust Type H19 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VOTIS X, Emperors standing face to face sacrificing at altar
Minted in Lugdunum (no marks). Emission 10. 3rd Series. 1st March A.D. 293 – 20th November A.D. 293
References:– RIC V Part 2 466 Bust Type H (S). Bastien 528 (2 examples cited)
maridvnvm
RI_146cl_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - Follis - RIC VI Cyzicus 23b 35 viewsObv:– D N MAXIMIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, branch upward in right hand, vertical sceptre in left
Minted in Cyzicus (S | F // KD). A.D. 305-306
Reference:- RIC VI Cyzicus 23b (Scarce)

Nice condition and nearly fully silvered.
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_146ds_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius - RIC VI Ticinum 57b 16 viewsFollis
Obv:– D N MAXIMIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG, laureate bust right in imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left
Rev:– PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG, Providentia standing right, extending right hand to Quies standing left, branch upward in right hand, vertical sceptre in left
Minted in Ticinum (_ | Dot // TT). A.D. 305-306
Reference:- RIC VI Ticinum 57b (C). Cohen 489

10.64 gms. 27.80 mm. 0 degrees.
maridvnvm
RI_146cq_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius, Antoninianus - RIC 42214 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding globe in right hand
Rev:– SALVS AVGG, Salus standing right, feeding snake from patera
Minted in Lugdunum (//C). Emission 7, Officina 3. Spring A.D. 290 A.D. 291 (Bastien)
Reference:– Cohen 523. Bastien 415 (10 example cited). RIC 422 Radiate bust left in imperial mantle and globe (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI_146dc_img.jpg
146 - Maximianus Herculius, Antoninianus - RIC V pt II Lugdunum 466 Bust Type H 10 viewsObv:– IMP MAXIMIANVS P AVG, Radiate bust left in imperial mantle, holding sceptre surmounted by eagle
Rev:– VOTIS X, Emperors standing face to face sacrificing at altar
Minted in Lugdunum (-). Emission 10. 3rd Series. 1st March A.D. 293 – 20th November A.D. 293
Reference:– Cohen 671. Bastien XI 528 (2 examples cited). RIC V Pt 2 Lugdunum 466 Bust Type H (S)
maridvnvm
Val.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)98 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D., Bronze AE 3, S 4103, VF, Siscia mint, 2.012g, 18.7mm, 180o, 24 Aug 367 - 17 Nov 375 A.D.obverse D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; reverse SECVRITAS - REIPVBLICAE, Victory advancing left, wreath in right and palm in left, symbols in fields, mintmark in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
1 commentsCleisthenes
ValentGlRom.jpg
1501s, Valentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. (Siscia)55 viewsValentinian I, 25 February 364 - 17 November 375 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 5(a) ii, VF, Siscia, 1.905g, 19.3mm, 0o, 25 Feb 364 - 24 Aug 367 A.D. Obverse: D N VALENTINI-ANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA RO-MANORVM, Emperor dragging captive with right, labarum (chi-rho standard) in left, •GSISC in exergue.


De Imperatoribus Romanis, An Online Encyclopedia of the Roman Emperors and their Families

Valentinian I (364-375 AD.)

Walter E. Roberts, Emory University

Valentinian was one of Rome's last great warrior emperors. Flavius Valentinianus, was born in A.D. 321 at Cibalis (modern Vinkovci) in southern Pannonia. His father Gratian was a soldier renowned for his strength and wrestling skills. Gratian had an illustrious career in the army, rising from staff officer to tribune, to comes Africae, and finally [i/comes Britanniae.

The emperor Jovian died on 17 February 364, apparently of natural causes, on the border between Bithynia and Galatia. The army marched on to Nicaea, the nearest city of any consequence, and a meeting of civil and military officials was convened to choose a new emperor. The assembly finally agreed upon Valentinian.

On 26 February 364, Valentinian accepted the office offered to him. As he prepared to make his accession speech, the soldiers threatened to riot, apparently uncertain as to where his loyalties lay. Valentinian reassured them that the army was his greatest priority. Furthermore, to prevent a crisis of succession if he should die prematurely, he agreed to pick a co-Augustus. According to Ammianus, the soldiers were astounded by Valentinian’s bold demeanor and his willingness to assume the imperial authority. His decision to elect a fellow-emperor could also be construed as a move to appease any opposition among the civilian officials in the eastern portion of the empire. By agreeing to appoint a co-ruler, he assured the eastern officials that someone with imperial authority would remain in the east to protect their interests. After promoting his brother Valens to the rank of tribune and putting him in charge of the royal stables on March 1, Valentinian selected Valens as co-Augustus at Constantinople on 28 March 364, though this was done over the objections of Dagalaifus. Ammianus makes it clear, however, that Valens was clearly subordinate to his brother.

Ammianus and Zosimus as well as modern scholars praise Valentinian for his military accomplishments. He is generally credited with keeping the Roman empire from crumbling away by “. . . reversing the generally waning confidence in the army and imperial defense . . ..” Several other aspects of Valentinian's reign also set the course of Roman history for the next century.

Valentinian deliberately polarized Roman society, subordinating the civilian population to the military. The military order took over the old prestige of the senatorial nobility. The imperial court, which was becoming more and more of a military court, became a vehicle for social mobility. There were new ideas of nobility, which was increasingly provincial in character. By this it is meant that the imperial court, not the Senate, was the seat of nobility, and most of these new nobles came from the provinces. With the erosion of the old nobility, the stage was set for the ascendancy of Christianity. Ammianus makes it clear that actions such as these were part of a systematic plan by Valentinian to erode the power and prestige of the senatorial aristocracy. Several pieces of extant legislation seem to confirm Ammianus’ allegations that Valentinian was eroding senatorial prestige.

Valentinian's reign affords valuable insights into late Roman society, civilian as well as military. First, there was a growing fracture between the eastern and western portions of the empire. Valentinian was the last emperor to really concentrate his resources on the west. Valens was clearly in an inferior position in the partnership. Second, there was a growing polarization of society, both Christian versus pagan, and civil versus military. Finally there was a growing regionalism in the west, driven by heavy taxation and the inability of Valentinian to fully exercise military authority in all areas of the west. All of these trends would continue over the next century, profoundly reshaping the Roman empire and western Europe.

By Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
Theo1Ae3Ant.jpeg
1505b, Theodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. (Antioch)69 viewsTheodosius I, 19 January 379 - 17 January 395 A.D. Bronze AE 3, RIC 44(b), VF, Antioch, 2.17g, 18.1mm, 180o, 9 Aug 378 - 25 Aug 383 A.D. Obverse: D N THEODOSIVS P F AVG, rosette-diademed, draped and cuirassed bust right; Reverse: CONCORDIA AVGGG, Constantinopolis enthroned facing, r. foot on prow, globe in l., scepter in r., Q and F at sides, ANTG in ex; scarce.


De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.



Cleisthenes
Theod1GlrMan.jpg
1505c, Theodosius I, 379 - 395 A.D. (Constantinople)78 viewsTheodosius I (379 - 395 AD) AE3. 388-394 AD, RIC IX 27(a)3, Third Officina. Seventh Period. 20.27 mm. 4.8gm. Near VF with black and earthen patina. Constantinople. Obverse: DN THEODO-SIANVS P F AVG, pearl-diademed, draped, & cuirassed bust right; Reverse: GLORIA-ROMANORVM, Theodosius I standing, facing, holding labarum and globe, CONSB in exergue (scarcer reverse). A Spanish find.



De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families

THEODOSIUS I (379-395 A.D.)
David Woods
University College of Cork


Origin and Early Career
Flavius Theodosius was born at Cauca in Spain in about 346 to Thermantia and Theodosius the Elder (so-called to distinguish him from his son). Theodosius the Elder was a senior military officer serving in the Western empire and rose to become the magister equitum praesentalis under the emperor Valentinian I from late 368 until his execution in early 375. As the son of a soldier, Theodosius was legally obliged to enter upon a military career. He seems to have served under his father during his expedition to Britain in 367/8, and was the dux Moesiae Primae by late 374. Unfortunately, great controversy surrounds the rest of his career until Gratian had him hailed as his imperial colleague in succession to the emperor Valens at Sirmium on 19 January 379. It is clear that he was forced to retire home to Spain only to be recalled to active service shortly thereafter, but the circumstances of his forced retirement are shrouded in mystery. His father was executed at roughly the same time, and much speculation has centred on the relationship between these events.

[For a very detailed and interesting discussion of the Foreign Policy of Theodosius and the Civil Wars that plagued his reign, please see http://www.roman-emperors.org/theo1.htm]

Family and Succession
Theodosius married twice. His first wife was the Spanish Aelia Flavia Flaccilla. She bore him Arcadius ca. 377, Honorius on 9 September 384, and Pulcheria ca. 385. Theodosius honoured her with the title of Augusta shortly after his accession, but she died in 386. In late 387 he married Galla, daughter of Valentinian I and full-sister of Valentinian II. She bore him Gratian ca. 388, Galla Placidia ca. 388/390, and died in childbirth in 394, together with her new-born son John. Of his two sons who survived infancy, he appointed Arcadius as Augustus on 19 January 383 and Honorius as Augustus on 23 January 393. His promotion of Arcadius as a full Augustus at an unusually young age points to his determination right from the start that one of his own sons should succeed him. He sought to strengthen Arcadius' position in particular by means of a series of strategic marriages whose purpose was to tie his leading "generals" irrevocably to his dynasty. Hence he married his niece and adoptive daughter Serena to his magister militum per Orientem Stilicho in 387, her elder sister Thermantia to a "general" whose name has not been preserved, and ca. 387 his nephew-in-law Nebridius to Salvina, daughter of the comes Africae Gildo. By the time of his death by illness on 17 January 395, Theodosius had promoted Stilicho from his position as one of the two comites domesticorum under his own eastern administration to that of magister peditum praesentalis in a western administration, in an entirely traditional manner, under his younger son Honorius. Although Stilicho managed to increase the power of the magister peditum praesentalis to the disadvantage of his colleague the magister equitum praesentalis and claimed that Theodosius had appointed him as guardian for both his sons, this tells us more about his cunning and ambition than it does about Theodosius' constitutional arrangements.

Theodosius' importance rests on the fact that he founded a dynasty which continued in power until the death of his grandson Theodosius II in 450. This ensured a continuity of policy which saw the emergence of Nicene Christianity as the orthodox belief of the vast majority of Christians throughout the middle ages. It also ensured the essential destruction of paganism and the emergence of Christianity as the religion of the state, even if the individual steps in this process can be difficult to identify. On the negative side, however, he allowed his dynastic interests and ambitions to lead him into two unnecessary and bloody civil wars which severely weakened the empire's ability to defend itself in the face of continued barbarian pressure upon its frontiers. In this manner, he put the interests of his family before those of the wider Roman population and was responsible, in many ways, for the phenomenon to which we now refer as the fall of the western Roman empire.


Copyright (C) 1998, David Woods.
Published: De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers and their Families http://www.roman-emperors.org/startup.htm. Used by permission.

There is a nice segue here, as we pick-up John Julius Norwich's summation of the reign of Theodosius, "Readers of this brief account of his career may well find themselves wondering, not so much whether he deserved the title of 'the Great' as how he ever came to acquire it in the first place. If so, however, they may also like to ask themselves another question: what would have been the fate of the Empire if, at that critical moment in its history after the battle of Adrianople, young Gratian had not called him from his Spanish estates and put the future of the East into his hands? . . . the probability is that the whole Empire of the East would have been lost, swallowed up in a revived Gothic kingdom, with effects on world history that defy speculation.

In his civil legislation he showed, again and again, a consideration for the humblest of his subjects that was rare indeed among rulers of the fourth century. What other prince would have decreed that any criminal, sentenced to execution, imprisonment or exile, must first be allowed thirty days' grace to put his affairs in order? Or that a specified part of his worldly goods must go to his children, upon whom their father's crimes must on no account be visited? Or that no farmer should be obliged to sell his produce to the State at a price lower than he would receive on the open market?

Had he earned his title? Not, perhaps, in the way that Constantine had done or as Justinian was to do. But, if not ultimately great himself, he had surely come very close to greatness; and had he reigned as long as they did his achievements might well have equalled theirs. He might even have saved the Western Empire. One thing only is certain: it would be nearly a century and a half before the Romans would look upon his like again" (Norwich, John Julius. Byzantium, the Early Centuries. London: Penguin Group, 1990. 116-7;118).

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.
Cleisthenes
RI_152l_img.jpg
152 - Maxentius - RIC VI Ticinum 10332 viewsFollis
Obv:–IMP C MAXENTIVS P F AVG, Laureate bust left, holding eagle-tipped scepter in right hand, wearing imperial mantle
Rev:– CONSERV VRB SVAE, Roma seated facing, head left, in tetrastyle temple (four columns), holding globe and sceptre
Minted in Ticinum (//TT). 4/20/308 - end of 308 AD.
Reference(s) – RIC VI Ticinum 103
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI 155f img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Cyzicus 009 - B65 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left,holding Victory on globe and sceptre, wreath before
Minted in Cyzicus (wreath in left field, B in right field, SMK in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Cyzicus 9 (Common)
maridvnvm
RI 155e img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Cyzicus 009 D53 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– IOVI CONSERVATORI AVGG, Jupiter standing left, holding Victory on globe and sceptre, wreath before
Minted in Cyzicus (Delta in right field, SMK in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Cyzicus 9 (Scarce)
maridvnvm
RI 155o img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTΓ)21 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΓ in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 155b img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTΔ)71 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTΔ in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R2)
maridvnvm
RI 155p img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 017 (MHTE)19 viewsObv:– IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 3 turrets, no door, 2 stars above, 7 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (MHTE in exe.) in A.D. 317
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 17 (R4)
maridvnvm
RI 155n img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 029 (SMHΔ)26 viewsObv:- IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (Pellet in right field, SMHΔ in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 29 (R5)
maridvnvm
RI 155c img.jpg
155 - Licinius - RIC VII Heraclea 029 (SMHA)135 viewsObv:- IMP LICINIVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing Imperial mantle and holding mappa, sceptre and globe
Rev:– PROVIDENTIAE AVGG, Campgate with 6 rows of bricks
Minted in Heraclea (Pellet in right field, SMHA in exe.)
References:– RIC VII Heraclea 29 (R2)

(SOLD)
maridvnvm
RI_160ey_img.jpg
160 - Constantine the Great - Follis - RIC VII Lugdunum unlisted24 viewsObv:– CONSTANTINVS AVG, Laureate bust left wearing imperial mantle, holding eagle tipped sceptre in tight hand
Rev:– BEATA TRANQVILLITAS, Altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX, surmounted by globe with plain vertical lines and diagonals between horizontal lines, three stars above.
Minted in Lugdunum (C | R / PLC)
Reference– RIC VII Lugdunum -. Bastien XIII 111 (3 examples cited)
maridvnvm
165_Arcadius,_Thessalonica,_RIC_IX_59c1,_AE-3,_DN_ARCARIVS_P_F_AVG_(C),_GLORIA_REI_PVBLICE,_ChiRho,_TES,_383-388_AD_,_R,_Q-001,_0h,_16,5-17mm,_1,69g-s.jpg
165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 059c1, AE-3, -/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, Christogram (ChiRho) above, Scarce, #1115 views165 Arcadius (384-408 A.D.), Thessalonica, RIC IX 059c1, AE-3, -/-//TES, GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, Christogram (ChiRho) above, Scarce, #1
avers: D N ARCADIVS P F AVG, Diademed bust left, in imperial mantle, holding mappa and sceptre. (C)
reverse: GLORIA REI PVBLICE, Campgate with two turrets, closed gate, 6 layers of stone, Christogram (ChiRho) above.
exergue: -/-//TES, diameter: 16,5-17,0 mm, weight: 1.69g, axis: 0h,
mint: Thessalonica, date: 383-388 A.D., ref: RIC IX 059c1, p-,
Q-001
quadrans
RI_168bi_img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - Follis - RIC VII Ticinum 16718 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding Victory on globe in right hand and mappa in left
Rev:– VIRTVS EXERCIT, two captives seated at foot of banner inscribed VOT/XX in two lines
Minted in Aquileia (S | F //AQT).
Reference:– RIC VII Aquileia 56 (R4)
1 commentsmaridvnvm
RI_168bh_img.jpg
168 - Constantine II - Follis - RIC VII Trier 353 12 viewsAE3
Obv:– CONSTANTINVS IVN NOB C, Laureate, bust left, wearing imperial mantle, holding Victory on globe in right hand and mappa in left
Rev:– BEATA TRAN-QVILLITAS, Altar inscribed VO/TIS/XX, surmounted by globe with plain vertical lines and diagonals between horizontal lines, three stars above
Minted in Trier (//PTR.).
Reference:– RIC VII Trier 353 (R2)
maridvnvm
384_P_Hadrian.JPG
1726 MYSIA, Pergamum Hadrian AE 30 Zeus standing26 viewsReference.
RPC III, 1726;

Magistrate Cl. Cephaliôn (to b, strategos)

Obv. ΑΥ ΚΑΙ ΝΕΡ ΤΡΑ(ΙΑ) ΑΔΡΙΑΝΟС
Laureate bust right, seen from front
Countermarks.
a wreath (Howgego 480).
a helmeted bust of Athena right (Howgego 185).

Rev. ΠΕΡΓΑΜΗ ΕΠΙ СΤΡΑ ΚΛ ΚΕΦΑΛΙΩΝΟС, ΤΟ Β (in field, l.)
Zeus naked standing facing, his r. hand on his hip from which falls a drapery, holding thunderbolt in his l. hand; at his feet, r., eagle standing facing, head l., a wreath in its beak
Countermark.
Telesphoros/telesphorus (Howgego, Greek Imperial Countermarks, 267)

15.67 gr
30 mm
6h
okidoki
commodus_RIC74.jpg
177-192 AD - COMMODUS AR denarius - struck 183-184 AD34 viewsobv: M.COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVG PIVS (laureate head right)
rev: TRP VIIII IMP VI COS IIII PP (Felicitas standing left holding caduceus & cornucopiae, modius at foot left)
ref: RIC III 74, RSC 445
3.01gms, 16mm

Commodus was inaugurated in 183 as consul (IV) with Aufidius Victorinus for a colleague and assumed the title 'Pius'. The adoption of the title Pius by Commodus looks like a direct appeal to the memory of the beloved Antoninus.
Felicity's image occurs on almost all the imperial series coins; because the senate professed to wish that all princes should consider it their duty to promote public happiness, and also because those princes themselves were peculiarly desirous of having it regarded as a blessing attached to their own reign.
berserker
05-Diocletian-Ser-15a.jpg
18 Diocletian: Serdica abdication follis.47 viewsFollis, ca 305-306 AD, Serdica mint.
Obverse: DN DIOCLETIANO FELICISSIMO SEN AVG / Laureate bust of Diocletian, wearing the imperial mantle, olive branch in right hand, mappa in left hand.
Reverse: PROVIDENTIA DEORVM QVIES AVGG / Providentia standing, extending hand to Quies, also standing, holding branch and leaning on sceptre. S F in fields, &Gamma: between.
Mint mark: . SM . SD .
10.63 gm., 28 mm.
RIC #15a; Sear # 12940, PBCC #843.
1 commentsCallimachus
NapoleonIII1855Exposition.JPG
1855. Napoleon III, Exposition Universalle A.179 viewsObv. Head of Napoleon III NAPOLEON III EMPEREUR
Rev. French Imperial crest encircled by wreath naming the exposition in full, itself surrounded by the coats of arms of all the French regions (I believe) EXPOSITION UNIVERSELLE AGRICULTURE INDUSTRIE BEAUX ARTS/ PARIS 1855. Chalon et Estienne engraved on open scroll in ex.

A medal struck in 1855 to commemorate the 'Exposition Universelle des produits de l'Agriculture, de l'Industrie et des Beaux-Arts de Paris 1855', France's first world fair, following four years on from London's Great Exhibition.
LordBest
439Hadrian_RIC19.jpg
19 ANONYMOUS. Period of Domitian to Antoninus Pius, Quadrans Circa 81-161 AD Mars32 viewsReference.
RIC 19 (pag. 218); Cohen 26; Weigel 10

Obv.
Helmeted and cuirassed bust of Mars right

Rev. S-C
Cuirass.

2.41 gr
18 mm
12h

Note from CNG.
Under Trajan and Hadrian several series of bronze quadrantes were struck in the names of the imperial mines in Noricum, Dalmatia, Pannonia and Moesia (Dardania). These operations supplied metal for the mint at Rome, and perhaps were the sites of workshops to produce coinage for local circulation or as donatives. Some scholars believe these pieces were struck at Rome itself, and served some unidentified function, much as the contemporary "nome" coinage struck at Alexandria in Egypt. Whatever the circumstances, these pieces saw limited use, and, except for one rare type struck by Marcus Aurelius, were not issued at any other period.
2 commentsokidoki
1997-161-169_ProbusAdventusAug-Forum.jpg
1997.161.16923 viewsRome, 4.09 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ADVENTVS AVG; RDotCrescentGamma in exergue; Emperor on horseback left, raising right hand, scepter in left, bound captive seated before on left.
Ref: cf RIC 157 [This bust, H, not listed]; Pink VI/1, pg 56, 4th emission, 279 AD
gordian_guy
1997-161-173_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17322 viewsRome, 3.46 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RDotCrescentB in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 185; Pink VI/1, pg 57, 4th emission, 279 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-174_ProbusRomaeAeter-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17430 viewsRome, 4.01 g

Obverse: PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, left, holding scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETER; RThunderboltDelta in exergue; Roma seated in hexastyle temple, holding Victory and scepter.
Ref: RIC 187; Pink VI/1, pg 58, 6th emission, 281 AD;
1 commentsgordian_guy
1997-161-175_ProbusSoliInvicto-Forum.jpg
1997.161.1759 viewsRome, 3.76 g

Obverse: IMP PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: SOLI INVICTOR; RThunderboltE in exergue; Sol, in quadriga galloping left; right hand raised; globe and whip in left;
Ref: RIC 202; Pink, pg 58, 6th emission, 281 AD;
gordian_guy
1997-161-177_ProbusConcordMilit-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17718 viewsTicinum, 3.38 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: CONCORD MILIT; E|/PXXI; Concordia standing left holding an ensign in each hand.
Ref: RIC 480; Pink VI/1, pg 67, 9th emission, 281 AD, part of EQVITI series for Ticinum.
gordian_guy
1997-161-178_ProbusProvidentAvg-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17818 viewsTicinum, 3.47 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: PROVIDENT AVG; Q|*/SXXI; Providentia, standing left, holding globe in extended right hand and transverse scepter in left.
RIC 490; Pink VI/1, pg 67, 10th emission, 282 AD, part of EQVITI series for Ticinum.
gordian_guy
1997-161-179_ProbusMartiPacif-Forum.jpg
1997.161.17919 viewsTicinum, 4.29 g

Obverse: IMP C PROBVS AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust left, holding in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: MARTI PACIF; I| /QXXI; Mars advancing left, holding olive branch in raised right hand and carrying spear in left; shield over left shoulder.
Ref: RIC 508; Pink VI/1, pg 67, 9th emission, 281 AD, part of EQVITI series for Ticinum.
1 commentsgordian_guy
1997-161-186_ProbusRomaeAeternae-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18614 viewsSiscia, 3.62 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust right; in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: ROMAE AETERNAE; XXIS in exergue; Roma seated left in temple; holds globe in extended right hand and scepter in left.
Ref: RIC 739; Alfoldi Type 60, no. 2;
gordian_guy
1997-161-188_ProbusCyzicusSoliInvicto-Forum.jpg
1997.161.18818 viewsCyzicus, 3.07 g

Obverse: IMP C M AVR PROBVS PF AVG; Radiate, wearing Imperial Mantle, bust right; in right hand scepter surmounted by eagle.
Reverse: SO-LI INVICT-O; CM//XXIΓ; Sol, facing, head left, in quadriga facing; right hand raised, left holding whip.
Ref: RIC 911
gordian_guy
HadrianSestFortuna.jpg
1be Hadrian44 views117-138

Sestertius
Laureate head, right, HADRIANVUS AVG COS III PP
Fortuna standing left with rudder on globe and cornucopia, FORTVNA AVG

RIC 759

According to the Historia Augusta, "Bereft of his father at the age of ten, he became the ward of Ulpius Trajanus, his cousin, then of praetorian rank, but afterwards emperor, and of Caelius Attianus, a knight. He then grew rather deeply devoted to Greek studies, to which his natural tastes inclined so much that some called him 'Greekling. . . .' In the 105-106 second Dacian war, Trajan appointed him to the command of the First Legion, the Minervia, and took him with him to the war; and in this campaign his many remarkable deeds won great renown. . . . On taking possession of the imperial power
Hadrian at once resumed the policy of the early emperors and devoted his attention to maintaining peace throughout the world. . . . [I]n this letter to the Senate he apologized because he had not left it the right to decide regarding his accession, explaining that the unseemly haste of the troops in acclaiming him emperor was due to the belief that the state could not be without an emperor. . . . He was, in the same person, austere and genial, dignified and playful, dilatory and quick to act, niggardly and generous, deceitful and straightforward, cruel and merciful, and always in all things changeable. . . . Hadrian's memory was vast and his ability was unlimited ; for instance, he personally dictated his speeches and gave opinions on all questions. He was also very witty. . . ."

After this Hadrian departed for Baiae, leaving Antoninus at Rome to carry on the government. But he received no benefit there, and he thereupon
sent for Antoninus, and in his presence he died there at Baiae on the sixth day before the Ides of July.

According to Eutropius: After the death of Trajan, AELIUS HADRIAN was made emperor, not from any wish to that effect having been expressed by Trajan himself, but through the influence of Plotina, Trajan's wife; for Trajan in his life-time had refused to adopt him, though he was the son of his cousin. He also was born at Italica in Spain. Envying Trajan's glory, he immediately gave up three of the provinces which Trajan had added to the empire, withdrawing the armies from Assyria, Mesopotamia, and Armenia, and deciding that the Euphrates should be the boundary of the empire. When he was proceeding, to act similarly with regard to Dacia, his friends dissuaded him, lest many Roman citizens should be left in the hands of the barbarians, because Trajan, after he had subdued Dacia, had transplanted thither an infinite number of men from the whole Roman world, to people the country and the cities; as the land had been exhausted of inhabitants in the long war maintained by Decebalus.

He enjoyed peace, however, through the whole course of his reign; the only war that he had, he committed to the conduct of a governor of a province. He went about through the Roman empire, and founded many edifices. He spoke with great eloquence in the Latin language, and was very learned in the Greek. He had no great reputation for clemency, but was very attentive to the state of the treasury and the discipline of the soldiers. He died in Campania, more than sixty years old, in the twenty-first year, tenth month, and twenty-ninth day of his reign. The senate was unwilling to allow him divine honours; but his successor Titus Aurelius Fulvius Antonius, earnestly insisting on it, carried his point, though all the senators were openly opposed to him.
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AeliusAsAnnona.jpg
1bg Aelius29 viewsCaesar, 136-138

As

Bare head, right, AELIVS CAESAR
Pannonia standing and holding a standard, PANNONIA SC

RIC 1071

According to the Historia Augusta (note: scholars view this biography in the text as among those particularly suspect regarding veracity): Aelius Verus was adopted by Hadrian at the time when, as we have previously said, the Emperor's health was beginning to fail and he was forced to take thought for the succession. He was at once made praetor and appointed military and civil governor of the provinces of Pannonia ; afterwards he was created [in AD 136] consul, and then, because he had been chosen to succeed to the imperial power, he was named for a second consulship. . . . [I]n the province to which he had been appointed he was by no means a failure ; for he carried on a campaign with
success, or rather, with good fortune, and achieved the reputation, if not of a pre-eminent, at least of an
average, commander.

Verus had, however, such wretched health that Hadrian immediately regretted the adoption, and since he often considered others as possible successors, he might have removed him altogether from the imperial family had Verus chanced to live longer. . . .

Verus was a man of joyous life and well versed in letters, and he was endeared to Hadrian, as the malicious say, rather by his beauty than by his character. In the palace his stay was but a short one; in his private life, though there was little to be commended, yet there was little to be blamed. Furthermore, he was considerate of his family, well-dressed, elegant in appearance, a man of regal beauty, with a countenance that commanded respect, a speaker of unusual eloquence, deft at writing verse, and, moreover, not altogether a failure in public life.

This sad little flan looks a bit tubercular, like the subject of the portrait.
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LucillaSestVenus.jpg
1bm Lucilla164 viewsWife of Lucius Verus, executed 182 AD

Sestertius
Draped bust, right, LVCILLAE AVG ANTONINI AVG F
Venus standing facing left holding apple, drawing out robe, VENUS

RIC 1767

Daughter of Marcus Aurelius and Faustina Junior, she married Lucius Verus in 164.

According to Herodian: For the present, however, the memory of his father and his respect for his advisers held Commodus in check. But then a disastrous stroke of ill fortune completely altered his previously mild, moderate disposition. It happened this way. The oldest of the emperor's sisters was Lucilla. She had formerly been married to Lucius Verus Caesar. . . . But after Lucius died, Lucilla, who retained all the privileges of her imperial position, was married by her father to Pompeianus.

Commodus, too, allowed his sister to retain the imperial honors; she continued to occupy the imperial seat at the theaters, and the sacred fire was carried before her. But when Commodus married Crispina, custom demanded that the front seat at the theater be assigned to the empress. Lucilla found this difficult to endure, and felt that any honor paid to the empress was an insult to her; but since she was well aware that her husband Pompeianus was devoted to Commodus, she told him nothing about her plans to seize control of the empire. Instead, she tested the sentiments of a wealthy young nobleman, Quadratus, with whom she was rumored to be sleeping in secret. Complaining constantly about this matter of imperial precedence, she soon persuaded the young man to set in motion a plot which brought destruction upon himself and the entire senate.

Quadratus, in selecting confederates among the prominent senators, prevailed upon Quintianus, a bold and reckless young senator, to conceal a dagger beneath his robe and, watching for a suitable time and place, to stab Commodus; as for the rest, he assured Quintianus that he would set matters straight by bribes.

But the assassin, standing in the entrance to the amphitheater (it was dark there and he hoped to escape detection), drew his dagger and shouted at Commodus that he had been sent by the Senate to kill him. Quintianus wasted time making his little speech and waving his dagger; as a result, he was seized by the emperor's bodyguards before he could strike, and died for his stupidity in revealing the plot prematurely.

This was the initial reason for the young emperor's hatred of the Senate. He took Quintianus' words to heart and, ever mindful of what his attacker had said, now considered the entire Senate his collective enemy.

This incident also gave Perennis sufficient excuse for taking action, for he was always advising the emperor to eliminate and destroy the prominent men. By confiscating their property, Perennis easily made himself the richest man of his time. After the attempt at assassination had been thoroughly investigated by the prefect, Commodus without mercy put to death his sister, all those actually involved in the plot, and any who were under the slightest suspicion as well.
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PertinaxDenOps.jpg
1bp Pertinax19 views193

Denarius

Bearded laureate head, right, IMP CAES P HELV PERTIN AVG
Ops std, OPI DIVIN TR P COS II

RIC 8

The Historia Augusta has this to say: Publius Helvius Pertinax was the son of a freedman, Helvius Successus by name, who confessed that he gave this name to his son because of his own long-standing connection with the timber-trade. . . . Pertinax himself was born in the Apennines on an estate which belonged to his mother. . . . Winning promotion because of the energy he showed in the Parthian war, he was transferred to Britain and there retained. Later he led a squadron in Moesia. . . . Next, he commanded the German fleet. . . . From this command he was transferred to Dacia. . . . After Cassius' revolt had been suppressed, Pertinax set out from Syria to protect the bank of the Danube, and presently he was appointed to govern both the Moesias and, soon thereafter, Dacia. And by reason of his success in these provinces, he won the appointment to Syria. . . .

Pertinax was made consul for the second time. And while in this position, Pertinax did not avoid complicity in the murder of Commodus, when a share in this plot was offered him by the other conspirators. After Commodus was slain, aetus, the prefect of the guard, and Eclectus, the chamberlain, came to Pertinax and reassured him, and then led him to the camp. There he harangued the soldiers, promised a donative, and said that the imperial power had been thrust upon him by Laetus and Eclectus. . . .

He reduced the imperial banquets from something absolutely unlimited to a fixed standard, and, indeed, cut down all expenses from what they had been under Commodus. And from the example set by the emperor, who lived rather simply, there resulted a general economy and a consequent reduction in the cost of living. . . . [H]e restored to everyone the property of which Commodus had despoiled him. . . . He always attended the stated meetings of the senate and always made some proposal. . . .

A conspiracy l was organized against Pertinax by Laetus, the prefect of the guard, and sundry others who were displeased by his integrity. . . . [T]hree hundred soldiers, formed into a wedge, marched under arms from the camp to the imperial residence. . . . After they had burst into the inner portion of the Palace, however, Pertinax advanced to meet them and sought to appease them with a long and serious speech. In spite of this, one Tausius, a Tungrian, after haranguing the soldiers into a state of fury and fear, hurled his spear at Pertinax' breast. And he, after a prayer to Jupiter the Avenger, veiled his head with his toga and was stabbed by the rest.
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1bq Didius Julianus93 views193

Sestertius

Laureate head, right, IMP CAES M DID SEVER IVLIAN AVG
Concorde w/ standard, CONCORDIA MILIT SC

RIC 14

According to the Historia Augusta: Didius Julianus. . . was reared at the home of Domitia Lucilla, the mother of the Emperor Marcus. . . . [T]hrough the support of Marcus he attained to the office of aedile [and] praetor. After his praetorship he commanded the XXII Legion, the Primigenia, in Germany, and following that he ruled Belgium long and well. Here, with auxiliaries hastily levied from the provinces, he held out against the Chauci as they attempted to burst through the border; and for these services, on the recommendation of the Emperor, he was deemed worthy of the consulship. He also gained a crushing victory over the Chatti. Next he took charge of Dalmatia and cleared it of the hostile tribes on its borders. Then he governed Lower Germany. . . .

His consulship he served with Pertinax; in the proconsulship of Africa, moreover, he succeeded him. Pertinax always spoke of him as his colleague and successor. After [Pertinax'] death, when Sulpicianus was making plans to be hailed emperor in the camp, Julianus, together with his son-in-law, . . . discovered two tribunes, Publius Florianus and Vectius Aper, who immediately began urging him to seize the throne; and. . . conducted him to the praetorian camp. When they arrived at the camp, however, Sulpicianus, the prefect of the city and the father-in-law of Pertinax, was holding an assembly and claiming the empire himself, and no one would let Julianus inside, despite the huge promises he made from outside the wall. Julianus then . . . wrote on placards that he would restore the good name of Commodus; so he was admitted and proclaimed emperor. . . .

Julianus had no fear of either the British or the Illyrian army; but being chiefly afraid of the Syrian army, he despatched a centurion of the first rank with orders to murder Niger. Consequently Pescennius Niger in Syria and Septimius Severus in Illyricum, together with the armies which they commanded, revolted from Julianus. But when he received the news of the revolt of Severus, whom he had not suspected, then he was greatly troubled and came to the senate and prevailed upon them to declare Severus a public enemy. . . . Severus was approaching the city with a hostile army. . . and the populace hated and laughed at him more and more every day.

In a short time Julianus was deserted by all and left alone in the Palace with one of his prefects, Genialis, and with Repentinus, his son-in-law. Finally, it was propose'd that the imperial power be taken away from Julianus by order of the senate. This was done, and Severus was forthwith acclaimed emperor, while it was given out that Julianus had taken poison. Nevertheless, the senate despatched a delegation and through their efforts Julianus was slain in the Palace by a common soldier. . . .
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CaracallaDenMars.jpg
1bu Caracalla29 views198-217

Denarius

Laureate head, right, ANTONINVS PIVS AVG BRIT
Mars, MARTI PROPVGNATORI

RIC 223

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Severus, records: As he was advancing against Albinus, moreover, and had reached Viminacium 4 on his march, he gave his elder son Bassianus the name Aurelius Antoninus 5 and the title of Caesar, in order to destroy whatever hopes of succeeding to the throne his brother Geta had conceived. His reason for giving his son the name Antoninus was that he had dreamed that an Antoninus would succeed him. It was because of this dream, some believe, that Geta also was called Antoninus, in order that he too might succeed to the throne. . . . [After defeating Niger], he bestowed the. toga virilis on his younger son, Geta, and he united his elder son in marriage with Plautianus' daughter [Plautilla]. . . . Soon thereafter he appointed his sons to the consulship ; also he greatly honored his brother Geta. . . . Severus [in 198] invaded Parthia, defeated the king, and came to Ctesiphon; and about the beginning of the winter season he took the city. For this feat, likewise, the soldiers declared his son, Bassianus Antoninus, co-emperor; he had already been named Caesar and was now in his thirteenth year. And to Geta, his younger son, they gave the name Caesar. . . .

In the life of Caracalla, the history continues: He himself in his boyhood was winsome and clever, respectful to his parents and courteous to his parents' friends, beloved by the people, popular with the senate, and well able to further his own interests in winning affection. Never did he seem backward in letters or slow in deeds of kindness, never niggardly in largess or tardy in forgiving at least while under his parents. . . . All this, however, was in his boyhood. For when
he passed beyond the age of a boy, either by his father's advice or through a natural cunning, or because he thought that he must imitate Alexander of Macedonia,he became more reserved and stern and even somewhat savage in expression. . . .

After his father's death he went to the Praetorian Camp and complained there to the soldiers that his brother was forming a conspiracy against him. And so he had his brother slain in the Palace. . . . After this he committed many further murders in the city, causing many persons far and wide to be seized by soldier sand killed, as though he were punishing a rebellion. . . . After doing all this he set out for Gaul and immediately upon his arrival there killed the proconsul of Narbonensis. . . . Then he made ready for a journey to the Orient, but interrupted his march and stopped in Dacia. . . . Then he journeyed through Thrace accompanied by the prefect of the guard. . . . After this, turning to the war with the Armenians and Parthians, he appointed as military commander a man whose character resembled his own. . . . Then he betook himself to Alexandria. . . . [H]e issued an order to his soldiers to slay their hosts and thus caused great slaughter at Alexandria. . . . Next he advanced through the lands of the Cadusii and the Babylonians and waged a guerilla-warfare with the Parthian satraps, in which wild beasts were even let loose against the enemy. He then sent a letter to the senate as though he had won a real victory and thereupon was given the name Parthicus. . . .

After this he wintered at Edessa with the intention of renewing the war against the Parthians. During this time, on the eighth day before the Ides of April, the feast of the Megalensia and his own birthday, while on a journey to Carrhae to do honor to the god Lunus, he stepped aside to satisfy the needs of nature and was thereupon assassinated by the treachery of Macrinus the prefect of the guard, who after his death seized the imperial power.
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MacrinDenProvid.jpg
1bx Macrinus38 views217-218

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M OPEL SEV MACRINVS AVG
Providentia stg, PROVIDENTIA DEORVM

RIC 80

According to the Historia Augusta, which concedes that almost nothing was known about Macrinus: Though of humble origin and shameless in spirit as well as in countenance, and though hated by all, both civilians and soldiers, he nevertheless proclaimed himself now Severus and now Antoninus. Then he set out at once for the Parthian war and thus gave no opportunity either for the soldiers to form an opinion of him, or for the gossip by which he was beset to gain its full strength. The senators, however, out of hatred for Antoninus Bassianus, received him as emperor gladly. . . . Now to his son, previously called Diadumenianus, he gave the name Antoninus (after he had himself assumed the appellation Felix) in order to avert the suspicion of having slain Antoninus. This same name was afterwards taken by Varius Elagabalus also, who claimed to be the son of Bassianus, a most filthy creature and the son of a harlot. . . .

And so, having been acclaimed emperor, Macrinus assumed the imperial power and set out against the Parthians with a great array, eager to blot out the lowliness of his family and the infamy of his early life by a magnificent victory. But after fighting a battle with the Parthians he was killed in a revolt of the legions, which had deserted to Varius Elagabalus. He reigned, however, for more than a year.

Macrinus, then, was arrogant and bloodthirsty and desirous of ruling in military fashion. He found fault even with the discipline of former times and lauded Severus alone above all others. For he even crucified soldiers and always used the punishments meted out to slaves, and when he had to deal with a mutiny among the troops, he usually decimated the soldiers but sometimes he only centimated them. This last was an expression of his own, for he used to say that he was merciful in putting to death only one in a hundred. . . .

This is one of my favorite pieces because I bought it completely covered with crud and set about cleaning it. Boy was I surprised!
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ElagabDenEleg.jpg
1bz Elagabalus_217 views218-222

Denarius

Laureate, horned & draped bust rightt, IMP ANTONINVS PIVS AVG
Elagabalus standing left, sacrificing from patera over lit tripod altar, holding branch, star in field left, SVMMVS SACERDOS AVG

RIC 146

The Historia Augusta, in the life of Caracalla, notes: Bassianus lived for forty-three years and ruled for six. . . . He left a son, who afterward received, like his father, the name Antoninus Marcus Antoninus Elagabalus; for such a hold had the name of the Antonines that it could not be removed from the thoughts of the people, because it had taken root in the hearts of all, even as had the name of Augustus.

In the life of Macrinus is recorded: Now there was a certain woman of the city of Emesa, called [Julia] Maesa or Varia; she was the sister of Julia, the wife of [Septimius] Severus Pertinax the African, and after the death of Antoninus Bassianus she had been expelled from her home in the palace through the arrogance of Macrinus. . . . This woman had two daughters, [Julia Soaemias] and [Julia] Mamaea, the elder of whom was the mother of Elagabalus; he assumed the names Bassianus and Antoninus, for the Phoenicians give the name Elagabalus to the Sun. Elagabalus, moreover, was notable for his beauty and stature and for the priesthood which he held, and he was well known to all who frequented the temple, and particularly to the soldiers. To these, Maesa, or Varia as she was also called, declared that this Bassianus was the son of Antoninus, and this was gradually made known to all the soldiers. Maesa herself, furthermore, was very rich (whence also Elagabalus was most wasteful of money), and through her promises to the soldiers the legions were persuaded to desert Macrinus. . . .

Finally, when he received the imperial power, he took the name Antoninus and was the last of the Antonines to rule the Roman Empire. . . . He was wholly under the control of his mother [Soaemias], so much so, in fact, that he did no public business without her consent, although she lived like a harlot and practised all manner of lewdness in the palace. For that matter, her amour with Antoninus Caracalla was so notorious that Varius, or rather Elagabalus, was commonly supposed to be his son. . . . In short, when Elagabalus' message was read in the senate, at once good wishes were uttered for Antoninus and curses on Macrinus and his son, and, in accordance with the general wish and the eager belief of all in his paternity, Antoninus was hailed as emperor. . . .

After he had spent the winter in Nicomedia, [218-219] living in a depraved manner and indulging in unnatural vice with men, the soldiers soon began to regret that they had conspired against Macrinus to make this man emperor, and they turned their thoughts toward his cousin Alexander, who on the murder of Macrinus had been hailed by the senate as Caesar. . . . Among the base actions of his life of depravity he gave orders that Alexander, whom he had formally adopted, be removed from his presence, saying that he regretted the adoption. Then he commanded the senate to take away from Alexander the name of Caesar. But when this was announced to the senate, there was a profound silence. For Alexander was an excellent youth, as was afterwards shown by the character of his rule, even though, because he was chaste, he was displeasing to his adoptive father he was also, as some declare, his cousin. Besides, he was loved by the soldiers and acceptable to the senate and the equestrian order. Yet the Emperor's madness went the length of an attempt to carry out the basest design; for he despatched assassins to kill Alexander. . . . The soldiers, however, and particularly the members of the guard, either because they knew what evils were in store for Elagabalus, or because they foresaw his hatred for themselves, formed a conspiracy to set the state free. First they attacked the accomplices in his plan of murdering Alexander. . . . Next they fell upon Elagabalus himself and slew him in a latrine in which he had taken refuge.
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1ce Severus Alexander27 views222-235

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR SEV ALEXAND AVG
Sev. Alex in armor, P M TR P III COS P P

RIC 74

Herodian recorded: [The soldiers] were more favorably disposed toward Alexander, for they expected great things of a lad so properly and modestly reared. They kept continual watch upon the youth when they saw that Elagabalus was plotting against him. His mother Mamaea did not allow her son to touch any food or drink sent by the emperor, nor did Alexander use the cupbearers or cooks employed in the palace or those who happened to be in their mutual service; only those chosen by his mother, those who seemed most trustworthy, were allowed to handle Alexander's food.

Mamaea secretly distributed money to the praetorians to win their good will for her son; it was to gold that the praetorians were particularly devoted. . . . . Maesa, the grandmother of them both, foiled all his schemes; she was astute in every way and had spent much of her life in the imperial palace. As the sister of Severus' wife Julia, Maesa had always lived with the empress at the court. . . .

When Alexander received the empire, the appearance and the title of emperor were allowed him, but the management and control of imperial affairs were in the hands of his women, and they undertook a more moderate and more equitable administration. . . . At any rate, he entered the fourteenth year of his reign without bloodshed, and no one could say that the emperor had been responsible for anyone's murder. Even though men were convicted of serious crimes, he nevertheless granted them pardons to avoid putting them to death, and not readily did any emperor of our time, after the reign of Marcus, act in this way or display so much concern for human life.

In the fourteenth year, however, unexpected dispatches from the governors of Syria and Mesopotamia revealed that Artaxerxes, the Persian king, had conquered the Parthians and seized their Eastern empire, killing Artabanus [IV], who was formerly called the Great King and wore the double diadem. Artaxerxes then subdued all the barbarians on his borders and forced them to pay tribute. He did not remain quiet, however, nor stay on his side of the Tigris River, but, after scaling its banks and crossing the borders of the Roman empire, he overran Mesopotamia and threatened Syria.

Traveling rapidly, he came to Antioch, after visiting the provinces and the garrison camps in Illyricum; from that region he collected a huge force of troops. While in Antioch he continued his preparations for the war, giving the soldiers military training under field conditions. . . . The Romans suffered a staggering disaster; it is not easy to recall another like it, one in which a great army was destroyed, an army inferior in strength and determination to none of the armies of old.

Now unexpected messages and dispatches upset Alexander and caused him even greater anxiety: the governors in Illyria reported that the Germans [the Alamans] had crossed the Rhine and the Danube rivers, were plundering the Roman empire. . . . Although he loathed the idea, Alexander glumly announced his departure for Illyria. . . . Alexander undertook to buy a truce rather than risk the hazards of war. . . .

The soldiers, however, were not pleased by his action, for the time was passing without profit to them, and Alexander was doing nothing courageous or energetic about the war; on the contrary, when it was essential that he march out and punish the Germans for their insults, he spent the time in chariot racing and luxurious living. . . . They plotted now to kill Alexander and proclaim Maximinus emperor and Augustus. . . . Alexander's troops deserted him for Maximinus, who was then proclaimed emperor by all. . . . Maximinus sent a tribune and several centurions to kill Alexander and his mother, together with any of his followers who opposed them.
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1ch Maximinus51 views235-238

Denarius

Laureate draped bust, right, IMP MAXIMINVS PIVS AVG
Pax stg, PAX AVGVSTI

RIC 12

Herodian recorded: There was in the Roman army a man named Maximinus whose half-barbarian family lived in a village in the most remote section of Thrace. They say that as a boy he was a shepherd, but that in his youthful prime he was drafted into the cavalry because of his size and strength. After a short time, favored by Fortune, he advanced through all the military ranks, rising eventually to the command of armies and the governing of provinces.

Because of his military experience, which I have noted above, Alexander put Maximinus in charge of training recruits for the entire army; his task was to instruct them in military duties and prepare them for service in war. By carrying out his assignments thoroughly and diligently, Maximinus won the affection of the soldiers. He not only taught them their duties; he also demonstrated personally to each man what he was to do. . . .

He won their devotion by giving them all kinds of gifts and rewards. Consequently, the recruits, who included an especially large number of Pannonians, praised the masculinity of Maximinus and despised Alexander as a mother's boy. . . . The soldiers were therefore ready for a change of emperors. . . . They therefore assembled on the drill field for their regular training; when Maximinus took his position before them, either unaware of what was happening or having secretly made prior preparations for the event, the soldiers robed him in the imperial purple and proclaimed him emperor. . . .

When he assumed control of the empire, Maximinus reversed the situation, using his power savagely to inspire great fear. He undertook to substitute for a mild and moderate rule an autocracy in every way barbarous, well aware of the hostility directed toward him because he was the first man to rise from a lowly station to the post of highest honor. His character was naturally barbaric, as his race was barbarian. He had inherited the brutal disposition of his countrymen, and he intended to make his imperial position secure by acts of cruelty, fearing that he would become an object of contempt to the Senate and the people, who might be more conscious of his lowly origin than impressed by the honor he had won. . . .

[A]fter Maximinus had completed three years as emperor, the people of Africa first took up arms and touched off a serious revolt for one of those trivial reasons which often prove fatal to a tyrant. . . . The entire populace of the city quickly assembled when the news was known, and the youths proclaimed Gordian Augustus. He begged to be excused, protesting that he was too old. . . .

[In Rome], the senators met before they received accurate information concerning Maximinus and, placing their trust for the future in the present situation, proclaimed Gordian Augustus, together with his son, and destroyed Maximinus' emblems of honor. . . . Embassies composed of senators and distinguished equestrians were sent to all the governors with letters which clearly revealed the attitude of the Senate and the Roman people. . . . The majority of the governors welcomed the embassies and had no difficulty in arousing the provinces to revolt because of the general hatred of Maximinus. . . .


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1cj Balbinus20 views238

Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, seen from front, right, IMP CAES D CAEL BALBINVS AVG
Felicitas standing facing, head left, holding caduceus in right hand, PM TR P COS II PP SC

RIC 18

Herodian wrote, continuing the story of the rebellions against Maximinus: When the death of the elder Gordian was reported at Rome, . . . the senate therefore thought it best to meet and consider what should be done. Since they had already cast the die, they voted to issue a declaration of war and choose two men from their own ranks to be joint emperors. . . . Other senators received votes, but on the final count [Pupienus] Maximus and Balbinus were elected joint emperors by majority opinion. . . .

[Pupienus] had held many army commands; appointed prefect of Rome, he administered the office with diligence and enjoyed among the people a good reputation for his understanding nature, his intelligence, and his moderate way of life. Balbinus, an aristocrat who had twice served as consul and had governed provinces without complaint, had a more open and frank nature. After their election, the two men were proclaimed Augusti, and the Senate awarded them by decree all the imperial honors.

While these actions were being taken on the Capitoline Hill, the people, whether they were informed by Gordian's friends and fellow countrymen or whether they learned it by rumor, filled the entire street leading up to the Capitol. The huge mob was armed with stones and clubs, for they objected to the Senate's action and particularly disapproved of [Pupienus]. The prefect ruled the city too strictly for the popular taste, and was very harsh in his dealings with the criminal and reckless elements of the mob. In their fear and dislike of [Pupienus], they kept shouting threats to kill both emperors, determined that the emperor be chosen from the family of Gordian and that the title remain in that house and under that name.

Balbinus and [Pupienus] surrounded themselves with an escort of swordsmen from the young equestrians and the discharged soldiers living in Rome, and tried to force their way from the Capitol. The mob, armed with stones and clubs, prevented this until, at someone's suggestion, the people were deceived. There was in Rome at that time a little child, the son of Gordian's daughter, who bore his grandfather's name.

The two emperors ordered some of their men to bring the child to the Capitol. Finding the lad playing at home, they lifted him to their shoulders and brought him to the Capitol through the midst of the crowd. Showing the boy to the people and telling them that he was the son of Gordian, they called him "Gordian," while the mob cheered the boy and scattered leaves in his path. The senate appointed him caesar, since he was not old enough to be emperor. The mob, placated, allowed the imperial party to proceed to the palace.

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1ck Pupienus30 views238

Sestertius

Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust, right, IMP CAES PVPIEN MAXIMVS AVG
Pax seated left with branch & scepter PAX PVBLICA SC

RIC 22b

Herodian, continuing the story of the rebellion against Maximinus, wrote: [Pupienus] led most of these soldiers out to attack Maximinus; the rest remained behind to guard and defend the city. . . . In the meantime, having completed his march, Maximinus was poised on the borders of Italy; after offering sacrifices at all the boundary altars, he advanced into Italy. . . . When no opposition was offered, they crossed the Alps without hindrance. . . . While the army was in the plain, the scouts reported that Aquileia, the largest city in that part of Italy, had closed its gates and that the Pannonian legions which had been sent ahead had launched a vigorous attack upon the walls of this city. In spite of frequent assaults, they were completely unsuccessful. . . .

As time passed, the army of Maximinus grew depressed and, cheated in its expectations, fell into despair. . . . As Maximinus rode about, the [people of Aquileia] shouted insults and indecent blasphemies at him and his son. The emperor became increasingly angry because he was powerless to retaliate. . . . The emperor's soldiers were. . . in need of everything. There was scarcely even sufficient water for them. . . .

Without warning, the soldiers whose camp was near Rome at the foot of Mount Alba, where they had left their wives and children, decided that the best solution was to kill Maximinus and end the interminable siege. . . . [T]he conspirators went to Maximinus' tent about noon. The imperial bodyguard, which was involved in the plot, ripped Maximinus' pictures from the standards; when he came out of his tent with his son to talk to them, they refused to listen and killed them both. . . .

For the rest of the time the two emperors governed in an orderly and well-regulated manner, winning approval on every hand both privately and publicly. The people honored and respected them as patriotic and admirable rulers of the empire. . . . It so happened that the two men were not in complete accord: so great is the desire for sole rule and so contrary to the usual practice is it for the sovereignty to be shared that each undertook to secure the imperial power for himself alone. Balbinus considered himself the more worthy because of his noble birth and his two terms as consul; [Pupienus] felt that he deserved first place because he had served as prefect of Rome and had won a good reputation by his administrative efforts. Both men were led to covet the sole rule because of their distinguished birth, aristocratic lineage, and the size of their families. This rivalry was the basis of their downfall. When [Pupienus] learned that the Praetorian Guard was coming to kill them, he wished to summon a sufficient number of the German auxiliaries who were in Rome to resist the conspirators. But Balbinus, thinking that this was a ruse intended to deceive him (he knew that the Germans were devoted to [Pupienus]), refused to allow [Pupienus] to issue the order. . . . While the two men were arguing, the praetorians rushed in. . . . When the guards at the palace gates deserted the emperors, the praetorians seized the old men and ripped off the plain robes they were wearing because they were at home. Dragging the two men naked from the palace, they inflicted every insult and indignity upon them. Jeering at these emperors elected by the senate, they beat and tortured them. . . . When the Germans learned what was happening, they snatched up their arms and hastened to the rescue. As soon as the praetorians were informed of their approach, they killed the mutilated emperors.
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1cn Philippus29 views244-249

Antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP M IVL PHILIPPVS AVG
Liberalitas standing left with abacus & cornucopiae, LIBERALITAS AVGG II

RIC 38b

The Historia Augusta records: Philippus Arabs was made prefect of the guard [in 243]. This Philip was low-born but arrogant, and now could not contain himself in his sudden rise to office and immoderate good fortune, but immediately, through the soldiers, began to plot against Gordian, who had begun to treat him as a father. . . . Timesitheus [Gordian's father-in-law] had stored up such a quantity of supplies everywhere, that the Roman administration could not break down. But now Philip intrigued first to have the grain-ships turned away, and then to have the troops moved to stations where they could not get provisions. In this way he speedily got them exasperated against Gordian, for they did not know that the youth had been betrayed through Philip's intriguing. In addition to this, Philip spread talk among the soldiers to the effect that Gordian was young and could not manage the Empire, and that it were better for someone to rule who could command the army and understood public affairs. Besides this, he won over the leaders, and finally brought it about that they openly called him to the throne. Gordian's friends at first opposed him vigorously, but when the soldiers were at last overcome with hunger Philip was entrusted with the sovereignty, and the soldiers commanded that he and Gordian should rule together with equal rank while Philip acted as a sort of guardian.

Now that he had gained the imperial power Philip began to bear himself very arrogantly towards Gordian ; and he, knowing himself to be an emperor, an emperor's son, and a scion of a most noble family, could not endure this low-born fellow's insolence. And so, mounting the platform, with his kinsman Maecius Gordianus standing by him as his prefect, he complained bitterly to the officers and soldiers in the hope that Philip's office could be taken from him. But by this complaint in which he accused Philip of being unmindful of past favours and too little grateful he accomplished nothing. Next he asked the soldiers to make their choice, after openly canvassing the officers, but as a result of Philip's intriguing he came off second in the general vote. And finally, when he saw that everyone considered him worsted, he asked that their power might at least be equal, but he did not secure this either. After this he asked to be given the position of Caesar, but he did not gain this. He asked also to be Philip's prefect, and this, too, was denied him. His last prayer was that Philip should make him a general and let him live. And to this Philip almost consented not speaking himself, but acting through his friends, as he had done throughout, with nods and advice. But when he reflected that through the love that the Roman people and senate, the whole of Africa and Syria, and indeed the whole Roman world, felt for Gordian, because he was nobly born and the son and grandson of emperors and had delivered the whole state from grievous wars, it was possible, if the soldiers ever changed their minds, that the throne might be given back to Gordian if he asked for it again, and when he reflected also that the violence of the soldiers' anger against Gordian was due to hunger, he had him carried, shouting protests, out of their sight and then despoiled and slain.

Eutropius wrote, "When Gordian was killed, the two PHILIPS, father and son, seized on the government, and, having brought off the army safe, set out from Syria for Italy. In their reign the thousandth year of the city of Rome was celebrated with games and spectacles of vast magnificence. Soon after, both of them were put to death by the soldiery; the elder Philip at Verona, the younger at Rome. They reigned but five years. They were however ranked among the gods."
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1dc Macrianus19 views260-261

Billon antoninianus

Radiate cuirassed bust, right, IMP C FVL MACRIANVS PF AVG
Aequitas standing left holding scales & cornucopiae, star to left, AEQVTAS AVGG

RIC 5

Macrianus did not rule in Rome. He and his brother Quietus took command of the army after the Persians captured Valerian but were defeated by one of Gallienus' generals when they marched west. According to the Historia Augusta: After the capture of Valerian, long a most
noble prince in the state, then a most valiant emperor, but at the last the most unfortunate of all men (either because in his old age he pined away among the Persians or because he left behind him unworthy descendants), Ballista, Valerian's prefect, and Macrianus, the foremost of his generals, since they knew that Gallienus was worthy only of contempt and since the soldiers, too, were seeking an emperor, withdrew together to a certain place, to consider what should be done. They then agreed that, since Gallienus was far away and Aureolus was usurping the imperial power, some emperor ought to be chosen, and, indeed, the best man, lest there should arise some pretender. . . . Ballista, perceiving that Macrianus, in so speaking, seemed to have in mind his own two sons, answered him as follows : "To your wisdom, then, we entrust the commonwealth. And so give us your sons Macrianus and Quietus, most valiant young men, long since made tribunes by Valerian, for, under the rule of Gallienus, for the very reason that they are good men, they cannot remain unharmed."

And so, with the consent of all the soldiers, Macrianus was made emperor, together with his two sons Macrianus and Quietus, and he immediately proceeded to march against Gallienus, leaving affairs in the East in whatever state he could. But while he was on the march, having with him a force of forty-five thousand soldiers, he met Aureolus in Illyricum or on the borders of Thrace, and there he was defeated and together with his son was slain. Then thirty thousand of his men yielded to Aureolus' power.
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1de Postumus31 views259-268

Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C POTVMVS PF AVG
Virtus standing right, holding spear & shield, VIRTVS AVG

RIC 93

Postumus rebelled against Gallienus and ruled Gaul, Spain, and Britain. Eutropius wrote: When affairs were in this desperate condition, and the Roman empire almost ruined, POSTUMUS, a man of very obscure birth, assumed the purple in Gaul, and held the government with such ability for ten years, that he recruited the provinces, which had been almost ruined, by his great energy and judgment; but he was killed in a mutiny of the army, because he would not deliver up Moguntiacum, which had rebelled against him, to be plundered by the soldiers, at the time when Lucius Aelianus was endeavouring to effect a change of government.

According to the Historia Augusta: This man, most valiant in war and most steadfast in peace, was so highly respected for his whole manner of life that he was even entrusted by Gallienus with the care of his son Saloninus (whom he had placed in command of Gaul), as the guardian of his life and conduct and his instructor in the duties of a ruler.- Nevertheless, as some writers assert though it does not accord with his character he afterwards broke faith and after slaying Saloninus seized the imperial power. As others, however, have related with greater truth, the Gauls themselves, hating Gallienus most bitterly and being unwilling to endure a boy as their emperor, hailed as their ruler the man who was holding the rule in trust for another, and despatching soldiers they slew the boy. When he was slain, Postumus was gladly accepted by the entire army and by all the Gauls, and for seven years he performed such exploits that he completely restored the provinces of Gaul. . . . Great, indeed, was the love felt for Postumus in the hearts of all the people of Gaul because he had thrust back all the German tribes and had restored the Roman Empire to its former security. But when he began to conduct himself with the greatest sternness, the Gauls, following their custom of always desiring a change of government, at the instigation of Lollianus put him to death.

Zonaras adds: Galienus, when he had learned of [his son's death], proceeded against Postumus, and, when he had engaged him, was initially beaten and then prevailed, with the result that Postumus fled. Then Auriolus was sent to chase him down. Though able to capture him, he was unwilling to pursue him for long, but, coming back, he said that he was unable to capture him. Thus Postumus, having escaped, next organized an army. Galienus again marched upon him and, after he had penned him in a certain city of Gaul, besieged the usurper. In the siege, the sovereign was struck in the back by an arrow and, having become ill as a result, broke off the siege.
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AE Antoninianus

Radiate, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C VICTORINVS P F AVG
Pax walking left, holding olive-branch and sceptre, PAX AVG

RIC 55

According to the Historia Augusta: When the elder Postumus saw that Gallienus was marching against him with great forces, and that he needed the aid not only of soldiers but also of a second prince, he called Victorinus, a man of soldierly energy, to a share in the imperial power, and in company
with him he fought against Gallienus. Having summoned to their aid huge forces of Germans, they protracted the war for a long time, but at last they were conquered. Then, when Lollianus, too, had been slain, Victorinus alone remained in command. He also, because he devoted his time to seducing the wives of his soldiers and officers, was slain at Agrippina l through a conspiracy formed by a certain clerk, whose wife he had debauched ; his mother Vitruvia, or rather Victoria, who was later called Mother of the Camp, had given his son Victorinus the title of Caesar, but the boy, too, was immediately killed after his father was slain at Agrippina. [Scholars doubt that Postumus raised Victorianus to the purple, they he was one of his generals, and suggest a held power later during the time of Claudius.]
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1dg Tetricus33 views270-273

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP C TETRICVS P F AVG
Virtus standing left with shield & spear, VIRTVS AVGG

RIC 148

According to the Historia Augusta: After Victorinus and his son were slain, his mother Victoria (or Vitruvia) urged Tetricus, a Roman senator then holding the governorship of Gaul, to take the imperial power, for the reason, many relate, that he was her kinsman; she then caused him to be entitled Augustus and bestowed on his son the name of Caesar. But after Tetricus had done many deeds with success and had ruled for a long time he was defeated by Aurelian, and, being unable to bear the impudence and shamelessness of his soldiers, he surrendered of his own free will to this prince most harsh and severe. . . . Aurelian, nevertheless, exceedingly stern though he was, overcome by a sense of shame, made Tetricus, whom lie had led in his triumph, supervisor over the whole of Italy,' that is, over Campania, Samnium, Lucania, Bruttium, Apulia, Calabria, Etruria and Umbria, Picenum and the Flaminian district, and the entire grain-bearing region, and suffered him not only to retain his life but also to remain in the highest position, calling him frequently colleague, sometimes fellow-soldier, and sometimes even emperor.
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1dj Quintillus22 views270

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR CL QVINTILLVS AVG
Apollo stg, APOLLONI CONS

RIC 9

Zosimus recorded, "Quintillus, the brother of Claudius, was then declared emperor. He had reigned but a few months, and had performed nothing worthy of notice, before Aurelianus was raised to the imperial throne. Some writers inform us, that Quintillus was advised by his friends, as soon as they heard of Aurelianus being made emperor, to die by his own hand, and give place voluntarily to a man of so much greater merit. They report, that he complied by opening a vein and bleeding to death. "
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1dm Tacitus28 views275-276

AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped and cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M CL TACITVS AVG
Mars stg, MARTI PACIF

RIC 145

A rare emperor nominated by the Senate after the death of the widely revered Aurelianus.

Zonaras recorded: Tacitus, an elderly man, succeeded him. For it is written that he was seventy-five years old when he was chosen for monarchy. The army recognized him, though he was absent, for he was then residing in Campania. When he received the decision there, he entered Rome in private dress and, with the consent of the Senate and the People, donned the imperial garb.

The Scythians, having crossed Lake Maeotis and the Phasis River, attacked Pontus, Cappadocia, Galatia, and Cilicia. Tacitus, who had joined battle with them, and Florianus, who was prefect, slew many, and the remainder sought safety in flight. Tacitus appointed Maximinus, one of his kinsmen, as governor of Syria. But, when he behaved badly in his office, he was killed by his soldiers. Those who had killed him, frightened that the emperor would not leave them unpunished, set out after him too and killed him, not yet seven months after he had assumed sovereignty, but according to some not quite two years.

Zosimus, however, recorded, "Upon [Aurelianus'] death the empire fell into the hands of Tacitus, in whose time the Scythians crossed the Palus Maeotis, and made incursions through Pontus even into Cilicia, until he opposed them. Partly in person, and partly by Florianus, prefect of the court, whom he left in commission for that purpose, this emperor completely routed and destroyed them. He himself was going into Europe, but was thus circumvented and killed. He had committed the government of Syria to his cousin Maximinus, who treated the nobility of that country with such austerity, that he caused them both to hate and fear him. Their hatred became so excessive, that at length conspiring with the murderers of Aurelianus, they assaulted Maximinus, and having killed him, fell on and slew Tacitus also as he was upon his departure."
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1dp Carus24 views282-283

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped bust, right, IMP C M AVR CARVS P F AVG
Emperor standing right, receiving Victory on globe from Jupiter standing left, G between, XXI in ex, CLEMENTIA TEMP

RIC 118

The Historia Augusta recorded: Let us, rather, pass on to Carus, a mediocre man, so to speak, but one to be ranked with the good rather than the evil princes, yet a better ruler by far, had he not left Carinus to be his heir. . . . In regard to Cams' birthplace there is such divergence of statement among the various writers that by reason of the very great difference among them I am unable to tell what it really was. . . . He, then, after rising through the various civil and military grades, as the inscriptions on his statues show, was made prefect of the guard by Probus, and he won such affection among the soldiers that when Probus, that great emperor, was slain, he alone seemed wholly worthy of the imperial power. I am not unaware that many have suspected and, in fact, have put it into the records that Probus was slain by the treachery of Carus. This, however, neither the kindness of Probus toward Carus nor Carus' own character will permit us to believe, and there is the further reason that he avenged the death of Probus with the utmost severity and steadfastness. . . .

[Zonaras adds: Another war against Galienus was incited by Macrinus, who, having two sons, Macrianus and Quintus, attempted a usurpation. Because he was lame in one leg, he did not don the imperial mantle, but clad his sons in it.]

And so. . . , as soon as he received the imperial power, by the unanimous wish of all the soldiers he took up the war against the Persians for which Probus had been preparing. He gave to his sons the name of Caesar, planning to despatch Carinus, with some carefully selected men, to govern the provinces of Gaul, and to take along with himself Numerian, a most excellent and eloquent young man. . . . [H]e conquered Mesopotamia and advanced as far as Ctesiphon; and while the Persians were busied with internal strife he won the name of Conqueror of Persia. But when he advanced still further, desirous himself of glory and urged on most of all by his prefect, who in his wish to rule was seeking the destruction of both Carus and his sons as well, he met his death, according to some, by disease, according to others, through a stroke of lightning.

Zonaras wrote: He was a Gaul by ancestry, but brave and accomplished in matters of warfare. The account of his death has been variously composed by those who have done historical research. Some say that, having campaigned against the Huns, he was killed there. Others say that he was encamped by the River Tigris and that there, in the place where his army had thrown up a palisade, his tent was struck by lightning, and they record that, along with it, he too was destroyed.
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1dr Carinus13 views283-285

AE antoninianus

Radiate draped & cuirassed bust, right, IMP C M AVR CARINVS AVG
Aequitas stg. Left, AEQVITAS AVGG

RIC 238

According to the Historia Augusta: He was the most polluted of men, an adulterer and a constant corrupter of youth. . . . He was left by his father as Caesar in Gaul and Italy and in Illyricum, Spain, Britain, and Africa, all of which had been voted to him, and he exercised there a Caesar's powers, but with the permission to perform all the duties of an Augustus. Then he defiled himself by unwonted vices and inordinate depravity. . . . He appeared in public as consul contrary to his father's wish. He wrote arrogant letters to the senate, and he even promised the senate's property to the mob of the city of Rome, as though it, forsooth, were the Roman people. By marrying and divorcing he took nine wives in all, and he put away some even while they were pregnant. He filled the Palace with actors and harlots, pantomimists, singers and pimps. He had such an aversion for the signing of state-papers that he appointed for signing them a certain filthy fellow, with whom he used always to jest at midday, and then he reviled him because he could imitate his writing so well. . . .

When he learned that his father had been killed by lightning and his brother slain by his own father-in-law, and that Diocletian had been hailed as Augustus, Carinus committed acts of still greater vice and crime, as though now set free and released by the death of his kindred from all the restraints of filial duty. He did not, however, lack strength of purpose for claiming the imperial power. For he fought many battles against Diocletian, but finally, being defeated in a fight near Margus, he perished.
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AE antoninianus

Radiate, draped, cuirassed bust, right, IMP C C VAL DIOCLETIANVS P F AVG
Zeus and Diocletian, CONCORDIA MILITVM

RIC 284B

According to the Historia Augusta, after the death of Numerian: Then a huge assembly was held and a tribunal, too, was constructed. And when the question was asked who would be the most lawful avenger of Numerian and who could be given to the commonwealth as a good emperor, then all, with a heaven-sent unanimity, conferred the title of Augustus on Diocletian. . . . He was at this time in command of the household-troops, an outstanding man and wise, devoted to the commonwealth, devoted to his kindred, duly prepared to face whatever the occasion demanded, forming plans that were always deep though sometimes over-bold, and one who could by prudence and exceeding firmness hold in check the impulses of a restless spirit. This man, then, having ascended the tribunal was hailed as Augustus, and when someone asked how Numerian had been slain, he drew his sword and pointing to Aper, the prefect of the guard, he drove it through him, saying as he did so, "It is he who contrived Numerian's death.''

Eutropius summarized a long and important reign: DIOCLETIAN, a native of Dalmatia, [was] of such extremely obscure birth, that he is said by most writers to have been the son of a clerk, but by some to have been a freedman of a senator named Anulinus. . . . He soon after overthrew Carinus, who was living under the utmost hatred and detestation, in a great battle at Margum, Carinus being betrayed by his own troops, for though he had a greater number of men than the enemy, he was altogether abandoned by them between Viminacium and mount Aureus. He thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . .

Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars, of whom Constantius is said to have been the grand-nephew of Claudius by a daughter, and Maximian Galerius to have been born in Dacia not far from Sardica. That he might also unite them by affinity, Constantius married Theodora the step-daughter of Herculius, by whom he had afterwards six children, brothers to Constantine; while Galerius married Valeria, the daughter of Diocletian; both being obliged to divorce the wives that they had before. . . .

Diocletian, meanwhile, besieging Achilleus in Alexandria, obliged him to surrender about eight months after, and put him to death. He used his victory, indeed, cruelly, and distressed all Egypt with severe proscriptions and massacres. Yet at the same time he made many judicious arrangements and regulations, which continue to our own days. . . .

Diocletian was of a crafty disposition, with much sagacity, and keen penetration. He was willing to gratify his own disposition to cruelty in such a way as to throw the odium upon others; he was however a very active and able prince. He was the first that introduced into the Roman empire a ceremony suited rather to royal usages than to Roman liberty, giving orders that he should be adored, whereas all emperors before him were only saluted. He put ornaments of precious stones on his dress and shoes, when the imperial distinction had previously been only in the purple robe, the rest of the habit being the same as that of other men. . . .

But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

Diocletian lived to an old age in a private station, at a villa which is not far from Salonae, in honourable retirement, exercising extraordinary philosophy, inasmuch as he alone of all men, since the foundation of the Roman empire, voluntarily returned from so high a dignity to the condition of private life, and to an equality with the other citizens. That happened to him, therefore, which had happened to no one since men were created, that, though he died in a private condition, he was enrolled among the gods.
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AE Antoninianus

Radiate, draped & cuirassed bust right, IMP CARAVSIVS P F AVG
COMES AVG, Victory standing left holding wreath & palm. ML in ex

RIC 15

Eutropius recorded: During this period, Carausius, who, though of very mean birth, had gained extraordinary reputation by a course of active service in war, having received a commission in his post at Bononia, to clear the sea, which the Franks and Saxons infested, along the coast of Belgica and Armorica, and having captured numbers of the barbarians on several occasions, but having never given back the entire booty to the people of the province or sent it to the emperors, and there being a suspicion, in consequence, that the barbarians were intentionally allowed by him to congregate there, that he might seize them and their booty as they passed, and by that means enrich himself, assumed, on being sentenced by Maximian to be put to death, the imperial purple, and took on him the government of Britain. . . .

With Carausius, however, as hostilities were found vain against a man eminently skilled in war, a peace was at last arranged. At the end of seven years, Allectus, one of his supporters, put him to death, and held Britain himself for three years subsequently, but was cut off by the efforts of Asclepiodotus, praefect of the praetorian guard.
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Quarter Follis

Laureate head, right, IMP C M A MAXIMIANVS P F AVG
Genius standing left, with modius on head, cornucopia & patera, GENIO POPVLI ROMANI, SIS in exergue

RIC 146

Eutropius records: [Diocletian] thus became master of the Roman empire; and when the peasants in Gaul made an insurrection, giving their faction the name of Bagaudae, and having for leaders Amandus and Aelianus, he despatched Maximian Herculius, with the authority of Caesar, to suppress them. Maximian, in a few battles of little importance, subdued the rustic multitude, and restored peace to Gaul. . . . While disorder thus prevailed throughout the world, while Carausius was taking arms in Britain and Achilleus in Egypt, while the Quinquegentiani were harassing Africa, and Narseus was making war upon the east, Diocletian promoted MAXIMIAN HERCULIUS from the dignity of Caesar to that "of emperor, and created Constantius and Maximian Galerius Caesars. . . .

Maximian the emperor, brought the war to an end in Africa, by subduing the Quinquegentiani, and compelling them to make peace. . . .

Herculius was undisguisedly cruel, and of a violent temper, and showed his severity of disposition in the sternness of his looks. Gratifying his own inclination, he joined with Diocletian in even the most cruel of his proceedings. But when Diocletian, as age bore heavily upon him, felt himself unable to sustain the government of the empire, he suggested to Herculius that they should both retire into private life, and commit the duty of upholding the state to more vigorous and youthful hands. With this suggestion his colleague reluctantly complied. Both of them, in the same day, exchanged the robe of empire for an ordinary dress, Diocletian at Nicomedia, Herculius at Milan, soon after a magnificent triumph which they celebrated at Rome over several nations, with a noble succession of pictures, and in which the wives, sisters, and children of Narseus were led before their chariots. The one then retired to Salonae, and the other into Lucania.

But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. He then set out for Gaul, on a planned stratagem, as if he had been driven away by his son, that he might join his son-in-law Constantine, designing, however, if he could find an opportunity, to cut off Constantine, who was ruling in Gaul with great approbation both of the soldiers and the people of the province, having overthrown the Franks and Alemanni with great slaughter, and captured their kings, whom, on exhibiting a magnificent show of games, he exposed to wild beasts. But the plot being made known by Maximian's daughter Fausta, who communicated the design to her husband, Maximian was cut off at Marseilles, whence he was preparing to sail to join his son, and died a well-deserved death. . . .
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Follis

Laureate head, right, MAXENTIVS P F AVG
Roma in temple, CONSERVATORES VRB SVAE

RIC 194a

Eutropius reports: But after the death of Constantius, CONSTANTINE, his son by a wife of obscure birth, was made emperor in Britain, and succeeded his father as a most desirable ruler. In the meantime the praetorian guards at Rome, having risen in insurrection, declared MAXENTIUS, the son of Maximian Herculius, who lived in the Villa Publica not far from the city, emperor. At the news of this proceeding, Maximian, filled with hopes of regaining the imperial dignity, which he had not willingly resigned, hurried to Rome from Lucania. . . , and stimulated Diocletian by letters to resume the authority that he had laid down, letters which Diocletian utterly disregarded. Severus Caesar, being despatched to Rome by Galerius to suppress the rising of the guards and Maxentius, arrived there with his army, but, as he was laying siege to the city, was deserted through the treachery of his soldiers.

The power of Maxentius was thus increased, and his government established. Severus, taking to flight, was killed at Ravenna. Maximian Herculius, attempting afterwards, in an assembly of the army, to divest his son Maxentius of his power, met with nothing but mutiny and reproaches from the soldiery. . . .

At this time LICINIUS, a native of Dacia, was made emperor by Galerius, to whom he was known by old companionship, and recommended by his vigorous efforts and services in the war which he had conducted against Narseus. The death of Galerius followed immediately afterwards. The empire was then held by the four new emperors, Constantine and Maxentius, sons of emperors, Licinius and Maximian, sons of undistinguished men. Constantine, however, in the fifth year of his reign, commenced a civil war with Maxentius, routed his forces in several battles, and at last overthrew Maxentius himself (when he was spreading death among the nobility by every possible kind of cruelty,) at the Milvian bridge, and made himself master of Italy.
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RIC 93

Rosette diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, CONSTANS P F AVG
Two soldiers standing to either side of one standard with chi-rho on banner, GLORIA EXERCITVS, [A]SIS-crescent in ex.

Constans received Italy, Africa, and the Balkans when the empire was divided. He took charge of the remainder of the West after Constantine II imprudently attacked him in 340. Zosimus recorded, "Constans, having thus removed his brother, exercised every species of cruelty toward his subjects, exceeding the most intolerable tyranny. He purchased some well favoured Barbarians, and had others with him as hostages, to whom he gave liberty to harrass his subjects as they pleased, in order to gratify his vicious disposition. In this manner he reduced all the nations that were subject to him to extreme misery. This gave uneasiness to the court guards, who perceiving that he was much addicted to hunting placed themselves under the conduct of Marcellinus prefect of the treasury, and Magnentius who commanded the Joviani and Herculiani (two legions so termed), and formed a plot against him in the following manner. Marcellinus reported that he meant to keep the birth-day of his sons, and invited many of the superior officers to a feast. Amongst the rest Magnentius rose from table and left the room; he presently returned, and as it were in a drama stood before them clothed in an imperial robe. Upon this all the guests saluted him with the title of king, and the inhabitants of Augustodunum, where it was done, concurred in the same sentiment. This transaction being rumoured abroad, the country people flocked into the city; while at the same time a party of Illyrian cavalry who came to supply the Celtic legions, joined themselves with those that were concerned in the enterprize. When the officers of the army were met together, and heard the leaders of the conspiracy proclaim their new emperor, they scarcely knew the meaning of it; they all, however, joined in the acclamation, and saluted Magnentius with the appellation of Augustus. When this became known to Constans, he endeavoured to escape to a small town called Helena, which lies near the Pyrenean mountains. He was taken by Gaison, who was sent with some other select persons for that purpose, and being destitute of all aid, was killed. "
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Centenionalis

Laurel & rosette-diademed, draped & cuirassed bust, right, FL NEP CONSTANTINVS AVG
Roma seated holding victory VRBS ROMA

RIC 202

He seized power in Rome after the death of Constans but was killed by troops of Magnentius after 28 days. Zosimus recorded, "While he was forming these resolutions, and was very intent on warlike preparations, Magnentius still remaining in Gallia Celtica, Nepotianus, nephew to Constantius, by his sister Eutropia, collected a band of persons addicted to robbery and all kinds of debauchery, with whom he came to Rome, and appeared in an imperial dress. Anicetius, whom Magnentius had made prefect of the court, armed some of the common people, and led them out of the city to engage with Nepotianus. A sharp conflict ensued between them. The Romans being undisciplined, and observing no order, were easily routed; and when the prefect saw them fly, he shut the gates, for fear the enemy should follow them into the city. The troops of Nepotianus pursued them, and as they had no way of escape, killed every man. In a few days after, Magnentius sent an army under the command of Marcellinus, and Nepotianus was put to death."
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Pearl-diademed, helmeted, cuirassed bust left, holding shield & spear, D N FL CL IVLIANVS P F AVG
VOT X MVLT XX in four lines within wreath, palm branch-BSIS-palm branch in ex [?].

RIC 415

According to Zosimus: Constantius, having so well succeeded in his design against Vetranio, marched against Magnentius, having first conferred the title of Caesar on Gallus, the son of his uncle, and brother to Julian who was afterwards emperor, and given him in marriage his sister Constantia. . . . CONSTANTIUS, after having acted towards Gallus Caesar in the manner I have related, left Pannonia to proceed into Italy. . . . He scarcely thought himself capable of managing affairs at this critical period. He was unwilling, however, to associate any one with himself in the government, because he so much desired to rule alone, and could esteem no man his friend. Under these circumstances he was at a loss how to act. It happened, however, that when the empire was in the greatest danger, Eusebia, the wife of Constantius, who was a woman of extraordinary learning, and of greater wisdom than her sex is usually endowed with, advised him to confer the government of the nations beyond the Alps on Julianus Caesar, who was brother to Gallus, and grandson to Constantius. As she knew that the emperor was suspicious of all his kindred, she thus circumvented him. She observed to him, that Julian was a young man unacquainted with the intrigues of state, having devoted himself totally to his studies; and that he was wholly inexperienced in worldly business. That on this account he would be more fit for his purpose than any other person. That either he would be fortunate, and his success would be attributed to the emperor's conduct, or that he would fail and perish; and that thus Constantius would have none of the imperial family to succeed to him.

Constantius, having approved her advice, sent for Julian from Athens, where he lived among the philosophers, and excelled all his masters in every kind of learning. Accordingly, Julian returning from Greece into Italy, Constantius declared him Caesar, gave him in marriage his sister Helena, and sent him beyond the Alps. . . .

Constantius, having thus disposed of Julian, marched himself into Pannonia and Moesia, and having there suppressed the Quadi and the Sarmatians, proceeded to the east, and was provoked to war by the inroads of the Persians. Julian by this time had arrived beyond the Alps into the Gallic nations which he was to rule. Perceiving that the Barbarians continued committing the same violence, Eusebia, for the same reasons as before, persuaded Constantius to place the entire management of those countries into the hands of Julian. . . . Julian finding the military affairs of Gallia Celtica in a very ruinous state, and that the Barbarians pased the Rhine without any resistance, even almost as far as the sea-port towns, he took a survey of the remaining parts of the enemy. And understanding that the people of those parts were terrified at the very name of the Barbarians, while those whom Constantius had sent along with him, who were not more than three hundred and sixty, knew nothing more, as he used to say, than how to say their prayers, he enlisted as many more as he could and took in a great number of volunteers. He also provided arms, and finding a quantity of old weapons in some town he fitted them up, and distributed them among the soldiers. The scouts bringing him intelligence, that an immense number of Barbarians had crossed the river near the city of Argentoratum (Strasburg) which stands on the Rhine, he no sooner heard of it, than he led forth his army with the greatest speed, and engaging with the enemy gained such a victory as exceeds all description.

After these events he raised a great army to make war on the whole German nation; He was opposed however by the Barbarians in vast numbers. Caesar therefore would not wait while they came up to him, but crossed the Rhine, preferring that their country should be the seat of war, and not that of the Romans, as by that means the cities would escape being again pillaged by the Barbarians. A most furious battle therefore took place; a great number of the Barbarians being slain on the field of battle, while the rest fled, and were pursued by Caesar into the Hercynian forest, and many of them killed. . . .

But while Julian was at Parisium, a small town in Germany, the soldiers, being ready to march, continued at supper till midnight in a place near the palace, which they so called there. They were as yet ignorant of any design against Caesar [by Constantius], when some tribunes, who began to suspect the contrivance against him, privately distributed a number of anonymous billets among the soldiers, in which they represented to them, that Caesar, by his judicious conduct had so managed affairs, that almost all of them had erected trophies over the Barbarians ; that he had always fought like a private soldier, and was now in extreme danger from the emperor, who would shortly deprive him of his whole army, unless they prevented it. Some of the soldiers having read these billets, and published the intrigue to the whole army, all were highly enraged. They suddenly rose from their seats in great commotion, and with the cups yet in their hands went to the palace. Breaking open the doors without ceremony, they brought out Caesar, and lifting him on a shield declared him emperor and Augustus. They then, without attending to his reluctance, placed a diadem upon his head. . . .

Arriving at Naisus, he consulted the soothsayers what measures to pursue. As the entrails signified that he must stay there for some time, he obeyed, observing likewise the time that was mentioned in his dream. When this, according to the motion of the planets, was arrived, a party of horsemen arrived from Constantinople at Naisus, with intelligence that Constantius was dead, and that the armies desired Julian to be emperor. Upon this he accepted what the gods had bestowed upon him, and proceeded on his journey. On his arrival at. Byzantium, he was received with joyful acclamations. . . .

[After slashing through Persia and crossing the Tigris,] they perceived the Persian army, with which they engaged, and having considerably the advantage, they killed a great number of Persians. Upon the following day, about noon, the Persians drew up in a large body, and once more attacked the rear of the Roman army. The Romans, being at that time out of their ranks, were surprised and alarmed at the suddenness of the attack, yet made a stout and spirited defence. The emperor, according to his custom, went round the army, encouraging them to fight with ardour. When by this means all were engaged, the emperor, who sometimes rode to the commanders and tribunes, and was at other times among the private soldiers, received a wound in the heat of the engagement, and was borne on a shield to his tent. He survived only till midnight. He then expired, after having nearly subverted the Persian empire.

Note: Julian favored the pagan faith over Christianity and was tarred by the church as "the apostate."
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AE 3, Heraclea

Diademed bust left, draped & cuirassed, D N IOVIANVS P F AVG
VOT V MVLT X in wreath, Mintmark HERACA

RIC 110A

Zosimus recorded: A meeting of the officers and soldiers was afterwards convened, in order to appoint a successor to the empire : since it would be impossible for them without a ruler to avoid the dangers to which they were exposed in the midst of an enemy's country. The general voice was in favour of Jovianus, the son of Varronianus, tribune of the domestic forces. When Jovian had assumed the purple and the diadem, he directed his course homewards with all possible speed. . . . They then marched forward four days, continually harassed by the enemy, who followed them when they were proceeding, but fled when the Romans offered any resistance. At length, having gained some distance of the enemy, they resolved to crops the Tigris. For this purpose they fastened skins together, and floated over. When the greater part had gained the opposite bank, the commanders crossed over in safety with the remainder. The Persians, however, still accompanied them, and followed them with a large army so assiduously, that the Romans were in perpetual danger, both from the unfavourable circumstances in which they were placed, and from the want, of provisions. Although the Roman army was in this condition, the Persians were willing to treat for peace, and for that purpose sent Surenas with other |90 officers to the Roman camp. Jovian, upon hearing this, sent to them Sallustius, prefect of the court, together with Aristaeus, who, after some discussion, agreed on a truce for thirty years. The conditions were, that the Romans should give up to the Persians the country of the Rabdiceni, and that of the Candueni, Rhemeni, and Zaleni, besides fifteen castles in those provinces, with the inhabitants, lands, cattle, and all their property ; that Nisibis should be surrendered without its inhabitants, who were to be transplanted into whatever colony the Remans pleased. The Persians also deprived the Romans of great part of Armenia, leaving them but a very small part of it. The truce having been concluded on these conditions, and ratified on both sides, the Romans had an opportunity of returning home unmolested, neither party offering or sustaining any injury, either by open force; or secret machination.

Jovian marched through all the towns in great speed, because they were so filled with grief [because they were being given over to Persian rule], that the inhabitants could not look patiently on him; such being the custom and disposition of those countries. Taking with him the imperial guard, he proceeded to Antioch. . . . Jovian now turning his attention to the affairs of government, made various arrangements, and sent Lucilianus his father-in-law, Procopius, and Valentinian, who was afterwards emperor, to the armic.s in Pannoriia, to inform them of the death of Julian, and of his being chosen emperor. The Bavarians who were at Sirmium, and were left there for its protection, as soon as they received the news, put to death Lucilianus who brought such unwelcome intelligence, without regard to his relationship to the emperor. Such was the respect they had to Jovian's relations, that Valentinian himself only escaped from the death they intended to inflict on him. Jovianus proceeding from Antioch towards Constantinople, suddenly fell sick at Dadostana in Bithynia, and died after a reign of eight months, in which short time he had not been able to render the public any essential service.
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Pearl diademed, draped, cuirassed bust right , D N VALENTINIANVS P F AVG
Emperor in military dress, advancing right, head left, holding labarum, dragging captive behind him. No fieldmarks. Mintmark: dot GSISC, GLORIA ROMANORVM

RIC 5a

According to Zosimus: Several discussions were held among the soldiers and their officers, and various persons were nominated. At length Sallustius, the prefect of the court, was unanimously elected. He excused himself on the pretext of his advanced age, which disabled him from being of service in the present critical circumstances. They then desired that his son might be emperor in lieu of himself. But his son he told them was too young, and from that as well as other causes unable to sustain the weight of an imperial diadem. They thus failed in their wish to appoint so distinguished a person, who was the most worthy of the age. They therefore elected Valentinian, a native of Cibalis in Pannonia. He was an excellent soldier, but extremely illiterate. They sent for him, he being then at some distance: and the state was not long without a ruler. Upon his arrival at the army, at Nicaea in Bithynia, he assumed the imperial authority, and proceeded forward. . . .

I have now to state, that while Valentinian was on his journey towards Constantinople, he was seized with a distemper, which increased his natural choleric temper to a degree of cruelty, and even to madness, so that he falsely suspected his sickness to proceed from some charm or poison which Julian's friends had prepared for him through malice. Accusations to that effect were drawn up against some distinguished persons, which were set aside by the discretion of Sallustius, who still was prefect of the court. After his distemper abated, he proceeded from Nicaea to Constantinople. The army and his friends in that city advised him to choose an associate in the empire, that if occasion should require, he might have some one to assist him, and prevent their again suffering as at the death of Julian. He complied with their advice, and after consideration, selected his brother Valens, whom he thought most likely to prove faithful to him. He declared him associate in the empire. . . . Affairs being thus disposed, Valentinian deemed it most prudent to place the east as far as Egypt, Bithynia, and Thrace, under the care of his brother, and to take charge of Illyricum himself. From thence he designed to proceed to Italy, and to retain in his own possession all the cities in that country, and the countries beyond the Alps, with Spain, Britain, and Africa. The empire being thus divided, Valentinian began to govern more rigorously, correcting the faults of the magistrates. He was very severe in the collection of the imposts, and particularly in observing that the soldiers were duly paid. . . .

Meantime the Barbarians beyond the Rhine, who while Julian lived held the Roman name in terror, and were contented to remain quiet in their own territories, as soon as they heard of his death, immediately marched out of their own country, and prepared for a war with the Romans. Valentinian. on bring informed of this, made a proper disposition of his forces, and placed suitable garrisons in all the towns along the Rhine. Valentinian was enabled to make these arrangements by his experience in military affairs. . . . [T] he emperor Valentinian, having favourably disposed the affairs of Germany, made provisions for the future security of the Celtic nations. . . . Valentinian was now attacked by a disease which nearly cost him his life. Upon his recovery the countries requested him to appoint a successor, lest at his decease the commonwealth should be in danger. To this the emperor consented, and declared his son Gratian emperor and his associate in the government, although he was then very young, and not yet capable of the management of affairs. . . .

Valentinian, thinking he had sufficiently secured himself from a German war, acted towards his subjects with great severity, exacting from them exorbitant tributes, such as they had never before paid; under pretence that the military expenditure compelled him to have recourse to the public. Having thus acquired universal hatred, he became still more severe; nor would he enquire into the conduct of the magistrates, but was envious of all whe had the reputation of leading a blameless life. . . . For this cause, the Africans, who could not endure the excessive avarice of the person who held the military command in Mauritania, gave the purple robe to Firmus, and proclaimed him emperor. This doubtless gave much uneasiness to Valentinian, who immediately commanded some legions from the stations in Pannonia and Moesia, to embark for Africa. On this the Sarmatians and the Quadi, who had long entertained a hatred for Celestius, the governor of those countries, availing themselves, of the opportunity afforded by the departure of the legions for Africa, invaded the Pannonians and Moesians. . . . .

Valentinian, roused by the intelligence of these events, marched from Celtica into Illyricum, for the purpose of opposing the Quadi and the Sarmatians, and consigned the command of his forces to Merobaudes, who was a person of the greatest military experience. The winter continuing unusually late, the Quadi sent ambassadors to him with insolent and unbecoming messages. These so exasperated the emperor, that through the violence of his rage, the blood flowed from his head into his mouth, and suffocated him. He thus died after having resided in Illyricum nearly nine months, and after a reign of twelve years.
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Diademed, draped & cuirassed bust left, D N PROCOPIVS P F AVG
Procopius standing facing, head right, holding labarum in right hand, left resting on shield set on the ground; Chi-rho in upper right field & unidentified object in left at foot; mintmark CONS Gamma.

RIC 17a

Zosimus tells us: On [Valens'] departure from Constantinople, the rebellion of Procopius commenced. This person had been intrusted by Julian, being one of his relations, with a part of his forces, and had been charged to march with Sebastianus through Adiabene, and to meet Julian, who took another route. Permission, moreover, was given him to wear a purple robe, for a reason which no other person was acquainted with. But the deity being pleased to ordain it otherwise, and Jovian having succeeded to the imperial dignity, Procopius immediately delivered up the imperial robe which he had received from Julian, confessing why it had been given to him, and entreating the emperor to absolve him from his military oath, and to allow him to live in retirement, and to attend to agriculture and his own private affairs. Having obtained this, he went with his wife and children to Caesarea in Cappadocia, intending to reside in that place, where he possessed a valuable estate. During his abode there, Valentinian and Valens being made emperors, and being suspicious of him, sent persons to take him into custody. In that they found no difficulty, for he surrendered himself voluntarily; and desired them to carry him wherever they pleased, if they would suffer him first to see his children. To this they consented, and he prepared an entertainment for them. When he perceived them to be intoxicated, he and his family fled towards the Taurica Chersonesus. Having remained there for some time, he found the inhabitants to he a faithless race, and was apprehensive lest they should deliver him to his persecutors. He, therefore, put himself and his family on board a trading vessel, and arrived in the night at Constantinople. He there resided in the house of an old acquaintance, and making observations on the state of the city after the departure of the emperor, he attempted to raise himself to the empire, and formed his de