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Search results - "Heraclona"
2Pdwc7jEspK64DozHPy5Q3RmZFg8a9.jpg
(610-641) Heraclius [Sear 811]11 viewsHeraclius 610-641 AD
AE Follis (4.71 gm ; 22 mm)
Constantinople Mint
Obv: No Legend. Heraclius (center)� in military dress with long beard and mustache, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas, all standing facing.
Rev: Large M between ANNO and numeric regnal year,� B (officina 2)� below; CONE in exergue
Sgusiaves
008_Heraclius,_Heraclonas,_Heraclius_Constantine.JPG
008. Heraclius 610-641. AE 40 Nummi.43 viewsObv. Heraclius flanked by Heraclonas and Heracius Constantine.
Rev. Large M, ANNO above, XXII to right.
? Mint.
LordBest
image~4.jpg
12. Heraclius with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas41 viewsHeraclius, with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. 610-641.
AV Solidus (18mm, 4.34 g, 6h). Constantinople mint, 6th officina.
Dated IY 11 (AD 637/8).
Crowned figures of Heraclonas, Heraclius, and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each holding globus cruciger / Cross potent set on three steps; monogram to left, IA monogram (date) to right; ς//CONOB.
DOC 39e; MIB 45; SB 764. EF, areas of weak strike.
Ex-CNG
1 commentsSosius
s_860.jpg
AE 12 nummi Heraclius, SB 86037 viewsObverse: No legend, Heraclius in center, H. Constantine on r., Heraclonas on L., all stg, facing,each wearing chlamys and holding gl/ cr in r. hand. Heraclius and H. Constantine each wear crown with cross in field above head of Heraclonas
Reverse: Large IB; between , cross potent on triangle between the IB, AAEZ in exergue
Mint: Alexandria
Date: 632-41 CE
19mm 7.24gm
Sear 860 DO 196
wileyc
sear_1004a.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100421 viewsObverse: INPER CONST or similar Bust facing, beardless wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M, ANNA to L., NEOG in exergue, cross above to r. regnal year (II,I) officina letter E
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 642/3 CE
Sear 1004 DO under Heraclona 5
25mm 5.01gm
Solid green patina
1 commentswileyc
sear_1004.jpg
AE follis Constans II SB 100417 viewsObverse: INPER CONST or similar Bust facing, beardless wearing crown and chlamys, and holding gl. cr.
Reverse: Large M, ANNA to L., NEOG in exergue, cross above to r. regnal year (II,I) officina letter Delta
Mint: Constantinople
Date: 642/3 CE
Sear 1004 DO under Heraclona 5
22mm 6.28gm
wileyc
Constans_II_Gold_solidus.jpg
Byzantine Empire, Constans II, September 641 - 15 July 668 A.D.45 viewsGold solidus, DOC II-2 Heraclonas 1c (not in the coll., refs. T.), Hahn MIB 3a, Tolstoi 13, Sommer 12.1, SBCV 936, Wroth BMC -, Morrison BnF -; Ratto -, VF, well centered, double strike, some legend weak, light scratches and bumps, 8th officina, Constantinople (Istanbul, Turkey) mint, weight 4.479g, maximum diameter 20.6mm, die axis 180o, Sep 641 - 642/644 A.D.; obverse d N CONSTANTINYS P P AVG, crowned and cuirassed beardless bust facing, small head, wearing chlamys, crown ornamented with cross on circlet, globus cruciger in right hand; reverse VICTORIA AVGY H, cross potent on three steps, CONOB in exergue.

FORVM / The Sam Mansourati Collection.

In 641, when Heraclius died, he was succeeded by his sons Constantine III and Heracleonas. When Constantine III died after only a few months, the Byzantine people suspected that Heracleonas had poisoned him. Heracleonas was deposed, mutilated and banished. Constans II, the son of Constantine III, became emperor. This type is attributed to Heraclonas in DOC II-2 and Morrison BnF but today it is accepted as the first issue of Constantine II.
5 commentsSam
Sear-915.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Heraclius (610-641) Follis, Ravenna, RY 23 (Sear-915; DOC 302; MIB-254; Ranieri-610)13 viewsObv: Figures of Heraclonas, Heraclius, and Heraclius Constantine standing facing, each crowned (except Heraclonas who wears a plain cap) and holding globus cruciger; cross to upper left
Rev: Large M; monogram above, A/N/N/O to left, X/X/I[I]/I (date) to right, Λ (A without crossbar) below; RAV

From the Prue Morgan Fitts Collection; Ex Triton XIII (5 January 2010), lot 1658
SpongeBob
Sear-811.jpg
Byzantine Empire: Heraclius (610-641CE) Follis, Constantinople, RY 31 (Sear 811; MIB 166)16 viewsObv: Heraclonas, crowned, wearing chlamys, and holding cross on globe on left; Heraclius, crowned, in military dress and holding long cross in center, Heraclius Constantine, crowned, and wearing chlamys, with short beard and holding cross on globe, on right, all standing facing
Rev: Large M, ANNO to left, PTh monogram, resembling a chi-rho above, regnal year to right, officina letter below; CON in exergue
Quant.Geek
8597b.JPG
BYZANTINE, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas Solidus299 viewsHeraclius AD 610-641, with Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas. Gold Solidus Constantinopolis, 5th officina, AD 638/9-641
Heraclius (in centre), Heraclius Constantine (on r.) and Heraclonas (on l.), all standing facing, holding globus cruciger
VICTORIA AVGЧE; cross potent set on three steps, monogram to left; CONOB in ex
Sear 769; 4.46g; 20mm

This coin is resting at least 75 years in private collections, as it came with a ticket dated 8th of May 1936, Robert Ball Nchf., Berlin, Germany.
2 commentsGert
heraclius_811.jpg
Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, follis; Sear 81112 viewsByzantine Empire, Heraclius & Heraclius Constantine, 23 January 613 - 11 January 641 A.D. Bronze follis, SBCV 811; DOC II part 2, 127a, aVF, 3rd officina, Constantinople mint, 4.486g, 25.2mm, 225o, 640 - 641 A.D.; obverse Heraclius (center) in military dress, long cross in left, long beard and mustache, Heraclius Constantine (left) and Heraclonas (right) in chlamys and holding globus cruciger, all wear crown with cross; reverse, large M (40 nummi), Heraclius' monogram above, A/N/N/O left, X/X/X/I (year 31) right, G below (3th officina), CONQ in exergue. Ex FORVMPodiceps
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Heraclius and Sons Gold Solidus31 views70051. Gold solidus, Wroth BMC 76; Tolstoi 410; DOC II part 1, 44f (no examples in the collection, refs Wroth); SBCV 770; Hahn MIB 53; Sommer 11.35; Morrisson BnF -, aEF, luster, tight flan, graffiti on obverse and reverse, 4.336g, 19.3mm, 180o, 8th officina, Constantinople mint, 639(?) - 641;

obverse Heraclius in center taller with mustache, long beard; standing with Heraclius Constantine on right, Heraclonas on left, sons beardless and equal height, all wear crown, chlamys and tablion ornamented with pellets, and hold globus cruciger in right;

reverse VICTORIA AVGu H, cross potent on three steps, Heraclian monogram left, E right, CONOB in ex

In 632, Heraclonas, Heraclius younger son, was designated Caesar and added to the coinage. Heraclonas was seven years old. The Heraclian monogram on the reverse replaces the more typical obverse inscription.
Colby S
her_rav.jpg
Heraclius, Follis, Ravenna mint, Sicilian countermark, 637-638 AD (year 28), Spahr 5336 viewsHeraclius (610-641 AD)

637-638 AD (Year 28)

Follis

Obverse: no legend, Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas standing facing and holding globe bearing a cross.

Reverse: Large M; Above, monogram; To left, ANNO; To right, XXVIII ; exergus, RAV

Ravenna follis (sear 916) with sicilian countermark (sear 883), Spahr 53 (RRRR)

Ravenna/Sicily mint

Sear -, D.O.-, B.M.C.-, T.-, R-, B.N.-, M.I.B.,-. Spahr 53

RRRR

VF

10,79 g., 32 mm
L.e.
b_156_w.jpg
Heraclius, Heraclius Constantine, and Heraclonas55 viewsSolidus, Constantinople, 10th officina, 638-641 AD
S. 769; DO 43
4.34 gm, 20 mm
1 commentsManzikert
Heraclius,_SBCV_811.JPG
Heraclius, SBCV 81112 viewsNo legend
Standing facing figure of Heraclius center, holding long Cross with Constantine Heraclius and Heraclonas to sides, each holding globus cruciger.
Large M, Monogram of Heraclius above, ANNO left, XXX right, Γ below
CON in ex.
Minted 639-640, Constantinople
AE follis, 26mm, 4.58g
novacystis
CsIIDO5a(H).jpg
Sear 1004 - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Constantinople mint - 1st officina28 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ][?]
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; To left, //; In exergue, ; To right, /; Above, cross; Beneath, .

Constantinople mint, first officina
DO 5a (Heraclonas); Sear 1004
4.45g; 24.9mm; 195
Pep
CsIIDO5b(H).jpg
Sear 1004 - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Constantinople mint - 2nd officina23 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: - [
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; To left, //; In exergue, ; To right, /; Above, cross; Beneath, .

Constantinople mint, second officina
DO 5b (Heraclonas); Sear 1004
5.33g; 25.8mm; 210
Pep
CsIIDO5c(H).jpg
Sear 1004 - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Constantinople mint - 3rd officina31 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ] -
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; To left, //; In exergue, ; To right, /; Above, cross; Beneath, .

Constantinople mint, third officina
DO 5c (Heraclonas); Sear 1004
7.33g; 25.2mm; 180
Pep
CsIIDOC5d(H).jpg
Sear 1004 - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Constantinople mint - 4th officina49 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: ]PR - COS'
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large "M"; To left, /N/; In exergue, NO; To right, I/II; Above, cross; Beneath, .

Constantinople mint, fourth officina
DO 5d (Heraclonas); Sear 1004
5.31g; 23.3mm; 180
Pep
CsIIDO5e(H).jpg
Sear 1004 - Follis - 643-644 AD (Year 3) - Constantinople mint - 5th officina39 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 643-644 AD (Year 3)
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: IPR - COS'
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large "M"; To left, /N/; In exergue, NO; To right, II/I; Above, cross; Beneath, .

Constantinople mint, fifth officina
DO 5e (Heraclonas); Sear 1004
4.69g; 25.7mm; 195

Overstruck on a clipped Sear 808 or 809 (Heraclius Follis, Constantinople)
(N)NO on reverse
Pep
CsIIDO7(H).jpg
Sear 1026 - Dodecanummium - 641-642, 645-646 AD - Alexandria mint15 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 641-642, 645-646 AD
Condition: aFine
Denomination: Dodecanummium

Obverse: No legend
Beardless bust facing, wearing chlamys and crown with cross, and holding large globus cruciger in right hand.

Reverse: Large ""; Between, cross above .

Exergue:

Alexandria mint
DO 7 (Heraclonas); Sear 1026
7.98g; 21.6mm; 180
Pep
CsIIDO9a(H).jpg
Sear 1103 - Follis - 641-647 AD - Syracuse mint - 1st officina16 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 641-647 AD
Condition: Fine/aFine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: [ - ]
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: ""; To left, //; To right, ///.
Exergue: Large ""; To left, .

Syracuse mint, first officina
DO 9a (Heraclonas); Sear 1103
4.42g; 23.2mm; 225
Pep
CsIIDO9c(H).jpg
Sear 1103 - Follis - 641-647 AD - Syracuse mint - 5th officina19 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 641-647 AD
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: -
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: ""; To left, //; To right, ///.
Exergue: Large ""; To left, .

Syracuse mint, fifth officina
DO 9c (Heraclonas); Sear 1103
6.75g; 26.7mm; 195
Pep
CsIIDO9e(H).jpg
Sear 1103 - Follis - 641-647 AD - Syracuse mint - Blank38 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 641-647 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: -
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: ""; To left, //; To right, ///.
Exergue: Large ""; To left, blank.

Syracuse mint
DO 9e (Heraclonas); Sear 1103
4.22g; 23.7mm; 210
Pep
CsIIDO9d(H).jpg
Sear 1103 - Follis - 641-647 AD - Syracuse mint - Cross15 viewsEmperor: Constans II (r. 641-668 AD)
Date: 641-647 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: -
Bust facing, beardless, wearing chlamys and crown with cross. In right hand, globus cruciger.

Reverse: ""; To left, //; To right, ///.
Exergue: Large ""; To left, cross.

Syracuse mint
DO 9d (Heraclonas); Sear 1103
4.65g; 26.0mm; 195
Pep
HclsDO125a.jpg
Sear 811 - Follis - 639-640 AD (Year 30) - Constantinople mint - 1st officina28 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 639-640 AD (Year 30)
Condition: Fine/aVF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
In center, Heraclius with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, and holding long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine, to left, Heraclonas; each wearing chlamys and crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, ///; To right, //; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, first officina
DO 125a; Sear 811
4.56g; 25.4mm; 210
Pep
HclsDO125b.jpg
Sear 811 - Follis - 639-640 AD (Year 30) - Constantinople mint - 2nd officina22 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 639-640 AD (Year 30)
Condition: aFine/aVF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
In center, Heraclius with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, and holding long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine, to left, Heraclonas; each wearing chlamys and crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, ///; To right, //; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, second officina
DO 125b; Sear 811
5.54g; 25.9mm; 180
Pep
HclsSear811_XXX_Gamma.jpg
Sear 811 - Follis - 639-640 AD (Year 30) - Constantinople mint - 3rd officina25 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 639-640 AD (Year 30)
Condition: aVF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
In center, Heraclius with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, and holding long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine, to left, Heraclonas; each wearing chlamys and crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, ///; To right, //; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, third officina
Sear 811
5.27g; 23.7mm; 165
Pep
HclsDO126a.jpg
Sear 811 - Follis - 639-640 AD (Year 30) - Constantinople mint - 4th officina23 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 639-640 AD (Year 30)
Condition: Fine/VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
In center, Heraclius with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, and holding long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine, to left, Heraclonas; each wearing chlamys and crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, ///; To right, //; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, fourth officina
DO 126a; Sear 811
5.74g; 23.3mm; 225
Pep
HclsDO126b.jpg
Sear 811 - Follis - 639-640 AD (Year 30) - Constantinople mint - 5th officina19 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 639-640 AD (Year 30)
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
In center, Heraclius with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, and holding long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine, to left, Heraclonas; each wearing chlamys and crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, ///; To right, //; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, fifth officina
DO 126b; Sear 811
5.15g; 24.5mm; 195
Pep
HclsSear811_XXXI_Alpha.jpg
Sear 811 - Follis - 640-641 AD (Year 31) - Constantinople mint - 1st officina25 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 640-641 AD (Year 31)
Condition: VF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
In center, Heraclius with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, and holding long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine, to left, Heraclonas; each wearing chlamys and crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, ///; To right, ///; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, first officina
Sear 811
3.02g; 24.6mm; 210
Pep
HclsSear811_XXXI_Beta.jpg
Sear 811 - Follis - 640-641 AD (Year 31) - Constantinople mint - 2nd officina21 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 640-641 AD (Year 31)
Condition: Fine/aVF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
In center, Heraclius with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, and holding long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine, to left, Heraclonas; each wearing chlamys and crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, ///; To right, ///; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, second officina
Sear 811
3.88g; 24.3mm; 225
Pep
HclsDO127a.jpg
Sear 811 - Follis - 640-641 AD (Year 31) - Constantinople mint - 3rd officina30 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 640-641 AD (Year 31)
Condition: aEF
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
In center, Heraclius with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, and holding long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine, to left, Heraclonas; each wearing chlamys and crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, ///; To right, ///; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, third officina
DO 127a; Sear 811
3.59g; 26.8mm; 225

Ex Freeman and Sear, Ex Christov Family Collection
Pep
HclsSear811_XXXI_Delta.jpg
Sear 811 - Follis - 640-641 AD (Year 31) - Constantinople mint - 4th officina34 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 640-641 AD (Year 31)
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
In center, Heraclius with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, and holding long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine, to left, Heraclonas; each wearing chlamys and crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, ///; To right, ///; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, fourth officina
Sear 811
4.29g; 25.8mm; 210
Pep
HclsDO127b.jpg
Sear 811 - Follis - 640-641 AD (Year 31) - Constantinople mint - 5th officina58 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 640-641 AD (Year 31)
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Follis

Obverse: No legend
In center, Heraclius with mustache and long beard, wearing military dress and crown with cross, and holding long cross. To right, Heraclius Constantine, to left, Heraclonas; each wearing chlamys and crown with cross and holding globus cruciger.

Reverse: Large ""; Above, ; To left, ///; To right, ///; Beneath, .
Exergue:

Constantinople mint, fifth officina
DO 127b; Sear 811
4.38g; 24.4mm; 195
Pep
HclsDO196.jpg
Sear 860 - Dodecanummium - 632-641 AD - Alexandria mint12 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 632-641 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Dodecanummium

Obverse: No legend
Three figures standing, each wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine wear crown with cross; cross in field above head of smaller figure of Heraclonas on left.

Reverse: Large ""; Between, cross on triangle.
Exergue:

Alexandria mint
DO 196; Sear 860
7.90g; 18.8mm; 180
Pep
HclsDO197.jpg
Sear 861 - Dodecanummium - 632-641 AD - Alexandria mint28 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 632-641 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Dodecanummium

Obverse: No legend
Three figures standing, each wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine wear crown with cross; cross in field above head of smaller figure of Heraclonas on left.

Reverse: Large "IB"; Between, cross above .
Exergue: ALE

Alexandria mint
DO 197; Sear 861
8.95g; 18.9mm; 270
Pep
HclsSear861A.jpg
Sear 861A - Dodecanummium - 632-641 AD - Alexandria mint27 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 632-641 AD
Condition: Fine
Denomination: Dodecanummium

Obverse: No legend
Three figures standing, each wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine wear crown with cross; cross in field above head of smaller figure of Heraclonas on left.

Reverse: Large ""; Between, cross potent on globe.
Exergue:

Alexandria mint
Sear 861A
7.90g; 17.9mm; 180
Pep
HclsSear861B.jpg
Sear 861B - Dodecanummium - 632-641 AD - Alexandria mint8 viewsEmperor: Heraclius (r. 610-641 AD)
Date: 632-641 AD
Condition: VF
Denomination: Dodecanummium

Obverse: No legend
Three figures standing, each wearing chlamys and holding globus cruciger in right hand. Heraclius and Heraclius Constantine wear crown with cross; cross in field above head of smaller figure of Heraclonas on left.

Reverse: Large ""; Between, cross on above .
Exergue:

Alexandria mint
Sear 861B
9.24g; 20.0mm; 0
Pep
Album-3501.jpg
Umayyad Caliphate, Arab-Byzantine: Anonymous (685-692 AD) Fals (Album-3501; SICA I, 505)18 viewsObv: Emperor Heraclius in center, with his sons Heraclius Constantine (on right) and Heraclonas (on left) standing facing, each wearing a crown with cross and long robes, and each holding in right hand a globe surmounted by a cross; traces of outer circle
Rev: Large M; staurogram above; officina mark Γ below; left downwards ANNO; right downwards XЧII; below exergual line mint-signature KVΠP (= Cyprus); outer circle
SpongeBob
HeracliusAE.jpg
[1616b] Heraclius, 5 Oct 610 - 11 Jan 641 A.D.54 viewsBYZANTINE EMPIRE. Heraclius AD 610-641. AE.Follis. Ref:Sear 833; 12.91g. VF; Nicomedia mint. Obverse: Facing bust of Heracliu, holding cross in right hand. Reverse: Incial letter M, ANNO to left, II to right ( Year 2 AD 611/612), officia letter A betweem limbs of M, above cross; mint-signature NIKO in exergue . Very fine, earthern deposit in fields-not as yellow as picture suggest. Ex Pavlos S Pavlou.


De Imperatoribus Romanis
An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors

Heraclius (October 5, 610 - February 641 A.D.)

R. Scott Moore
Indiana University of Pennsylvania

Accession
The last years of Phocas' reign were troubled ones with many foreign threats, such as the Slavic incursions, and internal threats, such as violent religious conflicts and even unsuccessful rebellions. In 608, the exarch of Carthage revolted and dispatched a fleet under the command of his son, Heraclius, to Constantinople. Along the way, in Egypt, Heraclius joined forces with his cousin Nicetas who was able to capture Cyrenaica and Egypt from Phocas' general Bonosos. Heraclius' fleet continued on to Constantinople where he entered into secret negotiations with one of Phocas' top military leaders, Priscus. He was married to Phocas' daughter Domentzia. With the support of Priscus, the patriarch Sergius I, and the faction of the Greens, Heraclius was able to seize the city, have Phocas beheaded and became emperor on October 5, 610 AD.

Private Life
Heraclius, the son of the exarch of Carthage, Heraclius, and Epiphania was born around the year 575. When he was crowned as emperor in 610 AD, he married Fabia, who then took the name Eudocia. From this marriage, Heraclius had a daughter, Eudocia, and a son Heraclius Constantine, who was proclaimed as co-emperor in 613. Suffering from epilepsy, Fabia died in 612 and Heraclius married his niece Martina in 613. With Martina, Heraclius had nine children of which four died in infancy. Heraclius' marriage to Martina was never received favorably by either the people of Constantinople or the Church.

Foreign Affairs
When Heraclius first came to the throne in 610, the Byzantine Empire was being attacked from numerous sides. In the west, the Avars and Slavs were expanding into the northern Balkans. The Slavs controlled the Danube regions, Thrace, Macedonia, and were soon invading Central Greece and the Peloponnesus. In the east, meanwhile, the Persians under the rule of Chosroes had begun a series of successful attacks on the empire resulting in the loss of Damascus in 613, Jerusalem in 614 (destroying the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and capturing the Holy Cross) and Egypt in 619. Recognizing the difficulty in fighting on two opposing fronts at the same time, Heraclius signed a peace treaty with the Avars in 619, and focused on the eastern half of the empire. In the spring of 622, Heraclius left Constantinople for Asia Minor and began training his troops over the summer, focusing on a more involved role for the Byantine cavalry.

In the autumn, Heraclius' army invaded Armenia and soon won several victories over the Persians. The Avars, in the meantime, became restless and Heraclius was forced to renegotiate the peace treaty with them at a much higher tribute level. Heraclius then returned to the army and for the next several years unsuccessfully attempted to break through the Persian army and into Persia. In August of 626 while Heraclius and his army were in Lazica away from Constantinople, a Persian army attacked the city from the east while an army of Avars, Slavs, and Bulgars attacked from the west and from the sea. On August 10, the Byzantine navy was able to defeat the opposing fleet and then rout the combined Slav and Avar land force. With the defeat of their allies, the Persians retreated to Syria.

In the autumn of 627, Heraclius began to work his way into Persian territory winning an important battle in December at Nineveh during which most of the Persian army was destroyed. As Heraclius continued to move further into Persian territory, Chosroes was deposed and succeeded by his son Kavadh-Siroe whose first act was to secure a treaty with Heraclius. The treaty was very favorable to the Byzantines and returned all the former Byzantine territories to the empire. Within a few short months, Kavadh-Siroe fell ill and died after naming Heraclius as guardian of his son, Chosroes II. For all practical purposes, the Persian Empire no longer existed. In 630 Heraclius traveled to Jerusalem where he returned the Holy Cross to the city among much acclaim.

The defeat of the Persians created a larger problem for the Byzantine empire. The struggle between the Byzantines and the Persians had worn down both sides and the defeat of the Persians allowed the Arabs to quickly absorb what remained of the Persian empire. It also removed the buffer between the Arabs and the Byzantines allowing the two empires to come into contact and conflict. In 634 the Arab armies invaded Syria and defeated Theodore, the emperor's brother, in a string of battles. Heraclius raised a large army that attacked the Arabs near the Yarmuk, a tributary of the Jordan, in the fall of 636. After a successful beginning, the larger Byzantine army was defeated allowing the conquest of Syria. The Byzantine defeat also led to the Arabs quickly taking Mesopotamia, Armenia and eventually Egypt.

Internal Affairs
While Heraclius enjoyed military success, major changes occurred internally under his rule. Greek replaced Latin as the official language of the empire and Heraclius adopted the Greek title of in place of the Latin Caesar, Augustus, or Imperator. The recovery of the eastern areas of the Byzantine Empire from the Persians once again raised the problem of religious unity, centering around the understanding of the true nature of Christ. The eastern areas, particularly Armenia, Syria, and Egypt believed in monophysitism, Christ having one nature composed of both divine and human elements. The other areas of the empire followed the orthodox view expressed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451 that decreed Christ had two natures united in one person. In an effort to bridge the gap between the two views and bring them back together, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Sergius, promoted the concept of monoenergism which proposed that the two natures of Christ had one energy. While this was received favorably at first, monoenergism soon had vocal opponents, among them the monk Sophronius who became patriarch of Jerusalem in 634 AD. The opposition to monoenergism led Sergius to propose a new doctrine that of monotheletism, the belief in a single will in Christ. Heraclius supported the new doctrine of Sergius and put it forth in an edict known as the Ekthesis, and posted it in the narthex of Hagia Sophia in 638. This failed to settle the controversy as it was rejected by the Orthodox, the Monophysites, and even the Church of Rome.

Succession
During the last years of Heraclius' life, it became evident that a struggle was taking place between Heraclius' son from his first marriage, Heraclius Constantine, and his second wife Martina who was trying to position her son Heraclonas in line for the throne. On the 11th of February 641, Heraclius died and in his will left the empire to both Heraclius Constantine and Heraclonas to rule jointly with Martina as Empress and mother of both.

Copyright (C) 1997, R. Scott Moore. Published: De Imperatoribu Romanis, http://www.roman-emperors.org/heraclis.htm Used by permission.

Edited by J. P. Fitzgerald, Jr.

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